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Sample records for unit lubrication oil

  1. Biodegradation of lubricant oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... lubricating oil, showed high biodegradation efficiency for different used lubricating oils. Capability of ..... amount after biodegradation showed no difference in the .... products polluted sites in Elele, Rivers State, Ngeria.

  2. Synthetic lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Jurado, J

    1953-01-01

    A yellow solid petroleum paraffin d/sup 60/ 0.808, I number 3.5, average molecular weight 350, chlorinated and condensed with benzene, xylene, or naphthalene by the Friedel and Crafts reaction, in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ or activated Al, gave synthetic lubricating oils. Xylene was the preferred aromatic compound, naphthalene required the use of less completely chlorinated paraffin, benzene produced resins difficult to remove and gave darker oils with excessive green fluorescence. Activated Al rather than anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ gave darker oils with higher viscosity and Conradson C values. Tar from the low-temperature distillation of lignite, used as a source of a paraffin fraction melting 40/sup 0/ to 48/sup 0/ (chlorinated to 26.5 percent Cl) and an aromatic fraction, 45 percent aromatic compounds by volume (mainly polysubstituted benzenes), I number 10, was converted to a similar synthetic lubricant with the following properties: Kinematic viscosity at 210/sup 0/ F., 50.4 centistokes; viscosity index, 92; Conradson C, 1.5 percent; solidification point, 9/sup 0/; S, 0.41 percent.

  3. Oil and natural gas technology review-lubrication and lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, J

    1966-01-01

    A summary is presented of the advances made during 1967 in the following areas: production and transmission of natural gas; geosciences; drilling and production technology; secondary recovery; transportation by tanker, pipelines, and tank cars; storage; planning of refineries; control and automation; cracking and gasification of crude oil; separation and hydrogenation processes; petrochemicals; combustion technology; fuels and additives; air and water pollution control; production of lubricants; lubrication with mist, gas, and vapors; hydraulic fluids; lubricant additives; oxidation and aging of oils; greases; solid lubricants; bearings; machining; friction and wear; and changes in materials of construction. (220 refs.)

  4. Ecotoxicological study of used lubricating oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.K.; Chan, W.L.; Wang, J.; Wong, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    Used lubricating oil is more toxic than crude oil and fuel oil since it contains comparatively high levels of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No detail toxicological study has been conducted to evaluate the hazards of used lubricating oil to the environment. This study reports a battery of bioassays using bacteria (Microtox test and Mutatox test), algae, amphipod and shrimp larvae to determine the toxicity of water soluble fraction of used lubricating oil. The results will be used to formulate a complete and extensive ecotoxicological assessment of the impacts of used lubricating oil on aquatic environment

  5. Vegetable oil basestocks for lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, Rafael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetable biodegradable basestocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for biolubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed.

    El uso de bases vegetales biodegradables para aceites lubricantes presenta varias ventajas sobre las mucho más extendidas bases minerales. Estas ventajas se centran sobre todo en su biodegradabilidad, en ser un recurso renovable de producción local, en su lubricidad y en su índice de viscosidad, presentando además costes más bajos que las bases sintéticas. Sin embargo, estas ventajas no han extendido el uso de bases vegetales ni en industria ni en automoción debido a su menor estabilidad y sus mayores puntos críticos de fluidez. Los aceites vegetales son ésteres de ácidos grasos y glicerol y sus propiedades físico-químicas dependen principalmente de su composición acílica. Así, para asegurar los máximos niveles de

  6. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  7. Noise estimation of oil lubricated journal bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Byoung Hoo; Kim, Kyung Woong

    2003-01-01

    Noise estimating procedures of oil lubricated journal bearings are presented. Nonlinear analysis of rotor-bearing system including unbalance mass of the rotor is performed in order to obtain acoustical properties of the bearing. Acoustical properties of the bearing are investigated through frequency analysis of the pressure fluctuation of the fluid film calculated from the nonlinear analysis. Noise estimating procedures presented in this paper could aid in the evaluation and understanding of acoustical properties of oil lubricated journal bearings

  8. Model for Determining the Consumption of Machinery, Tableware, Fuel, Oils and Lubricants with the Participation of Units from the Bulgarian Army in Humanitarian Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichev Nikolay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulating documents of the Bulgarian Army considered norms for support classic combat operations and in fact Bulgarian Army has no planning methods to be used for planning of humanitarian operations. Solving this problem can be achieved through the use of planning factors. Planning factors are generally based on experience or data on the use of resources from previous operations. The participation of units of the Bulgarian Army in humanitarian operations have failed to bring to the accumulation of data needed to create a suitable planning factors. The purpose of the study is to develop a model by which to bring out planning factors in determining the the consumption of machinery, tableware, fuel, oils and lubricants with the participation of units from the Bulgarian Army in humanitarian operations.

  9. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  10. Noise of oil lubricated journal bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Byoung Hoo; Kim, Kyung Woong

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to provide a procedure to calculate the noise of oil lubricated journal bearings. To do this, the nonlinear transient analysis of rotor-bearing system including rotor imbalance is performed. Acoustical properties of the bearing are investigated through frequency analysis of the pressure fluctuation of the fluid film calculated from the nonlinear analysis. Furthermore, a transmission theory of plane waves on a boundary of the outer surface of the bearing is used to obtain the sound pressure level of the bearing. Results show that the sound pressure level of the bearing can be increased with the rotational speed of the rotor although the whirl amplitude of the rotor is decreased at high speed. Noise estimating procedures presented in this paper could be an aid in the evaluation and understanding of acoustical properties of oil lubricated journal bearings

  11. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de, E-mail: andressa@ctaa.embrapa.br [Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos, Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Sergio Machado [Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Glauco Correa da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The engine lubricating oil drags all kinds of impurities generated by wear of internal components. Thus, it is necessary to monitor the physical and chemical properties and concentration of metals in lubricants used to determine the appropriate time to replace them. Moreover, one can monitor the wear of the engines through the levels of metals in oils. To achieve these goals, some detection techniques such as Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), have been widely used to determine metals in lubricating oils and also in other oil derivatives. Thus, some of these techniques were used in this study. Also the technique used was Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC / MS) for characterization of chromatographic profile of the engine lubricating oil after use. Through the technique of ICP-OES for method of United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) METHOD 6010B - Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was performed to characterize metals in lubricating oil motor, using equipment from ICP-OES Perkin-Elmer{sup R} OPTIMA 3000 ICP-Winlab and software, obtaining the following identification of metals: barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn). Using the XRF technique, through the equipment EDFRX Shimadzu{sup R} model 800HS EDX, Rh tube, applied voltage of 50kV, amperage 100{mu}A, detector Si (Li) cooled with liquid nitrogen and collimator 10mm, we analyzed all the components comprised in the range of Ti to U and Na to SC, identified the following metals: calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo) and nickel (Ni). The characterization was performed by chromatographic methods: USEPA METHOD 5021A - Volatile organic compounds in various sample matrices using equilibrium headspace analysis, USEPA METHOD 8015B - Nonhalogenated Organics

  12. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de; Correa, Sergio Machado; Silva, Glauco Correa da

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The engine lubricating oil drags all kinds of impurities generated by wear of internal components. Thus, it is necessary to monitor the physical and chemical properties and concentration of metals in lubricants used to determine the appropriate time to replace them. Moreover, one can monitor the wear of the engines through the levels of metals in oils. To achieve these goals, some detection techniques such as Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), have been widely used to determine metals in lubricating oils and also in other oil derivatives. Thus, some of these techniques were used in this study. Also the technique used was Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC / MS) for characterization of chromatographic profile of the engine lubricating oil after use. Through the technique of ICP-OES for method of United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) METHOD 6010B - Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was performed to characterize metals in lubricating oil motor, using equipment from ICP-OES Perkin-Elmer R OPTIMA 3000 ICP-Winlab and software, obtaining the following identification of metals: barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn). Using the XRF technique, through the equipment EDFRX Shimadzu R model 800HS EDX, Rh tube, applied voltage of 50kV, amperage 100μA, detector Si (Li) cooled with liquid nitrogen and collimator 10mm, we analyzed all the components comprised in the range of Ti to U and Na to SC, identified the following metals: calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo) and nickel (Ni). The characterization was performed by chromatographic methods: USEPA METHOD 5021A - Volatile organic compounds in various sample matrices using equilibrium headspace analysis, USEPA METHOD 8015B - Nonhalogenated Organics Using GC

  13. Tendency of lubricating oil manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Toshio

    1988-09-30

    The manufacturing method of paraffin base oil and the tendency are explained in details. The base oil is distillate of petroleum which is obtained at the high boiling of 400/degree/C or higher. The base oil is made from the distillate which is obtained through solvent deasphalting of the vacuum distillated residual oil. The refining process of those material is classified into the two different process steps such as refining and modifying process step in which the quality of the material is improved while eliminating unstable resin, aromatic compound, and sulfur contained in the material, and dewaxing process step in which the wax contained in the material is removed. The former is combination of the two different process steps such as solvent extraction process and hydrogen finishing process or hydroforming process. The latter is a combination of the two different process steps such as solvent dewaxing and catalytic dewaxing (hydro-dewaxing). Various examples of reactions, features and industrial processes are given in accordance with each of these process steps. Regarding the tendency toward the future, the kinds of materials will be expanded in the way that naphthene base oil will adopted as the material oil along with diversification of the quality of lubricating oil, and the processing technology including two-stage processing, catalytic dewaxing, etc. will be expected to be improved. 18 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Regeneration of used lubricating oil as a source of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Abdulrahim

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of natural resources by refining used lubricating oil was attempted in this work. Used lubricating oil was purified and distilled. The distillates obtained were divided into two temperature ranges of 60 - 210°C and 210 - 310°C. Analyses of the physicochemical properties of the two samples revealed that they have similar properties with gasoline and diesel fuels respectively. This result shows that used lubricating oils, which are usually regarded as waste, can be regenerated to obtain useful hydrocarbons that can be used as fuels to power internal combustion engines

  15. Tribological performance of nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulzar, M., E-mail: mubashir-nustian@hotmail.com; Masjuki, H. H., E-mail: masjuki@um.edu.my; Kalam, M. A.; Varman, M.; Zulkifli, N. W. M. [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Centre for Energy Sciences (Malaysia); Mufti, R. A. [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) (Pakistan); Zahid, Rehan [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Centre for Energy Sciences (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    The prospect of modern tribology has been expanded with the advent of nanomaterial-based lubrication systems, whose development was facilitated by the nanotechnology in recent years. In literature, a variety of nanoparticles have been used as lubricant additives with potentially interesting friction and wear properties. To date, although there has been a great deal of experimental research on nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives, many aspects of their tribological behavior are yet to be fully understood. With growing number of possibilities, the key question is: what types of nanoparticles act as a better lubricating oil additive and why? To answer this question, this paper reviews main types of nanoparticles that have been used as lubricants additives and outlines the mechanisms by which they are currently believed to function. Significant aspects of their tribological behavior such as dispersion stability and morphology are also highlighted.

  16. Tribological performance of nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulzar, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Varman, M.; Zulkifli, N. W. M.; Mufti, R. A.; Zahid, Rehan

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of modern tribology has been expanded with the advent of nanomaterial-based lubrication systems, whose development was facilitated by the nanotechnology in recent years. In literature, a variety of nanoparticles have been used as lubricant additives with potentially interesting friction and wear properties. To date, although there has been a great deal of experimental research on nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives, many aspects of their tribological behavior are yet to be fully understood. With growing number of possibilities, the key question is: what types of nanoparticles act as a better lubricating oil additive and why? To answer this question, this paper reviews main types of nanoparticles that have been used as lubricants additives and outlines the mechanisms by which they are currently believed to function. Significant aspects of their tribological behavior such as dispersion stability and morphology are also highlighted.

  17. Oils; lubricants; paraffin-wax compositions; hydrocarbon condensation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-04-04

    Petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene, Diesel fuel oil, lubricating-oil, and paraffin wax, and like hydrocarbons such as are obtainable from shale oil and by the hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials, are improved by addition of products obtained by condensing a cyclic hydrocarbon with a saturated dihalogen derivative of an aliphatic hydrocarbon containing less than five carbon atoms. The addition of the condensation products increases the viscosity of the hydrocarbon oils specified, and is particularly useful in the case of lubricating-oils; addition of the condensation products to paraffin wax increases the transparency and adherent properties of the wax, and is useful in the manufacture of moulded articles such as candles; the products may also be used in solid lubricating-compositions.

  18. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. This work also attempts to study the performance of the composite solvent in the extraction process for recovering waste lubricating oil. The key parameters considered were vacuum pressure, temperature and the weight ratio of solvent to waste lubricating oil. The performance was investigated on the PSR (Percentage Sludge Removal and POL (Percent Oil Loss. The best results were obtained using composite solvent 25% 2-propanol, 37% 1-butanol and 38% butanone by a solvent to oil ratio of 6:1 at vacuum pressure 600mmHg and distillation temperature 250oC. The vacuum distilled oil pretreated with the composite solvents was matched to the standard base oil 500N and 150N, found in close agreement and could be used for similar purpose.

  19. Enhanced Biodegradability, Lubricity and Corrosiveness of Lubricating Oil by Oleic Acid Diethanolamide Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jianhua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of oleic acid diethanolamide phosphate (abbreviated as ODAP as an additive on biodegradability, anti-wear capacity, friction-reducing ability and corrosiveness of an unreadily biodegradable HVI 350 mineral lubricating oil was studied. The biodegradabilities of neat lubricating oil and its formulations with ODAP were evaluated on a biodegradation tester. Furthermore, the anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities and the corrosiveness of neat oil and the formulated oils were determined on a four-ball tribotester and a copper strip corrosion tester, respectively. The results indicated that ODAP markedly enhanced biodegradability as well as anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities of the lubricating oil. On the other hand, excellent color ratings of copper strips for both neat oil and the ODAP-doped oil were obtained in the corrosion tests, demonstrating that the corrosiveness of neat oil and the doped oil was negligible, although the latter seemed to provide slightly better anti-corrosion ability.

  20. Fuels and Petroleum, Oil & Lubricants (POL) Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuels and Lubricants Technology Team operates and maintains the Fuels and POL Labs at TARDEC. Lab experts adhere to standardized American Society for Testing and...

  1. Tribological properties and lubrication mechanism of in situ graphene-nickel matrix composite impregnated with lubricating oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Du, Jinfang; Pang, Xianjuan; Wang, Haizhong; Yang, Hua; Jiang, Jinlong

    2018-05-01

    A solid-liquid synergetic lubricating system has been designed to develop a novel self-lubricating nickel matrix composite. The graphene-nickel (G-Ni) matrix composite with porous structure was fabricated by in situ growing graphene in bulk nickel using a powder metallurgy method. The porous structures of the composite were used to store polyalphaolefin (PAO) oil for self-lubricating. It is found that the G-Ni matrix composite under oil lubrication condition exhibited superior tribological properties as compared to pure nickel and the composite under dry sliding condition. The prestored oil was released from pores to the sliding surface forming a lubricating oil film during friction process. This lubricating oil film can protect the worn surface from severe oxidation, and help the formation and transfer of a carbon-based solid tribofilm derived from graphene and lubricating oil. This solid (graphene)-liquid (oil) synergistic lubricating mechanism is responsible for the reduction of friction coefficient and improvement of wear resistance of the in situ fabricated G-Ni matrix composite.

  2. on the oxidation stability of lubricating oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    I. P. Okoye, Dpartment of Pure and Industrial Chemistry,University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria ... of the kinematic viscosity for the formulated oil were much higher than the base oil, while ... including sulphurized oil – soluble organic compounds,.

  3. Studies on Thermal Oxidation Stability of Aviation Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Nan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the operating condition of aviation engine via autoclave experiment of high temperature and pressure, we studied the physic-chemical property of poly-α-olefin base oil samples mixed with antioxidants of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and p,p’-diisooctyl diphenylamine at different temperature. The mechanism of degradation of PAO aviation lubricating oil was analyzed according to the oxidized products by modern analytical instruments. The results showed that the aviation lubricating oil produced a large number of low molecule compounds while increasing the temperature, and resulted in the viscosity decreasing and acid value increasing which indicated that the thermal oxidation of the oil sample underwent a radical process.

  4. Assessment of lubricating oil degradation in small motorcycle engine fueled with gasohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakorn Tippayawong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the degradation of lubricating oil was performed on the lubricants which had been used in a small motorcycle engine fueled with gasohol in comparison with the lubricants from gasoline-run engine. The lubricant properties examined in the assessment were lubricating capacity, viscosity and stability to oxidation. Lubricating capacity was evaluated by accelerated wear test on the Timken tester. Lubricating oils from gasohol-run engine appeared to produce about 10% greater wear than that made in oils from gasoline-run engine. There was no significant difference between the effect of gasohol and gasoline on the viscosity of the used lubricating oils. Moreover, no oxidation products in any used oil samples could be detected.

  5. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  6. Biodegradation of used lubricating and diesel oils by a new yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new yeast strain, identified by 18S-rRNA gene sequencing as Candida viswanathii KA-201l, was isolated from used lubricating oil, showed high biodegradation efficiency for different used lubricating oils. Capability of this isolate to degrade different high and low molecular weight hydrocarbons, castor oil, diesel oil and ...

  7. Tribofilms Forming in Oil-Lubricated Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Scherge

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present paper is the characterization of third bodies of run-in systems. By means of continuous friction and wear measurement, lubricated steel-steel and steel-aluminum contacts were evaluated. Microstructure, chemical composition and response of the materials to shear were analyzed by XPS/AES and focused ion beam technique. After a proper running-in, both systems developed a third body. The third body differs significantly from the base materials. In addition to adapted microstructure and near-surface chemistry, the third body exhibited a substructure characterized by a near-surface zone that accommodates shear and a second, deeper region that ensures strengthening.

  8. Lubrication fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: lubricating oils; lubricating greases; synthetic lubricants; machine elements; lubricant application; internal combustion engines; stationary gas turbines; steam turbines; hydraulic turbines; nuclear power plants; automotive chassis components; automotive power transmissions; compressors; handling, storing, and dispensing lubricants, in-plant handling for lubricant conservation

  9. Immobilisation of alpha contaminated lubricating oils in cement matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, Smitha; Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Wattal, P.K.; Shah, N.J.; Chander, Mahesh; Bansal, N.K.

    2000-10-01

    Alpha contaminated lubricating oil wastes are generated from the reprocessing plants and other alpha handling facilities. Incineration of these spent lubricating oils requires specially designed facility to handle the aerosols of actinide oxides released to the off-gases. Hence immobilisation of these wastes into cement matrix could be a viable alternative. Work was therefore initiated to examine the possibility of immobilising such waste in cement matrix with the help of suitable additives. This work led to the selection of sodium hydroxide and silica fumes as additives for their distinct role in immobilization of such waste in cement. The selected formulation was tested extensively both on laboratory scale and full scale for acceptable waste form. The leach test on laboratory scale indicated negligible release of alpha and beta gamma activity after 180 days. This report gives a brief on the formulation of the admixture and its effect on the immobilization of waste. (author)

  10. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, like many emerging countries, has experienced a fast growth in the demand for automobiles in recent decades. This has produced a significant increase in the amount of hazardous waste to be disposed of, including used lubricant oil. Restrictive regulations are being used by many nations to deal with this problem, focusing on treatments, such as recycling, to avoid resource depletion. Specific rules for disposal of used lubricant oil already exist in various countries, including Brazil, but not for its containers. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, this article evaluates different management options for the destination of Lubricant Oil Plastic Containers (LOPCs, comparing recycling and incineration to disposal in an industrial landfill. Results show that reducing the proportion of LOPCs destined to the landfill has positive impacts in lowering the burdens caused in the life cycle of LOPCs. Incineration, which is not a technology used for destination of LOPCs in Brazil, proved to be a promising option when combined with recycling for treatment of this kind of waste. Combining different destinations is also a good option as long as economic, logistics and the environment are taken into consideration. The present paper concludes that emerging countries are able to manage hazardous waste provided that there is adequate legislation and political will along with cooperation from the private sector. This study can be helpful to the decision-making processes concerning hazardous waste, especially for industrial strategies and policy makers.

  12. Quality of feedstock in production of lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, A.G.; Kalenik, G.S.; Bayburskaya, E.L.; Ledyashova, G.Ye.; Okhrimenko, N.V.; Potashnikov, G.L.; Shiryayeva, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    Data are obtained under industrial conditions concerning production of lubricating oils from the mixture of crudes distinguished in terms of major properties: viscosity, content of light petroleum products, resin, sulfur. The difference in main properties and hydrocarbon composition of the original feedstock caused a change in conditions of selective purification of output of target and intermediate products. It is demonstrated that selection and grading of Eastern Ukrainian petroleum (separation of gas condensate) can achieve a continued increase of production of oils, approximately 30 percent.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Oil Jet Lubrication for High Speed Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Fondelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geared Turbofan technology is one of the most promising engine configurations to significantly reduce the specific fuel consumption. In this architecture, a power epicyclical gearbox is interposed between the fan and the low pressure spool. Thanks to the gearbox, fan and low pressure spool can turn at different speed, leading to higher engine bypass ratio. Therefore the gearbox efficiency becomes a key parameter for such technology. Further improvement of efficiency can be achieved developing a physical understanding of fluid dynamic losses within the transmission system. These losses are mainly related to viscous effects and they are directly connected to the lubrication method. In this work, the oil injection losses have been studied by means of CFD simulations. A numerical study of a single oil jet impinging on a single high speed gear has been carried out using the VOF method. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the resistant torque due to the oil jet lubrication, correlating the torque data with the oil-gear interaction phases. URANS calculations have been performed using an adaptive meshing approach, as a way of significantly reducing the simulation costs. A global sensitivity analysis of adopted models has been carried out and a numerical setup has been defined.

  14. Performance of palm oil as a biobased machining lubricant when drilling inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rahim Erween; Sasahara Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Metalworking fluid acts as cooling and lubrication agent at the cutting zone in the machining process. However, conventional Metalworking fluid such mineral oil gives negative impact on the human and environment. Therefore, the manufacture tends to substitute the mineral oil to bio-based oil such as vegetables and synthetic oil. In this paper, the drilling experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of palm oil and compare it with minimal quantity lubrication technique using synthet...

  15. Sulphur removal from used automotive lubricating oil by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Sato, Ivone Mulako

    2007-01-01

    Following the worldwide evolution with the purpose of a higher control of vehicular emissions, the specialists have looked for clean technologies and efficient procedures to make vehicular emissions free of pollutants. Much attention is given to the sulphur concentration in the gasoline, diesel and lubricating oils. The ionizing radiation is a promising technology for the removal of this pollutant when compared to other conventional treatment methods. In this work, the ionizing radiation was used to remove in significant levels the presence of sulphur in automotive motor oil. A 1000 mL sample of used automotive lubricating oil from a gas station was collected. This sample was fractioned and irradiated with 10, 20 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses in a 60 Co irradiator (GAMMACELL-220 - 12 kCi). The 50 and 70% (v/v) of MilliQ water and 30% (v/v) of hydrogen peroxide was used to improve the radiolysis The sulphur element before and after the irradiation was determined by X-ray fluorescence technique (WDXRF) using the Fundamental Parameters Method. The results showed approximately 70% sulphur removal at 500 kGy irradiation dose with 70% (v/v) of MilliQ water addition. (author)

  16. Tribological characteristic enhancement effects by polymer thickened oil in lubricated sliding contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratomo, Ariawan Wahyu; Muchammad, Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Jamari, Bayuseno, Athanasius P.

    2016-04-01

    Polymer thickened oils are the most preferred materials for modern lubrication applications due to their high shear. The present paper explores a lubrication mechanism in sliding contact lubricated with polymer thickened oil considering cavitation. Investigations are carried out by using a numerical method based on commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamic) software ANSYS for fluid flow phenomenon (Fluent) to assess the tribological characteristic (i.e. hydrodynamic pressure distribution) of lubricated sliding contact. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri model for cavitation is adopted in this simulation to predict the extent of the full film region. The polymer thickened oil is characterized as non-Newtonian power-law fluid. The simulation results show that the cavitation lead lower pressure profile compared to that without cavitation. In addition, it is concluded that the characteristic of the lubrication performance with polymer thickened oil is strongly dependent on the Power-law index of lubricant.

  17. Treatment of Waste Lubricating Oil by Chemical and Adsorption Process Using Butanol and Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Ramadhan, B.; Wiyanti, D.

    2018-04-01

    Treatment of waste lubricating oil by chemical and adsorption process using butanol and kaolin has been done. Quality of lubricating oil after treatment was analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the treatment of butanol, KOH, and kaolin to metals contain in waste lubricating oil treatment have been evaluated. Treatment of waste lubricating oil has been done using various kaolin weight, butanol, and KOH solution. The result of this research show metal content of Ca, Mg, Pb, Fe and Cr in waste lubricating oil before treatment are 1020.49, 367.02, 16.40, 36.76 and 1,80 ppm, respectively. The metal content of Ca, Mg, Pb, Fe and Cr in the waste lubricating oil after treatment are 0.17, 9.85, 34.07, 78.22 and 1.20 ppm, respectively. The optimum condition for treatment of waste lubricating oil using butanol, KOH, and kaolin is 30 mL, 3.0 g and 1.5 g, respectively. Chemical and adsorption method using butanol and kaolin can be used for decrease of metals contain in waste lubricating oil.

  18. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  19. Neste Oy starts the production of extra high viscosity index lubricating oil in Porvoo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilander, H.

    1997-01-01

    Neste Oy is starting the manufacture of basic oil, used in advanced motor lubricants, in Finland. The plant will start the manufacture of the EHVI (Extra High Viscosity) by the end of 1997. The EHVI basic oil is a synthetic-like oil product, suitable for manufacture of high-quality lubricants. In the beginning the production of the basic oil will be about 50 000 tons/a. The investment costs of the plants are 180 million FIM

  20. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  1. Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants chemistry and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, Leslie R

    2005-01-01

    As the field of tribology has evolved, the lubrication industry is also progressing at an extraordinary rate. Updating the author's bestselling publication, Synthetic Lubricants and High-Performance Functional Fluids, this book features the contributions of over 60 specialists, ten new chapters, and a new title to reflect the evolving nature of the field: Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants: Chemistry and Technology. The book contains chapters on all major lubricant fluids used in a wide range of applications. For each type of lubricant, the authors discuss the historical develo

  2. A Systems Approach to the Solid Lubrication of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Zaldana, Antonio R.; Radil, Kevin C.

    2002-01-01

    Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings which rely upon solid lubricants to reduce friction and minimize wear during sliding which occurs at start-up and shut-down when surface speeds are too low to allow the formation of a hydrodynamic air film. This solid lubrication is typically accomplished by coating the non-moving foil surface with a thin, soft polymeric film. The following paper introduces a systems approach in which the solid lubrication is provided by a combination of self lubricating shaft coatings coupled with various wear resistant and lubricating foil coatings. The use of multiple materials, each providing different functions is modeled after oil-lubricated hydrodynamic sleeve bearing technology which utilizes various coatings and surface treatments in conjunction with oil lubricants to achieve optimum performance. In this study, room temperature load capacity tests are performed on journal foil air bearings operating at 14,000 rpm. Different shaft and foil coating technologies such as plasma sprayed composites, ceramic, polymer and inorganic lubricant coatings are evaluated as foil bearing lubricants. The results indicate that bearing performance is improved through the individual use of the lubricants and treatments tested. Further, combining several solid lubricants together yielded synergistically better results than any material alone.

  3. Comparison of lubricant properties of castor oil and commercial engine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binfa Bongfa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tribological performance of crude Nigeria-based castor oil has been investigated and compared with that of a foreign, 20W-50 high quality crankcase oil, to see its suitability as base oil for lubricating oils in indigenous vehicle and power plants engines. The experiment was conducted using a four ball tester. The results showed that unrefined castor oil has superior friction reduction and load bearing capability in an unformulated form than the commercial oil; can compete favourably with the commercial oil in wear protection when formulated with suitable antiwear agent, hence can be a good alternative base stock for crankcase oils suitable for Nigeria serviced vehicles, and plants engines from tribological, environmental, and non-food competitive points of view.

  4. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  5. Upgrading the lubricity of bio-oil via homogeneous catalytic esterification under vacuum distillation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yufu; Zheng, Xiaojing; Peng, Yubin; Li, Bao; Hu, Xianguo; Yin, Yanguo

    2015-01-01

    In order to accelerate the application of bio-oil in the internal combustion engines, homogeneous catalytic esterification technology under vacuum distillation conditions was used to upgrade the crude bio-oil. The lubricities of the crude bio-oil (BO) and refined bio-oil with homogeneous catalytic esterification (RBO hce ) or refined bio-oil without catalyst but with distillation operation (RBO wc ) were evaluated by a high frequency reciprocating test rig according to the ASTM D 6079 standard. The basic physiochemical properties and components of the bio-oils were analyzed. The surface morphology, contents and chemical valence of active elements on the worn surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that RBO hce has better lubricities than those of BO, but RBO wc has worse lubricities than those of BO. The tribological mechanisms of the bio-oils are attributed to the combined actions of lubricating films and factors that will break the film. Compared with BO, plenty of phenols in RBO wc results in corrosion of the substrate and destroys the integrity of the lubricating films, which is responsible for its corrosive wear. However, more esters and alkanes in RBO hce contribute to forming a complete boundary lubricating film on the rubbed surfaces which result in its excellent antifriction and antiwear properties. - Highlights: • Refined bio-oil was prepared through homogeneous catalytic esterification technology. • Properties of the bio-oils before and after refining were assessed by HFRR. • Refined bio-oil showed better lubricities than crude bio-oil. • More esters and alkanes in refined bio-oil contributed to forming superior boundary lubrication

  6. How tests of lubricating and transformer oils became part of power plant chemistry in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H [I/S Nordjyllandsvaerket, Vodskov (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Lubricating, hydraulic and transformer oils based on refined crude oil are used in nearly all power station components, such as gear, turbines, hydraulic stations, feed pumps and transformers. The function of these components totally depends on the condition of the oils and their properties. Seen from this point one may wonder why examination and evaluation of oils did not become part of the power station chemistry within the ELSAM utility area until during the middle of the eighties. We started to examine the properties of lubricating oils at the time when several steam turbines experienced serious problems with formation of deposits in their hydraulic control circuits. This work was intensified in connection with the significant number of CHPs and wind turbines erected within the Danish electricity sector during the past 10 years or so. The majority of the CHPs are natural gas fired turbines or motors, equipment which severely stresses the lubricating oil. In collaboration with KEMA, the Netherlands, we have carried through with a large examination of lubricating oils in gas turbines and we have found suitable oil types. The objectives of our work with lubricating and transformer oils have been to link together the laboratory measurements with operational experience. Only by doing this is it possible to utilize the laboratory measurements in a correct way. It must be remembered that the main part of all oil specifications concerns the properties of new oils. Only very little is published about the requirements concerning used oils. (EG)

  7. Developments in lubricant technology

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, S P

    2014-01-01

    Provides a fundamental understanding of lubricants and lubricant technology including emerging lubricants such as synthetic and environmentally friendly lubricants Teaches the reader to understand the role of technology involved in the manufacture of lubricants Details both major industrial oils and automotive oils for various engines Covers emerging lubricant technology such as synthetic and environmentally friendly lubricants Discusses lubricant blending technology, storage, re-refining and condition monitoring of lubricant in equipment

  8. Idemitsu Kosan establishes the lubricating oil marketer in Shanghai; Idemitsu, Shanhai ni junkatsuyu hansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Idemitsu Kosan established 100% marketer 'Shanghai rising light lubricating oil trade limited company (SIL)' of the lubricating oil in China and Shanghai on 28th, and it was announced that the business activity was done from July first. Toshifumi Okubo (lubricating oil division three sections) takes to the president placed headquarters at (about 24000000 yen) 200000 dollar in the Shanghai outside high bridge bond ward new company capital. Employees are the 5 persons. The first year 3000 kilo liter is being estimated at the sales of (about six hundred million yen) 5 million dollar. (translated by NEDO)

  9. A study of energy consumption in turning process using lubrication of nanoparticles enhanced coconut oil (NECO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, A. F.; Zakaria, M. S.; Azmi, A. I.; Khalil, A. N. M.; Musa, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    Cutting fluids play very important role in machining application in order to increase tool life, surface finish and reduce energy consumption. Instead of using petrochemical and synthetic based cutting fluids, vegetable oil based lubricants is safety for operators, environmental friendly and become more popular in the industrial applications. This research paper aims to find the advantage of using vegetable oils (coconut oil) with additional of nano particles (CuO) as lubricant to the energy consumption during machining process. The energy was measured for each run from 2 level factorial experimental layout. Obtained results illustrate that lubricant with enhancement of nanoparticles has capability to improve the energy consumption during the machining process.

  10. Characteristics Study of In-Situ Capacitive Sensor for Monitoring Lubrication Oil Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhibin; Wang, Yishou; Qing, Xinlin

    2017-12-08

    As an essential part of engine health monitoring (EHM), online lubrication oil debris monitoring has recently received great attention for the assessment of rotating and reciprocating parts in aero-engines, due to its high integration, low cost and safe characteristics. However, it is be a challenge to find a suitable sensor operating in such a complex environment. We present an unconventional novel approach, in which a cylinder capacitive sensor is designed and integrated with the pipeline of an engine lubrication system, so that the capacitive sensor can effectively detect changes in the lubrication oil condition. In this paper, an attempt to illustrate the performance characteristics of the developed cylinder capacitive sensor is made, through an experiment system that simulates a real scenario of a lubrication oil system. The main aim of the research was to qualitatively describe the relationship between the sensor parameter and the lubrication oil debris. In addition, the effect of the temperature and flow rate of the lubrication oil on capacitance change was performed by several experiments and we figured out a compensation method. The experimental results demonstrated that the cylinder capacitive sensor can potentially be used for lubrication oil debris monitoring of the health condition of an aero-engine.

  11. Effectiveness of Biodiesel from Various Tropical Oil Crops on Lubricity Improvement of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chollacoop, Nuwong; Topaiboul, Subongkoj; Goodwin, Vituruch (Bioenergy Group, National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), Thailand Science Park, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand)). e-mail: nuwongc@mtec.or.th

    2008-10-15

    Ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) has been introduced worldwide with an aim to reduce emission. Since the desulfurization process for ULSD inadvertently reduces its lubricity, lubricity additive is needed. Biodiesel emerges as a potential candidate due to its excellent lubricity property and little sulfur content. In the present study, biodiesel from various energy crops available in Thailand was added at various amounts to ULSD to test the lubricity according to the CEC-F-06-A-96 standard (using High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig: HFRR [1]). It was found that when biodiesel from crude palm, jatropha, soybean, coconut, sunflower, rice, corn and sesame oils of less than 1% (by volume) is additized to ULSD, the lubricity is improved to meet the diesel standard. Further addition beyond 2% (by volume) does not improve lubricity remarkably, where the lubrication seems to saturate. Biodiesel improves lubricity property by film formation preventing mechanical contact between the rubbing surfaces, and the effectiveness varies among different feedstock oils. Biodiesel from crude palm oil, jatropha oil and coconut oil seemingly are superior lubricity additives in ULSD than that from soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice oil, corn oil and sesame oil. Keywords: biodiesel, bio-lubricants, palm oil, sunflower oil

  12. The Improvement of Screening the Significant Factors of Oil Blends as Bio lubricant Base Stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Hajarul Ashikin Shamsuddin; Rozaini Abdullah; Zainab Hamzah; Siti Jamilah Hanim Mohd Yusof

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation bio lubricant base stock was developed by blending of waste cooking oil (WCO) with Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). The objective of this research is to evaluate significant factors contributing to the production of oil blends for bio lubricant application. The significant factors used in this study were oil ratio (WCO:JCO), agitation times (min) and agitation speed (rpm). The blended oil bio based lubricant was used to determine the saponification, acid, peroxide and iodine values. The experimental design used in this study was the 2 level-factorial design. In this experiment, it was found that the effect of oil ratio and interaction of oil ratio and agitation speed gave the most significant effect in oil blends as bio lubricant base stock. The highest ratio of oil blend 80 %:20 % WCO:JCO, with low agitation speed of 300 rpm and low agitation time of 30 minutes gave the optimum results. The acid, saponification, peroxide and iodine values obtained were 0.517±0.08 mg KOH/ g, 126.23±1.62 mg/ g, 7.5±2.0 m eq/ kg and 50.42±2.85 mg/ g respectively. A higher ratio of waste cooking oil blends was found to be favourable as bio lubricant base stock. (author)

  13. Thermal Stability and Lubrication Properties of Biodegradable Castor Oil on AISI 4140 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Hernández-Sierra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Lubricants have much importance in several industries, principally serving to reduce friction and wear in mechanical elements. In this study, the influence of Castor oil as bio-lubricant on the friction and wear performance of AISI 4140 steel was investigated. For that purpose, pin-on-disk friction tests were conducted according to ASTM G-99, by using pins of tungsten carbide (WC as counterparts. The experiments were performed at two different temperatures. This work also presents the Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and 1H-NMR analyses for the chemical characterization of oils and a study of their degradation by oxidation. The analysis of the damage caused to steel due to friction was deepened by analyzing its microhardness and microstructure in the worn zone. As a reference, the same experiments were performed with a commercial oil. The friction behavior of 4140 steel/WC with Castor oil lubrication at the two temperatures was notably better than that obtained under the reference oil lubrication. The kinetic friction coefficient (µk was up to 76% lower. However, a slight increase in steel wear was observed under Castor oil lubrication. Despite this, these results suggest that Castor oil could be used as bio-lubricant in systems which are susceptible to levels of high friction.

  14. Viscous Flow Behaviour of Karanja Oil Based Bio-lubricant Base Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh Chandra; Sachan, Sadhana; Trivedi, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Karanja oil (KO) is widely used for synthesis of bio-fuel karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) due to its competitive price, good energy values and environmentally friendly combustion properties. Bio-lubricant is another value added product that can be synthesized from KO via chemical modification. In this work karanja oil trimethylolpropane ester (KOTMPE) bio-lubricant was synthesized and evaluated for its viscous flow behaviour. A comparison of viscous flow behaviours of natural KO and synthesized bio-fuel KOME and bio-lubricant KOTMPE was also made. The aim of this comparison was to validate the superiority of KOTMPE bio-lubricant over its precursors KO and KOME in terms of stable viscous flow at high temperature and high shear rate conditions usually encountered in engine operations and industrial processes. The free fatty acid (FFA) content of KO was 5.76%. KOME was synthesized from KO in a two-step, acid catalyzed esterification followed by base catalyzed transesterification, process at 65°C for 5 hours with oil-methanol ratio 1:6, catalysts H 2 SO 4 and KOH (1 and 1.25% w/w KO, respectively). In the final step, KOTMPE was prepared from KOME via transesterification with trimethylolpropane (TMP) at 150°C for 3 hours with KOME-TMP ratio 4:1 and H 2 SO 4 (2% w/w KOME) as catalyst. The viscosity versus temperature studies were made at 0-80°C temperatures in shear rate ranges of 10-1000 s -1 using a Discovery Hybrid Rheometer, model HR-3 (TA instruments, USA). The study found that viscosities of all three samples decreased with increase in temperature, though KOTMPE was able to maintain a good enough viscosity at elevated temperatures due to chemical modifications in its molecular structure. The viscosity index (VI) value for KOTMPE was 206.72. The study confirmed that the synthesized bio-lubricant KOTMPE can be used at high temperatures as a good lubricant, though some additives may be required to improve properties other than viscosity.

  15. Performance of palm oil as a biobased machining lubricant when drilling inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahim Erween

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metalworking fluid acts as cooling and lubrication agent at the cutting zone in the machining process. However, conventional Metalworking fluid such mineral oil gives negative impact on the human and environment. Therefore, the manufacture tends to substitute the mineral oil to bio-based oil such as vegetables and synthetic oil. In this paper, the drilling experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of palm oil and compare it with minimal quantity lubrication technique using synthetic ester, flood coolant and air blow with respect to cutting temperature, cutting force, torque and tool life. The experimental results showed that the application of palm oil under minimal quantity lubrication condition as the cutting fluid was more efficient process as it improves the machining performances.

  16. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.; Sambasivam, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation. The initial results show limited effectiveness of biological treatment at conditions employing indigenous bacteria and low (2%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas media. In addition, the indigenous bacteria were seen to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, penanthrene and pyrene which are present at some locations at the site. No apparent degradation of material was seen using conditions of high (30%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas medium under a variety of conditions. In addition, nutrients were rapidly depleted at these sludge concentrations, with the exception of sulfates which were produced when high sludge concentrations were used. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Inorganic elements and organic compounds degradation studies by gamma irradiation in used lubricating oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The automotive lubricating oils have partial degradation of organic compounds and addition of undesirable inorganic elements, during its use. These substances classify the used lubricating oils as dangerous and highly toxic. According to global consensus, concerning the environmental conservation, the best is to perform a reuse treatment of these lubricating oils. For this purpose, the uses of an alternative and effective technology have been sought. In this work, the efficacy and technical feasibility of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), by gamma radiation, for used automotive lubricating oil treatment has been studied. Different quantities of hydrogen peroxide and water Milli-Q were added to oil samples. They were submitted to the Cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammacell, with 100, 200 and 500 kGy absorbed doses. The inorganic analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed inorganic elements removal, mainly to sulphur, calcium, iron and nickel elements at acceptable levels by environmental protection law for oils reusing. The gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis showed that the advanced oxidation process promotes the organic compounds degradation. The main identified compounds were tridecane, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and trietilamina-tetramethyl urea, which have important industrial applications. The multivariate analysis, Cluster Analysis, showed that advanced oxidation process application is a viable and promising treatment for used lubricating oil reusing. (author)

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  19. Recycling of Automotive Lubricating Waste Oil and Its Quality Assessment for Environment-Friendly Use

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed Anwar; Syed Shahid Ali; Zubair Anwar; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Abdul Jabbar; Tariq M. Ansari; Syed Sibtain Raza Naqvi

    2012-01-01

    Lubricating oils, which are formulated with a number of chemicals blended base oils provide products that last longer, keep machinery cleaner and allow the machinery to work better under severe operating conditions. However, the used oil-waste generated by the automobiles and other allied industries poses an environmental hazard. The motivation of the present research study was to study the merits and demerits of commonly applicable technique acid/clay for reclamation of waste oil. This proce...

  20. A lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfenova, V.A.; Belov, P.S.; Guliaev, I.A.; Korenev, K.D.

    1979-07-30

    For the purpose of improving the thermo-oxidation stability of washing and protective properties, dithiophosphate of the metal having the formula ((pi-R-C/sub 6/H/sub 4/OCH/sub 2/-CH/sub 2/O)/sub 2/P(=S)S)/sub 2/M (where R is the alkyl of C/sub 8/--C/sub 12/ isostructure, M is either cadmium, barium, or zinc) (I) is added into the petroleum oil for the lubrication of car engine units and containing polyethylene oxyphenylpolyamine (PEP). The lubricant has the following composition, in %: PEP, 1 to 5; (I), 0.5 to 5; petroleum oil, up to 100. In order to produce a lubricant for petroleum oil, for example MT-16, PEF and (I) are added (R = octyl or dodecyl), it is heated up to 80/sup 0/ and mixed in a nitrogen current for one hour. The combination of the additives in the patented composition has synergistic activities and the oil being patented, according to operative properties, surpasses the oil with industrial dithiophosphate additive MNI-IP-22k.

  1. ZETA POTENTIAL AND COLOR INVESTIGATIONS OF VEGETABLE OIL BASED EMULSIONS AS ECO-FRIENDLY LUBRICANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMICĂ CREŢU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past 10 years, the need for biodegradable lubricants has been more and more emphasized. The use of vegetable oils as lubricants offers several advantages. The vegetable oils are biodegradable; thus, the environmental pollution is minimal either during or after their use. The aim of this paper is to presents a preliminary study concerning the influence of some preparation conditions on the stability of vegetable oil-in-water (O/W emulsions as eco-friendly lubricants stabilized by nonionic surfactant. In this context, vegetable oil-in-water emulsions characteristics where assessed using microscopically observation and zeta potential. In addition, the color of these emulsions can be evaluated. It can be observed that the emulsions tend to stabilize in time.

  2. Adsorption Behavior of Heat Modified Soybean Oil via Boundary Lubrication Coefficient of Friction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frictional behaviors of soybean oil and heat modified soybean oils with different Gardner scale viscosities as additives in hexadecane have been examined in a boundary lubrication test regime (steel contacts) using Langmuir adsorption model. The free energy of adsorption (delta-Gads) of various...

  3. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  4. Lubrication a practical guide to lubricant selection

    CERN Document Server

    Lansdown, A R

    1982-01-01

    Lubrication: A Practical Guide to Lubricant Selection provides a guide to modern lubrication practice in industry, with emphasis on practical application, selection of lubricants, and significant factors that determine suitability of a lubricant for a specific application. Organized into 13 chapters, this book begins with a brief theoretical opening chapter on the basic principles of lubrication. A chapter then explains the choice of lubricant type, indicating how to decide whether to use oil, grease, dry lubricant, or gas lubrication. Subsequent chapters deal with detailed selection of lubric

  5. Comparative evaluation of physicochemical properties of jatropha curcas seed oil for coolant-lubricant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Muhamad Nasir; Sharif, Safian; Rahim, Erween Abd.; Abdullah, Rozaini

    2017-09-01

    Increased attention to environmental issues due to industrial activities has forced the authorities raise awareness and implement regulations to reduce the use of mineral oil. Some vegetable oils unexplored or less explored, particularly the non-edible oils such as Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) and others. Physicochemical properties of JCO is compared with others edible oils, synthetic ester and fatty alcohol to obtain a viable alternative in metal cutting fluids. The oil was found to show the suitability of properties for coolant-lubricant applications in term of its physicochemical properties and better in flash point and viscosity value.

