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Sample records for unit length zi

  1. Production of WTC.ZI-zi rat congenic strain and its pathological and genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, T; Yamasaki, K; Kondo, A; Nakajima, K; Yamada, M; Serikawa, T

    1998-04-01

    A new rat congenic strain, WTC.ZI-zi, was produced after eleven generations of backcrossing between ZI strain as a donor strain and WTC strain as an inbred partner. WTC.ZI-zi/zi homozygous rats generally exhibit more conspicuous body tremor and much earlier occurrence of flaccid paresis than the original ZI strain. The average life span of the congenic strain is approximately nine months, which is also much shorter than that of the original ZI strain. Pathological analysis of the central nervous system of the congenic strain revealed more aggravated vacuolation and hypomyelination than in the original ZI strain. Establishment of the genetic profile with microsatellite markers showed that the congenic strain was genetically almost identical to the WTC strain except for a small chromosome segment bearing the zitter gene. Analysis of markers in this region implied that the length of the donor segment was approximately 13.4 centimorgans which corresponded to 0.65% of the total genome. Thus, these results suggested that expressional alterations of zitter gene were due to replacement of the genetic background from the original ZI strain to the WTC strain. Furthermore, the WTC.ZI-zi congenic strain could provide a refined tool for the analysis of zitter mutation, because the congenic strain has a strict control strain, WTC, and the length of the donor chromosome is genetically defined.

  2. Kong Zi on Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Aaron T. Angeles

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will delve into the problem of Good Governance in the light of Kong Zi. What makes up a Just State? What are the elements that constitute a prosperous Kingdom? What principles of Confucianism can we employ to achieve a just and humane society? These are the primary questions that we will try to investigate as we go along. The paper will be thus divided into three essential parts: The Notion of Li and the Sovereign, The ConfucianMoral Ideal, and lastly, The Great Commonwealth.

  3. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States (US), and is rising in most other countries. This is a repeated cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were separately performed for adults (n = 37,639) and children/adolescents (n = 28,282) to assess the associations between the length of time in the US, and the prevalences of obesity and diabetes. In foreign-born adults, the prevalences of both obesity and diabetes increased with the length of time in the US, and ≥20 years in the US was associated with significantly higher rates of obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22–4.40, P = 0.01) and diabetes (aOR 4.22, 95% CI 1.04–17.08, P = 0.04) compared with obesity prevalence was significantly higher in those born in the US than those who had been in the US for obesity prevalence was significantly higher in US-born than in foreign-born adults from 1999 to 2012. On the other hand, the gap in obesity prevalence between US-born and foreign-born children/adolescents decreased from 1999 to 2011 due to a rapid increase in obesity prevalence among the foreign-born population, until there was no significant difference in 2011 to 2012. This study revealed that the risks of obesity and diabetes have increased in foreign-born US residents with time living in the US. However, the obesity gap between US-born and foreign-born populations is closing. PMID:27583867

  4. Sporta ziņu valoda

    OpenAIRE

    Vāvere, Ilze

    2010-01-01

    Maģistra darbs "Sporta ziņu valoda" sniedz ieskatu par leksiskajām, gramatiskajām, vārddarināšanas īpatnībām sporta ziņās. Īpaša uzmanība pievērsta sporta ziņu valodas stilistiskajām iezīmēm un valodas kultūras jautājumiem. Aplūkots publicistikas valodas lietojums plašsaziņas līdzekļos kopumā, publicistikas žanru tipi, kā arī tieši sporta publicistikas valodai raksturīgās īpatnības. Darbā analizēti arī mākslinieciskās izteiksmes līdzekļi un to izmantošana sporta publicistikā latviešu val...

  5. Shorter length of stay in the stroke unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tistad, Malin; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Sjöstrand, Christina

    2012-01-01

    was seen at 6 or 12 months post stroke. CONCLUSION: It seems possible to reduce the number of days spent in the stroke unit after mild to moderate stroke and instead spend days in a rehabilitation unit, and yet achieve similar patient satisfaction and faster recovery in ADL....... the first year post stroke in 2 groups of patients with mild to moderate stroke who received care in the same stroke unit. METHOD: The patients (1993/96, n=40; 2006/07, n=43) in this study received care in the stroke unit at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden. Data on LOS and on the use...... of health-related services were collected from the Stockholm County Council computerized registers. Satisfaction with health related services was assessed using a questionnaire covering different dimensions of care, while ADLs were assessed using Katz Extended Index of ADL. RESULTS: The LOS in the stroke...

  6. ZI-环的强正则性%On Strong Regularity of Quasi ZI-Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小龙; 吴俊

    2011-01-01

    Let R be ring. It is proved that the following conditions are equivalent: (1) R is a strongly regular ring; (2) R is quasi ZI, regular ring; (3) R is quasi ZI, left SF- ring; (4) R is quasi ZI,ELT ring whose simple left R- modules are either p- injective or projective.%环R称为拟ZI-环[9],意指由a≠0,b≠0,ab=0可推出存在正整数n使得an≠O,且anR6n=0.其中a,b∈R.本文中,我们主要证明了如下结果:对于环R,如下条件是等价的:(1)R是强正则环;(2)R是拟ZI-环,正则环;(3)R是拟ZI-环,左(右)SF-环;(4)R是拟ZI-环,ELT环且使得每个单左R-模是P-内射的或者平坦的.推广了文献[5]的主要结果,同时也改进或推广了有关正则环的某些结果.

  7. Scale and construal: how larger measurement units shrink length estimates and expand mental horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-02-01

    Scale can vary by requiring a different number of units to measure the same target. But what are the consequences of using fewer, larger units? We draw on past psychophysical research that shows how using fewer units reduces clutter in measurement, translating to shorter length estimates. Additionally, we propose that larger scale is associated with targets further from a person's immediate experience (i.e., psychologically distant) and higher order mental representation. Evidence from Study 1 indicates that framing a target as further away causes it to be estimated as shorter because people use larger units to measure it compared to when the same target is framed as nearby. Two subsequent studies suggest that direct manipulation of larger (versus smaller) measurement scale produces not only shorter length estimates, but also more distal timing judgments (Study 2) and abstract mental representation (Study 3). Implications for scale and level of mental construal are discussed.

  8. Postoperative hypoxia and length of intensive care unit stay after cardiac surgery: the underweight paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ranucci

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass can be associated with postoperative lung dysfunction. The present study investigates the incidence of postoperative hypoxia after cardiac surgery, its relationship with the length of intensive care unit stay, and the role of body mass index in determining postoperative hypoxia and intensive care unit length of stay. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective study. SETTING: University Hospital. Patients. Adult patients (N = 5,023 who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: According to the body mass index, patients were attributed to six classes, and obesity was defined as a body mass index >30. POH was defined as a PaO2/FiO2 ratio <200 at the arrival in the intensive care unit. Postoperative hypoxia was detected in 1,536 patients (30.6%. Obesity was an independent risk factor for postoperative hypoxia (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 2.05-2.78, P = 0.001 and postoperative hypoxia was a determinant of intensive care unit length of stay. There is a significant inverse correlation between body mass index and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, with the risk of postoperative hypoxia increasing by 1.7 folds per each incremental body mass index class. The relationship between body mass index and intensive care unit length of stay is U-shaped, with longer intensive care unit stay in underweight patients and moderate-morbid obese patients. CONCLUSIONS: Obese patients are at higher risk for postoperative hypoxia, but this leads to a prolonged intensive care unit stay only for moderate-morbid obese patients. Obese patients are partially protected against the deleterious effects of hemodilution and transfusions. Underweight patients present the "paradox" of a better lung gas exchange but a longer intensive care unit stay. This is probably due to a higher severity of their cardiac disease.

  9. An ancient relation between units of length and volume based on a sphere.

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    Elena Zapassky

    Full Text Available The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube. We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. When considered in ancient Egyptian units, the volume of a sphere, whose circumference is one royal cubit, equals half a hekat. Using the measurements of large sets of ancient containers as a database, the article demonstrates that this formula was characteristic of Egyptian and Egyptian-related pottery vessels but not of the ceramics of Mesopotamia, which had a different system of measuring length and volume units.

  10. Examples for Clinical Use of Ma Zi Ren Wan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书文

    2002-01-01

    @@ Ma Zi Ren Wan (麻子仁丸), originally recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases (伤寒论), is composed of Ma Zi Ren (麻子仁Fructus Cannabis), Bai Shao (白芍Radix Paeoniae Alba), Zhi Shi (枳实Fructus Aurantii Immaturus), Da Huang (大黄Radix etRhizoma Rhei), Hou Po (厚朴cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) and Xing Ren (杏仁Semen Armeniacae Amarum). Good therapeutic results have been achieved by using Ma ZiRen Wan in treatment of febrile disease at the restoring stage, chronic consumptive diseases, hemorrhoid, disorders in women after delivery, chronic kidney disease, senile constipation, pulmonary heart disease, diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Some illustrative cases are introduced below.

  11. Factors associated with mortality and length of stay in the Oporto burn unit (2006-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosch, Isabel; Bartosch, Carla; Egipto, Paula; Silva, Alvaro

    2013-05-01

    Retrospective studies are essential to evaluate and improve the efficiency of care of burned patients. This study analyses the work done in the burn unit of Hospital de S. João in the north of Portugal. A retrospective review was performed in patients admitted from 2006 to 2009. The study population was characterised regarding patient demographics, admissions profile, burn aetiology, burn site, extension and treatment. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were done in order to elucidate which of these factors influenced the mortality and length of stay. The characteristics before and after the creation of the burn unit, as well as the similarities and differences with the published data of other national and international burn units, are analysed.

  12. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  13. Murine protein H is comprised of 20 repeating units, 61 amino acids in length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from size-selected (greater than 28 S) poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the livers of C57B10. WR mice was screened by using a 249-base-pair (bp) cDNA fragment encoding 83 amino acid residues of human protein H as a probe. Of 120,000 transformants screened, 30 hybridized......, 448 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence, and a polyadenylylated tail of undetermined length. Murine pre-protein H was deduced to consist of an 18-amino acid signal peptide and 1216 residues of H-protein sequence. Murine H was composed of 20 repetitive units, each about 61 amino acid residues in length...

  14. A Global View of Zhu Zi's Philosophy%全球化视野中的朱子学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱人求

    2014-01-01

    当前,朱子学的研究已是一种超越国界、超越历史的学术活动,朱子学研究的全球化早已成为一个既成事实。朱子学是行动的哲学,实践的哲学。早在700年前,朱子思想积极参与了东亚思想一体化进程,此时的朱子已经是世界化的朱子。立足于当代与未来,全球化需要什么样的朱子学?朱子学的精神怎样参与人类精神的建构?我们认为,在全球化的背景下,朱子关于“全体大用”、“理一分殊”、书院教育、身心修炼、家礼、关爱弱势群体、文化谱系的承传等理念仍具有积极的现代意义。只有把朱子学真正落实为一种全球共同遵循的生活方式,这才是真正意义上的朱子学的全球化。%At present ,the study of Zhu Zi's philosophy has gone beyond national borders and has be-come a kind of globalized academic activity .Zhu Zi's philosophy is the philosophy of action and practice .As early as 700 years ago ,Zhu Zi's philosophy was actively involved in the thought integration process of East Asia ,making Zhu acknowledged worldwide .Yet ,what kind of a Zhu Zi philosophy does the world need in the modern time?And how can this philosophy participate in the reconstruction of the mental world of hu-man beings?We believe many of the concepts in Zhu Zi's thought ,such as"Mighty Human Mind","united in one ,divided in millions" academy education ,physical and mental cultivation ,family ritual ,care for the disadvantaged ,inheritance of cultural genealogy ,are still of positive and constructive meaning for the pres-ent time .The true sense of making Zhu Zi's philosophy globalized is to implement it in the way of life of the whole world .

  15. Implementation of Phonetic Context Variable Length Unit Selection Module for Malay Text to Speech

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    Tian-Swee Tan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main problem with current Malay Text-To-Speech (MTTS synthesis system is the poor quality of the generated speech sound due to the inability of traditional TTS system to provide multiple choices of unit for generating more accurate synthesized speech. Approach: This study proposes a phonetic context variable length unit selection MTTS system that is capable of providing more natural and accurate unit selection for synthesized speech. It implemented a phonetic context algorithm for unit selection for MTTS. The unit selection method (without phonetic context may encounter the problem of selecting the speech unit from different sources and affect the quality of concatenation. This study proposes the design of speech corpus and unit selection method according to phonetic context so that it can select a string of continuous phoneme from same source instead of individual phoneme from different sources. This can further reduce the concatenation point and increase the quality of concatenation. The speech corpus was transcribed according to phonetic context to preserve the phonetic information. This method utilizes word base concatenation method. Firstly it will search through the speech corpus for the target word, if the target is found; it will be used for concatenation. If the word does not exist, then it will construct the words from phoneme sequence. Results: This system had been tested with 40 participants in Mean Opinion Score (MOS listening test with the average rates for naturalness, pronunciation and intelligibility are 3.9, 4.1 and 3.9. Conclusion/Recommendation: Through this study, a very first version of Corpus-based MTTS has been designed; it has improved the naturalness, pronunciation and intelligibility of synthetic speech. But it still has some lacking that need to be perfected such as the prosody module to support the phrasing analysis and intonation of input text to match with the waveform modifier.

  16. Effect of adverse drug reactions on length of stay in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E; Simón, J; Martin, J C; Puerro, M; Gonzalez-Callejo, M A; Jaime, M; Gomez-Mayoral, B; Duque, F; Gomez-Delgado, A; Moreno, A

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in intensive care units (ICUs) and to evaluate their effect on the length of stay. We performed a prospective study to detect ADRs in 420 patients hospitalised in 10 predetermined beds in the ICU of our hospital between the months of March and December 1996. While the patients were staying in the ICU, data was gathered regarding suspected ADRs and on different variables related to the length of stay. 96 different ADRs were detected in 85 of the 420 patients seen [20.2%, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 16.5 to 24.4]. The ADRs were most frequently caused by the following drugs: nitrates (n = 25), opiates (n = 21) and ultrashort-acting benzodiazepines (n = 10). Eight ADRs were severe, the suspected medication had to be discontinued in 51 cases and new drugs were necessary to manage the ADRs in 73 cases. The crude estimation of the effect of the number of ADRs performed with a bivariant regression model indicated that each ADR was related to a 2.38-day increase (95% CI 1.31 to 3.45) in the length of stay. Although this estimation was reduced to 1.76 days (95% CI 0.72 to 2.79), when other confounding variables associated with the length of stay were considered, it was still important.In conclusion, the ADRs were a significant clinical problem in the ICUs and were responsible for a significant increase in the length of stay.

  17. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DAMPING FACTOR PER UNIT MASS AND THE FREE LENGTH FOR COMPOSITE SANDWICH BARS. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

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    Cristian-Oliviu BURADA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have build some composite sandwich bars in this way: the core is made with polypropylene honeycomb (its thickness is 10, 15 and 20 mm reinforced with 1 layer of carbon fiber (on the sample upper and lower sides. For these samples we have determined, by experimental means, the damping factor per unit mass and per unit length. Then, by using the regression analysis, we have established correlations between the damping factor per unit mass and the bars free length. In order to obtain these correlations, we have considered the next free lengths of the bars: 200, 230, 260, 290, 320, 350.

  18. Bilateral step length estimation using a single inertial measurement unit attached to the pelvis

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    Köse Alper

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimation of the spatio-temporal gait parameters is of primary importance in both physical activity monitoring and clinical contexts. A method for estimating step length bilaterally, during level walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU attached to the pelvis is proposed. In contrast to previous studies, based either on a simplified representation of the human gait mechanics or on a general linear regressive model, the proposed method estimates the step length directly from the integration of the acceleration along the direction of progression. Methods The IMU was placed at pelvis level fixed to the subject's belt on the right side. The method was validated using measurements from a stereo-photogrammetric system as a gold standard on nine subjects walking ten laps along a closed loop track of about 25 m, varying their speed. For each loop, only the IMU data recorded in a 4 m long portion of the track included in the calibrated volume of the SP system, were used for the analysis. The method takes advantage of the cyclic nature of gait and it requires an accurate determination of the foot contact instances. A combination of a Kalman filter and of an optimally filtered direct and reverse integration applied to the IMU signals formed a single novel method (Kalman and Optimally filtered Step length Estimation - KOSE method. A correction of the IMU displacement due to the pelvic rotation occurring in gait was implemented to estimate the step length and the traversed distance. Results The step length was estimated for all subjects with less than 3% error. Traversed distance was assessed with less than 2% error. Conclusions The proposed method provided estimates of step length and traversed distance more accurate than any other method applied to measurements obtained from a single IMU that can be found in the literature. In healthy subjects, it is reasonable to expect that, errors in traversed distance estimation

  19. Murine protein H is comprised of 20 repeating units, 61 amino acids in length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from size-selected (greater than 28 S) poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the livers of C57B10. WR mice was screened by using a 249-base-pair (bp) cDNA fragment encoding 83 amino acid residues of human protein H as a probe. Of 120,000 transformants screened, 30 hybridized...... with this cDNA probe. Ten positives were colony-purified, and the largest plasmid cDNA insert, MH8 (4.4 kb), was sequenced by the dideoxy chain termination method. MH8 contained the complete coding sequence for the precursor of murine complement protein factor H (3702 bp), 100 bp of 5'-untranslated sequence......, 448 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence, and a polyadenylylated tail of undetermined length. Murine pre-protein H was deduced to consist of an 18-amino acid signal peptide and 1216 residues of H-protein sequence. Murine H was composed of 20 repetitive units, each about 61 amino acid residues in length...

  20. Verbālās metaforas ziņu valodā Latvijas ziņās (ziņu portālos apollo.lv un delfi.lv: 2010–2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Puriņa, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Verbālās metaforas ziņu valodā Latvijas ziņās (ziņu portālos apollo.lv un delfi.lv: 2010–2012)” mērķis ir parādīt, ka ziņu valodā ir daudz metaforas, kuras padara interesantāku vēstījumu, ietekmē tā efektivitāti. Pētnieciskā problēma ir: 1) noskaidrot, vai ziņu valodā ir sastopamas metaforas, 2) kādas, 3) vai to vēstījums nevar tikt uztverts kļūdaini, 4) kas ir vēstījuma efektivitātes pamatā? Teorētiskajā daļā – valoda, semiotika, ziņas, preses relīzes, metaforas Leiko...

  1. What factors predict length of stay in a neonatal unit: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Sarah E; Barker, Lisa; Jenkins, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Keith R; Manktelow, Bradley N

    2016-01-01

    Objective In the UK, 1 in 10 babies require specialist neonatal care. This care can last from hours to months depending on the need of the baby. The increasing survival of very preterm babies has increased neonatal care resource use. Evidence from multiple studies is crucial to identify factors which may be important for predicting length of stay (LOS). The ability to predict LOS is vital for resource planning, decision-making and parent counselling. The objective of this review was to identify which factors are important to consider when predicting LOS in the neonatal unit. Design A systematic review was undertaken which searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus for papers from 1994 to 2016 (May) for research investigating prediction of neonatal LOS. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Quality of each study was discussed, but not used as a reason for exclusion from the review. Main outcome measure Prediction of LOS in the neonatal unit. Results 9 studies were identified which investigated the prediction of neonatal LOS indicating a lack of evidence in the area. Inherent factors, particularly birth weight, sex and gestational age allow for a simple and objective prediction of LOS, which can be calculated on the first day of life. However, other early occurring factors may well also be important and estimates may need revising throughout the baby's stay in hospital. Conclusions Predicting LOS is vital to aid the commissioning of services and to help clinicians in their counselling of parents. The lack of evidence in this area indicates a need for larger studies to investigate methods of accurately predicting LOS. PMID:27797978

  2. SYNTHESIS AND AVERAGE SEQUENCE LENGTH DETERMINATION OF AROMATIC-ALIPHATIC COPOLYESTERS CONTAINING POLY(ALKYLENE OXALATE) UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-hui Zhao; Fen Wang; Xu-bo Yuan; Gen-hui Xu; Jing Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Two series of aromatic-aliphatic random copolyesters (PEBTOXS) with diverse diol ratios have been synthesizedby direct melting polycondensation. Two kinds of diols (glycol (EG) and 1,4-butanediol (BD)) are used in combination inorder to adjust crystallization and tensile properties, and three kinds of diacids (dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), diethyloxalate (DEOX), and sebacic acid (SA)) are involved. IH-NMR spectra quantify both composition and structure, and showthat the final contents in copolyesters appropriate to the feed ratio. Average sequence lengths of six polyester units arecalculated based on the analyses of 1H-NMR spectra and copolyester structure. The results reveal that the average sequencelengths of sebacate related units increase with the increasing content of sebacic acid in copolyesters, while those of oxalaterelated units show a slight rise. Decreases of average sequence length are found for all terephthalate units, which may bebecause of the restriction of rigid aromatic units in reactions.

  3. Admission clinicopathological data, length of stay, cost and mortality in an equine neonatal intensive care unit

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    M.N. Saulez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary internists need to prognosticate patients quickly and accurately in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This may depend on laboratory data collected on admission, the cost of hospitalisation, length of stay (LOS and mortality rate experienced in the NICU. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of 62 equine neonates admitted to a NICU of a private equine referral hospital to determine the prognostic value of venous clinicopathological data collected on admission before therapy, the cost of hospitalisation, LOS and mortality rate. The WBC count, total CO2 (TCO2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly higher (P < 0.05 and anion gap lower in survivors compared with nonsurvivors. A logistic regression model that included WBC count, hematocrit, albumin / globulin ratio, ALP, TCO2, potassium, sodium and lactate, was able to correctly predict mortality in 84 % of cases. Only anion gap proved to be an independent predictor of neonatal mortality in this study. In the study population, the overall mortality rate was 34 % with greatest mortality rates reported in the first 48 hours and again on day 6 of hospitalisation. Amongst the various clinical diagnoses, mortality was highest in foals after forced extraction during correction of dystocia. Median cost per day was higher for nonsurvivors while total cost was higher in survivors.

  4. Learning variable length units for SMT between related languages via Byte Pair Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Kunchukuttan, Anoop; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak

    2016-01-01

    We explore the use of segments learnt using Byte Pair Encoding (referred to as BPE units) as basic units for statistical machine translation between related languages and compare it with orthographic syllables, which are currently the best performing basic units for this translation task. BPE identifies the most frequent character sequences as basic units, while orthographic syllables are linguistically motivated pseudo-syllables. We show that BPE units modestly outperform orthographic syllab...

  5. The Effect of Physiotherapy on Ventilatory Dependency and the Length of Stay in an Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Mehtap; Karadibak, Didem; Yldrm, Yucel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physiotherapy on ventilator dependency and lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Patients were divided into two groups. The control group, which received standard nursing care, was a retrospective chart review. The data of control patients who were not receiving physiotherapy were obtained…

  6. Leaf vein length per unit area is not intrinsically dependent on image magnification: avoiding measurement artifacts for accuracy and precision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, L.; Caringella, M.; Scoffoni, C.; Rawls, M.; Markesteijn, L.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf vein length per unit leaf area (VLA; also known as vein density) is an important determinant of water and sugar transport, photosynthetic function, and biomechanical support. A range of software methods are in use to visualize and measure vein systems in cleared leaf images; typically, users lo

  7. The Effect of Physiotherapy on Ventilatory Dependency and the Length of Stay in an Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Mehtap; Karadibak, Didem; Yldrm, Yucel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physiotherapy on ventilator dependency and lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Patients were divided into two groups. The control group, which received standard nursing care, was a retrospective chart review. The data of control patients who were not receiving physiotherapy were obtained…

  8. Evaluation of Initial Telomere Length and Changes after Transplantation in Adult Double-Unit Cord Blood Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbridge, Beth; Zehir, Ahmet; Lubin, Marissa; Barker, Juliet N; Moore, Malcolm A S

    2015-07-01

    Cord blood (CB) leukocytes have inherent telomere length (TL) variation, and CB hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can maintain high telomerase levels preventing telomere attrition in vitro. We evaluated TL changes in 13 adult double-unit CB transplant (CBT) recipients. In the 26 units, we observed a marked variation in CB TL at thaw (median, 9.99 kilobases [kb]; range, 6.85 to 13.5). All 13 patients engrafted. Of 11 engrafting with 1 unit, there was no correlation between unit dominance and TL (mean dominant unit TL, 8.84 kb ± 1.76; mean nonengrafting unit TL, 10.3 kb ± 1.81; P = .77). Serial measurements of TL up to 1 year after CBT demonstrated an overall mean 3.04 kb ± .16 TL decrease with only 1 patient exhibiting telomere maintenance. In summary, initial TL does not predict CB unit dominance. Moreover, our analysis suggests neonatal hematopoiesis makes a transition to an HSC characterized by changes in average TL and potentially low telomerase asymmetric cell division in adult CBT recipients. Further investigation of alterations in telomere length and its clinical implications after transplantation of this observation are indicated.

  9. Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users: Time to Antitoxin Correlates with Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offerman, Steven R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to identify factors associated with need for mechanical ventilation (MV, length of intensive care unit (ICU stay, length of hospital stay, and poor outcome in injection drug users (IDUs with wound botulism (WB.Methods: This is a retrospective review of WB patients admitted between 1991-2005. IDUs were included if they had symptoms of WB and diagnostic confirmation. Primary outcome variables were the need for MV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, hospital-related complications, and death.Results: Twenty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two (76% admitted to heroin use only and seven (24% admitted to heroin and methamphetamine use. Chief complaints on initial presentation included visual changes, 13 (45%; weakness, nine (31%; and difficulty swallowing, seven (24%. Skin wounds were documented in 22 (76%. Twenty-one (72% patients underwent mechanical ventilation (MV. Antitoxin (AT was administered to 26 (90% patients but only two received antitoxin in the emergency department (ED. The time from ED presentation to AT administration was associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 2.5; 95% CI 0.45, 4.5. The time from ED presentation to wound drainage was also associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 13.7; 95% CI = 2.3, 25.2. There was no relationship between time to antibiotic administration and length of ICU stay.Conclusion: MV and prolonged ICU stays are common in patients identified with WB. Early AT administration and wound drainage are recommended as these measures may decrease ICU length of stay.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:251-256.

  10. Determinants of Length of Stay in Stroke Patients: A Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to identify the predictors of length of stay--the impact of age, comorbidity, and stroke subtype--on the outcome of geriatric stroke patients. One hundred and seventy stroke patients (129 first-ever ischemic, 25 hemorrhagic, and 16 ischemic second strokes) were included in the study. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project…

  11. Determinants of Length of Stay in Stroke Patients: A Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to identify the predictors of length of stay--the impact of age, comorbidity, and stroke subtype--on the outcome of geriatric stroke patients. One hundred and seventy stroke patients (129 first-ever ischemic, 25 hemorrhagic, and 16 ischemic second strokes) were included in the study. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project…

  12. ZiLOG推16位MCU 继续专注特定应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥京宇

    2006-01-01

    ZNEO是基于ZiLOG的8位MCU架构扩展的结果。随着2006年末32位元ARM-9家族的推出,ZiLOG已从传统的8位元MCU供应商转型为一家能为不同专门应用需求提供完整产品系列的公司。

  13. Wide-range length metrology by dual-imaging-unit atomic force microscope based on porous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxian; Zhang, Haijun; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2004-06-15

    A new dual-imaging-unit atomic force microscope (DIU-AFM) was developed for wide-range length metrology. In the DIU-AFM, two AFM units were combined, one as a reference unit, and the other a test one. Their probes with Z piezo elements and tips were horizontally set in parallel at the same height to reduce errors due to geometric asymmetry. An XY scanner was attached to an XY block that was able to move in the X direction with a step of about 500 nm. A standard porous alumina film was employed as the reference sample. Both reference sample and test sample were installed at the center of the XY scanner on the same surface and were simultaneously imaged. The two images had the same lateral size, and thus the length of the test sample image could be accurately measured by counting the number of periodic features of the reference one. The XY block together with the XY scanner were next moved in the X direction for about 1.5 microm and a second pair of reference and test images were obtained by activating the scanner. In this way, a series of pairs of images were acquired and could be spliced into two wide-range reference and test images, respectively. Again, the two spliced images were of the same size and the length of test image was measured based on the reference one. This article presents a discussion about the structure and control of the DIU-AFM system. Some experiments were carried out on the system to demonstrate the method of length calculation and measurement. Experiments show a satisfactory result of wide-range length metrology based on the hexagonal features of the porous alumina with a periodic length of several tens of nanometers. Using this method the DIU-AFM is capable of realizing nanometer-order accuracy length metrology when covering a wide range from micron to several hundreds of microns, or even up to millimeter order.

  14. What factors predict length of stay in a neonatal unit: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Sarah E.; Barker, Lisa; Jenkins, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Keith R Abrams; Manktelow, Bradley N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective In the UK, 1 in 10 babies require specialist neonatal care. This care can last from hours to months depending on the need of the baby. The increasing survival of very preterm babies has increased neonatal care resource use. Evidence from multiple studies is crucial to identify factors which may be important for predicting length of stay (LOS). The ability to predict LOS is vital for resource planning, decision-making and parent counselling. The objective of this review was to identi...

  15. Polyether-amide segmented copolymers based on ethylene terephthalamide units of uniform length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Krista; Wester, Geertje A.; Gaymans, Reinoud J.

    2001-01-01

    Segmented copolymers were synthesized using the crystallizable bisesterdiamide segment (N,N-bis(p-carbomethoxybenzoyl)ethanediamine) T2T-dimethyl (a one-and-a-half repeating unit of nylon 2,T) and poly(tetramethyleneoxide) segments. Poly(tetramethyleneoxide) (PTMO) is amorphous and has a low Tg. The

  16. Polyether-amide segmented copolymers based on ethylene terephthalamides units of uniform length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, K.; Wester, Geertje A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Segmented copolymers were synthesized using the crystallizable bisesterdiamide segment (N,N-bis(p-carbomethoxybenzoyl)ethanediamine) T2T-dimethyl (a one-and-a-half repeating unit of nylon 2,T) and poly(tetramethyleneoxide) segments. Poly(tetramethyleneoxide) (PTMO) is amorphous and has a low Tg. The

  17. Length of time to first job for immigrants in the United Kingdom: An exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JuYin (Helen Wong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores whether ethnicity affects immigrants’ time to first employment. Many studies on labour/social inequalities focus on modeling cross-sectional or panel data when comparing ethnic minority to majority groups in terms of their employment patterns. Results from these models, however, do not measure the degree of transition-duration penalties experienced by immigrant groups. Because time itself is an important variable, and to bridge the gap between literature and methodology, a lifecourse perspective and a duration model are employed to examine the length of transition that immigrants require to find first employment.

  18. Length of stay of general psychiatric inpatients in the United States: systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tulloch, Alex D

    2011-05-01

    Psychiatric length of stay (LOS) has reduced but is still longer than for physical disorders. Inpatient costs are 16% of total mental health spending. Regression analyses of the determinants of LOS for US adult psychiatric inpatients were systematically reviewed. Most studies predated recent LOS reductions. Psychosis, female gender and larger hospital size were associated with longer LOS, while discharge against medical advice, prospective payment, being married, being detained and either younger or middle age were associated with shorter LOS. Associations appeared consistent, especially where sample size was above 3,000. Updated studies should be adequately powered and include the variables above.

  19. ZiLOG扩大Crimzon家族完善URC应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    市场研究机构Instat公司预测,2005年,全球应用于IrDA领域的8位控制器的单位出货量将达到2.06亿,到2009年将达到3.73亿。就交付量而言,对8位红外线远程应用的需求到2007年将位居微控制器领域的前5名。“一般来说,为了捕获来自远端光电二极管的微弱红外线信号以便能够整合代码,将会采用一个外部信号放大电路或比较器。这种外部电路增加了总体材料成本,并可能降低可靠性。”ZiLOG技术与运营部副·总裁Norman Sheridan博士表示。

  20. Relationship of opioid analgesic protocols to assessed pain and length of stay in the pediatric postanesthesia unit following tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jana; Newcomb, Patricia; Sundberg, Erin; Shaffer, Paul

    2009-04-01

    After tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children, postoperative pain management is an essential, yet often challenging, task. In addition to discomfort, lack of pain management can lead to delays in oral intake of patients, resulting in extended stays and increased costs. At one North Texas pediatric facility, postoperative coblation tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy pain management orders include the as-needed use of both intravenous fentanyl and intravenous morphine. Both drugs are effective and both have potential side effects that might prolong the recovery period. Nurses in the postanesthesia care unit retrospectively compared a fentanyl and morphine regimen with a morphine-only regimen to determine whether either protocol made a difference in length-of-stay or pain relief. Analysis of available data revealed no statistically significant differences in length of stay between the groups and trivial differences thought to be clinically irrelevant on other variables.

  1. RESEARCH ON WAVE FORCES ACTING ON THE UNIT LENGTH OF A VERITICAL BREAKWATER BY TESTS AND A NUMERICAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jin-peng; YU Yu-xiu; ZHU Liang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive 3D model tests and numerical simulation were performed to study the effects of wave obliquity and multidirectionality on the wave forces acting on vertical breakwaters.The variation of wave forces acting on the unit length of a breakwater was analyzed, and the results were compared with Goda's formula.A numerical model based on a short-crest wave system was used to model regular wave forces for practical use, which showed good results for those waves with small incident angles.

  2. Effects of Zi Chong Granules on Estradiol Synthesis in the Cultured Ovarian Granular Cells of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆华; 高小平; 尹巧芝

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Zi Chong Granules (资冲颗粒) on estradiol (E2) synthesis in the cultured ovarian granular cells of the mice, so as to probe into the mechanism of the drug in promoting follicular development. Methods: Testosterone (T) with different concentration were added to the cultured ovarian granular cells, and 24 and 48 hours later the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to determine the required concentration of T and time for E2 synthesis; Zi Chong Granules, its active components for tonifying the kidney and removing blood stasis, and the mouse serum containing Zi Chong Granules were respectively added to the medium of the cultured mouse ovarian granular cells and the mixtures were cultured for 48 hours to determine the E2 concentration in various cultures, with insulin increase the E2 level in the medium of the cultured ovarian granular cells to a certain extent, and the active components for tonifying the kidney or those for removing the blood stasis did not increase the E2 level,but the mouse serum containing Zi Chong Granules could significantly increase the level of E2.Conclusion: To promote the E2 synthesis in the ovarian granular cells is one of mechanisms of Zi Chong Granules in stimulating follicular development.

  3. Delineating tectonic units beneath the Donbas Fold Belt using scale lengths estimated from DOBRE 2000/2001 deep reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, S. F. A.; Roy-Chowdhury, K.; Stephenson, R. A.; Stovba, S.

    2009-10-01

    A novel statistical analysis, which augments conventional interpretation of deep seismic reflection/refraction data, is applied to the DOBRE 2000/2001 reflection profile. The goal is to improve delineation of the lithosphere in terms of lithotectonic units and to compare these to existing interpretations. After a successful validation of the method using synthetic data, stochastic parameters estimated from windowed average lateral autocorrelations in the DOBRE data are compiled in a two-dimensional profile of von Karman-type causative reflectivity. These estimates in terms of lateral correlation lengths and power law exponents are accompanied by associated uncertainties. Given its low uncertainties, the lateral correlation length ax turns out to be a robust delineator. The profile of ax reveals systematic spatial variations in the lithospheric fabric below the Donbas Fold Belt. As in earlier interpretations based upon conventional processing of reflection/refraction data, both the sedimentary basin and Moho discontinuity stand out clearly, as well as a region indicating massive vertical intrusion in the crust from upper mantle sills and ultramafic underplating of the lower crust. Notable differences with conventional interpretations include the number and extent of supra-Moho rift pillow structures, the lack of imaging a crust-cutting dislocation feature and a laterally disturbed uppermost mantle. Von Karman lateral correlation length provides new independent information at a scale between velocity models from wide-angle reflection/refraction data and line drawings from near vertical reflections and provides new insights and understanding of lithospheric evolution.

  4. Cervical Spine Muscle-Tendon Unit Length Differences Between Neutral and Forward Head Postures: Biomechanical Study Using Human Cadaveric Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh, Saeed; Kalmanson, Olivia A; Schuit, Dale; Havey, Robert M; Voronov, Leonard I; Ghanayem, Alexander J; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2017-07-01

    Forward head posture (FHP) may be associated with neck pain and poor health-related quality of life. Literature describes only qualitative muscle length changes associated with FHP. The purpose of this study was to quantify how muscle-tendon unit lengths are altered when human cadaveric specimens are placed in alignments representing different severities of FHP. This biomechanical study used 13 fresh-frozen cadaveric cervical spine specimens (Occiput-T1, 54±15 y). Specimens' postural changes simulating increasing FHP severity while maintaining horizontal gaze were assessed. Specimen-specific anatomic models derived from computed tomography-based anatomic data were combined with postural data and specimen-specific anatomy of muscle attachment points to estimate the muscle length changes associated with FHP. Forward head posture was associated with flexion of the mid-lower cervical spine and extension of the upper cervical (sub-occipital) spine. Muscles that insert on the cervical spine and function as flexors (termed "cervical flexors") as well as muscles that insert on the cranium and function as extensors ("occipital extensors") shortened in FHP when compared to neutral posture. In contrast, muscles that insert on the cervical spine and function as extensors ("cervical extensors") as well as muscles that insert on the cranium and function as flexors ("occipital flexors") lengthened. The greatest shortening was seen in the major and minor rectus capitis posterior muscles. These muscles cross the Occiput-C2 segments, which exhibited extension to maintain horizontal gaze. The greatest lengthening was seen in posterior muscles crossing the C4-C6 segments, which exhibited the most flexion. This cadaver study did not incorporate the biomechanical influence of active musculature. This study offers a novel way to quantify postural alignment and muscle length changes associated with FHP. Model predictions are consistent with qualitative descriptions in the literature.