  6. Characteristic of natural rubber latex-methyl metha-crylate copolymer in mineral lubricant base oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meri Suhartini; Rahmawati

    2010-01-01

    Natural rubber latex-methyl methacrylate copolymer was diluted in xylene, then diluted in four types of lubricant base oil with concentrations of 0.25%, 1%, 5%, and 10%. The mixed solutions were analyzed to obtain kinematics viscosity, viscosity index, density, ash content, metal content, flash point, shear stability and total alkali number. The viscosity index of sample, increased by adding the copolymer solution. The results showed that lubricant base oil of High Viscosity index (HVI) 60 and mixed HVI 60: HVI 650 gave optimum viscosity index. The higher concentration of polymer added into base lubricant oil, the higher viscosity index obtained. The shear stability test showed that the kinematics viscosity of sample decreased 6.5% after 60 minutes of treatment test. (author)

  7. Tribological characteristics of monodispersed cerium borate nanospheres in biodegradable rapeseed oil lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshui, Chen, E-mail: boshuichen@163.com; Kecheng, Gu; Jianhua, Fang; Jiang, Wu; Jiu, Wang; Nan, Zhang

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Monodispersed stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. Their morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics were also characterized. • The surface-capped cerium borate nanoparticles exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. As new lubricating additives, they were also outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil in biodegradable rapeseed oil. The results presented in this paper would be of important significance for developing green lubricants and lubricant additives. • The prominent tribological performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} in rapeseed oil were investigated and attributed to the formation of a composite boundary lubrication film mainly composed of lubricous tribochemical species on the tribo-surfaces. - Abstract: Stearic acid-capped cerium borate composite nanoparticles, abbreviated as SA/CeBO{sub 3}, were prepared by hydrothermal method. The morphologies, element compositions, size distributions, crystal and chemical structures, hydrophobic characteristics, of SA/CeBO{sub 3} were characterized by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, dynamic laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The friction and wear performances of SA/CeBO{sub 3} as a lubricating additive in a rapeseed oil were evaluated on a four-ball tribo-tester. The tribochemical characteristics of the worn surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydrophobic SA/CeBO{sub 3} were monodispersed nanospheres with an average diameter of 8 nm, and exhibited excellent dispersing stability in rapeseed oil. Meanwhile, SA/CeBO{sub 3} nanospheres were outstanding in enhancing friction-reducing and anti-wear capacities of rapeseed oil. The prominent

  8. Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  9. Analysis of lubricant oil contamination and degradation and wear of a biogas-fed otto cycle engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovian Bertinatto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of biodigesters for the treatment of waste on farms and the use of the biogas generated in the production of energy have highlighted the need for knowing the influence of this fuel on internal combustion engines. This study aimed to analyze the influence of filtrated biogas on lubricant oil contamination and degradation, as well as on engine wear and corrosion. Lubricant oil samples were collected every 75 engine operating hours (EOH and then correlated between each other and with a sample of new oil, determining the elements present in the biogas that contribute to lubricant oil contamination and degradation, as well as lubricant oil performance in the course of EOH and engine wear. The results demonstrate that hydrogen sulfide affects the performance of the lubricant oil and engine wear. Among the metals, we observed that the copper concentration exceeded the maximum limit recommended in the literature. As for the additives, the variation in concentrations of magnesium impacted on lubricant performance. By monitoring lubricant oil quality were able to extend the engine oil change interval of this study by 50%, what resulted in a savings of 33.3% in the cost of lubricant per hour worked.

  10. Evaluating lubricating capacity of vegetal oils using Abbott-Firestone curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, C.; Cristea, G. C.; Dima, C.; Deleanu, L.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the change of functional parameters defined on the Abbott-Firestone curve in order to evaluate the surface quality of the balls from the four ball tester, after tests done with several vegetable oils. The tests were done using two grades of rapeseed oil (degummed and refined) and two grades of soybean oil (coarse and degummed) and a common transmission oil (T90). Test parameters were 200 N and 0.576 m/s (1500 rpm) for 60 minutes. For the refined rapeseed oil, the changes in shape of the Abbott-Firestone curves are more dramatic, these being characterized by high values of Spk (the average value for the wear scars on the three balls), thus being 40% of the sum Svk + Sk + Spk, percentage also obtained for the soybean oil, but the value Spk being lower. For the degummed soybean oil, the profile height of the wear scars are taller than those obtained after testing the coarse soybean oil, meaning that the degumming process has a negative influence on the worn surface quality and the lubricating capacity of this oil. Comparing the surface quality of the wear scars on fixed tested balls is a reliable method to point out the lubricant properties of the vegetable oils, especially if they are compared to a “classical” lubricant as a non-additivated transmission mineral oil T90. The best surface after testing was obtained for the soybean oil, followed by T90 oil and the degummed grades of the soybean oil and rapeseed oil (these three giving very close values for the functional parameters), but the refined rapeseed oil generated the poorest quality of the wear scars on the balls, under the same testing conditions.

  11. Friction and wear performance of low-friction carbon coatings under oil lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalchenko, A.; Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2001-01-01

    Amorphous carbon coatings with very low friction properties were recently developed at Argonne National Laboratory. These coatings have shown good promise in mitigating excessive wear and scuffing problems associated with low-lubricity diesel fuels. To reduce the negative effect of sulfur and other lubricant additives in poisoning the after-treatment catalyst, a lubricant formulation with a low level of sulfur may be needed. Exclusion of proven sulfur-containing extreme pressure (EP) and antiwear additives from oils will require other measures to ensure durability of critical lubricated components. The low-friction carbon coating has the potential for such applications. In the present study, we evaluated the friction and wear attributes of three variations of the coating under a boundary lubrication regime. Tests were conducted with both synthetic and mineral oil lubricants using a ball-on-flat contact configuration in reciprocating sliding. Although the three variations of the coating provided modest reductions in friction coefficient, they all reduced wear substantially compared to an uncoated surface. The degradation mode of oxidative wear on the uncoated surface was replaced by a polishing wear mode on the coated surfaces

  12. Simulation of demand (or consumption) of fuel and lubricating oils in countries of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzelbaev, B.I.; Khisarov, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    Demand on fuel and lubricating oils mixtures is estimated in transport sector of the Asia countries. Model of demand is constructed with help of co-integration structures and error correction model for definition of fuel and lubricating oils mixtures elasticity. Researches have been conducted with use of program complex in operational medium of the Windows-95. Co-integrating vectors for demand on gasoline were defined by all of considered countries (beside Thailand), for demand on diesel fuel - for Indonesia and South Korea

  13. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  14. On the performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace metals in lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lijuan [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Cao, Fan; Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gilon, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR5280 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Zeng, Heping [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yu, Jin, E-mail: jin.yu@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a technique to directly determine metals in viscous liquids and especially in lubricating oils. A specific laser ablation configuration of a thin layer of oil applied on the surface of a pure aluminum target was used to evaluate the analytical figures of merit of LIBS for elemental analysis of lubricating oils. Among the analyzed oils, there were a certified 75cSt blank mineral oil, 8 virgin lubricating oils (synthetic, semi-synthetic, or mineral and of 2 different manufacturers), 5 used oils (corresponding to 5 among the 8 virgin oils), and a cooking oil. The certified blank oil and 4 virgin lubricating oils were spiked with metallo-organic standards to obtain laboratory reference samples with different oil matrix. We first established calibration curves for 3 elements, Fe, Cr, Ni, with the 5 sets of laboratory reference samples in order to evaluate the matrix effect by the comparison among the different oils. Our results show that generalized calibration curves can be built for the 3 analyzed elements by merging the measured line intensities of the 5 sets of spiked oil samples. Such merged calibration curves with good correlation of the merged data are only possible if no significant matrix effect affects the measurements of the different oils. In the second step, we spiked the remaining 4 virgin oils and the cooking oils with Fe, Cr and Ni. The accuracy and the precision of the concentration determination in these prepared oils were then evaluated using the generalized calibration curves. The concentrations of metallic elements in the 5 used lubricating oils were finally determined. - Highlights: • Direct determination of wear metals in lubricating oils using LIBS. • Generalized calibration curves for different oils. • Ablation of a thin oil layer on a pure metallic target.

  15. Base Oil-Extreme Pressure Additive Synergy in Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extreme pressure (EP) additives are those containing reactive elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. In lubrication processes that occur under extremely severe conditions (e.g., high pressure and/or slow speed), these elements undergo chemical reactions generating new materials (tribofi...

  16. Converting an icebreaker from an oil lubricated stern tube bearing system to a seawater lubricated stern tube bearing considering environmental and operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogle, Ken J.; Carter, Craig D. [Thordon Bearings Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)], email: keno@thordonbearings.com, email: craigc@thordonbearings.com

    2010-07-01

    Icebreakers are prone to oil discharges from the stern tube, and lubricants that are biodegradable elsewhere may not be biodegradable enough in the Arctic and have a toxic effect on the food chain. The vulnerable element is the shaft seal, which must leak a small amount to operate in the first place, and ice milling causes very fast shaft movements that increase the leakage. Also, other objects such as fishing lines seriously compromise the operation of the seal. However, there is an alternative-namely the conversion of oil-lubricated bearings to Thordon COMPAC seawater-lubricated bearings. In this operation, white-metal bearings are replaced with Thordon non-metallic bearings; then, seawater is used as the lubrication and cooling medium. The seawater enters the front part of the stern, passes through the front and aft bearing before returning to the sea. This system totally eliminates the risk of polluting the Arctic ecosystem.

  17. Polyalhpaolefins and VHVI base oils - base oils for high performance lubricants; Polyalfaolefine und VHVI-Grundoele - Grundoele fuer hochwertige Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmus, M.; Nissfolk, F.; Kulmala, K. [Fortum Oil and Gas Oyj / Base Oils, Fortum (Finland)

    2002-01-01

    Next to polyalphaolefines (PAOs base oils of the API/ATIEL Group IV), VHVI base oils (belonging to API/ATIEL Group III) are being increasingly used in high-performance automotive and industrial lubricants. A comparative study of the properties of VHVI base oils and polyalphaolefins shows that high-quality VHVI base oils have comparable volatility, oxidation stability and viscosity indices to polyalphaolefins, whereas the most pronounced differences are viscometric properties in the low-temperature range. However, there are noticeable differences between different market-typical VHVI base oils, depending primarily on the manufacturing process. The differences in the physicochemical properties of PAOs and various VHVI base oils are attributable to differences in the typical molecular composition. This is illustrated by a compositional analysis of several VHVI base oils, in which the (iso)paraffin content and the content of different naphthenic and aromatic compounds is analyzed. The base oil influence on specific properties of formulated lubricants is discussed on the basis of several examples, and studies conducted with passenger car engine oils (PCMOs), heavy-duty engine oils (HDEOs) and gear oils are described in detail. As a result of extremely low CCS viscosities, PAOs are optimally suited for use in 0W-X PCMOs whereas 5W-X PCMOs meeting highest performance requirements can also be formulated with high-quality VHVI base oils. Emission measurements with HDEOs formulated with either SN mineral base oil or VHVI base oil demonstrated that the base oil type affects tailpipe particle emissions in the particle size range <5 {mu}m as replacement of SN mineral base oil with VHVI base oil resulted in lower particle emissions. Test stand measurements with gear oils formulated with either VHVI base oils or PAOs yielded comparable results in terms of power transfer ratio and oil temperature increase. (orig.)

  18. Monitoring the viscosity of diesel engine lubricating oil by using acoustic emission technique, the selection of measurement parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman Inayatullah; Nordin Jamaludin; Fauziah Mat

    2009-04-01

    Acoustic emission technique has been developed through years of monitoring and diagnosis of bearing, but it is still new in the diagnosis and monitoring of lubrication oil to bearings drive. The propagation of acoustic emission signal is generated when the signal piston on the cylinder liner lubricating oil which is a par. The signal is analyzed in time domain to obtain the parameters of root mean squared, amplitude, energy and courtesy. Lubricant viscosity will undergo changes due to temperature, pressure and useful. This study focuses on the appropriate parameters for the diagnosis and monitoring of lubricating oil viscosity. Studies were conducted at a constant rotational speed and temperature, but use a different age. The results showed that the energy parameter is the best parameter used in this monitoring. However, this parameter cannot be used directly and it should be analyzed using mathematical formulas. This mathematical formula is a relationship between acoustic emission energy with the viscosity of lubricating oil. (author)

  19. Rheological and tribological behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet MoS2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qingming; Jin, Yi; Sun, Pengcheng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    This work concerns rheological and frictional behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoparticles (average diameter 50 nm; single layer thickness 3 nm). Stable nano-MoS2 lubricants were formulated and measured for their rheological behaviour and tribological performance. Rheological experiments showed that the nano-MoS2 oils were non-Newtonian following the Bingham plastic fluid model. The viscosity data fitted the classic Hinch-Leal (H-L) model if an agglomeration factor of 1.72 was introduced. Tribological experiments indicated that the use of MoS2 nanoparticles could enhance significantly the tribological performance of the base lubricating oil (reduced frictional coefficient, reduced surface wear and increased stability). Scanning electron microscopy, laser confocal microscope and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses suggested that the reduced frictional coefficient and surface wear be associated with surface patching effects. Such patching effects were shown to depend on the concentration of MoS2 nanoparticles, and an effective patching required a concentration over approximately 1 wt%. The increased stability could be attributed to the enhanced heat transfer and lubricating oil film strength due to the presence of nanoparticles.

  20. Recovery of very viscous lubricating oils from shale-tar, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1919-09-10

    Modification of the process covered by German Patent 335,190 for recovering very viscous lubricating oils, consisting, in place of brown-coal tar, deparafinned peat tar being subjected to the treatment with superheated steam from about 200 to 250/sup 0/C or to heating in vacuum at a temperature below 250/sup 0/C.

  1. Prediction of the viscosity of lubricating oil blends at any temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, R.M.; Bernardo, M.I.; Fernandez, A.M.; Folgueras, M.B. [University of Oviedo, Oveido (Spain). Dept. of Energy

    1996-04-01

    This paper discusses a method of predicting the viscosity of multicomponent base lubricating oil mixtures based on Andrade`s equation. The kinematic viscosity of three types of base lubricating oils and their binary and ternary mixtures were measured at different temperatures and the parameters of Andrade`s equation were calculated. The results obtained indicate that the Andrade parameters vary linearly with the mixture composition. From these linear equations, generalized mixing equations are derived which confirm the experimental results. By application of the mixing equations, a simple method is obtained for prediction of the viscosity of oil blends at any temperature from viscosity-temperature data of the oil components. The calculated viscosities gave an average absolute deviation of 10% over the temperature range 20-100{degree}C. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Amin, Mahasen S. [Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue. (author)

  3. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A.; Amin, Mahasen S.

    2010-01-01

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue.

  4. Recovery of very viscous lubricating oils from shale-tar, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1918-01-22

    A process is disclosed for the recovery of very viscous lubricating oils from brown-coal tar and shale tar, consisting in driving off from the crude tar or the tar freed from volatile constituents after removal of paraffin by precipitation with a volatile solvent such as acetone or one of its homologs, the light oils more or less completely with superheated steam from about 200 to 250/sup 0/C without any outside heating over a free flame.

  5. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXVI, I--CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS, II--LEARNING ABOUT BRAKES (PART I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS AND THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF BRAKE SYSTEMS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THE NEED FOR OIL, (2) SERVICE CLASSIFICATION OF OILS, (3) CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS (4)…

  6. Intermetallic Nickel-Titanium Alloys for Oil-Lubricated Bearing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, C.; Pepper, S. V.; Noebe, R.; Hull, D. R.; Glennon, G.

    2009-01-01

    An intermetallic nickel-titanium alloy, NITINOL 60 (60NiTi), containing 60 wt% nickel and 40 wt% titanium, is shown to be a promising candidate material for oil-lubricated rolling and sliding contact applications such as bearings and gears. NiTi alloys are well known and normally exploited for their shape memory behavior. When properly processed, however, NITINOL 60 exhibits excellent dimensional stability and useful structural properties. Processed via high temperature, high-pressure powder metallurgy techniques or other means, NITINOL 60 offers a broad combination of physical properties that make it unique among bearing materials. NITINOL 60 is hard, electrically conductive, highly corrosion resistant, less dense than steel, readily machined prior to final heat treatment, nongalling and nonmagnetic. No other bearing alloy, metallic or ceramic encompasses all of these attributes. Further, NITINOL 60 has shown remarkable tribological performance when compared to other aerospace bearing alloys under oil-lubricated conditions. Spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) tests were conducted in vacuum using NITINOL 60 balls loaded between rotating 440C stainless steel disks, lubricated with synthetic hydrocarbon oil. Under conditions considered representative of precision bearings, the performance (life and friction) equaled or exceeded that observed with silicon nitride or titanium carbide coated 440C bearing balls. Based upon this preliminary data, it appears that NITINOL 60, despite its high titanium content, is a promising candidate alloy for advanced mechanical systems requiring superior and intrinsic corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity and nonmagnetic behavior under lubricated contacting conditions.

  7. Influence of Base Oil Polarity on the Transient Shear Flow of Biodegradable Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fiedler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to elucidate the physical mechanisms influencing the transient flow behavior of lubricating greases based on biogenic oleochemicals from a polarity point of view. This includes the mutually interacting influence of base oil polarity and thickening agents on the rheologically-measured mechanical structural degradation in transient shear flow. Due to the high temperature dependence of Keesom forces in the background of polar-active bond mechanisms, the analysis of the transient flow response as a function of temperature allows to attribute the observed influences to differences in base oil polarity. In general, clay-thickened greases show a greater tendency to be rheologically influenced by base oil polarities than soap-thickened lubricating greases.

  8. Stable dispersion of nanodiamonds in oil and their tribological properties as lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Jin-Ju; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang Kyu

    2017-09-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are innovative additives when a combination of mechanical, thermal, tribological, and dielectric properties are required. In this study, a surface modification with oleic acid (OA) is developed for the deaggregation and prolonged dispersion of NDs in oil, and the effect of the NDs as lubricant additives on the tribological properties of a steel substrate is investigated. The OA renders the ND surface hydrophobic and decreases the average particle size from 268.6 to 20.1 nm. The OA-treated NDs exhibit very stable dispersion in oil even after more than 10 days, compared with the untreated NDs. From the analyses of the friction coefficient, wear loss, and worn surfaces using a ball-on-disk wear test, it is concluded that a 0.05 wt% addition of OA-treated NDs in oil lubricant provides excellent friction and anti-wear properties with the friction coefficient being reduced by 23%.

  9. The ongoing changes in the base oil industry and their potential impact on the lubricant industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Holm, Valentina [Nynas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    During the last years the base oil industry has undergone significant changes, with the rapid growth of Group II and Group III paraffinic base oils and the corresponding decline of Group I supply. The announcements of future instalments show that the increase of Group II and III capacity is indeed a stable trend all over the world. Based on publicly available information, the Group II capacity is expected to grow by 8.6 million tpa, reaching over 22 million tpa, and Group III capacity is expected to double from current 4.1 million tpa up to 8.2 million tpa. As the demand is not expected to grow at the same pace as the increasing supply, it is likely that this new capacity will lead to an oversupply situation in the next five years. Because of their production disadvantages compared to Group II and III and a shrinking demand in automotive applications, it is likely that Group I plants will close down or will operate at reduced throughput to compensate for the new Group II and III capacity. A decline of Group I capacity in favour of Group II and III may pose problems in the formulation of those industrial lubricants where solvency and/or viscosity are needed, such as lubricating greases, metalworking fluids, and several process oils applications. Either alone or in combination with Group II or III oils, naphthenic oils can be used in the formulation of industrial lubricants, as solvency and viscosity poroviders. (orig.)

  10. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  11. Analysis of chain saw lubricating oils commonly used in Thailand's southern border provinces for forensic science purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choodum, Aree; Tripuwanard, Kijja; Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, Thailand's southern border provinces (Malay-Muslim-majority border provinces) have become the scene of violence and insurgency. One of the attack patterns is the blocking of roads with perennial plants followed by planned attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or weapons on first responders. Containers of viscous dark lubricating oil and traces of lubricants on the felled trees were usually found at the scene. These were suspected to be chain oil lubricant from the chainsaws used to cut down the trees used for the roadblock. This work aimed to differentiate the chromatographic patterns of used lubricating oils available in automobile repair shops from various locations across Thailand's southern border provinces. Lubricating oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) every two weeks to study their variation in chemical compositions over time. The results obtained from GC/FID were normalized for differentiation. This included four two-stroke, six four-stroke, and three recycled oils. Two lubricating oils found at an incident scene were also analyzed and the results compared with the chain oil from five seized chainsaws. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

  13. Synthetic lubrication oil influences on performance and emission characteristic of coated diesel engine fuelled by biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Musthafa, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthetic lubricant provides the maximum performance benefits. • Synthetic lubricant is capable of retaining satisfactory viscosity. • Synthetic lubricant is to increase the life of the engine. • Improvement in efficiency of the coated engine with synthetic lubrication. • No significant changes in the coated engine emission with synthetic lubricants. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of using synthetic lubricating oil on the performance and exhaust emissions in a low heat rejection diesel engine running on Pongamia methyl ester blends and diesel have been investigated experimentally compared to those obtained from a conventional diesel engine with SAE 40 lubrication oil fuelled by diesel. For this purpose, direct injection diesel engine was converted to Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coated engine. The results showed 5–9% increase in engine efficiency and 8–17% decrease in specific fuel consumption, as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions (except NO_X) for all tested fuels (pure diesel, B10 and B20) used in coated engine with synthetic lubricants compared to that of the uncoated engine with SAE 40 lubricant running on diesel fuel.

  14. Pneumatically Powered Drilling of Carbon Fibre Composites Using Synthetic Biodegradable Lubricating Oil: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corydon M. J. Morrell

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibre composites are a key component of aircraft structures because of their enhanced material properties such as favourable strength to weight ratios when compared to metal alloys. During the assembly process of an aircraft, carbon fibre components are joined to other structures using rivets, bolts, and fasteners, and as part of the joining process, the components will need to be machined or drilled. Unlike metal alloys, composites are sensitive to heat and are vulnerable to internal structural damage from machining tools. They are also susceptible to a reduction in strength when fibres are exposed to moisture. In the machining process, carbon fibre composites may be drilled using oils to lubricate carbide machining tools. In this study, a description of the experimental apparatus is provided along with an investigation to determine the influence synthetic biodegradable lubricating oil has on drill rotational speed, drilling load, and drilling temperature when using a pneumatic drill to machine carbon fibre composite material.

  15. Biodegradation Capability of Some Bacteria Isolates to Use Lubricant Oil in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahda, Y.; Azhar, M.; Fitri, L.; Afnida, A.; Adha, G. S.; Alifa, W. N.; Handayani, D.; Putri, D. H.; Irdawati, I.; Chatri, M.

    2018-04-01

    Our previous study identified three species of bacteria, i.e. Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus spl, and Bacillus sp2 isolated from using lubricant oil-contaminated soil in a Padang’s workshop. However, its ability to degrade hydrocarbon were not known yet. In this extension study, we explore a wider area to find more hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and examined its capability to degrade hydrocarbon in vitro. Seventeen isolates were characterized its capability using NA + used lubricant oil + tween + neutral red medium. Isolates A1, B2, D1 and D4 shows the high degradation index, whereas isolates A2, A3, A5, D2, B1, B3 and isolates A4, B4, D3 have medium and low degradation index, respectively. These potential hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria need in situ characterization to know their actual activities for bioremediation.

  16. Bismuth nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in lubricant oils for tribological tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Castañeda, M., E-mail: mar.floc@hotmail.com [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Av. Instituto Literario No. 100, Oriente Col. Centro, Toluca, Estado de México C.P. 50000, México (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de México C.P. 52750, México (Mexico); Camps, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de México C.P. 52750, México (Mexico); Camacho-López, M. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Av. Instituto Literario No. 100, Oriente Col. Centro, Toluca, Estado de México C.P. 50000, México (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigación en Materiales (UNAM), Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510 México, D.F., México (Mexico); and others

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Bismuth nanoparticles have been obtained by laser ablation of solids in liquids. • The technique allows controlling the size and concentration of the samples. • Bi np’s in base oils can improve the tribological characteristics of the lubricant. - Abstract: The improvement of the tribological properties of mineral base oils through the addition of bismuth nanoparticles as an additive, together with the idea of obtaining lubricants free of heavy metals, was evaluated. Bismuth nanoparticles were produced directly in the heavy and light viscosity mineral base oils (BS900 and BS6500) using the technique of laser ablation of solids immersed in liquids. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the presence of pure bismuth nanoparticles. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) measurements showed that the average size of the nanoparticles was between 7 and 65 nm depending on the experimental conditions used. The tribological properties of the base oil with the bismuth nanoparticles additives were evaluated using a four-ball tester. Tests were performed using the base oil with and without Bi nanoparticles. It was observed that the coefficient of friction of the oil decrease with an increasing concentration of the nanoparticles. The results also showed that the wear rate was reduced when the Bi nanoparticle additives were used.

  17. Bismuth nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation in lubricant oils for tribological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Castañeda, M.; Camps, E.; Camacho-López, M.; Muhl, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth nanoparticles have been obtained by laser ablation of solids in liquids. • The technique allows controlling the size and concentration of the samples. • Bi np’s in base oils can improve the tribological characteristics of the lubricant. - Abstract: The improvement of the tribological properties of mineral base oils through the addition of bismuth nanoparticles as an additive, together with the idea of obtaining lubricants free of heavy metals, was evaluated. Bismuth nanoparticles were produced directly in the heavy and light viscosity mineral base oils (BS900 and BS6500) using the technique of laser ablation of solids immersed in liquids. Transmission electron microscopy measurements showed the presence of pure bismuth nanoparticles. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) measurements showed that the average size of the nanoparticles was between 7 and 65 nm depending on the experimental conditions used. The tribological properties of the base oil with the bismuth nanoparticles additives were evaluated using a four-ball tester. Tests were performed using the base oil with and without Bi nanoparticles. It was observed that the coefficient of friction of the oil decrease with an increasing concentration of the nanoparticles. The results also showed that the wear rate was reduced when the Bi nanoparticle additives were used

  18. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  19. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.; Burns, Kathryn A.; Heyward, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 μg l -1 total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 μg l -1 THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 μg l -1 and 37 μg l -1 THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 μg l -1 . - Vegetable-derived lubricants were less toxic to adult corals than their mineral counterparts

  20. Tribological Testing of Hemispherical Titanium Pin Lubricated by Novel Palm Oil: Evaluating Anti-Wear and Anti-Friction Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norzahir Sapawe; Syahrullail Samion; Mohd Izhan Ibrahim; Md Razak Daud; Azli Yahya; Muhammad Farhan Hanafi

    2017-01-01

    In this study,the properties of hip implant material and lubricants were examined using a pin on disc apparatus,to compare the effect of metal-on-metal (MoM) contact with a bio-lubricant derived from palm oil.The behaviour of the lubricants was observed during the experiments,in which a hemispherical pin was loaded against a rotating disc with a groove.A titanium alloy was used to modify the hemispherical pin and disc.Before and after the experiments,the weight and surface roughness were analysed,to detect any degradation.The results were compared according to the different kinematic viscosities.The wear rates and level of friction with each lubricant were also examined.The lubricant with the highest viscosity had the lowest frictional value.Therefore,developing suitable lubricants has the potential to prolong the lifespan of prostheses or implants used in biomedical applications.The experiments collectively show that lubricants derived from palm oil could be used as efficient bio-lubricants in the future.

  1. Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J MUSA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for renewable energy resources continues to attract attention in recent times as fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, which are been used to meet the energy needs of man are associated with negative environmental impacts such as global warming. Biodiesel offered reduced exhaust emissions, improved biodegradability, reduced toxicity and higher carotene rating which can improve performance and clean up emissions. Standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil, which includes the Density, Viscosity, flash/fire point, carbon residue, volatility and Specific Gravity were determined by chemical experimental analysis. The flash/fire points of the Heavy duty oil (SAE 40 and Light duty oil (SAE 30 is 260/300(°C and 243/290(°C respectively while the pour points of the samples are 22°C for palm kernel oil while 9°C and 21°C for SAE 40and SAE 30 respectively.

  2. The Lubrication Ability of Ionic Liquids as Additives for Wind Turbine Gearboxes Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Gutierrez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The amount of energy that can be gained from the wind is unlimited, unlike current energy sources such as fossil and coal. While there is an important push in the use of wind energy, gears and bearing components of the turbines often fail due to contact fatigue, causing costly repairs and downtime. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential tribological benefits of two phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs as additives to a synthetic lubricant without additives and to a fully formulated and commercially available wind turbine oil. In this work, AISI 52100 steel disks were tested in a ball-on-flat reciprocating tribometer against AISI 440C steel balls. Surface finish also affects the tribological properties of gear surfaces. In order to understand the combined effect of using the ILs with surface finish, two surface finishes were also used in this study. Adding ILs to the commercial available or synthetic lubricant reduced the wear scar diameter for both surface finishes. This decrease was particularly important for trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl amide, where a wear reduction of the steel disk around 20% and 23% is reached when 5 wt % of this IL is added to the commercially available lubricant and to the synthetic lubricant without additives, respectively.

  3. Influence of lubricant oil residual fraction on recycled high density polyethylene properties and plastic packaging reverse logistics proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Moraes Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To recycle post-consumer HDPE contaminated with waste lubricating oils, companies include prior washing and drying in the process. This consumes large amounts of water and energy, generates significant effluent requiring treatment. This study assesses lubricating oil influence on HDPE properties to evaluate the feasibility of its direct mechanical recycling without washing. The current lubricating oil packaging reverse logistics in Rio de Janeiro municipality is also analyzed. HDPE bottle samples were processed with seven oil contents ranging from 1.6-29.4 (wt%. The results indicated the possibility to reprocess the polymer with oily residue not exceeding 3.2%. At higher levels, the external oil lubricating action affects the plastic matrix processing in the extruder and injection, and the recycled material has a burnt oil odor and free oil on the surface. Small residual oil amounts retain the plastic properties comparable to the washed recycled polymer and exhibited benefits associated with the oil plasticizer action. However, oil presence above 7.7% significantly changes the properties and reduces the elasticity and flexural modulus and the plastic matrix crystallinity.

  4. Determination of metal traces in lubricating oils by Aas and Icp-SFMS after microwave digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez B, M. A.; Acosta L, C. E.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Lara A, N.; Kuri C, A.

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of lubricating oils allows to monitor the operating conditions of the machines and equipment, their pollution levels, degradation and finally their wear and useful life, as well as to establish a preventive lubrication program as a technical diagnostic maintenance tool. The useful life of oil is the period of functional time has in the machine until the antioxidants are consumed, producing large changes in the physical (density and viscosity) and chemical properties of the base oil, resulting in a wear of the components that make up the machine. The present work includes a theoretical as well as analytical basis for determining the content of metallic elements (Ag, Al, Cu, Fe, Mg, Sn and Zn) at trace level in used lubricating oils. A simple and rapid method of analysis is proposed, consisting mainly of the pretreatment of the sample by acidic digestion with a microwave oven. Subsequently an open digestion in a heating plate is carried out to dryness and recovered with concentrated HNO 3 . For the quantitative analysis two analytical techniques were used: flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (Aas) and magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS). In both cases, the proposed method offers a good linearity and sensitivity for each of the trace elements under study. The accuracy of the method expressed as relative standard deviation ranges from 1.4 to 2.3%. In relation to the accuracy measurement, an oil was also analyzed as a certified reference material (Conostan 500 mg/L), with the concentration of certified Mg, obtaining satisfactory results. (Author)

  5. The effect of lubricating oils on bearing fatigue-life using the Evonik RohMax pitting test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Thorsten [Evonik RohMax Additives GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A major requirement for modern driveline lubricants is the need to reduce churning losses and friction in order to deliver continual improvements in fuel efficiency. In trying to achieve this oil formulators target lower and lower viscosities, testing the limits of what is acceptable Churning loss reductions are being made by reducing the viscosity of the lubricating oil. Reduced oil viscosities can lead to reduced oil film thicknesses, especially at high operating temperatures. Thinner oil films can lead to an increase in friction, and a decrease in the fatigue-life capacity in lubricated contacts of bearings and gears in several driveline applications. Extensive fluid testing is required. Current test procedures are subject to extremely high variability, and large numbers of experiments are required to develop high confidence in the test conclusions. This publication introduces a new fatigue-life test method, which in our hands provides a clear improvement in test time, cost, and reproducibility. The test's results enable an estimation of the effect of lubricating oils on bearing fatigue-life. This is done by comparing the results to those obtained with reference oils which have also been tested in the standardized bearing tests for lubricating oils. The effects of operating parameters on test accuracy and repeatability have been studied. The parameters studied are oil temperature, contact pressure, speed and the test specimen batch. In addition to the measurement of bearing fatigue-life, the new test may also be used to study gear fatigue-life. We have used this test to investigate the lubrication oils' influence on fatigue-life in bearings and in gears. In order to extend the comparisons to gear performance the reference fluids were evaluated in standard industry test procedures used for determining gear performance, in particular the FZG test rig, thus establishing an extra insight in the fluids' performance by comparing gear test performance

  6. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Chae Hoon, E-mail: chsohn@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  8. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  9. Using thermal analysis techniques for identifying the flash point temperatures of some lubricant and base oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksam Abdelkhalik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The flash point (FP temperatures of some lubricant and base oils were measured according to ASTM D92 and ASTM D93. In addition, the thermal stability of the oils was studied using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA under nitrogen atmosphere. The DSC results showed that the FP temperatures, for each oil, were found during the first decomposition step and the temperature at the peak of the first decomposition step was usually higher than FP temperatures. The TGA results indicated that the temperature at which 17.5% weigh loss take placed (T17.5% was nearly identical with the FP temperature (±10 °C that was measured according to ASTM D92. The deviation percentage between FP and T17.5% was in the range from −0.8% to 3.6%. Keywords: Flash point, TGA, DSC

  10. Tribology of steel/steel interaction in oil-in-water emulsion; a rationale for lubricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Daniel, Jency; Biswas, S K

    2010-05-15

    Oil droplets are dispersed in water by an anionic surfactant to form an emulsion. The lubricity of this emulsion in steel/steel interaction is explored in a ball on flat nanotribometer. The droplet size and charge are measured using dynamic light scattering, while the substrate charge density is estimated using the pH titration method. These data are combined to calculate the DLVO forces for the droplets generated for a range of surfactant concentration and two oil to water volume ratios. The droplets have a clear bi-modal size distribution. The study shows that the smaller droplets which experience weak repulsion are situated (at the highest DLVO barrier) much closer to the substrate than the bigger droplets, which experience the same DLVO force, are. We suggest that the smaller droplets thus play a more important role in lubricity than what the bigger droplets do. The largest volume of such small droplets occurs in the 0.5 mM-1 mM range of surfactant concentration and 1% oil to water volume ratio, where the coefficient of friction is also observed to be the least. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of refrigerant absorption and onset of natural convection in lubricant oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jader R.; Marcelino Neto, Moises A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040900 (Brazil); Thoma, Stefan M. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Refrigerant absorption and mixing in lubricant oil are important in the design of refrigeration compressors and refrigeration systems. Experimental work is reported on absorption of R-134a vapour through the top interface of an initially stagnant layer of pure lubricant oil. Since the liquid refrigerant is heavier than the oil, mixing is enhanced due to natural mass convection. In the present paper, the behaviour of the liquid temperature during absorption is described based on measurements carried out in a test rig consisting of a transparent 70 mm ID, 150 mm long, vertical glass tube through which absorption can be directly observed. Transient liquid temperatures were measured at three different heights in the test section (two in the vapour, one in the liquid). The experimental work is complemented by a theoretical analysis of the critical time for the onset of mass transfer induced Rayleigh instability. The model is based on a critical mass transfer Rayleigh number criterion widely reported in the literature and takes into account the variation of physical properties in the liquid layer. The critical time for the onset of natural mass convection increases with decreasing system pressure as a result of a lower equilibrium concentration at the vapour-liquid interface. (author)

  12. Performance, emissions and lubricant oil analysis of diesel engine running on emulsion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasannuddin, A.K.; Wira, J.Y.; Sarah, S.; Wan Syaidatul Aqma, W.M.N.; Abdul Hadi, A.R.; Hirofumi, N.; Aizam, S.A.; Aiman, M.A.B.; Watanabe, S.; Ahmad, M.I.; Azrin, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The rate of NO x and PM reduction was lower than the rate of CO increase when using emulsion fuel. • The lubricant oil viscosity variation did not exceed the limits during the engine operation. • Emulsion fuel offers beneficial properties in terms of lower wear and friction. • Average depletions of lubricant oil additives were found at the lowest level for emulsion fuel in compared with D2. - Abstract: Emulsion fuel is one of the alternative fuels for diesel engines which are well-known for simultaneous reduction of Particulate Matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) emissions. However lack of studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of emulsion fuel usage for long run. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of lubricant oil in diesel engine that operated using emulsion fuels for 200 h in comparison with Malaysian conventional diesel fuel (D2). Two emulsion fuels were used in the experiment comprising of water, low grade diesel fuel and surfactant; with ratio of 10:89:1 v/v% (E10) and 20:79:1 v/v% (E20). Engine tests were focused on fuel consumption, NO x , PM, Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ), Oxygen (O 2 ) and exhaust temperature. Parameters for the lubricant oil analysis measured were included kinematic viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN), ash, water content, flash point, soot, wear metals and additive elements. The findings showed the fuel consumption were up to 33.33% (including water) and lower 9.57% (without water) using emulsion. The NO x and PM were reduced by 51% and 14% respectively by using emulsion fuel. Kinematic viscosity, TAN, ash, water content, flash point and soot for emulsion fuel were observed to be better or no changes in comparison to D2. The emulsion fuel did not cause any excessive amount of metals or degraded the additive. The average percentage of wear debris concentration reduction by emulsion fuel were 8.2%, 9.1%, 16.3% and 21.0% for Iron (Fe) Aluminum (Al), Copper (Cu) and

  13. On the application of reynolds theory to thermo-piezo-viscous lubrication in oil hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of fluid power motors and pumps is a subject to research, which has generated numerous publications during the last three decades. The main incentives for this research are optimization of reliability and efficiency through the study of loss and wear mechanisms, which are very....... In this paper the derivation of Reynolds equation from the continuum assumption is reviewed and it is shown that the validity of Reynolds theory based pressure field solutions in oil hydraulic thermo-piezo-viscous lubrication models are subject to maximum bounds on the pressure and temperature field gradients...

  14. Improvement of Oil-Vapor Treatment Facility for Wolsong Unit 3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Kwon, S. W.; Lee, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    With the purpose to minimize an oil-vapor discharge to the atmosphere and to be an environmentally friendly nuclear power plant by an improvement of mist eliminator for turbine lubricant system at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3,4, this project - project name : Improvement of Oil-vapor Treatment Facility for Wolsong Unit 3,4 - was conducted for six months (from Apr. 15, 2009 to Oct. 14, 2009). This Project contains Oil-vapor Source and Environmental Regulation, Analysis on the Present Oil-vapor Treatment Facility, Improvement of Oil-vapor Treatment Facility, Test Facility Design, Fabrication, Installation, Test Operation, Evaluation of the Facility

  15. The Wear Characteristics of Heat Treated Manganese Phosphate Coating Applied to AlSi D2 Steel with Oil Lubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Alankaram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, in the area of material design conversion coatings play an important role in the applications where temperature, corrosion, oxidation and wear come in to play. Wear of metals occurs when relative motion between counter-surfaces takes place, leading to physical or chemical destruction of the original top layers. In this study, the tribological behaviour of heat treated Manganese phosphate coatings on AISI D2 steel with oil lubricant was investigated. The Surface morphology of manganese phosphate coatings was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX .The wear tests were performed in a pin on disk apparatus as per ASTM G-99 Standard. The wear resistance of the coated steel was evaluated through pin on disc test using a sliding velocity of 3.0m/s under Constant loads of 40 N and 100 N with in controlled condition of temperature and humidity. The Coefficient of friction and wear rate were evaluated. Wear pattern of Manganese phosphate coated pins with oil lubricant, Heat treated Manganese phosphate coated pins with oil lubricant were captured using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The results of the wear test established that the heat treated manganese phosphate coating with oil lubricant exhibited the lowest average coefficient of friction and the lowest wear loss up to 6583 m sliding distance under 40 N load and 3000 m sliding distance even under 100 N load respectively. The Wear volume and temperature rise in heat treated Manganese Phosphate coated pins with oil lubricant is lesser than the Manganese Phosphate coated pins with oil lubricant

  16. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  17. Diagnosis of lubricating oil by evaluating cyanide and carbon molecular emission lines in laser induced breakdown spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnasharty, I. Y.; Kassem, A. K.; Sabsabi, M.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-08-01

    To prevent engine failure it is essential to change lubricating oil regularly before it loses its protective properties. It is also necessary to monitor the physical and chemical conditions of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change intervals. The present work focuses on studying evolution of the cyanide (CN) and carbon (C 2) molecular spectral emission lines in the laser induced breakdown spectra of lubricating oil as a function of its consumption. The intensities of these molecular bands have been taken as indicator of engine oil degradation at certain mileage. Furthermore, the percentage of decay of CN and C 2 integral intensity values at the corresponding mileage was calculated in order to relate it to the degree of consumption of the motor oil. Such percentage decay of the CN and C 2 integral intensities have been found to increase gradually with increasing mileage which is accompanied with increasing depletion of engine oil. The results of using LIBS technique in the present measurements proved that it is possible to have a direct, straightforward and easy method for prediction of lubricating oil degree of consumption. This may facilitate scheduling the proper time and/or mileage intervals for changing the oil to avoid any possibility of engine failure.

  18. Diagnosis of lubricating oil by evaluating cyanide and carbon molecular emission lines in laser induced breakdown spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnasharty, I.Y.; Kassem, A.K. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University (Egypt); Sabsabi, M. [National Research Council, Industrial Material Institute, Quebec (Canada); Harith, M.A., E-mail: mharithm@niles.edu.eg [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2011-08-15

    To prevent engine failure it is essential to change lubricating oil regularly before it loses its protective properties. It is also necessary to monitor the physical and chemical conditions of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change intervals. The present work focuses on studying evolution of the cyanide (CN) and carbon (C{sub 2}) molecular spectral emission lines in the laser induced breakdown spectra of lubricating oil as a function of its consumption. The intensities of these molecular bands have been taken as indicator of engine oil degradation at certain mileage. Furthermore, the percentage of decay of CN and C{sub 2} integral intensity values at the corresponding mileage was calculated in order to relate it to the degree of consumption of the motor oil. Such percentage decay of the CN and C{sub 2} integral intensities have been found to increase gradually with increasing mileage which is accompanied with increasing depletion of engine oil. The results of using LIBS technique in the present measurements proved that it is possible to have a direct, straightforward and easy method for prediction of lubricating oil degree of consumption. This may facilitate scheduling the proper time and/or mileage intervals for changing the oil to avoid any possibility of engine failure.

  19. Diagnosis of lubricating oil by evaluating cyanide and carbon molecular emission lines in laser induced breakdown spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnasharty, I.Y.; Kassem, A.K.; Sabsabi, M.; Harith, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    To prevent engine failure it is essential to change lubricating oil regularly before it loses its protective properties. It is also necessary to monitor the physical and chemical conditions of the oil to reliably determine the optimum oil-change intervals. The present work focuses on studying evolution of the cyanide (CN) and carbon (C 2 ) molecular spectral emission lines in the laser induced breakdown spectra of lubricating oil as a function of its consumption. The intensities of these molecular bands have been taken as indicator of engine oil degradation at certain mileage. Furthermore, the percentage of decay of CN and C 2 integral intensity values at the corresponding mileage was calculated in order to relate it to the degree of consumption of the motor oil. Such percentage decay of the CN and C 2 integral intensities have been found to increase gradually with increasing mileage which is accompanied with increasing depletion of engine oil. The results of using LIBS technique in the present measurements proved that it is possible to have a direct, straightforward and easy method for prediction of lubricating oil degree of consumption. This may facilitate scheduling the proper time and/or mileage intervals for changing the oil to avoid any possibility of engine failure.

  20. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Negri, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms. - Vegetable-derived lubricants were more degradable than mineral oil lubricants

  1. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Negri, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms. - Vegetable-derived lubricants were more degradable than mineral oil lubricants.

  2. Effect of lubricant oil properties on the performance of gasoline particulate filter (GPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Huifang; Lam, William; Remias, Joseph; Roos, Joseph; Seong, HeeJe; Choi, Seungmok

    2016-10-17

    Mobile source emissions standards are becoming more stringent and particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines represent a particular challenge. Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is deemed as one possible technical solution for particulate emissions reduction. In this work, a study was conducted on eight formulations of lubricants to determine their effect on GDI engine particulate emissions and GPF performance. Accelerated ash loading tests were conducted on a 2.4L GDI engine with engine oil injection in gasoline fuel by 2%. The matrix of eight formulations was designed with changing levels of sulfated ash (SASH) level, Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) level and detergent type. Comprehensive evaluations of particulates included mass, number, size distribution, composition, morphology and soot oxidation properties. GPF performance was assessed through filtration efficiency, back pressure and morphology. It was determined that oil formulation affects the particulate emission characteristics and subsequent GPF performance.