  5. Numerical study of the scaling of the maximum kinetic energy per unit length for imploding Z-pinch liner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Zheng-Zhong; Qiu Ai-Ci

    2004-01-01

    Numerical computation based on a zero-dimensional thin-plasma-shell model has been carried out to study the scaling of the maximum kinetic energy per unit length, the current amplitude and the compression ratio for the imploding Z-pinch liner driven by peaked current pulses. A dimensionless scaling constant of 0.9 with an error less than 10% is extracted at the optimal choice of the current and liner parameters. Deviation of the chosen experimental parameter from the optimal exerts a minor influence on the kinetic energy for wider-shaped and slower-decaying pulses, but the influence becomes significant for narrower-shaped and faster-decaying pulses. The computation is in reasonable agreement with experimental data from the Z, Saturn, Blackjack 5 and Qiangguang-I liners.

  6. 从自尊的文化差异说起%On Cultural Differences in Zi Zun (Self-Esteem)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄希庭; 尹天子

    2012-01-01

    Zi Zun(self-esteem) has been an important concept in Chinese culture. Self-esteem as a construct is often defined as a positive view of one' s self in Western psychology. The purpose of this article is to discuss the cultural differences in Zi Zun in relation with our understanding of self-esteem and how we shall study Zi Zun in the Chinese cultural context. It has been confirmed that self-esteem, as an advanced psychological need, exists in all cultures. It provides similar functions for individuals who live in different cultures, such as increasing one' s life satisfaction, reducing stress caused by one' s failure, and reduc- ing anxiety towards death. However, self-esteem does exhibit itself differently in various cultures because culture represents a set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that distinctively characterize a group of individuals from other groups of individuals. Cul- ture has a deep impact on one' s behavior and one' s self-esteem. We believe that there are three areas of cultural differences in self-es- teem. The first area of cultural difference is the source of Zi Zun (self-esteem). Though self-esteem is a product of nature and nurture, the source of self-esteem is largely from the values defined in a specific culture and one' s internalization of those values. A value system is at the core of any culture and provides guidance for one' s behavior, judgment, and attitude. Traditional Chinese culture values indi- vidual development in the context of family, society, and country. It emphasizes that the goal of an individual is to serve the whole soci- ety. Western culture tends to lay more emphasis on individual freedom, independence, and the realization of one' s goals. Studies found that participants in China and Japan had a higher need for praise to boost their self-esteem when compared with people in the United States. The participants in China and Japan also reacted more strongly towards social or group

  7. Lean Six Sigma to Reduce Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay and Costs in Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Stephen; Mercincavage, Michael; Angelini, Cory; Cogliano, William; Damuth, Emily; Roberts, Brian W; Zanotti, Sergio; Mazzarelli, Anthony J

    2016-11-29

    Patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) represent important "outliers" of hospital length of stay (LOS) and costs (∼$26 billion annually in the United States). We tested the hypothesis that a Lean Six Sigma (LSS) approach for process improvement could reduce hospital LOS and the associated costs of care for patients with PMV. Before-and-after cohort study. Multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) in an academic medical center. Adult patients admitted to the ICU and treated with PMV, as defined by diagnosis-related group (DRG). We implemented a clinical redesign intervention based on LSS principles. We identified eight distinct processes in preparing patients with PMV for post-acute care. Our clinical redesign included reengineering daily patient care rounds ("Lean ICU rounds") to reduce variation and waste in these processes. We compared hospital LOS and direct cost per case in patients with PMV before (2013) and after (2014) our LSS intervention. Among 259 patients with PMV (131 preintervention; 128 postintervention), median hospital LOS decreased by 24% during the intervention period (29 vs. 22 days, p < .001). Accordingly, median hospital direct cost per case decreased by 27% ($66,335 vs. $48,370, p < .001). We found that a LSS-based clinical redesign reduced hospital LOS and the costs of care for patients with PMV.

  8. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  9. The Art of War by Sun Zi:A Book for All Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO; JIANYING

    2002-01-01

    OVER the past 2,500years, the principles setout by Sun Zi in The Artof War have been appliedin innumerable wars, and hisstrategies have also been utilizedwithin a broad scope of competi-tion. The book is consequentlyindispensable to military strate-

  10. The therapeutic effects of Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang in treating male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B; Zhang, C; Du, L; Xue, W; Zou, P

    2001-06-01

    Eight-seven cases of male infertility due to spermatopathy were treated with Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang (SJZZT [symbol: see text]) for 1-3 courses. The total effective rate was 95.40% (83/87). 56.32% (49/87) of their spouses got pregnant and the semen quality was markedly improved (P cortisol (C).

  11. Polyurethane cuffed versus conventional endotracheal tubes: Effect on ventilator-associated pneumonia rates and length of Intensive Care Unit stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Suhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs and results in added healthcare costs. One of the methods of preventing VAP is to use polyurethane (PU-cuffed endotracheal tube (ETT. This study compares the incidence of VAP and length of ICU stay in patients intubated with conventional polyvinyl chloride (PVC ETT and PU-cuffed ETT. Methods: Eighty post-laparotomy patients who were mechanically ventilated for >48 h in the ICU were included in this randomised controlled trial. Patients with moderate to severe pre-existing lung conditions were excluded from the study. Patients in group PVC (n = 40 were intubated with conventional PVC-cuffed ETT and those in group PU (n = 40 with PU-cuffed ETT. VAP was defined as a Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score of >6 with a positive quantitative endotracheal culture in patients on ventilator for >48 h. Results: Overall VAP rates were 23.75%. Thirteen (32.5% patients in group PVC and six (15% patients in group PU developed VAP. ICU stay was significantly lesser in patients intubated with PU-cuffed ETT (group PU (median, 6 days; range: 4–8.5 compared to patients intubated with conventional ETT (group PVC (median, 8; range: 6–11. Conclusion: No statistically significant reduction in the incidence of VAP could be found between the groups. The length of ICU stay was significantly lesser with the use of ultra thin PU-cuffed ETTs.

  12. Elevation of a patient's trunk and legs does not influence length of stay in the post-anesthesia care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Omati

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patient recovery time after anesthesia depends on problem-oriented monitoring and individual assessment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of patient positioning on post-anesthesia recovery time. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective. SETTING: Post-anesthesia care unit, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo. METHODS: Data were obtained from patients recovering from anesthesia in a supine horizontal position or with their trunk and legs elevated at 30 degrees. Data were recorded every 30 minutes. The start time was considered to be the admission to the unit, and the final measurement was taken when the patient reached an Aldrete-Kroulik index of 10. The length of time until discharge was recorded. RESULTS: 442 patients recovering after general (n = 274 or regional anesthesia (n = 168 were assigned to be kept in a supine position or with their trunk and legs elevated. There was no difference in the medians for non-parametric results, between supine position (75 min, n = 229 and trunk and legs elevated (70 min, n = 213; p = 0.729. Patients recovered faster from regional anesthesia with trunk and legs elevated (70 min than in the supine position (84.5 min, although not significantly (p = 0.097. There was no difference between patients recovering from general anesthesia, no matter the positioning (70 min; p = 0.493. DISCUSSION: Elevated legs may supposedly improve venous return and cardiac output since spinal anesthesia blocks sympathetic system and considering leg-raising has been shown to improve cardiac output from hipovolemia. Our findings did not support this hypothesis. Some limitations included a retrospective collection of data that did not allow randomization for recovery position and the unregistered duration of the exposure to the anesthetic drugs. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in anesthesia recovery time in relation to positioning patients supinely or with trunk and legs elevated.

  13. The contribution of maternal psychological functioning to infant length of stay in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry AS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amanda S Cherry,1 Melissa R Mignogna,1 Angela Roddenberry Vaz,1 Carla Hetherington,2 Mary Anne McCaffree,2 Michael P Anderson,3 Stephen R Gillaspy1 1Section of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 2Neonatal Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma, College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK, 3Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Public Health, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Objective: Assess maternal psychological functioning within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and its contribution to neonate length of stay (LOS in the NICU.Study design: Mothers of infants admitted to the NICU (n=111 were assessed regarding postpartum depression, postpartum social support, postpartum NICU stress, and maternal anxiety at 2 weeks postpartum. Illness severity was assessed with the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB.Results: Postpartum depression was not significantly correlated with LOS, but was significantly correlated with trait anxiety (r=0.620, which was significantly correlated with LOS (r=0.227. Among mothers with previous mental health history, substance abuse history and CRIB score were the best predictors of LOS. For mothers without a prior mental health issues, delivery type, stress associated with infant appearance, and CRIB scores were the best predictors of LOS. In this group, LOS was found to increase on average by 7.06 days per one unit increase in stress associated with infant appearance among mothers with the same delivery type and CRIB score.Conclusion: Significant correlations of trait anxiety, stress associated with infant appearance, and parental role with LOS support the tenet that postpartum psychological functioning can be associated with NICU LOS. Keywords: NICU, postpartum depression, postpartum anxiety, parental stress, CRIB

  14. Leaf vein length per unit area is not intrinsically dependent on image magnification: avoiding measurement artifacts for accuracy and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Lawren; Caringella, Marissa; Scoffoni, Christine; Mason, Chase; Rawls, Michael; Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens

    2014-10-01

    Leaf vein length per unit leaf area (VLA; also known as vein density) is an important determinant of water and sugar transport, photosynthetic function, and biomechanical support. A range of software methods are in use to visualize and measure vein systems in cleared leaf images; typically, users locate veins by digital tracing, but recent articles introduced software by which users can locate veins using thresholding (i.e. based on the contrasting of veins in the image). Based on the use of this method, a recent study argued against the existence of a fixed VLA value for a given leaf, proposing instead that VLA increases with the magnification of the image due to intrinsic properties of the vein system, and recommended that future measurements use a common, low image magnification for measurements. We tested these claims with new measurements using the software LEAFGUI in comparison with digital tracing using ImageJ software. We found that the apparent increase of VLA with magnification was an artifact of (1) using low-quality and low-magnification images and (2) errors in the algorithms of LEAFGUI. Given the use of images of sufficient magnification and quality, and analysis with error-free software, the VLA can be measured precisely and accurately. These findings point to important principles for improving the quantity and quality of important information gathered from leaf vein systems.

  15. Effect of PACS/CR on cost of care and length of stay in a medical intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlotz, Curtis P.; Kundel, Harold L.; Brikman, Inna; Pratt, Hugh M.; Redfern, Regina O.; Horii, Steven C.; Schwartz, J. Sanford

    1996-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine the economic effects associated with the introduction of PACS and computed radiology (CR) in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Clinical and financial data were collected over a period of 6 months, both before and after the introduction of PACS/CR in our medical intensive care unit. Administrative claims data resulting from the MICU stay of each patient enrolled in our study were transferred online to our research database from the administrative databases of our hospital and its affiliated clinical practices. These data included all charge entries, sociodemographic data, admissions/discharge/transfer chronologies, ICD9 diagnostic and procedure codes, and diagnostic related groups. APACHE III scores and other case mix adjusters were computed from the diagnostic codes, and from the contemporaneous medical record. Departmental charge to cost ratios and the Medicare Resource-Based Relative Value Scale fee schedule were used to estimate costs from hospital and professional charges. Data were analyzed using both the patient and the exam as the unit of analysis. Univariate analyses by patient show that patients enrolled during the PACS periods were similar to those enrolled during the Film periods in age, sex, APACHE III score, and other measures of case mix. No significant differences in unadjusted median length of stay between the two Film and two PACS periods were detected. Likewise, no significant differences in unadjusted total hospital and professional costs were found between the Film and PACS periods. In our univariate analyses by exam, we focused on the subgroup of exams that had triggered primary clinical actions in any period. Those action-triggering exams were divided into two groups according to whether the referring clinician elected to obtain imaging results from the workstation or from the usual channels. Patients whose imaging results were obtain from the workstation had significantly lower professional costs in the 7 days

  16. Adverse events in the intensive care unit: impact on mortality and length of stay in a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Keroulay Estebanez; Tonini, Teresa; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates

    2016-10-20

    This study sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse events and their impacts on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU). This is a prospective study carried out in a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The cohort included 355 patients over 18 years of age admitted to the ICU between August 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012. The process we used to identify adverse events was adapted from the method proposed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. We used a logistical regression to analyze the association between adverse event occurrence and death, adjusted by case severity. We confirmed 324 adverse events in 115 patients admitted over the year we followed. The incidence rate was 9.3 adverse events per 100 patients-day and adverse event occurrence impacted on an increase in length of stay (19 days) and in mortality (OR = 2.047; 95%CI: 1.172-3.570). This study highlights the serious problem of adverse events in intensive care and the risk factors associated with adverse event incidence. Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de eventos adversos e o impacto deles sobre o tempo de permanência e a mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo desenvolvido em um hospital de ensino do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A coorte foi formada por 355 pacientes maiores de 18 anos, admitidos na UTI, no período de 1º de agosto de 2011 a 31 de julho de 2012. O processo de identificação de eventos adversos baseou-se em uma adaptação do método proposto pelo Institute for Healthcare Improvement. A regressão logística foi utilizada para analisar a associação entre a ocorrência de evento adverso e o óbito, ajustado pela gravidade do paciente. Confirmados 324 eventos adversos em 115 pacientes internados ao longo de um ano de seguimento. A taxa de incidência foi de 9,3 eventos adversos por 100 pacientes-dia, e a ocorrência de evento adverso impactou no aumento do tempo de internação (19

  17. Postoperative delirium is associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital length of stays after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Bishwajit; Maung, Adrian; Barre, Kimberly; Maerz, Linda; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Schilsky, Michael; Mulligan, David C; Davis, Kimberly A

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is increasingly recognized as a common and important postoperative complication that significantly hinders surgical recovery. However, there is a paucity of data examining the incidence and impact of delirium after liver transplantation. Retrospective case series in a tertiary care center examining all (n = 144) adult patients who underwent liver transplantation during a 6-y period. Delirium occurred in 25% of the patients with an average duration of 4.56 d. Patients who developed delirium were older (P = 0.007), had higher preoperative model for end-stage liver disease score (P = 0.019) and longer pretransplant hospital length of stay (LOS; P = 0.003). Patients with delirium were also more likely to have alcohol ingestion as an etiology of the liver failure (P = 0.033). Delirious patients had a trend toward increased ventilator days (P = 0.235) and significantly longer postoperative hospital (P = 0.001) and intensive care unit LOS (P = 0.001). Delirium was also associated with an increased frequency of hospital acquired infections including urinary tract infections (P = 0.005) and pneumonias (P = 0.001). Delirium is a common occurrence among liver transplant patients associated with increased complications and LOSs. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the specific risk factors in this complex population and to determine if delirium has an impact on long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation of APACHE II and SOFA scores with length of stay in various surgical intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Morena; Goranović, Tatjana; Holjevac, Jadranka Katancić

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of using Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score as the predictors of length of stay (LOS) in various surgical intensive care units (ICUs) and to test the hypothesis that the significance of scoring for predicting LOS is greater in specialized surgical ICUs. We scored patients in a non-specialized general surgical ICU (n = 328) and in a specialized cardiosurgical ICU (n = 158) consecutively on admission (APACHE II-1st day; SOFA-1st day) and on third day of stay (APACHE II-3rd day; SOFA-3rd day) in a 4-month period. LOS and APACHE II/SOFA scores were significantly correlated both on admission and on third day of stay in the general surgical ICU (APACHE II-1st day r = 0.289; SOFA-1st day r = 0.306; APACHE II-3rd day r = 0.728; SOFA-3rd day r = 0.725). LOS and APACHE II on admission were not significantly correlated in the cardiosurgical ICU (APACHE II-1st day r = 0.092), while SOFA on admission and APACHE II and SOFA on third day were significantly correlated (SOFA-1st day r = 0.258; APACHE II-3rd day r = 0.716; SOFA-3rd day r = 0.719). Usefulness of scoring for predicting LOS in ICU varied between different surgical ICUs. Contrary to our hypothesis, scoring had greater value for predicting LOS in the non-specialized general surgical ICU. APACHE II score on admission had no value for predicting LOS in the cardiosurgical ICU.

  19. "子见南子/子路不悦":功能语言学者新解%A Functional Discourse Analysis of Zi Jian Nan Zi / Zi Lu Bu Yue (Confucius saw Nanzi / Zilu was not pleased)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旸

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the functional discourse analysis with Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) as its theoretical framework in the studies of the translated texts of Lun Yu (The Analects of Confucius) has been proposed and illustrated. Following this approach, the paper attempts to evaluate a number of Chinese and English translation versions of Zi Jian Nan Zi / Zi Lu Bu Yue (Confucius saw Nanzi / Zilu was not pleased), and the focus is on logical-semantic relations and Transitivity analysis. The paper argues that the functional discourse analysis approach can help evaluate the translation product in a systemic and systematic way.%《论语》“雍也篇第六·子见南子”一直以来颇受学界争议,历代学者从不同角度,采用不同研究方法得出非常丰富和有趣的相关研究成果。近几年,功能语言学对《论语》及其英译研究的指导作用已在实践中得到验证。本文继续以功能语言学为理论框架,采用功能语篇分析方法,重点从小句复合体的逻辑语义关系入手,探讨“子见南子/子路不悦”之间的逻辑语义关系在原文(源语)以及不同今译、英译文(目的语)中的体现情况;考察其不同语言形式传递的意义内涵;探索功能语言学“形式是意义的体现”的思想对评价《论语》及其今译、英译文质量的指导意义。

  20. Clinical Effectiveness of Modified SOFA (MSOFA scoring system for predicting mortality and length of stay in patients hospitalized in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Babamohamadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to recognize the severity of the disease in those who their survival depend entirely on admission to the intensive care unit, is very valuable clinically. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of MSOFA scale to predict mortality and length of stay in ICU patients respectively. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted on hospital records of patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Kowsar Hospital of Semnan. The data collection tool was a demographic questionnaire and MSOFA scale. Finally, data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 by logistic regression and ROC curve. Results: The study of 105 patients' records of the intensive care unit in 2015 showed that 45/7% of patients were died, 15/2% and 39% were discharged and moved to other wards respectively. The results of logistic regression analysis and ROC curve showed that this criterion had moderate sensitivity and specificity for prediction of mortality and length of stay in ICU patients (Area=0/635, CI= 0/527-0/743( and each unit increase in MSOFA score is accompanied by increasing 32 percent chance of death (OR=1.325; 95% CI:1.129,1.555; P=0.001(. Also each unit increase in MSOFA score accompanied by increasing 19% length of stay in ICU (OR=1.191; 95% CI: 1.034, 1.371; P=0.015(. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the MSOFA scale is not useful tool to predict the length of stay and mortality of patients admitted to the intensive care unit.

  1. Relative Merit of Mean Length of T-Unit and Sentence Weight as Indices of Syntactic Complexity in Oral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Norma

    1981-01-01

    Compares the use of sentence weight and the T-unit in measuring the oral language of 32 adolescents. Indicates the relative merits of the T-unit as a measure of oral language, because the two measures appeared to give much the same information about the speech samples examined. (RL)

  2. Association of Bystander Interventions and Hospital Length of Stay and Admission to Intensive Care Unit in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddersholm, Signe; Sørensen, Kristian Dahl Kragholm; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of bystander interventions on post-arrest hospital course is sparsely studied. We examined the association between bystander interventions and length of hospital stay and admission to intensive care unit (ICU) in one-day survivors after OHCA. METHODS: This cohort study linked...... data of 4641 one-day OHCA survivors from 2001 to 2014 to data on hospital length of stay and ICU admission. We examined associations between bystander efforts and outcomes using regression, adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, calendar year and witnessed status. We divided bystander efforts into three...... categories: 1. No bystander interventions; 2.Bystander CPR only; 3. Bystander defibrillation with or without bystander CPR. RESULTS: For patients surviving to hospital discharge, hospital length of stay was 20days for patients without bystander interventions, compared to 16 for bystander CPR, and 13...

  3. Dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite mixed former glasses: Correlation between the characteristic length scales of mobile ions and glass network structural units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, A.; Ghosh, A., E-mail: sspag@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-10-28

    We have studied the mixed network former effect on the dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite glasses in wide composition and temperature ranges. The length scales of ion dynamics, such as characteristic mean square displacement and spatial extent of sub-diffusive motion of lithium ions have been determined from the ac conductivity and dielectric spectra, respectively, in the framework of linear response theory. The relative concentrations of different network structural units have been determined from the deconvolution of the FTIR spectra. A direct correlation between the ion dynamics and the characteristic length scales and the relative concentration of BO{sub 4} units has been established for different compositions of the borotellurite glasses.

  4. Triceps surae muscle-tendon unit length changes as a function of ankle joint angles and contraction levels: the effect of foot arch deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanuma, Soichiro; Akagi, Ryota; Hashizume, Satoru; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2011-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to clarify how foot deformation affects the relationship between triceps surae muscle-tendon unit (MTU) length and ankle joint angle. For six women and six men a series of sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images of the right foot were taken, and changes in MTU length (the displacement of the calcaneal tuberosity), foot arch angle, and ankle joint angle were measured. In the passive session, each subject's ankle joint was secured at 10° dorsiflexed position, neutral position (NP), and 10° and 20° plantar flexed positions while MR images were acquired. In the active session, each subject was requested to perform submaximal isometric plantar flexions (30%, 60%, and 80% of voluntary maximum) at NP. The changes in MTU length in each trial were estimated by two different formulae reported previously. The changes of the measured MTU length as a function of ankle joint angles observed in all trials of the active session were significantly (ptriceps surae MTU length-ankle joint angle relationship during plantar flexion.

  5. The Therapeutic Effects of Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang in Treating Male Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保存; 张彩霞; 杜雷; 薛武军; 邹鹏

    2001-01-01

    Eight-seven cases of male infertility due to spermatopathy were treated with Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang (SJZZT生精种子汤) for 1-3 courses. The total effective rate was 95.40% (83/87). 56.32% (49/87) of their spouses got pregnant and the semen quality was markedly improved (P<0.01). The results showed that the decoction could dual-directionally regulate the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolan B luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), and cortisol (C).

  6. Effect of graded early mobilization versus routine physiotherapy on the length of intensive care unit stay in mechanically ventilated patients: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyakshi Bezbaruah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early mobilization is an important component of physiotherapy used to prevent and decrease pulmonary and immobilization complications, which are the major goals of physiotherapy in the intensive care unit (ICU. Prolonged bed rest and hospitalization leads to deconditioning and weakness which can further increase the length of the ICU stay. This study was conducted to find an answer to whether early mobilization is as effective as or better than routine physiotherapy in reducing the length of ICU stay in mechanically ventilated patients. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Study Setting: Medical ICU, Father Muller Medical College Hospital. Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Aim: To detect the effectiveness of graded early mobilization and routine physiotherapy and to compare these techniques with respect to the length of ICU stay in mechanically ventilated patients. Materials and Methods: Fifteen subjects of both gender who were on mechanical ventilators fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to two groups, group 1 (graded early mobilization, n = 8 and Group 2 (routine physiotherapy, n = 7 by using the randomization plan from the website www.randomization.com. All the vitals of the subjects were noted as they were made to perform particular maneuvers depending on the group they belonged to. Participants recruited into the early mobilization group were mobilized as soon as their vitals were stable and were able to participate in the therapy. The patients who underwent routine physiotherapy were mobilized once they were extubated. At the time of discharge from the ICU, days of weaning, days first out of bed, and length of ICU stay were noted. Results: A significant difference was observed between early mobilization and routine physiotherapy groups with respect to the length of ICU stay. Conclusion: Early mobilization showed better outcome compared to routine physiotherapy in reducing the length of ICU stay in

  7. Association of bystander interventions and hospital length of stay and admission to intensive care unit in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddersholm, Signe; Kragholm, Kristian; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Pape, Marianne; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Lippert, Freddy K; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Christiansen, Christian F; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen

    2017-10-01

    The impact of bystander interventions on post-arrest hospital course is sparsely studied. We examined the association between bystander interventions and length of hospital stay and admission to intensive care unit (ICU) in one-day survivors after OHCA. This cohort study linked data of 4641 one-day OHCA survivors from 2001 to 2014 to data on hospital length of stay and ICU admission. We examined associations between bystander efforts and outcomes using regression, adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, calendar year and witnessed status. We divided bystander efforts into three categories: 1. No bystander interventions; 2.Bystander CPR only; 3. Bystander defibrillation with or without bystander CPR. For patients surviving to hospital discharge, hospital length of stay was 20days for patients without bystander interventions, compared to 16 for bystander CPR, and 13 for bystander defibrillation. 82% of patients without bystander interventions were admitted to ICU compared to 77.2% for bystander CPR, and 61.2% for bystander defibrillation. In-hospital mortality was 60% in the first category compared to 40.5% and 21.7% in the two latter categories. In regression models, bystander CPR and bystander defibrillation were associated with a reduction of length of hospital stay of 21% (Estimate: 0.79 [95% CI: 0.72-0.86]) and 32% (Estimate: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.59-0.78]), respectively. Both bystander CPR (OR: 0.94 [95% CI: 0.91-0.97]) and bystander defibrillation (OR: 0.81 [0.76-0.85]), were associated with lower risk of ICU admission. Bystander interventions were associated with reduced hospital length of stay and ICU admission, suggesting that these efforts improve recovery in OHCA survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Supplementary comparison COOMET.L-S7: Standards of the unit for length (metre) in the measurement range from 0.1 mm to 100 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarevich, V.

    2012-01-01

    The COOMET Project No 390/BY/07, 'Supplementary comparison of standards of the unit for length (metre) in the measurement range from 0.1 mm to 100 mm', KCDB reference COOMET.L-S7, was organized by the Technical Committee TC 1.5 'Length and Angle' of COOMET. This comparison started in May 2007 and finished in October 2010. It was piloted by the Belarusian State Institute of Metrology BelGIM, Minsk, the Republic of Belarus, with other participants as follows: GUM (Warsaw, Poland), DP 'Ukrmetrteststandart' (Kiev, Ukraine), NSC 'Institute of Metrology' (Kharkov, Ukraine), SMU (Bratislava, Slovakia) and RSE 'KazInMetr' (Astana, Kazakhstan). The transfer standards provided by BelGIM were carried to the place of the comparison by NMI attendant specialists as personal baggage, where they were measured. The pilot laboratory processed the data obtained for the deviations of measured median lengths from the nominal lengths of the transfer standards in order to estimate the measurement result differences between the measuring instruments. The conclusion is that the equivalence of the reference installations for parameter measurements of the participating National Metrology Institutes is sufficient, and constitutes an appropriate basis for mutual recognition of measurement results. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Surveillance length and validity of benchmarks for central line-associated bloodstream infection incidence rates in intensive care units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S Fontela

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several national and regional central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI surveillance programs do not require continuous hospital participation. We evaluated the effect of different hospital participation requirements on the validity of annual CLABSI incidence rate benchmarks for intensive care units (ICUs. METHODS: We estimated the annual pooled CLABSI incidence rates for both a real regional (<100 ICUs and a simulated national (600 ICUs surveillance program, which were used as a reference for the simulations. We simulated scenarios where the annual surveillance participation was randomly or non-randomly reduced. Each scenario's annual pooled CLABSI incidence rate was estimated and compared to the reference rates in terms of validity, bias, and proportion of simulation iterations that presented valid estimates (ideal if ≥ 90%. RESULTS: All random scenarios generated valid CLABSI incidence rates estimates (bias -0.37 to 0.07 CLABSI/1000 CVC-days, while non-random scenarios presented a wide range of valid estimates (0 to 100% and higher bias (-2.18 to 1.27 CLABSI/1000 CVC-days. In random scenarios, the higher the number of participating ICUs, the shorter the participation required to generate ≥ 90% valid replicates. While participation requirements in a countrywide program ranged from 3 to 13 surveillance blocks (1 block = 28 days, requirements for a regional program ranged from 9 to 13 blocks. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of our model of national CLABSI reporting, the shortening of participation requirements may be suitable for nationwide ICU CLABSI surveillance programs if participation months are randomly chosen. However, our regional models showed that regional programs should opt for continuous participation to avoid biased benchmarks.

  10. Business marketing - szervezetközi megközelítésben

    OpenAIRE

    Mandják, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    A cikk a szervezetközi marketing tartalmi elemeivel foglalkozik. Röviden bemutatja az IMP-kutatócsoport több, mint negyven éves empirikus kutatási eredményeit. Az IMP-megközelítés alapvető elméleti fogalmainak (interakciós folyamat, üzleti kapcsolatok és hálózatok, az üzleti hálózatok paradoxonjai) bemutatást követően kitér a témával foglalkozó magyar kutatók eredményeinek ismertetésére.

  11. EnviroAtlas - Percentage of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of >= 5% or >= 15% impervious cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percentages of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of impervious cover by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC)...

  12. Dependence of Mesomorphic Behaviour of Methylene-Linked Dimers and the Stability of the NTB /NX Phase upon Choice of Mesogenic Units and Terminal Chain Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandle, Richard J; Goodby, John W

    2016-06-27

    Twelve symmetrical dimeric materials consisting of a nonamethylene (C9) spacer and either phenyl 4-(4'-alkylphenyl)benzoate, phenyl 4-(4'-alkylcyclohexyl)benzoate or phenyl 4-(4'-alkylbicyclohexyl)carboxylate mesogenic units were prepared and their mesogenic behaviour characterised by POM, DSC and XRD. All of the materials exhibited nematic phases with clearing points in excess of 200 °C. Four compounds were found to exhibit the twist-bend nematic phase, with one material exhibiting a transition from the NTB phase into an anticlinic smectic 'X' phase. Across all three series of compounds the length of terminal chain is seen to dictate, to some degree, the type of mesophase formed: shorter terminal chains favour nematic and NTB mesophases, whereas longer terminal aliphatic chains were found to promote smectic phases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effect of Intravenous Acetaminophen on Post-Anesthesia Care Unit Length of Stay, Opioid Consumption, Pain, and Analgesic Drug Costs After Ambulatory Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khobrani, Moteb A.; Camamo, James M.; Patanwala, Asad E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective was to assess whether the use of intravenous acetaminophen (APAP) in the ambulatory surgery setting is associated with a decreased length of stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). The secondary outcomes evaluated were pain scores, opioid consumption, and total cost of analgesics used in the PACU. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in adult patients (18 years of age or older) who received an eye, ear, nose, or throat (EENT) procedure at an outpatient surgery center between January 2014 and January 2015. Patients were consecutively included until the desired sample was reached during two six-month time periods: 1) intravenous APAP available on the formulary (APAP group) and 2) intravenous APAP not available on the formulary (non-APAP group). Results The cohort included 174 patients who received an EENT procedure (87 patients in the APAP group and 87 patients in the non-APAP group). The median PACU length of stay was 66 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 48–92) in the APAP group and 71 minutes (IQR, 52–89) in the non-APAP group (P = 0.269). Mean pain score categories in the APAP versus non-APAP group were mild (85% versus 53%, respectively; P < 0.001), moderate (13% versus 33%, respectively; P = 0.002), and severe (2% versus 14%, respectively; P = 0.005). The median opioid consumption in morphine equivalents was 9 mg (IQR, 5–13) in the APAP group and 8 mg (IQR, 5–12) in the non-APAP group (P = 0.081). The total cost of analgesics used in the PACU was significantly greater in the APAP group ($15 versus $1; P < 0.001). Conclusions Intravenous APAP use in EENT ambulatory surgery is not associated with decreased PACU length of stay. However, it may decrease postoperative pain following EENT procedures. PMID:28163558

  14. Assessing the Effect of Temporal Interval Length on the Blending of Landsat-MODIS Surface Reflectance for Different Land Cover Types in Southwestern Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjie Fu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is a key issue for many remote-sensing based applications. Consequently, several image-blending algorithms that can simulate the surface reflectance with high spatial-temporal resolution have been developed recently. However, the performance of the algorithm against the effect of temporal interval length between the base and simulation dates has not been reported. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the effect of different temporal interval lengths on the accuracy using the widely used blending algorithm, Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM, based on Landsat, Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images and National Land Cover Database (NLCD. Taking the southwestern continental United States as the study area, a series of experiments was conducted using two schemes, which were the assessment of STARFM with (i a fixed base date and varied simulation date and (ii varied base date and specific simulation date, respectively. The result showed that the coefficient of determination (R2, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE varied, and overall trend of R2 decreased along with the increasing temporal interval between the base and simulation dates for six land cover types. The mean R2 value of cropland was lowest, whereas shrub had the highest value for two schemes. The result may facilitate selection of an appropriate temporal interval when using STARFM.

  15. Numerical evidence for quadrupolar-octopolar order in RETM{sub 2}(Al,Zi){sub 20}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attig, Jan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne (Germany); Tse, Darrell; Lee, Eric Kin-Ho; Paramekanti, Arun; Kim, Yong Baek [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on materials of the type RETM{sub 2}(Al,Zi){sub 20} (where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal element) we investigate a minimal model for the pseudo-spin degrees of freedom of the rare earth ions. The model is described by J1-J2 pseudo-spin interactions in three-dimensions where the XY part models quadrupolar order and the Ising part models octopolar order. We use various computational methods such as simulating annealing to find the zero temperature phase digram and investigate further by using single-spin flip Monte Carlo simulations for finite temperature. One notable finding is the existence of non-coplanar spiral ordering of pseudo-spins, which may explain some of the experimental data on the electronic ordering in RETM{sub 2}(Al,Zi){sub 20}.

  16. Device-associated infection rates, mortality, length of stay and bacterial resistance in intensive care units in Ecuador: International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium’s findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado Yepez, Estuardo; Bovera, Maria M; Rosenthal, Victor D; González Flores, Hugo A; Pazmiño, Leonardo; Valencia, Francisco; Alquinga, Nelly; Ramirez, Vanessa; Jara, Edgar; Lascano, Miguel; Delgado, Veronica; Cevallos, Cristian; Santacruz, Gasdali; Pelaéz, Cristian; Zaruma, Celso; Barahona Pinto, Diego

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) study conducted in Quito, Ecuador. METHODS A device-associated healthcare-acquired infection (DA-HAI) prospective surveillance study conducted from October 2013 to January 2015 in 2 adult intensive care units (ICUs) from 2 hospitals using the United States Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and INICC methods. RESULTS We followed 776 ICU patients for 4818 bed-days. The central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rate was 6.5 per 1000 central line (CL)-days, the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate was 44.3 per 1000 mechanical ventilator (MV)-days, and the catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rate was 5.7 per 1000 urinary catheter (UC)-days. CLABSI and CAUTI rates in our ICUs were similar to INICC rates [4.9 (CLABSI) and 5.3 (CAUTI)] and higher than NHSN rates [0.8 (CLABSI) and 1.3 (CAUTI)] - although device use ratios for CL and UC were higher than INICC and CDC/NSHN’s ratios. By contrast, despite the VAP rate was higher than INICC (16.5) and NHSN’s rates (1.1), MV DUR was lower in our ICUs. Resistance of A. baumannii to imipenem and meropenem was 75.0%, and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam was higher than 72.7%, all them higher than CDC/NHSN rates. Excess length of stay was 7.4 d for patients with CLABSI, 4.8 for patients with VAP and 9.2 for patients CAUTI. Excess crude mortality in ICUs was 30.9% for CLABSI, 14.5% for VAP and 17.6% for CAUTI. CONCLUSION DA-HAI rates in our ICUs from Ecuador are higher than United States CDC/NSHN rates and similar to INICC international rates. PMID:28289522

  17. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States: Analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-08-01

    Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States (US), and is rising in most other countries. This is a repeated cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were separately performed for adults (n = 37,639) and children/adolescents (n = 28,282) to assess the associations between the length of time in the US, and the prevalences of obesity and diabetes. In foreign-born adults, the prevalences of both obesity and diabetes increased with the length of time in the US, and ≥20 years in the US was associated with significantly higher rates of obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.40, P = 0.01) and diabetes (aOR 4.22, 95% CI 1.04-17.08, P = 0.04) compared with <1 year in the US. In children/adolescents, obesity prevalence was significantly higher in those born in the US than those who had been in the US for <1 year (aOR 3.15, 95% CI 1.51-6.56, P = 0.002). When analyzed by year, obesity prevalence was significantly higher in US-born than in foreign-born adults from 1999 to 2012. On the other hand, the gap in obesity prevalence between US-born and foreign-born children/adolescents decreased from 1999 to 2011 due to a rapid increase in obesity prevalence among the foreign-born population, until there was no significant difference in 2011 to 2012. This study revealed that the risks of obesity and diabetes have increased in foreign-born US residents with time living in the US. However, the obesity gap between US-born and foreign-born populations is closing.

  18. An Official American Thoracic Society Systematic Review: The Effect of Nighttime Intensivist Staffing on Mortality and Length of Stay among Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Meeta Prasad; Adhikari, Neill K J; Rose, Louise; Wilcox, M Elizabeth; Bellamy, Cassandra J; Costa, Deena Kelly; Gershengorn, Hayley B; Halpern, Scott D; Kahn, Jeremy M; Lane-Fall, Meghan B; Wallace, David J; Weiss, Curtis H; Wunsch, Hannah; Cooke, Colin R

    2017-02-01

    Studies of nighttime intensivist staffing have yielded mixed results. To review the association of nighttime intensivist staffing with outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We searched five databases (2000-2016) for studies comparing in-hospital nighttime intensivist staffing with other nighttime staffing models in adult ICUs and reporting mortality or length of stay. We abstracted data on staffing models, outcomes, and study characteristics and assessed study quality, using standardized tools. Meta-analyses used random effects models. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria: one randomized controlled trial and 17 observational studies. Overall methodologic quality was high. Studies included academic hospitals (n = 10), community hospitals (n = 2), or both (n = 6). Baseline clinician staffing included residents (n = 9), fellows (n = 4), and nurse practitioners or physician assistants (n = 2). Studies included both general and specialty ICUs and were geographically diverse. Meta-analysis (one randomized controlled trial; three nonrandomized studies with exposure limited to nighttime intensivist staffing with adjusted estimates of effect) demonstrated no association with mortality (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.29). Secondary analyses including studies without risk adjustment, with a composite exposure of organizational factors, stratified by intensity of daytime staffing and by ICU type, yielded similar results. Minimal or no differences were observed in ICU and hospital length of stay and several other secondary outcomes. Notwithstanding limitations of the predominantly observational evidence, our systematic review and meta-analysis suggests nighttime intensivist staffing is not associated with reduced ICU patient mortality. Other outcomes and alternative staffing models should be evaluated to further guide staffing decisions.

  19. Coptidis rhizome and Si Jun Zi Tang can prevent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Hung Chang

    Full Text Available Salmonella, a common zoonotic pathogen, causes gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has been used to improve gastrointestinal dysfunction and to modify the immune response to inflammation for centuries. This study used six herbal plants and four TCM formulae to rate their efficacy in preventing S. Typhimurium infection via mouse model. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Coptidis rhizome (CR against the reference strain tallied 12.5 mg/ml and against clinical isolate ST21 was 25 mg/ml. MBCs of other herbal extracts and formulae on Salmonella Typhimurium strains were above 50 mg/ml. In the mice model, CR and Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZT could significantly decrease the bacterial load in organs and blood after being challenged, along with body weight loss due to the infection. CR and SJZT alleviated infection-induced interferon-gamma levels in the serum and tissues, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in intestinal tissues. CR and SJZT serum metabolites could suppress S. Typhimurium invasion and TNF-α expression in RAW264.7 cells. The therapeutic activity of CR and SJZT may involve berberine, ginsenoside Rb1, and glycyrrhizin, interfering with Salmonella when invading macrophages. CR and SJZT has shown potential in preventing S. Typhimurium infection through the regulation of the immune response.

  20. Coptidis rhizome and Si Jun Zi Tang can prevent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung-Hung; Yu, Bi; Su, Chiu-Hsian; Chen, Daniel S; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Hsu, Yuan-Man

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella, a common zoonotic pathogen, causes gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to improve gastrointestinal dysfunction and to modify the immune response to inflammation for centuries. This study used six herbal plants and four TCM formulae to rate their efficacy in preventing S. Typhimurium infection via mouse model. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Coptidis rhizome (CR) against the reference strain tallied 12.5 mg/ml and against clinical isolate ST21 was 25 mg/ml. MBCs of other herbal extracts and formulae on Salmonella Typhimurium strains were above 50 mg/ml. In the mice model, CR and Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZT) could significantly decrease the bacterial load in organs and blood after being challenged, along with body weight loss due to the infection. CR and SJZT alleviated infection-induced interferon-gamma levels in the serum and tissues, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in intestinal tissues. CR and SJZT serum metabolites could suppress S. Typhimurium invasion and TNF-α expression in RAW264.7 cells. The therapeutic activity of CR and SJZT may involve berberine, ginsenoside Rb1, and glycyrrhizin, interfering with Salmonella when invading macrophages. CR and SJZT has shown potential in preventing S. Typhimurium infection through the regulation of the immune response.

  1. 朱自清的述学文体%ZHU ZI-qing's Academic Paper Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奎

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we will mainly concern ZHU Zi-qing's academic paper writing in vision of genre,the first question is how to write papers with modern Chinese,and what his practice has contributed to enhance status of modern Chinese after the May 4th movement;what's more,as a modern Chinese writer whose academic achievement is in the field of classical literary theory,and we will discuss his knowledge pedigree and his thought of engaging in study,taking genre's social connotation into account.%本文从述学文体的角度探讨朱自清的学术论文写作,主要思考的问题是朱自清如何用白话文写作学术论文,他的写作实践对五四之后白话文地位的提高有什么意义;同时,朱自清作为一个新文人,他的学术成就却主要在古典诗文评领域,本文从学术文体的社会制度属性出发,进一步关注朱自清论学的知识谱系和述学心态。

  2. [On Liu qin xi (six animal frolics) in Huai nan zi (Discourses of Master Huainanzi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaozhong

    2014-05-01

    The six styles of the art of Daoyin recorded in Liu An's Huai nan zi (Discourses of Master Huainanzi) of the Western Han Dynasty was called the Liu qin xi which was simplified from the complicated ancient Daoyin art of bionic practice imitating the movements of six kinds of animal. Among them, the "xiong jing"imitates the erecting walking style of a bear so as to strengthen the waist and lower extremities; the "niao shen"follows the spreading of wings of a bird so as to extend the arms and legs, to train the shoulders and extremities; the "fu yu"imitates the movements of swimming and moving head of a wild duck so as to train the head and neck; the "yuan jue"imitates the jumping of a monkey among the tree branches so as to train the legs and waist; the "chi shi"imitates the streching neck movements of an eagle so as to strengthen the neck and improvement of vision; while the "hu gu"imitates the movement of turning head of a tiger so as to train one's nape and the buttock.

  3. Intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care: contribution to total hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and length of stay (LOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Gabriel J; Greene, John D; Gardner, Marla N; Marelich, Gregory P; Quick, Bryon; Kipnis, Patricia

    2011-02-01

    Patients who experience intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care (eg, ward to intensive care unit [ICU]) are known to have high mortality. However, these findings have been based on single-center studies or studies that employ ICU admissions as the denominator. To employ automated bed history data to examine outcomes of intra-hospital transfers using all hospital admissions as the denominator. Retrospective cohort study. A total of 19 acute care hospitals. A total of 150,495 patients, who experienced 210,470 hospitalizations, admitted to these hospitals between November 1st, 2006 and January 31st, 2008. Predictors were age, sex, admission type, admission diagnosis, physiologic derangement on admission, and pre-existing illness burden; outcomes were: 1) occurrence of intra-hospital transfer, 2) death following admission to the hospital, 3) death following transfer, and 4) total hospital length of stay (LOS). A total of 7,868 hospitalizations that began with admission to either a general medical surgical ward or to a transitional care unit (TCU) had at least one transfer to a higher level of care. These hospitalizations constituted only 3.7% of all admissions, but accounted for 24.2% of all ICU admissions, 21.7% of all hospital deaths, and 13.2% of all hospital days. Models based on age, sex, preadmission laboratory test results, and comorbidities did not predict the occurrence of these transfers. Patients transferred to higher level of care following admission to the hospital have excess mortality and LOS. Copyright © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. Phylogenetic congruence of Sarcocystis neurona Dubey et al., 1991 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in the United States based on sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic diversity, phylogeny and phylogeographical relationships of available Sarcocystis neurona isolates from different localities in the United States. All 13 Sarcocystis isolates from different hosts were subjected to polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses using two published DNA markers (25/396 and 33/54). The 334 bp sequence of the 25/396 marker of these isolates and Besnoitia darlingi, B. bennetti, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were sequenced and compared. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP) and minimum evolution (ME) methods based on the sequences of the 25/396 marker of the 13 Sarcocystis isolates obtained in this study and sequences of 10 related isolates from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees revealed a close relatedness among S. neurona isolates in the US (nucleotide sequence diversity neurona into two separate groups: a northern US group and a Southern US group. These findings suggest a correlation between grouping of the isolates and geographical segregation and were consistent with a genetic bottleneck hypothesis during opossum colonisation of North America. These data do not support either the view of S. neurona as a single super-species or its division into multiple subspecies.

  5. Effect of muscle contraction levels on the force-length relationship of the human Achilles tendon during lengthening of the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Norihide; Kawakami, Yasuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2011-07-28

    Findings from animal experiments are sometimes contradictory to the idea that the tendon structure is a simple elastic spring in series with muscle fibers, and suggest influence of muscle contraction on the tendon mechanical properties. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle contraction levels on the force-length relationship of the human Achilles tendon during lengthening of the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit. For seven subjects, ankle dorsiflexion was performed without (passive condition) and with contraction of plantar flexor muscles (eccentric conditions, at 3 contraction levels) on an isokinetic dynamometer. Deformation of the Achilles tendon during each trial was measured using ultrasonography. The Achilles tendon force corresponding to the tendon elongation of 10mm in the passive condition was significantly smaller than those in the eccentric conditions (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Within the eccentric conditions, the Achilles tendon force corresponding to the tendon elongation of 10mm was significantly greater in the maximal contraction level than those in submaximal eccentric conditions (p<0.05 or p<0.01). In addition, the tendon stiffness was greater in higher contraction levels (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Present results suggest that the human tendon structure is not a simple elastic spring in series with muscle fibers.

  6. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  7. The Surgical Optimal Mobility Score predicts mortality and length of stay in an Italian population of medical, surgical, and neurologic intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Simone; Dora, Giancarlo; Minelli, Cosetta; Michelini, Mariachiara; Turla, Fabio; Mazza, Stefania; D'Ottavi, Patrizia; Moreno-Duarte, Ingrid; Sottini, Caterina; Eikermann, Matthias; Latronico, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    We validated the Italian version of Surgical Optimal Mobility Score (SOMS) and evaluated its ability to predict intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS), and hospital mortality in a mixed population of ICU patients. We applied the Italian version of SOMS in a consecutive series of prospectively enrolled, adult ICU patients. Surgical Optimal Mobility Score level was assessed twice a day by ICU nurses and twice a week by an expert mobility team. Zero-truncated Poisson regression was used to identify predictors for ICU and hospital LOS, and logistic regression for hospital mortality. All models were adjusted for potential confounders. Of 98 patients recruited, 19 (19.4%) died in hospital, of whom 17 without and 2 with improved mobility level achieved during the ICU stay. SOMS improvement was independently associated with lower hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.42) but increased hospital LOS (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI: 1.10-1.33). A higher first-morning SOMS on ICU admission, indicating better mobility, was associated with lower ICU and hospital LOS (rate ratios, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.80-0.99] and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.79-0.89], respectively). The first-morning SOMS on ICU admission predicted ICU and hospital LOS in a mixed population of ICU patients. SOMS improvement was associated with reduced hospital mortality but increased hospital LOS, suggesting the need of optimizing hospital trajectories after ICU discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 论海德格尔的澄明之境与庄子的性命之情%Heidegger's Mirror of Aletheia and Zhuang Zi's Natural Disposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯

    2014-01-01

    “:澄明”是海德格尔哲学的一个重要词语。在心物一体的神秘境界里,获得显现的世间一切是被世界化、澄明了的事物,而不是没有灵性的生硬之物。世间万物是在心物一体之境域中舒展着,在这一境域中天与人、心与物聚集为统一的空间,海德格尔将这境域称之为澄明。庄子的“性命之情”与海德格尔的“澄明之境”有着共通之处。庄子之性命之情,指的是人素朴真纯的自然本性和原初天性,是人的生命与天地万物浑然一体、融通会合的诗意情境。%"Aletheia"is an important term of Heidegger's philosophy. In a mysterious state where the mind and thing are united as one, everything that is manifested in the world is clariifed. In this state, heaven and man, mind and thing form a united space, which Heidegger called"aletheia". There is something common between this aletheia and Zhuang Zi's"natural disposition. This disposition refers to the human innocent nature. It is the poetic state where life and all things are integrated into one.

  9. The Study of Optimum Extract Method of Effective Components in Zi Cao of Qing Zi Mixture%青紫合剂中紫草有效成分提取的最佳工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玲; 张艳菊; 陈博

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influential factors of extract method of Hydroxy beta quinine in Zi Cao, Method Selecting temperature, alcohol concentration and extracting time as influential factors to make L9(34) Orthogonal test. Result The optimal method of extract of Hydroxy beta quinine in Zi Cao was 95% alcohol, 65 ℃ water bath soak for 4 hours. Conclusion The optimal extract method was stable, feasible and reasonable.%目的 优选紫草中,有效成分羟基萘醌总色素的最佳提取工艺.方法 通过L9 (34)正交试验法,以药材中羟基萘醌总色素的质量分数为评价指标,考察提取温度、溶剂浓度及提取时间3个因素,每个因素选取3个水平进行试验.结果 最佳提取工艺为95%乙醇,65℃水浴温浸4小时.结论 优选得到的工艺稳定、合理、可行.

  10. Effect of a Multi-Diagnosis Observation Unit on Emergency Department Length of Stay and Inpatient Admission Rate at Two Canadian Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Amy H Y; Barclay, Neil G; Abu-Laban, Riyad B

    2016-12-01

    Observation units (OUs) have been shown to reduce emergency department (ED) lengths of stay (LOS) and admissions. Most published studies have been on OUs managing single complaints. Our aim was to determine whether an OU reduces ED LOS and hospital admission rates for adults with a variety of presenting complaints. We comparatively evaluated two hospitals in British Columbia, Canada (hereafter ED A and ED B) using a pre-post design. Data were extracted from administrative databases. The post-OU cohort included all adults presenting 6 months after OU implementation. The pre-OU cohort included all adults presenting in the same 6-month period 1 year before OU implementation. There were 109,625 patient visits during the study period. Of the 56,832 visits during the post-OU period (27,512 to ED A and 29,318 to ED B), 1.9% were managed in the OU in ED A and 1.4% in ED B. Implementation was associated with an increase in the median ED LOS at ED A (179.0 min pre vs. 192.0 min post [+13.0 min]; p < 0.001; mean difference -12.5 min, 95% confidence interval [CI] -15.2 to -9.9 min), but no change at ED B (182.0 min pre vs. 182.0 min post; p = 0.55; mean difference +2.0 min, 95% CI -0.7 to +4.7 min). Implementation significantly decreased the hospital admission rate for ED A (17.8% pre to 17.0% post [-0.8%], 95% CI -0.18% to 0.15%; p < 0.05) and did not significantly change the hospital admission rate at ED B (18.9% pre to 18.3% post [-0.6%], 95% CI -1.19% to -0.09%; p = 0.09). A multi-diagnosis OU can reduce hospital admission rate in a site-specific manner. In contrast to previous studies, we did not find that an OU reduced ED LOS. Further research is needed to determine whether OUs can reduce ED overcrowding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Arc Length Coding by Interference of Theta Frequency Oscillations May Underlie Context-Dependent Hippocampal Unit Data and Episodic Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Many memory models focus on encoding of sequences by excitatory recurrent synapses in region CA3 of the hippocampus. However, data and modeling suggest an alternate mechanism for encoding of sequences in which interference between theta frequency oscillations encodes the position within a sequence based on spatial arc length or time. Arc length…

  12. Satura vadības sistēma ziņu portālam

    OpenAIRE

    Frīdenvalds, Dāvis

    2007-01-01

    “Satura vadības sistēma ziņu portālam” sevī ietver tekstuālas un vizuālas informācijas vadību kā arī tīmekļa vietnes konfigurāciju, lietotāju un moduļu administrēšanu. Programma piemērota portālu un Interneta dienasgrāmatu uzturēšanai, ja nepieciešama vienkārša un ātra satura vadības sistēma.

  13. IMPEDANCE OF FINITE LENGTH RESISTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRINSKY, S.; PODOBEDOV, B.; GLUCKSTERN, R.L.

    2005-05-15

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a, length g, and conductivity {sigma}, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency, k >> 1/a. In the equilibrium regime, , the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity {sigma}. In the transient regime, ka{sup 2} >> g, we derive analytic expressions for the impedance and wakefield.

  14. Mappability and Read Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentian eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Power-law distributions are the main functional form forthe distribution of repeat size and repeat copy number in the human genome. When the genome is broken into fragments for sequencing, the limited size offragments and reads may prevent an unique alignment of repeatsequences to the reference sequence. Repeats in the human genome canbe as long as $10^4$ bases, or $10^5-10^6$ bases when allowing for mismatches between repeat units. Sequence reads from these regions are therefore unmappable when the read length is in the range of $10^3$ bases.With the read length of exactly 1000 bases, slightly more than 1% of theassembled genome, and slightly less than 1% of the 1kbreads, are unmappable, excluding the unassembled portion of the humangenome (8% in GRCh37. The slow decay (long tail ofthe power-law function implies a diminishing return in convertingunmappable regions/reads to become mappable with the increase of theread length, with the understanding that increasing read length willalways move towards the direction of 100% mappability.

  15. On Semantic Field of ShuoWenJieZi-MuBu%《说文解字·目部》语义场初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷琼

    2012-01-01

    《说文解字》采用部首编排法系统地分析字形、说解字义、考究字源。语义场理论是西方语言学理论分析方法。文章对《说文解字》中《目部》的字义进行初步探析,具体分析《目部》语义场内涵及分类。%ShuoWenJieZi uses the radical choreography to analyze systematically the grapheme,meaning of the character and Chinese character source.Semantic field theory is a kind of analysis method of Western linguistic theory.This article analyzed preliminarily the character meaning in MuBu of ShuoWenJieZi and then analyzed concretely the connotation and classification of the semantic field in MuBu.

  16. Fatores associados à maior mortalidade e tempo de internação prolongado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de adultos Factors associated with increased mortality and prolonged length of stay in an adult intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Francioso de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A unidade de terapia intensiva é sinônimo de gravidade e apresenta taxa de mortalidade entre 5,4% e 33%. Com o aperfeiçoamento de novas tecnologias, o paciente pode ser mantido por longo período nessa unidade, ocasionando altos custos financeiros, morais e psicológicos para todos os envolvidos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os fatores associados à maior mortalidade e tempo de internação prolongado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva adulto. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo todos os pacientes admitidos consecutivamente na unidade de terapia intensiva de adultos, clínica/cirúrgica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, no período de seis meses. Foram coletados dados como: sexo, idade, diagnóstico, antecedentes pessoais, APACHE II, dias de ventilação mecânica invasiva, reintubação orotraqueal, traqueostomia, dias de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva, alta ou óbito na unidade de terapia intensiva. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 401 pacientes, sendo 59,6% homens e 40,4% mulheres, com idade média de 53,8±18,0 anos. A média de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva foi de 8,2±10,8 dias, com taxa de mortalidade de 13,46%. Dados significativos para mortalidade e tempo de internação prolongado em unidade de terapia intensiva (p11, traqueostomia e reintubação. CONCLUSÃO: APACHE >11, traqueostomia e reintubação estiveram associados, neste estudo, à maior taxa de mortalidade e tempo de permanência prolongado em unidade de terapia intensiva.OBJECTIVE: The intensive care unit is synonymous of high severity, and its mortality rates are between 5.4 and 33%. With the development of new technologies, a patient can be maintained for long time in the unit, causing high costs, psychological and moral for all involved. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for mortality and prolonged length of stay in an adult intensive care unit. METHODS: The study

  17. Precise georeferencing using the rigorous sensor model and rational function model for ZiYuan-3 strip scenes with minimum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongbo; Tao, Chao; Zou, Zhengrong

    2016-09-01

    The rigorous sensor model (RSM) and the rational function model (RFM) are the most widely used geometric models for georeferencing. Even though geometric calibration and bundle adjustment with the RFM has been carried out for the ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) earth observation satellite, few studies determined the major error sources affecting the three line cameras (TLCs). In this work, we propose a new set of compensation parameters, the shift and drift of both pitch and roll angle, for the RSM, since the yaw angle error is not as significant as the pitch angle for very narrow field of view images. Corresponding bias compensation methods are also validated for the RFM. Seven continuous strip scenes from the ZY-3 TLCs are used for the experiments, for which the root mean square error (RMSE) in the image space and object space are calculated. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can model the major errors and achieve the same accuracy as the use of redundant parameters. With this model, the RMSEs of the checkpoints are 2.048 m in planimetry and 1.256 m in height. The RMSEs would increase to 2.522 m in planimetry and 2.635 m in height if the drift parameters were ignored. However, subpixel georeferencing accuracy is not as sensitive as the RMSE in the object space, since the RMSE of the height increases to 2.6 m compared to 1.3 m, while the change of the RMSE in the image space is within 0.1 pixels. In addition, the relationships among the TLCs are dynamic during imaging. Compensation for the TLCs as a unit introduces a height error of about 1 m, while maintaining subpixel georeferencing accuracy. Two ground control points (GCPs) placed at the beginning and the end of a strip are preferred to reduce oscillation and point picking errors. Compared with the RSM, the RFM can achieve similar accuracy when the drift compensation model and shift compensation model are applied.

  18. Theory of Zhuang Zi's"God the Residue"Character%论庄子笔下“形残神全”人物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月仪

    2014-01-01

    Zhuang Zi serves amputee as leading role in DE Full Symbol, borrowing the fable to clarify these people whose forms are not complete but they are respected and admired all due to internal moral. The author, through analysis of the characters from Zhuang Zi 's"god the residue", explores the reasons why Zhuang Zi depicted the characters, finding Zhuang Zi 's view of god the residue with the inner's moral is closely connected with"edge of classics"in the HealthMaster,"useless for use"in HumanWorld and"when Ann at suitable”in TheGreatMaster, it has been extremely profound influence on Chinese aesthetics.%庄子在《德充符》篇中以肢体残缺者作为主角,借寓言故事阐明这些人虽形体不全却受到众人的尊敬与钦佩的原因在于内在德全。作者通过对庄子笔下“形残神全”人物的分析,探讨庄子刻画这些人物形象的原因,发现庄子认为形残神全的人内在德全的观点与他在《养生主》中“缘督为经”、《人间世》中“无用为用”和《大宗师》中“安时处顺”等哲学观有着紧密联系,并对后世的中国美学产生了极为深远的影响。

  19. Suan Zao Ren Tang in Combination with Zhi Zi Chi Tang as a Treatment Protocol for Insomniacs with Anxiety: A Randomized Parallel-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-lin Hu; Xin Zhang; Wen-juan Liu; Mei Li; Yong-hua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia is a serious worldwide health problem that is often comorbid with anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Chinese formula containing Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT) and Zhi Zi Chi Tang (ZZCT; SZR-ZZC) for improving sleep quality and anxiety states with four indices of Polysomnography (PSG), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Methods. A randomized, parallel-controlled trial...

  20. 温庭筠与《干子》的创作%Wen Tingyun and His Gan sun zi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春梅

    2014-01-01

    温庭筠是晚唐著名的诗人和词人,在文学史上有着重要的地位。才华使温庭筠负有盛名,然而,由于他士行尘杂,不修边幅,酣醉终日,由是累年不第。最后竟落得为当涂者所薄,名宦不进,坎坷终身的悲惨境遇。温庭筠的小说创作和当时的社会风气有关。温庭筠创作《干子》的动机一是能悦众心;二是能抒己心。《干  子》问世于晚唐时期,原书已不存,今人可从《太平广记》、《类说》、《绀珠集》等旧籍搜罗佚文。《太平广记》录佚文33篇,王汝涛编校的《全唐小说》共收有33篇。%Wen Tingyun is a famous poet of late Tang dynasty and plays a considerable role in literary history. Although he is a gifted poet,he has always failed in the provincial civil service examination under the old Chinese examination sys-tem,for his alcohol addiction. He is despised by the authorities,with no reputation and social status,living a miserable life throughout his life. Wen Tingyun’s novels are related to the social morality in his time,his Gan Sun Zi aims to please everyone as well as expressing his inner emotion. Gan Sun Zi is created in late Tang dynasty,but the original writing is missing. Modern people can collect the lost essays or words from Tai Ping Guang Ji,Lei Shuo,Qian Zhu Ji and other ancient books. Tai Ping Guang Ji consists of 33 lost articles,which is completely collected by Wang Rutao in his Quan Tang Novel.

  1. Neurotrophic Effects of Mu Bie Zi (Momordica cochinchinensis) Seed Elucidated by High-Throughput Screening of Natural Products for NGF Mimetic Effects in PC-12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, E.; Georges, B.; McTier, O.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Post-mitotic central nervous system (CNS) neurons have limited capacity for regeneration, creating a challenge in the development of effective therapeutics for spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, therapeutic use of human neurotrophic agents such as nerve growth factor (NGF) are limited due to hampered transport across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and a large number of peripheral side effects (e.g. neuro-inflammatory pain/tissue degeneration etc.). Therefore, there is a continued need for discovery of small molecule NGF mimetics that can penetrate the BBB and initiate CNS neuronal outgrowth/regeneration. In the current study, we conduct an exploratory high-through-put (HTP) screening of 1144 predominantly natural/herb products (947 natural herbs/plants/spices, 29 polyphenolics and 168 synthetic drugs) for ability to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 dopaminergic cells grown on rat tail collagen, over 7 days. The data indicate a remarkably rare event-low hit ratio with only 1/1144 tested substances (<111.25 µg/mL) being capable of inducing neurite outgrowth in a dose dependent manner, identified as; Mu Bie Zi, Momordica cochinchinensis seed extract (MCS). To quantify the neurotrophic effects of MCS, 36 images (n = 6) (average of 340 cells per image), were numerically assessed for neurite length, neurite count/cell and min/max neurite length in microns (µm) using Image J software. The data show neurite elongation from 0.07 ± 0.02 µm (controls) to 5.5 ± 0.62 µm (NGF 0.5 μg/mL) and 3.39 ± 0.45 µm (138 μg/mL) in MCS, where the average maximum length per group extended from 3.58 ± 0.42 µm (controls) to 41.93 ± 3.14 µm (NGF) and 40.20 ± 2.72 µm (MCS). Imaging analysis using immunocytochemistry (ICC) confirmed that NGF and MCS had similar influence on 3-D orientation/expression of 160/200 kD neurofilament, tubulin and F-actin. These latent changes were associated with early rise in phosphorylated extracellular signal

  2. 塞北紫堇化学成分的研究%Research on Chemical Constituents of SaiBei ZiJin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀平; 马斌; 任松鹏; 李丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:对塞北紫堇的化学成分进行研究。方法:通过硅胶柱层析和重结晶法进行分离,根据理化性质及ID-NMR、ESI-MS等波谱方法进行结构鉴定。结果:从塞北紫堇中共分离得到5种生物碱类单体化合物,分别为:α-比枯枯灵、原阿片碱、黄紫堇明碱、β-hydrastine、β-比枯枯灵。结论:α-比枯枯灵、原阿片碱、β-hydrastine为首次从该药材分离得到。%Objective: To study chemical constituents of SaiBei ZiJin [Corydalis impatiens (pall.) Fisch.]. Methods:SaiBei ZiJin was abstracted by silica column chromatography method and recrystalization method, struc-ture identification were performed according to physicochemical property, ID-NMR, ESI-MS and other spectral methods. Results: Five alkaloid monomer compounds were extracted from SaiBei ZiJin, they were: α-bicuculline, protopine, ochotensimine,β-hydrastine andβ-bicuculline. Conclusion:α-bicuculline, protopine andβ-hydrastine are isolated from medicinal materials for the first time.

  3. 扣子七中人参皂苷的HPLC-MS-MS方法研究%Research of ginsenosides in Kou zi qi using HPLC-MS-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹坤; 刘朝霞; 朱姝; 蔡少青; 小松かつ子

    2004-01-01

    Aim To analyze the ginsenosides in Kou zi qi (rhizomes of Panax japonicus C.A. Mey. var. major (Burkill) C.Y.Wu et K. M. Feng), and to supply evidences for chemotaxanology of Panax species and clinical uses of Kou zi qi. Methods The ginsenosides were isolated by HPLC, then the positive- and negativeion API-MS/MS of constituents collected from HPLC were measured. Results Eight ginsenosides were identified as ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Ro, chikuseksusaponins IV, IVa, notoginsenoside R2, ginsenosides Rb1 , Rc and Rd, respectively, based on comparison of retention time with those of standards by HPLC, and analysis on their API-MS/MS data. Ginsenoside Ro and chikuseksusaponin IVa are the major components of Kouzi qi. Conclusion This plant had a close relationship to P. stipuleanatns, P. zinginensis and P .japonicns var major; a relatively remote relationship to P. ginseng and P. quinquefolins, in a view of chemotaxanology. Ginsenoside Ro and chikuseksusaponin IVa might be the anti-inflammatory constituents of Kou zi qi.

  4. 论《孙子兵法》中的战略谋划思想%On Strategic Plan Thought in Military Science of Sun Zi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华杰

    2015-01-01

    本文认真梳理了《孙子兵法》中涉及战略的论述和思想,总结出了《孙子兵法》中关于“国家战略、经济战略、国防战略和情报战略”等战略至上的理念;梳理了《孙子兵法》关于战略定位中处理好战略目标与战略行为、战略环境和战略趋势间关系的原则技巧论述;论述了《孙子兵法》中贯穿全文的“全、省、巧、快、稳”等战略评估思想。%This paper carefully studies the strategic discussion and thoughts in Military Science of Sun Zi,summarizes its strategic i-deas such as “national strategy,economic strategy,national defense strategy and intelligence strategy”which is preferred by Sun Zi, studies the principle and skill for rationalizing the relation between strategic objective and strategic behavior and between strategic envi-ronment and strategic tendency in strategic position and expounds the strategic evaluation thought such as“overall,save,skill,rapid-ness and stability”which run through the whole Military Science of Sun Zi.

  5. The Discussion About Quotations From The Book of Songs in Xun Zi%《荀子》用《诗》特征及诗学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诗芳; 王晓曦

    2016-01-01

    In Xun Zi, there are 83 quotations from The Book of Songs. In addition to the large amounts quoting poetry, there are also some discussions about them. Both of them reflect some poetic concepts of Xun Zi. Xun Zi talked about some contents and purposes of The Book of Songs, and took it under the way of sage, saw it as carrier of the truth to guide people to cultivate their morality and enter politics. He made The Book of Songs ethicalize and politicalize, and gradually pushed it to the classical status.%在《荀子》一书中,引用《诗经》有83处。除大量引《诗》外,还有一些论《诗》的内容,这都明确地反映了荀子的一些诗学观念。荀子既谈其内容和旨意,又将其统摄在圣人之道之下,视之为道的载体,指导人们修身、从政,很大程度地将《诗》道德伦理化和政治化了,为汉兴以来《诗》的经学化奠定了基础。

  6. The effects of music on the selected stress behaviors, weight, caloric and formula intake, and length of hospital stay of premature and low birth weight neonates in a newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, J

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music on selected stress behaviors, weight, caloric and formula intake, and length of hospital stay. Subjects were 52 preterm and low birth weight newborns in a newborn intensive care unit (NBICU) who were in stable condition and restricted to isolettes. Subjects in the experimental and control groups were matched for equivalency based on sex, birth weight, and diagnostic criticality. Eleven males and 15 females were assigned to the control group and received routine auditory stimulation. The experimental group of 11 males and 15 females received music stimulation, which consisted of approximately 60 minutes of tape recorded vocal music, including lullabies and children's music, and routine auditory stimulation. Thirty-minute segments of the recording were played alternatively with 30 minutes of routine auditory stimulation three times daily. Exposure to music stimulation occurred only during the infants' stay in the NBICU. Results suggest music stimulation may have significantly reduced initial weight loss, increased daily average weight, increased formula and caloric intake, significantly reduced length of the NBICU and total hospital stays, and significantly reduced the daily group mean of stress behaviors for the experimental group. Data analyses suggest the length of hospital stay may be correlated with the amount of stress experienced by the neonate and not with weight gains. Theoretical and practical aspects of these results are discussed.

  7. 三种方法联合确定根尖孔开敞根管工作长度的评价%Evaluation of accuracy triple-united method in root canal working length with incomplete root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of united x-ray method electornic apex locator method and paper point method in root canal working length with incomplete root formation.Methods There were 98 bicuspid teeth with 160 root canals should be extracted because orthodontia from 71patiens.And were randomly divided into two groups,experimental group(80 root canals)united x-ray method electomic apex locator method and paper point method in root canal working length;Contorl group(80 root canals)the working length was measured by X-ray method and apex locator method.To observe the location of K fill in apical foramen with microscope.Results The rates of in experim accuracy ental group was 91.2%,and it in contorl group was 77.5%.There was statistically difference between the two groups(P <0.05).Conclusion The united x-ray method electomic apex locator method and paper point method can raised the accuracy of the root canal working length of the tooth that incomplete root formation.%目的 评价联合应用三种方法确定根尖孔开敞根管工作长度的准确性.方法 选取71例患者,98颗正畸需拔除的前磨牙,共160个根管.随机分为两组,实验组(80个根管)联合应用电测法、放射法、纸尖法确定工作长度;对照组(80个根管)联合应用电测法、放射法确定工作长度.采用拔除患牙,显微镜下观察、测量K锉位于根尖孔位置的方法评价.结果 根管工作长度适长率实验组为91.2%,对照组为77.5%.两组有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 联合应用放射法、电测法、纸尖法可以增加根尖孔开敞根管的工作长度测量的准确性.

  8. On LuXun's Inheritance and Criticism to ZhuangZi%试论鲁迅对庄子的继承与批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运涛

    2014-01-01

    Lu Xun was influenced by Zhuang Zi's critical spirit and negative spirit .In the satirical art ,both of them pointed to the so -called"big shot"or "good person",and strong sarcasm is full of evil .In the way of thinking , Lu Xun's"push-back method"and"combination with two phase"can be found the internal relations in Zhuang Zi's works .Lu Xun also profoundly criticized the spirit of victory ,the national character of self -deception ,the atti-tude towards life of muddling along ,and its concealment and toxicity which were formed by Zhuang Zi's philoso-phy .Therefore ,Lu Xun was not only a true successor to the positive value of Zhuang Zi's thoughts and carried them forward ,but was the most awake and profound critic to the dross of Zhuang Zi's thoughts .%鲁迅深受庄子批判精神和否定精神的影响。在讽刺艺术上,两者都将矛头指向所谓“大人物”或“好人物”,强烈的讽刺充满恶辣味;在思维方式上,鲁迅常用的“推背法”、“两相结合法”等均能在庄子著作中找到内在联系。鲁迅又对由庄子处世哲学所形成的精神胜利、自欺欺人的民族性格病态和游世混世的人生态度,及其隐蔽性和毒害性进行了深刻批判。因此,鲁迅既是庄子思想中积极价值的真正继承者和发扬光大者,又是庄子思想糟粕的最清醒最深刻的批判者。

  9. On Lu Xun's Inheritance and Criticism to Zhuang Zi%试论鲁迅对庄子的继承与批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王运涛

    2014-01-01

    Lu Xun was influenced by Zhuang Zi's critical spirit and negative spirit .In the satirical art ,both of them pointed to the so-called"big shot"or"good person",and strong sarcasm is full of evil .In the way of thinking , Lu Xun's"push-back method"and"combination with two phase"can be found the internal relations in Zhuang Zi's works .Lu Xun also profoundly criticized the spirit of victory ,the national character of self-deception ,the atti-tude towards life of muddling along ,and its concealment and toxicity which were formed by Zhuang Zi's philoso-phy .Therefore ,Lu Xun was not only a true successor to the positive value of Zhuang Zi's thoughts and carried them forward ,but was the most awake and profound critic to the dross of Zhuang Zi's thoughts .%鲁迅深受庄子批判精神和否定精神的影响。在讽刺艺术上,两者都将矛头指向所谓“大人物”或“好人物”,强烈的讽刺充满恶辣味;在思维方式上,鲁迅常用的“推背法”、“两相结合法”等均能在庄子著作中找到内在联系。鲁迅又对由庄子处世哲学所形成的精神胜利、自欺欺人的民族性格病态和游世混世的人生态度,及其隐蔽性和毒害性进行了深刻批判。因此,鲁迅既是庄子思想中积极价值的真正继承者和发扬光大者,又是庄子思想糟粕的最清醒最深刻的批判者。

  10. Triple Linear-array Imaging Geometry Model of ZiYuan-3 Surveying Satellite and its Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Xinming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 surveying satellite is the first civilian high-resolution stereo mapping satellite of China. Its objective is oriented to plot the 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 topographic maps. Comparing with foreign commercial mapping satellite imagery, the establishment of our own imaging geometry model is the core technical problem for different products and various applications of ZY-3 surveying satellite. This paper analyses the key problem on precision geometry processing based on the overall design, and proposes the ZY-3 Surveying satellite imaging geometry model with the technology of virtual CCD line-array imaging. In addition, this paper utilizes the first orbit imagery of ZY-3 satellite with coverage of the region of Dalian, and produces forward, backward and nadir cameras calibration products. Different ground control points are selected for the block adjustment experiment, and the Digital Surface Model (DSM, Digital Ortho Map (DOM are generated. The accuracy is validated by check points. It can be seen from the experiment that the planar and vertical accuracy are better than 3 meters and 2 meters, respectively. The experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of ZY-3 surveying satellite imaging geometry model

  11. 叶紫笔下的女性世界%Female World under the Pen of Writer Ye Zi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王竹良

    2012-01-01

    The female characters in Ye Zi's novels all experienced a great deal of sufferings. In addition to that they also began to be revolutionary consciousness and the consciousness of struggle. Ye Zi's revelation for the tragic causes and the future for those women is unique for his novels that are thoroughly different from those romantic and revolutionary ones with petty bourgeoisie style. What Ye Zi did portray in his novels that was the unhappiness and waking-up consciousness of the laboring women in the countryside. His literary creation is revolutionary and inspiring relating to the time.%叶紫笔下的女性世界不仅充满苦难,也有革命带来的觉醒和斗争。叶紫对女性悲剧原因和妇女出路的探讨深刻独到,与一般的带有资产阶级小资情调的革命加恋爱的作品有很大不同,他描写的是地地道道的农村劳动妇女的苦难和觉醒。他的创作是战斗着的。他的作品更加富有时代性和号召力。

  12. ZiBuPiYin recipe improves cognitive decline by regulating gut microbiota in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chunyan; Zhou, Wen; Wang, Wang; Xiang, Hong; Xu, Huiying; Liang, Lina; Sui, Hua; Zhan, Libin; Lu, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-12

    Numerous researches supported that microbiota can influence behavior and modulate cognitive function through "microbiota-gut-brain" axis. Our previous study has demonstrated that ZiBuPiYin recipe (ZBPYR) possesses excellent pharmacological effects against diabetes-associated cognitive decline. To elucidate the role of ZBPYR in regulating the balance of gut microbiota to improve psychological-stress-induced diabetes-associated cognitive decline (PSDACD), we compared blood glucose, behavioral and cognitive functions and diversity of the bacterial community among experimental groups. The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats with PSDACD exhibited behavioral and cognitive anomalies showing as increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and decreased learning and memory abilities. High-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene revealed that Roseburia and Coprococcus were decreased in ZDF rats with PSDACD compared with control group. Notably, these changes were reversed by ZBPYR treatment. Our findings indicate that ZBPYR might prevent PSDACD by maintaining the compositions of gut microbiota, which could be developed as a new therapy for T2D with PSDACD.