  3. An approach to calculating metal particle detection in lubrication oil based on a micro inductive sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Zhang, Hongpeng

    2017-12-01

    A new microfluidic chip is presented to enhance the sensitivity of a micro inductive sensor, and an approach to coil inductance change calculation is introduced for metal particle detection in lubrication oil. Electromagnetic knowledge is used to establish a mathematical model of an inductive sensor for metal particle detection, and the analytic expression of coil inductance change is obtained by a magnetic vector potential. Experimental verification is carried out. The results show that copper particles 50-52 µm in diameter have been detected; the relative errors between the theoretical and experimental values are 7.68% and 10.02% at particle diameters of 108-110 µm and 50-52 µm, respectively. The approach presented here can provide a theoretical basis for an inductive sensor in metal particle detection in oil and other areas of application.

  4. Solvent extraction of base oil from used lubricant oil: a study on the performance of zeolite adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Lee Ping; Rosli Mohd Yunus; Adnan Ripin

    2001-01-01

    Solvent extraction is known as one of the potential techniques for recycling used lubricant oil. The recovered oil is identical to the virgin oil, but the oil maintains its darkish color and some odor. This paper is to study the performance of zeolite in removing color and odor. A part from the study, factorial design analysis indicated that the concentration of zeolite exerts to be the most influenced on the adsorption process in which the increase of zeolite concentration resulted in an average increase of 2.22% adsorption response. The number of contact stage appeared to be the second most influential effects, which brought an average increase of 1.38% adsorption response. Further more, it was found that the interaction between the concentration of zeolite and the number of contact stage was the most significant of all interactions under study, at 2.71%. Thus, the additions of 10 g zeolite in 50 ml base oil of 3 rd stage color removal produces the best color removal from the recovered base oil. (Author)

  5. Effect of surface finishing on friction and wear of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK under oil lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fontoura de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract The tribological properties of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK containing 30% of carbon fiber were studied in an oil-lubricated environment and different surface finishing of the metallic counterbody. Four different finishing processes, commonly used in the automotive industry, were chosen for this study: turning, grinding, honing and polishing. The test system used was tri-pin on disc with pins made of PEEK and counterbody made of steel; they were fully immersed in ATF Dexron VI oil. Some test parameters were held constant, such as the apparent pressure of 2 MPa, linear velocity of 2 m/s, oil temperature at 85 °C, and the time - 120 minutes. The lubrication regime for the apparent pressure of 1 MPa to 7 MPa range was also studied at different sliding speeds. A direct correlation was found between the wear rate, friction coefficient and the lubrication regime, wherein wear under hydrodynamic lubrication was, on average, approximately 5 times lower, and the friction coefficient 3 times lower than under boundary lubrication.

  6. Coated carbide drill performance under soluble coconut oil lubricant and nanoparticle enhanced MQL in drilling AISI P20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, N. A. M.; Azmi, A. I.; Fairuz, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    This research experimentally investigates the performance of a TiAlN coated carbide drill bit in drilling AISI P20 through two different kinds of lubricants, namely; soluble coconut oil (SCO) and nanoparticle-enhanced coconut oil (NECO) under minimum quantity lubrication system. The tool life and tool wear mechanism were studied using various cutting speeds of 50, 100 and 150 m/min with a constant feed of 0.01 mm/rev. Since the flank wear land was not regular along the cutting edge, the average flank wear (VB) was measured at several points using image analysis software. The drills were inspected using a scanning electron microscope to further elucidate the wear mechanism. The result indicates that drilling with the nanoparticle- enhanced lubricant was better in resisting the wear and improving the drill life to some extent

  7. Rheology of oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Oleogels based on sorbitan and glyceryl monostearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleogels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS. The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleogels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleogels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleogels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleogels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability.

    En el presente trabajo se han estudiado diferentes oleogeles, basados en monoestearatos de sorbitano y glicerilo y aceites vegetales, que podrían ser potencialmente empleados como alternativas biodegradables a las grasas lubricantes tradicionales. En concreto, se ha evaluado su comportamiento reológico, a través de ensayos en cizalla oscilatoria, y algunas propiedades relacionadas con su rendimiento en la lubricación, tales como su estabilidad mecánica y comportamiento tribológico. La respuesta reológica y la estabilidad mecánica de los oleogeles estudiados están significativamente influenciadas por el tipo y la concentración del agente gelificante y por el aceite vegetal empleado. As

  8. Experimental evidence of the thermal effect of lubricating oil sprayed in sliding-vane air compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Valenti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A way to increase the efficiency of positive-displacement air compressor is spraying the lube oil to exploit it not only as lubricating and sealing agent but also as thermal ballast. This work seeks the experimental evidence in sliding-vane compressors by measuring the air standard volume flow rate and the electrical power input of three diverse configurations. The first configuration, taken as the reference, employs a conventional injection system comprising calibrated straight orifices. The other two, referred to as advanced, adopt smaller orifices and pressure-swirl full-cone nozzles designed for the purpose; the third configuration utilizes a pump to boost the oil pressure. The laser imagining technique shows that the nozzles generate sprays that break-up within a short distance into spherical droplets, ligaments, ramifications and undefined structures. Tests on the packaged compressors reveal that the advanced configurations provide almost the same air flow rate while utilizing half of the oil because the sprays generate a good sealing. Moreover, the sprayed oil is acting as a thermal ballast because the electrical input is reduced by 3.5% and 3.0%, respectively, if the pump is present or not , while the specific energy requirement, accounting for the slightly reduced air flow, by 2.4% and 2.9%, respectively.

  9. Tribological Behavior of Oil-Lubricated Laser Textured Steel Surfaces in Conformal Flat and Non-Conformal Contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchenko, A. M. [Inst. for Problems of Materials Science, Dept. 7, 3 Krzhizhanovsky Street, Kyiv 03142, UA (Corresponding author), e-mail: andrii.kovalchenko@gatech.edu; Erdemir, A. [Argonne National Lab., Energy Systems Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 US; Ajayi, O. O. [Argonne National Lab., Energy Systems Division, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 US; Etsion, I. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Haifa 32000, IL

    2017-01-30

    Changing the surface texture of sliding surfaces is an effective way to manipulate friction and wear of lubricated surfaces. Having realized its potential, we have done very extensive studies on the effects of laser surface texturing (LST, which involves the creation of an array of microdimples on a surface) on friction and wear behavior of oil-lubricated steel surfaces in the early 2000s. In this paper, we reviewed some of our research accomplishments and assessed future directions of the laser texturing field in many diverse industrial applications. Our studies specifically addressed the impact of laser texturing on friction and wear of both the flat conformal and initial non-conformal point contact configurations using a pin-on-disk test rig under fully-flooded synthetic oil lubricants with different viscosities. Electrical resistance measurement between pin and LST disks was also used to determine the operating lubrication regimes in relation to friction. In conformal contact, we confirmed that LST could significantly expand the operating conditions for hydrodynamic lubrication to significantly much higher loads and slower speeds. In particular, with LST and higher viscosity oils, the low-friction full hydrodynamic regime was shifted to the far left in the Stribeck diagram. Overall, the beneficial effects of laser surface texturing were more pronounced at higher speeds and loads and with higher viscosity oil. LST was also observed to reduce the magnitude of friction coefficients in the boundary regime. For the non-conformal contact configuration, we determined that LST would produce more abrasive wear on the rubbing counterface compared to the untreated surfaces due to a reduction in lubricant fluid film thickness, as well as the highly uneven and rough nature of the textured surfaces. However, this higher initial wear rate has led to faster generation of a conformal contact, and thus transition from the high-friction boundary to lower friction mixed

  10. Study of the Sensor for On-line Lubricating Oil Debris Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Zhan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical parts such as gears and bearings used in mechanical equipment have a finite lifetime because of corrosion and wear. If the parts are in abnormal operation and is not detected, it may cause catastrophic component failure during operation. One effective approach to detect signs of potential failure of the mechanical equipment is to examine the debris particles in its lubricating oil. This article presented an inductive debris sensor which is designed on the basis of the principle of inductance balance. The structure design and the principle of it are studied. The intensity distribution of its magnetic induction is simulated by the use of simulation software Ansoft Maxwell. The mathematical model when there is a debris particle passing through the sensor is analyzed and the characteristics of the sensor’s induction signal is gotten. Experiments have shown that debris particles can be detected by this sensor.

  11. Effect of surfactant on single drop mass transfer for extraction of aromatics from lubricating oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izza, H.; Ben Abdessalam, S.; Korichi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Solvent extraction is an effective method for the reduction of the content of aromatic of lubricating oil. Frequently, with phenol, furfural, the NMP (out of N-methyl pyrrolidone). The power solvent and the selectivity can be still to increase while using surfactant as additive which facilitates the separation of phase and increases the yeild in raffinat. Liquid-liquid mass transfer coefficients for single freely rising drops in the presence of surfactant in an extraction column have been investigated. The surfactant used in this study was sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES). The experiments were performed by bubbling a solvent as a series of individual drops from the top of the column containing furfural-SLES solution. The column used in this experiment was made from glass with 17 mm inner diameter and a capacity of 125ml. The effects of the concentration of surfactant on the overall coefficient of mass transfer was investigated.

  12. Assessment of the bacterial community of soils contaminated with used lubricating oil by PCR-DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruemon Meeboon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of indigenous bacteria in three soils contaminated with used lubricating oil (ULO was determined and compared using molecular analysis of bacteria cultured during the enrichment process. Sequencing analyses demonstrated that the majority of the DGGE bands in enrichment cultures were affiliated with four phyla of the domain, Bacteria: α, β, γ- Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Soil C had a higher ULO contamination level than soil A and B, which may explain why enrichment culture C had the greatest diversity of bacteria, but further studies would be needed to determine whether ULO concentration results in higher diversity of ULO-degraders in soils. The diversity of ULO-degraders detected in these three different soils suggests that biostimulation methods for increasing the activity of indigenous microorganisms may be a viable approach to bioremediation, and that future studies to determine how to increase their activity in situ are warranted.

  13. Acute, subchronic, and developmental toxicological properties of lubricating oil base stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbey, Walden E; McKee, Richard H; Goyak, Katy Olsavsky; Biles, Robert W; Murray, Jay; White, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Lubricating oil base stocks (LOBs) are substances used in the manufacture of finished lubricants and greases. They are produced from residue remaining after atmospheric distillation of crude oil that is subsequently fractionated by vacuum distillation and additional refining steps. Initial LOB streams that have been produced by vacuum distillation but not further refined may contain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and may present carcinogenic hazards. In modern refineries, LOBs are further refined by multistep processes including solvent extraction and/or hydrogen treatment to reduce the levels of PACs and other undesirable constituents. Thus, mildly (insufficiently) refined LOBs are potentially more hazardous than more severely (sufficiently) refined LOBs. This article discusses the evaluation of LOBs using statistical models based on content of PACs; these models indicate that insufficiently refined LOBs (potentially carcinogenic LOBs) can also produce systemic and developmental effects with repeated dermal exposure. Experimental data were also obtained in ten 13-week dermal studies in rats, eight 4-week dermal studies in rabbits, and seven dermal developmental toxicity studies with sufficiently refined LOBs (noncarcinogenic and commonly marketed) in which no observed adverse effect levels for systemic toxicity and developmental toxicity were 1000 to 2000 mg/kg/d with dermal exposures, typically the highest dose tested. Results in both oral and inhalation developmental toxicity studies were similar. This absence of toxicologically relevant findings was consistent with lower PAC content of sufficiently refined LOBs. Based on data on reproductive organs with repeated dosing and parameters in developmental toxicity studies, sufficiently refined LOBs are likely to have little, if any, effect on reproductive parameters.

  14. Thermal effect of lubricating oil in positive-displacement air compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, Gianluca; Colombo, Luigi; Murgia, Stefano; Lucchini, Andrea; Sampietro, Andrea; Capoferri, Andrea; Araneo, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    The isentropic efficiency of positive-displacement compressors may be improved in order to follow an increasing demand for energy savings. This work analyzes the thermal effect of the lubricating oil presence in the air during compression with the scope of exploiting it as a thermal ballast to mitigate both the gas temperature rise and its compression work. The bibliographic review shows that other authors suggested that oil can have positive effects if properly injected. Here an energy balance analysis is executed with the scope of deriving relations for the gas–liquid compression in analogy with those typical for the gas-only compression and of confirming that ideally the liquid presence may have beneficial effects, making the gas–liquid compression even better than 1- and 2-time intercooled gas compressions. Given these positive results, a heat transfer analysis is conducted to model the thermal interaction between gas and oil droplets within a mid-size rotary vane air compressor. A droplet diameter of the order of 100 μm leads to large reductions of both temperature increase and compression work: air can exit the discharge port at a temperature as low as 60 °C and compression work can be lowered by 23–28% with respect to conventional compressors. Finally, a test rig is constructed and operated to investigate a large-flow and large-angle oil nozzle taken from the market showing that, at the operating conditions of a compressor, oil breaks up into small droplets and undefined structures with large exchange surfaces. -- Highlights: ► Exploitation of thermal effect of oil in gas compressors is assessed numerically. ► Oil in 100 μm-diameter droplets mitigates effectively the gas temperature rise. ► Discharge temperature and compression work result to be much smaller than typical. ► An experimental setup is used to investigate oil atomization via commercial nozzles. ► A tested nozzle creates fine oil droplets and structures at conditions of

  15. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A; Arpiainen, V; McKeough, P; Tapola, E; Haekkinen, R; Kuoppala, E; Koskela, K [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  16. Uppgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by-product of kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50% of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  17. Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy based on phosphorous and boron compounds in oil-in-water emulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, J.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, T.; van der Heide, Emile

    2014-01-01

    Emulsion lubrication is widely used in metal forming operations and has potential applications in the biomedical field, yet the emulsion lubrication mechanism is not well understood. This work explores the possibilities of three different oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing dibutyl

  18. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  19. Bio-lubricants derived from waste cooking oil with improved oxidation stability and low-temperature properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Wang, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) was chemically modified via epoxidation using H2O2 followed by transesterification with methanol and branched alcohols (isooctanol, isotridecanol and isooctadecanol) to produce bio-lubricants with improved oxidative stability and low temperature properties. Physicochemical properties of synthesized bio-lubricants such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), viscosity, viscosity index (VI), oxidative stability, and corrosion resistant property were determined according to standard methods. The synthesized bio-lubricants showed improved low temperature flow performances compared with WCO, which can be attributing to the introduction of branched chains in their molecular structures. What's more, the oxidation stability of the WCO showed more than 10 folds improvement due to the elimination of -C=C-bonds in the WCO molecule. Tribological performances of these bio-lubricants were also investigated using four-ball friction and wear tester. Experimental results showed that derivatives of WCO exhibited favorable physicochemical properties and tribological performances which making them good candidates in formulating eco-friendly lubricants.

  20. Multi-element analysis of lubricant oil by WDXRF technique using thin-film sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, M. A.; Salvador, V. L. R.; Lopes, C. D.; Sato, I. M.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of the chemical elements in matrices like oils or gels represents a challenge for the analytical chemists. The classics methods or instrumental techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) need chemical treatments, mainly sample dissolution and degradation processes. X-ray fluorescence technique allows a direct and multi-element analysis without previous sample treatments. In this work, a sensible method for the determination of elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Sn, Ba and Pb in lubricating oil is presented. The x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) technique using linear regression method and thin film sample preparation was used. The validation of the methodology (repeatability and accuracy) was obtained by the analysis of the standard reference materials SRM Alpha AESAR lot 703527D, applying the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests. The method presents a relative standard deviation lower than 10% for all the elements, except for Pb determination (RSD Pb 15%). The Z-score values for all the elements were in the range -2 < Z < 2, indicating a very good accuracy.(Full text)

  1. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%.

  2. Rheology of oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and vegetable oils for lubricating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Franco, J. M.; Delgado, M. A.; Valencia, C.; Gallegos, C.

    2011-07-01

    Oleo gels based on sorbitan and glyceryl mono stearates and different types of vegetable oils, potentially applicable as biodegradable alternatives to traditional lubricating greases, have been studied. In particular, the rheological behavior, by means of small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) measurements, and some lubrication performance-related properties (mechanical stability and tribological response) have been evaluated in this work. SAOS response and mechanical stability of these oleo gels are significantly influenced by the type and concentration of the organogelator and the vegetable oil used in the formulations. Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) generally produces stronger gels than sorbitan monostearate (SMS). The use of low-viscosity oils, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, yields gels with significantly higher values of the linear viscoelastic functions than oleo gels prepared with high-viscosity oils, i.e. castor oil. The rheological behavior of SMS-based oleo gels also depends on the cooling rate applied during the gelification process. On the other hand, the oleo gels studied present low values of the friction coefficient obtained in a tribological contact, although only some GMS/castor oil-based oleo gels exhibit a suitable mechanical stability. (Author) 28 refs.

  3. Towards green lubrication in machining

    CERN Document Server

    Liew Yun Hsien, Willey

    2014-01-01

    The book gives an overview of environmental friendly gaseous and vapour, refrigerated compressed gas, solid lubricant, mist lubrication, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and vegetable oils that can be used as lubricants and additives in industrial machining applications. This book introduces vegetable oils as viable and good alternative resources because of their environmental friendly, non-toxic and readily biodegradable nature.  The effectiveness of various types of vegetables oils as lubricants and additives in reducing wear and friction is discussed in this book. Engineers and scientist working in the field of lubrication and machining will find this book useful.

  4. Lubrication fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Pirro, DM

    2001-01-01

    This work discusses product basics, machine elements that require lubrication, methods of application, lubricant storage and handling, and lubricant conservation. This edition emphasizes the need for lubrication and careful lubricant selection.

  5. Thumba (Citrullus colocynthis L. seed oil: a potential bio-lubricant base-stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakar, K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thumba seed oil, a minor, renewable tree borne oil, was exploited for the preparation of biolubricant base-stocks. The different base-stocks prepared were epoxy thumba oil (ETO, branched, 2-ethylhexyl ester (T2-EtHE, and polyol esters, namely, neopentyl glycol (TNPGE, trimethylolpropane (TTMPE and pentaerythritol (TPEE esters of thumba fatty acids. All the base-stocks were thoroughly characterized using spectral techniques. When evaluated for lubricant properties, ETO showed much higher viscosity (216.9 cSt, good oxidative stability (RBOT Method, ASTM D 2272 (20 min and weld load (ASTM IP 239 (180 kg behavior when compared to the branched and polyol esters. Polyol esters, T2-EtHE, TNPGE and TTMPE (−9 to −18 °C showed low pour points compared to ETO and TPEE. The thermal stabilities (Thermo gravimetric analysis, TGA of ETO and TPEE (425 °C were higher compared to other base-stocks. The lubricant properties of ETO matched well with ISO VG 220 and Aviation Grade 100 lubricant specifications, while polyol esters can be well exploited for hydraulic and metal working fluid applications.Las semillas de thumba producen un aceite de escasa importancia que ha sido explotado como base para la preparación de biolubricantes. Los diferentes derivados de thumba preparados fueron: éteres epoxi (ETO, éteres ramificados, éster de 2-etilhexilo (T2-ETHE, y los ésteres de poliol:, neopentil glicol (TNPGE, trimetilolpropano (TTMPE y pentaeritritol (TPEE. Todas las bases se caracterizaron en su totalidad utilizando técnicas espectrales. Cuando se evaluaron las propiedades del lubricante, ETO mostró una viscosidad mucho más alta (216,9 cSt, buena estabilidad a la oxidación (RBOT Método, ASTM D 2272 (20 min y buena carga (239 ASTM IP (180 kg en comparación con el comportamiento de los ésteres de poliol y los ramificados. Los ésteres de poliol, T2-EEl, TNPGE y TTMPE (−9 a −18 °C mostraron bajos puntos de fluidez en comparación con ETO y TPE. Las

  6. Tribological Effects of Mineral-Oil Lubricant Contamination with Biofuels: A Pin-on-Disk Tribometry and Wear Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shanta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of biodiesel produces engine oil dilution because of unburned biodiesel impinging on cold walls of the combustion chamber, being scrapped to the oil pan, and leading to changes of oil friction, wear and lubricity properties. In this paper, mixtures of SAE 15W-40 oil, which were contaminated by known percentages of the biodiesels from canola oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and chicken fat, were tested in a pin-on-disk tribometer. A contact was employed of AISI 1018 steel disk and AISI 316 stainless-steel ball for pin material, and friction force and specific wear were measured. Wear on the disk surfaces showed that any degree of mineral-oil dilution by the tested biodiesels reduces the wear protection of engine oil even at small mixture percentages. However, these reductions were not substantially different than those observed for same percentages of dilution of mineral oil by fossil diesel. The tested mixture of oil contaminated with animal fat feedstock (e.g., chicken fat biodiesel showed the best wear behavior as compared to those for the other tested mixtures (of mineral oil with vegetable feedstock biodiesel dilutions. Obtained results are discussed as baseline for further studies in a renewable energy multidisciplinary approach on biofuels and biolubes.

  7. Characterization of the lubricity of bio-oil/diesel fuel blends by high frequency reciprocating test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yufu; Wang, Qiongjie; Hu, Xianguo; Li, Chuan; Zhu, Xifeng

    2010-01-01

    The diesel fuel was mixed with the rice husk bio-oil using some emulsifiers based on the theory of Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB). The lubricity of the bio-oil/diesel fuel blend was studied on a High Frequency Reciprocating Test Rig (HFRR) according to ASTM D 6079-2004. The microscopic topography and chemical composition on the worn surface were analyzed respectively using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The profile and surface roughness of the rubbed trace were measured using a profilometer. The chemical group and composition were studied by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The results showed that the lubrication ability of the present fuel blend was better than that of the Chinese conventional diesel fuel (number zero). However, the anti-corrosion and anti-wear properties of the fuel blend were not satisfactory in comparison with those of conventional diesel fuel.

  8. Comparison of different lubricating oil pump systems for combustion engines. Vergleich verschiedener Schmieroelpumpen-Systeme bei Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, S; Haerle, C; Schreiber, B

    1994-10-01

    The present day and future legislative requirements with regard to fuel consumption and improvement of emission values are forcing the automotive industry to continually improve its technology. However, the investments made in such technical innovations should be set-off by the results. The lubricating oil pump can make an important contribution with optimum design and through the choice of the most adequate pump system. Over the last 17 years, SHW has worked very closely with the automotive industry on the development of lubricating oil pumps. One of the results of this research work is a Suction Regulated Pump (SRP) which distinguishes itself from conventional pumps through its lower drive power. We will proceed to explain this pump system, comparing it with the present day pump systems. (orig.)

  9. Effect of lubricant oil additive on size distribution, morphology, and nanostructure of diesel particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuesen; Liang, Xingyu; Shu, Gequn; Wang, Xiangxiang; Sun, Xiuxiu; Liu, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pour point depressant (PPD) has great impact on particulate matters. • The number of nanoparticles increases sharply after PPD is added. • Ambiguous boundaries can be found when the PPD additive was added. • PPD changes the size distribution into bimodal logarithmic. • Three nanostructure parameters are changed greatly by PPD. - Abstract: Effects of lubricant oil additive on the characterization of particles from a four-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine were investigated. Neat diesel and blended fuel containing oil pour point depressant (PPD) additive were chosen as the test fuels. Effects of different fuels on size distribution, morphology, and nanostructure of the diesel particles were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) were employed to study the morphology and nanostructure parameters. Particle size distribution was measured by fast particulate spectrometer (DMS 500). According to the experimental results, distribution of the primary particles size of the two fuels conforms to Gaussian distribution, whereas the mean diameter of blended fuel is larger than that of neat diesel at 1200 rpm, which is contrarily smaller at 2400 rpm. Besides, fractal dimension (D f ) of aggregates increases close to 2 (D f = 1.991), indicating that the structure became compacter with adding PPD. As to the nanostructure parameters of the blended fuel particles, the layer fringe length decreases from 1.191 nm to 1.064 nm, while both the separation distance and tortuosity increase. The changes in the nanostructure parameters indicate that the particles are more ordered and compressed with burning pure diesel. Results of blended fuel from DMS show that more particles, particularly nucleation mode particles, were discharged. In addition, its size distribution become bimodal logarithmic at 2400 rpm. All these results can provide new information of the effects of oil PPD additive on the formation and characterization of

  10. Use of multivariate statistical tool for data processing in the analysis of Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mo and Mg in lubricating oil by LIBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Luana F.N.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Bordon, Isabela C.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of industrial lubricants is widely used for monitoring and predicting maintenance requirements in a broad range of mechanical systems. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy has been used to evaluate the potentiality of the technique for the determination of metals in lubricating oils. Prior to quantitative analysis, the LIBS system was calibrated using standard samples containing the elements investigated (Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mo and Mg). This study presents the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques for evaluation and interpretation of large complex data sets in order to get more information about concentration of metals in oils lubricants is related to engine wear. (author)

  11. Removal of cobalt from lubricant oil by the use of bentonite: equilibrium, kinetic and adsorption preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Seles, Sandro R.N.; Ladeira, Ana Cláudia Queiroz, E-mail: vc@cdtn.br, E-mail: seless@cdtn.br, E-mail: acql@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Radionuclides may contaminate lubricant oils in nuclear power plants. In Brazil, this kind of waste has been stored in the generator's facilities, awaiting treatment alternatives. This work intends to investigate a process to treat it for final deposition, using bentonite as sorbent material. This process will result in decontaminated oil, free from radiological control, and radioactive loaded sorbent, with considerable volume reduction of the radioactive waste. The study focuses in cobalt removal from a simulated oil waste (non-active). The production of the simulated waste is described. Bentonite was used for equilibrium time determination, kinetic and adsorption studies. Cobalt adsorption equilibrium was rapidly attained after 30 minutes. The data was used for modelling the system's kinetic, applying the pseudo first and pseudo second order equation models. Experimental data fitted to pseudo second order model, supporting the assumption that the adsorption is due to chemisorption. Batch sorption tests were conducted and the results fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich sorption models. Both isotherm models chosen for this work did not fit to the experimental data. Thus, these are preliminary results and the studies must be repeated to evaluate data variability and better statistical inference. Other isotherm models must be evaluated to choose the best fitted one and describe the sorption of cobalt on bentonite in oil matrix. Even though, bentonite has considerable potential as sorbent for the removal of cobalt from lubricant oil. Finally, the results might be extended to other kinds of radioactive oils and radioactive organic wastes. (author)

  12. Simulated aging of lubricant oils by chemometric treatment of infrared spectra: potential antioxidant properties of sulfur structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Sandrine; Braham, Zeineb; Le Dréau, Yveline; Kister, Jacky; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2013-03-30

    Lubricant oils are complex mixtures of base oils and additives. The evolution of their performance over time strongly depends on its resistance to thermal oxidation. Sulfur compounds revealed interesting antioxidant properties. This study presents a method to evaluate the lubricant oil oxidation. Two samples, a synthetic and a paraffinic base oils, were tested pure and supplemented with seven different sulfur compounds. An aging cell adapted to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectrometer allows the continuous and direct analysis of the oxidative aging of base oils. Two approaches were applied to study the oxidation/anti-oxidation phenomena. The first one leads to define a new oxidative spectroscopic index based on a reduced spectral range where the modifications have been noticed (from 3050 to 2750 cm(-1)). The second method is based on chemometric treatments of whole spectra (from 4000 to 400 cm(-1)) to extract underlying information. A SIMPLe-to-use Interactive Self Modeling Analysis (SIMPLISMA) method has been used to identify more precisely the chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment and to follow their evolution. Pure spectra of different species present in oil were obtained without prior information of their existence. The interest of this tool is to supply relative quantitative information reflecting evolution of the relative abundance of the different products over thermal aging. Results obtained by these two ways have been compared to estimate their concordance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg{sup -1} and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg{sup -1}, the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant {>=}2 mg kg{sup -1}. There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. - Vegetable-based lubricating oils appear to cause a tropical fish species less stress than mineral oils.

  14. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg -1 and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg -1 , the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant ≥2 mg kg -1 . There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. - Vegetable-based lubricating oils appear to cause a tropical fish species less stress than mineral oils

  15. Integrated Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for forensic engine lubricating oil and biodiesel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, D.

    2009-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS) is commonly used for oil fingerprinting and provides investigators with good forensic data. However, new challenges face oil spill forensic chemistry with the growing use of biodiesel as well as the recycling and reprocessing of used oil, particularly lubricating oils. This paper demonstrated that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy may be a fast, cost effective and complementary method for forensic analysis of biodiesels (fatty acid methyl esters) and lubricating oils. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy was shown to be an interesting analytic method because of its use in monitoring and quantifying minor chemical compounds in sample matrices and its ability to identify a broad range or organic compounds. Unlike chromatography, FTIR spectroscopy with ATR can provide results without compound separation or lengthy sample preparation steps. This study described the combined use of GC and ATR-FTIR in environmental oil spill identification through the matching of source lube oil samples with artificially weathered samples. Samples recovered from a biodiesel spill incident were also investigated. ATR-FTIR provided detailed spectral information for rapid lube oil differentiation. This study was part of a continuing effort to develop a methodology to deal with chemical spills of unknown origin, which is an important aspect in environmental protection and emergency preparedness. This method was only successfully applied to the short term artificially weathered and fresh lube oil characterization, and to limited cases of biodiesel spills. It was concluded that further validation tests are needed to determine if this method can be applied to real-world weather lube oil samples. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Tribological Properties of Surface-Textured and Plasma-Nitrided Pure Titanium Under Oil Lubrication Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baosen; Dong, Qiangsheng; Ba, Zhixin; Wang, Zhangzhong; Shi, Hancheng; Xue, Yanting

    2018-01-01

    Plasma nitriding was conducted as post-treatment for surface texture on pure titanium to obtain a continuous nitriding layer. Supersonic fine particles bombarding (SFPB) was carried out to prepare surface texture. The surface morphologies and chemical composition were analyzed using scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscopy. The microstructures of modified layers were characterized by transmission electron microscope. The tribological properties of surface-textured and duplex-treated pure titanium under oil lubrication condition were systematically investigated in the ball-on-plate reciprocating mode. The effects of applied load and sliding velocity on the tribological behavior were analyzed. The results show that after duplex treatments, the grains size in modified layer becomes slightly larger, and hardness is obviously improved. Wear resistance of duplex-treated pure titanium is significantly improved referenced to untreated and surface-textured pure titanium, which is 3.22 times as much as untreated pure titanium and 2.15 times of that for surface-textured pure titanium, respectively.

  17. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms.

  18. Changes in bacterial diversity associated with bioremediation of used lubricating oil in tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeboon, Naruemon; Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Kaewsuwan, Sireewan; Maneerat, Suppasil; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2017-08-01

    Used lubricating oil (ULO) is a widespread contaminant, particularly throughout tropical regions, and may be a candidate for bioremediation. However, little is known about the biodegradation potential or basic microbial ecology of ULO-contaminated soils. This study aims to determine the effects of used ULO on bacterial community structure and diversity. Using a combination of culture-based (agar plate counts) and molecular techniques (16S rRNA gene sequencing and DGGE), we investigated changes in soil bacterial communities from three different ULO-contaminated soils collected from motorcycle mechanical workshops (soil A, B, and C). We further explored the relationship between bacterial community structure, physiochemical soil parameters, and ULO composition in three ULO-contaminated soils. Results indicated that the three investigated soils had different community structures, which may be a result of the different ULO characteristics and physiochemical soil parameters of each site. Soil C had the highest ULO concentration and also the greatest diversity and richness of bacteria, which may be a result of higher nutrient retention, organic matter and cation exchange capacity, as well as freshness of oil compared to the other soils. In soils A and B, Proteobacteria (esp. Gammaproteobacteria) dominated the bacterial community, and in soil C, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes dominated. The genus Enterobacter, a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria, is known to include ULO-degraders, and this genus was the only one found in all three soils, suggesting that it could play a key role in the in situ degradation of ULO-contaminated tropical Thai soils. This study provides insights into our understanding of soil microbial richness, diversity, composition, and structure in tropical ULO-contaminated soils, and may be useful for the development of strategies to improve bioremediation.

  19. Corrosion protection of steel by thin coatings of starch-oil dry lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrosion of materials is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. Dry lubricants reduce friction between two metal surfaces. This research investigated the inhibition of corrosive behavior a dry lubricant formulation consisting of jet-cooked corn starch and soyb...

  20. Assessment of gamma radiolytic degradation in waste lubricating oil by GC/MS and UV/VIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapin, Marcos A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.; Sato, Ivone M.

    2009-07-01

    The hydrocarbons degradation by gamma irradiation of the waste automotive lubricating oil at different absorbed doses has was investigated. The waste automotive oil in a Brazilian oil recycling company was collected. This sample was fractioned and 50% and 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water were added. Each sample was irradiated with 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses using a gamma source Co-60—GAMMACELL type, with 5×10 3 Ci total activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify degraded organic compounds. The mass spectra were analyzed using the mass spectral library from NIST, installed in the spectrometer. The sample irradiated at 500 kGy dose with 70% (v/v) Milli-Q water addition formed eight degradation products, namely diethanolmethylamine (C 5H 13NO), diethyldiethylene glycol (C 8H 18O 3), 1-octyn-3-ol, 4-ethyl (C 10H 18O) and 1.4-pentanediamine, N1, N1-diethyl (C 9H 22N 2). The color changing of the waste lubricating oil, for different absorbed doses, was determined by UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The related sample showed the lowest absorbance value evidencing the formation of 2-ethoxyethyl ether (C 8H 18O 3) compound.

  1. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhaumik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to carry out a comparative experimental analysis of tribological properties of 372cSt mineral oil and 229cSt castor oil. The antiwear and extreme pressure properties of both the oils have been analysed according to ASTM G 99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. The surfaces of the balls and pins after tribo tests have been analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images. The present test results predict that the antiwear and extreme pressure properties in case of the selected commercially available mineral oil are better than neat castor oil. Both coefficient of friction and frictional force increased by 16-42 % and 16-35 % respectively in case of neat castor oil as compared with that of the mineral oil. The load carrying capacity in case of mineral oil has been found to be 250 kg while in case of castor oil it has been found to be 126 kg. SEM images show a higher plastic deformation in case of castor oil as compared to the mineral oil. Both mineral oil and castor oil showed surface deteriorations and increase in roughness after 40 hrs of intermittent running during scuffing test. Thus, the present investigation indicates that the tribological properties of neat castor are inferior to that of mineral oil although close observation of the results shows that both AW and EP properties of neat castor oil are much closer to that of commercial mineral oil. Thus, the present work would help in formulating castor oil based new bio lubricants with better anti wear and extreme pressure properties

  3. Prediction method for the lubricating oil temperature of manual transaxle; Manual transaxle no yuon yosoku simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iritani, M; Kaneda, K; Ibaraki, K [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Suzuki, K; Morita, Y [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Heat transfer and flow characteristics in manual transaxle (MT) are not clear. The measurement of the heat flux and the heat generations and the flow visualization were conducted for quantitative analysis of the heat transfer phenomena in the MT. A simulating technique for the lubricant temperature was developed with these experimental data and the prediction accuracy was within 3degC under the various operating conditions. The simulation was verified to be useful for estimating the lubricant temperature reduction by the lubricant volume reduction, air flow improvement around MT, etc. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  4. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  5. Modeling the lubrication, dynamics, and effects of piston dynamic tilt of twin-land oil control rings in internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, T.; Wong, V.W.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to study the lubrication, friction, dynamics, and oil transport of twin-land oil control rings (TLOCR) in internal combustion engines. A mixed lubrication model with consideration of shear-thinning effects of multigrade oils was used to describe the lubrication between the running surfaces of the two lands and the liner. Oil squeezing and asperity contact were both considered for the interaction between the flanks of the TLOCR and the ring groove. Then, the moments and axial forces from TLOCR/liner lubrication and TLOCR/groove interaction were coupled into the dynamic equations of the TLOCR. Furthermore, effects of piston dynamic tilt were considered in a quasi three-dimensional manner so that the behaviors of the TLOCR at different circumferential location could be studied. As a first step, variation of the third land pressure was neglected. The model predictions were illustrated via an SI engine. One important finding is that around thrust and anti-thrust sides, the difference between the minimum oil film thickness of two lands can be as high as several micrometers due to piston dynamic tilt. As a result, at thrust and anti-thrust sides, significant oil can pass under one land of the TLOCR along the bore, although the other land perfectly seals the bore. Then, the capabilities of the model were further explained by studying the effects of ring tension and torsional resistance on the lubrication and oil transport between the lands and the liner. The effects of oil film thickness on the flanks of the ring groove on the dynamics of the TLOCR were also studied. Friction results show that boundary lubrication contributes significantly to the total friction of the TLOCR.

  6. The influence oil film lubrication of the piston-cylinder dynamic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tokar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical study of the dynamics of a piston in a reciprocating engine was conducted. The equation of Reynolds and moving of piston are derived. The analysis, which incorporates a hydrodynamic lubrication model, was applied to M501 diesel engine. The results of this study indicate that piston dynamics were found to be sensitive to piston-cylinder bore clearance, location of the wrist pin and lubricant viscosity, underscoring their importance in engine design.

  7. An energy-saving opportunity in producing lubricating oil using mixed-solventin simulated Rotary Disc Contacting (RDC) extraction tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamipour, M.S.; Fakhr Hoseini, S.M.; Tavakkoli, T.; Mehrkesh, A.H. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

    2010-05-15

    Industrial processes are the most energy consuming processes in the world. Modification of these processes helps us with controlling the consumption of energy and minimizing energy loss. Changing raw materials is one of the ways through which we can optimize industrial processes. In this paper, a new solvent mixture (furfural + a co-solvent) was used for the extraction of lubricating base oil from lube-oil cut. It was found that the energy consumption of the new solvent mixture for obtaining a product with the same quality was much lower than the original solvent. By using this new solvent mixture, the operating temperature of the top of tower was reduced by 30 K. This leads to a high reduction in energy consumption in extraction of aromatics from lube oil. At our new extraction process by means of using new solvent mixture, the maximum energy saving was 38% per cubic meter of produced raffinate. (author)

  8. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea of co-processing them in integration is expected to gain more benefit. The economies of scale and the synergy of co-processing these wastes results in higher quality and higher yield of the end products. In this study, we use cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the integrated management scenario of collecting the three wastes and converting them to energy. We report the total heat of combustion of pyrolytic oil at the maximum and minimum conversion rates, and conduct a sensitivity analysis in which the parameters of an increase of the electricity cost for operating the process and increase of the feedstock transportation cost are tested. We evaluate the effects of economy of scale in the case of integrated waste management. We compare four cases of waste-to-energy conversion with the business as usual (BAU) scenario, and our results show that the integrated co-processing of waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics is the most profitable from the viewpoints of energy yield and economics. (author)

  9. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  10. Investigation of the effect of engine lubricant oil on remote temperature sensing using thermographic phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Nada, Fahed, E-mail: Fahed.Abou_Nada@forbrf.lth.se; Aldén, Marcus; Richter, Mattias

    2016-11-15

    Phosphor thermometry, a remote temperature sensing technique, is widely implemented to measure the temperature of different combustion engines components. The presence of engine lubricant can influence the behavior of the applied sensor materials, known as thermographic phosphors, and thus leading to erroneous temperature measurements. The effect of two engine lubricants on decay times originating from six different thermographic phosphors was investigated. The decay time of each thermographic phosphor was investigated as a function of lubricant/phosphor mass ratio. Tests were conducted at temperatures around 293 K and 376 K for both lubricants. The investigations revealed that ZnO:Zn and ZnS:Ag are the only ones that exhibit a change of the decay time as function of the lubricant/phosphor mass ratio. While the remaining thermographic phosphors, namely BaMg{sub 2}Al{sub 16}O{sub 27}:Eu (BAM), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated BaMg{sub 2}Al{sub 16}O{sub 27}:Eu, La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu, Mg{sub 3}F{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn, displayed no sensitivity of their characteristic decay time on to the presence of lubricant on the porous coating. Biases in the calculated temperature are to be expected if the utilized thermographic phosphor displays decay time sensitivity to the existence of the engine lubricant within the sensor. Such distortions are concealed and can occur undetected leading to false temperature readings for the probed engine component.

  11. Determination of antioxidants in new and used lubricant oils by headspace-programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogal Sanchez, Miguel del; Perez Pavon, Jose Luis; Garcia Pinto, Carmelo; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Salamanca (Spain); Glanzer, Paul [University of Vienna, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-12-15

    A sensitive method is presented to determine antioxidants (2-, 3-, and 4-tert-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, 1-naphthol, and diphenylamine) in new and used lubricant oil samples. Research was carried out on a GC device equipped with a headspace sampler, a programmed temperature vaporizer, and an MS detector unit. The proposed method does not require sample treatment prior to analyses, hence eliminating possible errors occurring in this step. Sample preparation is reduced when placing the oil sample (2.0 g) in the vial and adding propyl acetate (20 {mu}L). Solvent vent injection mode permits a pre-concentration of the compounds of interest in the liner filled with Tenax-TA {sup registered}, while venting other species present in the headspace. Thereby, both the life of the liner and the capillary column is prolonged, and unnecessary contamination of the detector unit is avoided. Calibration was performed by adding different concentrations of analytes to a new oil which did not contain any of the studied compounds. Limits of detection as low as 0.57 {mu}g/L (2-tert-butylphenol) with a precision lower or equal to 5.3% were achieved. Prediction of the antioxidants in new oil samples of different viscosities (5W40, 10W40, and 15W40) was accomplished with the previous calibration, and the results were highly satisfactory. To determine antioxidants in used engine oils, standard addition method was used due to the matrix effect. (orig.)

  12. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  13. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-08

    Mazda, Mercedes - Benz , Ford, Mercury, and Nissan offer flexible fuel vehicles in the United States. Ethanol is currently produced in the United States...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT OIL VULNERABILITIES AND UNITED STATES STRATEGY by Colonel Shawn P. Walsh...Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting

  14. Clinical evaluation of an oil-based lubricant eyedrop in dry eye patients with lipid deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudouin, Christophe; Galarreta, David J.; Mrukwa-Kominek, Ewa; Böhringer, Daniel; Maurino, Vincenzo; Guillon, Michel; Rossi, Gemma C. M.; van der Meulen, Ivanka J.; Ogundele, Abayomi; Labetoulle, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of a lipid-based lubricant eyedrop formulation (hydroxypropyl guar/propylene glycol/phospholipid [HPG/PG/PL]) with preservative-free saline for the treatment of dry eye. Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, single-masked,

  15. Polygenetic Aspect of Unit Theory Oil Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of a unified theory Oil Generation one of important moments is the consideration of the distribution of oil in the Earth's Crust. Analysis of the distribution of oil deposits in the Earth's Crust showed that oil distributed throughout the stratigraphic section from ancient to modern sediments and from a depth of 12 kilometers to the Earth's surface. The distribution of oil almost meets all stages of metamorphism of rocks. Correlation of the section of oil distribution to genetic types of ore deposits showed that each genetic type ore deposits has its analogue oil field . So it is possible to classify oil fields on 1) endogenous: the actual magmatic, post-magmatic, contact-metasomatic (skarn), hydrothermal, exhalation, carbonatite, pegmatite, 2) exogenous: weathering, oxidation, sedimentary,3) metamorphogenic: metamorphosed, metamorphic. Model of such distribution of oil deposits can be a process of successive formation of oil deposits of mantle degassing tube. Thus oil is polygenic by way of formation of deposits, but their source is united.

  16. Reflections on oil crops as sources of energy. I - jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a lubricant of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.

    1983-06-01

    It is only in the last few years that public interest has been awakened in a modest oil-yielding shrub of the desert regions of California, Arizona (USA) and Mexico: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). This interest would seem to be justified in view of the qualities of the oil, which is altogether similar to sperm whale oil, and the possibilities it offers, notably as a lubricant. Naturally, as it is a rare product and its domestication has barely started, it has a fabulous market value (it reaches US $200/gal in 1981), but this will drop rapidly once development programmes get under way (already in 1983 the oil was to be found at US $ 50/55 gal). One-track research would be unprofitable. This drought-resistant shrub does not offer efficiency against desertification nor as an ally in the reclamation of climatically underprivileged, depopulated regions. This article makes an approach to a strategy and gives a broad outline for a programme. (Refs. 19).

  17. Demulsification of residual waters from refining industries of lubricant oil: case study; Desemulsificacao de aguas residuarias de industrias de refino de oleo lubrificante: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Marcia Yumi; Morita, Dione Mari [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Sanitaria]. E-mail: dmmorita@usp.br

    1997-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the coagulation, flocculation with iron chloride (FeCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O), followed by phase separation, as alternative for treating residual waters from lubricant oil refining industries. Tests have been performed by using {sup j}ar test{sup ,} changing pH value and coagulants for various wastewater characteristics.

  18. Sliding-wear resistance of pure near fully-dense B4C under lubrication with water, diesel fuel, and paraffin oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario; Borrero-López, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The sliding-wear resistance of pure near fully-dense B4C is investigated, and the wear mode/mechanisms identified, under lubrication with water, diesel fuel, and paraffin oil. It is found that the wear is mild in the three cases, with specific wear rates (SWRs) of 10−16–10−17 m3/N m. Nonetheless......, the wear resistance of the B4C ceramic is one order of magnitude greater under oil lubrication (1016 N m/m3) than under water lubrication (1015 N m/m3), and twice as great for the specific case of paraffin oil than diesel fuel, attributable to the lubricant’s viscosity. It is also found that the wear mode...... is always abrasion, and that the wear mechanisms are plastic deformation and localized fracture with grain pullout. However, in agreement with the macro-wear data, the severity of the wear damage is lower under lubrication with paraffin oil, followed by diesel fuel, and lastly water. Finally...