  13. Quality assessment of ZiYuan-3 multispectral and panchromatic images fusion: applied in Jiangsu coastal wetland area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruijuan; He, Xiufeng; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The new launched ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) satellite with multispectral (MS) bands and a panchromatic (PAN) band has presented a new opportunity to assess image fusion methods for coastal wetland mapping. This study focuses on image fusion quality assessment through both quantitative spectral and spatial quality analysis and object-oriented classification comparison. Various methods for pan-sharpening ZY-3 MS and PAN bands are tested, including generalized intensity-hue-saturation transform (GIHS), à trous wavelet transform (AWT), nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT), and a combination of NSCT with GIHS (NSCT_GIHS). Spectral fidelity and spatial preservation of fused bands are compared with the original MS bands as reference, and spatial information injections of fused bands are compared with the resampled PAN band as reference. The fusion results demonstrate that, on average, the NSCT_GIHS method has the best performance on spectral fidelity and spatial preservation as well as spatial information injection. The near-infrared (NIR) band has the best spatial information injection in terms of entropy and cross-entropy indices, whereas the NIR band has the best spatial preservation in terms of entropy and structure similarity indices. The classification results show that NSCT_GIHS method also obtains the highest overall accuracy (96%) and Kappa coefficient (0.9425); this is in agreement with the quantitative analysis.

  14. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Anterior Two-Unit Cantilever Resin-Bonded Fixed Dental Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Keulemans

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different framework materials on biomechanical behaviour of anterior two-unit cantilever resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs. A three-dimensional finite element model of a two-unit cantilever RBFDP replacing a maxillary lateral incisor was created. Five framework materials were evaluated: direct fibre-reinforced composite (FRC-Z250, indirect fibre-reinforced composite (FRC-ES, gold alloy (M, glass ceramic (GC, and zirconia (ZI. Finite element analysis was performed and stress distribution was evaluated. A similar stress pattern, with stress concentrations in the connector area, was observed in RBFDPs for all materials. Maximal principal stress showed a decreasing order: ZI > M > GC > FRC-ES > FRC-Z250. The maximum displacement of RBFDPs was higher for FRC-Z250 and FRC-ES than for M, GC, and ZI. FE analysis depicted differences in location of the maximum stress at the luting cement interface between materials. For FRC-Z250 and FRC-ES, the maximum stress was located in the upper part of the proximal area of the retainer, whereas, for M, GC, and ZI, the maximum stress was located at the cervical outline of the retainer. The present study revealed differences in biomechanical behaviour between all RBFDPs. The general observation was that a RBFDP made of FRC provided a more favourable stress distribution.

  15. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... power unit behind the cab and on an over-cab rack. No State shall impose an overall length limitation of... may carry boats on the power unit so long as the length and width restrictions of the vehicles and...) in 23 CFR 658.19. (6) Munitions carriers using dromedary equipment. A truck tractor equipped with...

  16. Improving performance of a tandem simulated moving bed process for sugar separation by making a difference in the adsorbents and the column lengths of the two subordinate simulated moving bed units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungyong

    2013-02-15

    A tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) process for removal of sulfuric acid and acetic acid from sugars has been developed previously. This process consisted of two four-zone SMB units (Ring I and Ring II), in which the same adsorbent (Dowex99 resin) and the same column length were used. To improve the performance of such a tandem SMB process for sugar separation, it is worth adopting the strategy of making a difference between the column lengths of Ring I and Ring II. The results showed that such strategy could allow the adsorbent beds of both Ring I and Ring II to be fully utilized at the same time, which was impracticable in the previous tandem SMB mode. As a result, the tandem SMB based on such strategy could achieve higher productivity than the previous tandem SMB mode. In addition, the use of different adsorbents (Amberchrom-CG161C in Ring I and Dowex99 in Ring II) was proposed as the second strategy, which was confirmed to be highly effective in improving the productivity of the tandem SMB for sugar separation. Finally, a third strategy was proposed by combing the first and the second strategies. It was found that compared to the previous tandem SMB mode, the third strategy led to more than eleven times the productivity under the constraint of pressure drop ≤100 psi. This was mostly because the third strategy had a remarkable advantage over the previous tandem SMB mode in the aspects of bed utilization and selectivities, which stemmed from the use of different column lengths and the use of different adsorbents respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of a clinical knowledge support system with improved patient safety, reduced complications and shorter length of stay among Medicare beneficiaries in acute care hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonis, Peter A; Pickens, Gary T; Rind, David M; Foster, David A

    2008-11-01

    Electronic clinical knowledge support systems have decreased barriers to answering clinical questions but there is little evidence as to whether they have an impact on health outcomes. We compared hospitals with online access to UpToDate with other acute care hospitals included in the Thomson 100 Top Hospitals Database (Thomson database). Metrics used in the Thomson database differentiate hospitals on a variety of performance dimensions such as quality and efficiency. Prespecified outcomes were risk-adjusted mortality, complications, the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators, and hospital length of stay among Medicare beneficiaries. Linear regression models were developed that included adjustment for hospital region, teaching status, and discharge volume. Hospitals with access to UpToDate (n=424) were associated with significantly better performance than other hospitals in the Thomson database (n=3091) on risk-adjusted measures of patient safety (P=0.0163) and complications (P=0.0012) and had significantly shorter length of stay (by on average 0.167 days per discharge, 95% confidence interval 0.081-0.252 days, PUpToDate was used at each hospital. Mortality was not significantly different between UpToDate and non-UpToDate hospitals. The study was retrospective and observational and could not fully account for additional features at the included hospitals that may also have been associated with better health outcomes. An electronic clinical knowledge support system (UpToDate was associated with improved health outcomes and shorter length of stay among Medicare beneficiaries in acute care hospitals in the United States. Additional studies are needed to clarify whether use of UpToDate is a marker for the better performance, an independent cause of it, or a synergistic part of other quality improvement characteristics at better-performing hospitals.

  18. Estimation of genome length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The genome length is a fundamental feature of a species. This note outlined the general concept and estimation method of the physical and genetic length. Some formulae for estimating the genetic length were derived in detail. As examples, the genome genetic length of Pinus pinaster Ait. and the genetic length of chromosome Ⅵ of Oryza sativa L. were estimated from partial linkage data.

  19. The Descriptive Study of "Sun Zi:The Art of War-Making Assessments"——Domestication and Foreignization in the English translation of the Article

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王闻

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of "Domestication" and "Foreignization" in Translation was put forward by the American scholar L. Venuti in 1995, indicating that there are two aspects involved in the process of transhtion. Of one is that a translation should get the readers closer to the au-thor, while the other one is to get the author closer to the readers. The English transhtion of "Sun Zi: The Art of War" done by Lin Maosun is an outstanding example representing these two basic concepts in translation principles. It abounds with plenty of excellent examples demon-strating how domestication and foreignization can be achieved in the translation of Chinese classics.

  20. Krievijas-Gruzijas kara naratīvu analīze YouTube ievietotajās ziņās (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Sundukova, Elīna

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „ Krievijas – Gruzijas kara naratīvu analīze YouTube ievietotajās ziņās (2008) ” mērķis ir izpētīt un salīdzināt dažādu televīziju naratīvus. Pētnieciskie jautājumi: kuru televīziju naratīvi parādās YouTube un to atšķirības. Darba teorētiskais pamatojums: naratīvu teorijas; analītiski raksti un pētījumi par Krievijas – Gruzijas karu; YouTube apraksts. Pētniecības lauks ir 100 ziņu video, kas ievietoti YouTube 2008.gadā. Pētījuma metodoloģija: naratīva analīze (fabulas elementi...

  1. Spreading lengths of Hermite polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Moreno, P; Manzano, D; Yáñez, R; 10.1016/j.cam.2009.09.043

    2009-01-01

    The Renyi, Shannon and Fisher spreading lengths of the classical or hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials, which are quantifiers of their distribution all over the orthogonality interval, are defined and investigated. These information-theoretic measures of the associated Rakhmanov probability density, which are direct measures of the polynomial spreading in the sense of having the same units as the variable, share interesting properties: invariance under translations and reflections, linear scaling and vanishing in the limit that the variable tends towards a given definite value. The expressions of the Renyi and Fisher lengths for the Hermite polynomials are computed in terms of the polynomial degree. The combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials, which are shown to characterize the finite power of an arbitrary polynomial, play a relevant role for the computation of these information-theoretic lengths. Indeed these polynomials allow us to design an error-free computing approach for the entropic moments (w...

  2. Using SI Units in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction; 2. An introduction to SI units; 3. Dimensional analysis; 4. Unit of angular measure (radian); 5. Unit of time (second); 6. Unit of length (metre); 7. Unit of mass (kilogram); 8. Unit of luminous intensity (candela); 9. Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin); 10. Unit of electric current (ampere); 11. Unit of amount of substance (mole); 12. Astronomical taxonomy; Index.

  3. Measuring Thermodynamic Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2007-09-07

    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information, and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interestin understanding matter out of equilibrium. In this Letter, we will consider how to denethermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.

  4. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the branches in the outer whorl measured from the point...

  5. Determination of loganin in YinZi rehmannia glutinosa by RP-HPLC%RP-HPLC法测定地黄饮子中马钱苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玥; 扈本荃; 王玉

    2012-01-01

    Determination of loganin in YinZi rehmannia glutinosa by high performance liquid chromato-graphic with ultraviolet detector was investigated. Kromasill C18 column (4.6 mm×50 mm,5 μm) was employed with the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water ( 15:85 ) , the flow rate was at 0. 8 mL/min,the detected wavelength was 240 nm,and the sample volume was 20 μL. The linear range for sample volume was 0.079 2~1.98μg(r=0. 999 7) ,the average recovery was 98. 87% RSD was less than 2% (n~ 6). Other components do not interfere with the test. The method was feasible, accurate and reliable. It can be used for determination the content of loganin in YinZi rehmannia glutinosa, and the quality control of YinZi rehmannia glutinosa.%采用高效液相色谱法( HPLC),测定地黄饮子药材中的马钱苷,色谱柱为Kromasill C18柱(50mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相采用乙腈-水(15∶85),流速0.8 mL/min,进样量20 μL,检测波长240 nm,柱温室温.结果表明,马钱苷的保留时间约为7 min,进样量在0.079 2~1.98 μg范围内,其峰面积与浓度呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 7).平均回收率为98.87%,RSD小于2%(n=6),其他成分不干扰本实验.方法专属性强,准确可靠,可用于地黄饮子药材中马钱苷的含量测定.

  6. 黑瞎子岛植物园建筑风环境分析%Analysis on the Wind Environment of Hei Xia-zi Botanical Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡洪; 陆杨; 苏骏

    2012-01-01

    BIM technology has developed rapidly in recent years and it also was successfully introduced to Hei Xia- zi Botanical Garden in early architectural design. CFD technology is widely used in the architectural design of building wind environment. The thesis is focus on the introduction of the application of CFD technology combination with BIM technology. The building wind environment out side, the indoor natural ventilation and the indoor air flow field were cal- culated out by CFD software package. According to the computation results, Hei Xia -zi building layout was adjusted dy- namiely to optimize the design. Meanwhile, according to CFD calculation of indoor temperature and humidity fields and checking the conditions of nlant growth needs the ]aea] air conditianln~ technology was llsed ta saw energy%BIM技术近年来发展迅速,黑瞎子岛植物园在建筑设计初期就成功地引入了BIM技术。建筑风环境设计中,CFD技术应用广泛,本文着重介绍了CFD技术结合BIM技术的切入和应用,并对植物园室外风环境、室内自然通风、空调流场及热舒适性等进行了模拟计算。根据模拟的建筑风环境动态调整和优化建筑布局和朝向,优化建筑布局。同时,根据CFD的室内温湿度场计算,校核植物生长条件需求,采用局部空气调节以实现节能。

  7. 基于变长度单元的水泥熟料渗流换热模型研究%Seepage heat transfer model of cement clinker based on variable length unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬; 岳海龙; 闻岩

    2013-01-01

      堆积状态下水泥熟料的多孔质特性使得传统的气固交叉换热理论和对流换热理论难以揭示堆积体内部的换热规律。虽然渗流换热理论的引入使得堆积体换热计算结果更加接近实际,但计算过程大多忽略流体的物性变化,且计算较为复杂。本文运用拉格朗日观点和欧拉观点对高温水泥熟料堆积体的换热过程进行了分析,将真实气体状态方程引入渗流理论并结合局部热不平衡理论,建立了熟料变长度单元渗流换热数学模型,利用解析法和数值法对该模型进行求解,得到了熟料层内部流体温度和压力以及熟料温度的变化规律,研究结果为高温水泥熟料通风方案的优化提供了理论参考。%  The traditional theory of gas-solid cross heat transfer and theory of convection heat transfer are difficult to reveal the inner heat transfer law of cement clinker porous media accumulation body because of the porous characteristics of cement clinkers in stacked state. The calculation results are closer to the physical truth with the introduction of the seepage heat transfer theory, but the physical properties changes of the fluid are mostly ignored and the method is complicated. Heat transfer program of the hot ce-ment clinker accumulation body is analyzed using the Lagrangian's joint of view and the Eular's standpoint, a mathematical seepage heat transfer model of cement clinker based on variable length unit is established through the real gas state equation being introduced into seepage theory combined with the local thermal non-equilibrium theory. Variation laws of the fluid temperature and pressure and the clinker temperature in the cement clinker layer are obtained by the combination of the analytical method and the numerical method. The research results can provide a theoretical reference for optimizing the ventilation program of the high-temperature ce-ment clinker.

  8. Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Panes, Boris

    2011-01-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.

  9. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  10. Myofilament length dependent activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Tombe, Pieter P.; Mateja, Ryan D.; Tachampa, Kittipong; Mou, Younss Ait; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C. (IIT); (Loyola)

    2010-05-25

    The Frank-Starling law of the heart describes the interrelationship between end-diastolic volume and cardiac ejection volume, a regulatory system that operates on a beat-to-beat basis. The main cellular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is an increase in the responsiveness of cardiac myofilaments to activating Ca{sup 2+} ions at a longer sarcomere length, commonly referred to as myofilament length-dependent activation. This review focuses on what molecular mechanisms may underlie myofilament length dependency. Specifically, the roles of inter-filament spacing, thick and thin filament based regulation, as well as sarcomeric regulatory proteins are discussed. Although the 'Frank-Starling law of the heart' constitutes a fundamental cardiac property that has been appreciated for well over a century, it is still not known in muscle how the contractile apparatus transduces the information concerning sarcomere length to modulate ventricular pressure development.

  11. A Characteristic Particle Length

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that there are characteristic intervals associated with any particle that can be derived without reference to the speed of light $c$. Such intervals are inferred from zeros of wavefunctions which are solutions to the Schr\\"odinger equation. The characteristic length is $\\ell=\\beta^2\\hbar^2/(8Gm^3)$, where $\\beta=3.8\\dots$; this length might lead to observational effects on objects the size of a virus.

  12. Equilibrium CO bond lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaison, Jean; Császár, Attila G.

    2012-09-01

    Based on a sample of 38 molecules, 47 accurate equilibrium CO bond lengths have been collected and analyzed. These ultimate experimental (reEX), semiexperimental (reSE), and Born-Oppenheimer (reBO) equilibrium structures are compared to reBO estimates from two lower-level techniques of electronic structure theory, MP2(FC)/cc-pVQZ and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd). A linear relationship is found between the best equilibrium bond lengths and their MP2 or B3LYP estimates. These (and similar) linear relationships permit to estimate the CO bond length with an accuracy of 0.002 Å within the full range of 1.10-1.43 Å, corresponding to single, double, and triple CO bonds, for a large number of molecules. The variation of the CO bond length is qualitatively explained using the Atoms in Molecules method. In particular, a nice correlation is found between the CO bond length and the bond critical point density and it appears that the CO bond is at the same time covalent and ionic. Conditions which permit the computation of an accurate ab initio Born-Oppenheimer equilibrium structure are discussed. In particular, the core-core and core-valence correlation is investigated and it is shown to roughly increase with the bond length.

  13. Observations on oesophageal length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloor, G J; Deshpande, A H; Collis, J L

    1976-01-01

    The subject of oesophageal length is discussed. The great variations in the length of the oesophagus in individual patients is noted, and the practical use of its recognition in oesophageal surgery is stressed. An apprasial of the various methods available for this measurement is made; this includes the use of external chest measurement, endoscopic measurement, and the measurement of the level of the electrical mucosal potential change. Correlative studies of these various methods are made, and these show a very high degree of significance. These studies involved simultaneous measurement of external and internal oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal length in 26 patients without a hiatal hernia or gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms, 42 patients with sliding type hiatal hernia, and 17 patients with a peptic stricture in association with hiatal hernia. The method of measuring oesophageal length by the use of the external chest measurement, that is, the distance between the lower incisor teeth and the xiphisternum, measured with the neck fully extended and the patient lying supine, is described in detail, its practical application in oesophageal surgery is illustrated, and its validity tested by internal measurements. The findings of this study demonstrate that the external chest measurement provides a mean of assessing the true static length of the oesophagus, corrected for the size of the individual. Images PMID:941114

  14. Mouse gestation length is genetically determined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Murray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is an enormous public health problem, affecting over 12% of live births and costing over $26 billion in the United States alone. The causes are complex, but twin studies support the role of genetics in determining gestation length. Despite widespread use of the mouse in studies of the genetics of preterm birth, there have been few studies that actually address the precise natural gestation length of the mouse, and to what degree the timing of labor and birth is genetically determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further develop the mouse as a genetic model of preterm birth, we developed a high-throughput monitoring system and measured the gestation length in 15 inbred strains. Our results show an unexpectedly wide variation in overall gestation length between strains that approaches two full days, while intra-strain variation is quite low. Although litter size shows a strong inverse correlation with gestation length, genetic difference alone accounts for a significant portion of the variation. In addition, ovarian transplant experiments support a primary role of maternal genetics in the determination of gestation length. Preliminary analysis of gestation length in the C57BL/6J-Chr#(A/J/NaJ chromosome substitution strain (B.A CSS panel suggests complex genetic control of gestation length. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these data support the role of genetics in regulating gestation length and present the mouse as an important tool for the discovery of genes governing preterm birth.

  15. Modern Psychological Analysis of Zhu Zi Study Method%“朱子读书法”的现代心理学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秀; 王宁

    2015-01-01

    Since the ancient times , our country has always had the traditions on learning encouragement and attitude and more than dozens of classical learning methods have been passed down as well . Zhu Zi study method has a profound impact on our traditional methods . With respect to tradition recovery and classics in heritance , Zhu Zi study method , if interpreted scientifically , has an important impact on precise learning attitude and traditional cultural inheritance in a scientific way . Paying more attention to the clues , we can find out that the reason why the method can be spread to this day and regarded as a standard for learning by numerous scholars is that it has its nature of science in many ways and implies quite a lot of theories on modern psychology , including cognitivism , constructivism , situation and experience , attribution theory , etc . This thesis makes a corresponding discussion on the theories of psychology , aiming to explore the implicit science behind the Zhu Zi study method and make a detailed elaboration and argument in this regard .%朱子读书法流传至今,为众学者奉为阅读圭臬,缘于其具有相当的科学性,暗合了许多现代心理学的理论,其中“着紧用力”体现了意志的果断性、坚定性和自制力。“循序渐进”与皮亚杰的“认知阶段发展论”不谋而合,符合学习者身心发展规律。“熟读精思”是一种“复述”策略,按“艾宾浩斯遗忘曲线”的规律重复可以对抗遗忘。“切己体察”有助于能力的迁移。而根据“有意义接受说”和“建构主义理论”,“虚心涵泳”一法却很难做到,也没有必要摒弃或者隔离读者原有知识和观点。“居敬持志”中只有部分符合心理学观点,即注意力集中和适当焦虑,学习效率最高。总之,该读书法折射一种能力生长观,暗含能力可通过个人努力获得增长的。下文将深度挖掘朱子读书法蕴含的科

  16. 《汉语大字典》“艸”部字际关系考辨%Research on Inter-Characters Relations in Han Yu Da Zi Dian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯佳利

    2013-01-01

    The paper researchs the Characters of “艸”bu in Han Yu Da Zi Dian ,and points out some mis-takes existing in dealing with the inter -Characters relations .%以第二版《汉语大字典》第六册“艸”部若干字为例,指出其在字际关系沟通上存在的问题,并对其进行考辨。

  17. The Comparison of the Governance between Xun Zi and Dong Zhong-shu%荀子与董仲舒“治道”思想之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春菊

    2012-01-01

    荀子、董仲舒的治道思想都是在国家、社会处于转型时期提出来的。两者治道思想的共性与差别在于:在管理本体论上,荀子要求管理者面对自然之天必须发挥主体能动性,而董仲舒认为"天"不仅是宇宙万物的最高本原,也是社会等级秩序和伦理准则的唯一来源;在管理行为观上,两人都继承了经典儒家的管理行为理论,主张为政以德和贤人政治;在管理价值论方面,都认同"不与民争利";在管理人性观方面和管理控制论上,都认为人性可塑、导人为善。%The governace of Xun zi and Dong Zhong-shu are both put forward at the transformation period of the state and society.The similarities and differences of them are: In the perspective of management ontology,Xun Zi required the managers must have subjective initiative when they faced the natural"Tian",but Dong Zhong-shu thought the "Tian" is not only the highest principle of universe,but also the only source of the social rank order and ethical standards;In the perspective of management concept,they inherited the confucian theory of administrative behavior,advocating governing by morality and wisdom politics;In the perspective of management theory of value,they both agreed that "Do not compete with people";In the perspective of human nature and management cybernetics,they both agreed that people could be created and led to be good.

  18. Patērniecības ziņojumi sporta žurnālu auditorijai: žurnālā "Sporta Avīze" publicēto reklāmu analīze

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma – „Patērniecības ziņojumi sporta žurnālu auditorijai: žurnālā "Sporta Avīze" publicēto reklāmu analīze”. Darba mērķi ir veikt žurnāla "Sporta Avīze" izpēti un analīzi, nosakot, kādi patērniecības ziņojumi tiek nodoti žurnāla auditorijai ar reklāmas palīdzību, un veikt izpēti, lai noskaidrotu, kā noteiktajā preses izdevumā ievietotās reklāmas ietekmē sporta žurnālu auditorijas patēriņa paradumus, kas veicina viņu identitātes konstruēšanās procesus. Bakalaura darba teorēti...

  19. Patērniecības ziņojumi jauniešu auditorijai: žurnālā "Sīrups" publicēto reklāmu analīze

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma - „Patērniecības ziņojumi jauniešu auditorijai: žurnālā "Sīrups" publicēto reklāmu analīze”. Darba mērķi ir veikt izpēti un analīzi, lai noteiktu, kādi patērniecības ziņojumi tiek vēstīti jauniešiem ar reklāmu starpniecību konkrētajai mērķauditorijai adresētā preses izdevumā, un veikt izpēti, lai noteiktu, kā konkrētajā žurnālā ievietotās reklāmas ietekmē mērķauditorijas patēriņa paradumus un veicina viņu identitātes konstruēšanas procesu. Bakalaura darba teorētis...

  20. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than......Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... analysis in 548 same-sex Danish twins (274 pairs) aged 73-94 years, of whom 204 pairs experienced the death of one or both co-twins during 9-10 years of follow-up (1997-2007). From the terminal restriction fragment length (TRFL) distribution, the authors obtained the mean TRFL (mTRFL) and the mean values...

  1. Suan Zao Ren Tang in Combination with Zhi Zi Chi Tang as a Treatment Protocol for Insomniacs with Anxiety: A Randomized Parallel-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-lin Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia is a serious worldwide health problem that is often comorbid with anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Chinese formula containing Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT and Zhi Zi Chi Tang (ZZCT; SZR-ZZC for improving sleep quality and anxiety states with four indices of Polysomnography (PSG, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, and the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS. Methods. A randomized, parallel-controlled trial compared SZR-ZZC to lorazepam tablet in insomniacs with anxiety. Patients were randomized to the SZR-ZZC treatment group (n=60 and the lorazepam tablet treatment group (n=59. Results. SZR-ZZC significantly improved scores on all four treatment indices. Compared with lorazepam, treatment with SZR-ZZC resulted in a significant reduction in the ISI (P=0.029, the PSQI (P=0.017, and wake after sleep onset (WASO; P=0.008 scores and improved sleep architecture (P=0.000–0.003 after a 4-week treatment period. Only one subject in the SZR-ZZC group experienced adverse side effects. Conclusion. Treatment with SZR-ZZC for 4 weeks appears to be a relatively safe and effective complementary therapeutic option when aiming to improve sleep quality and anxiety in insomniacs with anxiety.

  2. 回药少尼子的本草考证%Research on Materia Medica of Hui Herbal Medicine ShaoNiZi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟; 何婷; 高如宏

    2016-01-01

    According to the record in YanXingLu, prophet Mohammed said Hui medicine can cure many of disease. So we made a research on materia medica of Hui Herbal Medicine ShaoNiZi in Huihui prescriptions from several aspects, including Species research, historical records, origin, chemical composition, pharmacological ef-fects, traditional and modern medicine usage, and security as well, and found that it is the dry mature seed of the Ra-nunculaceae Nigella sativa L. Because of its wide therapeutic range, safety and non-toxic, it values to research.%《言行录》记载回药少尼子能够治疗许多疾病。因此本研究从品种考证、历史记载、产地、化学成分、药理作用、传统及现代医学用法、安全性等方面对《回回药方》中少尼子进行本草考证研究,确定其为毛茛科植物家黑种草 Nigella sativa L.的干燥成熟种子,其治疗范围极其广泛,且安全无毒,具有很大的研究价值。

  3. On ZHU Zi-qing's Appreciation Theories of Chinese Classic Literature%朱自清古典文学欣赏理论初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方大卫

    2009-01-01

    欣赏中国古典文学作品离不开吟诵,要在吟诵的基础上了解,在培养欣赏力的同时培养判断力.欣赏也是想象、感受和理解的过程,更是一个再创造的过程.这是朱自清对古典文学欣赏理论的系统总结.这一欣赏理论,不仅内涵丰富,而且还有自己的特色.%The appreciation of Chinese classic literature works cannot be separated from the intonation of them. Comprehension is acquired on the basis of the intonation, and thus the appreciation as well as the judgment is cultivated. The appreciation is a course of imagination, perception and comprehension, and furthermore a course of recreation. This is a systematic conclusion of ZHU Zi-qing's theory of appreciation of Chinese classic literature works. The theory is rich in content with its own traits.

  4. The heritage of Dr Dimitrija Demeter in te MaZuranić-Brlić-RuZić memorial library and collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Canziani Jaksic, Theodor

    2008-01-01

    The collections of the MaZuranić-Brlić-RuZić Memorial Library and Archive in Rijeka contain in addition to the libraries of Ivan, Antun and Matija Mazuranic and of Baron Kuslan, books from the library of Dimitrija Demeter. This Graeco-Croatian man of letters and doctor of medicine was the first modern Croatian playwright. Artefacts, paintings and furniture of the Demeter family are included in the collection, as well as books. Dimitrija Demeter (1811-1872), the son of Afratia and Theodor Demeter, was born into an affluent merchant family in Zagreb in 1811. His two sisters were to marry respected men from Croatian political and cultural life and his brothers became successful business men and founders of Lloyd Triestino. Dimitrija, however, initially devoted himself to science, studying at the medical faculty in Padua, where he graduated in 1834. In 1836 he received his doctorate, on the theme of meningitis. He later became one of the leading figures of the Croatian National Awakening. His main contributions were as an editor and playwright and he is widely regarded as the founder of modern Croatian drama. Not only did he write the plays 'The Field of Grobnik' and 'Teuta', publish articles and edit 'Danica', but he was a driving force behind, and promoter of, the Croatian theatre on St Mark's Square in Zagreb. A portrait of Dimitrija Demeter can still be seen in the Galileo Chamber (dei magnifici quaranta) at the University of Padua, immediately behind the famous Galileo Galilei platform.

  5. 庄子与屈原的思想情感比较%The Comparison in Thought and Emotion between Zhuang Zi and Qu Yuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓成林

    2011-01-01

    庄子和屈原对中国思想文化的影响深远。作为诗人的哲人与哲人的诗人,二人的情感世界都绚丽多彩。然而,学界在研究二人的哲理与诗性时,似乎忽略了他们情感世界的研究。如果深入到二人情感世界中就可发现,虽然"哀怨"、"愤激"、"孤独"是庄屈情感基本特征,但仔细研究,二人情感世界又不同。本文通过解读庄屈的情感世界,以求深化对庄屈的研究。%Zhuang Zi and Qu Yuan have a far-reaching influence on Chinese ideology and culture.As a poet philosopher and philosopher poet,both of them have a colorful emotion world.However,when academia focuses on the research of their philosophy and poetics,they seem to ignore that of the emotion world.If a thorough study was made to their emotion world,we can find some differences,although their basic emotional characteristics are sorrow,rage and loneliness.By interpreting their emotion world,we can deepen the research of them.

  6. Suan zao ren tang in combination with zhi zi chi tang as a treatment protocol for insomniacs with anxiety: a randomized parallel-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Li, Mei; Zhang, Yong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia is a serious worldwide health problem that is often comorbid with anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Chinese formula containing Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT) and Zhi Zi Chi Tang (ZZCT; SZR-ZZC) for improving sleep quality and anxiety states with four indices of Polysomnography (PSG), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Methods. A randomized, parallel-controlled trial compared SZR-ZZC to lorazepam tablet in insomniacs with anxiety. Patients were randomized to the SZR-ZZC treatment group (n = 60) and the lorazepam tablet treatment group (n = 59). Results. SZR-ZZC significantly improved scores on all four treatment indices. Compared with lorazepam, treatment with SZR-ZZC resulted in a significant reduction in the ISI (P = 0.029), the PSQI (P = 0.017), and wake after sleep onset (WASO; P = 0.008) scores and improved sleep architecture (P = 0.000-0.003) after a 4-week treatment period. Only one subject in the SZR-ZZC group experienced adverse side effects. Conclusion. Treatment with SZR-ZZC for 4 weeks appears to be a relatively safe and effective complementary therapeutic option when aiming to improve sleep quality and anxiety in insomniacs with anxiety.

  7. Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zi Shen Qing for Mild-to-Moderate Systematic Lupus Erythematosus: A Pilot Prospective, Single-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. D. Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and safety of a Chinese herbal formula Zi Shen Qing (ZSQ in the treatment of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE in Chinese patients. Methods. A randomized controlled trial was conducted over 12 weeks in 84 Chinese patients who reported total scores of SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2000 was from 5 to 14. The primary outcome was the changes of the SLEDAI-2000. The secondary outcomes included score changes of Chinese Medicine Syndromes (CMS, the changes of steroid dosage, the incidence of disease flare-up and biologic markers. Results. ZSQ significantly reduced SLEDAI-2000, the total scores of CMS in the treatment group compared with the controlled group (P<0.05. Superiority of ZSQ over controlled group was also observed with greater improvement in the withdrawal dosage of corticosteroids and the incidence of disease flare-up (P<0.05. There were no serious adverse events, and safety indices of whole blood counts, renal and liver functions were normal, both before and after the treatment. Conclusion. ZSQ is safe and effective for decreasing SLE disease activity and withdrawal dosage of corticosteroids in the mild to moderate SLE patients with “Deficiency of Qi and Yin” Pattern.

  8. ZiBuPiYin recipe protects db/db mice from diabetes-associated cognitive decline through improving multiple pathological changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Multiple organ systems, including the brain, which undergoes changes that may increase the risk of cognitive decline, are adversely affected by diabetes mellitus (DM. Here, we demonstrate that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM db/db mice exhibited hippocampus-dependent memory impairment, which might associate with a reduction in dendritic spine density in the pyramidal neurons of brain, Aβ1-42 deposition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus, and a decreased expression of neurostructural proteins including microtubule-associated protein (MAP2, a marker of dendrites, and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95, a marker of excitatory synapses. To investigate the effects of the ZiBuPiYin recipe (ZBPYR, a traditional Chinese medicine recipe, on diabetes-related cognitive decline (DACD, db/db mice received daily administration of ZBPYR over an experimental period of 6 weeks. We then confirmed that ZBPYR rescued learning and memory performance impairments, reversed dendritic spine loss, reduced Aβ1-42 deposition and restored the expression levels of MAP2 and PSD95. The present study also revealed that ZBPYR strengthened brain leptin and insulin signaling and inhibited GSK3β overactivity, which may be the potential mechanism or underlying targets of ZBPYR. These findings conclude that ZBPYR prevents DACD, most likely by improving dendritic spine density and attenuating brain leptin and insulin signaling pathway injury. Our findings provide further evidence for the effects of ZBPYR on DACD.

  9. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  10. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen; Sari Liukkonen; Alava, Mikko J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-ba...

  11. Study on the digit ratio and digit length/height of soldiers in the Chinese people's armed tactical unit%武警某机动部队战士指长比和指长/身高的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亮; 周玉来; 李勇; 陈志忠; 雷晴

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨武警部队战士指长比和指长/身高的特点,旨在获得军队此方面体质人类学数据,并为军队科学训练、安全管理提供理论依据。方法对武警某机动部队421名战士测量身高及左右4个手指长度,将指长与军标比较,计算指长比和指长/身高,并与年龄和文化程度进行相关分析。结果①该机动部队战士左右手指长大小关系均为3D>4D>2D>5D。左手2D、3D和右手的2D、5D均较军标长。左手和右手的指长比大小关系均为3D∶5D>4D∶5D>2D∶5D>3D∶4D>2D∶4D>2D∶3D;指长/身高大小关系均为3D∶H>4D∶H>2D∶H>5D∶H。②左手的2D∶4D、3D∶4D、右手的2D∶3D与年龄呈正相关。右手的3D∶4D及3D∶5D与年龄均呈负相关。指长/身高与年龄不相关。③右手的2D∶4D、3D∶4D与文化程度呈正相关,4D:H与文化程度呈负相关。结论该武警机动部队战士指长较军标长,年龄、文化程度与指长比、指长/身高具有部分较弱的相关性。本研究获得了部队指长比和指长/身高的体质人类学数据,并为武警部队科学训练和保持高度安全稳定提供了基础资料。%Objective To explore the traits of digit ratio and digit length/height, as to obtain the parameter of physical anthropology while to provide theoretical basis of scientific training and safety management for the army.Methods A total of 421 soldiers were measured by anthropometry technology for their heights and 4 digit lengths of two hands.Compared the digit length with the GJB. Calculated the digit ratio and digit length/height and then analysed their correlation with their age and educational level.Results ①The trend of the digit length was presented 3D>4D>2D>5D. 2D、3D of the left hand and 2D、5D of the right hand were all longer than the GJB.The digit ratio was 3D∶5D>4D∶5D>2D∶5D>3D:4D>2D∶4D>2D∶3D,and the digit length/height was 3D∶H>4D∶H>2D

  12. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  13. 地黄饮子治疗帕金森病的机理与临床探讨%Research on Mechanism and Practice of Digitalis YinZi Treatment of Parkinson' s Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海燕; 李燕梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To pick to TCM classic square digitalis YinZi treatment of Parkinson' s disease is analyzed theoretically and clinical observation. Methods:To analyze the traditional in Parkinson' s disease pathogenesis of understanding, and combined with our many years clinical observation, discover of Parkinson' s disease pathogenesis for this empty mark true, the deficiency in kidney empty is given priority, kidney Yin deficiency, kidney Yang deficiency, marking real is wind, sputum primarily. Tonifying Yin and Yang, and resolving phlegm and,just fits of Parkinson' s disease pathogenesis, clinical application of treatment of Parkinson' s disease. Results:Radix Rehmanniae YinZi treatment of Parkinson' s disease clinical curative effect is good. Conclusion: Parkinson' s disease pathogenesis in kidney empty for this,the wind phlegm for marking, radix rehmanniae YinZi treatment of Parkinson' s disease clinical efficacy precise.%目的:对中医经典名方地黄饮子治疗帕金森病进行理论分析和临床观察.方法:分析历代医家对帕金森病的病因病机认识,结合临床观察,发现帕金森病的病机为本虚标实,本虚以肾虚为主,肾阴、肾阳亏虚,标实以风、痰为主.地黄饮子滋阴、补阳、化痰并用,恰合帕金森病的病机,故临床应用地黄饮子治疗帕金森病.结果:地黄饮子治疗帕金森病临床疗效较好.结论:帕金森病的病机以肾虚为本,风痰为标,地黄饮子治疗帕金森病临床疗效确切.

  14. Vývoj lehčené podlahoviny z pórovitých betonů na bázi odpadních surovin

    OpenAIRE

    Šenk, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá lehčenými stavebními materiály a vývojem nové lehčené podlahoviny z pórovitých betonů na bázi odpadních surovin. This thesis is oriented on lightweight building materials and on development of new leightweight porous concrete flooring on waste material basis. A

  15. 试论老子人本思想对当代大学生心理健康教育的启示%The People-oriented Thought of Lao zi on Psychological Health Education of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军梅; 吴正鑫

    2011-01-01

    知识经济时代,培养具有完全人格的心理健康教育已经成为紧迫的社会课题。本文立足于当代大学生心理健康现状,探讨了老子人本思想对于培养大学生健康心理的重要作用和现实意义。老子人本思想中蕴涵着深刻的做人智慧,为素质教育提供了丰富的文化资源。当代大学生应主动学习道家文化,汲取精神营养,充分发挥老子的重生、贵生思想及做人、生活智慧,全面提升自己的身心素质,具备健全的人格和良好的社会适应能力。现当代大学生担负着现代化建设的重任,一定要把"成人"和"成才"有效地结合起来,借鉴老子做人哲学,以做人为基础,加强成才教育。%In the Era of knowledge economy,it becomes a pressing social issue to construct the psychological health education which intends to culture students with full personality.Based on the current situation of the contemporary college students' mental health,this article discusses the important role and practical significance of the People-oriented Thought of Lao zi in culturing students mental health.The People-oriented Thought of Lao zi in life implies profound wisdom,which provides the rich cultural resources for the quality of education. College students should take the initiative to learn Taoism culture,learn the spirit of nutrition and give full play to the rebirth of Lao zi,by thinking and learning its life,life wisdom to improve their overall physical and mental qualities and have a sound character and good social adaptation.Contemporary college students charged with the task of modernization must make "adult" and "talent" to effectively integrate and draw on life philosophy of Lao zi,strengthening the Talent Education based on how to live.