  19. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  20. Effect of Nitric Acid on the Low Fluorescing Performance of Drilling Fluid Lubricant Based Animal and Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After synthesis of mixed fatty acid triethanolamine ester surfactant based on animal and vegetable mixed oils, the reaction solution was added into 4% (wt/wt liquid nitric acid or 9% (wt/wt solid nitric acid as eliminating fluorescent agent continuing to react from 1 to 2 hours. The low fluorescence lubricant named E167 for drilling fluid was prepared, in which maximum fluorescence intensity (Fmax was less than 10 in three-dimensional fluorescence spectra of excitation wavelength range. When the E167 was added into fresh water based drilling fluid at the dosage of 0.5% (wt/wt, the sticking coefficient reduced rate (ΔKf is 78% and the extreme pressure (E-P friction coefficient reduced rate (Δf is 79%. In the case of 4% brine mud with 0.5% (wt/wt E167 in it, the ΔKf and Δf are 75% and 62%, respectively. After the hot rolling ageing test 180°C × 16 h with the E167 was added into fresh water based drilling fluid at the dosage of 1% (wt/wt, the ΔKf and Δf are greater than 70%, which shows a much better lubrication properties of strong resistance to high temperature. The fresh water based drilling fluid which contains 1% (wt/wt E167 is almost nonfoaming even after hot rolling ageing 120°C × 16 h.

  1. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel-like fuel from waste lubrication oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Ni, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% diesel-like fuel from waste lubricating oil was conducted in a diesel engine. • Good combustion and fuel economy are achieved without engine modifications. • Combustion duration of DLF is shorter than diesel. • NOx and smoke emissions with the DLF are slightly higher than pure diesel. - Abstract: Waste lubricant oil (WLO) is one of the most important types of the energy sources. WLO cannot be burned directly in diesel engines, but can be processed to be used as diesel-like fuel (DLF) to minimize its harmful effect and maximize its useful values. Moreover, there are some differences in physicochemical properties between WLO and diesel fuel. In order to identify the differences in combustion and emission performance of diesel engine fueled with the two fuels, a bench test of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification was investigated at four engine speeds and five engine loads. The effects of the fuels on fuel economic performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke were discussed. The DLF exhibits longer ignition delay period and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel. The test results indicate that the higher distillation temperatures of the DLF attribute to the increase of combustion pressure, temperature and heat release rate. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the DLF compared to diesel is reduced by about 3% at 3000 rpm under light and medium loads. The DLF produces slightly higher NOx emissions at middle and heavy loads, somewhat more smoke emissions at middle loads, and notably higher HC and CO emissions at most measured points than diesel fuel. It is concluded that the DLF can be used as potential available fuel in high-speed diesel engines without any problems.

  2. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Luo, Huimin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toops, Todd J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brookshear, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stump, Benjamin C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Viola, Michael B. [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Zreik, Khaled [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Ahmed, Tasfia [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  3. Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy based on phosphorous and boron compounds in oil-in-water emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jincan; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Ren, Tianhui; Heide, Emile van der

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The boundary lubrication behaviour of three O/W emulsions was investigated. • The interactions between O/W emulsions and CoCrMo surfaces were studied. • Three different additives containing P and B were added in the emulsions. • The tribologcial performance of oil lubricant and emulsion was compared. • The friction profile of emulsion shows three stages due to spreading and plate-out. - Abstract: Emulsion lubrication is widely used in metal forming operations and has potential applications in the biomedical field, yet the emulsion lubrication mechanism is not well understood. This work explores the possibilities of three different oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing dibutyl octadecylphosphoramidate (DBOP), 6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocan-2-ol calcium salt (ODOC) and 2-(4-dodecylphenoxy)-6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocane (DOB) to generate boundary films on stainless steel AISI 316 and CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Experimental results show lower friction values for the emulsions in combination with CoCrMo compared to AISI 316. The different performance of the additives is related to the composition of the adsorption and reaction film on the interacting surfaces, which was shown to be dependent on the active elements and molecular structure of the additives. The friction profile of the emulsions indicates that the emulsion appears to be broken during the rubbing process, then the additives adsorb onto the metal surface to form protecting boundary layers. The XPS analysis shows that for boundary lubrication conditions, the additive molecules in the emulsion first adsorb on the metal surface after the droplet is broken, and then decompose and react with the metal surface during the rubbing process to form stable lubricating films on the rubbed surfaces

  4. Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo alloy based on phosphorous and boron compounds in oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jincan [Laboratory for Surface Technology and Tribology, University of Twente (Netherlands); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Zeng, Xiangqiong, E-mail: X.Zeng@utwente.nl [Laboratory for Surface Technology and Tribology, University of Twente (Netherlands); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Ren, Tianhui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (China); Heide, Emile van der [Laboratory for Surface Technology and Tribology, University of Twente (Netherlands); TNO (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • The boundary lubrication behaviour of three O/W emulsions was investigated. • The interactions between O/W emulsions and CoCrMo surfaces were studied. • Three different additives containing P and B were added in the emulsions. • The tribologcial performance of oil lubricant and emulsion was compared. • The friction profile of emulsion shows three stages due to spreading and plate-out. - Abstract: Emulsion lubrication is widely used in metal forming operations and has potential applications in the biomedical field, yet the emulsion lubrication mechanism is not well understood. This work explores the possibilities of three different oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing dibutyl octadecylphosphoramidate (DBOP), 6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocan-2-ol calcium salt (ODOC) and 2-(4-dodecylphenoxy)-6-octadecyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocane (DOB) to generate boundary films on stainless steel AISI 316 and CoCrMo alloy surfaces. Experimental results show lower friction values for the emulsions in combination with CoCrMo compared to AISI 316. The different performance of the additives is related to the composition of the adsorption and reaction film on the interacting surfaces, which was shown to be dependent on the active elements and molecular structure of the additives. The friction profile of the emulsions indicates that the emulsion appears to be broken during the rubbing process, then the additives adsorb onto the metal surface to form protecting boundary layers. The XPS analysis shows that for boundary lubrication conditions, the additive molecules in the emulsion first adsorb on the metal surface after the droplet is broken, and then decompose and react with the metal surface during the rubbing process to form stable lubricating films on the rubbed surfaces.

  5. Development of dielectric sensor to monitor the engine lubricating oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balashanmugam Vasanthan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Present day practice of following fixed schedules of oil change intervals could result in loss for the equipment owner, as the oil is not utilized up-to its maximum useful life. Similarly, the extended use of engine oil beyond maximum useful life is of high risk, which could lead irreversible and catastrophic damages to engine parts. Engine oil condition indicates the condition of engine parts, in any application. Therefore, monitoring the condition of the oil in real time is of paramount importance. Researchers had established that the engine oil degradation correlates with change in dielectric property of the engine oil. The important factor to realize the on-line real time monitoring of the changes in dielectric property of the engine oil is, the cost of dielectric sensor within affordable limit for an operator. Current work aims at developing such a low cost affordable dielectric sensor and engine oil samples (SAE 15W40 grade were collected from durability test engines used in engine test rig and on-road vehicles. These samples were tested for physical and chemical properties. Any changes in the properties, of engine oil monitored, indicate that it undergoes degradation due to usage. A prototype of capacitive type sensor was developed and validated with reference fluids. The dielectric values measured using proto type sensor in the used oil samples show a correlation with change in physical properties. This trend and thresholds of dielectric provides effective plat form to monitor the engine oil degradation. The sensor could be coupled to a suitable warning device by incorporating specific algorithms.

  6. Influencia de la lubricación en la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín//Influence of oil lubrication on cylindrical worm gear efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo González-Rey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fue desarrollado un procedimiento para estimar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín cilíndrico considerando pérdidas de potencia por fricción entre flancos conjugados, tres bases de lubricantes y sistema de lubricación. El procedimiento fue validado por comparación con valores de eficiencia reportados para engranajes fabricados por una compañía especializada en engranajes. Los resultadosestablecen fuerte dependencia entre el coeficiente de fricción y la velocidad de deslizamiento hasta valores inferiores a 0.4 m/s en engranajes con aceites sintéticos y para engranajes con inmersión en aceites minerales el coeficiente de fricción de ensayo fue observado constante hasta velocidades dedeslizamiento inferiores a 0,9 m/s. Fue determinado que en sistemas de lubricación por inmersión, los aceites sintéticos en sustitución de aceites minerales mejoran como promedio en 44 % la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín. Finalmente, fue formulado un módulo racional del engranaje orientado amaximizar la eficiencia del engranaje lubricado con aceite sintético.Palabras claves: eficiencia, engranaje, tornillo sinfín, lubricante, aceite sintético, ISO/TR 145281._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this study, a general procedure is proposed for the prediction of cylindrical worm gear efficiency takinginto account friction losses between worm and wheel gear, three base oils and lubrication system. Thevalidation of procedure was achieved by comparing with values of efficiency for worm gear unitsreferenced by a German gear manufacturer company. In the case of worm gears lubricated with syntheticbase oils, results show an strong dependency between basic coefficient of friction and sliding velocity up to0,4 m/s and for dip lubrication with mineral oils the basic coefficient of friction was observed constant forsliding velocity below 0,9 m/s. Other results confirm the increase of

  7. Synthesis of fatty monoester lubricant base oil catalyzed by Fe-Zn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 126, No. 4, July 2014, pp. 997–1003. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Synthesis of fatty ... environmental pollution which the conventional min- eral oil-based ... fication of a fatty acid or transesterification of veg- etable oil with a ...

  8. High-efficient production of boron nitride nanosheets via an optimized ball milling process for lubrication in oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Hait, Samik K; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

    2014-12-03

    Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

  9. Synthesis and Cyclopolymerzation of N-Aryl Di ‎AllylAmins As Antioxidants for Lubricant's Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firyal M. Ali ‎

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research many new N-aryl substituted di allylAmins were  synthesized [ A1-A2 ] which were Polymerized by free radically mechanism by using Ammonium per sulfate  as an initiator at 700C .The new hindered   amines   as  cyclo  polymers  were  characterized  by FTIR  and  H-NMR Spectroscopies ,Physical   and   chemical properties were measured  using TGA and DSC to   study   the thermal stability  of   prepared  cyclopolymers  . These   prepared  N-aromatic  substituted di allylamins cyclopolymers [ A3 - A4 ]  were  used  as  antioxidants  for  lubricant  oil  .   which   give    high stability   when  comparing  with standard  antioxidant . The oxidation stability of base  oil with (1% additive  were  examined according to Institute of Petroleum testing method IP280 

  10. Synthesis and Cyclopolymerzation of N-Aryl Di ‎AllylAmins As Antioxidants for Lubricant's Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firyal M. Ali ‎

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research many new N-aryl substituted di allylAmins were  synthesized [ A1-A2 ] which were Polymerized by free radically mechanism by using Ammonium per sulfate  as an initiator at 700C .The new hindered   amines   as  cyclo  polymers  were  characterized  by FTIR  and  H-NMR Spectroscopies ,Physical   and   chemical properties were measured  using TGA and DSC to   study   the thermal stability  of   prepared  cyclopolymers  . These   prepared  N-aromatic  substituted di allylamins cyclopolymers [ A3 - A4 ]  were  used  as  antioxidants  for  lubricant  oil  .   which   give    high stability   when  comparing  with standard  antioxidant . The oxidation stability of base  oil with (1% additive  were  examined according to Institute of Petroleum testing method IP280

  11. Determination of metallo-organic and particulate wear metals in lubricating oils associated with hybrid ceramic bearings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin Ann

    It is possible to increase both the performance and operating environment of jet engines by using hybrid ceramic bearings. Our laboratory is concerned with investigating lubricating fluids for wear metals associated with silicon nitride ball bearings and steel raceways. Silicon nitride is characterized by low weight, low thermal expansion, high strength, and corrosion resistance. These attributes result in longer engine lifetimes than when metallic ball bearings are used. Before the routine use of ceramic ball bearings can be realized, the wear mechanisms of the materials should be thoroughly understood. One important variable in determining wear degradation is the concentration of metal present in the lubricating oils used with the bearings. A complete method for analyzing used lubricating oils for wear metal content must accurately determine all metal forms present. Oil samples pose problems for routine analysis due to complex organic matrices. Nebulizing these types of samples into an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer introduces many problems including clogging of the sample cone with carbon and increasing interferences. In addition, other techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry are particle size dependent. They are unable to analyze particles greater than 10 mum in size. This dissertation describes a method of analyzing lubricating oils for both metallo-organic and particulate species by ICP-MS. Microwave digestion of the oil samples eliminates the need for elaborate sample introduction schemes as well as the use of a modified carrier gas. Al, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Ti, and Y have been determined in both aqueous and organic media. Metallo-organic solutions of these metals were successfully digested, nebulized into the ICP, and the singly charged ions measured by mass spectrometry. Metal particulates in oil matrices have also been quantitatively determined by the above method. Linear analytical curves were

  12. Wear And Tear Determination By Trace Multi-Element Analysis Of An Unused And Used Lubricant Oil Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyemo, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique using the Imperial College Centre consort M. K. II nuclear reactor was utilized for the determination of: As, Ba Ca CI, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Na Ni, Rb, Sb, Se, Ti, V, and Zn, in an imported and used car lubricant oil. The wear of the oil lubricated parts of the car engine was monitored by establishing a correlation between the results obtained in the analysis. The result obtained from the analysis of the unused and then used samples on a low performing oil leaking four stroke car engine showed an increase on all the elements determined except for Se and Rb. The precision for the multi-element analysis is less than 12% for most of the elements. The accuracy of the measurement is also validated by the result obtained from the analysis of NBS-SRM1635 (sub-bituminous) coal standard for the elements. The results obtained indicate that analysis of unused and used lubricant oil samples can aid in locating defects in engine parts and hence facilitated maintenance procedures

  13. Influence of the Lubricant Thermo-Piezo-Viscous Property on Hydrostatic Bearings in Oil Hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    adds to the discrepancy of such simple design approach. In this paper the hydrostatic pressure force calculation is reviewed in terms of thermohydrodynamic (THD) lubrication theory, and simple analytical approximations of the hydrostatic pressure force, incorporating the piezo-viscous and thermo...... of these analytical approximations are explored in order to clarify the limits of application. In conclusion, it is found that the spatial gradient of the thermal field on the bearing surface is the significant factor in the thermo-viscous effect on the hydrostatic pressure profile, which leads to the conclusion...... that design engineers need to understand the thermodynamics of hydrostatic bearings, when using the conventional simple analytical approach, neglecting thermo-piezo-viscosity, in hydrostatic pressure force calculations....

  14. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants. Final report; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.

    1997-12-31

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originated mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidification with sulfuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralized refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic Countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulfur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulfur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). Also in the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process Bioenergy Research Programme; 3 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Environmental liability and life-cycle management of used lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2008-12-30

    Used oil handling, as a business, requires an extensive understanding by management that environmental liabilities exist through its supply chain. Findings from a review of the legal requirements of operating a used oil handling business were: understanding the transfer of ownership of used petroleum hydrocarbons is critical to any such business and how this is documented; used oil handlers are responsible for providing training to their staff, including site personnel and any third party waste contractors, and for communicating best practice procedures relating to the management of used petroleum hydrocarbons to all those individuals and organisations involved in business relationships that the used oil handling companies have; used oil handlers should audit the performance of any third party contractors that it engages to conduct work on behalf of its customers. Hypothetical situations of a company planning to enter the used oil handling market are described in relation to petroleum hydrocarbon wastes it handles to illustrate the range of potential liabilities. Companies proposing to establish a used oil handling business should ensure that they provide accurate advice to its employees, its customer's employees and to its third party contractors, all of which may be responsible for handling used petroleum hydrocarbons as part of the service it intends to provide, and that it has a well documented system addressing how environmental issues are managed.

  16. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes' bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating

  17. Lubricating oil-degrading bacteria in soils from filling stations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... 1Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of ... Key words: environmental pollution, oil-degrading bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, physico-chemical factors, ..... Manual of Environmental.

  18. The influence of external field on the lubricity of mineral oil for railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Serhii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mineral oil is associated with its gradual operational degradation caused by its natural aging and contamination with various impurities. As the concentration of impurities increases, the number of active surface molecules which determine the operational properties of mineral oils decreases. A promising method of recovery of the operational properties of oils is the treatment with an electric field, which makes it possible to enhance the activity of surfactants in the tribo-contact area. This statement is proved through the improvement of the wettability of the bronze surface with mineral oils after their treatment with an electrostatic field. However, the method of electrical treatment is associated with the need to increase the requirements for the purity of liquids, especially to the presence of water, which requires creating an oil pre-treatment system. As an alternative, a method of electrical treatment with special field parameters is proposed enabling to accelerate the coalescence process. The major parameter that accelerates the coalescence process is the electric field oscillation frequency. The results of the study give grounds for choosing the optimal field parameters.

  19. A Study of Parameters Affecting the Solvent Extraction-Flocculation Process of Used Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of operating variables on, the percentage of removed sludge (PSR obtained during re-refining of 15W-40 Al-Durra spent lubricant by solvent extraction-flocculation treatment method. Binary solvents were used such as, Heavy Naphtha (H.N.: MEK (N:MEK, H.N. : n-Butanol (N:n-But, and H.N. : Iso-Butanol (N:Iso:But. The studied variables were mixing speed (300-900, rpm, mixing time (15-60, min, and operating temperature (2540, oC. This study showed that the studied operating variables have effects where, increasing the mixing time up to 45 min for H.N.: MEK, H.N.: n-Butanol and 30 min for H.N.: Iso-Butanol increased the PSR, after that percentage was decreased; increasing the mixing speed for all the studied solvents up to 700 rpm increased the PSR, after that the percentage was decreased, while increasing the operating temperature decreased the PSR for all the solvents. This study has resulted in reasonably accurate multivariate process correlation that relates the removed sludge percentage to the process variables. The determination coefficients (

  20. Field portable petroleum analysis for validation of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system petroleum, oil and lubricant sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.M.; Jones, P.; Porter, B.

    1995-01-01

    A petroleum, oil and lubricant (POL) sensor for the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) has been developed by the Tri-Services (e.g. Army, Navy and Air Force) to characterize the distribution of POL contaminants on military sites. The sensor is based on the detection of POL contaminants using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer. The SCAPS POL sensor has been shown to be a valuable tool for the rapid screening of POL contamination in the subsurface. However, many factors can affect the LIF response of a particular fuel at a particular site. These include fuel type, age of spill (e.g. weathering) and soil type. The LIF sensor also detects fluorescence from any naturally occurring fluorophores, including humic substances and fluorescent minerals. These factors lead to the development of an independent procedure for the verification of the POL sensor response. This paper describes a field portable total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbon (TRPH) method based on EPA Method 418.1 and its application to on site validation of the SCAPS POL sensor response at a number of contaminated sites

  1. Solid lubricants in the power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensheimer, J.

    1981-01-01

    Example application are first outlined, followed by descriptions of inorganic solid lubricants and plastics. Waxes, soaps and salts are discussed. Notes for usage are given. Solid lubricants in oils and greases are comprehensively described, followed by the sections entitled Solid lubricants for gearboxes . References to samples, tests, standards and bibliography make up the conclusion. (orig.) [de

  2. Inorganic elements and organic compounds degradation studies by gamma irradiation in used lubricating oils; Estudos de remocao de elementos inorganicos e degradacao de compostos organicos por radiacao gama em oleos lubrificantes usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio

    2008-07-01

    The automotive lubricating oils have partial degradation of organic compounds and addition of undesirable inorganic elements, during its use. These substances classify the used lubricating oils as dangerous and highly toxic. According to global consensus, concerning the environmental conservation, the best is to perform a reuse treatment of these lubricating oils. For this purpose, the uses of an alternative and effective technology have been sought. In this work, the efficacy and technical feasibility of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), by gamma radiation, for used automotive lubricating oil treatment has been studied. Different quantities of hydrogen peroxide and water Milli-Q were added to oil samples. They were submitted to the Cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammacell, with 100, 200 and 500 kGy absorbed doses. The inorganic analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed inorganic elements removal, mainly to sulphur, calcium, iron and nickel elements at acceptable levels by environmental protection law for oils reusing. The gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis showed that the advanced oxidation process promotes the organic compounds degradation. The main identified compounds were tridecane, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and trietilamina-tetramethyl urea, which have important industrial applications. The multivariate analysis, Cluster Analysis, showed that advanced oxidation process application is a viable and promising treatment for used lubricating oil reusing. (author)

  3. Co-firing used engine lubrication oil with LPG in furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omari, S.A.-B.; Shaheen, A.; Al Fakhr, A.; Al-Hosani, A.; Al Yahyai, M.

    2010-01-01

    Combustion and heat transfer characteristics obtained based co-firing LPG with used engine oils (UEO) in a furnace, are investigated experimentally. In an attempt to assess UEO as a fuel, the UEO-based results are compared with results obtained using two other fuels, namely diesel, and a used cooking oil (UCkO). To ease its admission to the furnace and its subsequent vaporization and combustion, UEO is preheated by allowing it to flow upwardly in a vertical pipe surrounded by hot gases generated from LPG combustion. UEO that reaches the tip of the pipe un-vaporized, spills and hence has the chance to further heatup and vaporize as it exchanges heat with the upwardly flowing LPG combustion gases, in a counter flow process. Runs are divided into three groups based on the mass ratio of the liquid-fuel/LPG and the mass flow rate of the LPG supplied to the furnace. Ranges of these quantities over which UEO qualify as a good fuel and/or good promoter to radiation have been identified.

  4. Co-firing used engine lubrication oil with LPG in furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omari, S.A.-B.; Shaheen, A.; Al Fakhr, A.; Al-Hosani, A.; Al Yahyai, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-06-15

    Combustion and heat transfer characteristics obtained based co-firing LPG with used engine oils (UEO) in a furnace, are investigated experimentally. In an attempt to assess UEO as a fuel, the UEO-based results are compared with results obtained using two other fuels, namely diesel, and a used cooking oil (UCkO). To ease its admission to the furnace and its subsequent vaporization and combustion, UEO is preheated by allowing it to flow upwardly in a vertical pipe surrounded by hot gases generated from LPG combustion. UEO that reaches the tip of the pipe un-vaporized, spills and hence has the chance to further heatup and vaporize as it exchanges heat with the upwardly flowing LPG combustion gases, in a counter flow process. Runs are divided into three groups based on the mass ratio of the liquid-fuel/LPG and the mass flow rate of the LPG supplied to the furnace. Ranges of these quantities over which UEO qualify as a good fuel and/or good promoter to radiation have been identified. (author)

  5. Use of nanoparticles to make mineral oil lubricants feasible for use in a residential air conditioner employing hydro-fluorocarbons refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixiang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University 710049 Xi' an (China); School of Environment and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, No. 1, Zhanlan Guan Road, Beijing 100044 (China); Wu, Qingping; Wu, Yezheng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University 710049 Xi' an (China)

    2010-11-15

    The application of nano-fluids in refrigerating systems is considered to be a potential way to improve the energy efficiency and reliability of HVAC and R facilities and to make economic the use of environment-friendly refrigerants. In this paper, we report a method that uses nanoparticles to enhance the energy efficiency of retrofitted residential air conditioners (RAC) employing HFCs as alternative refrigerants. The reliability and performance of RAC with nanoparticles in the working fluid have been investigated experimentally. A new mineral-based nano-refrigeration oil (MNRO), formed by blending some nanoparticles (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) into naphthene based oil B32, was employed in the RAC using R410a as refrigerant. A method showing how to disperse the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the mineral oil refrigeration lubricants is presented together with an investigation of their stability. The solubilities of the new MNRO in R134a, R407C, R410a and R425a were measured. The performances of the RAC, such as the cooling/heating capacity, the power input and the energy efficiency ratio, were determined. The results indicate that the mixture of R410a/MNRO works normally in the RAC. The cooling/heating EER of the RAC increased about 6% by replacing the Polyol-Easter oil VG 32 lubricant with MNRO. (author)

  6. Effects of Material Combinations on Friction and Wear of PEEK/Steel Pairs under Oil-Lubricated Sliding Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Kawabata, M.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of material combinations on the friction and wear of PEEK/steel pairs are studied using blocks on a ring wear tester under oil-lubricated conditions. The rings are made of forged steel (SF540A) and a PEEK composite filled with 30 wt% carbon fibre. The surface roughness is 0.15 and 0.32 μm Ra, respectively. The blocks are also made of the same materials as the rings: the forged steel and the PEEK composite. Finished with an emery paper of #600, the surface roughness is 0.06 and 0.23 μm Ra, respectively. Sliding tests for 4 combinations of two materials are conducted. The load is increased up to 1177 N at 1 N s-1. The sliding velocity is varied in the range of 10 to 19 m s-1. In some cases, the ring temperature is measured with a thermocouple with a diameter of 0.5 mm, located 1 mm below the frictional surface. Results indicate that the forged steel’s ring and the PEEK composite’s block is the best combination among 4 combinations, because seizure does not occur under the increasing load up to 1177 N at the sliding velocity of 10-19 m s-1. In contrast, seizure occurs at 15 and 19 m s-1 in the other three combinations. However, the PEEK composite’s ring shows a lower friction coefficient as compared to the forged steel’s ring, when seizure does not occur. Wear scars are observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The seizure mechanisms are then discussed.

  7. Jojoba - a promising plant for the semi-arid regions. [North America, plants, seeds, oils, waxes, growth, cultivation, lubricants, guayule, mesquite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yermanos, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of the world-wide concern for conservation of resources and for the development of new renewable resources a great deal of attention has been directed towards the development of jojoba as a potential new crop for semi-arid regions. Jojoba grows wild in the Southwestern U.S. and N. Mexico, in areas where the annual precipitation is 4''-15''. Under cultivation it appears to grow satisfactorily in areas of marginal soil fertility, high salinity and high atmospheric temperatures. It appears to have no major natural enemies and to be tolerant to chemical treatments, if they were to become necessary. It is perennial with an assumed life span in excess of 150 years. Jojoba seed has an average weight of about 0.5 grams per seed, and it contains a unique liquid wax which is a superior lubricant and a potential replacement of whale oil, obtained from the sperm whale, and endangered species. Thus, jojoba has a double appeal, first as a potential crop of semi-arid regions requiring low cultural and energy inputs and second as a source of a valuable commodity. It should be pointed out that a cheap and abundant source of lubricants will disappear when our stock of fossil fuels are exhausted and that none of our new sources of energy have lubricants as by-products. Finally, jojoba could be grown with other companion crops such as guayule or mesquite for more diversified farming.

  8. A preventive maintenance lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapaykina, S A; Ol' kov, P L; Pertsev, A N; Rodzevillo, I T; Rogacheva, O I; Zinov' yev, A P

    1980-02-15

    A method is disclosed to lower the adherence of materials by reducing the viscosity of a preventive maintenance lubricant against adhesion of moist, freeflowing materials, containing extract of selective cleaning of oil fractions and asphalt. Gas oil of catalytic cracking is added having a boiling point of 190-300 degrees, with the following ratio of components (%): selective cleaning extract, 43-50; asphalt, 14-16; and gas oil of catalytic cracking, the remainder, Treating a surface with the proposed lubricant lowers the specific resistance to shift of rock compared with the prototype (g/cm/sup 2/): sand (moisture content, 18%) from 3.82 to 1.55; and clay (moisture content 16%), from 5.41 to 3.51.

  9. The Lubricity of Glycerol and its Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol has been recognised as an excellent diesel fuel and lubricant. It is a liquid that can originate from the transesterification of plant oil that also results in plant oil metyl (or ethyl) ester (biodiesel). Machine elements lubricated by glycerol show very low friction, in fact lower than...

  10. Experimental Performance Study of a High Speed Oil Lubricated Polymer Thrust Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the demand for turbomachinery to operate at higher speeds, loads, and power, fluid film bearings that support turbomachinery must be capable of operating in these more demanding applications. Thrust bearings operating at high speeds and loads can experience high surface temperatures and thin fluid film thickness. Typically, babbitt (white metal is the bearing lining material for most turbomachinery bearings but is limited in operating temperature and allowable film thickness. Polymer based materials are alternative materials that can operate at high temperatures and with thin films and have been in use for many decades in high load applications, such as electric submersible pumps (ESP. Test results of polymer lined thrust bearings subjected to modern turbomachinery speeds and loads are presented and compared to babbitt lined bearings of the same design and under similar conditions. The test results show polymer lined thrust bearings can operate at higher bearing unit loads than babbitt.

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XVII, I--MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNIT INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL--DRIVE LINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE DRIVE LINE USED IN DIESEL ENGINE POWER DISTRIBUTION. TOPICS ARE (1) PROLONGING ENGINE LIFE, (2) FUNCTIONS OF THE LUBRICATING SYSTEM, (3) TRACING THE LUBRICANT FLOW, (4) DETERMINING…

  12. Deposited Micro Porous Layer as Lubricant Carrier in Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    as lubricant reservoirs. Conventional friction tests for cold forming; ring compression and double cup extrusion tests are carried out with Molykote DX paste and mineral oil as lubricant. Both lubricants act as intended for the ring compressions test whereas only the low viscosity oil perform successfully...... in the cup extrusion test. For all specimens without the porous coating, high friction conditions are identified....

  13. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  14. Pleural Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Porta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During breathing, the pleural surfaces slide against each other continuously without damage. Pleural liquid and lubricating molecules should provide the lubrication of the sliding surfaces, thus protecting the mesothelium from shear-induced abrasion. D’Angelo et al. (Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 2004 measured the coefficient of kinetic friction (μ of rabbit parietal pleura sliding against visceral pleura in vitro at physiological velocities and under physiological loads; it was ~0.02 and did not change with sliding velocity, consistent with boundary lubrication. μ in boundary lubrication can be influenced by surface molecules like hyaluronan, sialomucin or surface active phospholipidis. Hyaluronan or sialomucin is able to restore good boundary lubrication in damaged mesothelium. Nevertheless, hyaluronidase and neuraminidase treatment of the mesothelium does not increase μ, though neuraminidase cleaves sialic acid from the mesothelium. Short pronase or phospholipase treatment, so as to affect only the mesothelial glycocalyx, increases μ, and this increase is removed by hyaluronan or sialomucin. On the other hand, addition of phospholipids after phospholipase treatment produces a small effect relative to that of hyaluronan or sialomucin, and this effect is similar with unsaturated or saturated phospholipids. In damaged mesothelium, the lubrication regimen becomes mixed, but addition of hyaluronan or sialomucin restores boundary lubrication.

  15. Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Hydrodynamic Lubrication Experiment with 'Floating' Drops. Jaywant H Arakeri K R Sreenivas. General Article Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 51-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Slippery self-lubricating polymer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Cui, Jiaxi; Dunn, Stuart; Hatton, Benjamin; Howell, Caitlin; Kim, Philseok; Wong, Tak Sing; Yao, Xi

    2018-05-08

    The present disclosure describes a strategy to create self-healing, slippery self-lubricating polymers. Lubricating liquids with affinities to polymers can be utilized to get absorbed within the polymer and form a lubricant layer (of the lubricating liquid) on the polymer. The lubricant layer can repel a wide range of materials, including simple and complex fluids (water, hydrocarbons, crude oil and bodily fluids), restore liquid-repellency after physical damage, and resist ice, microorganisms and insects adhesion. Some exemplary applications where self-lubricating polymers will be useful include energy-efficient, friction-reduction fluid handling and transportation, medical devices, anti-icing, optical sensing, and as self-cleaning, and anti-fouling materials operating in extreme environments.

  17. Unitization of a common oil pool: Theory and evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deilami, I.

    1991-01-01

    When heterogeneous firms gain access to the same oil pool, they drill and drain the pool based on their own preferences. The anticipated result is over-capitalization and rent dissipation: the tragedy of the commons. Given the notion of rationality based upon self interest, the rational behavior of these firms might instead be to unitize, acting in a manner efficient to the group. Failure to do so can be attributed to prohibitive bargaining costs required to coordinate many firms; this is supported by studies of the oil industry in the 1930s. In contrast, if the oil industry in the 1950s to 1980s is studied, very different conclusions are reached. Today, joint operations on oil and gas are found in all phases of petroleum-production process. Why did there occur such a drastic change in the degree of success in unitization? In the early 1930s to the late 1940s, both the drilling cost of oil extraction and the price of oil were low, so the gains from unitization were not large enough to be profitable. However, by the late 1950s the real price of oil and the cost of drilling had doubled from what they were in the early 1930s. This made the loss from rent dissipation significant and forced the firms to reevaluate their noncooperative behavior

  18. Unit root properties of crude oil spot and futures prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslyuk, Svetlana; Smyth, Russell

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we examine whether WTI and Brent crude oil spot and futures prices (at 1, 3 and 6 months to maturity) contain a unit root with one and two structural breaks, employing weekly data over the period 1991-2004. To realise this objective we employ Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root tests with one and two endogenous structural breaks proposed by Lee and Strazicich [2003. Minimum Lagrange multiplier unit root test with two structural breaks. Review of Economics and Statistics, 85, 1082-1089; 2004. Minimum LM unit root test with one structural break. Working Paper no. 04-17, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University]. We find that each of the oil price series can be characterised as a random walk process and that the endogenous structural breaks are significant and meaningful in terms of events that have impacted on world oil markets

  19. Impact of the lubricating oil on thermodynamic performances of reversible heat pumps; Impact de l'huile de lubrification sur les performances thermodynamiques des pompes a chaleur reversibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youbi-Idrissi, M

    2003-12-01

    This work deals with the effect of oil on the energy performances of refrigerating systems. To characterise this impact, two thermodynamic properties were studied: the solubility and the enthalpy. Thus, a simple measurement method was presented, allowing to study both transient and steady-state behaviour of various refrigerant/oil pairs. Thus, experimental data were validated and modelled. The suitable use of the solubility curves showed the zeotropic character of the refrigerant/oil mixture, which is directly reflected on the enthalpy calculation. For this property, a thermodynamic model was developed and experimentally validated. Its application led to a new presentation of the Mollier diagram taking into account the oil presence. It was then shown that, among all the circuit elements, the evaporator is the most penalized by the oil presence. Its performances decrease when the circulating mass fraction of oil increases, the superheat decreases and when the refrigerant-oil solubility increases. An experimental study on a reversible heat pump confirmed that if the circulation mass fraction of oil in the machine is lower than 2%, the impact of oil is reduced. Lastly, a local model of a refrigerating unit, initially charged with a zeotropic mixture, allowed to analyse the profiles of temperature, heat transfer coefficient and local composition of the refrigerant along a circuit. (author)

  20. Technology for semi-endless use of lubricating oil, no waste oil, improvement of reliability and keeping high thermal efficiency in engines; Jinzo kino seijo gijutsu ni yoru engine oil no han`eikyu shiyo to haiyu zero, oyobi shinraisei kojo to netsukoritsu teika no boshi (joyosha ni yoru shiken oyobi truck ni okeru jitsuyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, T [Teikyo University, Tokyo (Japan); Sumimoto, M; Kimura, I

    1997-10-01

    The authors have developed a new technology which enables it to use lubricating oil almost forever without any waste oil, only compensating lost oil and additives. The system has been working well in many marine and co-generation diesel engines. These engines have been also free from most of engine troubles. This paper reports the test results made on a car and some trucks. Besides above mentioned advantages, the results show that high thermal efficiency has been kept for more than ten years in the car tested and that the exhaust gas brake is much improved in the trucks. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Self-lubricating formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzenko, V.A.; Koltovskiy, L.V.; Koshelyov, Yu.I.; Kuzovlyev, G.F.; Lebedyev, S.I.; Sitnikov, S.A.; Telegin, V.D.

    1979-12-30

    To improve operation of scrubbers that operate in crystallizers for deparaffinization of oil products, a formula is being suggested which contains siliceous fibers, and a type of thermoactive resin - phenol-formaldehyde laquer, with the following component ration (% weight): carbon fiber 20-25, siliceous fibers 20-30, dry lubricant 10-15, phenolformaldehyde laquer up to 100. Phys.-mech. characteristics are flexure, compression, Ak of the suggested and known compositions (kgs/cm/sup 2/) 2150-2450 and 2550-2700, 32-37 and 1750, 2150 and 27 operation resource 2100:2500 and 1400.

  2. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  3. Unites States and the oil of the Middle-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2005-08-01

    The author discusses different aspects of the United States intervention and behavior in the Middle-East petroleum management. The Iraq and Iran potentials are largely under used. The Saudi Arabia defines its own oil policy, but benefits of the Unites States military help. The United States intervention is in the domain of the security of flux on the world market. (A.L.B.)

  4. Compressibilities and viscosities of reference, vegetable, and synthetic gear lubricants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regueira Muñiz, Teresa; Lugo, Luis; Fernández, Josefa

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the primary choices of base oils for environmentally aware lubricants is vegetable oils. This is due to their good natural biodegradability and very low toxicity in combination with very good lubricity characteristics. The development of new vegetable-based lubricants requires...... values of six gear lubricants, two of them reference mineral oils and the other four developed biodegradable oils based in high oleic sunflower oil or in synthetic esters. It was found that all of the lubricants have both similar compressibilities and similar expansivities. Dowson and Higginson, Zhu.......06%. Dowson and Higginson and Zhu and Wen equations of state do not predict well the isothermal compressibilities, with AAD % being around 45% for both equations. Moreover, the viscosities were measured in the temperature range from 278.15 to 373.15 K at atmospheric pressure for these oils, and the viscosity...

  5. Boundary lubrication of bearing steel in water-based lubricants with functional additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the effect of additives on boundary lubrication of bearing steel for water-based lubrication systems. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and the water-glycol based liquid were selected as the base fluids for research. Sulfur compounds, nitrogen heterocycles and graphene

  6. Technique of sample preparation for analysis of gasoline and lubricating oils by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila P, P.

    1990-03-01

    The X-ray fluorescence laboratory of the National Institute of Nuclear Research when not having a technique for the analysis of oils it has intended, with this work, to develop a preparation technique for the analysis of the metals of Pb, Cr, Ni, V and Mo in gasolines and oils, by means of the spectrometry by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The obtained results, its will be of great utility for the one mentioned laboratory. (Author)

  7. On-road performance analysis of R134a/R600a/R290 refrigerant mixture in an automobile air-conditioning system with mineral oil as lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, T.S.; Mohan Lal, D.

    2009-01-01

    R134a has been accepted as the single major refrigerant in the automobile industry and it has been used worldwide. But, the problem associated with it is the use of the PAG oil as the lubricant. Unlike the conventional mineral oil, the synthetic PAG oil used with R134a is highly hygroscopic in nature. The PAG lubricants come with different additives unique for different compressors. This leads to serious service issues. Therefore, a refrigerant, which will be readily available to replace R12, and also compatible with mineral oil, is needed. In the present study the readily available R134a is used in place of R12. However, to avoid PAG oil and to use the conventional mineral oil as lubricant, R134a is mixed with the commercially available hydrocarbon blend, (45.2% R290 and 56.8% R600a) in the proportion of 91% and 9%, respectively by mass. The quantity of hydrocarbons used is well below the lower flammable limit. This new mixture R134a/R600a/R290 is tested in the air-conditioning system of a passenger car 'on road' in the true running conditions and compared with the results that has been obtained with R12. The cool down performance under varying speed and varying ambient conditions, system performance under severe accelerating conditions and bumper-to-bumper traffic conditions is studied. The test results show that the new blend can be a promising substitute for the existing R12 systems and it can eliminate the use of hygroscopic PAG oil.

  8. Scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1991-01-01

    The experiences in oil shale processing in three large countries, China, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. have demonstrated, that the relative scale up risk of developing oil shale processing units is related to the scale up factor. On the background of large programmes for developing the oil shale industry branch, i.e. the $30 billion investments in colorado and Utah or 50 million t/year oil shale processing in Estonia and Leningrad Region planned in the late seventies, the absolute scope of the scale up risk of developing single retorting plants, seems to be justified. But under the conditions of low crude oil prices, when the large-scale development of oil shale processing industry is stopped, the absolute scope of the scale up risk is to be divided between a small number of units. Therefore, it is reasonable to build the new commercial oil shale processing plants with a minimum scale up risk. For example, in Estonia a new oil shale processing plant with gas combustion retorts projected to start in the early nineties will be equipped with four units of 1500 t/day enriched oil shale throughput each, designed with scale up factor M=1.5 and with a minimum scale up risk, only r=2.5-4.5%. The oil shale retorting unit for the PAMA plant in Israel [1] is planned to develop in three steps, also with minimum scale up risk: feasibility studies in Colorado with Israel's shale at Paraho 250 t/day retort and other tests, demonstration retort of 700 t/day and M=2.8 in Israel, and commercial retorts in the early nineties with the capacity of about 1000 t/day with M=1.4. The scale up risk of the PAMA project r=2-4% is approximately the same as that in Estonia. the knowledge of the scope of the scale up risk of developing oil shale processing retorts assists on the calculation of production costs in erecting new units. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  9. CATALYTIC HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE LUBRICANT OIL INTO LIQUID FUEL FRACTION USING ZnO, Nb2O5, ACTIVATED NATURAL ZEOLITE AND THEIR MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrocracking of waste lubricant oil into liquid fuel fraction using ZnO, Nb2O5, activated natural zeolite (ZAAH and their modification has been investigated. The zeolite was produced in Wonosari, Yogyakarta. Activation of the zeolite was carried out by refluxing with HCl 3M for 30 min, produced the activated natural zeolite (ZAAH. The ZnO/ZAAH catalyst was prepared by impregnation of Zn onto the ZAAH by ion exchange method using salt precursor of Zn(NO32.4H2O. The Nb2O5/ZAAH catalyst was prepared by mixing the ZAAH sample with Nb2O5 and oxalic acid solution until the paste was formed. The impregnation of Zn onto Nb2O5/ZAAH was carried out using the same method to that of the ZnO/ZAAH catalyst resulted ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalyst. Characterization of catalyst includes determination of Zn metal by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, acidity by gravimetric method and catalyst porosity by Surface Area Analyzer (NOVA-1000. Catalytic hydrocracking was carried out in a semi-batch reactor system using ZnO, ZAAH, ZnO/ZAAH and ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalysts at 450 oC under the H2 flow rate of 15 mL/min. and the ratio of catalyst/feed = 1/5. The composition of liquid products was analyzed by Gas Chromatograpy (GC.The results showed that impregnation of ZnO and/or Nb2O5 on the ZAAH increased the acidity and specific surface area of catalyst. The products of the hydrocracking process were liquid, coke and gas. Conversion of liquid products was increased by the increase of catalyst acidity. The highest liquid product was produced by ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalyst, 52.97 wt-%, consist of gasoline, 38.87 wt-% and diesel, 14.10 wt-%.   Keywords: hydrocracking, waste lubricant oil, liquid fuel fraction

  10. Ionic liquids as lubricant additives: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of energy efficiency and durability throughout human history, advances in lubricants have always played important roles. Ionic liquids (ILs) are room-temperature molten salts that possess unique physicochemical properties and have shown great potential in many applications with lubrication as one of the latest. While earlier work (2001–2011) primarily explored the feasibility of using ILs as neat or base lubricants, using ILs as lubricant additives has become the new focal research topic since the breakthrough in ILs’ miscibility in nonpolar hydrocarbon oils in early 2012. This work reviews the recent advances in developing ILs as additives for lubrication with an attempt to correlate among the cationic and anionic structures, oil-solubility, and other relevant physicochemical properties, and lubricating behavior. Effects of the concentration of ILs in lubricants and the compatibility between ILs and other additives in the lubricant formulation on the tribological performance are described followed by a discussion of wear protection mechanism based on tribofilm characterization. As a result, future research directions are suggested at the end.

  11. Consequences of oil film degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravendran, Rathesan

    2017-01-01

    In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution.......In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution....

  12. A comparison of the tribological behaviour of steel/steel, steel/DLC and DLC/DLC contact when lubricated with mineral and biodegradable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Kalin, Mitjan; Vižintin, Jože

    2015-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, which can nowadays be applied to many highly loaded mechanical components, sometimes need to operate under lubricated conditions. It is reasonable to expect that in steel/DLC contacts, at least the steel counter body will behave according to conventional lubrication mechanisms and will interact with lubricants and additives in the contact. However, in DLC/DLC contacts, such mechanisms are still unclear. For example, the "inertness" of DLC coatings raises se...