  16. The Clinical Effect Observation of SanZi QuDou Nourishing Cream on Vulgaris Acne%三子祛痘营养霜治疗寻常痤疮的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌日娜; 段妍; 乌日嘎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the curative effect and security of SanZi QuDou Nourishing cream on the patients with vulgaris acne. Methods One hundred and one cases of mild to moderate acne were divided into two groups. The treatment group was treated with SanZi QuDou Nourishing cream,and the control group was treated with Meilu Xiaocuo cream. Both course of treatment was 4 weeks, and the drugs were used once each evening. The retrial would be catch to observing the curative effects after the medicines used 2nd,4th and 8th week, respectively. Results After the medicines used, the effective rates of treatment group were 3.85% ,21. 15% and 69. 23% in 2nd, 4th and 8th week, respectively, and that in control group were 8. 16% ,34.69% and 65.31% ,respectively. There was no significant differences (P>0.05) in two groups about the effective rate. Conclusion The SanZi QuDou Nourishing cream has significant curative effect,and also has less side effection to the patients with vulgaris acne. So we can conclude that SanZi QuDou Nourishing cream is a new preferable Mongolian medicine for the patients with the vulgaris acne.%目的 探讨三子祛痘营养霜治疗寻常痤疮的临床疗效和安全性.方法 将101例寻常痤疮患者随机分为两组,治疗组采用三子祛痘营养霜,对照组采用玫芦消痤膏,每晚1次,疗程4周,分别于用药开始后2,4,8周复诊,观察疗效.结果 治疗组于用药开始后2,4,8周的有效率分别为3.85%,21.15%和69.23%;对照组分别为8.16%,34.69%和65.31%,两组有效率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 三子祛痘营养霜治疗寻常痤疮疗效显著,毒副作用小,是一种较为理想的蒙药药妆品.

  17. The influence of zi-hua burn cream on the survival of random skin flaps in rats%紫花烧伤膏对大鼠随意型皮瓣成活的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌钰; 刘斌焰; 李丽芬; 何引飞; 王亚荣

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察紫花烧伤膏对大鼠皮瓣存活的影响,并探讨其作用机制.方法 Wistar 大鼠72只,随机分为紫花组(外用紫花烧伤膏)、阳性对照组(外用海普林乳膏)、阴性对照组(未手术组)和模型组(外用凡士林),每组18只.在大鼠背部设计蒂在头侧的8 cm×2 cm的随意型皮瓣,2次/日涂药,观察大鼠皮瓣成活情况;比较术后1、2、3和7d血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)、一氧化氮(NO)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)和白细胞介素-6(IL-6)的变化并行组织形态学检查.结果 皮瓣成活面积百分比:紫花组(73.58±10.74)%,模型组(33.40±16.05)%,紫花组比模型组提高了54.61% (Q =10.63,P<0.01),与海普林组(71.65±11.92)%比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);紫花组血清SOD和NO含量高于模型组,MDA、TNF-α和IL-6含量低于模型组(P<0.01),与海普林组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).术后7d紫花组与海普林组皮瓣组织水肿、坏死及炎性细胞浸润较模型组轻,肉芽组织、成纤维细胞增生明显,紫花组有大量新生的毛细血管形成,皮瓣血管所占面积明显高于模型和海普林组(P<0.01).结论 紫花烧伤膏可明显改善大鼠皮瓣血液循环,提高皮瓣的成活率,其机制可能与抗自由基损害、改善局部微循环、提高NO的含量、降低TNF-α和IL-6水平、减少炎性因子释放,改善氧化应激状态,减轻炎性反应有关.%Objective To observe the effect of zi-hua burn cream on the survival of skin flaps in rats,and its mechanisms.Methods 72 Wistar rats,were randomly divided into four groups as zi-hua group(n =18,external application of alfalfa burn cream),control group(n =18,external application of heparin sodium cream),model group(n =18,external application of vaseline),negative control(n =18,no operation).8 cm × 2 cm random skin flaps with pedicle on the side of head were designed on the back of Wistar rats.The drug was applied on

  18. Ground Wood Fiber Length Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ilmari Salminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers ground wood fiber length distributions arising from pilot grindings. The empirical fiber length distributions appear to be independent of wood fiber length as well as feeding velocity. In terms of mathematics the fiber fragment distributions of ground wood pulp combine an exponential distribution for high-length fragments and a power-law distribution for smaller lengths. This implies that the fiber length distribution is influenced by the stone surface. A fragmentation-based model is presented that allows reproduction of the empirical results.

  19. Accurate Fiber Length Measurement Using Time-of-Flight Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Osama; Hussein, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    Fiber artifacts of very well-measured length are required for the calibration of optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). In this paper accurate length measurement of different fiber lengths using the time-of-flight technique is performed. A setup is proposed to measure accurately lengths from 1 to 40 km at 1,550 and 1,310 nm using high-speed electro-optic modulator and photodetector. This setup offers traceability to the SI unit of time, the second (and hence to meter by definition), by locking the time interval counter to the Global Positioning System (GPS)-disciplined quartz oscillator. Additionally, the length of a recirculating loop artifact is measured and compared with the measurement made for the same fiber by the National Physical Laboratory of United Kingdom (NPL). Finally, a method is proposed to relatively correct the fiber refractive index to allow accurate fiber length measurement.

  20. 7 CFR 51.579 - Length of stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States... root is cut off to a point which represents the average length of the longest branches. ...

  1. New hydrocracking catalysts increase throughput, run length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, T. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij., The Hague (Netherlands); Theunissen, J.M.H. [Rayong Refinery Co. Ltd., Rayong (Thailand); Minderhoud, H.; Veen, R. van [Koninklijke/Shell-Lab., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-06-26

    An improved, second-stage hydrocracking catalyst has been developed by combining stabilized Y zeolites with amorphous silica alumina cracking components. A commercial application of this catalyst, along with a new, first-stage zeolitic hydrocracking catalyst, resulted in increased unit throughput and cycle length. The paper discusses the hydrocracking process, first-stage catalysts, second-stage catalysts, hydrogenation process, commercial results, and product properties.

  2. Predicting Length of Psychiatric Hospital Stay in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Michele; Stephenson, Laura A.

    Length of stay in psychiatric inpatient units has received increasing attention with the external pressures for treatment cost-effectiveness and evidence that longer hospital stays do not appear to have significant advantages over shorter hospital stays. This study examined the relationship between length of psychiatric hospital stay and…

  3. 《说文解字》象形字初探%A Primary Study on Pictographic Characters in Shuo Wen Jie Zi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    提运繁

    2016-01-01

    《说文解字》自成书以来备受文字学家的推崇。对其研究也涉及各个方面。本文对其中象形字从构形、取象、说解方式三方面入手进行探讨。构形方面,象形字分为全体象形、部分象形、连体象形。取象方面,分属天文地理类、动物类、人体类、植物类、人工物类等。说解方式则有“象形”、“象某某之形”、“象某某”、“从某,象某某”、“从某,象某形”、“从某,象形”六种。在整个汉字构形体系中,象形字是其它类型汉字构形的基础。%Shuo Wen Jie Zi has been immensely rewarded and respected by philologists since its publication. The researches on this book involve various aspects. The current thesis attempts to probe into pictographic characters from the angles of formation, image-taking,and ways of explaining. From the perspective of form,pictographic characters are categorized into entire picto-graphs,partial pictographs and conjoined pictographs. On the aspect of image-taking,they respectively belong to type of as-tronomy and geography,animal,human body,plant,artificial objects and so forth. Besides,there are six ways of explaining pictographic characters,namely,“Pictograph”,“Like the shape of…”,“Like…”,“Like…according to…”,“Like the shape of…according to…”and“Pictograph,according to…”. Pictographic characters serve as the basis of forming of other sorts of Chinese characters in the whole system of Hanzi formation.

  4. Risk assessment for NianZi rockfall in Qingchuan County,Sichuan province%四川青川县碾子崩塌风险性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲松; 杨红

    2012-01-01

    Sichuan province suffered magnitude 8 earthquake on May 12,2008.The earthquake severely devastated the Qingchuan County,and triggered a large number of secondary geological disasters at the same time.The paper's study and evaluate objects is the rockfall disaster in the No.five village of NianZi.Based on the study of the engineering geological conditions,the distribution of the dangerous rock body,the failure and variabile modes,calculated the dangerous rock's stability and probability of failure.Based on the test of rolling stones,simulated the motion trajectories of falling rocks in using professional software,then obtained the falling rock's speed,jumping height,kinetic energy and the influence scope is delineated also.Vulnerability and risk assessment of the disaster have been developed acaccording to the field investigation and local social economic data.Appropriate measures for the disaster prevention and mitigation have been proposed according to the hazards characteristics and the results of evaluation.%2008年5月12日四川省发生8级地震,地震对青川县造成了巨大破坏,同时引发了大量的次生地质灾害。本文以碾子村五社崩塌灾害点为研究评价对象,在工程地质条件、危岩体分布特征、变形破坏模式的研究基础之上,计算了研究区典型危岩体的稳定性及破坏概率。在野外滚石实验的基础上,运用专业软件模拟了失稳块石的运动轨迹,得到了落石运动过程中的速度、跳高及动能,并进一步确定了崩塌的影响范围。在野外调查和收集当地社会经济资料的基础上,对崩塌的易损性及风险性进行了评价,并根据灾害特点及评价结果提出了相应的防灾减灾措施。

  5. 论荀子哲学中的“听”%Study on “Listening”in Philosophy of Xun Zi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍龙

    2015-01-01

    “Listening”,an important concept in Xun Zi’s philosophy,has a rich and deep meaning.It is closely connected with some core concepts and issues concerned by Xun Zi.He believes that when ears meet sound and “heart”makes a sense at the same time,“listening”can actually happen.Not all sounds need to be “listened to”.The test of“listen”or“not listen”is whether the content fit propriety of“Dao”,“the way of the Former Kings”and “Following the Later Kings”.The importance and neces-sity of“listening”is that the content and effect of it,the connotation and denotation of it,and the rela-tionship between listening and music.If we want to listen in a right way,we must follow the principle and insist on the attitude.Both sides should be listened to.We should always overcome the nature of people in the process of listening.%“听”作为荀子哲学中一个重要的概念范畴,有着丰富而深切的含义,与荀子关注的一些核心概念和问题有着密切的关联。荀子认为,当耳与声相遇,同时,“心”发挥作用时,“听”才能真正发生。并非所有的内容都需“听”,“听”与“不听”的标准在于,其内容是否顺乎礼义,符合广义的“道”,能否“合先王”、“及后王”。听的重要性和必要性彰显在“听”的内容,产生的效果,“听”的内涵和外延,以及“听”与乐的关系等方面。要想做到真正的听,应遵循“听”的原则,守持“听”的态度,做到“兼听”与“衡听”,并在这一过程中不断克服人“好听”的本性。

  6. A Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms for Mapping of Complex Surface-Mined and Agricultural Landscapes Using ZiYuan-3 Stereo Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianju Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover mapping (LCM in complex surface-mined and agricultural landscapes could contribute greatly to regulating mine exploitation and protecting mine geo-environments. However, there are some special and spectrally similar land covers in these landscapes which increase the difficulty in LCM when employing high spatial resolution images. There is currently no research on these mixed complex landscapes. The present study focused on LCM in such a mixed complex landscape located in Wuhan City, China. A procedure combining ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 stereo satellite imagery, the feature selection (FS method, and machine learning algorithms (MLAs (random forest, RF; support vector machine, SVM; artificial neural network, ANN was proposed and first examined for both LCM of surface-mined and agricultural landscapes (MSMAL and classification of surface-mined land (CSML, respectively. The mean and standard deviation filters of spectral bands and topographic features derived from ZY-3 stereo images were newly introduced. Comparisons of three MLAs, including their sensitivities to FS and whether FS resulted in significant influences, were conducted for the first time in the present study. The following conclusions are drawn. Textures were of little use, and the novel features contributed to improve classification accuracy. Regarding the influence of FS: FS substantially reduced feature set (by 68% for MSMAL and 87% for CSML, and often improved classification accuracies (with an average value of 4.48% for MSMAL using three MLAs, and 11.39% for CSML using RF and SVM; FS showed statistically significant improvements except for ANN-based MSMAL; SVM was most sensitive to FS, followed by ANN and RF. Regarding comparisons of MLAs: for MSMAL based on feature subset, RF achieved the greatest overall accuracy of 77.57%, followed by SVM and ANN; for CSML, SVM had the highest accuracies (87.34%, followed by RF and ANN; based on the feature subsets, significant differences were

  7. On Liu qin xi (Six animal frolics) in Huai nan zi (Discourses of Master Huainanzi)%论《淮南子》六禽戏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙孝忠

    2014-01-01

    西汉刘安《淮南子》中记载的6种导引术式,学者们称之为“六禽戏”.六禽戏是从古代繁杂的导引术式中简化而来的,是模仿6种动物的形象而成的仿生导引.其中“熊经”是模仿熊直立摇晃行走的动作,以锻炼腰背下肢;“鸟伸”是模仿鸟伸展双臂和双腿的动作,以锻炼肩膀四肢;“凫浴”是模仿野鸭摇头游水的动作,以锻炼头颈;“蝯躩”是模仿猿在树间跳跃的动作,以锻炼腰腿;“鸱视”是模仿鸱鹰的伸颈动作,以锻炼颈项和眼睛;“虎顾”是模仿老虎扭头回视的动作,以锻炼项臀.%The six styes of the art of Daoyin recorded in Liu An's Huai nan zi (Discourses of Master Huainanzi) of the Western Han Dynasty was called the Liu qin xi which was simplified from the complicated ancient Daoyin art of bionic practice imitating the movements of six kinds of animal.Among them,the "xiong jing" imitates the erecting walking style of a bear so as to strengthen the waist and lower extremities;the "niao shen" follows the spreading of wings of a bird so as to extend the arms and legs,to train the shoulders and extremities ; the "fu yu" imitates the movements of swimming and moving head of a wild duck so as to train the head and neck; the "yuan jue"imitates the jumping of a monkey among the tree branches so as to train the legs and waist; the "chi shi" imitates the streching neck movements of an eagle so as to strengthen the neck and improvement of vision; while the "hu gu" imitates the movement of turning head of a tiger so as to train one's nape and the buttock.

  8. A sensitive liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for simultaneous quantification of six iridoid glycosides from Zhi-zi-chi Decoction in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Kankan; Dai, Jinna; Zhao, Longshan; Lu, Yanan; Li, Bin; Zhao, Xu; Hou, Pengyi; Zhang, Yuanting; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of geniposide, geniposidic acid, scandoside methyl ester, gardenoside, deacetyl asperulosidic acid methyl ester and genipin-1-β-gentiobioside after oral administration of Zhi-zi-chi Decoction in rat plasma. The six iridoid glycosides were extracted from plasma samples by protein precipitation, and then separated on an Apollo C18 column (250 mm × 4.6mm, 5 μm) through the application of a gradient elution. The analytes were monitored in positive electrospray ionization by selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) of the six analytes were all lower than 6 ng/mL. The accuracy (relative error, RE%) was between -7.0% and 9.9%, while the intra- and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD%) were less than 6.3% and 9.8% for the six analytes, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of the six iridoids in rat plasma after oral administration of Zhi-zi-chi Decoction and Gardenia jasminoides extract.

  9. An Analysis on the Identity of "Wei Lao-po-zi"in LU Xun's The New Year's Sacrifice%《祝福》中卫老婆子身份解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁庆; 严凌雁; 肖洪磊

    2015-01-01

    在鲁迅先生作品《祝福》中,有一个身份特殊的重要人物而她又常常被忽视——卫老婆子,但她总能在关键时刻恰到好处的出现,与鲁四老爷家有着某种神秘的联系,并且在祥林嫂的命运里起着穿针引线的作用,文章试图从多角度解析卫老婆子的身份.%In Lu Xun's The New Year's Sacrifice, there is a special and important person but often ignored by readers—"Wei Lao-po-zi" (Wei old woman). However, she always appears in key moments, and has some mysterious connection with the family of "Lu Si milord". At the same time, she plays a role of go-between in the fate of "Xiang-lin-sao" (Sister Xiang Lin). This thesis tries to analyze the identity of "Wei Lao-po-zi" from various perspectives.

  10. 《连丛子》人物品鉴理论与汉末人物评论之风%The Theory and Ethos of Character Judgement in Lian Cong Zi and the End of Eastern Han

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙少华

    2009-01-01

    There was a prevailing custom in which people judged the characters with personality in the Eastern Han Dynasty. The explanation about personality of Kong Zifeng in the book of Lian Cong Zi conformed to the ethos of characters judge in the end of Eastern Han. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, people liked to talk about Confucian classics which were written in the book of The History of The Eastern Han. Kong Jiyan talked of some comments that conformed to those in Eastern Han,which showed that the features in Lian Cong Zi were the same as the ethos in the end of Eastern Han.%东汉时期,流行着一种以"性分"品评人物的品鉴之风.中孔子丰关于"性分"的阐释,就与汉末这种人物品鉴风气相合.东汉时期,还存在一种讲经论难的评论之风,记载了很多著名学者的评论观念.孔季彦的人物评论内容,就与当时的这种评论思想一致.这说明,反映的基本时代特征与东汉末年的学术风尚大致相同.

  11. FETAL FOOT LENGTH AND HAND LENGTH: RELATIONSHIP WITH CROWN RUMP LENGTH AND GESTATIONAL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Estimation of gestational age of fetus is of great medicolegal importance. Multiple parameters of the fetal anatomical measurements are in use. However, gestational age assessment may be difficult in fetus with anencephaly, hydrocephalus, short limb dysplasia, post mortem destruction or in mutilated case. Study of literature suggests that fetal foot has a characteristic pattern of normal growth and the fetal foot shows gradual increase in length relative to the length of the embryo and could be used to estimate gestational age. The purpose of the present study is to determine the accuracy in estimating gestational age using fetal foot and hand length by studying its relation with crown rump length in the foetuses of Manipuri origin. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1 To study the relationship between fetal crown rump length and fetal hand and foot length, thereby determining the accuracy in estimating gestational age by a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 100 formalin fixed fetuses of Manipuri origin, obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, were included in the study, carried out in the Department of Anatomy, from February 2015 to July 2015. The parameters studied were crown rump length, foot length and hand length of fetuses. The data was analysed using SPSS software by regression analysis. Graphs were also plotted to determine pattern of growth and their correlation with crown rump length if any. RESULTS A total of 100 fetuses were studied, of which 43 were females and 57 were males. The mean foot length and hand length progressively increased with increase in crown rump length. Measurements were not significantly different in right or left side or among male and female fetuses. A statistically significant linear relationship was seen between foot length and crown rump length of the fetus (r=0.980, p<0.0001 and hand length and crown rump length of the fetus

  12. Polyketide chain length control by chain length factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-10-22

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are pharmacologically important natural products. A critical parameter that dictates product structure is the carbon chain length of the polyketide backbone. Systematic manipulation of polyketide chain length represents a major unmet challenge in natural product biosynthesis. Polyketide chain elongation is catalyzed by a heterodimeric ketosynthase. In contrast to homodimeric ketosynthases found in fatty acid synthases, the active site cysteine is absent from the one subunit of this heterodimer. The precise role of this catalytically silent subunit has been debated over the past decade. We demonstrate here that this subunit is the primary determinant of polyketide chain length, thereby validating its designation as chain length factor. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we identified key residues in the chain length factor that could be manipulated to convert an octaketide synthase into a decaketide synthase and vice versa. These results should lead to novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of hitherto unidentified polyketide scaffolds.

  13. Curve Length Estimation using Vertix Chain Code Curve Length Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Haron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the applications in image analysis are based on Freeman chain code. In this paper, for the first time, vertex chain code (VCC proposed by Bribiesca is applied to improve length estimation of the 2D digitized curve. The chain code has some preferences such as stable in shifting, turning, mirroring movement of image and has normalized starting point. Due to the variety of length estimator methods, we focused on the three specific techniques. First, the way Bribiesca proposed which is based on counting links between vertices; second, based on maximum length digital straight segments (DSSs and lastly local metrics. The results of these length estimators with the real perimeter are compared. Results thus obtained exhibits thatlength estimation using VCC is nearest to the actual length.

  14. The effect on sleep quality of music in older people in rest homeHuzurevinde yaşayan yaşlılarda müziğin uyku kalitesine etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Çınar Yücel

    2016-10-01

    gruplu çalışma  bir çalışmadır. Yöntem: Araştırma, Kasım 2010 – Şubat 2012 tarihleri arasında İzmir’de bir huzurevinde yürütülmüştür. Araştırmanın örneklemini,  araştırma örneklem seçim kriterlerine uyan 18’i Türk Sanat Müziği (TSM, 17’si Klasik Batı Müziği (KBM grubu olmak üzere toplam 35 yaşlı oluşturmuştur. Araştırmanın verileri, Yaşlı Tanıtım Formu, Durumluk-Sürekli Anksiyete Ölçeği, Geriatrik Depresyon Ölçeği, Uluslararası Fiziksel Aktivite Anketi, Günlük Uyku Kayıt Formu ve Pittsburgh Uyku Kalitesi İndeksi uygulanarak toplanmıştır. TSM ve KBM grubundaki yaşlılar üç hafta süresince takip edilmiştir. Yaşlılara, yatma saatinden önce 30 dakika süreyle müzik dinletilmiştir. Yaşlıların uyku kalitesi, müzik uygulanmadan önceki bir hafta ve müziğin dinletildiği üç hafta PUKİ ile ölçüldü. Verilerin analizinde ki-kare, tekrarlayan ölçümlerde varyans analizi, Mann Whitney U testi ve LSD (Least-Significant difference testi kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Araştırma bulgularına göre; her iki gruptaki yaşlılarda, müziğin dinletildiği haftalardaki PUKİ toplam puan ortalamaları müziğin uygulanmadığı haftaya göre daha düşüktü (p<0.05. Müziğin, TSM ve KBM gruplarındaki yaşlıların uyku kalitesini arttırdığı bulundu. Bu çalışmanın bulguları, müziğin uyku kalitesini iyileştirmede pozitif bir etkiye sahip olduğunu göstermektedir. Sonuç: Sonuç olarak, huzurevinde yaşayan yaşlılarda iki farklı müzik türünün uyku kalitesinde anlamlı bir değişiklik meydana getirmesi nedeniyle bu yöntemin hemşireler tarafından uygulanması önerilmektedir.

  15. Impedance of Finite Length Resistor

    CERN Document Server

    Krinsky, Samuel; Podobedov, Boris

    2005-01-01

    We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor) of radius a and length g, attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k>>1/a). In the equilibrium regime, ka2

  16. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  17. Gestation length in farmed reindeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipka, M P; Rowell, J E

    2010-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarundus) are the only cervids indigenous to the arctic environment. In Alaska, reindeer are a recognized agricultural species and an economic mainstay for many native populations. Traditionally raised in extensive free-ranging systems, a recent trend toward intensive farming requires a more in-depth knowledge of reproductive management. Reported gestation length in reindeer varies, ranging from 198 to 229 d in studies performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A switchback study that manipulated only breeding date demonstrated a mean increase in gestation length of 8.5 d among females bred early in the season. The negative correlation between conception date and gestation length is consistent with reindeer research at other locations and reports of variable gestation length in a growing number of domestic and non-domestic species. This paper reviews the phenomenon in reindeer and discusses some of the factors known to affect gestation length as well as possible areas for future research.

  18. Reserved-Length Prefix Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Michael B

    2008-01-01

    Huffman coding finds an optimal prefix code for a given probability mass function. Consider situations in which one wishes to find an optimal code with the restriction that all codewords have lengths that lie in a user-specified set of lengths (or, equivalently, no codewords have lengths that lie in a complementary set). This paper introduces a polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithm that finds optimal codes for this reserved-length prefix coding problem. This has applications to quickly encoding and decoding lossless codes. In addition, one modification of the approach solves any quasiarithmetic prefix coding problem, while another finds optimal codes restricted to the set of codes with g codeword lengths for user-specified g (e.g., g=2).

  19. 王自立主任医师运用黄连阿胶汤验案举隅%WANG Zi-li ChiefPhysician of Clinical Use ofHuangLian E.JiaoTang Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王煜; 张丽君; 张竹君

    2011-01-01

    通过王自立主任医师运用黄连阿胶汤治疗眩晕(高血压)、癫证(精神分裂症)及失眠(更年期综合征)的临证验案举隅,说明该方具有育阴清热、交通心肾之功用,对心肾不交证疗效显著.%Through analyzing examples of clinical cases of WANG Zi-li chief physician treating vertigo(hypertension), epilepsy(schizophrenia) and insomnia(menopause) using HuangLian EJiaoTang,we concluded that theformulas of Chinese medicine could culture Yin and clear heat,dredge heart and kidney function,and the clinical effect.was significant on disorder ofheart and kidney function.

  20. The Tension Deformation and the Construction Survey Questions of GuoZiGou Cable-stayed Bridge Tower Beam%果子沟斜拉桥塔梁张拉的变形及施工测量问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡东武; 李霞

    2011-01-01

    This paper to Yili autonomous prefecture GuoZiGou cable-stayed bridge of the tower construction Z2 # as an example,the detailed description of the tower in the tower,the characteristics of asynchronous construction beam to the construction of the measurement of monitoring and measurement lofting combined,thereby improving job process,improve work efficiency,and to ensure the accuracy of the construction of the tower.%对新疆伊犁自治州果子沟斜拉桥Z2#主塔施工中针对主塔进行塔梁异步施工的特点,将施工中的测量监控与测量放样结合起来,从而改进工作流程,提高工作效率,确保主塔施工精度。

  1. Influence of Yeast Mixed with JiaoZi on the Quality of Frozen Steamed Bread Dough%酵子与酵母混合对冷冻面团馒头品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜浩冉; 郑学玲; 韩小贤; 张杰; 李利民; 刘翀; 卞科

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the effect of the different leavenings (yeast and JiaoZi) proportion on the quality of frozen dough. According to measure the several fundamental indexes, texture and sensory score of steamed bread to find out the most suitable mixing proportion of leavening and the time of fermentation of frozen dough. The results indicated that when the ratio of yeast mixed with JiaoZi was 4 ∶ 1 and the time of fermentation after unfreezing was 45 min , the appearance of frozen dough was better and the sensory score of steamed bread was higher. The skin of frozen dough which was made by yeast was prone to cracking and collapsing, but when the proportion of JiaoZi was larger than yeast, the activity of fermentation was decreased and the long fermentation time after unfreezing was needed. The skin of frozen dough which was added the right amount of JiaoZi was smooth and not easy to crack and collapse, the taste and flavor of steamed bread was better a lot than using pure yeast, at the same time greatly shorten the time of fermentation after unfreezing.%研究了酵母与酵子不同混合比例对冷冻面团馒头品质的影响。通过测定不同发酵时间下馒头的基本指标、质构和感官总分,找出制作冷冻面团馒头最适的混合比例和解冻后的发酵时间。研究表明:酵母与酵子混合比例为4∶1,解冻后的发酵时间为45 min时,做出的冷冻面团外观较好,成品馒头的感官总分较高。单纯用酵母做出的冷冻面团表皮容易开裂和坍塌,但是酵子添加比例较大时,发酵剂的发酵活力降低,解冻后需要将长的发酵时间。添加适量的酵子制作出来的冷冻面团表皮较光滑,不易开裂和塌陷,制作馒头的口感和风味要比单纯使用酵母制作的馒头要好很多,同时大大的缩短了解冻后的发酵时间。

  2. 上博简、郭店简《缁衣》中三则语法现象研究%The Three Grammatical Phenomena Research on Shanghai Museum Volumes , Guo Dian Volumes and Zi Yi Handed down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志婷

    2015-01-01

    By comparing the differences among Shanghai museum volumes,Guo Dian volumes and Zi Yi handed down ,this paper dis?cusses the front object of"no"and"Fu",the grammar problem use of"people"and thinks that in the early stages of development,the transitive verbs after"Fu"take an object and the same phenomenon in the negative sentence is not accidental.%通过比较上博简、郭店简与传世本《缁衣》之间的差异,讨论其中"不"与"弗"、宾语前置、"长民者"的使用等语法问题,认为在汉语发展的早期阶段,"弗"后及物动词带宾语以及否定句中宾语后置并不是偶然的语法现象.

  3. Minimum length-maximum velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panes, Boris

    2012-03-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  4. 《文心雕龙》是一部子书%The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons (Wen Xin Diao Long) as a Work of Philosophy (Zi Shu)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬国平

    2013-01-01

    In the Sui Records ( Sui Zhi) and the collections afterwards , The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons has been classified in the Literature (Ji) section.Although there are scholars arguing that it belongs to the category of Philosophy ( Zi) , their voice is too insignificant to challenge the prevailing view due to the immense influence of Sui Records .Notably,"Preface to the Records (Xu Zhi)"and the "Schools of Thought ( Zhu Zi)"are highly consistent in their description of the author's intention and the nature of the book The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons, which forcefully demonstrates that the author Liu Xie has meant it to be a philosophical work .This finding is helpful for us to better understand both the authorial intention and the characteristic of the book .%《文心雕龙》在《隋志》及以后的目录里多归在集部。尽管也有认为《文心》是子书的,但这种说法影响甚微,不足以改变《隋志》影响所致而形成的普遍看法。由《序志》和《诸子》两篇的对照可见,两文对作者著述用心和《文心》著作性质的表述高度一致,这就证明,刘勰本人是将《文心》当作子书来写的。了解这一点,有助于我们认识刘勰撰写《文心》的态度,也有助于理解该书的特点。

  5. Pairing versus quarteting coherence length

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, Doru S

    2015-01-01

    We systematically analyse the coherence length in even-even nuclei. The pairing coherence length in the spin-singlet channel for the effective density dependent delta (DDD) and Gaussian interaction is estimated. We consider in our calculations bound states as well as narrow resonances. It turns out that the pairing gaps given by the DDD interaction are similar to those of the Gaussian potential if one renormalizes the radial width to the nuclear radius. The correlations induced by the pairing interaction have in all considered cases a long range character inside the nucleus and decrease towards the surface. The mean coherence length is larger than the geometrical radius for light nuclei and approaches this value for heavy nuclei. The effect of the temperature and states in continuum is investigated. Strong shell effects are evidenced, especially for protons. We generalize this concept to quartets by considering similar relations, but between proton and neutron pairs. The quartet coherence length has a similar...

  6. Length Invisibilization of Tachyonic Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estakhr, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Faster than the speed of light particle such as tachyonic neutrino due to its superluminal nature disapper and is undetectable. L = iΩ-1Lo where, i =√{ - 1 } is imaginary Number, Ω = 1 /√{βs2 - 1 } is Estakhr's Omega factor, L is the Superluminal Length, Lo is the proper length, βs =Vs / c > 1 is superluminal speed parameter, Vs is Superluminal velocity and c is speed of light.

  7. Persistence Length of Stable Microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Taviare; Mirigian, Matthew; Yasar, M. Selcuk; Ross, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    Microtubules are a vital component of the cytoskeleton. As the most rigid of the cytoskeleton filaments, they give shape and support to the cell. They are also essential for intracellular traffic by providing the roadways onto which organelles are transported, and they are required to reorganize during cellular division. To perform its function in the cell, the microtubule must be rigid yet dynamic. We are interested in how the mechanical properties of stable microtubules change over time. Some ``stable'' microtubules of the cell are recycled after days, such as in the axons of neurons or the cilia and flagella. We measured the persistence length of freely fluctuating taxol-stabilized microtubules over the span of a week and analyzed them via Fourier decomposition. As measured on a daily basis, the persistence length is independent of the contour length. Although measured over the span of the week, the accuracy of the measurement and the persistence length varies. We also studied how fluorescently-labeling the microtubule affects the persistence length and observed that a higher labeling ratio corresponded to greater flexibility. National Science Foundation Grant No: 0928540 to JLR.

  8. Locating Proper Fractions on Number Lines: Effect of Length and Equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Carol Novillis

    1980-01-01

    Compares student performance on fraction/number line tasks which varied length and equivalence. Associating proper fractions was easier on number lines of length one rather than length two; and where number of equivalent line segments in each unit segment was the same as the denominator, rather than twice that number. (CS)

  9. IMF Length Scales and Predictability: The Two Length Scale Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Szabo, Adam; Slavin, James A.; Lepping, R. P.; Kokubun, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a systematic study using simultaneous data from three spacecraft, Wind, IMP 8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform) and Geotail to examine interplanetary length scales and their implications on predictability for magnetic field parcels in the typical solar wind. Time periods were selected when the plane formed by the three spacecraft included the GSE (Ground Support Equipment) x-direction so that if the parcel fronts were strictly planar, the two adjacent spacecraft pairs would determine the same phase front angles. After correcting for the motion of the Earth relative to the interplanetary medium and deviations in the solar wind flow from radial, we used differences in the measured front angle between the two spacecraft pairs to determine structure radius of curvature. Results indicate that the typical radius of curvature for these IMF parcels is of the order of 100 R (Sub E). This implies that there are two important IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) scale lengths relevant to predictability: (1) the well-established scale length over which correlations observed by two spacecraft decay along a given IMF parcel, of the order of a few tens of Earth radii and (2) the scale length over which two spacecraft are unlikely to even observe the same parcel because of its curvature, of the order of a hundred Earth radii.

  10. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  11. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  12. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  13. Overview of bunch length measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-02-19

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed.

  14. Length Normalization in XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, Jaap; Rijke, Maarten de; Sigurbjörnsson, Börkur

    2005-01-01

    The full paper appeared as: J. Kamps, M. de Rijke, and B. Sigurbj¨ornsson, “Length Normalization in XML Retrieval,” In: Proceedings 27th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference (SIGIR 2004), pages 80-87, 2004.

  15. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  16. 7 Length-weight relationship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    from which stomachs were extracted for the analysis of the food contents, using frequency of occurrence, numerical and ... both fish species showed strong correlation between the weight and length with correlation coefficient (r) and ..... Basic data on the assessment of Sphyraena ... review of methods and their application.

  17. Persistence length of dendronized polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikhailov, I.V.; Darinskii, A.A.; Zhulina, E.B.; Borisov, O.V.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present numerical results for the thermodynamic rigidity and induced persistence length of dendronized polymers with systematically varied topology of their grafts obtained by the Scheutjens-Fleer self-consistent field method. The results were compared to predictions of an analytical mean-fiel

  18. Fractional baud-length coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

  19. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavi-tation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator,which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emer-gence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects,of both model and prototype,on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length be-low aerators was suggested,which considers overall effects of the above men-tioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  20. Cavity length below chute aerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JianHua; RUAN ShiPing

    2008-01-01

    It is proved that air entrainment is one of the efficient measures dealing with cavitation control for the release works of hydropower projects. There are many factors to be considered in designing a chute aerator. One of the most important factors concerns the cavity length below the aerator, which has outstanding effects on air entrainment against cavitation damage. It is crucial to determine reasonable emergence angle for the calculation of the cavity length. In the present paper the overall effects of structural and hydraulic parameters on the emergence angle of the flow from the aerator were analyzed. Four improved expressions of the emergence angle with weight coefficient were investigated through experimental data of 68 points observed from 12 aerators of 6 hydropower projects, of both model and prototype, on the basis of error theory. A method to calculate the cavity length below aerators was suggested, which considers overall effects of the above mentioned parameters. Comparison between the method in this paper and the other five methods of calculating the cavity length showed that the present method is much more reliable than the existing methods while the mean error of the method is less than others.

  1. Cyclic Codes of Length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manju Pruthi

    2001-11-01

    In this paper explicit expressions of + 1 idempotents in the ring $R = F_q[X]/\\langle X^{2^m}-1\\rangle$ are given. Cyclic codes of length 2 over the finite field , of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained.

  2. Convergent variational calculation of positronium-hydrogen-atom scattering lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, S K; Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Mandal, Puspajit

    2001-01-01

    We present a convergent variational basis-set calculational scheme for elastic scattering of positronium atom by hydrogen atom in S wave. Highly correlated trial functions with appropriate symmetry are needed for achieving convergence. We report convergent results for scattering lengths in atomic units for both singlet ($=3.49\\pm 0.20$) and triplet ($=2.46\\pm 0.10$) states.

  3. Evaluation of Guo Zi-yi——The reflections after reading The Biography of Guo Zi-yi of The Old Book of Tang History%郭子仪评说——读《旧唐书·郭子仪传》有感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛

    2012-01-01

    Guo Zi-yi was,according to Pei Ji who was a renowned official in Tang Dynasty,a man who had great power but not hated by the court,who made tremendous contributions but not mistrusted by the monarch and who lived in luxury but not blamed by the ruler.He got high rank in the court and gained dignity for his family and heirs because of his distinguished service in battles,such as retrieving two capitals,cracking down the Anshi Rebellion,suppressing the uprising led by Pugu Huaien and fighting back the aggression of minorities on the border.Meanwhile,his name became immortal.With the talent of a general,he was always sticking to his life philosophy of keeping a contented mind,being modest and prudent,guarding against treacherous officials and never abusing his power,as well as his principles as an official,i.e.being loyal to the ruler,fulfilling his responsibilities,never complaining when he was not in the favor of the monarch,taking the country's welfare as his duty and acting as others' model.As a man in the limelight since ancient times,he is worth all the credits and studies.The author,with a view to learn from him through this study,concludes that the following aspects are necessities for a great man: 1.Devoting all your life to the country;2.Never being arrogant and remain modest and prudent even when you make huge contributions;3.Never meriting everything to yourself and withdraw at the right time;4.Educating your children.%郭子仪是一位被唐代名相、著名史臣裴垍评为"权倾天下而朝不忌,功盖一代而主不疑,侈穷人欲而君子不之罪"的人物。他为唐朝立下收复两京、平定安史之乱、平定仆固怀恩之乱、抵御边疆少数名族侵扰等等赫赫战功,但也获得了高官厚禄、家族显赫、子孙富贵,同时流芳百世,至今受人称道。他有不世的将帅之才,有自足常乐、谦恭自谨、防奸杜倖、不挟憾以报仇雠的为人之道,有竭诚尽忠、委婉进谏、尽职

  4. Application de la méthode des simulations croisées à l'analyse de tendances dans la relation pluie-débit à partir du modèle GR2M : cas du bassin versant du N'zi-Bandama (Côte d'Ivoire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Amani Michel; Bi, Tozan Michel N.'guessan; Kouamé, Koffi Fernand; Kouamé, Kassi Alexis; Okaingni, Jean-Claude; Biemi, Jean

    2012-05-01

    The study area is the N'zi watershed, sub-watershed of the Bandama River (Ivory Coast). The N'zi watershed is located between longitudes 3°49' and 5°22' West and latitudes 6°00' and 9°26' North and covers an area of 35,500 km2. This study aims to identify trends in the rainfall-runoff relationship by using a monthly conceptual model. The methodology has consisted on the one hand in highlighting the existence of interannual climate and hydrological variability by using the method of segmentation of Hubert, and on the other hand, in applying the crossed simulations method by using the GR2M model, over several 7-year sub-periods. The results of the application of the method of segmentation of Hubert have demonstrated the presence of a hydroclimatic variability in the N'zi watershed. The modifications of the climate and physical conditions of the flow resulted in a modification of the hydrological response of the watershed translated by a non-stationarity in the rainfall-runoff relation.

  5. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  6. INTERPOLATION WITH RESTRICTED ARC LENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Petar Petrov

    2003-01-01

    For given data (ti,yi), I= 0,1,…,n,0 = t0 <t1 <…<tn = 1we study constrained interpolation problem of Favard type inf{‖f"‖∞|f∈W2∞[0,1],f(ti)=yi,i=0,…,n,l(f;[0,1])≤l0}, wherel(f";[0,1])=∫1 0 / 1+f'2(x)dx is the arc length off in [0,1]. We prove the existence of a solution f* of the above problem, that is a quadratic spline with a second derivative f"* , which coincides with one of the constants - ‖f"*‖∞,0,‖f"*‖∞ between every two consecutive knots. Thus, we extend a result ofKarlin concerning Favard problem, to the case of restricted length interpolation.

  7. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  8. Physics on Smallest Scales - An Introduction to Minimal Length Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Sprenger, Martin; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Many modern theories which try to unite gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: i) the existence of additional space dimensions; ii) the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide coverage in publications over the last ten years (especially due to the prediction of micro black hole production at the LHC), the phenomenology of models with a minimal length is still less investigated. In a summer study project for bachelor students in 2010 we have explored some phenomenological implications of the potential existence of a minimal length. In this paper we review the idea and formalism of a quantum gravity induced minimal length in the generalised uncertainty principle framework as well as in the coherent state approach to non-commutative geometry. These approaches are effective models which can make model-independent predictions for experiments a...

  9. Human epididymis: structural pattern, total length and inner surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandhan, Kalanghot P; Soni, Ashutosh; Joshi, Anantkumar; Avni, Kalanghot P S; Gupta, Bansi Dhar

    2017-05-24

    The organ epididymis is secured the name considering it functioned as an appendix to the testis; earlier testis was called as didymi. Regarding the length of human epididymis, several values are attributed by different authors. The present study was aimed to find out the pattern, total length and inner surface area of human epididymis. The study was conducted by employing microsurgical procedures on five testes from unclaimed human dead bodies. Caput was formed by few tubes interconnecting at three levels. These tubes led to corpus, which in turn was having more number of tubes interconnecting at different levels. Tubules were many looking like a mesh. United tubes of corpus form the single tube to form cauda. Epididymis length was 30.48 cm. Inner surface area was 818.16 mm2. Reported values of others seem to be a modified version from that of animals. Authors believe that organic revolutionary changes in man led to a reduction in the length of epididymis.

  10. 老子的思想对大学生身心和谐的教育作用%The Educational Effects of LaoZi's Thought on the Physical and Mental Harmony of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程

    2014-01-01

    College students' physical and mental health determines the realization of the innovation con-struction and talent strategy of our country.LaoZi's "The Scripture of Ethics" has abundant, harmonious thoughts, which have an educational effect on college students to build up a healthy body,to have the peace of mind and the stability of emotion,a strong will, the spirit of unity and cooperation.%大学生的身心和谐健康,关系着我国创新型国家的建立与人才强国战略的实现。老子《道德经》中有着丰富的和谐思想,这些思想对于培养大学生健康的体魄、平静的心态与稳定的情绪、坚强的意志,以及团结协作的精神都有着重要的教育作用。

  11. Three Topics of Harmonious Development Between Man and Nature of Philosophy Connotation in Huai Nan Zi%《淮南子》人与自然和谐发展的哲学内涵三题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王险峰; 聂民玉

    2012-01-01

    Huai Nan Zi explores the philosophy connotation between human and nature harmonious development from the three aspects, namely, the Tao begets all things of the world,natural inactivity, quietness and inaction. Man and nature are the same origin, with harmonious and unified relation. Harmony between man and nature should stick to the principles of respecting the nature, holding on positive work ideas with little selfishness.%《淮南子》基于人与自然相互关系的思维视角,从道生万物、自然无为和清静无为三方面内容入手.透视出人与自然和谐发展观的哲学内涵。人与自然是同根同源、和谐统一的关系,人与自然和谐相处应坚持因顺自然、积极事功的思想和少私寡欲、功约事省的观点。

  12. 从疑问代词看传世《列子》的成书年代%On the Completion Time of the Book Lie Zi from the Interrogative Pronouns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婧

    2015-01-01

    通过对传世《列子》中的疑问代词进行穷尽统计分析,并与上古汉语和中古时期的疑问代词进行历时与共时的对比,发现"何方""奚方""何术""何所"等在疑问形式的结构或用法上与先秦语法规范不相符.以此为《列子》为魏晋人伪作提供补证.%According to the end of statistical analysis of the interrogative pronouns in the book Lie Zi and the diacronic and synchron?ic comparisons of the interrogative pronouns in ancient times and mediaeval times,this paper finds that the structure and usage of the words"He Fang","Xi Fang","He Shu"and"He Suo"are different from the grammatical rules in the pre-qin period.

  13. 论《淮南子》神话寓言的诗性之美和理性之思交相辉映%Poeticb Beauty and Thongt Rational of Myth Fable about Huai nan-zi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀慧; 白庆新

    2012-01-01

    Myth Fable and story of history be applieated in Huai nan-zi, be displayed charm of art and poeticb beauty, the myth fable by the use of the poetic language be accumulated having great imagination. So reader in between the lines to generate broad space flight take one's ease, to capture the rich connotation, formation of implicit beauty, poetic beauty, the beauty of artistic conception. At the same time a fabulous be used not staying in the general level of the surface mining, but its connotation, highlight its philosophical meaning, for the distillation of rational beauty.%《淮南子》运用神话寓言和历史故事的穿插,使之富有吸引人的艺术魅力,增强了诗性美;《淮南子》神话寓言所运用的诗化的语言蕴籍着巨大想象空间,让读者在字里行间产生的广阔空间里自由翱翔,去捕捉其丰富内蕴,形成含蓄美、诗性美、意境美。同时神话寓言的运用也没有停留在一般的表层层面,而是挖掘了其内涵,彰显其哲理意义,升华为理性的诗意美。

  14. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile length are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E C; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, J F

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie's disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients' perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (±interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (±3) and 14.25 (±2) cm, respectively (P=0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5±2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P=0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P=0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5±1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman's correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50% report a

  15. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  16. Generalizations of Brandl's theorem on Engel length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, S. G.; Wong, K. B.; Wong, P. C.

    2013-04-01

    Let n Engel cycle generated by g and h. The length of the Engel cycle is m-n. A group G is said to have Engel length r, if all the length of the Engel cycles in G divides r. In this paper we discuss the Brandl's theorem on Engel length and give some of its generalizations.

  17. Neurotrophic Effects of Mu Bie Zi (Momordica cochinchinensis) Seed Elucidated by High-Throughput Screening of Natural Products for NGF Mimetic Effects in PC-12 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, E; Georges, B; McTier, O; Soliman, Karam F A

    2015-10-01

    Post-mitotic central nervous system (CNS) neurons have limited capacity for regeneration, creating a challenge in the development of effective therapeutics for spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, therapeutic use of human neurotrophic agents such as nerve growth factor (NGF) are limited due to hampered transport across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and a large number of peripheral side effects (e.g. neuro-inflammatory pain/tissue degeneration etc.). Therefore, there is a continued need for discovery of small molecule NGF mimetics that can penetrate the BBB and initiate CNS neuronal outgrowth/regeneration. In the current study, we conduct an exploratory high-through-put (HTP) screening of 1144 predominantly natural/herb products (947 natural herbs/plants/spices, 29 polyphenolics and 168 synthetic drugs) for ability to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 dopaminergic cells grown on rat tail collagen, over 7 days. The data indicate a remarkably rare event-low hit ratio with only 1/1144 tested substances (Momordica cochinchinensis seed extract (MCS). To quantify the neurotrophic effects of MCS, 36 images (n = 6) (average of 340 cells per image), were numerically assessed for neurite length, neurite count/cell and min/max neurite length in microns (µm) using Image J software. The data show neurite elongation from 0.07 ± 0.02 µm (controls) to 5.5 ± 0.62 µm (NGF 0.5 μg/mL) and 3.39 ± 0.45 µm (138 μg/mL) in MCS, where the average maximum length per group extended from 3.58 ± 0.42 µm (controls) to 41.93 ± 3.14 µm (NGF) and 40.20 ± 2.72 µm (MCS). Imaging analysis using immunocytochemistry (ICC) confirmed that NGF and MCS had similar influence on 3-D orientation/expression of 160/200 kD neurofilament, tubulin and F-actin. These latent changes were associated with early rise in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) p-Erk1 (T202/Y204)/p-Erk2 (T185/Y187) at 60 min with mild changes in pAKT peaking at 5 min, and no

  18. Frequency Dependence of Longitudinal Correlation Length in the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-Hua; ZHANG Ren-He

    2008-01-01

    Spatial correlation coefficient is one of the most important parameters for the description of sound propagation in shallow water. Frequency dependence of the longitudinal correlation length is still an open topic. We observe in a shallow water experiment that the longitudinal correlation length in units of wavelength increases with the increase of frequency. This phenomenon has not been seen in the published papers. The theoretical analysis and numerical simulations indicate that the non-linear frequency relationship of the bottom attenuation is the main cause of this phenomenon.

  19. Ziştovi ve Yaş Antlaşması Arasında Tuna Kıyısında Bir Osmanlı Kenti: Silistre (1791–1793 The Danube Coast Between The Treaty Of Ziştovi And Yaş An Ottoman City: Silistra (1791 – 1793

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hava SELÇUK

    2013-07-01

    ınınkarşılanmasında( zahire, peksimet, silah vs önemli bir fonksiyonasahipti. Bu çalışmada kaynak olarak iki antlaşma arasında kadılartarafından tutulan 50 Numaralı Şer’iyye Sicili (1791-1793kullanılmıştır. 50 Numaralı Şer’iyye Sicili Ziştovi ve Yaş Antlaşmasıöncesi ve bu antlaşmalar sonrası Silistre’nin siyasi, sosyal, ekonomik veaskeri meselelerine ışık tutacak bilgiler ihtiva etmektedir. Şer’iyyeSicilleri, Osmanlı toplumunun siyasî, iktisadî, hukukî ve içtimaîdurumlarının ortaya çıkarılmasında önemli kaynaklardır. BulgaristanArşivi “Nationale Biblioteque” de bulunan 50 Numaralı Silistre Şer’iyyeSicili çalışmamızın ana kaynağını oluşturmaktadır. Söz konusudefterde miras davaları, aile, görevli tayinleri, gemi yapımı, elçilik, vergi(zahire, duhan, adat-ı ağnam vb. konuların yer aldığı iktisadî, askerî veiçtimaî olayları içeren iki yüz otuz üç belge bulunmaktadır. Askerikonulara ışık tutacak konulardaki ferman, emir, buyruldular şer’iyyesicillerine kayıt edilmiştir. Eşkıyalık, zahirenin gemilerle taşınması,ihtida (din değiştirme, tanassur ve Nemçe esirleri konularıincelenmiştir. Silistre’nin 1791–1793 yıllarına ait sicil kayıtlarındanhareketle bölgenin toplumsal hayatı ortaya konulmuştur.

  20. Coordinate Variation in Lengths of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Molecules and Head Lengths in Morphological Variants of Bacteriophage T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosig, Gisela; Carnighan, Janet Renshaw; Bibring, Jane Baxandall; Cole, Robert; Bock, Hans-Georg Otto; Bock, Susan

    1972-01-01

    We have investigated three classes of small bacteriophage T4 particles which differ from normal T4 particles in length of their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), in head length, in protein content, and in density. The different particles contain DNA molecules measuring 0.90, 0.77, or 0.67, respectively, of the normal T4 length. An additional class of viable particles contains DNA molecules of 1.1 unit length. These discrete differences in DNA length correspond to discrete differences in length (but not width) of the respective heads and are roughly proportional to the resulting differences in head volumes. The measured relative dimensions of the different heads fit best the relative dimensions predicted by a quasi-icosahedral model in which the smallest T4 head corresponds to an icosahedron with a triangulation number T = 21. The mid-portion of this structure is thought to be elongated by adding successive rows of gene 23 protein hexamers, the normal T4 head having three added rows. Different mutants produce small particles of the three classes in varying proportions, but no mutant produces exclusively particles of a single class. Particles of each class, with indistinguishable DNA content, show additional minor differences in protein content, as measured by differences in buoyant density and in the relative ratio of 32P to 35S. Images PMID:5025493

  1. A two-scale damage model with material length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalu, Cristian

    2009-09-01

    The Note presents the formulation of a class of two-scale damage models involving a micro-structural length. A homogenization method based on asymptotic developments is employed to deduce the macroscopic damage equations. The damage model completely results from energy-based micro-crack propagation laws, without supplementary phenomenological assumptions. We show that the resulting two-scale model has the property of capturing micro-structural lengths. When damage evolves, the micro-structural length is given by the ratio of the surface density of energy dissipated during the micro-crack growth and the macroscopic damage energy release rate per unit volume of the material. The use of fracture criteria based on resistance curves or power laws for sub-critical growth of micro-cracks leads to quasi-brittle and, respectively, time-dependent damage models. To cite this article: C. Dascalu, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  2. Oscillatory Characteristics of Flow Rate in Cyclone Chambers of High Relative Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Orekhov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an experimental investigation pertaining to distribution of oscillatory and averaged tangential and axial velocities of turbulent flow in cyclone chambers of high relative length. It has been shown that as in the chambers of relatively small length (close to unit length general level of velocity pulsation intensity significantly exceeds the level observed in the chambers of analogous use with non-tightened-up heat carrier.

  3. 紫金矿业尾矿制备活性粉末混凝土的试验研究%Experimental Study of Preparation of Reactive Powder Concrete with ZiJin Mining Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会芳; 元敬顺; 孙婧

    2015-01-01

    尾矿库的安全和尾矿的整体利用是密切相关的,尾矿被整体利用,可彻底铲除事故危险源。利用尾矿砂制备了 RPC(活性粉末混凝土),探讨了钢纤维掺量、胶砂比和金矿砂比例对RPC 性能的影响,为尽可能的消纳尾矿砂,取代制备活性粉末混凝土的石英砂提供了途径,为张家口紫金矿业的尾矿提供新的应用途径,减少了尾矿带来的不可预知的危害。%The overall use of tailings and the safety of the tailings are closely related.Tailings can be used fully,which can thoroughly eradicate the source of hazards.In this thesis,tailings are used to prepare RPC(Reactive Powder Concrete).The influences of the content of steel fiber,cement sand ratio and gold tailings sand ratio on the performance of RPC are discussed.The purpose is to re-duce tailings as much as possible,providing a new method for replacing the quartz sand in the preparation of reactive powder concrete as well as a new way for the application of tailings for Zi-jin Mining of Zhangjiakou and reducing the unpredictable harm of tailings.

  4. Explanation on "Shao","Qian" and "Ling" in Shuo Wen Jie Zi%《说文解字》所收“芍”、“芡”、“蔆”疏解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2012-01-01

    "Shao"means "Fuci" in Shuo Wen Jie Zi and "Biqi" in our daily life.Its aliases,"Wuyu","Dili","Heisanleng","Mati",were further explained."Fuci"and "Cigu" were confused because they are similar in the form."Qian" was known as "Jitou" on account of its round fruit and outstanding calyx, which is very similar with a bird head,but not a cockscomb.It is incorrect to confuse "Qian" with "Ji" or "Ling"."Ling" is defined as the water chestnut today.It has many edges,so "Leng" and "Ling" are commonly-used word.Both "Ji" and "Xiehou" are dialect of "Ling"."Jueguang" and "Ling" have the same alias,"Xiehou",but represent different things.%(一)"芍"《说文·艸部》:"芍,凫茈也。"(1)20《尔雅·释草》:"芍,凫茈。"郭璞注:"生下田,苗似龙须而细,根如指头,黑色可食。"邢昺疏:"芍,一名凫茈。郭云:生下田中,苗似龙须而细,根如指头,黑色,可食,今

  5. Yuncheng JiaoZi Microbial Screening Steamed Bun and the Influence of the Quality of Steamed Bread%运城馒头酵子微生物的筛选及对馒头质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺莹; 焦红英; 高晓丽; 赵建英; 冯惠; 王冰; 芦莎

    2016-01-01

    This article first from the steamed bun JiaoZi microbial screening, initial separation and purification, pure yeast and lactic acid bacteria were screened. Second set of yeast and wheat flour in different proportion and different mixed fermentation temperature gradient, with the odourof the dough, the size of the porosity and dis-tribution measurement standard, screening of fermenting power good strains. Then mix yeast species and strains of lactic acid bacteria fermentation, steamed buns, with the perfume of steamed bread, hardness testing, to choose the optimal matching, improveing the quality of bread.%首先从对馒头酵子微生物的筛选,进行初步的分离纯化,筛选出纯种酵母菌及乳酸菌菌种。其次将酵母菌与面粉按照不同的比例并设置不同的温度梯度进行混合发酵,以发酵面团的气味,产生气孔的大小及分布测定标准,筛选发酵力好的菌种。然后将酵母菌种与乳酸菌菌种进行混合发酵,蒸制馒头,以馒头的香味,硬度进行测评,从而选出最优配比,进而提高馒头质量。

  6. 俗趣、滥情与排日:1930-1933年的张资平小说%Vulgar Taste 、Promisculty and Repel Japan: Zhang Zi- ping' s Novels from 1930 to 1933

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红旗

    2012-01-01

    Zhang Zi - ping began to thorough move towards the promiscuous popular literary reation because of his erosion thinking and vulgar taste in 1930' s. He paid much attention to describe the psychological characters and sexual behavior, so his romantic novels had become almost the natural record of sexual performance of men and women, even if his anti - Japan novels also were written as angular polygonal love model. Furthermore, there were still many objections with his novels in this period, such as straightforward way plot, debunching or branches and tendrils story, along with characters'mental activitives and ideological change disadvantages such as lack of logic, etc.%思想的糜烂和情趣的俗化使得张资平在20世纪30年代初开始彻底走向滥情的"通俗"文学创作。由于过于注重对人物性心理和性行为的描写,所以他的婚恋小说几乎成了男女性欲表现的自然记录,即使是排日小说也被他写成了生硬的多角恋爱模式。此外,他这一时期的小说还存在情节平铺直叙、故事散乱枝蔓以及人物内心活动和思想变化缺少逻辑性等缺点。

  7. A Comparative Study of Musical Thoughts of Boethius and Huai-Nan-Zi%波爱修与«淮南子»音乐美学思想之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华

    2016-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Music by Boethius has played a vital role in inheriting the ancient Greek music theory and has exerted great influence on medieval musical thoughts that shares many similarities with the Taoist work Huai-Nan-Zi in Qin and Han Dynasties in China concerning the musical aesthetic views. For instance, both make sim-ilar interpretations of “silent music”, the moral enlightenment of music and musical thoughts;yet due to different cul-tural contexts and times, differences do arise from these similarities. It is beneficial for people to grasp better the devel-opment and direction of Chinese and Western musical aesthetics by comparing these two musical thoughts.%波爱修的«音乐原理»对古希腊音乐理论的信息来源与中世纪音乐观念所起的作用非常重要,其中许多音乐美学观点与中国秦汉道学著作«淮南子»有惊人的相似之处。他们都对“无声之乐”、音乐的道德教化作用及音乐观念等方面做出了相似的阐释,但彼此文化环境与时代差异等诸多因素的存在,也在这些“相似”之中融入了“相异”的成分,对两者音乐美学思想的研究与解读有利于我们更好地把握中西音乐美学发展的脉络与方向。

  8. Characterization of global metabolic profile of Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po decoction in rat bile, urine and feces after oral administration based on a strategy combining LC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kaiwen; Shi, Qingshui; Feng, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Identification of metabolic profile of traditional Chinese medicine in vivo is always a challenge task. Usually, screening out and identifying the exogenous compounds manually from total ion chromatograms (TICs) of biologic samples is time-consuming and strenuous. In this study, a systematic identification strategy based on LC-MS was adopted to clarify the metabolic profiling of Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po decoction (ZZHPD) in rat. Bile, urine and feces samples of rat were obtained after oral administration and then analyzed by LC-MS after proper preparation. The xenobiotics were screened out from TICs globally and rapidly by untargeted metabolomics-driven strategy (UMDS) based on the combined of XCMS online (a web-based platform to process LC-MS data), MetAlign (a software to process LC-MS data) and SIMCA-P (a software for data analysis). Most of the xenobiotics were identified by means of series product ions filtering (sPIF), which was based on the database-hit of ZZHPD (including prototype and metabolites). Then the unmatched constituents were identified tentatively and their source and metabolic pathway were clarified by using diagnostic fragment ions strategy (DFIS). As a result, a total of 83 compounds including 44 prototype compounds and 39 metabolites were rapidly identified or tentatively characterized from the biologic samples, and among them, four of which were found for the first time. Further research on the correlations of these prototype compounds and metabolites revealed that glucuronidation is the main metabolic pathways of ZZHPD in rat bile and urine, while prototype compounds were the abundant ingredients detected in rat feces.

  9. Simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides, two anthraquinones and four flavonoid glycosides of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma by UFLC-MS/MS: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study in normal and cholestatic liver injury rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heyun; Bi, Kaishun; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Tang, Zheng; Chen, Kelin; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Yin, Ran; Hou, Xiaohong

    2014-06-01

    A selective, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides (geniposide and genipin gentiobioside), two anthraquinones (rhein and emodin) and four flavonoid glycosides (isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin), the major active ingredients of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), in rat plasma using paeoniflorin as internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v), separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 mm×3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Detection was performed on 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometry equipped with turbo ion spray source in the negative ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) were less than 11.4%, and accuracy (as relative error) was within ± 10.0%. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 4.0, 0.5, 2.0, 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0 ng/mL for geniposide, genipin gentiobioside, rhein, emodin, isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin, respectively. The extraction recoveries of the analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 86.0%. The method was fully validated and applied to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the analytes in normal and cholestatic liver injury (CLI) rats after oral administration of ZZDHD. Results showed that there were remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic properties of the analytes between normal and CLI group.

  10. Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    , gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius...... of the conducting zone of the plasma column. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC....

  11. Fractal-Based Lightning Channel Length Estimation from Convex-Hull Flash Areas for DC3 Lightning Mapping Array Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Eric C.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Carey, Larry D.; Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; MacGorman, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    We will use VHF Lightning Mapping Array data to estimate NOx per flash and per unit channel length, including the vertical distribution of channel length. What s the best way to find channel length from VHF sources? This paper presents the rationale for the fractal method, which is closely related to the box-covering method.

  12. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more accou...... the uncertainty is large and parties are not very polarized. Partisan voters always prefer a long term length. When politicians learn while in office a long term length becomes more attractive for swing voters....

  13. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable health and sanitation requirements. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b)...

  14. String matching with variable length gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2012-01-01

    We consider string matching with variable length gaps. Given a string T and a pattern P consisting of strings separated by variable length gaps (arbitrary strings of length in a specified range), the problem is to find all ending positions of substrings in T that match P. This problem is a basic...

  15. Physics on smallest scales. An introduction to minimal length phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, Martin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goethe Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus [Goethe Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies

    2012-02-15

    Many modern theories which try to unite gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: - the existence of additional space dimensions - the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide coverage in publications over the last ten years (especially due to the prediction of micro black hole production at the LHC), the phenomenology of models with a minimal length is still less investigated. In a summer study project for bachelor students in 2010 we have explored some phenomenological implications of the potential existence of a minimal length. In this paper we review the idea and formalism of a quantum gravity induced minimal length in the generalised uncertainty principle framework as well as in the coherent state approach to non- commutative geometry. These approaches are effective models which can make model-independent predictions for experiments and are ideally suited for phenomenological studies. Pedagogical examples are provided to grasp the effects of a quantum gravity induced minimal length. (orig.)

  16. Inheritance of telomere length in a bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Horn

    Full Text Available Telomere dynamics are intensively studied in human ageing research and epidemiology, with many correlations reported between telomere length and age-related diseases, cancer and death. While telomere length is influenced by environmental factors there is also good evidence for a strong heritable component. In human, the mode of telomere length inheritance appears to be paternal and telomere length differs between sexes, with females having longer telomeres than males. Genetic factors, e.g. sex chromosomal inactivation, and non-genetic factors, e.g. antioxidant properties of oestrogen, have been suggested as possible explanations for these sex-specific telomere inheritance and telomere length differences. To test the influence of sex chromosomes on telomere length, we investigated inheritance and sex-specificity of telomere length in a bird species, the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, in which females are the heterogametic sex (ZW and males are the homogametic (ZZ sex. We found that, contrary to findings in humans, telomere length was maternally inherited and also longer in males. These results argue against an effect of sex hormones on telomere length and suggest that factors associated with heterogamy may play a role in telomere inheritance and sex-specific differences in telomere length.

  17. Length Dependence of Thermal Conductivity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Rui-Qin; XU Zi-Jian; ZHU Zhi-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Dependence of the thermal conductivity on the length of two armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is studied by the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) method with Brenner Ⅱ potential. The thermal conductivities are calculated for (5, 5) and (7, 7) SWNTs with lengths ranging from 22 to 155 nm. The results show that the thermal conductivity of SWNTs is sensitive to the length and it does not converge to a Unite value when the tube length increases up to 155 nm, however it obeys a power law relation.

  18. [Length of stay in patients admitted for acute heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Carbajosa, Virginia; Llorens, Pere; Herrero, Pablo; Jacob, Javier; Miró, Òscar; Fernández, Cristina; Bueno, Héctor; Calvo, Elpidio; Ribera Casado, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with prolonged length of hospital stay in patients admitted for acute heart failure. Multipurpose observational cohort study including patients from the EAHFE registry admitted for acute heart failure in 25 Spanish hospitals. Data were collected on demographic and clinical variables and on the day and place of admission. The primary outcome was length of hospital stay longer than the median. We included 2,400 patients with a mean age of 79.5 (9.9) years; of these, 1,334 (55.6%) were women. Five hundred and ninety (24.6%) were admitted to the short stay unit (SSU), 606 (25.2%) to cardiology, and 1,204 (50.2%) to internal medicine or gerontology. The mean length of hospital stay was 7.0 (RIC 4-11) days. Fifty-eight (2.4%) patients died and 562 (23.9%) were readmitted within 30 days after discharge. The factors associated with prolonged length of hospital stay were chronic pulmonary disease; being a device carrier; having an unknown or uncommon triggering factor; the presence of renal insufficiency, hyponatremia and anaemia in the emergency department; not being admitted to an SSU or the lack of this facility in the hospital; and being admitted on Monday, Tuesday or Wednesday. The factors associated with length of hospital stay≤7days were hypertension, having a hypertensive episode, or a lack of treatment adherence. The area under the curve of the mixed model adjusted to the center was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.76-0.80; p<0.001). A series of factors is associated with prolonged length of hospital stay and should be taken into account in the management of acute heart failure. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Axial Globe Length in Congenital Ptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Kang, Hyera; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    To compare axial globe length between affected and unaffected sides in patients with unilateral congenital ptosis. This prospective observational study included 37 patients (age range: 7 months to 58 years). The axial globe length, margin reflex distance-1 (MRD-1), and refractive power were measured. The axial globe length difference was calculated by subtracting the axial globe length on the unaffected side from that of the affected side. The relationships among axial globe length differences, MRD-1 on the affected sides, and patient ages were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. No significant differences were found in the axial globe length between sides (P = .677). The axial globe length difference was 0.17 ± 0.30 mm (mean ± standard deviation), and two patients (5.4%), aged 32 to 57 years, showed axial globe length more than 0.67 mm longer (corresponding to a refractive power of 2 diopters) on the affected side compared to the unaffected side. The multiple regression model between axial globe length difference, patient age, and MRD-1 on the affected sides was less appropriate (YAGL = 0.003XAGE-0.048XMRD-1 +0.112; r = 0.338; adjusted r2 = 0.062; P = .127). The cylindrical power was greater on the affected side (P = .046), although the spherical power was not different between sides (P = .657). No significant difference was identified in the axial globe length between sides, and only 5% of non-pediatric patients showed an axial globe length more than 0.67 mm longer on the affected side. Congenital ptosis may have little effect on axial globe length elongation, and the risk of axial myopia-induced anisometropic amblyopia may be low in patients with unilateral congenital ptosis. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and the eye: axial length

    OpenAIRE

    Huntjens, B.; O’Donnell, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: The refractive error of the eye is dependent on its axial length. Refractive error is known to fluctuate significantly in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Recently it has been reported that human eyes fluctuate in axial length during the day. However, this change is not detectable in all subjects, suggesting physiological influences such as diet. The purpose of this study was to investigate fluctuations in axial length and blood glucose levels (BGLs) in diabetic patie...

  1. Fibonacci Lengths of Certain Nilpotent 2-Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. DOOSTIE; A. T. ADNANI

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study two classes of 2-generated 2-groups of nilpotency class 2 classified by Kluempen in 2002 and also a class of finite 2-groups of high nilpotency class for their Fibonacci lengths.Their involvement in certain interesting sequences of Tribonacci numbers gives us some explicit formulas for the Fibonacci lengths and this adds to the small class of finite groups for which the Fibonacci length are known.

  2. Large Slip Length over a Nanopatterned Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ding; DI Qin-Feng; LI Jing-Yuan; QIAN Yue-Hong; FANG Hai-Ping

    2007-01-01

    A thermodynamic method is employed to analyse the slip length of hydrophobic nanopatterned surface.The maximal slip lengths with respect to the hydrophobicity of the nanopatterned surface are computed.It is found that the slip length reaches more than 50μm if the nanopatterned surfaces have a contact angle larger than 160°.Such results are expected to find extensive applications in micro-channels and helpful to understand recent experimental observations of the slippage of nanopatterned surfaces.

  3. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  4. New length operator for loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yongge; Yang, Jinsong

    2010-01-01

    An alternative expression for the length operator in loop quantum gravity is presented. The operator is background-independent, symmetric, positive semi-definite, and well-defined on the kinematical Hilbert space. The expression for the regularized length operator can moreover be understood both from a simple geometrical perspective as the average of a formula relating the length to area, volume and flux operators, and also consistently as the result of direct substitution of the densitized triad operator with the functional derivative operator into the regularized expression of the length. Both these derivations are discussed, and the origin of an undetermined overall factor in each case is also elucidated.

  5. On the attached length of orifices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Yudin, S. I.

    2012-11-01

    The attached length of orifices in reactive mufflers has been estimated based on numerical calculations by the finite-element method. The numerical results for a diaphragm in a duct are compared with the theoretical data obtained by Rayleigh, Fock, Karal, and Ingard. The dependence of the attached length on the diaphragm thickness is given. The results obtained are generalized for the case in which the orifice is a Helmholtz resonator neck. The effect of the resonator length on the attached length of the neck is analyzed.

  6. Experience of Professor Sun Zi-xue in treating male infertility with Guipi decoction%孙自学运用归脾汤治疗男科疾病举隅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文; 李鹏超

    2016-01-01

    归脾汤最早出自南宋•严用和所著的《医方考》一书,至明代·薛己的《正体类要》一书中加入当归、远志二药,始臻完备。全方组方严谨,配伍精当,流传至今,有益气养血,健脾补心之功效,历来被广泛用于各科疾病的治疗,是治疗心脾两虚证型疾病的代表方。孙自学教授,博士生导师,系河南省首届名中医,致力于中医男科学研究数十年,在其临床实践中,运用归脾汤治疗心脾两虚型的多种男科疾病,疗效确切,笔者有幸跟随孙师学习,现选录孙师运用归脾汤治疗早泄、阳痿、性功能减退等医案,以飨同道。%Guipi decoction was recorded in Yifang Kao, written by Yan Yonghe in the Song dynasty. This decoction was completed in the Ming Dynasty by Xue Ji in Zhengti Leiyao by adding two Chinese medicinal: Danggui andYuanzhi. The recipe had the effect of tonifying qi and blood, invigorating spleen and tonifying heart, and it was precise and with optimal ingredients, therefore, it had been kept till now and was a representative recipe to cure deficiency of heart and spleen syndrome disease. Professor Sun Zi-xue is a doctoral supervisor and one of the most famous TCM doctors in Henan province, he has been engaged in clinical study of andrology for decades and uses Guipi decoction in the treatment of male diseases with deficiency of heart and spleen syndrome, of which the curative effect is significant. The writer has the honor of learning from Professor Sun and shares the medical records of Professor Sun in treating male prospermia, erectile dysfunction and sexual dysfunction with Guipi decoction.

  7. 栀子大黄汤有效成分在体肠吸收研究%Intestinal Absorption Studies of the Active Components in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李允; 郎巧玲; 冯芳; 史清水

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究栀子大黄汤中栀子苷、柚皮苷、橙皮苷和新橙皮苷4种有效成分的大鼠在体肠吸收动力学。方法:运用大鼠在体单向灌流重量法进行肠吸收实验,考察不同吸收部位和药物浓度下的肠吸收动力学,采用HPLC法测定有效成分的浓度。结果:栀子苷、柚皮苷和新橙皮苷在小肠的吸收速率常数(Ka)和有效渗透系数(Peff)显著大于结肠(P0.05),橙皮苷的Ka和Peff随浓度的升高先增加后降低。结论:栀子大黄汤中4种有效成分在全肠道均有吸收;栀子苷、柚皮苷和新橙皮苷的吸收机制为被动扩散,橙皮苷在吸收过程中存在高浓度饱和现象,推测吸收机制为主动转运或易化扩散。%Objective: To study the in vivo intestinal absorption kinetics of geniposide (GE), naringin (NA), hesperidin(HE) and neohesperdin(NE) in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang Decoction(ZZDHD). Methods: The in situ single-pass perfusion gravimetric method was adopted to investigate the influence of absorption site and drug concentration on the rat intestinal absorption. The HPLC was used to measure the contents of GE, NA, HE and NE. Results: For GE, NA and NE, their absorption parameters, the Ka and Peff, in the small intestines were significantly different from those in the colon(P0.05), while the absorption of HE first increased and then decreased with the increase of drug concentration (P<0.05). Conclusion: The four active components in ZZDHD could be absorbed in the whole intestinal canal of rats. The absorption of GE, NA and NE in rat intestine appeared to be by the passive diffusion mechanism while that of the HE was prelimnarily determined to be by an active transport or facilitated diffusion mechanism.

  8. TV raidījumu "Auto ziņas" un "Zebra" producēšanas atšķirības sabiedriskajā televīzijā un komerciālajā televīzijā

    OpenAIRE

    Messinga, Monika Marija

    2017-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir “TV raidījumu “Auto ziņas’’ un “Zebra’’ producēšanas atšķirības sabiedriskajā televīzijā un komerciālajā televīzijā’’. Pētījuma problēma ir – vai un kā atšķiras sabiedriskās un komerctelevīzijas raidījumu producēšana. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt, kā norisinās raidījumu ‘’Auto ziņas’’ un ‘’Zebra’’ producēšanas process. Teorētiskajā daļā apskatīts televīzijas jēdziens, auditorijas un to vajadzības, kā arī televīzijas satura producēšana. Metodoloģijas daļā apskatītas izvēlētā...

  9. Length of residence, social ties, and economic opportunities,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, M B

    1976-08-01

    This study examines length of residence for movers--that subsection of the population which accounts for the high mobility rates in the United States. The propensity for repeated migration is studied in relation to economic opportunities and previous familial and personal contacts. The results indicate no influence of economic opportunities on duration of residence. This finding is consistent with recent research that indicates economic conditions are not a general stimulus for out-migration, although they are for inmigration. On the other hand, length of residence is found to be longer where previous familial and personal contacts existed. Overall, the results provide additional evidence of the importance of social, as opposed to strictly economic variables in the migration process.

  10. Dependence of Convective Heat Flux Calculations on Roughness Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieldge, John P.