  13. Empirical modeling of a dewaxing system of lubricant oil using Artificial Neural Network (ANN); Modelagem empirica de um sistema de desparafinacao de oleo lubrificante usando redes neurais artificiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Cristiano Hora de Oliveira; Medeiros, Ana Claudia Gondim de; Silva, Marcone Lopes; Neves, Sergio Bello; Carvalho, Luciene Santos de; Guimaraes, Paulo Roberto Britto; Pereira, Magnus; Vianna, Regina Ferreira [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Arquitetura]. E-mail: paulorbg@unifacs.br; Santos, Nilza Maria Querino dos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nilzaq@petrobras.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The MIBK (m-i-b-ketone) dewaxing unit, located at the Landulpho Alves refinery, allows two different operating modes: dewaxing ND oil removal. The former is comprised of an oil-wax separation process, which generates a wax stream with 2 - 5% oil. The latter involves the reprocessing of the wax stream to reduce its oil content. Both involve a two-stage filtration process (primary and secondary) with rotative filters. The general aim of this research is to develop empirical models to predict variables, for both unit-operating modes, to be used in control algorithms, since many data are not available during normal plant operation and therefore need to be estimated. Studies have suggested that the oil content is an essential variable to develop reliable empirical models and this work is concerned with the development of an empirical model for the prediction of the oil content in the wax stream leaving the primary filters. The model is based on a feed forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and tests with one and two hidden layers indicate very good agreement between experimental and predicted values. (author)

  14. Potential of Palm Olein as Green Lubricant Source: Lubrication Analysis and Chemical Characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfizzi Derawi; Jumat Salimon

    2014-01-01

    Palm olein (PO o ) is widely used as edible oil in tropical countries. The lubrication properties and chemical compositions of PO o being considered to be used as renewable raw material for bio lubricant synthesis. PO o is suitable to be used directly as bio lubricant for medium temperature industrial applications. Palm olein has good viscosity index, oxidative stability, flash and fire point as a lubricant source. PO o contains unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAG): Palmitin-Olein-Olein, POO (33.3 %), Palmitin-Olein-Palmitin, POP (29.6 %), which are very important to produce good lubricant properties. This unsaturated bond is preferable in chemical modification to produce bio lubricant. The chemical compositions of PO o were tested by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) techniques. (author)

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  16. Evaluation of the influence of a postulated lubrication oil fire on safety related cables in the top shield platform of PFBR RCB by using FDS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangarjuna Rao, P.; Jayasuriya, C.; Nashine, B.K.; Chellapandi, P.; Velusamy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Top deck of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) primary system houses redundant safety related systems like Control and Safety Rod Drive Mechanisms (CSRDM), Diverse Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (DSRDM), subassembly outlet sodium temperature measurement system and central canal plug. These systems protrude out from the reactor through the Control Plug (CP), which is supported on the Top Shield (TS) of PFBR. Control and instrumentation signal cables and power cables of these safety related systems that are coming out from the CP are routed through Top Shield Platform (TSP, which is concentric with Reactor Vault (RV) at EL 34.1 m above the TS) to the peripheral local instrumentation control centers via the cable junction boxes supported on TS. Influence approach fire hazard analysis (FHA) has been carried out to evaluate the condition of redundant safety related cables under the scenario of a postulated oil fire in the TSP using Fire Dynamics Simulator code (FDS, Version 5). FDS is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based fire analysis code and it is developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. In this paper the details of the model developed and the results of the analysis carried out are discussed. In TSP, a postulated oil fire scenario with complete inventory of a primary sodium pump (PSP) lubrication oil leak (200 lt) has been considered at 30 m elevation on the TS. Computational model with the geometry of TSP and with other important structural components on TS like PSPs, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs), large rotating plug (LRP), small rotating plug (SRP), CP and etc. has been developed along with a fire of 1800 kW/m 2 heat release rate in the vicinity of the PSP1. Numerical simulation has been carried out to evaluate this oil fire influence on the typical safety related cables routed at 34 m elevation. It has been found that the surface temperature of the cables that are routed directly above the fire only crosses the ignition

  17. Lubricants : the lifeblood of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Y. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    With the significant investments in wind turbine equipment, companies need to exercise due diligence when it comes to the types of lubricants and fluids used. Mechanical and equipment issues can often be eliminated with improved maintenance practices and the appropriate selection of lubricants. This presentation discussed lubricants as being the lifeblood of wind turbines. The presentation first provided an overview and discussed wind turbine trends and application trends. The technical aspects of fluid formation were presented. Lubrication maintenance practices and oil monitoring were discussed. Last, key industry tests, and OEM specifications for bearings, gearboxes, and wind turbines were identified. It was concluded that improved maintenance practices in combination with the correct lubricant selection can address several operating problems. figs.

  18. Lubricant Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2008-01-01

    appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stretch forming, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production. Application of the tests for evaluating new lubricants before introducing them in production has......Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...

  19. Solid lubricants and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Braithwaite, E R

    1964-01-01

    Solid Lubricants and Surfaces deals with the theory and use of solid lubricants, particularly in colloidal form. Portions of this book are devoted to graphite and molybdenum disulfides, which are widely used solid lubricants in colloidal form. An extensive literature on the laboratory examination of hundreds of solids as potential lubricants is also provided in this text. Other topics discussed include the metals and solid lubricants; techniques for examining surfaces; other solid lubricants; metal shaping; and industrial uses of solid-lubricant dispersions. This publication is beneficial to e

  20. Determination of metal traces in lubricating oils by Aas and Icp-SFMS after microwave digestion; Determinacion de trazas metalicas en aceites lubricantes mediante EAA e ICP-SFMS despues de la digestion por microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez B, M. A.; Acosta L, C. E.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Lara A, N.; Kuri C, A., E-mail: manuel.perez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The analysis of lubricating oils allows to monitor the operating conditions of the machines and equipment, their pollution levels, degradation and finally their wear and useful life, as well as to establish a preventive lubrication program as a technical diagnostic maintenance tool. The useful life of oil is the period of functional time has in the machine until the antioxidants are consumed, producing large changes in the physical (density and viscosity) and chemical properties of the base oil, resulting in a wear of the components that make up the machine. The present work includes a theoretical as well as analytical basis for determining the content of metallic elements (Ag, Al, Cu, Fe, Mg, Sn and Zn) at trace level in used lubricating oils. A simple and rapid method of analysis is proposed, consisting mainly of the pretreatment of the sample by acidic digestion with a microwave oven. Subsequently an open digestion in a heating plate is carried out to dryness and recovered with concentrated HNO{sub 3}. For the quantitative analysis two analytical techniques were used: flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (Aas) and magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS). In both cases, the proposed method offers a good linearity and sensitivity for each of the trace elements under study. The accuracy of the method expressed as relative standard deviation ranges from 1.4 to 2.3%. In relation to the accuracy measurement, an oil was also analyzed as a certified reference material (Conostan 500 mg/L), with the concentration of certified Mg, obtaining satisfactory results. (Author)

  1. A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bhaumik; S.D Pathak

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims to carry out a comparative experimental analysis of tribological properties of 372cSt mineral oil and 229cSt castor oil. The antiwear and extreme pressure properties of both the oils have been analysed according to ASTM G 99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. The surfaces of the balls and pins after tribo tests have been analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. The present test results predict that the antiwear and extreme pressure properties in case of the sele...

  2. Piston-Skirt Lubrication System For Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Edgar C.; Burzynski, Marion, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Piston-skirt lubrication system provides steady supply of oil to piston rings of gas compressor. No need for oil-filled crankcase or external oil pump. Instead, part of each piston acts as its own oil pump circulating oil from reservoir. Annular space at bottom of piston and cylinder constitutes working volume of small oil pump. Depending on application, reservoir open to atmosphere, or sealed and pressurized in bellows to prevent contact between oil and atmosphere. Filter removes particles worn away from piston rings and cylinder wall during normal operation.

  3. Biodegradable lubricants - ''the solution for future?''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, A.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental impact of lubricants use concern the direct effects from spills but also the indirect effects such as their lifetime and the emissions from thermal engines. The biodegradable performances and the toxicity are the environmental criteria that must be taken into account in the development and application of lubricants together with their technical performances. This paper recalls first the definition of biodegradable properties of hydrocarbons and the standardized tests, in particular the CEC and AFNOR tests. Then, the biodegradable performances of basic oils (mineral, vegetal, synthetic esters, synthetic hydrocarbons etc..), finite lubricants (hydraulic fluids..) and engine oils is analyzed according to these tests. Finally, the definition of future standards would take into account all the environmental characteristics of the lubricant: biodegradable performances, energy balance (CO 2 , NOx and Hx emissions and fuel savings), eco-toxicity and technical performances (wearing and cleanliness). (J.S.)

  4. Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

  5. Nondestructive inspection of the condition of oil pipeline cleaning units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdonosov, V.A.; Boiko, D.A.; Lapshin, B.M.; Chakhlov, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    One of the reasons for shutdowns of main oil pipelines is stoppage of the cleaning unit in cleaning of the inner surface of paraffin deposits caused by damage to the cleaning unit. The authors propose a method of searching for and determining the condition of the cleaning unit not requiring dismantling of the pipeline according to which the initial search for the cleaning unit is done with acoustic instruments (the increased acoustic noise at the point of stoppage of its is recorded) and subsequent inspection by a radiographic method. An experimental model of an instrument was developed making it possible to determine the location of a cleaning unit in an oil pipeline in stoppage of it from the acoustic noise. The instrument consists of two blocks, the remote sensor and the indicator block, which are connected to each other with a cable up to 10 m long. The design makes it possible to place the sensor at any accessible point of a linear part of the pipeline (in a pit, on a valve, etc.) while the indicator block may remain on the surface of the ground. The results obtained make it possible to adopt the optimum solutions on elimination of their malfunctioning and to prevent emergency situations without dismantling of the pipeline. With the equipment developed it is possible to inspect oil and gas pipelines with different reasons for a reduction in their throughput

  6. Formulation of lubricating grease using Beeswax thickener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, N.; Japar, A.; Aizudin, M.; Aziz, A.; Najib Razali, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The issues on environmental pollution has brought the industries to seek the alternative green solutions for lubricating grease formulation. The significant challenges in producing modified grease are in which considering the chosen thickener as one of the environmental friendly material. The main purposes of the current research were to formulate lubricant grease using different types of base oils and to study the effect of thickener on the formulated lubricant grease. Used oil and motor oil were used as the base oils for the grease preparation. Beeswax and Damar were used as thickener and additive. The grease is tested based on its consistency, stability and oil bleeding. The prepared greases achieved grease consistency of grade 2 and 3 except for grease with unfiltered used oil. Grease formulated with used oil and synthetic oil tend to harden and loss its lubricating ability under high temperature compared to motor oil’ grease. Grease modification using environmental friendly thickener were successfully formulated but it is considered as a low temperature grease as the beeswax have low melting point of 62°C-65°C.

  7. Lubrication analysis of the thrust bearing in the main coolant pump of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. S.; Park, J. S.; Kim, J. H.; Hur, H.; Kim, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    Thrust bearing and journal bearings are installed in the main coolant pump for SMART to support the rotating shaft with proper lubrication. The canned motor type main coolant pumps are arranged vertically on the reactor vessel and especially the MCP bearings are lubricated with water without external lubricating oil supply. Because axial load capacity of the thrust bearing can hardly meet requirement to acquire hydrodynamic or fluid film lubrication state, self-lubrication characteristics of silicon graphite meterials would be needed. Lubricational analysis method for thrust bearing for the main coolant pump of SMART is proposed, and lubricational characteristics of the bearing generated by solving the Reynolds equation are examined in this paper

  8. Graphite and Hybrid Nanomaterials as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu J. Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lubricant additives, based on inorganic nanoparticles coated with organic outer layer, can reduce wear and increase load-carrying capacity of base oil remarkably, indicating the great potential of hybrid nanoparticles as anti-wear and extreme-pressure additives with excellent levels of performance. The organic part in the hybrid materials improves their flexibility and stability, while the inorganic part is responsible for hardness. The relationship between the design parameters of the organic coatings, such as molecular architecture and the lubrication performance, however, remains to be fully elucidated. A survey of current understanding of hybrid nanoparticles as lubricant additives is presented in this review.

  9. Soft lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Jan; Mahadevan, Laksminarayanan

    2004-11-01

    We study the lubrication of fluid-immersed soft interfaces and show that elastic deformation couples tangential and normal forces and thus generates lift. We consider materials that deform easily, due to either geometry (e.g a shell) or constitutive properties (e.g. a gel or a rubber), so that the effects of pressure and temperature on the fluid properties may be neglected. Four different system geometries are considered: a rigid cylinder moving tangentially to a soft layer coating a rigid substrate; a soft cylinder moving tangentially to a rigid substrate; a cylindrical shell moving tangentially to a rigid substrate; and finally a journal bearing coated with a thin soft layer, which being a conforming contact allows us to gauge the influence of contact geometry. In addition, for the particular case of a soft layer coating a rigid substrate we consider both elastic and poroelastic material responses. Finally, we consider the role of contact geometry in the context of the journal bearing, a conforming contact. For all these cases we find the same generic behavior: there is an optimal combination of geometric and material parameters that maximizes the dimensionless normal force as a function of the softness.

  10. Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication

    CERN Document Server

    Dowson, D; Hopkins, D W

    1977-01-01

    Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication deals with the mechanism of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication, that is, the lubrication regime in operation over the small areas where machine components are in nominal point or line contact. The lubrication of rigid contacts is discussed, along with the effects of high pressure on the lubricant and bounding solids. The governing equations for the solution of elasto-hydrodynamic problems are presented.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and representation of contacts by cylinders, followed by a discussio

  11. Status seminar: rapidly biodegradable lubricants and working agents; Statusseminar: Biologisch schnell abbaubare Schmier- und Verfahrensstoffe. Guelzower Fachgespraeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Lubricants and hydraulic fluids based on vegetable oils have many advantages over mineral oils. They are biodegradable, have excellent tribological, wear and lubricating properties. The topics of the status seminar were: field test with biodegradable hydraulic fluids, chemical modification, additives, wear resistance, tribology. Examples of biodegradable oils were sunflower oil, rape oil and sunthetic esters.

  12. Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of bamboo residual and waste lubricating oil over an ex-situ dual catalytic beds of MgO and HZSM-5: Analytical PY-GC/MS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Ding, Kuan; Deng, Aidong; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Catalytic co-pyrolysis of bamboo residual and waste lubricating oil was conducted. • MgO was beneficial to deacidification via ketonization and aldol condensation. • Dual catalytic bed system exhibited prominent deoxygenation and aromatization. • A HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio of 3:2 largely increased the yield of aromatics. • Waste lubricating oil leads hydrocarbon pool towards the formation of hydrocarbons. - Abstract: Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) of bamboo residual (BR) and waste lubricating oil (WLO) over dual catalytic beds of MgO and HZSM-5 were carried out in an analytical PY-GC/MS. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst types, HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio and WLO percentage on products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were investigated. Experimental results revealed that 600 °C promoted the total peak area of volatile matters and accelerated the yields of furans and phenols. Compared to HZSM-5, MgO exhibited pronounced deacidification via ketonization and aldol condensation reactions as the minimum yield of acids (2.116%) and the maximum yield of ketones (28.805%) could be obtained. Furthermore, given the selectivity of phenols, MgO not only spurred the increase of overall phenols yield, but also facilitated the selectivity of light phenols like phenol and 4-methyl-phenol. With respect to the co-CFP of BR and WLO, a HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio of 3:2 largely accelerated the yield of aromatics via Diels-Alder reaction. Simultaneously, the WLO percentage played a vital role in the yield of hydrocarbons (i.e. aromatics + olefins & alkanes), and the maximum yield (70.305%) could be attained at the percentage of 60% as a function of significant activation of hydrocarbon pool.

  13. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal; Muhannad Zaidan Khalefa

    2018-01-01

    A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment) properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40) on the ...

  14. Increased production of naphtenic lubricants using more active catalysts; Aumento da producao de lubrificantes naftenicos usando catalisadores mais ativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Anita Eleonora F.; Lima, Anie Daniela M.; Figueiredo, Joao B.; Nogueira, Wlamir S.; Zotin, Jose L. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS produces lubricant base oil in three of its refineries: Duque de Caxias (REDUC), Landulpho Alves (RLAM) and Lubricants and Derivatives of Petroleum of Northeast (LUBNOR). LUBNOR, which began its operation in 1998, is the only refinery that produces naphtenic lubricant base oils with a current capacity of 60.000 m{sup 3}/year. It processes Brazilian naphtenic crudes in a vacuum distillation unit to produce distillates, which are then fed in to a hydrotreatment unit (HDT). This HDT unit processes 170 m{sup 3}/day to obtain base oils NH-10, NH-20, NH-140 and ISOVOLT. In 2007, an evaluation study of new catalysts was made for this unit at PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES) aiming to increase the production capacity of the HDT unit. The concept was based on increasing the catalytic activity in the HTD unit by testing new catalysts and operating conditions in a pilot-plant unit. The results obtained were very promising showing that a selected catalyst achieved the normal production rate maintaining the same high quality product at a temperature lower than the conventional process. Alternatively, a 77% increase in the throughput capacity was achieved when the normal reaction temperature was applied to this selected catalyst. (author)

  15. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  16. Used lubricants and ecological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimov, A.Yu.; Dzhamalov, A.A.; Lashkhi, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    This planet is undergoing a severe ecological crisis. The consequent problems include not only how to prevent the destruction of contemporary civilization, but also how to preserve mankind as a biological species. In the onset of this crisis, used lubricants (ULs) play a role that is by no means the least important. Every year, the worldwide discharge of petroleum products to the biosphere is approximately 6 million tonnes, of which more than 50% consists of ULs. The ecologically dangerous components of both commercial lubricants and used lubricants are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are originally present in crude oil; polyhalobiphenyls, mainly polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) of anthropogenic origin; sulfur- and chlorine-containing additives; a number of biocides; organic compounds of metals (lead, barium, antimony, zinc); and nitrites. These substances are distributed in the atmosphere, water, and soil, entering the food chain and appearing in foodstuffs. Moreover, hydrocarbons of petroleum and synthetic oils with a low degree of biodegradability (10-30%) accumulate in the environment and may shift the ecological equilibrium (accelerated multiplication and mutation of microorganisms that assimilate petroleum products). 32 refs., 1 fig

  17. Effect of oil around the pin boss bearing on bearing friction force; Piston pin jikuukebu kinbo no junkatsuyu ga masatsuryoku ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiguchi, M; Suhara, T; Ato, S; Someya, T [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Piston pin bearings are engine parts placed under severe lubricating condition because of the high unit load and temperature and the low sliding speeds. Therefore, they are vulnerable to many lubrication problems such as abnormal wear, scuffs and seizures. In our recent study, the bearing friction were measured using a original measuring device and it was found out that the lubricating conditions of piston pin boss bearings are non-fluid lubrication due to the oil starvation. In this study, we have also measured the lubricating oil behavior around the pin boss bearing using a special cylinder with glass window, and analyzed the relationship between the friction force and the oil behavior at the pin boss bearings in a actual operating gasoline engine. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Exergy analysis of a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, R.; Gonzalez, G.V.; Garcia, V.H.; Pulido, R.; Escarcega, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of an exergy analysis to an existing and operating crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. The objective of such an analysis is to fully understand where energy inefficiencies and real energy losses are located and where modifications should be implemented to improve the overall utilization of energy in the plant. First, the description of the process and the block diagram are presented. After that, the calculating procedure to obtain the exergy balance, the exergy losses, the effectiveness and the improvement potential for each plant component is described and the corresponding results are shown. Finally, the component and overall evaluations are discussed

  19. Tribology and energy efficiency: from molecules to lubricated contacts to complete machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Ian

    2012-01-01

    The impact of lubricants on energy efficiency is considered. Molecular details of base oils used in lubricants can have a great impact on the lubricant's physical properties which will affect the energy efficiency performance of a lubricant. In addition, molecular details of lubricant additives can result in significant differences in measured friction coefficients for machine elements operating in the mixed/boundary lubrication regime. In single machine elements, these differences will result in lower friction losses, and for complete systems (such as cars, trucks, hydraulic circuits, industrial gearboxes etc.) lower fuel consumption or lower electricity consumption can result.

  20. Supporting Information Synthesis of fatty monoester lubricant base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of fatty monoester lubricant base oil catalyzed by Fe-Zn ... Physical properties of fatty acid monoesters viz., kinematic viscosity, viscosity index, density ... The analysis method involves titration of the diluted sample with ethanolic alkali ...

  1. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Physicochemical properties and lubricant potentials of Blighia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME) revealed 96.89 % of monounsaturated fatty acids and esters in the range ... uniformity, hardness, disintegration and dissolution characteristics. Conclusion: Blighia sapida seed oil is a potentially useful low-cost tablet lubricant. However ... Products derived from plants sources can be ...

  3. 14 CFR 33.71 - Lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... arranged that condensed water vapor that might freeze and obstruct the line cannot accumulate at any point... fireproof. (9) Each unpressurized oil tank may not leak when subjected to a maximum operating temperature... supply becomes depleted due to failure of any part of the lubricating system other than the tank itself...

  4. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  5. The Lubrication Qualities of Dimethyl Ether (DME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Sorenson, Spencer C; Jakobsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    by mixing the DME with reasonable amounts of additives. The main conclusion drawn from these measurements is that a combination of lubricity and viscosity comparable to one of diesel oil cannot be reached in the case of DME unless a huge amount of additive is used. This is not an attractive solution...

  6. Single Common Powertrain Lubricant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    this particular shortcoming of the current MIL specification lubricant lineup . Perameter: Units: Average Std. Dev. Average Std. Dev. Average...variations of each 0.2-second time block of all engagements. Test Number The run number listed on this report is a random number and is not sequential ...is not sequential . Only SwRI® can link this run number to JDQ-96, L0254054, August 3, 2010. Page 2 of3 John Deere JDQ-96 Performed using 1400

  7. Adjustable ETHD lubrication applied to the improvement of dynamic performance of flexible rotors supported by active TPJB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Jorge Andrés González; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the dynamic study of a flexible rotor-bearing test rig which resembles a large overhung centrifugal compressor. The rotor is supported by an active tilting pad journal bearing (TPJB) able to perform the adjustable lubrication regime. Such a regime is obtained by injecting...... pressurized oil directly into the bearing clearance through a nozzle placed in a radial bore at the middle of the pad and connected to a high pressure supply unit by servovalves. The theoretical model is based on a finite element model, where the active TPJB with adjustable lubrication is included using...... and the experimental results are obtained. The improvements are obtained when the system response amplitudes in a bounded speed range is reduced by applying the adjustable lubrication. Results are in agreement with the established fact that a significant improvement of the rotor-bearing system dynamic performance can...

  8. Mechanics of a gaseous film barrier to lubricant wetting of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, J. M.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two analytical models, one based on simple hydrodynamic lubrication and the other on soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication, are presented and compared to delineate the dominant physical parameters that govern the mechanics of a gaseous film between a small droplet of lubricant and the outer race of a ball bearing. Both models are based on the balance of gravity forces, air drag forces, and air film lubrication forces and incorporate a drag coefficient C sub D and a lubrication coefficient C sub L to be determined from experiment. The soft elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) model considers the effects of droplet deformation and solid-surface geometry; the simpler hydrodynamic lubrication (HL) model assumes that the droplet remains essentially spherical. The droplet's angular position depended primarily on the ratio of gas inertia to droplet gravity forces and on the gas Reynolds number and weakly on the ratio of droplet gravity forces to surface tension forces (Bond number) and geometric ratios for the soft EHL. An experimental configuration in which an oil droplet is supported by an air film on the rotating outer race of a ball bearing within a pressure-controlled chamber produced measurements of droplet angular position as a function of outer-race velocity droplet size and type, and chamber pressure.

  9. Aminodisulfides as additives to lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balin, A.I.; Tarasevich, V.B.; Veretenova, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    A study was carried out and tehcnology developed for producing sulfur-nitrogen containing additives of the type of aminodisulfide by interaction of beta, beta-dichlordialkyl (aryl) disulfides with diethanolamine in a medium of sulfur-diethanolamine. The 2,2'-bis-(diethanol)-dialkyl(aryl) disulfides obtained do not hydrolyze in aqueous soltuions of alkalis, exhibit rather high antiscoring properties and are recommended for tests as active additives of high pressure to SOZH and technological lubricants of the oil and emulsion types.

  10. Physical Characteristics of Tetrahydroxy and Acylated Derivatives of Jojoba Liquid Wax in Lubricant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Gordon, Sherald; Xu, Jingyuan

    2018-01-01

    Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long-chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols mainly C38:2-C46:2. The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and, therefore, is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the jojoba ( Simmondsia chinensis ) plant which occurs naturally in the Sonora Desert in the United States and northwestern Mexico as well as in the northeastern Sahara desert. The seed contains 50-60% oil by dry weight. The plant has been introduced into Australia, Argentina, and Israel for commercial production of the jojoba oil. As a natural lubricant, we are seeking to explore its potential as a renewable industrial lubricant additive. Thus, we have chemically modified the carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil structure in order to improve its already good resistance to air oxidation so as to enhance its utility as well as its shelf life in nonpersonal care applications. To achieve this goal, we have hydroxylated its -C=C- bonds. Acylation of the resulting hydroxyl moieties has generated short-chain vicinal acyl substituents on the oil which keep the wax liquid, improving its cold flow properties and also protecting it from auto-oxidation and rancidity.

  11. Physical Characteristics of Tetrahydroxy and Acylated Derivatives of Jojoba Liquid Wax in Lubricant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers E. Harry-O’kuru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long-chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols mainly C38:2–C46:2. The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and, therefore, is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis plant which occurs naturally in the Sonora Desert in the United States and northwestern Mexico as well as in the northeastern Sahara desert. The seed contains 50–60% oil by dry weight. The plant has been introduced into Australia, Argentina, and Israel for commercial production of the jojoba oil. As a natural lubricant, we are seeking to explore its potential as a renewable industrial lubricant additive. Thus, we have chemically modified the carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil structure in order to improve its already good resistance to air oxidation so as to enhance its utility as well as its shelf life in nonpersonal care applications. To achieve this goal, we have hydroxylated its –C=C– bonds. Acylation of the resulting hydroxyl moieties has generated short-chain vicinal acyl substituents on the oil which keep the wax liquid, improving its cold flow properties and also protecting it from auto-oxidation and rancidity.

  12. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  13. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... it as extra virgin olive oil at a premium price. The petitioners requested that the U.S. grade... requirements. The virgin olive oil category, which includes extra virgin olive oil, is unprocessed. Olive oil...: Section 52.1539, Aspect at 20 degrees after 24 hours. Extra virgin and virgin olive oils can be filtered...

  14. The role of transnational companies as oil suppliers to the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazuelos, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the extent to which the international oil production of transnational companies meets the oil requirements of the United States. Disaggregated data from each company have been used to determine which companies (refineries) are importing crude oil, how much oil each transnational company is produced abroad, and where this production goes to. The analysis show that American international oil production represents a small part of U.S. oil imports. Two conclusions are reached. The first is that U.S. refineries buy the majority of the crude oil they process on the international market and, as a result, are dependent on the unstable conditions of this market. The second is that the economic interests the large American oil companies have abroad are far greater than those they have within the United States and, as a result, these companies do not play a decisive role in a national strategy to guarantee foreign supply.

  15. Temperature dependence on the synthesis of Jatropha bio lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunam Resul, M.F.M.; Tinia Idaty Mohd Ghazi; Idris, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Jatropha oil has good potential as the renewable energy as well as lubricant feedstock. The synthesis of jatropha bio lubricant was performed by transesterification of jatropha methyl ester (JME) with trimethyl-ol-propane (TMP) with sodium methoxide (NaOCH 3 ) catalyst. The effects of temperature on the synthesis were studied at a range between 120 degree Celsius and 200 degree Celsius with pressure kept at 10 mbar. The conversion of JME to jatropha bio lubricant was found to be the highest (47 %) at 200 degree Celsius. However, it was suggested that the optimum temperature of the reaction is at 150 degree Celsius due to insignificant improvement in bio lubricant production. To maintain forward reaction, the excess amount of JME was maintained at 3.9:1 ratios to TMP. Kinetic study was done and compared. The synthesis was found to follow a second order reaction with overall rate constant of 1.49 x 10 -1 (% wt/ wt.min.degree Celsius) -1 . The estimated activation energy was 3.94 kJ/mol. Pour point for jatropha bio lubricant was at -3 degree Celsius and Viscosity Index (VI) ranged from 178 to 183. The basic properties of jatropha bio lubricant, pour point and viscosities are found comparable to other plant based bio lubricant, namely palm oil and soybean based bio lubricant. (author)

  16. Improving the organization of the outfitting of gas and oil fields in a unitized design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.L.; Kurepin, B.N.; Sivergin, M.Yu.; Telegin, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    The basic tenets of the organization of outfitting gas and oil fields in a unitized design are examined. An economic and mathematical model for selecting a variant for transporting unitized devices is proposed in which the transport expenditures are minimal.

  17. Ball Bearings Equipped for In Situ Lubrication on Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mario; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Jansen, Mark; Predmore, Roamer

    2005-01-01

    In situ systems that provide fresh lubricants to ball/race contacts on demand have been developed to prolong the operational lives of ball bearings. These systems were originally intended to be incorporated into ball bearings in mechanisms that are required to operate in outer space for years, in conditions in which lubricants tend to deteriorate and/or evaporate. These systems may also be useful for similarly prolonging bearing lifetimes on Earth. Reservoirs have been among the means used previously to resupply lubricants. Lubricant- resupply reservoirs are bulky and add complexity to bearing assemblies. In addition, such a reservoir cannot be turned on or off as needed: it supplies lubricant continuously, often leading to an excess of lubricant in the bearing. A lubricator of the present type includes a porous ring cartridge attached to the inner or the outer ring of a ball bearing (see Figure 1). Oil is stored in the porous cartridge and is released by heating the cartridge: Because the thermal expansion of the oil exceeds that of the cartridge, heating causes the ejection of some oil. A metal film can be deposited on a face of the cartridge to serve as an electrical-resistance heater. The heater can be activated in response to a measured increase in torque that signals depletion of oil from the bearing/race contacts. Because the oil has low surface tension and readily wets the bearing-ring material, it spreads over the bearing ring and eventually reaches the ball/race contacts. The Marangoni effect (a surface-tension gradient associated with a temperature gradient) is utilized to enhance the desired transfer of lubricant to the ball/race contacts during heating. For a test, a ball bearing designed for use at low speed was assembled without lubricant and equipped with a porous-ring lubricator, the resistance heater of which consumed a power of less than 1 W when triggered on by a torque-measuring device. In the test, a load of 20 lb (.89 N) was applied and the

  18. Role of water lubricated bearings in Candu reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashok N.

    1999-01-01

    During the twentieth century a great emphasis was placed in understanding and defining the operating regime of oil and grease lubricated components. Major advances have been made through elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory in the quantifying the design life of heavily loaded components such as rolling element bearings and gears. Detailed guidelines for the design of oil and grease lubricated components are widely available and are being applied to the successful design of these components. However similar guidelines for water lubricated components are either not available or not well documented. It is often forgotten that the water was used as a lubricant in several components as far back as 1884 B.C. During the twentieth century the water lubricated components continued to play a major role in some high technology industries such as in the power generation plants. In CANDU nuclear reactors water lubrication of several critical components always occupied a pride place and in most cases the only practical mode of lubrication of several critical components always occupied a pride place and in most cases the only practical mode of lubrication. This paper presents some examples of the major water lubricated components in a CANDU reactors. Major part of the paper is focused on presenting an example of successful operating history of water lubricated bearings used in the HT pumps are presented. Both types of bearings have been qualified by tests for operation under normal as well as under more severe postulated condition of loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). These bearings have been designed to operate for the 30 years in the existing CANDU 6 (600 MW) reactors. However for the next generation of CANDU 6 reactors which go into service in the year 2003, the HT pump bearing life has been extended to 40 years. (author)

  19. Measuring energy security. Can the United States achieve oil independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic simulation of the direct economic costs of oil dependence in an uncertain future is proposed as a useful metric of oil dependence. The market failure from which these costs arise is imperfect competition in the world oil market, chiefly as a consequence of the use of market power by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel. Oil dependence costs can be substantial. It is estimated that oil dependence costs to the US economy in 2008 will exceed $500 billion. Other costs, such as military expenditures or foreign policy constraints are deemed to be largely derivative of the actual or potential economic costs of oil dependence. The use of quantifiable economic costs as a security metric leads to a measurable definition of oil independence, or oil security, which can be used to test the ability of specific policies to achieve oil independence in an uncertain future. (author)

  20. Metal forming and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Lubrication is essential in most metal forming processes. The lubricant film has two basic functions, [1]: i. to separate the work piece and tool surfaces and ii. to cool the workpiece and the tool. Separation of the two surfaces implies lower friction facilitating deformation and lowering the tool...

  1. Lubrication method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, R.S.

    1988-05-03

    In a combustion turbine engine comprising a bearing member journaling a rotatable component, and compressor means providing pressurized air, the method of providing liquid lubricant to the bearing member is described comprising the steps of: providing the liquid lubricant sealed within a collapsible and penetrable bladder member; enclosing the bladder member and lubricant within a substantially closed housing sealingly cooperating with the bladder member to define a pair of chambers; arranging a penetrating lance member in one of the pair of chambers in confronting relationship with the bladder member; providing communication of the pressurized air with the other of the pair of chambers to force the bladder member into impaled sealing relationship with the lance member; communicating the lubricant to the bearing member via the lance member; and utilizing the pressurized air within the other chamber to collapse the bladder member, simultaneously flowing the lubricant to the bearing member.

  2. Demonstration Of Electrochemical Oxidation Of Oils Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes And Its Potential Role In The Disposal Of Radioactively Contaminated Waste Lubricants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.T.; Newey, A.W.E.; Bates, C.J.; King, C.R.; Dawes, K.

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode is being investigated as a possible method for treating radiologically-contaminated oils. It has the potential to oxidise oils to carbon dioxide and water, and it would be particularly beneficial for oils contaminated with plutonium. It was found that simultaneous application of sonication and electro-oxidation produced and maintained an oil emulsion, so enabling its oxidation. This treatment was shown to be effective with 3 different oils: an unused hydraulic oil, an unused vacuum pump oil and a waste used machine tool oil, although the addition of a small amount of surfactant was required for the effective emulsification and oxidation of the vacuum pump oil. Essentially complete oxidation of the hydraulic oil in the absence of other organic material was demonstrated. The rate of oxidation appeared to be limited by the applied current when the concentration of oil was high and the current was low. Similarly, it was limited by the oil concentration when the concentration of oil was low and the current was relatively high. The required scale-up from a laboratory electrochemical cell is estimated to be 10,000 fold, which could entail a cell with a total BDD surface area of 3 m 2 , drawing a current of about 2000 A. It is anticipated that it should be possible to minimise the size of the cell by optimisation during the design of the prototype equipment. (authors)

  3. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  4. Additives for high-temperature liquid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emil A.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Repar, John

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary research program was conducted to demonstrate a new concept for additives to liquid lubricants. It was demonstrated that suspensions of o-phthalonitrile and a substituted 1,2-maleonitrile in mineral oil and dilute solutions of o-phthalonitrile and tetrafluoro-o-phthalonitrile extended the lifetime of bearings under boundary lubricating conditions. The solutions exhibited coefficients of friction under high loads of 0.02-0.03. These results were consistent with the hypothesis that these compounds react with the hot metal surface to form a planar lubricating film by means of a metal or metal oxide template reaction. Also, the adherence was very strong due to the chelating action of the planar macrocycles postulated to form under the experimental conditions.

  5. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement has initiated this project concerning the application of biodegradable lubricants to diesel and gasoline type vehicles. Emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer were carried out. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the emissions of CO, CO2......, NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...... that have been evaluated during the experiments. Both vehicle types were operated on conventional crude oil based fuels and alternative fuels. The diesel vehicle was operated on conventional diesel fuel from a Danish fuel station, low sulfur diesel from Sweden and biodiesel, which was bought at a fuel...

  6. Biodiesel as a lubricity additive for ultra low sulfur diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subongkoj Topaiboul1 and 2,*

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide trend to reduce emission from diesel engines, ultra low sulfur diesel has been introduced with thesulfur concentration of less than 10 ppm. Unfortunately, the desulfurization process inevitably reduces the lubricity of dieselfuel significantly. Alternatively, biodiesel, with almost zero sulfur content, has been added to enhance lubricity in an ultralow sulfur diesel. This work has evaluated the effectiveness of the biodiesel amount, sourced from palm and jatropha oil,and origin in ultra low sulfur diesel locally available in the market. Wear scar from a high-frequency reciprocating rig isbenchmarked to the standard value (460 m of diesel fuel lubricity. It was found that very small amount (less than 1% ofbiodiesel from either source significantly improves the lubricity in ultra low sulfur diesel, and the biodiesel from jatropha oilis a superior lubricity enhancer.

  7. Value of Canadian oil sands... to the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliaresi, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of the recession in late 2007, the American economy has been subject to great change, affecting the way energy is produced and consumed. The structure of oil imports and exports has changed significantly and U.S. imports are now primarily from Canada. The current study shows how and why the U.S. has become dependent on imports of oil from the Canadian oil sands. Oil from Canadian oil sands is transported to different Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) via the Keystone pipeline. As imports from Canada increased, the U.S. refinery sector was restructured. Small refineries were closed while larger refineries were expanded and investment was made to increase their processing capacity. The increased import and processing of oil from the Canadian oil sands led to an advantageous decrease in oil prices. If the Keystone XL project were to be approved, the pipeline would increase the area with access to the means of transporting oil, allowing the increasing demand for oil to be met and, potentially, stabilizing world oil prices.

  8. Lubrication analysis of the journal bearing in the main coolant pump of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. S.; Park, J. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    Special type journal bearings are installed in the main coolant pump for SMART to support the rotating shaft with proper lubrication. The canned motor type main coolant pumps are arranged vertically on the reactor vessel. The MCP bearings are lubricated with water without external lubricating oil supply. Long bearing with vertical grooves is designed with relatively large bearing clearance to accommodate the long shaft. Lubricational analysis method for journal bearing with vertical grooves in the main coolant pump of SMART is proposed, and lubricational characteristics of the bearings are examined in this paper

  9. Practical lubrication for industrial facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Now completely revised and updated, this definitive, hands-on reference provides a comprehensive resource on the fundamental principles of lubricant application, what products are available, and which lubricants are most effective for specific applications. It also offers a detailed and highly practical discussion of lubrication delivery systems. You'll gain a clearer understanding of the "why" of relevant industrial lubrication practices, and, importantly, how these practices will facilitate optimized results. Lubricant applications covered include bearings and machine elements in earthbound

  10. Fuels and Lubricants Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Modern naval aircraft and turbine-powered craft require reliable and high-quality fuels and lubricants to satisfy the demands imposed upon them for top performance...

  11. Shale oil specialty markets: Screening survey for United States applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    EG and G requested J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc. to carry out an initial screening study on the possibilities for producing specialty chemicals from oil shale. Raw shale oil is not an acceptable feedstock to refineries and there are not enough user of heavy fuel oil in the western oil shale region to provide a dependable market. The only alternatives are to hydrotreat the oil, or else ship it long distances to a larger market area. Either of these alternatives results in a cost penalty of several dollars per barrel. Instead of attempting to enter the large-volume petroleum products market, it was hypothesized that a small shale oil facility might be able to produce specialty chemicals with a high enough average value to absorb the high costs of shipping small quantities to distant markets and still provide a higher netback to the plant site than sales to the conventional petroleum products market. This approach, rather than attempting to refine shale oil or to modify its characteristics to satisfy the specifications for petroleum feedstocks or products, focuses instead on those particular characteristics which distinguish shale oil from petroleum, and attempts to identify applications which would justify a premium value for those distinctive characteristics. Because byproducts or specialty chemicals production has been a prominent feature of oil shale industries which have flourished for periods of time in various countries, a brief review of those industries provides a starting point for this study. 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of lubricity of methanolic extract of mango (Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extract of mango seed oil (Mangifera Indica) was evaluated for suitability as lubricant for machini-ng mild steel at various speeds, feeds and depths of cut. The coefficient of friction between the tool and chip in- dicated that the methanolic extract reduced friction between the tool and work piece. The oil also ...

  13. On the design of lubricant free piston compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owczarek, P.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the development on long lifetime and an efficient piston compressor operating in a clean environment where oil lubrication must be excluded. Particularly in cooling systems including cryocoolers the presence of oil is a well known problem. A growing number of applications of

  14. Analysis of BJ493 diesel engine lubrication system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.

    2017-12-01

    The BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine design is based on the primary model of BJ493ZLQ3, of which exhaust level is upgraded to the National GB5 standard due to the improved design of combustion and injection systems. Given the above changes in the diesel lubrication system, its improved properties are analyzed in this paper. According to the structures, technical parameters and indices of the lubrication system, the lubrication system model of BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine was constructed using the Flowmaster flow simulation software. The properties of the diesel engine lubrication system, such as the oil flow rate and pressure at different rotational speeds were analyzed for the schemes involving large- and small-scale oil filters. The calculated values of the main oil channel pressure are in good agreement with the experimental results, which verifies the proposed model feasibility. The calculation results show that the main oil channel pressure and maximum oil flow rate values for the large-scale oil filter scheme satisfy the design requirements, while the small-scale scheme yields too low main oil channel’s pressure and too high. Therefore, application of small-scale oil filters is hazardous, and the large-scale scheme is recommended.

  15. Nanomaterials in Lubricants: An Industrial Perspective on Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zhmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the use of various classes of nanomaterials in lubricant formulations. The following classes of nanomaterials are considered: fullerenes, nanodiamonds, ultradispersed boric acid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. Current advances in using nanomaterials in engine oils, industrial lubricants and greases are discussed. Results of numerous studies combined with formulation experience of the authors strongly suggest that nanomaterials do indeed have potential for enhancing certain lubricant properties, yet there is a long way to go before balanced formulations are developed.

  16. External hazards in the PRA of Olkiluoto 1 and 2 NPP units - Accidental oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunturivuori, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Oil transports in Finnish territorial waters have increased significantly during the last 10 years. The Gulf of Finland is at this moment a very important route of oil being transported from Russia to the Western Europe. Although the number of accidental oil spills is decreasing in amount and in size, there is a growing concern of their effects to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The amounts of oil transported on the Gulf of Bothnia are much smaller than on the Gulf of Finland. However, accidental oil spills have occurred also there, the size and amount of which are smaller, though. Accidental oil spills are often a result of grounding of a ship or collision of two ships, and often occur during harsh weather conditions like storm or dense fog. However, also coastal oil depots may break, the oil of which may spread over wide distances on the sea. The modelling of initiating events resulting from accidental oil spills includes oil spill response actions performed by the regional rescue services, alarming of the oil spill by the emergency response centre to the NPP rescue services and spill response by the NPPs rescue services. It is unclear what the consequences are if drifted oil would enter the coolant water tunnels. The effect of different oil types to the operation of the safety-related service water systems and components are being assessed. In the ultimate case, an oil spill would clog the inlet channels thus failing the ultimate heat sink of the NPP units. The licensee is evaluating what is the optimal way to operate the NPP units in the case that an oil slick is threatening the plant to ensure reactor core cooling and RHR. The continued operation of, and especially the cooling of, at least one auxiliary feedwater pump is critical in the mitigation of the initiating event. Strategies, like reversing the water flow of the cooling water channels or closing of the cooling water channels, are being evaluated. (authors)

  17. Lubrication and cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, V; Dowson, D

    1976-02-01

    Mechanisms of lubrication of human synovial joints have been analysed in terms of the operating conditions of the joint, the synovial fluid and articular cartilage. In the hip and knee during a walking cycle the load may rise up to four times body weight. In the knee on dropping one metre the load may go up to 25 time body weight. The elastic modulus of cartilage is similar to that of the synthetic rubber of a car tyre. The cartilage surface is rough and in elderly specimens the centre line average is 2-75 mum. The friction force generated in reciprocating tests shows that both cartilage and synovial fluid are important in lubrication. The viscosity-shear rate relationships of normal synovial fluid show that it is non-Newtonian. Osteoarthrosic fluid is less so and rheumatoid fluid is more nearly Newtonian. Experiments with hip joints in a pendulum machine show that fluid film lubrication obtains at some phases of joint action. Boundary lubrication prevails under certain conditions and has been examined with a reciprocating friction machine. Digestion of hyaluronate does not alter the boundary lubrication, but trypsin digestion does. Surface active substances (lauryl sulphate and cetyl 3-ammonium bromide) give a lubricating ability similar to that of synovial fluid. The effectiveness of the two substances varies with pH.

  18. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, H.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M.A.; Rashedul, H.K.; Rashed, M.M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We tested a-C:H and ta-C DLC coatings as a function of temperature. • Jatropha oil contains large amounts of polar components that enhanced the lubricity of coatings. • CoF decreases with increasing temperature for both contacts. • Wear rate increases with increasing temperature in a-C:H and decreases in ta-C DLC. • At high temperature, ta-C coatings confer more protection than a-C:H coatings. - Abstract: The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC

  19. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, H.M., E-mail: mobarak.ho31@yahoo.com; Masjuki, H.H.; Mohamad, E. Niza, E-mail: edzrol@um.edu.my; Kalam, M.A.; Rashedul, H.K.; Rashed, M.M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • We tested a-C:H and ta-C DLC coatings as a function of temperature. • Jatropha oil contains large amounts of polar components that enhanced the lubricity of coatings. • CoF decreases with increasing temperature for both contacts. • Wear rate increases with increasing temperature in a-C:H and decreases in ta-C DLC. • At high temperature, ta-C coatings confer more protection than a-C:H coatings. - Abstract: The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  20. Future oil supply to the Northeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronheim, H.