    1995-01-01

    The zero plane displacement height (d) and aerodynamic roughness length (z0) can be determined separately for momentum, heat, and humidity by using a procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method for solving non-linear equations. This procedure is used to analyze profile data previously collected by Lo (1977) in a forested area in Canada and by Morgan et al (1971) on a field at the University of California at Davis (UCD) in the United States. The UCD data base is used to show the effects of allowing for different roughness lengths (zom,z0h,z0q) in calculating sensible and latent heat flux densities from bulk transfer coefficients.

  11. Length-biased Weighted Maxwell Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Modi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of length-biased distribution can be employed in development of proper models for life-time data. In this paper, we develop the length-biased form of Weighted Maxwell distribution (WMD. We study the statistical properties of the derived distribution including moments, moment generating function, hazard rate, reverse hazard rate, Shannon entropy and estimation of parameters

  12. Segment lengths influence hill walking strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2014-08-22

    Segment lengths are known to influence walking kinematics and muscle activity patterns. During level walking at the same speed, taller individuals take longer, slower strides than shorter individuals. Based on this, we sought to determine if segment lengths also influenced hill walking strategies. We hypothesized that individuals with longer segments would display more joint flexion going uphill and more extension going downhill as well as greater lateral gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis activity in both directions. Twenty young adults of varying heights (below 155 cm to above 188 cm) walked at 1.25 m/s on a level treadmill as well as 6° and 12° up and downhill slopes while we collected kinematic and muscle activity data. Subsequently, we ran linear regressions for each of the variables with height, leg, thigh, and shank length. Despite our population having twice the anthropometric variability, the level and hill walking patterns matched closely with previous studies. While there were significant differences between level and hill walking, there were few hill walking variables that were correlated with segment length. In support of our hypothesis, taller individuals had greater knee and ankle flexion during uphill walking. However, the majority of the correlations were between tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius activities and shank length. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative step length and muscle activity decreased with segment length, specifically shank length. In summary, it appears that individuals with shorter segments require greater propulsion and toe clearance during uphill walking as well as greater braking and stability during downhill walking.

  13. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women an

  14. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...

  15. Leaf Length Variation in Perennial Forage Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Barre

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf length is a key factor in the economic value of different grass species and cultivars in forage production. It is also important for the survival of individual plants within a sward. The objective of this paper is to discuss the basis of within-species variation in leaf length. Selection for leaf length has been highly efficient, with moderate to high narrow sense heritability. Nevertheless, the genetic regulation of leaf length is complex because it involves many genes with small individual effects. This could explain the low stability of QTL found in different studies. Leaf length has a strong response to environmental conditions. However, when significant genotype × environment interactions have been identified, their effects have been smaller than the main effects. Recent modelling-based research suggests that many of the reported environmental effects on leaf length and genotype × environment interactions could be biased. Indeed, it has been shown that leaf length is an emergent property strongly affected by the architectural state of the plant during significant periods prior to leaf emergence. This approach could lead to improved understanding of the factors affecting leaf length, as well as better estimates of the main genetic effects.

  16. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  17. 7 CFR 29.6024 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length. 29.6024 Section 29.6024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6024 Length. The linear measurement of cured tobacco leaves from...

  18. Length contraction in Very Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Biplab

    2011-01-01

    Glashow and Cohen claim that many results of special theory of relativity (SR) like time dilation, relativistic velocity addition, etc, can be explained by using certain proper subgroups, of the Lorentz group, which collectively form the main body of Very special relativity (VSR). They did not mention about length contraction in VSR. Length contraction in VSR has not been studied at all. In this article we calculate how the length of a moving rod contracts in VSR, particularly in the HOM(2) version. The results are interesting in the sense that in general the length contraction formulas in VSR are different from SR but in many cases the two theories predict similar length contraction of moving rods.

  19. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V. S.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length.

  20. Variable length representation in evolutionary electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebulum, R S; Pacheco, M A; Vellasco, M

    2000-01-01

    This work investigates the application of variable length representation (VLR) evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in the field of Evolutionary Electronics. We propose a number of VLR methodologies that can cope with the main issues of variable length evolutionary systems. These issues include the search for efficient ways of sampling a genome space with varying dimensionalities, the task of balancing accuracy and parsimony of the solutions, and the manipulation of non-coding segments. We compare the performance of three proposed VLR approaches to sample the genome space: Increasing Length Genotypes, Oscillating Length Genotypes, and Uniformly Distributed Initial Population strategies. The advantages of reusing genetic material to replace non-coding segments are also emphasized in this work. It is shown, through examples in both analog and digital electronics, that the variable length genotype's representation is natural to this particular domain of application. A brief discussion on biological genome evolution is also provided.

  1. Türk Halk Müziği Sözlerinde “Metaforik Anlatım Geleneği” “The Metaphoric Expression Tradition” In The Words Of The Turkish Folk Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu MUSTAN DÖNMEZ

    2013-07-01

    ımlanan metafor, özellikle dilde ve sanatta, bir düşünceyi kendisine benzetilen başka bir obje ile anlatma işlevine sahiptir. Metaforik üslupta anlatım, yerine başka bir ifade tarzı konularak elde edilmekteyken, düz üslupta yerli yerinde ve mantıksal olarak ifade edilmektedir. Metaforik ifade alanı, özgür ve keyfi bir kullanım arz edip, anlamı ve duygu yoğunluğunu kuvvetlendiren ve derinliği kıvrak bir zekâyla çözümlenebilen çok yönlü estetik/felsefi bir anlatım üslubu içermektedir.Çalışmada, türkü sözleri içindeki metaforik anlatım, metafor teorilerinin de ışığında ele alınmış ve türkü metaforları, anlattıkları konular açısından „dinsel‟ ve „din dışı‟ olarak iki ana biçimde gruplandırılmıştır. Sünni mutasavvıflığına ait sözlerin genelde Türk sanat müziğinde yer almasından dolayı, dinsel türkülere ait metafor biçimlerinin Alevilere, din-dışı türkülere ait metafor biçimlerinin ise Türkçe konuşan toplulukların çoğuna ait olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Dinsel türkülere ait metaforlar „yaratılış‟ı ve „Tanrısal aşk‟ı ifade eden metaforlar olarak; din dışı türkülere ait metaforlar ise „dünyevi aşk metaforları‟ ve „diğer din dışı metaforlar‟ olarak ayrılmıştır. Çalışmada Türk halk müziği metaforlarının anlamsal bağlamdaki kategorizasyonu gerçekleştirilmiştir.Türkülerin ezgisel, modal, çalgısal ve üslupsal, başka bir deyişle biçimsel metaforik anlamları, bu çalışmanın sınırları içine girmeyip, farklı bir bağlamda ele alınabilir. Çalışmanın, dil-sanat-metafor ilişkisinin farklı yönlerine ilişkin araştırma yapmak isteyen diğer bilim insanlarına ışık tutacağı umulmaktadır.

  2. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Seok [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hanllym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jung Suk [Mothers Clinic, Bundang, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, {<=} 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, {<=}18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, {<=} 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  3. Self-imposed length limits in recreational fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Martin, Dustin R.; Hurley, Keith L.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    A primary motivating factor on the decision to harvest a fish among consumptive-orientated anglers is the size of the fish. There is likely a cost-benefit trade-off for harvest of individual fish that is size and species dependent, which should produce a logistic-type response of fish fate (release or harvest) as a function of fish size and species. We define the self-imposed length limit as the length at which a captured fish had a 50% probability of being harvested, which was selected because it marks the length of the fish where the probability of harvest becomes greater than the probability of release. We assessed the influences of fish size, catch per unit effort, size distribution of caught fish, and creel limit on the self-imposed length limits for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white crappie Pomoxis annularis combined, white bass Morone chrysops, and yellow perch Perca flavescens at six lakes in Nebraska, USA. As we predicted, the probability of harvest increased with increasing size for all species harvested, which supported the concept of a size-dependent trade-off in costs and benefits of harvesting individual fish. It was also clear that probability of harvest was not simply defined by fish length, but rather was likely influenced to various degrees by interactions between species, catch rate, size distribution, creel-limit regulation and fish size. A greater understanding of harvest decisions within the context of perceived likelihood that a creel limit will be realized by a given angler party, which is a function of fish availability, harvest regulation and angler skill and orientation, is needed to predict the influence that anglers have on fish communities and to allow managers to sustainable manage exploited fish populations in recreational fisheries.

  4. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  5. Inproved grade length limitation of freeways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING En-hui; PEI Yu-long

    2006-01-01

    A method of ascertaining grade length limitation of freeways in mountain terrain is presented. The relationship models between 15th percentile speeds and grades were built through the surveys and analyses of operation speeds on 7 typical sections of 3 freeways in mountain terrain. Using 15th percentile and 85th percentile as speed limitations, the methods of determining admitted velocities were put forward according to the grades. Deceleration distances of longitudinal slopeways were analyzed utilizing the theories of vehicle. According to the results of analysis, grade length limitation was loosed. Finally the values of grade length limitation for freeways were put forward. The results could be used as references for freeway design.

  6. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); LaserLaB Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba) in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca does not provide other isotopes alternative to the recently Bose condensed {sup 40}Ca that suffers strong losses because of a very large scattering length. For Ba we show by using a model potential that the even isotopes cover a broad range of scattering lengths, opening the possibility of BEC for at least one of the isotopes.

  7. The tree length of an evolving coalescent

    CERN Document Server

    Pfaffelhuber, Peter; Weisshaupt, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    A well-established model for the genealogy of a large population in equilibrium is Kingman's coalescent. For the population together with its genealogy evolving in time, this gives rise to a time-stationary tree-valued process. We study the sum of the branch lengths, briefly denoted as tree length, and prove that the (suitably compensated) sequence of tree length processes converges, as the population size tends to infinity, to a limit process with cadlag paths, infinite infinitesimal variance, and a Gumbel distribution as its equilibrium.

  8. Stylish lengths: Mate choice in flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B T Ramesha; M D Yetish; G Ravikanth; K N Ganeshaiah; Jaboury Ghazoul; R Uma Shaanker

    2011-06-01

    The styles of flowers may represent an arena for pollen competition in the race to fertilize ovules. Accordingly, selection should favour a longer ‘race’ to better discriminate among variable pollen by increasing style length. Sampling across a taxonomically diverse range of wild and outcrossed species, we found that the distribution of style lengths within plants were skewed towards longer styles, as predicted. In self-pollinated domesticated species, where discrimination among pollen is less important, we found no such pattern. We conclude that style length is under directional selection towards longer styles as a mechanism for mate choice among pollen of variable quality.

  9. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  10. CPS Trawl Life History Length Frequency Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Length distribution of a subset of individuals from a species (mainly non-target) caught during SWFSC-FRD fishery independent trawl surveys of coastal pelagic...

  11. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  12. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Process for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor precursor between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to form a super conductor layer.

  14. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter R Underhill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively. Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively. Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  15. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  16. Derived length for arbitrary topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Jayanthan

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of derived length is as old as that of ordinal numbers itself. It is also known as the Cantor-Bendixon length. It is defined only for dispersed (that is scattered spaces. In this paper this notion has been extended in a natural way for all topological spaces such that all its pleasing properties are retained. In this process we solve a problem posed by V. Kannan. ([1] Page 158.

  17. Reduced fetal telomere length in gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is an important complication of pregnancy that poses significant threats to women and their offspring. Telomere length shortens as cellular damage increases and is associated with metabolic diseases. Telomere length in fetal leucocytes was determined in 82 infants of women with GDM (N = 82 and 65 normal pregnant women (N = 65. Women with preeclampsia (N = 45 and gestational hypertension (N = 23 were also studied. In the GDM group, telomere length was significantly shorter than normal pregnancy (P = 0.028, but there were no significant differences in fetal telomere length between preeclampsia and normal pregnancy (P = 0.841 and between gestational hypertension and normal pregnancy (P = 0.561. Regression analysis revealed that fetal telomere length was significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to GDM (P = 0.027 after adjustment for maternal age, gestational age at delivery, birth weight and fetal gender. Shortened telomere length may increase the risk of metabolic diseases in adulthood of GDM offspring.

  18. Classifying stages of third molar development: crown length as a predictor for the mature root length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalie, Salem; Thevissen, Patrick; Willems, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Multiple tooth development staging techniques were reported based on arbitrarily set borderlines between succeeding stages. Anatomic tooth features or predictions of future tooth part dimensions were described to identify the thresholds between the established stages. The need to predict mature tooth dimensions, while the tooth considered is still in development, is a drawback to use this staging technique for dental age estimations. Using the fully mature crown length as a predictor for the future root length could provide a tool for undisputable staging. The aim of this study was first to measure the crown and root length of fully mature third molars and second to investigate whether the crown length could be used as a predictor of the root length, in order to classify the observed root length as a proportion of the future mature root. The crown and root lengths of all present third molars were digitally measured on dental panoramic radiographs of 1,000 subjects. The included subjects were equally distributed in gender, and their age ranged between 22 and 40 years. Two occlusal borders, the cement enamel junction and the root apices, were defined as landmarks for standardized measurements. Regression models with root length as response and crown length as predictor were established and revealed low R (2) and high RMSE values. Due to the small explained variance by the prediction models and the high variation in prediction errors, the observed crown length cannot be used to predict the final root length of a developing third molar.

  19. A Brief Review to Mr. HE Zi-quan’ s Historiography:Profound Researches with Accessible Expressions%深入研究与通俗表达:何兹全先生史学述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可辉

    2015-01-01

    何兹全先生是中国魏晋南北朝史研究的大家,给人以深刻印象的是其“魏晋封建说(汉魏封建说)”,这一学说对于我们研究中国古代史具有重要方法论意义。其史学研究领域广泛,概括起来主要包括三个方面,即中国古代中世纪社会经济史研究、汉唐佛教寺院经济研究和汉唐兵制研究。此外,还有中国文化史。何先生用力最多最深、研究成果甚大的是中国中世纪社会经济史;寺院经济研究和兵制史研究,是其首创,也是其研究中国古代社会史的两翼:寺院经济属于社会经济史的范畴,研究兵制也是从社会史的角度出发;在长期潜心于古代社会发展道路的过程中,其对中国文化的根源、走向、主流、未来等问题的思考也是着实深刻。%Mr. HE Zi-quan is an investigative master in the historical research of Chinese Wei, Jin and South-North Dynas-ties, with his most impressive viewpoint of“Wei-Jin Feudalism ( Han-Wei Feudalism)”, which has great methodological sig-nificance for our research of ancient Chinese history. HE Ziquan’ s historiography research has a wide coverage, of which three aspects are recognized, i. e. social and economical history from Chinese Ancient Time to Middle Age, Buddhist temple economy in Han and Tang Dynasties, military system in Han and Tang Dynasties. Mr. HE spent greatest time and energy on socio-eco-nomical history from Chinese Ancient Time to Middle Age, with great accomplishments. He initiated studies on Buddhist temple economy and military system in Han and Tang Dynasties, which serve as two supplementary disciplines to Chinese ancient social history. Buddhist temple economy belongs to the category of socio-economic history, and military system study also starts from socio-historical perspective. During his long time concentration on ancient social development process, he has made impressive and profound reflections to Chinese

  20. Comparison of reconfigurable structures for flexible word-length multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pfänder

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Binary multiplication continues to be one of the essential arithmetic operations in digital circuits. Even though field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are becoming more and more powerful these days, the vendors cannot avoid implementing multiplications with high word-lengths using embedded blocks instead of configurable logic. But on the other hand, the circuit's efficiency decreases if the provided word-length of the hard-wired multipliers exceeds the precision requirements of the algorithm mapped into the FPGA. Thus it is beneficial to use multiplier blocks with configurable word-length, optimized for area, speed and power dissipation, e.g. regarding digital signal processing (DSP applications.

    In this contribution, we present different approaches and structures for the realization of a multiplication with variable precision and perform an objective comparison. This includes one approach based on a modified Baugh and Wooley algorithm and three structures using Booth's arithmetic operand recoding with different array structures. All modules have the option to compute signed two's complement fix-point numbers either as an individual computing unit or interconnected to a superior array. Therefore, a high throughput at low precision through parallelism, or a high precision through concatenation can be achieved.

  1. Method for Veterbi decoding of large constraint length convolutional codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, In-Shek; Truong, Trieu-Kie; Reed, Irving S.; Jing, Sun

    1988-05-01

    A new method of Viterbi decoding of convolutional codes lends itself to a pipline VLSI architecture using a single sequential processor to compute the path metrics in the Viterbi trellis. An array method is used to store the path information for NK intervals where N is a number, and K is constraint length. The selected path at the end of each NK interval is then selected from the last entry in the array. A trace-back method is used for returning to the beginning of the selected path back, i.e., to the first time unit of the interval NK to read out the stored branch metrics of the selected path which correspond to the message bits. The decoding decision made in this way is no longer maximum likelihood, but can be almost as good, provided that constraint length K in not too small. The advantage is that for a long message, it is not necessary to provide a large memory to store the trellis derived information until the end of the message to select the path that is to be decoded; the selection is made at the end of every NK time unit, thus decoding a long message in successive blocks.

  2. Application of fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism for comparison of human and animal isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fearnley, C.; On, S.L.W.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2005-01-01

    An amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method, developed to genotype Yersinia enterocolitica, has been used to investigate 70 representative strains isolated from humans, pigs, sheep, and cattle in the United Kingdom. AFLP primarily distinguished Y enterocolitica strains according...

  3. Seasonal Changes of Length -Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Five Fish Species in Lake Baringo, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    elijah migiro kembenya; Erick Ochieng Ogello; Cecilia Muthoni Githukia; Callen Nyaboke Aera; Reuben Omondi; Jonathan Mbonge Munguti

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the length-weight relationships (LWR) and relative condition factor (K) of five fish species in Lake Baringo, Kenya. A total of 483 fishes consisting of Barbus intermedius, Clarias gariepinus, Labeo cylindricus, Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis and Protopterus aethiopicus were collected on monthly basis from Lake Baringo between September 2012 and August 2013. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the weight at unit length (b) of the length weight relation...

  4. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  5. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  6. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  7. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya A M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70

  8. Explaining the length threshold of polyglutamine aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios, Paolo; Hafner, Marc; Pastore, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a length threshold, of about 35 residues, above which polyglutamine repeats can give rise to aggregation and to pathologies, is one of the hallmarks of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease. The reason why such a minimal length exists at all has remained one of the main open issues in research on the molecular origins of such classes of diseases. Following the seminal proposals of Perutz, most research has focused on the hunt for a special structure, attainable only above the minimal length, able to trigger aggregation. Such a structure has remained elusive and there is growing evidence that it might not exist at all. Here we review some basic polymer and statistical physics facts and show that the existence of a threshold is compatible with the modulation that the repeat length imposes on the association and dissociation rates of polyglutamine polypeptides to and from oligomers. In particular, their dramatically different functional dependence on the length rationalizes the very presence of a threshold and hints at the cellular processes that might be at play, in vivo, to prevent aggregation and the consequent onset of the disease.

  9. Delayed feedback model of axonal length sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamched, Bhargav R; Bressloff, Paul C

    2015-05-05

    A fundamental question in cell biology is how the sizes of cells and organelles are regulated at various stages of development. Size homeostasis is particularly challenging for neurons, whose axons can extend from hundreds of microns to meters (in humans). Recently, a molecular-motor-based mechanism for axonal length sensing has been proposed, in which axonal length is encoded by the frequency of an oscillating retrograde signal. In this article, we develop a mathematical model of this length-sensing mechanism in which advection-diffusion equations for bidirectional motor transport are coupled to a chemical signaling network. We show that chemical oscillations emerge due to delayed negative feedback via a Hopf bifurcation, resulting in a frequency that is a monotonically decreasing function of axonal length. Knockdown of either kinesin or dynein causes an increase in the oscillation frequency, suggesting that the length-sensing mechanism would produce longer axons, which is consistent with experimental findings. One major prediction of the model is that fluctuations in the transport of molecular motors lead to a reduction in the reliability of the frequency-encoding mechanism for long axons. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tactile length contraction as Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jonathan; Ngo, Vy; Goldreich, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    To perceive, the brain must interpret stimulus-evoked neural activity. This is challenging: The stochastic nature of the neural response renders its interpretation inherently uncertain. Perception would be optimized if the brain used Bayesian inference to interpret inputs in light of expectations derived from experience. Bayesian inference would improve perception on average but cause illusions when stimuli violate expectation. Intriguingly, tactile, auditory, and visual perception are all prone to length contraction illusions, characterized by the dramatic underestimation of the distance between punctate stimuli delivered in rapid succession; the origin of these illusions has been mysterious. We previously proposed that length contraction illusions occur because the brain interprets punctate stimulus sequences using Bayesian inference with a low-velocity expectation. A novel prediction of our Bayesian observer model is that length contraction should intensify if stimuli are made more difficult to localize. Here we report a tactile psychophysical study that tested this prediction. Twenty humans compared two distances on the forearm: a fixed reference distance defined by two taps with 1-s temporal separation and an adjustable comparison distance defined by two taps with temporal separation t ≤ 1 s. We observed significant length contraction: As t was decreased, participants perceived the two distances as equal only when the comparison distance was made progressively greater than the reference distance. Furthermore, the use of weaker taps significantly enhanced participants' length contraction. These findings confirm the model's predictions, supporting the view that the spatiotemporal percept is a best estimate resulting from a Bayesian inference process.

  11. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  12. Metastable neon collisions: anisotropy and scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Mogendorff, V P; Verhaar, B J; Beijerinck, H C W

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effective scattering length $a$ of spin-polarized Ne*. Due to its anisotropic electrostatic interaction, its scattering length is determined by five interaction potentials instead of one, even in the spin-polarized case, a unique property among the Bose condensed species and candidates. Because the interaction potentials of Ne* are not known accurately enough to predict the value of the scattering length, we investigate the behavior of $a$ as a function of the five phase integrals corresponding to the five interaction potentials. We find that the scattering length has five resonances instead of only one and cannot be described by a simple gas-kinetic approach or the DIS approximation. However, the probability for finding a positive or large value of the scattering length is not enhanced compared to the single potential case. The complex behavior of $a$ is studied by comparing a quantum mechanical five-channel numerical calculation to simpler two-channel models. We find that th...

  13. Connection of Words with Same Phonetic Symbols in Parts of“彳” (chi) and“辵” (chuo) in Shuo Wen Jie Zi (说文解字)%《说文解字》“彳”“辵”两部声符相同字的交叉联系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫超文

    2014-01-01

    For a phonogram , its semantic complement represents the meaning while the phonological symbol represents the pronunciation .If words have the same phonological symbol and similar semantic complement , their meanings are connected .In this paper , the words with the same phonological symbol and similar semantic comple-ment in parts of “彳” ( chi) and “辵” ( chuo) in Shuo Wen Jie Zi (说文解字) are analyzed and classified .%在形声字中,义符表意,声符表音,如果声符相同,义符又相近,那么它们之间的词义也是存在联系的,文章便从“彳”“辵”两部字出发,尝试着对它们之间的联系进行归纳分类。

  14. Length and distance on a quantum space

    CERN Document Server

    Martinetti, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This contribution is an introduction to the metric aspect of noncommutative geometry, with emphasize on the Moyal plane. Starting by questioning "how to define a standard meter in a space whose coordinates no longer commute?", we list several recent results regarding Connes's spectral distance calculated between eigenstates of the quantum harmonic oscillator arXiv:0912.0906, as well as between coherent states arXiv:1110.6164. We also question the difference (which remains hidden in the commutative case) between the spectral distance and the notion of quantum length inherited from the length operator defined in various models of noncommutative space-time (DFR and \\theta-Minkowski). We recall that a standard procedure in noncommutative geometry, consisting in doubling the spectral triple, allows to fruitfully confront the spectral distance with the quantum length. Finally we refine the idea of discrete vs. continuous geodesics in the Moyal plane, introduced in arXiv:1106.0261.

  15. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hossenfelder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  16. Minimal Length Scale Scenarios for Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

  17. Environmental stresses disrupt telomere length homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hagit Romano

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect the chromosome ends from degradation and play crucial roles in cellular aging and disease. Recent studies have additionally found a correlation between psychological stress, telomere length, and health outcome in humans. However, studies have not yet explored the causal relationship between stress and telomere length, or the molecular mechanisms underlying that relationship. Using yeast as a model organism, we show that stresses may have very different outcomes: alcohol and acetic acid elongate telomeres, whereas caffeine and high temperatures shorten telomeres. Additional treatments, such as oxidative stress, show no effect. By combining genome-wide expression measurements with a systematic genetic screen, we identify the Rap1/Rif1 pathway as the central mediator of the telomeric response to environmental signals. These results demonstrate that telomere length can be manipulated, and that a carefully regulated homeostasis may become markedly deregulated in opposing directions in response to different environmental cues.

  18. A Contribution to Arc Length Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation was raising the question: "What does 'arc length' mean?" Actually, it is considered expressing a kind of natural relationship between arc voltage and arc column shape. Statements such as "The higher the voltage the longer the arc" or "The arc voltage proves approximately proportional to the arc length", are frequently noticed in this conjunction. However, the author suggests that there is no general possibility of describing 'arc length' over the whole welding process range. Instances are represented in this paper, showing both theoretical attempts of definition and practical observations. This paper intends to contribute to a serious discussion of something trivial, indeed very well-known or used among welding experts, but actually yet hardly understood, at least as when it comes to closer examination

  19. Telomerase activity and telomere length in Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Charles; Nelson, Jacob; Kim, Eunsuk; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres, comprised of short repetitive sequences, are essential for genome stability and have been studied in relation to cellular senescence and aging. Telomerase, the enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends, is essential for maintaining the overall telomere length. A lack of telomerase activity in mammalian somatic cells results in progressive shortening of telomeres with each cellular replication event. Mammals exhibit high rates of cell proliferation during embryonic and juvenile stages but very little somatic cell proliferation occurs during adult and senescent stages. The telomere hypothesis of cellular aging states that telomeres serve as an internal mitotic clock and telomere length erosion leads to cellular senescence and eventual cell death. In this report, we have examined telomerase activity, processivity, and telomere length in Daphnia, an organism that grows continuously throughout its life. Similar to insects, Daphnia telomeric repeat sequence was determined to be TTAGG and telomerase products with five-nucleotide periodicity were generated in the telomerase activity assay. We investigated telomerase function and telomere lengths in two closely related ecotypes of Daphnia with divergent lifespans, short-lived D. pulex and long-lived D. pulicaria. Our results indicate that there is no age-dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity, or processivity in short-lived D. pulex. On the contrary, a significant age dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity and processivity is observed during life span in long-lived D. pulicaria. While providing the first report on characterization of Daphnia telomeres and telomerase activity, our results also indicate that mechanisms other than telomere shortening may be responsible for the strikingly short life span of D. pulex.

  20. Telomerase Activity and Telomere Length in Daphnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Charles; Nelson, Jacob; Kim, Eunsuk; Dudycha, Jeffry L.; Patel, Rekha C.

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres, comprised of short repetitive sequences, are essential for genome stability and have been studied in relation to cellular senescence and aging. Telomerase, the enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to chromosome ends, is essential for maintaining the overall telomere length. A lack of telomerase activity in mammalian somatic cells results in progressive shortening of telomeres with each cellular replication event. Mammals exhibit high rates of cell proliferation during embryonic and juvenile stages but very little somatic cell proliferation occurs during adult and senescent stages. The telomere hypothesis of cellular aging states that telomeres serve as an internal mitotic clock and telomere length erosion leads to cellular senescence and eventual cell death. In this report, we have examined telomerase activity, processivity, and telomere length in Daphnia, an organism that grows continuously throughout its life. Similar to insects, Daphnia telomeric repeat sequence was determined to be TTAGG and telomerase products with five-nucleotide periodicity were generated in the telomerase activity assay. We investigated telomerase function and telomere lengths in two closely related ecotypes of Daphnia with divergent lifespans, short-lived D. pulex and long-lived D. pulicaria. Our results indicate that there is no age-dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity, or processivity in short-lived D. pulex. On the contrary, a significant age dependent decline in telomere length, telomerase activity and processivity is observed during life span in long-lived D. pulicaria. While providing the first report on characterization of Daphnia telomeres and telomerase activity, our results also indicate that mechanisms other than telomere shortening may be responsible for the strikingly short life span of D. pulex. PMID:25962144

  1. Universality of modulation length and time exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Saurish; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir; Seidel, Alexander; Nussinov, Zohar

    2012-10-01

    We study systems with a crossover parameter λ, such as the temperature T, which has a threshold value λ(*) across which the correlation function changes from exhibiting fixed wavelength (or time period) modulations to continuously varying modulation lengths (or times). We introduce a hitherto unknown exponent ν(L) characterizing the universal nature of this crossover and compute its value in general instances. This exponent, similar to standard correlation length exponents, is obtained from motion of the poles of the momentum (or frequency) space correlation functions in the complex k-plane (or ω-plane) as the parameter λ is varied. Near the crossover (i.e., for λ→λ(*)), the characteristic modulation wave vector K(R) in the variable modulation length "phase" is related to that in the fixed modulation length "phase" q via |K(R)-q|[proportionality]|T-T(*)|(νL). We find, in general, that ν(L)=1/2. In some special instances, ν(L) may attain other rational values. We extend this result to general problems in which the eigenvalue of an operator or a pole characterizing general response functions may attain a constant real (or imaginary) part beyond a particular threshold value λ(*). We discuss extensions of this result to multiple other arenas. These include the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model. By extending our considerations, we comment on relations pertaining not only to the modulation lengths (or times), but also to the standard correlation lengths (or times). We introduce the notion of a Josephson time scale. We comment on the presence of aperiodic "chaotic" modulations in "soft-spin" and other systems. These relate to glass-type features. We discuss applications to Fermi systems, with particular application to metal to band insulator transitions, change of Fermi surface topology, divergent effective masses, Dirac systems, and topological insulators. Both regular periodic and glassy (and spatially chaotic behavior) may be found in

  2. PENDULUM WITH LINEAR DAMPING AND VARIABLE LENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建平; 杨翠红; 李怡平

    2004-01-01

    The methods of multiple scales and approximate potential are used to study pendulums with linear damping and variable length. According to the order of the coefficient of friction compared with that of the slowly varying parameter of length, three different cases are discussed in details. Asymptotic analytical expressions of amplitude, frequency and solution are obtained. The method of approximate potential makes the results effective for large oscillations. A modified multiple scales method is used to get more accurate leading order approximations when the coefficient friction is not small. Comparisons are also made with numerical results to show the efficiency of the present method.

  3. Localization length fluctuation in randomly layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiming; Huang, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian; Sun, Xiudong

    2016-10-01

    Localization properties of the two-component randomly layered media (RLM) are studied in detail both analytically and numerically. The localization length is found fluctuating around the analytical result obtained under the high-frequency limit. The fluctuation amplitude approaches zero with the increasing of disorder, which is characterized by the distribution width of random thickness. It is also found that the localization length over the mean thickness periodically varies with the distribution center of random thickness. For the multi-component RLM structure, the arrangement of material must be considered.

  4. Isospin odd pi K scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, J

    2005-01-01

    We make use of the chiral two-loop representation of the pi K scattering amplitude [J. Bijnens, P. Dhonte and P. Talavera, JHEP 0405 (2004) 036] to investigate the isospin odd scattering length at next-to-next-to-leading order in the SU(3) expansion. This scattering length is protected against contributions of m_s in the chiral expansion, in the sense that the corrections to the current algebra result are of order M_pi^2. In view of the planned lifetime measurement on pi K atoms at CERN it is important to understand the size of these corrections.

  5. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  6. Isospin odd {pi}K scattering length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: julia.schweizer@univie.ac.at

    2005-10-13

    We make use of the chiral two-loop representation of the {pi}K scattering amplitude [J. Bijnens, P. Dhonte, P. Talavera, JHEP 0405 (2004) 036] to investigate the isospin odd scattering length at next-to-next-to-leading order in the SU(3) expansion. This scattering length is protected against contributions of m{sub s} in the chiral expansion, in the sense that the corrections to the current algebra result are of order M{sub {pi}}{sup 2}. In view of the planned lifetime measurement on {pi}K atoms at CERN it is important to understand the size of these corrections.

  7. A simple method for focal length measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Ren, Huan; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Zhengdong; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    A simple method for focal length measurement based on image processing is demonstrated and discussed. The collimated beam, detector, motorized translation stage and computer make up of this test system. The two spots pass through the tested lens is accepted by detector, which is transferred twice by motorized translation stage. By acquired the difference of two spots by image processing, the focal length of the tested lens can be gained. The error sources in the measurement are analyzed. Then the results of experiment show that the relative error was 0.1%. This method can be used in workshop and labs for its convenience and low cost.

  8. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  9. Effects of Lighting Time on Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels of Zi Geese in Fall and Winter%秋冬季节光照时间对籽鹅血清生殖激素水平变化规律的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋菊; 周瑞进; 杨焕民; 朱双

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the variation of serum reproductive hormone levels of breed-ing Zi geese in un-natural breeding season, and sought for the possibility of lighting time affecting anti-seasonal breeding of Zi geese. A total of 300 two-year-old breeding Zi geese (female 180, male 120) were divided into 3 groups ( female 60 and male 40 per group) . Geese in the control group were natural lighting, and the others in short lighting group and long lighting group were controlled with 11 h lighting and 13 h darkling and 15 h lighting and 9 h darkling, respectively. The preliminary trial period lasted for 1 week and trial period lasted for 10 weeks. The results showed that the levels of follicle-stimulatingg hormone ( FSH ) , luteinizing hormone ( LH) in serum of female geese and testosterone ( T) in serum of male geese were increased with the increas-ing of lighting time, and the serum prolactin ( PRL) level of female geese was increased at the beginning and then decreased with the increasing of lighting time. The hormone levels of geese in long lighting group were approached to the hormone levels of geese in control group at the experiment end. When the lighting time re-duced, the levels of FSH and LH in serum of female geese and T in serum of male geese were decreased, but the serum PRL level of female geese was increased. In conclusion, lighting time can affect the reproductive hormone levels of breeding Zi geese in the anestrous season, and the reproductive hormone levels of breeding Zi geese are varied in different lighting time. Therefore, the anti-seasonal reproduction of Zi geese will come true by artificial regulation lighting time.%本试验旨在研究在秋冬非繁殖季节,不同光照时间对籽鹅种鹅血清生殖激素水平的影响及其变化规律,探讨通过控制光照时间调控籽鹅反季节生产的可能性。选择2年龄健康籽鹅300只(母鹅180只、公鹅120只),分成3个组,每组母鹅60只、公鹅40

  10. Wave length dependence of photomorphogenesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.A.J.

    1954-01-01

    Light of various spectral regions (at low or high intensities) supplemented a short day (SD) in white light, or was used alone at high intensity. Two types of relation of wave length to photoperiodic reaction were found: Crucifers were sensitive to blue and infrared (even SD exposure promoted elonga

  11. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  12. Wave length dependence of photomorphogenesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, J.A.J.

    1954-01-01

    Light of various spectral regions (at low or high intensities) supplemented a short day (SD) in white light, or was used alone at high intensity. Two types of relation of wave length to photoperiodic reaction were found: Crucifers were sensitive to blue and infrared (even SD exposure promoted

  13. Paternal age and telomere length in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    . Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age...

  14. Tevatron bunch length studies at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Jones; Bob Kephart; and Rick Vidal

    2002-05-29

    A luminous interaction region can be described by the distribution in (x, y, z) over which p{bar p} interactions are observed in a detector. The spatial size of this distribution can be written in terms of expressions that involve only combinations of the proton and anti-proton bunch sizes. Hence, it is not possible to determine the sizes of the proton and anti-proton bunches independently by fitting the distribution of (x, y, z) from the recorded events. If, in addition to the coordinates (x, y, z) at which p{bar p} interactions occur, the times at which the interactions took place are also measured, then it becomes possible to measure the lengths of the proton and anti-proton bunches separately. This sensitivity is due to a correlation between z and t that arises from the fact that the proton and anti-proton bunches travel in opposite directions. The derivation presented in section 2 quantifies this correlation, resulting in an expression for the probability density as a function of z and t for p{bar p} interactions. By fitting the distributions observed at CDF using this model, we measure the lengths of the proton and anti-proton bunches at times throughout several Tevatron stores. From this analysis the evolution of the bunch lengths can be studied. We attempt to correlate these with other measures of the bunch length obtained using different experimental techniques.

  15. Length, protein–protein interactions, and complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, T.; Frenkel, D.; Gupta, V.; Deem, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The evolutionary reason for the increase in gene length from archaea to prokaryotes to eukaryotes observed in large-scale genome sequencing efforts has been unclear. We propose here that the increasing complexity of protein–protein interactions has driven the selection of longer proteins, as they ar

  16. Age and disease at an arms length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    a chronic (previously fatal) disease. The active elderly often stick to their image of themselves as active, youthful and energetic in spite of a chronic disease. Old age and disease is not what they identify with and seems to be conceived at an arms length. In the paper the author explores how health...

  17. Bunch length measurements using synchrotron ligth monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Tiefenback, Michael G. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-09-01

    The bunch length is measured at CEBAF using an invasive technique. The technique depends on applying an energy chirp for the electron bunch and imaging it through a dispersive region. The measurements are taken through Arc1 and Arc2 at CEBAF. The fundamental equations, procedure and the latest results are given.

  18. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols...

  19. Telomere length in interstitial lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snetselaar, Reinier; Van Moorsel, Coline H M; Kazemier, Karin M.; Van Der Vis, Joanne J.; Zanen, Pieter; Van Oosterhout, Matthijs F M; Grutters, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that primarily affect the pulmonary interstitium. Studies have implicated a role for telomere length (TL) maintenance in ILD, particularly in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Here, we measure TL in a wide

  20. Scattering lengths of calcium and barium isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammalapati, U.; Willmann, L.; Knoop, S.