    1976-06-01

    The Northeast consumed some 4.6 million bbls/day of petroleum products in 1972. Nearly 63 percent of that supply was of foreign origin, making the Northeast the single largest oil-importing region in the nation. The remainder of its supply originated mainly in states on the Gulf of Mexico. The phasing out of coal as a major utility boiler fuel and curtailment of natural gas sales to the Northeast have led to the rapid increase in the use of petroleum products. Nationwide oil production reached a peak of 11.3 million bbls/day in 1970 and has been declining yearly ever since. The Northeast in particular has led the movement to foreign imports because of its coastal location, its distance from domestic sources, the competitive pricing of foreign oils, and because of environmental considerations. Under various assumptions of total U.S. reserves of oil (discovered and undiscovered) coupled to alternate schedules of national resource development, projections of crude oil production were made for the years 1985 and 2000. The projections indicate that even under optimistic conditions crude oil production will be declining in the post-1985 period, if not earlier. The scenarios consistently indicate that the Northeast's regional share will be heavily constrained by 1985, and rapidly declining thereafter. On the other hand, production of oil worldwide will concentrate further in the hands of the Arab OPEC nations who are likely to exercise growing control over pricing and the international supply of crude oil.

  1. Impact of the lubricating oil on thermodynamic performances of reversible heat pumps; Impact de l'huile de lubrification sur les performances thermodynamiques des pompes a chaleur reversibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youbi-Idrissi, M.

    2003-12-01

    This work deals with the effect of oil on the energy performances of refrigerating systems. To characterise this impact, two thermodynamic properties were studied: the solubility and the enthalpy. Thus, a simple measurement method was presented, allowing to study both transient and steady-state behaviour of various refrigerant/oil pairs. Thus, experimental data were validated and modelled. The suitable use of the solubility curves showed the zeotropic character of the refrigerant/oil mixture, which is directly reflected on the enthalpy calculation. For this property, a thermodynamic model was developed and experimentally validated. Its application led to a new presentation of the Mollier diagram taking into account the oil presence. It was then shown that, among all the circuit elements, the evaporator is the most penalized by the oil presence. Its performances decrease when the circulating mass fraction of oil increases, the superheat decreases and when the refrigerant-oil solubility increases. An experimental study on a reversible heat pump confirmed that if the circulation mass fraction of oil in the machine is lower than 2%, the impact of oil is reduced. Lastly, a local model of a refrigerating unit, initially charged with a zeotropic mixture, allowed to analyse the profiles of temperature, heat transfer coefficient and local composition of the refrigerant along a circuit. (author)

  2. Macroeconomic effects of oil price shocks in Brazil and in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, Tiago; Jalles, João Tovar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We find that output growth volatility in the US has been decreasing over time. ► The contribution of oil price shocks to such volatility has also been decreasing. ► In Brazil, oil shocks do not seem to have a clear impact on growth. ► They account for a small fraction of the Brazilian inflation and output volatility. ► Counterfactuals show US output would be 10% less volatile with Brazil’s oil import share. - Abstract: This paper studies the effects of oil price shocks in the last 30 years on the Brazilian and American inflation rate and rhythm of economic activity. The Brazilian and the United States economies are interesting polar cases, since they had a completely different path on the oil import dependence rate. While the oil import dependence rate has increase sharply in the United States (US), it has decreased substantially in Brazil. We found that output growth volatility in the United States has been decreasing over time as well as the contribution of oil price shocks to such volatility, despite the increase in oil import dependence. Inflation volatility has also been decreasing but oil price shocks are accounting for a larger fraction of this volatility in the US. In Brazil, such shocks do not seem to have a clear impact on output growth and they account for a very small fraction of the Brazilian inflation and output growth rate volatility. We finally run some counterfactual experiments to analyze how real output growth in the United States would had been if net oil import share in the United States behaved similarly to what was observed in Brazil. We conclude that output level would be roughly the same, however, it would be about 10% less volatile if the US had the actual Brazilian oil import share

  3. The effect of increasing Diesel and lubricating oil contamination on the aggregate stability and compressibility of two soil materials (Ah and Bt material)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, M.; Goetz, D.; Wiechmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of mineral oil on two factors determining the soil mechanics properties is introduced: The water stability of the aggregates without loading and their compressibility under load, and the resulting density of storage. The unpolarized mineral oil immiscible with the water represents a 4th phase in the soil. The effect of the mineral oil on the sum of the acting forces (cohesion and adhesion forces, surface and boundary energy) and the wettability are shown with investigations, which describe the total effects. (orig.) [de

  4. The military and energy: Moving the United States beyond oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closson, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    Energized by service members wounded and killed protecting fuel convoys in Iraq in the mid-2000s and stunned by the oil price spike in 2008, the Department of Defense (DOD) had already started to seriously address energy challenges when the Obama Administration took steps to accelerate these actions. Real-world events, a growing military realization of threats and opportunities, and an Administration intent on fostering American leadership in clean-energy innovation have coalesced to promote change across the military services in the energy domain. This has been particularly evident in the Department's efforts to lessen its oil consumption. However, the ability to turn policy into practice has met numerous challenges from within and without the defense establishment. The question remains whether the DOD will be able to move beyond oil in a significant way. By examining a series of US government policy documents and programs, this article seeks to analyze the motivations behind the drive by the DOD to reduce oil consumption, to identify the challenges in meeting this objective, and to analyze efforts underway by the Department. Given that replacing oil for the largest transport fleet in the world will take several decades, it will require a sustained leadership from senior military officials. - Highlights: • The drive for less oil is about cost, combat maneuverability, and climate change. • Culture of oil, lagging research and development, and lack of leadership pose challenges. • Ultimately, the US Congress questioning the necessity to replace oil could derail the effort. • Lessening operational oil use could take several decades of sustained leadership

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication and boundary lubrication for automotive tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washizu, Hitoshi; Sanda, Shuzo; Hyodo, Shi-aki; Ohmori, Toshihide; Nishino, Noriaki; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Friction control of machine elements on a molecular level is a challenging subject in vehicle technology. We describe the molecular dynamics studies of friction in two significant lubrication regimes. As a case of elastohydrodynamic lubrication, we introduce the mechanism of momentum transfer related to the molecular structure of the hydrocarbon fluids, phase transition of the fluids under high pressure, and a submicron thickness simulation of the oil film using a tera-flops computer. For boundary lubrication, the dynamic behavior of water molecules on hydrophilic and hydrophobic silicon surfaces under a shear condition is studied. The dynamic structure of the hydrogen bond network on the hydrophilic surface is related to the low friction of the diamond-like carbon containing silicon (DLC-Si) coating

  6. Did Iraq Cheat the United Nations? Underpricing, Bribes, and the Oil for Food Program

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Tai Hsieh; Enrico Moretti

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 through early 2003, the United Nations Oil for Food Program allowed Iraq to export oil in exchange for humanitarian supplies. We measure the extent to which this program was corrupted by Iraq's attempts to deliberately set the price of its oil below market prices in an effort to solicit bribes, both in the form of direct cash bribes and in the form of political favors, from the buyers of the underpriced oil. We infer the magnitude of the potential bribe by comparing the gap between ...

  7. IUTAM Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the First International Symposium on Lubricated Transport of Viscous Materials was to bring together scientists and engineers from academia and industryto discuss current research work and exchange ideas in this newly emerging field. It is an area offluid dynamics devoted to laying bare the principlesofthe lubricated transport of viscous materials such as crude oil, concentrated oil/water emulsion, slurries and capsules. It encompasses several types of problem. Studies of migration of particulates away from walls, Segre-Silverberg effects, lubrication versus lift and shear-induced migration belong to one category. Some of the technological problems are the fluid dynamics ofcore flows emphasizing studies ofstability, problems of start-up, lift-off and eccentric flow where gravity causes the core flow to stratify. Another category of problems deals with the fouling of pipe walls with oil, with undesirable increases in pressure gradients and even blocking. This study involves subjects like ...

  8. Glass transitions in lubricants - Its relation to elastohydrodynamic lubrication /EHD/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, M.; Bair, S.; Sanborn, D. M.; Winer, W. O.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the possible role of glass transition and glassy state behavior of lubricants in EHD contacts is reported. Measurements of the glass transition of lubricants as a function of pressure by two methods are presented along with a discussion indicating possible implications of the results to EHD lubrication.

  9. A Review of Ionic Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E. Somers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to ever increasing demands on lubricants, such as increased service intervals, reduced volumes and reduced emissions, there is a need to develop new lubricants and improved wear additives. Ionic liquids (ILs are room temperature molten salts that have recently been shown to offer many advantages in this area. The application of ILs as lubricants in a diverse range of systems has found that these materials can show remarkable protection against wear and significantly reduce friction in the neat state. Recently, some researchers have shown that a small family of ILs can also be incorporated into non-polar base oils, replacing traditional anti-wear additives, with excellent performance of the neat IL being maintained. ILs consist of large asymmetrical ions that may readily adsorb onto a metal surface and produce a thin, protective film under boundary lubrication conditions. Under extreme pressure conditions, certain IL compounds can also react to form a protective tribofilm, in particular when fluorine, phosphorus or boron atoms are present in the constituent ions.

  10. Limits of Lubrication in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam

    as delivered stainless steel surfaces implying microstructure changes in terms of larger ratio of closed lubricant pockets due to selective grain boundary etching. Strategic surfaces have also been created by macroscopic texturing using spherical indentations having a very small edge slope in order to promote...... by strategic surfaces in comparison to normal stainless steel surfaces implying a larger extent of bi-axial stretching. Numerical simulations have been applied in order to evaluate limits of lubrication in the simulative strip reduction based on predictions of critical parameters appearing in terms......-models corresponds well to experimental results in terms of lubricant film breakdown and subsequently pick-up development. Punching and blanking have been investigated regarding tribological conditions in case of using stainless steel workpiece materials. However, this has called for development of a new test method...

  11. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  12. Experimental unit to study motion of gas-liquid mixtures in vertical pipes for lifting highly viscous oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abishev, S K; Bulgakov, R R; Sakharov, V A

    1981-01-01

    Basic features are presented of a new experimental-research unit of gas-lift recovery of oil UGDN-2 for conditions of lifting the highly viscous oil. It is proposed that this unit be used to conduct experiments and to determine the calculated relationships of a gas-liquid lifter on fluids simulating highly viscous oil.

  13. Spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis of oil from an oil shale flash pyrolysis unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khraisha, V.H.; Irqsousi, N.A. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Shabib, I.M. [Applied Science Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation, spectroscopic (FT-IR, UV-Vis, {sup 1}H NMR) and chromatographic (GC) techniques were used to analyze two Jordanian shale oils, Sultani and El-Lajjun. The oils were extracted at different pyrolysis temperatures (400-500{sup o}C) using a fluidized bed reactor. The spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses show that the variation of pyrolysis temperature has no significant effect on the composition of the produced oil. The {sup 1}H NMR results indicate that the protons of methyl and methelyene represent the bulk of the hydrogen ({approx}90%) in most shale oil samples. GC analysis reveals that the oil samples contain n-alkanes with a predominant proportion of n-C{sub 25}. (Author)

  14. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy for degradation monitoring of machinery lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovski, Oleg; Suresh, Pooja; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Green, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Lubrication oil is a vital component of heavy rotating machinery defining the machine's health, operational safety and effectiveness. Recently, the focus has been on developing sensors that provide real-time/online monitoring of oil condition/lubricity. Industrial practices and standards for assessing oil condition involve various analytical methods. Most these techniques are unsuitable for online applications. The paper presents the results of studying degradation of antioxidant additives in machinery lubricants using Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) Spectroscopy and Machine Learning techniques. EEM Spectroscopy is capable of rapid and even standoff sensing; it is potentially applicable to real-time online monitoring.

  15. Evidence of efficiency in United States futures oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchock, C.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Perpetual Contract Data for West Texas Intermediate Crude Oil futures contracts in studies of the US crude oil futures market prices to determine whether the market was efficient. Analysis was done to determine whether the Perpetual Contract Data exhibited the characteristics of a random walk. Daily data on US crude oil perpetual futures contract prices were analyzed using standard statistical techniques and spectral analysis techniques. Spectral analysis was used on the first differences of daily data to determine whether the price change data contained cyclicality. Results showed no significant cycles or autocorrelation in the data, concluding there was evidence to indicate the Perpetual Contract Data for futures prices is a random walk. This is similar to the conclusion by Howard (1988) that spot West Texas Intermediate Crude prices follow a random walk. Thus, both the futures and spot markets efficiently capture current information in prices

  16. Effect of mating materials on wear properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H coating and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C coating in base oil boundary lubrication condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wear behavior of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H coating and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C coating when sliding against various mating materials in base oil boundary lubrication condition is comparatively investigated to find out the optimal combinations of DLC/mating material and corresponding wear mechanism of both DLC coating. Tribological tests were performed in a cylinder-on-disc tribometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy is used for characterization of ta-C and a-C:H worn surface. The results show that the specific wear rate of ta-C coating increases along with the hardness and roughness of mating material increases, while the specific wear rate of a-C:H coating increases together with an increment in the ID/IG ratio. It is concluded that for ta-C coating, local stress concentration-induced microfracture is the main wear mechanism in relative high wear scenario, along with minor graphitization-induced wear which prevails in low wear scenario. On the other hand, a-C:H coating showed that simultaneous generation and removal of the graphitized layer on the contact surface is the predominant wear mechanism.

  17. Determinants of profitability of smallholder palm oil processing units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 70 questionnaires were administered to the palm oil farmers randomly selected from five purposively sampled towns in Ogun state. Selection was based on the predominance of producers in the towns as well as their geographical spread covering the entire land space of the state. The response rate was 95.71 ...

  18. Universal water-dilutable inhibited protective lubricants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamtseva, M.V.; Kardash, N.V.; Latynina, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the interest of environmental protection, improvement of working conditions, and reduced fire hazard in production operations, water-based protective lubricants are now available in a wide assortment, and the production volume has increased greatly. The term water-dilutable inhibited protective lubricants (WDIPL) means water-soluble, water-emulsifiable, or water-dispersible products with the dual function of reducing friction and wear and protecting metal surfaces against corrosion for specified periods of time. According to the standard Unified System of Protection Against Corrosion and Aging (COST 9.103-78), WDIPLs are classed as products for the temporary corrosion protection of metals and end-items. In the general class of WDIPLs one can identify water-dilutable combination corrosion inhibitors, film-forming inhibited petroleum compositions (FIPC-d), detergent-preservative fluids, operational-preservative lubricating-cooling process compounds (ICPC), and, finally, universal multifunctional products. Combined corrosion inhibitors may consist of water-soluble organic and inorganic compounds; water/oil and oil-soluble surfactants - corrosion inhibitors of the chemisorption type or donor and/or acceptor types; shielding inhibitors of the adsorption type; and fast-acting water-displacing components. 23 refs

  19. Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most industrial lubricants are derived from non-renewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of our environment as a result of the very slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewa...

  20. Boundary lubrication of stainless steel and CoCrMo in aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based lubricants are widely used in many mechanical applications, but they cannot be used for applications with a high risk of polluting the environment or for applications that involve a bio-medical environment. Water-based lubricants can be used as alternative because they can potentially

  1. Reliability model for helicopter main gearbox lubrication system using influence diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.S.J.; Place, C.S.; Mba, D.; Keong, R.L.C.; Healey, A.; Kleine-Beek, W.; Romano, M.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of oil from a helicopter main gearbox (MGB) leads to increased friction between components, a rise in component surface temperatures, and subsequent mechanical failure of gearbox components. A number of significant helicopter accidents have been caused due to such loss of lubrication. This paper presents a model to assess the reliability of helicopter MGB lubricating systems. Safety risk modeling was conducted for MGB oil system related accidents in order to analyse key failure mechanisms and the contributory factors. Thus, the dominant failure modes for lubrication systems and key contributing components were identified. The Influence Diagram (ID) approach was then employed to investigate reliability issues of the MGB lubrication systems at the level of primary causal factors, thus systematically investigating a complex context of events, conditions, and influences that are direct triggers of the helicopter MGB lubrication system failures. The interrelationships between MGB lubrication system failure types were thus identified, and the influence of each of these factors on the overall MGB lubrication system reliability was assessed. This paper highlights parts of the HELMGOP project, sponsored by the European Aviation Safety Agency to improve helicopter main gearbox reliability. - Highlights: • We investigated methods to optimize helicopter MGB oil system run-dry capability. • Used Influence Diagram to assess design and maintenance factors of MGB oil system. • Factors influencing overall MGB lubrication system reliability were identified. • This globally influences current and future helicopter MGB designs

  2. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, H. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Rashed, M. M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-01

    The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  3. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  4. Men's use and perceptions of commercial lubricants: prevalence and characteristics in a nationally representative sample of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Michael; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Most research on men's use of commercial lubricants during sexual activities is in the context of condom use and often specifically among men who have sex with men. Less is known about men's use of lubricants associated with a broader range of sexual experiences. The aims of this study are to document the prevalence of commercial lubricant use among adult U.S. men (age 18+), to document men's use of lubricants across solo and partnered sexual behaviors, and to assess men's perceptions of the contributions lubricants have to the sexual experience. Data are from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, which involved the administration of an online questionnaire to a nationally representative probability sample of U.S. adults ages 18 and older. Sociodemographic characteristics, recent and lifetime commercial lubricant use, lubricant use during specific sexual behaviors, frequency of lubricant use, and reasons for lubricant use. Most men in the United States (70%, N = 1,014) reported having used a commercial lubricant, with men older than 24 and those in a relationship more likely to report lubricant use. About one in four men had used a lubricant in the past 30 days. Intercourse was the most common behavior during which men used lubricant, though solo masturbation and partnered sexual play were also frequently linked to lubricant use. The most common reasons for lubricant use included "to make sex more comfortable," "for fun," "curiosity," and "my partner wanted to." Most American men have used a lubricant; lubricant use is common across all age groups, and some of the most common reasons why men report using lubricants have to do with sexual enhancement, comfort, and pleasure. Clinicians may find these data helpful to their efforts to educate patients about lubricant use, comfort during sex, and sexual enhancement. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Experience with synthetic fluorinated fluid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Peter L.; Bohner, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Since the late 1970's, the wet lubricant of choice for space mechanisms has been one of the family of synthetic perfluoro polyalkylether (PFPE) compounds, namely Fomblin Z-25 (Bray-815Z) or DuPont's Krytox 143xx series. While offering the advantages of extremely low vapor pressures and wide temperature ranges, these oils and derived greases have a complex chemistry compared to the more familiar natural and synthetic hydrocarbons. Many aerospace companies have conducted test programs to characterize the behavior of these compounds in a space environment, resulting in a large body of hard knowledge as well as considerable space lore concerning the suitability of the lubricants for particular applications and techniques for successful application. The facts are summarized and a few myths about the compounds are dispelled, and some performance guidelines for the mechanism design engineer are provided.

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  7. Rape oil for technical uses - a cost-benefit analysis. A cost-benefit analysis of the production and use of rape oil as fuels and lubricants and for technical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinhanss, W.; Kerckow, B.; Schrader, H.

    1992-01-01

    A brief description of the methodical fundamentals of cost-benefit analyses, the quantitative analytical models and the relevant data basis is followed by a survey of existing and potential rape oil uses. Basic data for the economic evaluation of rape seed production, rape oil production and rape oil uses are compiled, and the potentials of rape oil marketing in the Federal Republic of Germany are evaluated. The results of an evaluation of the importance of rape oil to the national trade and industry are discussed considering the optimum large-scale expansion of rape oil production, the individual uses, technical concepts, and the economic significance of technical progress. The cost benefit analysis and subsequent evaluation are based on a comparative evaluation of the additional rape oil production and of the grain production which has been giving way to rape production. In accordance with the assumed world market reference conditions rape oil production and rape oil/byproduct uses compete with grain exports at world market prices. The rape oil production costs are estimated applying the marginal costing principle, i.e production costs and follow-up effects are quantified by means of a modified regionally differentiated simulation model assuming the local conditions applicable to the Federal Republic of Germany. Four scenarios for projection of EC agricultural prices, world market prices and energy prices through 2000 are made available to level the different basic economic conditions. (UA) [de

  8. United States foreign oil policy since World War 1 : for profits and security. 2 ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, S.J.

    2005-07-01

    This book provided a historical context for United States global oil politics, with a focus on the goals, accomplishments and challenges of United States foreign oil policy, as well as on the relationship between the state and private sectors. This second edition has integrated developments in global politics since the end of the Cold War. It was suggested that many factors have provided the context for oil policy formation: a succession of crises in Iran since the 1950s; 2 wars in Iraq; U.S. intervention in Afghanistan; the threat of international terrorism since September 11, 2001; ongoing conflicts between Israel and the Arab nations in the Middle East; political instability in Saudi Arabia and in Venezuela and the trend towards trade and investment liberalization in Latin America in the 1990s. In addition, the emergence of oil sands reserves in Canada and other sources of non-conventional oil were discussed. Nationalism and oil policies in the Depression and World War 2 were examined. The structure of decision-making in oil policies was examined. Domestic and offshore resources were reviewed, and an outline of international agreements and relationships was presented. Issues concerning OPEC countries and the Iranian Revolution were examined. It was concluded that the United States has become more and not less vulnerable, despite its military strength. The author suggested that the main policy challenge to the United States may well be the tension between its commitment to Israel and its determination to avoid alienating the Arab oil-producing states. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Research of the pre-launch powered lubrication device of major parts of the engine D-240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganova, M.; Syrbakov, A.; Tkachev, A.; Zorina, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the publication, the issues have been considered concerning combustion engine start wear of mobile machines in case of outside storage in the conditions of low environmental temperature. Based on the analysis of existing methods and constructions of powered lubrication devices for contact surfaces of engines, a design of a combined device has been suggested which unites the functions of hydraulic and heat accumulators. On the basis of the elaborated design, preparatory tests have been conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of pre-start oil circulation in the engine D-240, as well as the effectiveness rate of thermoinsulation and the heating device of the hydraulic accumulator. The findings of the survey have shown that the pre-start powered lubrication device for major parts of the engine is effective.

  10. Development of the water-lubricated thrust bearing of the hydraulic turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K; Deguchi, K; Okude, K; Fujimoto, R

    2012-01-01

    In hydropower plant, a large quantities of turbine oil is used as machine control pressure oil and lubricating oil. If the oil leak out from hydropower plant, it flows into a river. And such oil spill has an adverse effect on natural environment because the oil does not degrade easily. Therefore the KANSAI and Hitachi Mitsubishi Hydro developed the water-lubricated thrust bearing for vertical type hydraulic turbine generator. The water-lubricated bearing has advantages in risk avoidance of river pollution because it does not need oil. For proceeding the development of the water-lubricated thrust bearing, we studied following items. The first is the examination of the trial products of water lubricating liquid. The second is the study of bearing structure which can satisfy bearing performance such as temperature characteristic and so on. The third is the mock-up testing for actual application in the future. As a result, it was found that the water-lubricated thrust bearing was technically applicable to actual equipments.

  11. Studies of lubricants and punch design in punching of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2004-01-01

    Environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils are often applied in punching and blanking operations especially involving stainless steel workpiece materials. This is due to the fact that punching and blanking are among the tribologically most difficult forming operations...

  12. Vegetable oils as lube basestocks: A review | Srivastava | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetable oils are promising candidates as base fluid for eco-friendly lubricants because of their excellent lubricity, biodegradability, viscosity-temperature characteristics and low volatility. In view of agriculture based Indian economy, there is a great potential of producing vegetable oil based lubricants, which has ecological ...

  13. Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

    2012-02-28

    Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition

  14. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

    2011-03-24

    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved.

  15. Are fluctuations in oil consumption permanent or transitory? Evidence from linear and nonlinear unit root tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the integration properties of the total oil consumption in 57 countries for the period of 1965–2012. A combination of new and powerful linear and nonlinear stationarity tests are employed to achieve the objectives of the study. We find that the oil consumption series in 21 countries follow a nonlinearity path while those in the other countries are linear in nature. Evidence of the presence of a unit root is found for the total oil consumption series in 38 countries while the series is stationary in the remaining 19 countries. An important insight is that the blueprints that were designed to reduce oil consumption are likely to have a permanent effect in most of the countries. - Highlights: • We examine the integration properties of total oil consumption in 57 countries. • We apply new and powerful linear and nonlinear stationarity tests. • Unit root is found in two third of the countries. • Blueprints designed to reduce oil consumption are likely to have permanent effect.

  16. Macro policy responses to oil booms and busts in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutawa, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of oil shocks and macro policy changes in the United Arab Emirates are analyzed. A theoretical model is developed within the framework of the Dutch Disease literature. It contains four unique features that are applicable to the United Arab Emirates' economy. There are: (1) the presence of a large foreign labor force; (2) OPEC's oil export quotas; (3) the division of oil profits; and (4) the important role of government expenditures. The model is then used to examine the welfare effects of the above-mentioned shocks. An econometric model is then specified that conforms to the analytical model. In the econometric model the method of 'principal components' is applied owing to the undersized sample data. The principal components methodology is used in both the identification testing and the estimation of the structural equations. The oil and macro policy shocks are then simulated. The simulation results show that an oil-quantity boom leads to a higher welfare gain than an oil-price boom. Under certain circumstances, this finding is also confirmed by the comparative statistics that follow from the analytical model

  17. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Vinay R.; Dumancas, Gerard G.; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C.; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J.

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate cast...

  18. Growth and opportunities in the lubricants business in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, B.F.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for lubricants is increasing faster in Asia than any other part of the world. This development is being propelled largely by the expansion of the transportation and manufacturing sectors. By the year 2000, lubricant consumption in Asia will exceed that of Western Europe, Africa and the Middle East combined. Aside from this growth, most of the region is shifting from very low quality to higher quality value-added products. In view of these factors, there has been an explosion of activity over the past few years as lubricant blenders and additive suppliers attempt to position themselves within the market. Over the past year, Chem Systems has undertaken an extensive study of the lubricants business in East Asia, focusing on the evolution of this complex market structure and the identification of attractive opportunities. The overview presented in this paper is a product of these efforts. Whether you are a multinational oil company, independent blender, national oil company or multinational additive suppler, the questions are the same when developing a strategy for the region: regional overview of lubricant business structure; outlook for Asian demand; profile of lube/additives businesses; and successful competition--what is required?

  19. Gear Mesh Loss-of-Lubrication Experiments and Analytical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Polly, Joseph; Morales, Wilfredo

    2011-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the loss-of-lubrication (LOL) characteristics of spur gears in an aerospace simulation test facility has been completed. Tests were conducted using two different emergency lubricant types: (1) an oil mist system (two different misted lubricants) and (2) a grease injection system (two different grease types). Tests were conducted using a NASA Glenn test facility normally used for conducting contact fatigue. Tests were run at rotational speeds up to 10000 rpm using two different gear designs and two different gear materials. For the tests conducted using an air-oil misting system, a minimum lubricant injection rate was determined to permit the gear mesh to operate without failure for at least 1 hr. The tests allowed an elevated steady state temperature to be established. A basic 2-D heat transfer simulation has been developed to investigate temperatures of a simulated gear as a function of frictional behavior. The friction (heat generation source) between the meshing surfaces is related to the position in the meshing cycle, the load applied, and the amount of lubricant in the contact. Experimental conditions will be compared to those from the 2-D simulation.

  20. The impact of crude oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.

    1996-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether fluctuations in the price of crude oil have affected agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using cointegration tests. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined. (author)

  1. Process for the preparation of lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1927-06-04

    A process is described for preparation of lubricants from mixtures of hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon derivatives of mean molecular weight and nonaromatic nature, which is characterized by halogenating the raw oil by the action of halogens or halogen-exchanging compounds and submitting the obtained product to a condensation in presence of aluminum chloride, tin chloride, iron chloride, or other condensing metal chloride or boron fluoride or activated metals, such as activated aluminum, whereby it is worked up in two steps at a temperature below 150 and preferably below 100/sup 0/C.

  2. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  3. The impact of environmental regulations on United States crude oil supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.L.; Biglarbigi, K.

    1991-01-01

    A number of legislative and regulatory initiatives being considered to protect the environment could affect the economics of oil and gas exploration and production (E and P) in the Unites States. This paper summarizes the results of a comprehensive assessment of the potential cumulative energy and economic impacts of environmental regulatory initiatives on United States crude oil supplies. The results of the analysis clearly will determine the level of impact, but the results show that significant impacts are felt over a wide range of regulations, over a wide range of crude oil prices, and at two levels of development for extraction technologies. The regulations evaluated all have an impact on all resource categories analyzed in the study

  4. Testing of Lubricant Performance in Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Friis, Kasper Leth

    2008-01-01

    Increasing focus on environmental issues in industrial production has urged a number of sheet metal forming companies to look for new tribo-systems in order to substitute hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils. The problems are especially pronounced, when forming tribologically...... of the lubricant film causing pick-up of work piece material on the tool surface and scoring of subsequent work piece surfaces. The present paper gives an overview of more than 10 years work by the authors’ research group through participation in national as well as international framework programmes on developing...

  5. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  6. Design and application on experimental platform for high-speed bearing with grease lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental platform for high-speed grease is an important tool for research and development of high-speed motorized spindle with grease lubrication. In this article, the experimental platform for high-speed grease is designed and manufactured which consists of the drive system, the test portion, the loading system, the lubrication system, the control system, and so on. In the meantime, the high-speed angular contact ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 as the research object are tested and contrasted in the grease lubrication and oil mist lubrication. The experimental platform performance is validated by contrast experiment, and the high-speed lubricated bearing performance is also studied especially in the relationship among the rotating speed,load and temperature rise. The results show that the experimental platform works steadily, accurate, and reliable in the experimental testing. And the grease lubrication ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 can be used in high-speed motorized spindle in the circular water cooling conditions when the rotating speed is lower than 40,000 r/min or the DN value (the value of the bearing diameter times the rotating speed is lower than the 1.44 × 106 mm r/min. Grease lubrication instead of oil mist lubrication under high-speed rotating will simplify the structure design of the high-speed motorized spindle and reduce the pollution to the environment.

  7. Organic-Modified Silver Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, Chanaka; Luo, Huimin; Leonard, Donovan N; Meyer, Harry M; Qu, Jun

    2017-10-25

    Advanced lubrication is essential in human life for improving mobility, durability, and efficiency. Here we report the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of two groups of oil-suspendable silver nanoparticles (NPs) as candidate lubricant additives. Two types of thiolated ligands, 4-(tert-butyl)benzylthiol (TBBT) and dodecanethiol (C12), were used to modify Ag NPs in two size ranges, 1-3 and 3-6 nm. The organic surface layer successfully suspended the Ag NPs in a poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) base oil with concentrations up to 0.19-0.50 wt %, depending on the particle type. Use of the Ag NPs in the base oil reduced friction by up to 35% and wear by up to 85% in boundary lubrication. The two TBBT-modified NPs produced a lower friction coefficient than the C12-modified one, while the two larger NPs (3-6 nm) had better wear protection than the smaller one (1-3 nm). Results suggested that the molecular structure of the organic ligand might have a dominant effect on the friction behavior, while the NP size could be more influential in the wear protection. No mini-ball-bearing or surface smoothening effects were observed in the Stribeck scans. Instead, the wear protection in boundary lubrication was attributed to the formation of a silver-rich 50-100 nm thick tribofilm on the worn surface, as revealed by morphology examination and composition analysis from both the top surface and cross section.

  8. A fundamental investigation into the relationship between lubricant composition and fuel ignition quality

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole Abiola

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental experiment involving the use of an ignition quality tester (IQT) was carried out to elucidate the effects of lubricant oil composition which could lead to low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) processes in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. Prior to the IQT tests, lubricant base oils were analyzed using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry to reveal their molecular composition. High molecular-weight hydrocarbons such as nC16H34, nC17H36, and nC18H38 were selected as surrogates of lubricant base oil constituents, and then mixed with iso-octane (iC8H18-gasoline surrogate) in proportions of 1 vol.% (iC8H18 = 99 vol.%) and 10 vol.% (iC8H18 = 90 vol.%) for the IQT experiments. In addition, lubricant base oils such as SN100 (Group I) and HC4 and HC6 (Group III) and a fully formulated lubricant (SAE 20W50) were mixed with iso-octane in the same proportions. The IQT results were conducted at an ambient pressure of 15 bar and a temperature range of 680-873 K. In the temperature range of 710-850 K, the addition of 10 vol.% base oils surrogates, base oils, and lubricating oil to the 90 vol.% iC8H18 reduces the average total ignition delay time by up to 54% for all mixtures, while the addition of 1 vol.% to 99 vol.% iC8H18 yielded a 7% reduction within the same temperature range. The shorter total ignition delay was attributed to the higher reactivity of the lubricant base oil constituents in the fuel mixtures. A correlation between reactivity of base oils and their molecular composition was tentatively established. These results suggest that the lubricants have the propensity of initiating LSPI in DISI engines. Furthermore, similar results for n-alkanes, lubricant base oils, and fully formulated commercial lubricants suggest that it is the hydrocarbon fraction that contributes primarily to enhanced reactivity, and not the inorganic or organometallic additives. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A fundamental investigation into the relationship between lubricant composition and fuel ignition quality

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole Abiola; Yang, Seung Yeon; Hourani, Nadim; Naser, Nimal; Roberts, William L.; Chung, Suk-Ho; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental experiment involving the use of an ignition quality tester (IQT) was carried out to elucidate the effects of lubricant oil composition which could lead to low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) processes in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. Prior to the IQT tests, lubricant base oils were analyzed using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry to reveal their molecular composition. High molecular-weight hydrocarbons such as nC16H34, nC17H36, and nC18H38 were selected as surrogates of lubricant base oil constituents, and then mixed with iso-octane (iC8H18-gasoline surrogate) in proportions of 1 vol.% (iC8H18 = 99 vol.%) and 10 vol.% (iC8H18 = 90 vol.%) for the IQT experiments. In addition, lubricant base oils such as SN100 (Group I) and HC4 and HC6 (Group III) and a fully formulated lubricant (SAE 20W50) were mixed with iso-octane in the same proportions. The IQT results were conducted at an ambient pressure of 15 bar and a temperature range of 680-873 K. In the temperature range of 710-850 K, the addition of 10 vol.% base oils surrogates, base oils, and lubricating oil to the 90 vol.% iC8H18 reduces the average total ignition delay time by up to 54% for all mixtures, while the addition of 1 vol.% to 99 vol.% iC8H18 yielded a 7% reduction within the same temperature range. The shorter total ignition delay was attributed to the higher reactivity of the lubricant base oil constituents in the fuel mixtures. A correlation between reactivity of base oils and their molecular composition was tentatively established. These results suggest that the lubricants have the propensity of initiating LSPI in DISI engines. Furthermore, similar results for n-alkanes, lubricant base oils, and fully formulated commercial lubricants suggest that it is the hydrocarbon fraction that contributes primarily to enhanced reactivity, and not the inorganic or organometallic additives. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fueling the dragon: Alternative Chinese oil futures and their implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberling, George G.

    This study examines how Chinese oil energy will likely shape future Sino-American relations under conditions of dependency and non-dependency. The study will list and describe three possible Chinese oil energy futures or scenarios (Competitive Dependency, Competitive Surplus and Cooperative Surplus) using Scenario Analysis to subsequently estimate their associated likelihoods using the PRINCE forecasting system and discuss and evaluate their strategic implications for the United States. Further, this study will determine the most likely oil energy future or scenario. Finally, the study will list and describe the most likely United States political, economic and/or military policy responses for each future or scenario. The study contributes to the literature on Chinese and United States energy security, foreign policy, political economy and political risk analysis by showing how China will most likely address its growing oil energy dependence and by determining what will be the most likely U.S. foreign policy consequences based on the most current literature available on energy security and foreign policy.

  11. Profiles of Reservoir Properties of Oil-Bearing Plays for Selected Petroleum Provinces in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, P.A.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2015-11-05

    Profiles of reservoir properties of oil-bearing plays for selected petroleum provinces in the United States were developed to characterize the database to be used for a potential assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of oil that would be technically recoverable by the application of enhanced oil recovery methods using injection of carbon dioxide (CO2-EOR). The USGS assessment methodology may require reservoir-level data for the purposes of screening conventional oil reservoirs and projecting CO2-EOR performance in terms of the incremental recoverable oil. The information used in this report is based on reservoir properties from the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012). As described by Nehring Associates, Inc., the database “covers all producing provinces (basins) in the United States except the Appalachian Basin and the Cincinnati Arch.”

  12. Use of an additive in biofuel to evaluate emissions, engine component wear and lubrication characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, M.A.; Majsuki, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments carried out to evaluate the effect of adding an anticorrosion additive to blended biofuel and lubricating oil on emissions, engine component wear and lubrication characteristics. The blended biofuels consist of 7.5 and 15 per cent palm olein (PO) with ordinary diesel oil (OD). Pure OD was used for comparison purposes. Exhaust emission gases such as NO x , CO and hydrocarbons (HCs) were measured by an exhaust emission analyser for engine operation on 50 per cent throttle at speeds of 800-3600 r/min. To measure engine component wear and lubricating oil characteristics, the engine was operated at 50 per cent throttle at a speed of 2000 r/min for a period of 100 h with each of the fuel samples. The same lubricating oil, conventional SAE 40, was used in all the fuels. A multielement oil analyser (MOA) was used to measure the increase in wear of metals (Fe, Cu, Al, Pd) and the decrease in lubricating oil additives (Zn, Ca) in the lubricating oil used. An ISL automatic Houillon viscometer (ASTM D445) and potentiometric titration (ASTM D2896) were used to measure viscosity and total base number (TBN) respectively. The results show that the addition of anticorrosion additive with biofuel and lubricating oil improves the emission and engine wear characteristics; both the exhaust emission gases (NO x , CO and HCs) and the wear of metals (Fe, Cu, Al and Pd) decrease with the blended fuels in comparison with the base fuel OD. Detailed results, including engine brake power, are discussed. (Author)

  13. Oil resource panel finds more oil in United States by adding dollars and advancing recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, the experts figures the US had only 49.4 Bbo in undiscovered, recoverable reserves. Now, there's more undiscovered resources and more reserve growth. Those figures include present proved reserves of 25 Bbo. They also include undiscovered recoverable resources ranging from 43 Bbo to 90 Bbo and reserve growth in existing fields ranging from 31 Bbo to 89 Bbo. Those are the estimates from a panel of oil resource analysts assembled August 31 and September 1 by the University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology and the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research. At current US production of 2.7 Bbo/year, the estimate gives the US a supply lasting from 35 to 75 years

  14. Film Thickness and Friction Relationship in Grease Lubricated Rough Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the film generation and the coefficient of friction in grease lubricated contacts was investigated. Ball-on-disc tests were performed under different operating conditions: entrainment speed, lubricant temperature and surface roughness. The tests were performed with fully formulated greases and their base oils. The greases were formulated with different thickener types and also different base oils natures and viscosities. Film thickness measurements were performed in ball-on-glass disc tests, and Stribeck curves were measured in ball-on-steel disc tests with discs of different roughness. The role of the thickener and the base oil nature/viscosity on the film thickness and coefficient of friction was addressed and the greases’ performance was compared based on their formulation.

  15. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  16. Lubricant distribution determination by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.

    1979-01-01

    Cold neutron radiation of energy less than 0.025 eV having a flux greater than 1 x 10 3 neutrons/square centimeter/second is used to diagnose temporal information about the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon fuel and lubrication oils in internal combustion engines, gas turbine engines and fuel systems. Images of the movement of fuel or oil are recorded by directing a beam of neutrons through an engine and using an image intensifier responsive to low light levels to intensify an image formed by neutrons which have been directed through the engine onto a fluorescent screen. The output image from the intensifier is recorded by a video or cine camera

  17. Effects of the Hot Alignment of a Power Unit on Oil-Whip Instability Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a power unit, whose shaft-train alignment was significantly influenced by the machine thermal state, that was affected in operating condition by high subsynchronous vibrations caused by oil-whip instability phenomena. The dynamic stiffness coefficients of the oil-film journal bearings of the generator were evaluated considering the critical average journal positions that caused the instability onsets. By including these bearing coefficients in a mathematical model of the fully assembled machine, the real part of the eigenvalue associated with the first balance resonance of the generator rotor became positive. This paper shows the successful results obtained by combining diagnostic techniques based on mathematical models of journal bearings and shaft train with detailed analyses of monitoring data aimed to investigate the effects of the hot alignment of rotating machines on the occurrence of oil-whip instability onsets.

  18. The Impact of United States Monetary Policy in the Crude Oil futures market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Padilla, Fernando M.

    This research examines the empirical impact the United States monetary policy, through the federal fund interest rate, has on the volatility in the crude oil price in the futures market. Prior research has shown how macroeconomic events and variables have impacted different financial markets within short and long--term movements. After testing and decomposing the variables, the two stationary time series were analyzed using a Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR). The empirical evidence shows, with statistical significance, a direct relationship when explaining crude oil prices as function of fed fund rates (t-1) and an indirect relationship when explained as a function of fed fund rates (t-2). These results partially address the literature review lacunas within the topic of the existing implication monetary policy has within the crude oil futures market.

  19. Influence of Water and Mineral Oil on the Leaks in Satellite Motor Commutation Unit Clearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwiński Paweł

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the flow rates of mineral oil and water flowing, as working media, through the commutation unit of a hydraulic satellite motor. It is demonstrated that geometrical dimensions of commutation unit clearances change as a function of the machine shaft rotation angle. Methods for measuring the rate of this flow and the pressure in the working chamber are presented. The results of pressure measurements in the working chamber during the transition from the filling cycle to the emptying cycle are included. The pressure in the motor’s working chamber changes linearly as a function of the shaft rotation angle, which has a significant effect on the leakage in the commutation unit clearances. The paper presents new mathematical formulas in the form: Q=f(Δpγ to calculate the flow rate of water and mineral oil in the commutation unit clearances. The γ factor is described as a function of fluid viscosity and clearance length (the motor shaft rotation angle. The coefficients used in these formulas were determined based on the results of laboratory tests of a motor supplied with water and mineral oil.

  20. Analysis of inland crude oil spill threats, vulnerabilities, and emergency response in the midwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Thomas M; Di Bianca, Paisly; Krysa, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Although coastal oil spills tend to be highly publicized, crude oil spills in the United States affect inland areas relatively often. Spills to inland areas often affect sensitive environments and can have greater impacts to health and welfare than spills to coastal areas. For these reasons, the authors investigated inland crude oil spill threats, vulnerabilities, and emergency response in the midwestern U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. These states work with the Region 5 Offices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Region 5's geospatial data in the Inland Sensitivity Atlas were turned into metrics indicating inland crude oil spill threats and vulnerabilities among the Region's sub-watersheds. These threats and vulnerabilities were weighted using data from the National Response Center and the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration Priority System. The locations of the Region's emergency responders were geocoded in GIS. The GIS calculated the emergency response times to the Region's sub-watersheds. The resulting scatter plots are connected to the sub-watersheds in the map so stakeholders can (1) see the outlying sub-watersheds of concern and (2) better understand how reducing threats and better response time can reduce the risk of inland crude oil spills. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  1. Rolling Friction Torque in Ball-Race Contacts Operating in Mixed Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Rodica D. Bălan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on a theoretical model and an experimental methodology for defining the friction torque for lubricated conditions in a modified thrust ball bearing having only three balls, the authors experimentally investigated the influence of the lubricant parameter Λ on friction torque for mixed IVR (isoviscous rigid and EHL (elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions. The experiments were conducted using ball diameters of 3 mm, 3.97 mm and 6.35 mm loaded at 0.125 N, 0.400 N and 0.633 N. Two oils of viscosity 0.08 Pa·s and 0.05 Pa·s were used and rotational speed was varied in the range 60–210 rpm to obtain a lubricant parameter Λ varying between 0.3 and 3.2. The experiments confirmed that the measured friction torque can be explained using hydrodynamic rolling force relationships respecting the transition from an IVR to an EHL lubrication regime.

  2. Estimation and reduction of CO2 emissions from crude oil distillation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, M.; Olujic, Z.; Jobson, M.; Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    Distillation systems are energy-intensive processes, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). A simple model for the estimation of CO 2 emissions associated with operation of heat-integrated distillation systems as encountered in refineries is introduced. In conjunction with a shortcut distillation model, this model has been used to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower unit aiming at minimization of CO 2 emissions. Simulation results indicate that the total CO 2 emissions of the existing crude oil unit can be cut down by 22%, just by changing the process conditions accordingly, and that the gain in this respect can be doubled by integrating a gas turbine. In addition, emissions reduction is accompanied by substantial profit increase due to utility saving and/or export

  3. Nonlinear dynamic simulation of optimal depletion of crude oil in the lower 48 United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, M.; Cleveland, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study combines the economic theory of optimal resource use with econometric estimates of demand and supply parameters to develop a nonlinear dynamic model of crude oil exploration, development, and production in the lower 48 United States. The model is simulated with the graphical programming language STELLA, for the years 1985 to 2020. The procedure encourages use of economic theory and econometrics in combination with nonlinear dynamic simulation to enhance our understanding of complex interactions present in models of optimal resource use. (author)

  4. Turbine lubrication fluid varnish mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Khalid [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Varnish deposits on internal surfaces in turbine lube systems result in a number of adverse operational issues, especially the restriction and sticking of the moving parts of servo- or directional control valves, resulting in their malfunction. The lubrication fluid has limited solvency for the varnish-forming material, hence a typical turbine will have the majority of this material as deposits and a relatively small portion as suspension in the fluid phase, in quasi-equilibrium with the deposits. The lube system needs to be cleaned by removing the suspended varnish-forming material from the fluid phase, which allows the deposits to re-entrain into the fluid phase, until the majority of the transferable deposits are removed and the fluid carries no significant amount of the material to have any adverse effect. The methods used for the removal of varnish from turbine lube systems include chemical cleaning/flushing, electrostatic charge induced agglomeration/retention, and the adsorption of the varnish suspended in the oil on an adsorbent medium. The paper discusses an absorption-based removal method that utilizes a fibrous medium that has pronounced affinity for the removal and retention of the varnish-forming material from the fluid as well as the deposits from surfaces that are in quasi-equilibrium with the varnish precursors in the fluid. The filtration medium is a composite, made with cellulose bonded by specially formulated, temperature-cured resins. The absorptive medium exhibits high structural and chemical integrity and has been thoroughly tested on operating turbines, showing reduction in varnish levels from the critical range to below normal range in a relatively short time. The experience with the utilization of the absorptive medium in laboratory tests and in two operating turbines is presented. (orig.)

  5. The Dielectric Constant of Lubrication Oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carey, A

    1998-01-01

    The values of the dielectric constant of simple molecules is discussed first, along with the relationship between the dielectric constant and other physical properties such as boiling point, melting...

  6. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  7. Cogeneration of heat and electricity from rape oil with a little CHP unit in a car wash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilz, H.D.; Thomas, S.; Zeilinger, J.

    2002-01-01

    Environmentally friendly energy supply system for smaller houses is described. In Elsbett system the so-called multi fuel engine starts the combined electricity and heat production unit. In such a system one can use also natural fuels, animal oils and fats besides heating oil. Therefore no additional CO 2 is produced, but it will be brought to the balanced natural circle

  8. Oleoplaning droplets on lubricated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dan; Timonen, Jaakko V. I.; Li, Ruoping; Velling, Seneca J.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2017-10-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in using lubricated surfaces to achieve extreme liquid repellency: a foreign droplet immiscible with the underlying lubricant layer was shown to slide off at a small tilt angle behaviour was hypothesized to arise from a thin lubricant overlayer film sandwiched between the droplet and solid substrate, but this has not been observed experimentally. Here, using thin-film interference, we are able to visualize the intercalated film under both static and dynamic conditions. We further demonstrate that for a moving droplet, the film thickness follows the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin law. The droplet is therefore oleoplaning--akin to tyres hydroplaning on a wet road--with minimal dissipative force and no contact line pinning. The techniques and insights presented in this study will inform future work on the fundamentals of wetting for lubricated surfaces and enable their rational design.

  9. "Insensitive" to touch: fabric-supported lubricant-swollen polymeric films for omniphobic personal protective gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Viraj G; Tummala, Abhishiktha; Chandrashekar, Sriram; Kido, Cassidee; Roopesh, Ajay; Sun, Xiaoda; Doudrick, Kyle; Chinn, Jeff; Lee, James R; Burgin, Timothy P; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2015-02-25

    The use of personal protective gear made from omniphobic materials that easily shed drops of all sizes could provide enhanced protection from direct exposure to most liquid-phase biological and chemical hazards and facilitate the postexposure decontamination of the gear. In recent literature, lubricated nanostructured fabrics are seen as attractive candidates for personal protective gear due to their omniphobic and self-healing characteristics. However, the ability of these lubricated fabrics to shed low surface tension liquids after physical contact with other objects in the surrounding, which is critical in demanding healthcare and military field operations, has not been investigated. In this work, we investigate the depletion of oil from lubricated fabrics in contact with highly absorbing porous media and the resulting changes in the wetting characteristics of the fabrics by representative low and high surface tension liquids. In particular, we quantify the loss of the lubricant and the dynamic contact angles of water and ethanol on lubricated fabrics upon repeated pressurized contact with highly absorbent cellulose-fiber wipes at different time intervals. We demonstrate that, in contrast to hydrophobic nanoparticle coated microfibers, fabrics encapsulated within a polymer that swells with the lubricant retain the majority of the oil and are capable of repelling high as well as low surface tension liquids even upon multiple contacts with the highly absorbing wipes. The fabric supported lubricant-swollen polymeric films introduced here, therefore, could provide durable and easy to decontaminate protection against hazardous biological and chemical liquids.

  10. Controllable Lubrication for Main Engine Bearings Using Mechanical and Piezoelectric Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    Although mechatronic systems are nowadays implemented in a large number of systems in vehicles, active lubrication systems are still incipient in industrial applications. This study is an attempt to extend the active lubrication concept to combustion engines and gives a theoretical contribution...... equations. The global system is numerically solved using as a case study a single-cylinder combustion engine, where the conventional lubrication of the main bearing is modified by applying radial oil injection using piezo-actuated injection. The performance of such a hybrid bearing is compared...

  11. Feasibility of Applying Active Lubrication to Dynamically Loaded Fluid Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of modifying the dynamics of the thin fluid films of dynamically loaded journal bearings, using different strategies of active lubrication is studied in this work. A significant reduction in the vibration levels, wear and power friction losses, is expected. Particularly, the focus...... of this study is on the analysis of main crankshaft bearings, where the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is modified by injecting oil at actively controllable pressures, through orifices circumferentially located along the bearing surface....

  12. Modeling of crude oil fouling in preheat exchangers of refinery distillation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari Nasr, Mohammad Reza; Majidi Givi, Mehdi [National Petrochemical Research and Technology Company (NPC-RT), P.O. Box 14385, Tehran (Iran)

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new model for crude oil fouling in preheat exchangers of crude distillation units. The experimental results of Australian light crude oil with the tube side surface temperature between 200 and 260{sup o}C and fluid velocity ranged 0.25-0.4m/s were used [Z. Saleh, R. Sheikholeslami, A.P. Watkinson, Heat exchanger fouling by a light australian crude oil, in: Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning Fundamentals and Applications, Santa Fe, 2003]. The amount of activation energy depends on the surface temperature has been calculated. A new model including a term for fouling formation and a term for fouling removal due to chemical and tube wall shear stress was proposed, respectively. The main superiority of the model are independent to Pr number, thermal fouling removal and determination of {beta} based on experimental tests. Finally using the proposed model the fouling rate of Australian light crude oil has been calculated and the threshold curves to identify fouling and no fouling formation zones have been drawn. (author)

  13. Oil and chemical spill research and development in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU) falls within the UK Department of Transport's Marine Directorate and is the lead agency in the UK for the control of marine pollution. The MPCU assumes central government's responsibility for controlling two aspects of marine pollution: at sea response to oil and chemical spills from ships, and coordinating beach cleaning activities. All research funded by the MPCU is therefore directed at these two responsibilities. The MPCU was established in 1978 after a series of major tanker incidents in European waters (notably the AMOCO CADIZ, France) in recognition of the fact that it was not reasonable to expect the owners of tankers which operate on a world-wide basis to make arrangements for dealing with oil spills wherever they may occur. The UK Government therefore decided to set up a response unit, the MPCU, with specific responsibilities for dealing with oil and chemical spills from ships at sea. The responsibility for dealing with pollution once it comes ashore lies with the local authorities. However, to avoid expenditure by individual authorities on specialized equipment which will be rarely required, the government decided to set up stockpiles of such equipment in strategic locations to be drawn on by authorities as and when necessary. The government also provides training in the use of this equipment, offers scientific and technical advice and, for major spills, will coordinate beach cleaning activities

  14. Emissions from oil and gas operations in the United States and their air quality implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David T

    2016-06-01

    The energy supply infrastructure in the United States has been changing dramatically over the past decade. Increased production of oil and natural gas, particularly from shale resources using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, made the United States the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas in 2014. This review examines air quality impacts, specifically, changes in greenhouse gas, criteria air pollutant, and air toxics emissions from oil and gas production activities that are a result of these changes in energy supplies and use. National emission inventories indicate that volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from oil and gas supply chains in the United States have been increasing significantly, whereas emission inventories for greenhouse gases have seen slight declines over the past decade. These emission inventories are based on counts of equipment and operational activities (activity factors), multiplied by average emission factors, and therefore are subject to uncertainties in these factors. Although uncertainties associated with activity data and missing emission source types can be significant, multiple recent measurement studies indicate that the greatest uncertainties are associated with emission factors. In many source categories, small groups of devices or sites, referred to as super-emitters, contribute a large fraction of emissions. When super-emitters are accounted for, multiple measurement approaches, at multiple scales, produce similar results for estimated emissions. Challenges moving forward include identifying super-emitters and reducing their emission magnitudes. Work done to date suggests that both equipment malfunction and operational practices can be important. Finally, although most of this review focuses on emissions from energy supply infrastructures, the regional air quality implications of some coupled energy production and use scenarios are examined. These case studies suggest that both

  15. Tribological study for the application of biodegradable lubricants in the industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igartua, A.; Aranzabe, A.; Barriga, J.; Rodriguez, J. [TEKNIKER, Eibar (Spain)

    1998-11-01

    The main problems in critical machinery elements using vegetable base oil, are the poor behaviour concerning low temperature properties, hydrolytic and oxidation stability problems, overheating, compatibility, smell and corrosivity. Our technical approach deals with the development of new base-stocks such regrew industrial crops, biological and chemically improved vegetable oils decreasing the content of non stable products. It is necessary improve the rheologic behaviour, its oxidation and hydrolytic stability and decrease the actual limit of temperature of machines avoiding nucleation of paraffin`s. Transformation of these high performance oils into higher added value to lubricate gears is another objective of this research. Specialist in the world of surface treatments and lubrication with combined expertise in tribological behaviour and lubrication will perform tests in order to improve technical performance and efficiency of these new vegetable lubricants. Lifecycle cost will help to evaluate environmental and cost effective complete chain. In this paper, characteristics of the reference lubricants actually used for lubricate hydraulic equipment`s are reported. (author) 7 refs.

  16. Analysis of the implementation of ergonomic design at the new units of an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Ogasawara, Erika Lye; Baú, Lucy Mara Silva; Buso, Sandro Artur; Bianchi, Marcos Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomic design is the adaptation of working conditions to human limitations and skills in the physical design phase of a new installation, a new working system, or new products or tools. Based on this concept, the purpose of this work was to analyze the implementation of ergonomic design at the new industrial units of an oil refinery, using the method of Ergonomic Workplace Assessment. This study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team composed of operation, maintenance and industrial safety technicians, ergonomists, designers and engineers. The analysis involved 6 production units, 1 industrial wastewater treatment unit, and 3 utilities units, all in the design detailing phase, for which 455 ergonomic requirements were identified. An analysis and characterization of the requirements identified for 5 of the production units, involving a total of 246 items, indicated that 62% were related to difficult access and blockage operations, while 15% were related to difficulties in the circulation of employees inside the units. Based on these data, it was found that the ergonomic requirements identified in the design detailing phase of an industrial unit involve physical ergonomics, and that it is very difficult to identify requirements related to organizational or cognitive ergonomics.

  17. Predictive modelling of fatigue failure in concentrated lubricated contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H P; Snidle, R W; Sharif, K J; Bryant, M J

    2012-01-01

    Reducing frictional losses in response to the energy agenda will require use of less viscous lubricants causing hydrodynamically-lubricated bearings to operate with thinner films leading to "mixed lubrication" conditions in which a degree of direct interaction occurs between surfaces protected only by boundary tribofilms. The paper considers the consequences of thinner films and mixed lubrication for concentrated contacts such as those occurring between the teeth of power transmission gears and in rolling element bearings. Surface fatigue in gears remains a serious problem in demanding applications, and its solution will become more pressing with the tendency towards thinner oils. The particular form of failure examined here is micropitting, which is identified as a fatigue phenomenon occurring at the scale of the surface roughness asperities. It has emerged recently as a systemic difficulty in the operation of large scale wind turbines where it occurs in both power transmission gears and their support bearings. Predictive physical modelling of these contacts requires a transient mixed lubrication analysis for conditions in which the predicted lubricant film thickness is of the same order or significantly less than the height of surface roughness features. Numerical solvers have therefore been developed which are able to deal with situations in which transient solid contacts occur between surface asperity features under realistic engineering conditions. Results of the analysis, which reveal the detailed time-varying behaviour of pressure and film clearance, have been used to predict fatigue and damage accumulation at the scale of surface asperity features with the aim of improving understanding of the micropitting phenomenon. The possible consequences on fatigue of residual stress fields resulting from plastic deformation of surface asperities is also considered.

  18. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  19. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40 on the tribological characteristics were investigated and compared with mineral oil using the four-ball tribotester. Mustard seeds oil was blended with mineral oil at a volumetric ratio ranging from 22.5 to 90%. All experimental works were confirmed to ASTM D4172-B standard. The results exhibit that some blends of mustard seeds oil with mineral oil have lower wear scar diameter, friction torque, Friction coefficient and a higher parameter of flash temperature value compared to mineral oil and neat mustard seed oil. In conclusion, the mustard seed oil blend (MU22.5 shows a better anti-wear and anti-friction performance compared to oil samples. Therefore, mustard seeds oil has the potential to be used as a lubricant of mating surfaces.

  20. [Lubricant-free piston compressors for mechanized medical instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitov, V Kh; Repin, V A; Kil'kinov, A A

    1988-01-01

    Piston compressor without lubrication with air blow to packing rings by plunger, disposed in subpiston space, is recommended as the basic scheme of construction of a power supply unit for medical pneumatic tooling. The construction reduces a leak of the compressive medium, increasing the efficiency of a compressor and seal reliability.

  1. The Lubricant Properties of LUBRITAB | Onyechi | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the lubricants on tablet hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution rate were also determined. Tablets containing LUBRITAB at a concentration level of 3 - 4 (% w/w) gave values of unit ejection force comparable with those of tablets containing 2% magnesium stearate. The tablets containing LUBRITAB ...

  2. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly 2139 Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase 239 Pu containing 5.9 wt-% 240 Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal

  3. New formulations of sunflower based bio-lubricants with high oleic acid content – VOSOLUB project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leao J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available VOSOLUB project is a demonstration project supported by Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME that aims at testing under real operating conditions new formulations of sunflower-based biolubricants with high oleic acid content. These biolubricant formulations (including hydraulic fluids, greases, and neat oil metal-working fluids will be tested in three European demonstrating sites. Their technical performance will be evaluated and compared to corresponding mineral lubricants ones. In order to cover the demand for the sunflower base oil, a European SMEs network will be established to ensure the supply of the base at a competitive market price. Results presented concerns the base oil quality confirmed to be in accordance with the specification required, in particular on Free Fatty acid content, Phosphorus content, rancimat induction time and oleic acid content (ITERG. The oil characteristics specific for lubricant application analyzed by BfB Oil Research under normalized methods, match with lubricant specifications requirement such as viscosity, cold & hot properties, surface properties, anti-oxidant properties and thermal stability, anti-wear and EP properties, anti-corrosion properties Performance of the new biolubricant have been assessed by formulators and TEKNIKER First results on the use of new lubricant on real condition for rail Grease (produced by RS CLARE and tested with Sheffield Supertram, Hydraulic oil (produced by BRUGAROLAS and cutting oil (produced by MOTUL TECH and tested with innovative machining, turning are described.

  4. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  5. Pulsed Plasma Lubrication Device and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R. (Inventor); Bickler, Donald B. (Inventor); D'Agostino, Saverio A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a lubrication device comprising a solid lubricant disposed between and in contact with a first electrode and a second electrode dimensioned and arranged such that application of an electric potential between the first electrode and the second electrode sufficient to produce an electric arc between the first electrode and the second electrode to produce a plasma in an ambient atmosphere at an ambient pressure which vaporizes at least a portion of the solid lubricant to produce a vapor stream comprising the solid lubricant. Methods to lubricate a surface utilizing the lubrication device in-situ are also disclosed.

  6. Tribology - friction, lubrication and wear: fifty years on. 2 v

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the proceedings of the International Tribology Conference held in London (United Kingdom), 1987, and organised by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The aim of the conference was to address the current status and future developments in all aspects of tribology. The conference proceedings contained 121 papers, and the sessions were structured under six headings: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic and mixed lubrication; friction and wear; contact mechanics; materials; design and applications; and lubricants. Four papers were chosen for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  7. Titanium oxide nanoparticles as additives in engine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Laad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigates the tribological behaviour of titanium oxide (TiO2 nanoparticles as additives in mineral based multi-grade engine oil. All tests were performed under variable load and varying concentrations of nanoparticles in lubricating oil. The friction and wear experiments were performed using pin-on-disc tribotester. This study shows that mixing of TiO2 nanoparticles in engine oil significantly reduces the friction and wear rate and hence improves the lubricating properties of engine oil. The dispersion analysis of TiO2 nanoparticles in lubricating oil using UV spectrometer confirms that TiO2 nanoparticles possess good stability and solubility in the lubricant and improve the lubricating properties of the engine oil. Keywords: Titanium oxide, Nanoparticles, UV spectrometer, Tribotester, Engine oil

  8. Modification of lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdas, C.; Dabrowski, J.; Dominiak, M.; Sulko, M.

    1982-09-30

    Use of a powder produced during polishing of leather (as a modifying agent) is suggested. The amount is greater than or equal to 0.1% separately, or in concert with other known modifying additives. The principal component of this additive, produced during leather polishing, is collagen. It substantially increases resistance of the oil to acidic activity and formation of ferments, as well as the anticorrosion and antioxidant properties. Properties of the modifying agent depend on the technology used in tanning; the best characteristics are present when Cr compounds are used during the tanning process. Example: base oil with a 52 sSt/50/sup 0/ viscosity is placed into a mixer, and with intensive agitation gradually add 5% powder derived from leather polishing, and containing, as a tanning residue, 3% Cr/sub 2/0/sub 3/. After powder is added, agitation is continued for 1 hour and then the mixture is homogenized. On a four-bearing friction machine, the produced oil shows a sticking load of 250 kg and a diamt of wear of 1.0 mm with a load of 200 kg. For the base oil, the corresponding indicators are 130 kg and 2.7 mm with a loading of 120 kg. One more example of the process is included.

  9. When you lubricate well, you go well? A cause analysis of damages on bearer rings at a hydrogen compressor recently brought into service with the aid of monitoring the lubricating points of cylinder liners; Wer gut schmiert, der gut faehrt? Ursachenanalyse an Tragringschaeden bei einem neu in Betrieb genommenen Wasserstoffverdichter mit Hilfe einer Zylinderschmierstellenueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, Lars [Bayernoil Raffineriegesellschaft mbH, Neustadt a.d. Donau (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    For humans the blood circuit transports the ''lifeblood''. It supplies the body with the different essential nutrients and disposes adverse waste. The circuit of lubricant in recip compressors has quiet similar functions. It provides all relevant components with lubricant. This lubricant circuit supplies i.a. the crosshead slide way and bearings, where a hydrodynamic flooding is created. At the same time frictional heat is conducted and pollutions as well as deposits are washed away. But especially for recip compressors there is also another lubricating system, which is barely applied in the real operating process. It is about the supply of the packing glands and the piston liners with lubricant inside the compression chamber at ''wet running machines''. In the case of the lubricant supply at cylinder liners the lubricating oil is dispatched to the appropriate areas by an external lubricating system, which consists of a reservoir and an oil pump. This is a loss lubrication, i.e. the used lubricate is transported into the process by the transfer medium. The mechanical quality of this lubricating system can have great influence on the durability of bearer rings and sealing rings in a recip compressor. Especially the homogeneity of the dispatched lubricating oil amount and the absolute dispatched amount are two very important factors. The absolute amount is within the range of cm{sup 3} per hour. The influences of the cylinder liner lubricant supply on the durability of piston seal rings and bearer rings are shown with the concrete example of one recip compressor. Analytical measures to clearly detect such damages at the bearer rings are disclosed, just as which possibility there is to measure the low quantity of lubricant to the cylinder liners reliably. Furthermore a solution is presented, which allows the solid operation of the compressor.

  10. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  11. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  12. Research methodology in used oil recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Legislation and activities in the United States on the subject of used oil recycling have increased dramatically in the past several years. However, a substantial portion of both industry and government have some concerns about the lack of scientific and technical research and data on certain aspects of the quality and consistence of recycled petroleum oils, particularly re-refined engine oils. Further, there are some significant environmental concerns about pollution aspects of used oils and their recycling by-products and wastes. Since 1976, the (U.S.) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) has had a legislatively mandated program to''... develop test procedures for the determination of substantial equivalency of re-refined or otherwise processed used oil . . . with new oil for a particular end use'' (42 U.S. Code 6363c). The NBS research includes identification of problem areas in the characterization of used and recycled oils, research into new measurement methods for determination of novel constituents in these materials, and the development and evaluation of appropriate test procedures and standards for recycled oil products. Aspects of this research discussed in this paper include analysis of total elemental content and speciation studies on lead and on the halogens (chlorine and bromine) and hydrocarbon type characterization studies on lubricating oil fractions

  13. REFRIGERANT/LUBRICANT MIXTURES: PROBLEMS OF APPLICATION AND PROPERTY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Semenyuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results and generalizations of thermophysical property research for the refrigerant/lubricant mixtures are summarized. The methodological aspects of the experimental studies of the thermal properties of real working media for vapor compression refrigeration machines and the general principles of the thermodynamic properties simulation for such solutions are analyzed. It is shown that the admixtures of compressor oil in the refrigerant make the efficiency parameters of compressor systems much lower. The question of a selective solubility of the multicomponent refrigerants in compressor oils is discussed.

  14. Empirical Investigation of Electricity Self-Generation in a Lubricated Sliding–Rolling Contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ščepanskis, Mihails; Gould, Benjamin; Greco, Aaron

    2017-07-20

    The paper reports the empirical observations of voltage generation in a lubricated tribocontact with different oils altering load, sliding and temperature. The investigation is done in the context of research of the root cause of white etching cracks (WEC) failure in bearings. Tested oils of different additive packages found completely different electrical behavior. The oil, which is known to produce WECs in laboratory tests, demonstrated non-zero voltage generation

  15. Development of lubricant test for punching and blanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam

    2001-01-01

    The background for development of new lubricants Requirements to lubricant test for punching Methods of evaluating lubricants Test equipment developed at DTU Conclusion.......The background for development of new lubricants Requirements to lubricant test for punching Methods of evaluating lubricants Test equipment developed at DTU Conclusion....

  16. Tethered Lubricants for Small Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynden A. Archer

    2006-01-09

    The objective of this research project is two-fold. First, to fundamentally understand friction and relaxation dynamics of polymer chains near surfaces; and second, to develop novel self-lubricated substrates suitable for MEMS devices. During the three-year performance period of this study the PI and his students have shown using theory and experiments that systematic introduction of disorder into tethered lubricant coatings (e.g. by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) mixtures or SAMs with nonlinear, branched architectures) can be used to significantly reduce the friction coefficient of a surface. They have also developed a simple procedure based on dielectric spectroscopy for quantifying the effect of surface disorder on molecular relaxation in lubricant coatings. Details of research accomplishments in each area of the project are described in the body of the report.

  17. Robust technology and system for management of sucker rod pumping units in oil wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, T. A.; Rzayev, A. H.; Guluyev, G. A.; Alizada, T. A.; Rzayeva, N. E.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a technology for calculating the robust, normalized correlation functions of the signal from the force sensor on the rod string attached to the hanger of the sucker rod pumping unit. The robust normalized correlation functions are used to form sets of informative attribute combinations, each of which corresponds to a technical condition of the sucker rod pumping unit. We demonstrate how these sets can be used to solve identification and management problems in the oil production process in real time using inexpensive controllers. The results obtained from using the system on real objects are also presented in this paper. It was determined that the energy saved and prolonged overhaul period substantially increased the cost-effectiveness.

  18. Numerical analysis of all flow state lubrication performance of water-lubricated thrust bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiao; Deng Liping; Huang Wei; Liu Lizhi; Zhao Xuecen; Liu Songya

    2015-01-01

    A model enabling all different flow state lubrication performance simulation and analysis for water-lubricated thrust bearing is presented, considering the temperature influence and elastic deformation. Lubrication state in the model is changed directly from laminar lubrication to turbulent lubrication once Reynolds number exceeds the critical Reynolds number. The model is numerically solved and results show that temperature variation is too little to influence the lubrication performance; the elastic deformation can slightly reduce the load carrying capacity of the thrust bearing; and the turbulent lubrication can remarkably improve the load carrying capacity. (authors)

  19. Laboratory services series: a lubrication program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, H.B.; Miller, T.L.

    1976-05-01

    The diversity of equipment and operating conditions at a major national research and development laboratory requires a systematic, effective lubrication program. The various phases of this program and the techniques employed in formulating and administering this program are discussed under the following topics: Equipment Identification, Lubrication Requirements, Assortment of Lubricants, Personnel, and Scheduling.

  20. Laboratory services series: a lubrication program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, H.B.; Miller, T.L.

    1976-05-01

    The diversity of equipment and operating conditions at a major national research and development laboratory requires a systematic, effective lubrication program. The various phases of this program and the techniques employed in formulating and administering this program are discussed under the following topics: Equipment Identification, Lubrication Requirements, Assortment of Lubricants, Personnel, and Scheduling

  1. A new lubricant carrier for metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    A lubricant carrier for metal forming processes is developed. Surfaces with pores of micrometer size for entrapping lubricant are generated by electrochemical deposition of an alloy, consisting of two immiscible metals, of which one metal subsequently is etched away leaving 5 mu m layers with a s...... extrusion at high reduction and excessive stroke comparing with conventionally lubrication using phosphate coating and soap....

  2. 21 CFR 880.6375 - Patient lubricant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 880.6375 Patient lubricant. (a) Identification. A patient lubricant is a device intended for medical... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient lubricant. 880.6375 Section 880.6375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...

  3. Experimental Measurements of Journal Bearing Friction Using Mineral, Synthetic, and Bio-Based Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis G. Nikolakopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of many industrial and naval applications is becoming increasingly important. Journal bearings are crucial components related with the reliable, safe and environmentally friendly operation of rotating machinery in many applications, e.g., in hydroplants, ships, power generation stations. The maintenance activities in certain cases also have considerable environmental impact. Fortunately, it is relatively easy to reduce the impact by changing the way lubricants are being used. Selecting the proper lubricant is important to sharply reduce long-term costs. The best-fit product selection can mean longer lubricant life, reduced machine wear, reduced incipient power losses and improved safety. Suitable basestocks and additives reduce environmental impact. In this paper, three types of lubricants are used in order to examine their effects on the tribological behavior of journal bearings. A mineral oil, a synthetic oil and a bio-based lubricant are experimentally and analytically examined for several configurations of load and journal rotational velocity. The friction forces and the hydrodynamic friction coefficients are calculated and compared. This investigation can assist the correct choice of lubricant in journal bearings with minimized environmental footprint.

  4. Development and evaluation of a high performance lubricant for industrial gears; Desenvolvimento e avaliacao de lubrificantes de alto desempenho para engrenagens industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Laura Denise Santiago de; Silva, Ademir Oliveira da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Oliveira, Adelci Menezes de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, new machines are submitted to higher efforts with smaller clearances. For them it is necessary to develop high performance lubricants in order to reduce friction, wear and emissions for internal combustion engines. In this work it was developed two lubricants, prepared with MoS{sub 2} (Molybdenum Disulfide) and LIC (Lubricant Intermetallic Compound), and they were compared to commercial oil, at the same viscosity grade ISO VG 320. The oils were tested in a four ball tribometer, at 1200 rpm, at initial temperature of 40 deg C and at 80 kgf. The friction reduction was of 13 % and 18 % for MoS{sub 2} and LIC oil, respectively. The wear was the same for all tested oils. Besides tests in the four ball machine, all oils were characterized by viscosity, demulsibility and atomic emission spectroscopy. The lubricants formulated with solids particles were considered as high performance. (author)

  5. Active lubrication applied to internal combustion engines - evaluation of control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    surface. The behaviour of a main bearing of a medium size combustion engine, operating with radial oil injection and with four different control strategies is analyzed, giving some insights into the minimum fluid film thickness, maximum fluid film pressure, friction losses and maximum vibration levels...... of reducing friction losses and vibrations between the crankshaft and the bearings. The conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with hydrostatic lubrication which is actively modified by radially injecting oil at controllable pressures, through orifices circumferentially located around the bearing...

  6. Frequency Response Analysis of an Actively Lubricated Rotor/Tilting-Pad Bearing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    lubrication. The second approach based on the equivalent dynamic coefficients leads to more accurate results since it includes the frequency dependence of the active hydraulic forces. Theoretical and experimental results reveal the feasibility of reducing resonance peaks by using the active lubricated tilting...... into the model by using two different approaches: (a) linearized active oil film forces and the assumption that the hydrodynamic forces and the active hydraulic forces can be decoupled; (b) equivalent dynamic coefficients of the active oil film and the solution of the modified Reynolds' equation for the active...... their operational range by attenuating resonance peaks and reducing vibration problems....

  7. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  8. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total

  9. Green Lubricants for Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The increasing focus on legislation towards diminishing the impact on working environment as well as external environment has driven efforts to develop new, environmentally benign lubricants for metal forming. The present paper gives an overview of these efforts to substitute environmentally...

  10. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  11. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  12. Castor Oil: Properties, Uses, and Optimization of Processing Parameters in Commercial Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay R; Dumancas, Gerard G; Kasi Viswanath, Lakshmi C; Maples, Randall; Subong, Bryan John J

    2016-01-01

    Castor oil, produced from castor beans, has long been considered to be of important commercial value primarily for the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, and coatings, among others. Global castor oil production is concentrated primarily in a small geographic region of Gujarat in Western India. This region is favorable due to its labor-intensive cultivation method and subtropical climate conditions. Entrepreneurs and castor processors in the United States and South America also cultivate castor beans but are faced with the challenge of achieving high castor oil production efficiency, as well as obtaining the desired oil quality. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed analysis of novel processing methods involved in castor oil production. We discuss novel processing methods by explaining specific processing parameters involved in castor oil production.

  13. Carbon microspheres as ball bearings in aqueous-based lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Dennis, J E; Jin, Kejia; John, Vijay T; Pesika, Noshir S

    2011-07-01

    We present an exploratory study on a suspension of uniform carbon microspheres as a new class of aqueous-based lubricants. The surfactant-functionalized carbon microspheres (∼0.1 wt %) employ a rolling mechanism similar to ball bearings to provide low friction coefficients (μ ≈ 0.03) and minimize surface wear in shear experiments between various surfaces, even at high loads and high contact pressures. The size range, high monodispersity, and large yield stress of the C(μsphere), as well as the minimal environmental impact, are all desirable characteristics for the use of a C(μsphere)-SDS suspension as an alternative to oil-based lubricants in compatible devices and machinery.

  14. Validity of the modified Reynolds equation for incompressible active lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    The modified Reynolds equation for active lubrication has been the cornerstone around which the theoretical investigations regarding actively lubricated bearings have evolved over the years. Introduced originally in 1994, it enables to calculate in a simplified manner the bearing pressure field...... as a function of servovalve controlled pressurized oil injection. This article deals with a preliminary critical review of the simplificatory assumptions that are introduced into the modified Reynolds equation in order to model the phenomena taking place in the interface between the injection nozzle...... and the bearing clearance. The analysis is performed by means of direct comparison of the results of the modified Reynolds equation model versus benchmark CFD calculations, applied to a geometry representative of the system analyzed. The results show that the modified Reynolds equation mathematical simplicity...

  15. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  16. Condition Management of Marine Lube Oil and the Role of Intelligent Sensor Systems in Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, M; Baglee, D

    2012-01-01

    Failures in marine diesel engines can be costly and can cause extreme inconvenience when they result in ships becoming stranded. Lubricating oil is a crucial component in maintaining engine reliability and so monitoring its condition is essential. Furthermore the lubricating oil offers early indication of various other engine faults. Current approaches to oil-based condition monitoring involve samples being sent for land based testing which involves considerable delay during which the situation could deteriorate further. Furthermore there is a substantial risk of contamination. The POSSEIDON project aimed to address this by developing a system involving real-time condition monitoring sensors observing the properties of the lubricating oil. Novel sensors were developed which address the specific issues associated with the marine environment. Furthermore, to complement the sensor system outputs, specific monitoring and diagnosis software has been developed to support the operation of onboard personnel with specific advice. On-line management of engine and lubricant condition aboard the ship may thus be achieved. In this paper we will describe the progress achieved in this area by the recently completed POSSEIDON project, outline the opportunities for ongoing development in this area and describe the roadmap for future development. The Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) paradigm will be applied to identify critical aspects of oil condition and prioritize parameters for measurement. The critical issues for development of the prototype unit into a viable commercial unit will be discussed including hardware design constraints, sensor miniaturization and display optimization. Issues such onboard connectivity, ship to shore communications will also be addressed.

  17. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A; Barna, Michael G; Moore, Tom

    2009-09-01

    The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the region. The following work presents an analysis of these impacts using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). CAMx is a state-of-the-science, "one-atmosphere" Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). Meteorology and emissions inventories developed by the Western Regional Air Partnership Regional Modeling Center for regional haze analysis and planning are used to establish an ozone baseline simulation for the year 2002. The predicted range of values for ozone in the national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States is then evaluated with available observations from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). This evaluation demonstrates the model's suitability for subsequent planning, sensitivity, and emissions control strategy modeling. Once the ozone baseline simulation has been established, an analysis of the model results is performed to investigate the regional impacts of oil and gas development on the ozone concentrations that affect the air quality of Class I areas. Results indicate that the maximum 8-hr ozone enhancement from oil and gas (9.6 parts per billion [ppb]) could affect southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Class I areas in this region that are likely to be impacted by increased ozone include Mesa Verde National Park and Weminuche Wilderness Area in Colorado and San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area, Bandelier Wilderness Area, Pecos Wilderness Area, and Wheeler Peak Wilderness Area in New Mexico.

  18. Toxicological effects of spent engine oil from automechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicological effects of spent engine oil from automechanic workshops on the gills ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Engine oil, a major lubricant in automobile engines is often discharged in its ...

  19. An experimental study on oil supply in a space bearing with an oil-impregnated retainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianhai; Fan, Youwen; Wen, Shizhu

    1993-06-01

    Parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) film thickness in a space ball bearing is measured by electrical capacitance and resistance, and parched transients of oil film and lubricant breakdown are observed. With different oil-impregnated polymer retainers, which are employed as oil supply resources, parched degradation is restricted to some degree, even lubricant breakdown disappears and a steady state of the oil film is produced. A long-term space bail bearing demands both the lowest driving torque and a steady state oil film, which depends on a strictly controlled oil supply from oil-impregnated retainers. The results of this experimental research describe the effects of oil supply by amounts of oil in retainers on parched EHL.

  20. De-Lubrication Behavior Of Novel EBS Based Admixed Lubricant In Aluminum P/M Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh M.C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research is to develop a novel lubricant for Al-Cu-Mg P/M alloy and to address the effects of the lubricant and compaction pressure on sintered properties. A lubricant mixture consisting of Ethylene Bis Stearamide, Zn-Stearate, and fatty acid was newly developed in this study, and the de-lubrication behavior was compared with that of other commercial lubricants, such as Ethylene Bis Stearamide, Zn-Stearate, and Al-Stearate. Density and transverse rupture strength of sintered materials with each lubricant were examined, respectively. The microstructural analysis was conducted using optical microscope.

  1. Identifying lubricant options for compressor bearing designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaz, J.; Seeton, C.; Dixon, L.

    2017-08-01

    Today’s refrigeration and air conditioning market is not only driven by the environmental aspects of the refrigerants, but also by the energy efficiency and reliability of system operation. Numerous types of compressor designs are used in refrigeration and air conditioning applications which means that different bearings are used; and in some cases, multiple bearing types within a single compressor. Since only one lubricant is used, it is important to try to optimize the lubricant to meet the various demands and requirements for operation. This optimization entails investigating different types of lubricant chemistries, viscosities, and various formulation options. What makes evaluating these options more challenging is the refrigerant which changes the properties of the lubricant delivered to the bearing. Once the lubricant and refrigerant interaction are understood, through various test methods, then work can start on collaborating with compressor engineers on identifying the lubricant chemistry and formulation options. These interaction properties are important to the design engineer to make decisions on the adequacy of the lubricant before compressor tests are started. This paper will discuss the process to evaluate lubricants for various types of compressors and bearing design with focus on what’s needed for current refrigerant trends. In addition, the paper will show how the lubricant chemistry choice can be manipulated through understanding of the bearing design and knowledge of interaction with the refrigerant to maximize performance. Emphasis will be placed on evaluation of synthetic lubricants for both natural and synthetic low GWP refrigerants.

  2. Solid Lubricated Rolling Element Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-15

    lubricant into uneven patches of varnish . This varnish , along with the file-like action of the exposed ball carbides on the relatively softer races, can...its structure. Fluorine , one of the most reactive elements, reacts with graphite without combustion from about 790’F to 1022°F, forming a grey-colored...to allow for molding and machining after molding. 0 Method 2 (Hughes) Impregnating these dense weaves with a Thermid 600 polyimide varnish

  3. Transition to thermohydrodynamic lubrication problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciuperca, I. S.; Feireisl, Eduard; Jai, M.; Petrov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2017), s. 391-414 ISSN 0033-569X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : free boundary problems * lubrication * asymptotic approach * Stokes equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.788, year: 2016 http://www.ams.org/journals/qam/2017-75-03/S0033-569X-2017-01468-X/

  4. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Alice Mae

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are

  5. Oil-Free Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.; Belver, T. L.; Moore, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Compressor pistons moved by eccentric shaft need no lubricants. Compressor has shaft, middle section is eccentric in relation to end sections. Driven by brushless dc motor, shaft turns inner races of set of four cam bearings. Outer cam-bearing races in turn actuate four pistons spaced equally apart, around and along shaft. Each outer bearing race held in position by pressure exerted on it by piston. Because no frictional motion between piston and outer bearing race, lubricant between them unnecessary. Cam bearings themselves contain potted internal lubricant. Originally proposed for use in space, new compressor for refrigerators or freezers does not depend on pool of oil for lubricating its pistons. Operated in any orientation.

  6. Characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial lubricants are derived from non-renewable petroleum-based resources that can cause pollution due to poor degradation. Seed oils, however, are both renewable and readily biodegradable, but have lower thermal stability and shorter shelf-life. This drawback can be overcome and yet retain the...

  7. Lubrication of Piston Rings in Large 2–and 4–stroke Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, Christian Lotz

    Piston rings are vital components of any internal combustion engine, and their performance affect important properties such as frictional losses, oil consumption, and wear of parts. This thesis deals with the lubrication of piston rings from a theoretical point of view. Predictions are made using...

  8. Au/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Synthesized in Supercritical CO2 Fluid as Energy Efficient Lubricant Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2017-11-15

    Au nanoparticles are successfully decorated onto graphene oxide (GO) sheets with the aid of supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO 2 ) fluid. The synthesized nanocomposite (Sc-Au/GO) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization results show that the Au nanoparticles are featured with face-centered cubic crystal structure and disperse well on the GO nanosheet surfaces with average diameters of 4-10 nm. The tribological behaviors of Sc-Au/GO as lubricating additive in PAO6 oil were investigated using a ball-on-disc friction tester, and a control experiment by respectively adding GO, nano-Au particles, and Au/GO produced in the absence of ScCO 2 was performed as well. It is found that Sc-Au/GO exhibits the best lubricating performances among all the samples tested. When 0.10 wt % Sc-Au/GO is dispersed into PAO6 oil, the friction coefficient and wear rate are respectively reduced by 33.6% and 72.8% as compared to that of the pure PAO6 oil, indicating that Sc-Au/GO is an energy efficient lubricant additive. A possible lubricating mechanism of Sc-Au/GO additive in PAO6 oil has been tentatively proposed on the basis of the analyzed results of the worn surface examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  9. Linear and Non-Linear Control Techniques Applied to Actively Lubricated Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For furt......The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication....... For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can count with the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurised oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and non-linear controllers, applied...... vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0 to 80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated...

  10. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States (Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean e. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Crude oil produced on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) is primarily transported on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) to in-state refineries and the Valdez Marine Terminal in southern Alaska. From the Terminal, crude oil is loaded onto tankers and is transported to export markets or to three major locations along the U.S. West Coast: Anacortes-Ferndale area (Washington), San Francisco Bay area, and Los Angeles area. North Slope of Alaska production has decreased about 75% since the 1980s, which has reduced utilization of TAPS.

  11. Mobile unit for treatment of oil emulsions (taladrines); Unidad movil de tratamiento de taladrinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, S.

    1995-06-01

    The environmental problems of water in oil emulsions (taladrines), produced because of an uncontrolled pouring in the sewage system, is the problem caused for the sewage sludge water treatment plants because they have oils, emulgents and heavy metals. (Author)

  12. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  13. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  14. A Review of Ionic Liquid Lubricants

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony E. Somers; Patrick C. Howlett; Douglas R. MacFarlane; Maria Forsyth

    2013-01-01

    Due to ever increasing demands on lubricants, such as increased service intervals, reduced volumes and reduced emissions, there is a need to develop new lubricants and improved wear additives. Ionic liquids (ILs) are room temperature molten salts that have recently been shown to offer many advantages in this area. The application of ILs as lubricants in a diverse range of systems has found that these materials can show remarkable protection against wear and significantly reduce friction in th...

  15. Lubricant test for punching and blanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2003-01-01

    Punching/blanking is one of the tribologically wise most severe metal forming processes.Insu $cient lubrication leads to heavy pick-up of work piece material on the punch stem,bad tolerances and eventual breakdown of the punch due to excessive backstroke force,especially in case of tribologically...... of alternative lubricants the present paper describes a new lubricant test for punching....

  16. Lubrication for hot working of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotlib, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The isothermal lubrication of the following composition is suggested, wt. %: aluminium powder 4-6, iron scale 15-25, vitreous enamel up to 100. The lubricant improves forming and decreases the danger of the metal fracture when titanium alloys working. It is advisable to use the suggested lubrication when stamping thin-walled products of titanium alloys at the blank temperature from 700 to 1000 deg C [ru

  17. Markets for lubricants at a time of upheaval; Schmierstoffmarkt im Umbruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, Lutz [Fuchs Petrolub AG (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The presentation considers the lubricants market and the lubricants under three different points of view. I will discuss the lubricants market under view of the development of the upcoming and existing regulatory risks. The requirements out of the regulations, which need to be fulfilled in the future by the lubricants manufacturer to handle the supply chain in a globalized economy are highlighted. The raw material world will be analyzed, since the raw material becomes a more and more dominating part of the lubricants world. Due to technical requirements the complexity of used raw material becomes a problem in view of the regulatory conditions we are working in. The latest development in the base oil landscape will be discussed. The influence of the changing refinery landscape in Europe and the influence on availability in Europe, USA and Asia are shown. Further more alternative base oils, inorganic additives, i.e. Mo and Li compounds and of course the special chemistry are part of the considerations as well. The third point of view considers the complexity of the lubricant development. The modern lubricant has seen a dramatic change from being a commodity to a process or construction element. The tribology as young discipline in science with a lot of cross-functional aspects requires a lot of additional research to understand more the mechanisms working in the tribosystem. In the farer future this may lead to more predictability than today. The necessity of research in research communities together with universities is mandatory to get the complexity under control. We have to leave the path of phenomenological research to knowledge based development. This is a necessary condition to be faster in development and more effective, which is needed to maintain our European first class position in the globalized world. (orig.)

  18. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Appendix. Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    Volume ten contains the following appendices: overview of improved oil recovery methods which covers enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods; the benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and list of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  19. Viscoelastic machine elements elastomers and lubricants in machine systems

    CERN Document Server

    MOORE, D F

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic Machine Elements, which encompass elastomeric elements (rubber-like components), fluidic elements (lubricating squeeze films) and their combinations, are used for absorbing vibration, reducing friction and improving energy use. Examplesinclude pneumatic tyres, oil and lip seals, compliant bearings and races, and thin films. This book sets out to show that these elements can be incorporated in machine analysis, just as in the case of conventional elements (e.g. gears, cogs, chaindrives, bearings). This is achieved by introducing elementary theory and models, by describing new an

  20. Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL) Development. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Lubricant (SCPL), General Engine Products (GEP) 6.5L(T), Detroit Diesel Corporation ( DDC ) 6V53T, High Temperature Oil Endurance, MIL-PRF-46167, MIL-PRF...using the Detroit Diesel Corporation ( DDC ) 6V53T, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D5966 roller follower wear protection...candidates. A Detroit Diesel Corporation ( DDC ) 6V53T, from the M113A3 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC), was used to evaluate the two revised candidates and a

  1. Development of High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Rabi

    1999-01-01

    ... environment. To test this approach, UES and Cleveland State University have conducted experiments to form cesium oxythiotungstate, a high temperature lubricant, on Inconel 718 surface from composite coatings...

  2. On the lubrication mechanism of detonation-synthesis nanodiamond additives in lubricant composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelevskii, A. A.; Esina, A. V.; Voznyakovskii, A. P.; Fadin, Yu. A.

    2017-09-01

    The lubrication of detonation-synthesis diamond additives in lubricant composites has been discussed. The mechanism of interaction between nanodiamonds and friction surface has been shown to depend on the applied load. Two models of the lubrication of nanodiamonds and the conditions for their validity have also been proposed.

  3. Rotor Rolling over a Water-Lubricated Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatokhin, V. F.

    2018-02-01

    The article presents the results of studying the effect of forces associated with secondary damping coefficients (gyroscopic forces) on the development of asynchronous rolling of the rotor over a water-lubricated bearing. The damping forces act against the background of other exciting forces in the rotor-supports system, in particular, the exciting forces of contact interaction between the rotor and bearing. The article considers a rotor resting on supports rubbing against the bearing and the occurrence of self-excited vibration in the form of asynchronous roll-over. The rotor supports are made in the form of plain-type water-lubricated bearings. The plain-type bearing's lubrication stiffness and damping forces are determined using the wellknown algorithms taking into account the physical properties of water serving as lubrication of the bearing. The bearing sliding pair is composed of refractory materials. The lubrication layer in such bearings is thinner than that used in oil-lubricated bearings with white metal lining, and there is no white metal layer in waterlubricated bearings. In case of possible deviations from normal operation of the installation, the rotating rotor comes into direct contact with the liner's rigid body. Unsteady vibrations are modeled using a specially developed software package for calculating the vibration of rotors that rub against the turbine (pump) stator elements. The stiffness of the bearing liner with the stator support structure is specified by a dependence in the force-deformation coordinate axes. In modeling the effect of damping forces, the time moment corresponding to the onset of asynchronous rolling-over with growing vibration amplitudes is used as the assessment criterion. With a longer period of time taken for the rolling-over to develop, it becomes possible to take the necessary measures in response to actuation of the equipment set safety system, which require certain time for implementing them. It is shown that the

  4. New lubrication concepts for environmental friendly machines. Tribological, thermophysical and viscometric properties of lubricants interacting with triboactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.; Klingenberg, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Woydt, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The present research report was elaborated in close cooperation with Renault SAS, FUCHS Petrolub AG and Ingenieurgesellschaft Auto und Verkehr (IAV). The use of alternative oils for the lubrication of automobile engines has a potential of ecological and technical advantages. It requires the detailed knowledge of several thermophysical and viscometric properties in a large temperature range (mapping). Therefore, the following properties of up to twenty-eight different oils have been measured in the temperature range from 22 C to 150 C: density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, viscosity at ambient pressure, viscosity under shear rates above 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}, and the viscosity at elevated pressures (maximum 100 MPa). The last two have been measured with a substantially improved and a newly developed apparatus, respectively. The pressure-viscosity coefficient has been measured on four hydrocarbon-based, factory-fill oils, a paraffin oil and twenty-three alternative oils. Nine of the alternative oils are based partly or completely on esters, the other fourteen on polyglycols, two of them additionally on water. Based on the piston ring/cylinder liner simulation tests of BAM performed outside of engines and the SRV {sup registered} tests both performed only under conditions of mixed/boundary lubrication, it is reasonable that thermally sprayed TiO{sub x}-based, Ti{sub n-2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 2n-1} and (Ti,Mo)(C,N)+23NiMo piston ring coatings, so called 'lubricious or triboactive oxides', can substitute common materials and serve as a promising alternative to commercial piston ring coatings made of strategic Molybdenum and super-finishing intensive blends of WC/Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}. Some couples qualified for 'zero' wear. In combination with bionotox ester- and polyglycol-based lubricants the coefficient of friction can be reduced fulfilling simultaneously stronger European exhaust emission regulations. Thermally sprayed Ti-based coatings with their

  5. Oil pollution survey around the coasts of the United Kingdom, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This report summarises the findings of the questionnaire survey of cases of marine oil pollution reported during 1997. Descriptive statistics and trend assessments are presented with a map showing the locations of all incidents. A summary of all spills over 2 tonnes and the total estimated volumes of pollution reported in each marine environmental zone are included, and figures and tables illustrating the oil pollution cases in each enumeration zone, the main pollution sources, the extent of oil pollution, causes of oil pollution, the fate of the oil, methods, extent and location of clean-up operations, and expenditure incurred in clean-up operations are given. (UK)

  6. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  7. Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazvoda, S.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam

    Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project. Experiments were conducted with the strip reduction test [1] in order to classify experimental lubricants, developed during concerned project. One reference lubricant was used during testing....

  8. Waiting for the energy crisis: Europe and the United States on the eve of the first oil shock

    OpenAIRE

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2014-01-01

    WOS:000343528000004 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) A global economic crisis is the most difficult kind of event to predict. This article asks a straightforward question: did anyone come close to anticipating the oil crisis of 1973/74, which represented a new type of historical sequence? Was the likelihood of an oil shock self-evident at the time? To answer this, I examine the degree of awareness in Europe and the United States of the three possible triggering factors: Egypt’s disposition to...

  9. Drilling, alternative fuels and efficiency. Can the United States wean itself from imported oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, Philip [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Perhaps the most daunting challenge the next generation of Americans will face is what President Bush called our 'addiction to oil'. The challenge is to find the means to provide for our transportation needs in the face of declining world oil production. Perhaps the central question is whether we will export the great wealth of America to foreign countries in payment for oil before we tackle the grand challenge of creating a new transportation future that does not rely completely on oil. This article presents the historical facts relative to America's oil demand and domestic and world oil production resources. These historical trends are used to construct a scenario of future supply and demand for oil in the US. A range of existing technologies, which can reduce the need for petroleum imports, are then evaluated using wedges analysis, giving projections to the year 2030. (author)

  10. Drilling, alternative fuels and efficiency: Can the United States wean itself from imported oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, Philip [Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)], E-mail: pfairey@fsec.ucf.edu

    2009-04-15

    Perhaps the most daunting challenge the next generation of Americans will face is what President Bush called our 'addiction to oil'. The challenge is to find the means to provide for our transportation needs in the face of declining world oil production. Perhaps the central question is whether we will export the great wealth of America to foreign countries in payment for oil before we tackle the grand challenge of creating a new transportation future that does not rely completely on oil. This article presents the historical facts relative to America's oil demand and domestic and world oil production resources. These historical trends are used to construct a scenario of future supply and demand for oil in the US. A range of existing technologies, which can reduce the need for petroleum imports, are then evaluated using wedges analysis, giving projections to the year 2030.

  11. Drilling, alternative fuels and efficiency. Can the United States wean itself from imported oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairey, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the most daunting challenge the next generation of Americans will face is what President Bush called our 'addiction to oil'. The challenge is to find the means to provide for our transportation needs in the face of declining world oil production. Perhaps the central question is whether we will export the great wealth of America to foreign countries in payment for oil before we tackle the grand challenge of creating a new transportation future that does not rely completely on oil. This article presents the historical facts relative to America's oil demand and domestic and world oil production resources. These historical trends are used to construct a scenario of future supply and demand for oil in the US. A range of existing technologies, which can reduce the need for petroleum imports, are then evaluated using wedges analysis, giving projections to the year 2030. (author)

  12. Development of high performance lubricant through the compatibility of polyalphaolefin, polyurea and irradiated polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratao, Natalia Torres

    2013-01-01

    Lubricants are gaseous, liquid, semi solid or solid (powder) materials those form a film between two parties preventing friction. High performance lubricants are designed to work under severe conditions of temperature, pressure, and contamination. The most used are liquids (oils) and semi solids (greases). Greases are applied where oils can drain or in inaccessible places and are divided generally into two classes, soap and no soap. The most used non soap grease is polyurea, obtained by the reaction between amine and isocyanate, has highly thixotropic, high dielectric strength and excellent anticorrosive property, so it is widely used for lubrication of electric motors and shipbuilding machinery. For a grease with high performance, in this study was used a synthetic lubricant fluid, polyalphaolefin, and was also employed solid lubricant additive polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) due its lowest coefficient of friction, is found commercially irradiated in air to obtain smaller particles and to produce oxygenated terminal groups those are more compatible with the metal surface. The tests conducted were comparatively between pure polyurea grease and with PTFE additive. The characterizations were made by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis of C, N and H and Free NCO index, proving the formation of four carbons polyurea (tetraurea). The functional analysis of drop point and oil separation showed high stability and compatibility between the polymers increased when PTFE was added. The excellent resistance of pure tetraurea grease to wear and extreme pressure were demonstrated by four-ball and practical bearings tests, characterizing this grease as a high performance lubricant, when compared to most used greases in the market. (author)

  13. Nuclear fuel handling grapple carriage with self-lubricating bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear fuel handling grapple carriage having a bearing with a lubricant reservoir that is capable of being refilled when the bearing and reservoir are submerged in a lubricant pool. The lubricant reservoir supplies lubricant to the bearing while the bearing allows a small amount of lubricant to leak passed appropriately placed seals creating a positive out flow of lubricant thereby preventing foreign material from entering the bearing

  14. Trends in Controllable Oil Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    This work gives an overview about the theoretical and experimental achievements of mechatronics applied to oil film bearings, with the aim of: controlling the lateral vibration of flexible rotating shafts; modifying bearing dynamic characteristics, as stiffness and damping properties; increasing......" components and be applied to rotating machines with the goal of avoiding unexpected stops of plants, performing rotordynamic tests and identifying model parameters "on site". Emphasis is given to the controllable lubrication (active lubrication) applied to different types of oil film bearings, i...

  15. Optimization model of a system of crude oil distillation units whit heat integration and meta modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Diana C; Mahecha, Cesar A; Hoyos, Luis J; Acevedo, Leonardo; Villamizar Jaime F

    2009-01-01

    The process of crude distillation impacts the economy of any refinery in a considerable manner. Therefore, it is necessary to improve it taking good advantage of the available infrastructure, generating products that conform to the specifications without violating the equipment operating constraints or plant restrictions at industrial units. The objective of this paper is to present the development of an optimization model for a Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) system at a ECOPETROL S.A. refinery in Barrancabermeja, involving the typical restrictions (flow according to pipeline capacity, pumps, distillation columns, etc) and a restriction that has not been included in bibliographic reports for this type of models: the heat integration of streams from Atmospheric Distillation Towers (ADTs) and Vacuum Distillation Towers (VDT) with the heat exchanger networks for crude pre-heating. On the other hand, ADTs were modeled with Meta models in function of column temperatures and pressures, pumparounds flows and return temperatures, stripping steam flows, Jet EBP ASTM D-86 and Diesel EBP ASTM D-86. Pre-heating trains were modeled with mass and energy balances, and design equation of each heat exchanger. The optimization model is NLP, maximizing the system profit. This model was implemented in GAMSide 22,2 using the CONOPT solver and it found new operating points with better economic results than those obtained with the normal operation in the real plants. It predicted optimum operation conditions of 3 ADTs for constant composition crude and calculated the yields and properties of atmospheric products, additional to temperatures and duties of 27 Crude Oil exchangers.

  16. Optimization model of a system of crude oil distillation units with heat integration and metamodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Diana C; Mahecha, Cesar A; Hoyos, Luis J; Acevedo, Leonardo; Villamizar Jaime F

    2010-01-01

    The process of crude distillation impacts the economy of any refinery in a considerable manner. Therefore, it is necessary to improve it taking good advantage of the available infrastructure, generating products that conform to the specifications without violating the equipment operating constraints or plant restrictions at industrial units. The objective of this paper is to present the development of an optimization model for a Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) system at a ECOPETROL S.A. refinery in Barrancabermeja, involving the typical restrictions (flow according to pipeline capacity, pumps, distillation columns, etc) and a restriction that has not been included in bibliographic reports for this type of models: the heat integration of streams from Atmospheric Distillation Towers (ADTs) and Vacuum Distillation Towers (VDT) with the heat exchanger networks for crude pre-heating. On the other hand, ADTs were modeled with Metamodels in function of column temperatures and pressures, pump a rounds flows and return temperatures, stripping steam flows, Jet EBP ASTM D-86 and Diesel EBP ASTM D-86. Pre-heating trains were modeled with mass and energy balances, and design equation of each heat exchanger. The optimization model is NLP, maximizing the system profit. This model was implemented in GAMSide 22,2 using the CONOPT solver and it found new operating points with better economic results than those obtained with the normal operation in the real plants. It predicted optimum operation conditions of 3 ADTs for constant composition crude and calculated the yields and properties of atmospheric products, additional to temperatures and duties of 27 Crude Oil exchangers.

  17. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  18. Improved Ionic Liquids as Space Lubricants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionic liquids are candidate lubricant materials. However for application in low temperature space mechanisms their lubrication performance needs to be enhanced. UES...

  19. Impacts of an oil spill on the marine environment of the United Arab Emirates along the Gulf of Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriadah, M.M.A.

    1998-01-01

    On the evening of 31 March 1994, a quantity (16 000 t) of Iranian crude oil leaked into the Gulf of Oman 9.5 miles outside the Al-Fujirah port entrance after a collision between the tanker 'Baynunah' and the supertanker 'Seki'. Clean-up operations which started within 1 h and 40 min of the collision could remove only 2000 t of oil from the sea, and failed to contain the spill. After 4 days, the floating oil hit the shoreline of the United Arab Emirates and contaminated about 20 km of shoreline. The main objectives of this paper are to evaluate the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and organic carbon contents at the time of the incident and to assess, in July and November 1994, the recovery of the marine environment after a period of about 8 months. (author)

  20. Computer simulation of deasphalting vacuum residues in a pilot unit; Simulacao computacional de desasfaltacao de residuo de vacuo realizada em unidade piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, Viktor Oswaldo Cardenas; Quirino, Filipe Augusto Barral; Koroisgi, Erika Tomie; Rivarola, Florencia Wisnivesky Rocca; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian Carmen; Barros, Ricardo Soares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In the context of the national petroleum industry, it is interesting to keep the production of the paraffinic lubricant oil type I, which implies in the identification of new loads to ensure the feeding of the existing units. Therefore, it is important to carry out carefully the characterization of the oils, defining its potential for fuel, asphalt and lubricant. Aiming to introduce in the characterization and evaluation of petroleum for lubricant, carried out by PETROBRAS/CENPES, information of basic oils, more similar to industrial oils, was built up in the Laboratory of Process Separation Development - LDPS of UNICAMP/FEQ, a deasphalting pilot unit. In this work, the deasphalting process of a vacuum residue of Brazilian petroleum is simulated, using Aspen Plus{sup R} simulator, in order to remove asphaltenes, resins and other heavy components of vacuum residue. The simulations were carried out considering the configuration of the pilot plant, evaluating the extraction in near-critical operational condition applied to a petroleum, using propane as the solvent. The extraction efficiency and the solvent power were evaluated considering variations in temperature, pressure and in the solvent/feed ratio in order to obtain yields with more efficiency in the production of deasphalted oil (DAO), what means more asphaltene removal. (author)

  1. Unctuous ZrO2 nanoparticles with improved functional attributes as lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina Casado, Jorge; Fernández González, Alfonso; José del Reguero Huerga, Ángel; Rodríguez-Solla, Humberto; Díaz-García, Marta Elena; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2017-12-01

    One of the main drawbacks in the application of metal-oxide nanoparticles as lubricant additives is their poor stability in organic media, despite the good anti-wear, friction-reducing and high-load capacity properties described for these materials. In this work, we present a novel procedure to chemically cap the surface of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2NPs) with long hydrocarbon chains in order to obtain stable dispersions of ZrO2NPs in non-aqueous media without disrupting their attributes as lubricant additives. C-8, C-10 and C-16 saturated flexible chains were attached to the ZrO2NP surface and their physical and chemical characterization was performed by transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. The dispersion stability of the modified ZrO2NPs in non-aqueous media was studied using static multiple light scattering. Tribological tests demonstrated that dispersions of the long-chain capped ZrO2NPs in base lubricating oils exhibited low friction coefficients and improved the anti-wear properties of the base oil when compared with the raw lubricating oil.

  2. Effect of Surface Texturing Parameters on the Lubrication Characteristics of an Axial Piston Pump Valve Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqiang Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a geometrical model of different microtextures is established for an axial piston pump valve plate. A finite differential method was used to solve the Reynolds equation for the oil film thickness and pressure, which were simulated under different microtextures. The influence of microtexture shape and structure on performance was studied and optimal parameters sought. Different convergence gaps are formed by different microtexture radii, and they produce different hydrodynamic effects. The lubrication characteristics of the valve plate are better when a microtexture is used and are influenced by the type of microtexture. We reached the following conclusions: (1 The lubrication characteristics of the valve plate are influenced by different microtexture parameters and can be improved by optimizing the microtexture parameters; (2 There is an optimal parameter combination when adding microtexture with three shapes (spherical, cylindrical and square and the optimal dimensionless oil film pressure lubrication characteristics can be obtained; (3 The degree of improvement in the dimensionless oil film pressure lubrication characteristics was (listed from highest to lowest: micro-hemispherical texture > micro-cylindrical texture > micro-square texture.

  3. Effect of subsidies to fossil fuel companies on United States crude oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Down, Adrian; Lazarus, Michael; Koplow, Doug

    2017-11-01

    Countries in the G20 have committed to phase out `inefficient' fossil fuel subsidies. However, there remains a limited understanding of how subsidy removal would affect fossil fuel investment returns and production, particularly for subsidies to producers. Here, we assess the impact of major federal and state subsidies on US crude oil producers. We find that, at recent oil prices of US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new, yet-to-be-developed oil investments into profitability, potentially increasing US oil production by 17 billion barrels over the next few decades. This oil, equivalent to 6 billion tonnes of CO2, could make up as much as 20% of US oil production through 2050 under a carbon budget aimed at limiting warming to 2 °C. Our findings show that removal of tax incentives and other fossil fuel support policies could both fulfil G20 commitments and yield climate benefits.

  4. A Biomimetic Approach to Lubricate Engineering Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn, Troels

    lubrication characteristic is dominant via ‘selfhealing’ mechanism. The glycosylated FpHYD5 revealed a better lubrication than HFBI. Two type II hydrophobins function more favorably compared to synthetic amphiphilic copolymer, PEO-PPO-PEO, with a similar molecular weight. This is ascribed to higher amount...

  5. Lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchley, Ian [Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port (United Kingdom); Green, Michael [Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    This article from Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port, UK, and Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington, UK, examines the lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels available today in relation to the requirements and limits imposed in ISO8217:2010. It will estimate expected failure rates and also asses the perceived relationship between lubricity, sulphur content and viscosity. (orig.)

  6. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  7. Standardization process aligned to integrated management system: the case of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Labrunie, Charles; Araujo, Dario Doria de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Terminais e Oleodutos

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the implementation by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO of its Oil Pipelines and Terminals Standardization Program (PRONOT) within the scope of the 'Integrated Management System' (IMS). This program, launched in 2006 in the regions where the company operates, aims at standardizing all of its oil pipeline and terminal operations. Its implementation was planned in two phases: the first, already successfully concluded, refers to pipeline operations, industrial maintenance and right-of-way activities management; and the second, initiated in 2009, encompasses cross-sectional activities including health, safety and environment (HSE); training and development of oil pipeline workforce; communication with stake holders; oil pipeline integrity; and engineering project requirements. The documental structures of TRANSPETRO IMS and PRONOT are described and represented graphically to emphasize the intentional alignment of the standardization process carried out by the Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit to the corporate IMS, based upon national and international literature review and through practical research focusing on the best international practices. (author)

  8. [Prediction of the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by NIR crude oil rapid assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Bin; Hu, Yu-Zhong; Li, Wen-Le; Zhang, Wei-Song; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Zhi

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, based on the fast evaluation technique of near infrared, a method to predict the yield of atmos- pheric and vacuum line was developed, combined with H/CAMS software. Firstly, the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for rapidly determining the true boiling point of crude oil was developed. With commercially available crude oil spectroscopy da- tabase and experiments test from Guangxi Petrochemical Company, calibration model was established and a topological method was used as the calibration. The model can be employed to predict the true boiling point of crude oil. Secondly, the true boiling point based on NIR rapid assay was converted to the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by H/CAMS software. The predicted yield and the actual yield of distillation product for naphtha, diesel, wax and residual oil were compared in a 7-month period. The result showed that the NIR rapid crude assay can predict the side-cut product yield accurately. The near infrared analytic method for predicting yield has the advantages of fast analysis, reliable results, and being easy to online operate, and it can provide elementary data for refinery planning optimization and crude oil blending.

  9. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  10. Wear Behavior of Medium Carbon Steel with Biomimetic Surface Under Starved Lubricated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Shao, Feixian; Liang, Yunhong; Lin, Pengyu; Tong, Xin; Ren, Luquan

    2017-07-01

    Friction and wear under starved lubrication condition are both key life-related factors for mechanical performance of many structural parts. In this paper, different surface morphologies on medium carbon steel were fabricated using laser, inspired by the surface coupling effect of biological system. The friction and sliding wear behaviors of biomimetic specimens (characterized by convex and concave units on the specimen surface) were studied under starved lubrication condition. The stress distribution on different sliding surfaces under sliding friction was studied using finite element method. The results showed that the tribological performance of studied surfaces under starved lubrication condition depended not only on the surface morphology but also on the structure of biomimetic units below surface (subsurface structure). The friction coefficient of biomimetic surface was effectively reduced by the concave unit depth, while the refined microstructure with higher hardness led to the much better wear resistance. In addition to lubricant reserving and wear debris trapping effect derived from the surface concave morphology, it was believed that the well-formed subsurface structure of biomimetic units could carry much heavy loads against tribopair, which enhanced the function of surface topography and resulted in complementary lubrication in the wear contact area. The uniform stress distribution on the entire biomimetic surface also played an important role in stabilizing the friction coefficient and reducing the wear cracks.

  11. One of possible variants of the organization for recycling lubricate cooling of technological means for small businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusica, I.; Toca, A.; Stingaci, I.; Scaticailov, S.; Scaticailov, I.; Marinescu, O.; Kosenko, P.

    2016-11-01

    In the paper we analyze the application lubricate cooling technological environment in the processing of various materials in the past century greatly have increased cutting speed and respectively, has increased productivity [1]. Today, none of production in which anyway is used metal cutting machines of all types (milling, turning, grinding, drilling, etc.) is not without lubricant cooling technological liquid which in turn are designed to reduce cutting force and the load on metal cutting machine tools and machined parts in order to increase durability machine tools and reduce errors of processing details and also in resource energy saving. When using lubricate cooling technological environment reduces the temperature in the cutting zone resulting in higher tool life and the preservation of the surface structure being treated reducing wear of metal parts of the machine. Typically, lubricant cooling process fluids is used without replacing as long as possible not yet beginning to negatively affect the quality of process. However life expectancy lubricate cooling technological environment is limited. According to existing normative acts every kind of lubricate cooling technological environment through certain time must be deleted by from the system and subjected to a recycling. Lubricate cooling technological environment must be disposed of for the following reasons: occurs the microbial and the mechanical pollution cutting fluid, free oil impairs operational characteristics cutting fluid and increases consumption.

  12. Applying CFD in the Analysis of Heavy-Oil Transportation in Curved Pipes Using Core-Flow Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Conceição

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase flow of oil, gas and water occurs in the petroleum industry from the reservoir to the processing units. The occurrence of heavy oils in the world is increasing significantly and points to the need for greater investment in the reservoirs exploitation and, consequently, to the development of new technologies for the production and transport of this oil. Therefore, it is interesting improve techniques to ensure an increase in energy efficiency in the transport of this oil. The core-flow technique is one of the most advantageous methods of lifting and transporting of oil. The core-flow technique does not alter the oil viscosity, but change the flow pattern and thus, reducing friction during heavy oil transportation. This flow pattern is characterized by a fine water pellicle that is formed close to the inner wall of the pipe, aging as lubricant of the oil flowing in the core of the pipe. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to study the isothermal flow of heavy oil in curved pipelines, employing the core-flow technique. A three-dimensional, transient and isothermal mathematical model that considers the mixture and k-e  turbulence models to address the gas-water-heavy oil three-phase flow in the pipe was applied for analysis. Simulations with different flow patterns of the involved phases (oil-gas-water have been done, in order to optimize the transport of heavy oils. Results of pressure and volumetric fraction distribution of the involved phases are presented and analyzed. It was verified that the oil core lubricated by a fine water layer flowing in the pipe considerably decreases pressure drop.

  13. Heat-transfer, inside of the ground heat-transfer units, from liquid, additionally cooling the oil-immersed transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madyshev Ilnur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A device for cooling the oil-immersed transformer by means of thermoelectric transducers has been developed. Their operating principle is based on the fact that at night at minimum ambient temperature, the cold is accumulated inside of a vessel due to formation of water ice layer on the developed surfaces of thermoelectric transducers` ribs. Melting of this layer is used in the hottest time of a day for additional cooling of transformer oil in the cooling system of the transformer. Pre-cooling of the circulating water takes place in vertical ground heat-transfer units (VGHT units, mounted into ground drilled boreholes. Certain estimate calculations of the heat-transfer process have been carried out.

  14. Advanced `KS-6` dry type lubricant for aluminum sheet forming; Arumi ban seikeiyo koseino kokei junkatsuzai `KS-5`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, K.; Sugita, T.; Imamura, Y. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The advanced `KS-5` dry film type lubricant was developed for press forming of aluminum sheets. KS-5 uses water- soluble resin poly-alkylene-oxide superior in formability, weldability and adhesivity, and contains higher fatty-acid soap as oil solvent to improve a formability. The verification test result of KS-5 is as follows. Both stretchability and drawability were confirmed through a ball head stretching test and a cylinder drawing test as formability test, respectively, and a forming height more than that of mild steel sheets was obtained by using the solid lubricant showing a high stretchability. The drawability of nearly 80% of that of mild steel sheets was also obtained showing a high formability. Since the amount of the solid lubricant has reciprocal effect on the formability and degreasing property, it is important to select the suitable amount of the solid lubricant according to use conditions. Lubricants generally deteriorate a spot weldability, however, this lubricant has no practical problems by coating rust preventive oil. 3 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

    2011-05-11

    Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C═C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed.

  16. Feasibility of Applying Controllable Lubrication to Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    A multibody dynamic model of the main mechanical components of a hermetic reciprocating compressor is presented in this work. Considering that some of the mechanical elements are interconnected via thin fluid films, the multibody dynamic model is coupled to the equations from the dynamics...... of the fluid films, based on fluid film theory. For a dynamically loaded journal bearing, the fluid film pressure distribution can be computed by numerically solving the Reynolds equation, by means of finite-difference method. Particularly, in this study the main focus is on the lubrication behavior...... and reaction forces in a reciprocating compressor have a cyclic behavior, periodic oil pressure injection rules based on the instantaneous crank angle and load bearing condition can be established. In this paper, several bearing configurations working under different oil pressure injection rules conditions...

  17. Analysis of the dynamic behavior and lubrication characteristics of a small reciprocating compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Jong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a study on the dynamic behavior and lubrication characteristics of a reciprocating compression mechanism used in small refrigeration compressor is performed. In the problem formulation of the compressor dynamics, the viscous frictional force between piston and cylinder wall is considered in order to determine the coupled dynamic behaviors of piston and crankshaft. The solutions of the equations of motion of the reciprocating mechanism along with the time dependent Reynolds equations for the lubricating film between piston and cylinder wall and oil films of the journal bearings are obtained simultaneously. The hydrodynamic forces of journal bearings are calculated using finite bearing model and Gumbel boundary condition. And, a Newton-Raphson procedure was employed in solving the nonlinear equations of piston and crankshaft. The results explored the effects of design parameters on the stability and lubrication characteristics of the compression mechanism

  18. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with R-134a and polyolester lubricant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schooley, D.L. [Imagination Resources, Inc., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This report includes a broad list of processing fluids that are known to be used to manufacture air conditioning and refrigeration products. Sixty-four process fluids from this list were selected for compatibility studies with R-134a and ICI EMKARATE RL32H (32 ISO) polyolester lubricant. Solutions or suspensions of the process fluid residues in polyolester lubricant were heated for 14 days at 175{degrees}C (347{degrees}F) in evacuated sealed glass tubes containing only valve steel coupons. Miscibility tests were performed at 90 wt.% R-134a, 10 wt.% polyolester lubricant with process fluid residue contaminate and were scanned in 10{degrees}C (18{degrees}F) increments over a temperature range of ambient to -40{degrees}C (-40{degrees}F). Any sign of turbidity, haze formation or oil separation was considered the immiscibility point.

  19. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  20. Production of advanced biofuels: co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.; de Miguel Mercader, F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end

  1. The revolution of shale oils in the United States. The business model is being tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of LTO (Light Tight Oil or shale oil) production in the USA, and examines the consequences of oil price fall on its future level. The first part gives an assessment of five years of this revolution which follows the shale gas revolution. It addresses the most remarkable evolutions: spectacular development of production, decrease of oil imports, increase of oil product exports, and a move towards oil independence. The second part highlights some peculiarities of shale oils and of the resulting business model which is much different from the Exploration/Production model for conventional oil. It analyses the LTO economy and breakeven prices required for a continued investment. Technological advances which are at the basis of this revolution are addressed, and expected improvements on a short or medium term are described. The main financial indicators are then presented as the financial situation of LTO producers is a crucial factor for future investment levels. The last chapter reports the study of the impact of price decrease on capital expenditures (CAPEX) of American producers, and on the drilling activity. It seems that LTO production will resist to price decrease

  2. Pyrolysis oil upgrading for Co-processing in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the route that comprises the upgrading of pyrolysis oil (produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass) and its further co-processing in standard refineries to produce transportation fuels. In the present concept, pyrolysis oil is produced where biomass is available and then

  3. Polyamine Triglycerides: Synthesis and Study of Their Potential in Lubrication, Neutralization, and Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Murray, Rex E

    2015-07-22

    Renewable resources have evoked a new awakening in both scientific and industrial circles in the past decade. Vegetable oil is one category of renewables that is amenable as a source of new industrial products. Because the source feedstock, seeds, are environmentally friendly, the derivatized products from these at the end of their lifetime could also be benign when designed appropriately. Bioethanol and biodiesel are examples of biobased industrial products currently in the market place and have become resources for uplifting the rural economy. Biolubricants also are playing a more prominent role because they have become closely competitive with petroleum-based lubricants. These products are renewable because the crops from which the feedstuff for the biofuels and biolubricants are produced are grown annually in contrast to nonrenewable mineral sources. Added to their renewability is the inherent biodegradability of their end-use products after their useful lifetime. In a recent study of the lubricity characteristics of peracylated polyhydroxy milkweed oil, the derivatives were found to exhibit good oxidative stability as well as excellent antiwear properties. To further explore an expansion in the properties of such materials in lubrication and other applications, in this study the polyhydroxy (OH) moieties of derivatized milkweed triglycerides were replaced with -NHR groupings in the oil. In this process novel polyketo triglyceride intermediates leading to polyamine derivatives of the vegetable oil have been synthesized. The polyamine triglyceride markedly improved the stability of the parent oil to oxidative stress. It has also attenuated the extreme viscosity of the starting polyhydroxy oil to a more useful product that could be amenable for use as a lubricating agent, for example, hydraulic fluid. Both the polyketone and polyimine intermediates of the polyamine have chelating properties. The intermediates and the polyamine were characterized spectroscopically

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  5. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.S., E-mail: yinwenfeng2010@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Yin, W.F. [College of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Sang, D.H. [Sheng Li Construction Group International Engineering Department, Shandong, Dongying, 257000 (China); Jiang, Z.Y. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion of a carbon-manganese steel and a stainless steel in sulfur and/or naphthenic acid media was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion rate of the carbon-manganese steel increased with the increase of the acid value and sulfur content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical values of the concentration of sulfur and acid for corrosion rate of the stainless steel were ascertained respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stainless steel is superior to the carbon-manganese steel in corrosion resistance because of the presence of stable Cr{sub 5}S{sub 8} phases. - Abstract: The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 Degree-Sign C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr{sub 5}S{sub 8} phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  6. Evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication grinding with nano-particles and recent related patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhe; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Dongzhou

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, a large number of patents have been devoted to developing minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding techniques that can significantly improve both environmentally conscious and energy saving and costeffective sustainable grinding fluid alternatives. Among them, one patent is about a supply system for the grinding fluid in nano-particle jet MQL, which produced MQL lubricant by adding solid nano-particles in degradable grinding fluid. The MQL supply device turns the lubricant to the pulse drops with fixed pressure, unchanged pulse frequency and the same drop diameter. The drops will be produced and injected in the grinding zone in the form of jet flow under high pressure gas and air seal. As people become increasingly demanding on our environment, minimum quantity lubrication has been widely used in the grinding and processing. Yet, it presents the defect of insufficient cooling performance, which confines its development. To improve the heat transfer efficiency of MQL, nano-particles of a certain mass fraction can be added in the minimum quantity of lubricant oil, which concomitantly will improve the lubrication effects in the processing. In this study, the grinding experiment corroborated the effect of nano-particles in surface grinding. In addition, compared with other forms of lubrication, the results presented that the grinding force, the friction coefficient and specific grinding energy of MQL grinding have been significantly weakened, while G ratio greatly rose. These are attributed to the friction oil-film with excellent anti-friction and anti-wear performance, which is generated nano-particles at the wheel/workpiece interface. In this research, the cooling performance of nano-particle jet MQL was analyzed. Based on tests and experiments, the surface temperature was assayed from different methods, including flood lubricating oil, dry grinding, MQL grinding and nano-particle jet MQL grinding. Because of the outstanding heat transfer

  7. Tribological Behaviour of W-DLC against an Aluminium Alloy Subjected to Lubricated Sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhowmick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diamond like carbon (DLC coatings mitigate aluminium adhesion and reduce friction under the ambient conditions but their tribological behaviour under lubricated sliding need to be further investigated. In this study, tribological tests were performed to evaluate the friction and wear characteristics of W-DLC and H-DLC coatings sliding against an aluminium alloy (319 Al under unlubricated (40 % RH and lubricated sliding conditions. For unlubricated sliding, coefficient of friction (COF values of H-DLC and W-DLC were 0.15 and 0.20. A lower COF value of 0.11 was observed when W-DLC was tested using lubricant oil incorporating sulphur while the H-DLC’s COF remained almost unchanged. The mechanisms responsible for the low friction of W-DLC observed during lubricated sliding were revealed by studying the compositions of the coating surfaces and the transfer layers formed on 319 Al. Micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the transfer layers formed during lubricated sliding of W-DLC incorporated tungsten disulphide (WS2.

  8. The Analysis of Secondary Motion and Lubrication Performance of Piston considering the Piston Skirt Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work performance of piston-cylinder liner system is affected by the lubrication condition and the secondary motion of the piston. Therefore, more and more attention has been paid to the secondary motion and lubrication of the piston. In this paper, the Jakobson-Floberg-Olsson (JFO boundary condition is employed to describe the rupture and reformation of oil film. The average Reynolds equation of skirt lubrication is solved by the finite difference method (FDM. The secondary motion of piston-connecting rod system is modeled; the trajectory of the piston is calculated by the Runge-Kutta method. By considering the inertia of the connecting rod, the influence of the longitudinal and horizontal profiles of piston skirt, the offset of the piston pin, and the thermal deformation on the secondary motion and lubrication performance is investigated. The parabolic longitudinal profile, the smaller top radial reduction and ellipticities of the middle-convex piston, and the bigger bottom radial reduction and ellipticities can effectively reduce the secondary displacement and velocity, the skirt thrust, friction, and the friction power loss. The results show that the connecting rod inertia, piston skirt profile, and thermal deformation have important influence on secondary motion and lubrication performance of the piston.

  9. Pre-electrocoalescer unit adapted to the extra-heavy oil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noik, C.; Dalmazzone, C. [IFP, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Glenat, P. [Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a dehydration process that can break water oil emulsions to mobilize extra heavy oils and bitumen extra heavy oils. The dehydration process is based on solvent mixture with additives injection. It involves large amount of additives, fairly high operating temperatures, solvent addition, and long retention time inside the vessels. The process could be improved by electrocoalescence, thereby reducing the amount of additive and reducing the retention times of vessels to reach oil export specifications. However, commercial electrocoalescence processes are not suitable for extra heavy oils because of the presence of polar heavy components limiting the electrocoalescence effect and therefore, limiting the efficiency of electrostatic coalescer. This paper presented a study whose objective was to determine the most efficient electrocoalescence parameters considering the characteristics of two types of heavy crude oils issued from cold and thermal productions. The paper presented experimental results for electrocoalescence additive selection and for the optimization of electrical parameters. The paper described the materials and methods, including fluids characterization; viscosity; differential scanning calorimetry; dispersion rig; electrical stability tester; and electrocoalescer rig. It was concluded that crude oils produced by thermal production schemes seemed more sensitive to the temperature effect than crudes produced by cold production. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 23 figs.

  10. Double angle seal forming lubricant film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, William D.

    1984-01-01

    A lubricated piston rod seal which inhibits gas leaking from a high pressure chamber on one side of the seal to a low pressure chamber on the other side of the seal. A liquid is supplied to the surface of the piston rod on the low pressure side of the seal. This liquid acts as lubricant for the seal and provides cooling for the rod. The seal, which can be a plastic, elastomer or other material with low elastic modulus, is designed to positively pump lubricant through the piston rod/seal interface in both directions when the piston rod is reciprocating. The capacity of the seal to pump lubricant from the low pressure side to the high pressure side is less than its capacity to pump lubricant from the high pressure side to the low pressure side which ensures that there is zero net flow of lubricant to the high pressure side of the seal. The film of lubricant between the seal and the rod minimizes any sliding contact and prevents the leakage of gas. Under static conditions gas leakage is prevented by direct contact between the seal and the rod.

  11. Nanopolishing by colloidal nanodiamond in elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvani, Khosro A., E-mail: Khosro.asgharishir@bison.howard.edu; Mosleh, Mohsen; Smith, Sonya T. [Howard University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (United States)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, the feasibility of using explosion synthesized diamond nanoparticles with an average particle size (APS) of 3–5 nm with a concentration of 1 % by weight for improving lubrication and friction in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) was investigated. Owing to the orders of magnitude increase in the viscosity of the lubricant in the EHL contact zone, diamond nanoparticles in the lubricant polish the surfaces at the nanoscale which decreases the composite roughness of contacting surfaces. The reduced composite roughness results in an increased film thickness ratio which yields lower friction. In the numerical analysis, governing equations of lubricant flow in the full elastohydrodynamic lubrication were solved, and the shear stress distribution over the fluid film was calculated. Using an abrasion model and the shear stress distribution profile, the material removal by the nanofluid containing nanoparticles and the resultant surface roughness were determined. The numerical analysis showed that in full EHL regime, the nanolubricant can reduce the composite roughness of moving surfaces. Experimental results from prior studies which exhibited surface polishing by such nanolubricants in boundary, mixed, and full elastohydrodynamic lubrication were used for comparison to the numerical model.

  12. Nanopolishing by colloidal nanodiamond in elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Khosro A.; Mosleh, Mohsen; Smith, Sonya T.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using explosion synthesized diamond nanoparticles with an average particle size (APS) of 3-5 nm with a concentration of 1 % by weight for improving lubrication and friction in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) was investigated. Owing to the orders of magnitude increase in the viscosity of the lubricant in the EHL contact zone, diamond nanoparticles in the lubricant polish the surfaces at the nanoscale which decreases the composite roughness of contacting surfaces. The reduced composite roughness results in an increased film thickness ratio which yields lower friction. In the numerical analysis, governing equations of lubricant flow in the full elastohydrodynamic lubrication were solved, and the shear stress distribution over the fluid film was calculated. Using an abrasion model and the shear stress distribution profile, the material removal by the nanofluid containing nanoparticles and the resultant surface roughness were determined. The numerical analysis showed that in full EHL regime, the nanolubricant can reduce the composite roughness of moving surfaces. Experimental results from prior studies which exhibited surface polishing by such nanolubricants in boundary, mixed, and full elastohydrodynamic lubrication were used for comparison to the numerical model.

  13. Research work in the field of lubricants with the aid of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruediger, V.

    1975-01-01

    The application of radionuclide technique to research tasks in the field of lubricants in the laboratorium fuer Isotopentechnik for the last three years is dealt with. In addition, oil foaming, operational oil testing, friction bearing investigations, motor examinations by means of the course of wear, as well as the grain size distribution of the abrasion, the bearing loadability of newtonian and non-newtonian oils, the cylinder wear (according to the principle of density measurement by absorption of characteristic X-rays), are described. (HK/LH) [de

  14. Canada-United States oil and gas relations, 1958 to 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Tammy Lynn

    While there were overtures from each country to develop a more formal accord to govern the trade of oil and natural gas at different times since 1958, Canada rejected that option in 1974 when it decided to phase out oil exports to the U.S. The main purpose of this research is to trace the development and evolution of Canada-U.S. oil and gas relations from the beginning of the informal continental relationship in 1959, through attempts to formalize a continental oil and gas agreement in the late 1960s, to the initial reversal of continentalism by Canada in 1974. This study examines and compares the changing influence of the explanatory variables of interest groups, international forces, national security, economics, ideas, and personalities on the energy decision- and policy-making processes of Canada and the U.S. between 1958 and 1974. Four key decisions or events that can be considered turning points in the Canada-U.S. oil and gas relationship are analysed and include: Canada's exemption to the American Mandatory Oil Import Program (MOIP); Canada's National Oil Policy (NOP); the near revocation of Canada's MOIP exemption; and Canada's decision to phase out oil exports. These events and relationships are situated in the larger context of interdependence, intergovernmental and transgovernmental relations, and the altered bureaucratic structures of governments in both countries over this period of time. Although decisions concerning Canada-U.S. oil and gas relations, and the pursuit and reversal of continentalist policies, were influenced by concerns regarding the pressure of various interest groups, international forces, national security, and changing economic and ideological circumstances; in the period examined here, the personalities of and personal relationships between Presidents and Prime Ministers, and the actions of key officials, as well as their transgovernmental networks across the border, often made the difference in determining what policy or approach

  15. Double hollow MoS{sub 2} nano-spheres: Synthesis, tribological properties, and functional conversion from lubrication to photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yueru [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China); Hu, Kunhong, E-mail: hukunhong@163.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China); Hu, Enzhu; Guo, Jianhua; Han, Chengliang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Hefei University, Hefei 230601 (China); Hu, Xianguo [Institute of Tribology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Novel double-hollow-sphere MoS{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized on sericite. • Friction and wear decreased by 22.4 and 63.5% by the novel MoS{sub 2}/sericite. • Friction induced conversion of MoS{sub 2}/sericite from lubricant to catalyst. • MoS{sub 2}/sericite can be used as a photocatalyst after lubricating service life. • A possible approach was proposed for designing a novel green lubricant. - Abstract: Molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) has extensive applications in industries as solid lubricants and catalysts. To improve the lubricating performance of MoS{sub 2}, novel double-hollow-sphere MoS{sub 2} (DHSM) nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 90 nm were synthesized on sericite mica (SM). When the DHSM/SM composite was used as an additive in polyalphaolefin oil, friction and wear decreased by 22.4% and 63.5% respectively. The low friction and wear were attributed to the easy exfoliation of DHSM. The DHSM/SM composite was then rubbed under 40 MPa for 1 h to investigate the exfoliation and functional conversion behaviors of DHSM. Results showed that DHSM (lubricating structure) on SM could be completely exfoliated into nanosheets (catalytic structure) by rubbing. The nanosheets exfoliated from DHSM presented good photocatalytic activity for the removal of organic compounds from waste water. This work provided both a novel solid lubricant for industrial applications and a possible approach to designing a novel green lubricant for use as a photocatalyst in organic-waste treatment after lubricating service life.

  16. State-of-the-Art of Extreme Pressure Lubrication Realized with the High Thermal Diffusivity of Liquid Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijiang; Tian, Pengyi; Lu, Hongyu; Jia, Wenpeng; Du, Haodong; Zhang, Xiangjun; Li, Qunyang; Tian, Yu

    2017-02-15

    Sliding between two objects under very high load generally involves direct solid-solid contact at molecular/atomic level, the mechanism of which is far from clearly disclosed yet. Those microscopic solid-solid contacts could easily lead to local melting of rough surfaces. At extreme conditions, this local melting could propagate to the seizure and welding of the entire interface. Traditionally, the microscopic solid-solid contact is alleviated by various lubricants and additives based on their improved mechanical properties. In this work, we realized the state-of-the-art of extreme pressure lubrication by utilizing the high thermal diffusivity of liquid metal, 2 orders of magnitude higher than general organic lubricants. The extreme pressure lubrication property of gallium based liquid metal (GBLM) was compared with gear oil and poly-α-olefin in a four-ball test. The liquid metal lubricates very well at an extremely high load (10 kN, the maximum capability of a four-ball tester) at a rotation speed of 1800 rpm for a duration of several minutes, much better than traditional organic lubricants which typically break down within seconds at a load of a few kN. Our comparative experiments and analysis showed that this superextreme pressure lubrication capability of GBLM was attributed to the synergetic effect of the ultrafast heat dissipation of GBLM and the low friction coefficient of FeGa 3 tribo-film. The present work demonstrated a novel way of improving lubrication capability by enhancing the lubricant thermal properties, which might lead to mechanical systems with much higher reliability.

  17. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    , NOx, THC, PM, lubricant-SOF and PAH from one diesel and one gasoline type vehicle using biodegradable lubricants and conventional lubricants. This paper describes the results of the experiments with the diesel type vehicle only. Lubricant consumption and fuel consumption are other important parameters...

  18. A study of mechanisms of liquid lubrication in metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten

    1998-01-01

    Applying a transparent tool technique the lubrication in plane strip drawing of aluminium sheet is studied providing the strip with surface pockets for entrapment of lubricant. The compression and eventual escape of trapped lubricant by Micro Plasto HydroDynamic Lubrication (MPHDL) as well as Micro...

  19. A new oil debris sensor for online condition monitoring of wind turbine gearboxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Hui; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Online Condition Monitoring (CM) is a key technology for the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines. Lubricating oil is the blood of the wind turbine gearbox. Metal debris in lubricating oil contains abundant information regarding the ageing and wear/damage of mechanical transmission sy...

  20. Investigations on oil patches around 'M.T.Lajpatrai' Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    Samples from three oil patches observed around the burning tanker 'M. T. Lajpatrai' at Bombay Harbour were characterised using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMR). Two of them were found to be from used lubricating oils. As indicated by gas...