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the s-wave scattering length of all the even isotopes of calcium (Ca) and barium (Ba) in order to investigate the prospect of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). For Ca we have used an accurate molecular potential based on detailed spectroscopic data. Our calculations show that Ca

  1. Optimality Of Variable-Length Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Miller, Warner H.; Rice, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents analysis of performances of conceptual Rice universal noiseless coders designed to provide efficient compression of data over wide range of source-data entropies. Includes predictive preprocessor that maps source data into sequence of nonnegative integers and variable-length-coding processor, which adapts to varying entropy of source data by selecting whichever one of number of optional codes yields shortest codeword.

  2. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G P

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  3. The heritability of leucocyte telomere length dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL...... childhood are crucial for understanding the role of telomere genetics in human ageing and longevity....

  4. Stressful life events and leucocyte telomere length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Bendix, Laila; Rask, Lene;

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to psychosocial stress is associated with increased risk of a number of somatic and mental disorders with relation to immune system functioning. We aimed to explore whether stressful events in early and recent life was associated with leucocyte telomere length (TL), which is assumed...

  5. Twin correlations of telomere length metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL...... childhood are crucial for understanding the role of telomere genetics in human ageing and longevity....

  6. Phonological length, phonetic duration and aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbers, D.G.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van der Linde, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study discusses an error type that is expected to occur in aphasics suffering from a phonological disorder, i.e. Wernicke's and conduction aphasics, but not in aphasics suffering from a phonetic disorder, i.e. Broca's aphasics. The critical notion is 'phonological length'. It will be argued

  7. Short admission in an emergency psychiatry unit can prevent prolonged lengths of stay in a psychiatric institution Internação breve em unidade de emergência psiquiátrica pode prevenir permanência prolongada em instituições psiquiátricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Eric Maia Barros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Characterize and compare acute psychiatric admissions to the psychiatric wards of a general hospital (22 beds, a psychiatric hospital (80 and of an emergency psychiatry unit (6. METHOD: Survey of the ratios and shares of the demographic, diagnostic and hospitalization variables involved in all acute admissions registered in a catchment area in Brazil between 1998 and 2004. RESULTS: From the 11,208 admissions, 47.8% of the patients were admitted to a psychiatric hospital and 14.1% to a general hospital. The emergency psychiatry unit accounted for 38.1% of all admissions during the period, with a higher variability in occupancy rate and bed turnover during the years. Around 80% of the hospital stays lasted less than 20 days and in almost half of these cases, patients were discharged in 2 days. Although the total number of admissions remained stable during the years, in 2004, a 30% increase was seen compared to 2003. In 2004, bed turnover and occupancy rate at the emergency psychiatry unit increased. CONCLUSION: The increase in the number of psychiatric admissions in 2004 could be attributed to a lack of new community-based services available in the area beginning in 1998. Changes in the health care network did affect the emergency psychiatric service and the limitations of the community-based network could influence the rate of psychiatric admissions.OBJETIVO: Caracterizar e comparar internações psiquiátricas agudas em alas psiquiátricas no hospital geral (22 leitos, hospital psiquiátrico (80 e emergência psiquiátrica (6. MÉTODO: Foram analisadas todas as internações agudas entre 1998 e 2004 na região do estudo, com razões e proporções de variáveis demográficas, diagnósticas e das hospitalizações. RESULTADOS: Das 11.208 internações, 47,8% foram no hospital psiquiátrico e 14,1% no hospital geral. A emergência psiquiátrica realizou 38,1% das internações no período, com grande variabilidade da taxa de ocupa

  8. On Sources of the Word Length Effect in Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagl, Benjamin; Hawelka, Stefan; Wimmer, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how letter length, phoneme length, and consonant clusters contribute to the word length effect in 2nd- and 4th-grade children. They read words from three different conditions: In one condition, letter length increased but phoneme length did not due to multiletter graphemes (H"aus"-B"auch"-S"chach"). In…

  9. Genetic and Environmental Factors That Impact Gestation Length in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated. Data from over 9 million parturitions from 1999 through 2006 for 7 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, and dystocia records from across the United States. Effects examined were year of ...

  10. Is duration of postoperative fasting associated with infection and prolonged length of stay in surgical patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Assis, Michelli Cristina Silva de; Carla Rosane de Moraes SILVEIRA; Beghetto, Mariur Gomes; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Verify whether the postoperative fasting period increases the risk for infection and prolonged length of stay. Methods: Prospective cohort study. Elective surgery patients were included. Excluded: those with no conditions for nutritional assessment, admitted in minimal care units, as well as with

  11. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  12. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  13. Architecture Design of a Variable Length Instruction Set VLIW DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zheng; HE Hu; YANG Xu; JIA Di; SUN Yihe

    2009-01-01

    The cost of the central register file and the size of the program code limit the scalability of very long instruction word (VLIW) processors with increasing numbers of functional units. This paper presents the architectural design of a six-way VLIW digital signal processor (DSP) with clustered register files. The archi-tecture uses a variable length instruction set and supports dynamic instruction dispatching. The one-level memory system architecture of the processor includes 16-KB instruction and data caches and 16-KB in-struction and data on-chip RAM. A compiler based on the Open64 was developed for the system. Evalua-tions show that the processor is suitable for high performance applications with a high code density and small program code size.

  14. Persistence Length of DNA Macromolecule with Kinks

    CERN Document Server

    Simonov, Kyrylo

    2014-01-01

    The study of configurational parameters of deformed DNA is a relevant problem in research of such important biological process as double helix compactization in cell. The deformations accompanied with local disruptions of the regular macromolecule structure cause significant bending of the double helix, or kinks. In this paper an approach for Kratky-Porod model to calculate persistence length of DNA macromolecule with kinks is developed. The presented approach considers kinks of arbitrary configuration, including two basic types of kinks, type 1 - sharp kink caused by unstacking a single base pair step, and type 2 - intrinsic-induced kink that involves several base pairs. Within developed approach analytical expressions for persistence length, coil size and gyration radius of kinky double helix were obtained.

  15. The Effective Key Length of Watermarking Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Bas, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the embedding distortion, the payload and the robustness of digital watermarking schemes are well understood, the notion of security is still not completely well defined. The approach proposed in the last five years is too theoretical and solely considers the embedding process, which is half of the watermarking scheme. This paper proposes a new measurement of watermarking security, called the effective key length, which captures the difficulty for the adversary to get access to the watermarking channel. This new methodology is applied to additive spread spectrum schemes where theoretical and practical computations of the effective key length are proposed. It shows that these schemes are not secure as soon as the adversary gets observations in the Known Message Attack context.

  16. Length-scale dependent phonon interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Gyaneshwar

    2014-01-01

    This book presents  a comprehensive description of phonons and their interactions in systems with different dimensions and length scales. Internationally-recognized leaders describe theories and measurements of phonon interactions  in relation to the design of materials with exotic properties such as metamaterials, nano-mechanical systems, next-generation electronic, photonic, and acoustic devices, energy harvesting, optical information storage, and applications of phonon lasers in a variety of fields. The emergence of techniques for control of semiconductor properties and geometry has enabled engineers to design structures in which functionality is derived from controlling electron behavior. As manufacturing techniques have greatly expanded the list of available materials and the range of attainable length scales, similar opportunities now exist for designing devices whose functionality is derived from controlling phonon behavior. However, progress in this area is hampered by gaps in our knowledge of phono...

  17. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonay Toledo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement.

  18. Analytical calculation of chain length in ferrofluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Devi; P P Dutta; D Mohanta

    2015-02-01

    The response of a typical ferrofluid (FF) lies in its explicit property of chain formation of magnetic nanoparticles. The most significant magneto-optic (MO) and magneto-viscous (MV) effects of FF are attributed to chaining effect. In the present research, an effort was made to analytically justify the dependence of the structure evolution of FFs on different measurable parameters involved in MO and MV effects. The problem is treated with the help of dimensional analysis and an empirical relation is formulated relating the equilibrium chain length with Verdet coefficient (constant), particle diameter, viscosity of the carrier fluid, particle density, magnetization and shear rate. The formulated relation of chain length is supported by error analysis to yield the uncertainty in the result. The maximum uncertainty in four sets of data is found as ∼0.75.

  19. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  20. Flux saturation length of sediment transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähtz, Thomas; Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Herrmann, Hans J

    2013-11-22

    Sediment transport along the surface drives geophysical phenomena as diverse as wind erosion and dune formation. The main length scale controlling the dynamics of sediment erosion and deposition is the saturation length Ls, which characterizes the flux response to a change in transport conditions. Here we derive, for the first time, an expression predicting Ls as a function of the average sediment velocity under different physical environments. Our expression accounts for both the characteristics of sediment entrainment and the saturation of particle and fluid velocities, and has only two physical parameters which can be estimated directly from independent experiments. We show that our expression is consistent with measurements of Ls in both aeolian and subaqueous transport regimes over at least 5 orders of magnitude in the ratio of fluid and particle density, including on Mars.

  1. Aligning Sequences by Minimum Description Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Conery

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new information theoretic framework for aligning sequences in bioinformatics. A transmitter compresses a set of sequences by constructing a regular expression that describes the regions of similarity in the sequences. To retrieve the original set of sequences, a receiver generates all strings that match the expression. An alignment algorithm uses minimum description length to encode and explore alternative expressions; the expression with the shortest encoding provides the best overall alignment. When two substrings contain letters that are similar according to a substitution matrix, a code length function based on conditional probabilities defined by the matrix will encode the substrings with fewer bits. In one experiment, alignments produced with this new method were found to be comparable to alignments from CLUSTALW. A second experiment measured the accuracy of the new method on pairwise alignments of sequences from the BAliBASE alignment benchmark.

  2. Full-length minor ampullate spidroin gene sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefei Chen

    Full Text Available Spider silk includes seven protein based fibers and glue-like substances produced by glands in the spider's abdomen. Minor ampullate silk is used to make the auxiliary spiral of the orb-web and also for wrapping prey, has a high tensile strength and does not supercontract in water. So far, only partial cDNA sequences have been obtained for minor ampullate spidroins (MiSps. Here we describe the first MiSp full-length gene sequence from the spider species Araneus ventricosus, using a multidimensional PCR approach. Comparative analysis of the sequence reveals regulatory elements, as well as unique spidroin gene and protein architecture including the presence of an unusually large intron. The spliced full-length transcript of MiSp gene is 5440 bp in size and encodes 1766 amino acid residues organized into conserved nonrepetitive N- and C-terminal domains and a central predominantly repetitive region composed of four units that are iterated in a non regular manner. The repeats are more conserved within A. ventricosus MiSp than compared to repeats from homologous proteins, and are interrupted by two nonrepetitive spacer regions, which have 100% identity even at the nucleotide level.

  3. Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...... source Matlab code. The problems with the early MDL approaches are discussed. Finally the MDL approach is extended to an MDL Appearance Model, which is proposed as a means to perform unsupervised image segmentation....

  4. W-Band Characterization of Grounded Frequency Selective Surface Arrays Composed of Nonequal Slot Length Subarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Islam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the design and construction of Frequency Selective Surface arrays composed of two subarrays of different slot lengths. We investigated their response variations with the variation of slot length differences of the elementary sub-arrays. Such nonhomogeneous arrays cannot be simulated with Computer Aided Design (CAD programs because the boundary conditions are not fulfilled by the simulator. In infinite array simulation, the periodic boundary conditions are prescribed on the walls of the unit cell, whereas in the case of sub-arrays of unequal slot length such boundary conditions are not applicable. The CAD simulation of such combined array gives incorrect values of amplitude and phase responses. In this work, we investigate the characteristics of such complex arrays by using heuristic experimental approach. The results of the experimental approach demonstrate that the resultant reflection amplitude and phase of such complex array depend on the difference of slot lengths (ΔL of the two sub-arrays.

  5. Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Colson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.

  6. Radiation length imaging with high resolution telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Stolzenberg, U; Schwenker, B; Wieduwilt, P; Marinas, C; Lütticke, F

    2016-01-01

    The construction of low mass vertex detectors with a high level of system integration is of great interest for next generation collider experiments. Radiation length images with a sufficient spatial resolution can be used to measure and disentangle complex radiation length $X$/$X_0$ profiles and contribute to the understanding of vertex detector systems. Test beam experiments with multi GeV particle beams and high-resolution tracking telescopes provide an opportunity to obtain precise 2D images of the radiation length of thin planar objects. At the heart of the $X$/$X_0$ imaging is a spatially resolved measurement of the scattering angles of particles traversing the object under study. The main challenges are the alignment of the reference telescope and the calibration of its angular resolution. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of $X$/$X_0$ imaging, a test beam experiment has been conducted. The devices under test were two mechanical prototype modules of the Belle II vertex detector. A data sample of ...

  7. Step length estimation using handheld inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Valérie; Susi, Melania; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) is presented. It combines the user's step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor's signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand's motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  8. Measuring scattering lengths of gaseous samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, M. G.; Black, T. C.; Haun, R.; Pushin, D. A.; Shahi, C. B.; Weitfeldt, F. E.

    2016-03-01

    Neutron interferometry represents one of the most precise techniques for measuring the coherent scattering lengths (bc) of particular nuclear isotopes. Currently bc for helium-4 is known only to 1% relative uncertainty; a factor of ten higher than precision measurements of other light isotopes. Scattering lengths are measured using a neutron interferometer and by comparing the phase shift a neutron acquires as it passes through a gaseous sample relative to that of a neutron passing through vacuum. The density of the gas is determined by continuous monitoring of the sample's temperature and pressure. Challenges for these types of experiments include achieving the necessary long-term phase stability and accurate determination of the phase shift caused by the aluminum cell used to hold the gas; a phase shift many times greater than that of the sample. The present status on the effort to measure the n-4He scattering length at the NIST center for Neutron Research will be given. Financial support provided by the NSERC `Create' and `Discovery' programs, CERC, NIST and NSF Grant PHY-1205342.

  9. Step Length Estimation Using Handheld Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Lachapelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel step length model using a handheld Micro Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS is presented. It combines the user’s step frequency and height with a set of three parameters for estimating step length. The model has been developed and trained using 12 different subjects: six men and six women. For reliable estimation of the step frequency with a handheld device, the frequency content of the handheld sensor’s signal is extracted by applying the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT independently from the step detection process. The relationship between step and hand frequencies is analyzed for different hand’s motions and sensor carrying modes. For this purpose, the frequency content of synchronized signals collected with two sensors placed in the hand and on the foot of a pedestrian has been extracted. Performance of the proposed step length model is assessed with several field tests involving 10 test subjects different from the above 12. The percentages of error over the travelled distance using universal parameters and a set of parameters calibrated for each subject are compared. The fitted solutions show an error between 2.5 and 5% of the travelled distance, which is comparable with that achieved by models proposed in the literature for body fixed sensors only.

  10. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  11. Human lung volume, alveolar surface area, and capillary length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiebe, B. M.; Laursen, Henning

    1995-01-01

    Cavalieri's principle, length density, morphometry, stereology, surface density, vertical sections, vertical slices......Cavalieri's principle, length density, morphometry, stereology, surface density, vertical sections, vertical slices...

  12. Spontaneous transmission of chirality through multiple length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iski, Erin V; Tierney, Heather L; Jewell, April D; Sykes, E Charles H

    2011-06-20

    The hierarchical transfer of chirality in nature, from the nano-, to meso-, to macroscopic length scales, is very complex, and as of yet, not well understood. The advent of scanning probes has allowed chirality to be monitored at the single molecule or monolayer level and has opened up the possibility to track enantiospecific interactions and chiral self-assembly with molecular-scale detail. This paper describes the self-assembly of a simple, model molecule (naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene) that is achiral in the gas phase, but becomes chiral when adsorbed on a surface. This polyaromatic hydrocarbon forms a stable and reversibly ordered system on Cu(111) in which the transmission of chirality from single surface-bound molecules to complex 2D chiral architectures can be monitored as a function of molecular packing density and surface temperature. In addition to the point chirality of the surface-bound molecule, the unit cell of the molecular domains was also found to be chiral due to the incommensurate alignment of the molecular rows with respect to the underlying metal lattice. These molecular domains always aggregated in groups of three, all of the same chirality, but with different rotational orientations, forming homochiral "tri-lobe" ensembles. At a larger length scale, these tri-lobe ensembles associated with nearest-neighbor tri-lobe units of opposite chirality at lower packing densities before forming an extended array of homochiral tri-lobe ensembles at higher converges. This system displayed chirality at a variety of size scales from the molecular (≈1 nm) and domain (≈5 nm) to the tri-lobe ensemble (≈10 nm) and extended array (>25 nm) levels. The chirality of the tri-lobe ensembles dictated how the overall surface packing occurred and both homo- and heterochiral arrays could be reproducibly and reversibly formed and interchanged as a function of surface coverage. Finally, these chirally templated surfaces displayed remarkable enantiospecificity for

  13. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantly positive correlation. The results provide new evidence regarding the integration between the pelvic and pectoral modules. The correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length may serve as a mechanism to cope with the effect on performance caused by a tradeoff in muscle mass between the pectoral and pelvic modules, via changing moment arms of muscles that function in flight and in terrestrial locomotion.

  14. Length-Dependent Electromigration Behavior of Sn58Bi Solder and Critical Length of Electromigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Muraoka, Mikio; Saka, Masumi

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of a developed test structure, electromigration (EM) tests of Sn58Bi solder strips with lengths of 50 μm, 100 μm, and 150 μm were simultaneously conducted at a current density of 27 kA/cm2 at 373 K. Length-dependent EM behavior was detected, and the mechanism is discussed. Bi atoms were segregated to the anode side more easily as the strip length increased, which resulted in the formation of a thicker Bi-rich layer or Sn-Bi mixed hillocks. The results reveal the existence of back flow that depends on the solder joint length. The back flow is most likely caused by an oxide layer formed on the Sn58Bi solder. By measuring the thicknesses of the Bi-rich layers, the Bi drift velocities were obtained. The critical length of the solder joint and the critical product of the length and the current density were estimated to be 16 μm and 43 A/cm, respectively. This observation will assist design of advanced electronic devices to anticipate EM reliability.

  15. Hyperuniformity disorder length spectroscopy for extended particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durian, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    The concept of a hyperuniformity disorder length h was recently introduced for analyzing volume fraction fluctuations for a set of measuring windows [Chieco et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 032909 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.032909]. This length permits a direct connection to the nature of disorder in the spatial configuration of the particles and provides a way to diagnose the degree of hyperuniformity in terms of the scaling of h and its value in comparison with established bounds. Here, this approach is generalized for extended particles, which are larger than the image resolution and can lie partially inside and partially outside the measuring windows. The starting point is an expression for the relative volume fraction variance in terms of four distinct volumes: that of the particle, the measuring window, the mean-squared overlap between particle and region, and the region over which particles have nonzero overlap with the measuring window. After establishing limiting behaviors for the relative variance, computational methods are developed for both continuum and pixelated particles. Exact results are presented for particles of special shape and for measuring windows of special shape, for which the equations are tractable. Comparison is made for other particle shapes, using simulated Poisson patterns. And the effects of polydispersity and image errors are discussed. For small measuring windows, both particle shape and spatial arrangement affect the form of the variance. For large regions, the variance scaling depends only on arrangement but particle shape sets the numerical proportionality. The combined understanding permit the measured variance to be translated to the spectrum of hyperuniformity lengths versus region size, as the quantifier of spatial arrangement. This program is demonstrated for a system of nonoverlapping particles at a series of increasing packing fractions as well as for an Einstein pattern of particles with several different extended shapes.

  16. Measuring the attenuation length in liquid scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellgartner, Dominikus; Oberauer, Lothar; Prummer, Sabrina; Sawatzki, Julia; Zimmer, Vincenz [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Departement E15, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ulrich, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Departement E12, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The next generation of liquid scintillator detectors like the proposed LENA detector or the planned JUNO detector will feature diameters of order 30 m. Due to this vast size, the optical quality of the scintillator is of crucial importance. To determine the attenuation length of liquid scintillators, an experiment with a 5 m long measurement section was set-up in the underground laboratory in Garching. The current set-up of the experiment is presented along with a discussion of the results of the first measurements. Additionally, there is an outlook towards possible upgrades of the experiment in the future.

  17. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gh.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1–16 (2012] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule, mesoscopic (Simpson rule, and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision. Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  18. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Κ. Ojha

    2000-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the first 2MASS (The Two Micron All Sky Survey) sampler data as observed at lower Galactic latitude in our Galaxy. These new near-infrared data provide insight into the structure of the thin disk of our Galaxy, The interpretation of star counts and color distributions of stars in the near-infrared with the synthetic stellar population model, gives strong evidence that the Galactic thin disk density scale length, ℎ, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc).

  19. Length spectra and degeneration of flat metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Duchin, Moon; Rafi, Kasra

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider flat metrics (semi-translation structures) on surfaces of finite type. There are two main results. The first is a complete description of when a set of simple closed curves is spectrally rigid, that is, when the length vector determines a metric among the class of flat metrics. Secondly, we give an embedding into the space of geodesic currents and use this to get a boundary for the space of flat metrics. The geometric interpretation is that flat metrics degenerate to "mixed structures" on the surface: part flat metric and part measured foliation.

  20. Asymptotic Safety, Emergence and Minimal Length

    CERN Document Server

    Percacci, R

    2010-01-01

    There seems to be a common prejudice that asymptotic safety is either incompatible with, or at best unrelated to, the other topics in the title. This is not the case. In fact, we show that 1) the existence of a fixed point with suitable properties is a promising way of deriving emergent properties of gravity, and 2) there is a precise sense in which asymptotic safety implies a minimal length. In so doing we also discuss possible signatures of asymptotic safety in scattering experiments.

  1. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  2. Composition and temperature-induced structural changes in lead-tellurite glasses on different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S; Arora, A K; Sivasubramanian, V; Krishna, P S R; Krishnan, R Venkata

    2012-12-19

    Processes occurring at macroscopic and microscopic length scales across the glass transition (T(g)) in lead-tellurite glass (PbO)(x)(TeO(2))(1-x) (x = 0.1-0.3) are investigated using Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. For all the samples, the temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode is found to exhibit a universal scaling below T(g) and a rapid softening above T(g). The lower value of elastic modulus at a higher concentration of network modifier PbO, estimated from Brillouin data, arises due to loss of network rigidity. From quantitative analysis of the reduced Raman spectra, several modes are found to exhibit anomalous changes across T(g). Instead of the expected anharmonic behaviour, several modes exhibit hardening, suggesting stiffening of the stretching force constants with temperature, the effect being more pronounced in glasses with higher x. In addition, incorporation of PbO in the glass is also found to narrow down the bond-length distribution, as evident from the sharpening of the Raman bands. The stiffening of the force constants of molecular units at a microscopic length scale and the decrease of elastic constant attributed to loss of network rigidity on a macroscopic length scale appear to be opposite. These different behaviours at two length scales are understood on the basis of a microscopic model involving TeO(n) and PbO units in the structure.

  3. Texture of Mind---A Comparative Study of Luo Yihe and Hai zi on Love Theme and Loneliness Theme%心灵的纹理--骆一禾、海子情爱主题和孤独主题比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    西渡

    2014-01-01

    骆一禾和海子被视为一对具有共同诗歌趣味和诗歌追求的诗人,其诗歌主题也多有重合。情爱主题和孤独主题在骆一禾和海子的诗歌书写中都占有极为重要的分量,但其中体现的诗人的心灵向度却各不相同。在情爱主题上,骆一禾把情爱视为通向世界的桥梁,最终走向了宗教性的“无因之爱”;海子则把情爱视为一个封闭的天地,它在本质上是一种自我之爱。在孤独主题上,骆一禾一开始把孤独视为反思的对象,相信人不止拥有一个灵魂;海子则一直沉溺于孤独的体验中,最终走向了石头似的自我封闭。体现在情爱主题和孤独主题上的这些深刻差异反映了两位诗人深层心灵构造的不同纹理,呈现了各自鲜明而难以混同的个性。%Luo Yihe and Hai zi were regarded as a couple of poets with common interest and aim to pursue ,many of their poems had the same theme.Love theme and loneliness theme were very important both in their poetry writings,but the spiritual dimensions which reflected in their poems were not the same.As for the love theme,Luo Yihe considered it as the bridge to the world,and ultimately went into the religious “uncaused love”,while Hai zi looked upon love as a closed world,it’s essentially a self-love .And as for the loneliness theme,Luo Yihe considered loneliness firstly as the object of reflection, and believed that people would have more than one soul;while Hai Zi indulged himself in a lonely expe-rience,and ultimately went into the stone-like self-enclosed.These profound differences between the two poets in the themes of love and loneliness reflected different textures deep in their structure of mind, showing their own distinctive and unconfusable personalities.

  4. Research on 200m Butterfly Stroke Techniques of LIU Zi-ge Prepared for the 29th Olympic Games%对刘子歌备战第29届奥运会200 m蝶泳技术攻关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑闽生; 金炜; 王建国; 施闻

    2009-01-01

    After comprehensive analysis on butterfly stroke techniques of LIU Zi-ge prepared for the 29th Olympic Games, it was found that the butterfly stroke technique of LIU Zi-ge is small wave butterfly, which breathe better with time, up and down small and is good at drag reduction in swimming process. The techniques are in line with the development trends of mod-ern butterfly technique. Her physical fitness and condition is good enough to top the world's highest level. During the research period of preparing the Beijing Olympic Games, the research process has been divided into two stages, which is based on the technique of LIU Zi-ge. After the technical improvements of her starts and turns, she won the championship on the 2008 Shaoxing Championship by 2min7s76, which is beyond the former best score 2s39, and ob-tained the Olympic 200m butterfly entry qualifications. The main job of the second stage is to improve the techniques of catch and pull in swimming process. She finally won the gold medal of 200m butterfly on the 29th Olympic Games by 2min4s18, which break the world record. The result of Olympic Games and the analysis of technique and tactics indicate that the coun-termeasures and methods proposed are effective to the research of technical training.%对刘子歌备战第29届奥运会的蝶泳技术全面解析认为,刘子歌蝶泳属于呼吸配合时机好,上下起伏小,游进中减阻技术好的小波浪蝶泳技术,符合现代蝶泳技术发展趋势;身体、体能条件也是非常出色的,具备冲击世界最高水平的条件.在备战北京奥运会攻关期间,针对刘子歌技术将攻关研究分为两个阶段,通过对其出发转身的技术改进,于2008年绍兴冠军赛以2 min7 s76超越此前本人最好成绩2 s39并夺冠,获得奥运会200 m蝶泳的参赛资格;第2个阶段通过对其途中游抱水和推水技术的改进,最终在第29届奥运会上以2min4 s18的成绩夺取金牌并打破世界纪录,证明对其技术训

  5. Preferred Length of Video Segments in Interactive Video Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, P. W.

    This study investigated questions related to the length of video segments in interactive video programs: (1) the preferred segment length if learners decide how much information they want presented before stopping to answer question; (2) the relationship between segment length and direct recall of factual information when segment length is…

  6. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  7. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  8. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...

  9. Free path lengths in quasi crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wennberg, Bernt

    2012-01-01

    The Lorentz gas is a model for a cloud of point particles (electrons) in a distribution of scatterers in space. The scatterers are often assumed to be spherical with a fixed diameter $d$, and the point particles move with constant velocity between the scatterers, and are specularly reflected when hitting a scatterer. There is no interaction between point particles. An interesting question concerns the distribution of free path lengths, i.e. the distance a point particle moves between the scattering events, and how this distribution scales with scatterer diameter, scatterer density and the distribution of the scatterers. It is by now well known that in the so-called Boltzmann-Grad limit, a Poisson distribution of scatters leads to an exponential distribution of free path lengths, whereas if the scatterer distribution is periodic, the distribution of free path behaves asymptotically like a Cauchy distribution. This paper considers the case when the scatters are distributed on a quasi crystal, i.e. non periodica...

  10. Cellular Mechanisms of Ciliary Length Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Keeling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilia and flagella are evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound, microtubule-based organelles on the surface of most eukaryotic cells. They play important roles in coordinating a variety of signaling pathways during growth, development, cell mobility, and tissue homeostasis. Defects in ciliary structure or function are associated with multiple human disorders called ciliopathies. These diseases affect diverse tissues, including, but not limited to the eyes, kidneys, brain, and lungs. Many processes must be coordinated simultaneously in order to initiate ciliogenesis. These include cell cycle, vesicular trafficking, and axonemal extension. Centrioles play a central role in both cell cycle progression and ciliogenesis, making the transition between basal bodies and mitotic spindle organizers integral to both processes. The maturation of centrioles involves a functional shift from cell division toward cilium nucleation which takes place concurrently with its migration and fusion to the plasma membrane. Several proteinaceous structures of the distal appendages in mother centrioles are required for this docking process. Ciliary assembly and maintenance requires a precise balance between two indispensable processes; so called assembly and disassembly. The interplay between them determines the length of the resulting cilia. These processes require a highly conserved transport system to provide the necessary substances at the tips of the cilia and to recycle ciliary turnover products to the base using a based microtubule intraflagellar transport (IFT system. In this review; we discuss the stages of ciliogenesis as well as mechanisms controlling the lengths of assembled cilia.

  11. Entrance Length and Turbulence Transition in Microflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereley, Steve; Lee, Sangyoup; Gui, Lichuan

    2002-11-01

    Since microfabrication techniques are typically planar processes, microchannel flows typically have significant predevelopment due to the upstream reservoir having the same height as the microchannel. The main concerns of the current study are categorized into finding the effects of typical microchannel geometry on the velocity entrance length in the laminar flow regime and providing the turbulence transitional Reynolds number range using the details of the velocity profile rather than global measurements of pressure drop. A rectangular micro-channel of aspect ratio 2.65 and the hydraulic diameter 380 um was used in this study. Micro particle image velocimetry measurement was performed to measure the velocity profiles. The entrance length is found to be reduced by about 45number occurs between 2100 and 2900-comparable to macroscale observations. Finally a new technique is proposed to measure the turbulence intensity of a flow directly from the PIV correlation function peak width. This new technique provides results comparable to traditional means of calculating turbulence intensity but is particularly useful in measuring microflows where the seeding density can be very low.

  12. The probabilistic distribution of metal whisker lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niraula, D., E-mail: Dipesh.Niraula@rockets.utoledo.edu; Karpov, V. G., E-mail: victor.karpov@utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    Significant reliability concerns in multiple industries are related to metal whiskers, which are random high aspect ratio filaments growing on metal surfaces and causing shorts in electronic packages. We derive a closed form expression for the probabilistic distribution of metal whisker lengths. Our consideration is based on the electrostatic theory of metal whiskers, according to which whisker growth is interrupted when its tip enters a random local “dead region” of a weak electric field. Here, we use the approximation neglecting the possibility of thermally activated escapes from the “dead regions,” which is later justified. We predict a one-parameter distribution with a peak at a length that depends on the metal surface charge density and surface tension. In the intermediate range, it fits well the log-normal distribution used in the experimental studies, although it decays more rapidly in the range of very long whiskers. In addition, our theory quantitatively explains how the typical whisker concentration is much lower than that of surface grains. Finally, it predicts the stop-and-go phenomenon for some of the whiskers growth.

  13. Localization length of nearly periodic layered metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    del Barco, O

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed numerically the localization length of light $\\xi$ for nearly periodic arrangements of homogeneous stacks (formed exclusively by right-handed materials) and mixed stacks (with alternating right and left-handed metamaterials). Layers with index of refraction $n_1$ and thickness $L_1$ alternate with layers of index of refraction $n_2$ and thickness $L_2$. Positional disorder has been considered by shifting randomly the positions of the layer boundaries with respect to periodic values. For homogeneous stacks, we have shown that the localization length is modulated by the corresponding bands and that $\\xi$ is enhanced at the center of each allowed band. In the limit of long-wavelengths $\\lambda$, the parabolic behavior previously found in purely disordered systems is recovered, whereas for $\\lambda \\ll L_1 + L_2$ a saturation is reached. In the case of nearly periodic mixed stacks with the condition $|n_1 L_1|=|n_2 L_2|$, instead of bands there is a periodic arrangement of Lorenztian resonances, ...

  14. Measuring the Attenuation Length of Water in the CHIPS-M Water Cherenkov Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Amat, F; Bryant, J; Carroll, T J; Germani, S; Joyce, T; Kreisten, B; Marshak, M; Meier, J; Nelson, J; Perch, A; Pfuzner, M; De Rijck, S; Salazar, R; Thomas, J; Trokan-Tenorio, J; Vahle, P; Wade, R; Whitehead, L; Whitney, M

    2016-01-01

    The water at the proposed site of the CHIPS water Cherenkov detector has been studied to measure its attenuation length for Cherenkov light as a function of filtering time. A scaled model of the CHIPS detector filled with water from the Wentworth 2W pit, proposed site of the CHIPS deployment, in conjunction with a 3.2\\unit{m} vertical column filled with this water, was used to study the transmission of 405nm laser light. Results consistent with attenuation lengths of up to 100m were observed for this wavelength with filtration and UV sterilization alone.

  15. A phenomenological determination of the pion-nucleon scattering lengths from pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Wycech, S

    2005-01-01

    A model independent expression for the electromagnetic corrections to a phenomenological hadronic pion-nucleon scattering length, extracted from pionic hydrogen, is obtained. In a non-relativistic approach and using an extended charge distribution, these corrections are derived up to terms of order (alpha)**2 log(alpha) in the limit of a short-range hadronic interaction. We infer a charged pion-proton scattering length of 0.0870(5) in units of inverse pion mass, which gives for the charged pion-proton-neutron coupling, through the GMO relation, a value of 14.04(17).

  16. Determination of the negatively charged pion-proton scattering length from pionic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Wycech, S

    2003-01-01

    We derive a closed, model independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor to the hadronic scattering length extracted from a hydrogenic atom with an extended charge and in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction to terms of order ((alpha)**2)(log(alpha)) in the limit of a non-relativistic approach. A hadronic negatively charged pion-proton scattering length of 0.0870(5), in units of inverse charged pion-mass, is deduced, leading to a pion-nucleon coupling constant from the GMO relation equals to 14.00(19).

  17. Reproduction/Reconstruction of Turkish Folk Music: Choir of voices from homeland called as “Yurttan Sesler” as a national merging projectTürk halk müziğinin yeniden üretimi/inşası: Ulusal kaynaştırma projesi olarak “Yurttan Sesler” topluluğu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Ersoy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is an effective means used in constructing cultural identity. Music of a society not only allows it to position itself differently but also creates an integrating and merging effect as compared with others. So music not only divides people but also merge them. Thus music is a differentiating and joining phenomenon paradoxically.   This article discusses how the diversity in folk music in Turkey produced and consumed independently from each other for the first years of the Republic of Turkey has been turned to an integrating and merging factor by being reproduced under the title of “Yurttan Sesler” (Voices from the Homeland guided by Muzaffer Sarısözen and the reflections of that performance today. ÖzetMüzik, kültürel kimlik inşası için etkin bir kullanım aracıdır. Bir toplumun müziği, kendisini diğerlerine göre farklı konumlandırmasını sağlarken, aynı zamanda da “diğerlerine göre” bütünleştirici ve kaynaştırıcı bir etki yaratır. Yani müzik insanları bir araya getirdiği gibi aynı zamanda da ayırır. Dolayısıyla müzik paradoksal bir biçimde, hem farklılaştıran, hem de birleştiren bir fenomendir.Bu makale, Türkiye Cumhuriyetinin ilk yıllarından itibaren birbirinden bağımsız olarak üretilen ve tüketilen Türkiye’deki halk müziği çeşitliliğinin, Muzaffer Sarısözen öncülüğünde, “Yurttan Sesler” adı altında “yeniden üretilerek” nasıl birleştirici ve kaynaştırıcı bir unsur haline dönüştürüldüğünü ve bu edimin günümüze yansımalarını irdeler.

  18. New Interpretation of “Xian”on Tang Zi Zhong Bin Er Plate and Yi and Supplementary Explanation of Its Inscription%唐子仲濒儿盘、匜“咸”字新解及铭文补释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫华; 徐今

    2014-01-01

    In 2001 ,three bronzes with inscriptions were unearthed in Xiaojiahe ,Hubei province .They belong to“Tang Zi Zhong Bin Er” .“ ” on the bronzes has caused debate in academia ,and involved the important calen-dar problems of bronzes ,such as “moon phase four” and“moon phase fixed point” .The interpretation of the word“Yu” in the inscription in the existing results also can be discussed .This paper will discuss two prob-lems .First ,it is demonstrated that “ ”in Tang Zi Zhong Bin Er plate and yi is “Xian”,from the shape ,litera-ture ,archaeology and other aspects .“Xian”can be interpreted as“Xian chi” .“Xian chi”is Jupiter cycle ,in Wu-Wu ,and the WuWu may be 602 BC .Then“Yu”in“Yu plate” ,“Yu hui yi”and“Yu pi”should be explaned as“using” .%2001年湖北肖家河出土3件有铭铜器,器主是“唐子仲濒儿”,引起了学界对“”字的讨论,此字关涉到金文历日这个重要问题,比如“月相四分说”和“月相定点说”。现有成果对铭文中“御”字的解释亦有可商榷之处。文章研究表明:第一,从字形、文献、考古等多个角度论证,认为唐子仲濒儿盘、匜铭文中的“”是“咸”字,释为“咸池”。“咸池”是岁星纪年,岁在戊午,即为咸池,并考证做器年代可能为公元前602年。第二,铭文“御盘”、“御沬匜”、“御鈚”中的“御”字当释为“用”。

  19. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation.

  20. Length Scale of the Spin Seebeck Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlberger, Andreas; Ritzmann, Ulrike; Hinzke, Denise; Guo, Er-Jia; Cramer, Joel; Jakob, Gerhard; Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Kim, Dong Hun; Ross, Caroline A.; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Nowak, Ulrich; Kläui, Mathias

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the origin of the spin Seebeck effect in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) samples for film thicknesses from 20 nm to 50 μ m at room temperature and 50 K. Our results reveal a characteristic increase of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect amplitude with the thickness of the insulating ferrimagnetic YIG, which levels off at a critical thickness that increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behavior cannot be explained as an interface effect or by variations of the material parameters. Comparison to numerical simulations of thermal magnonic spin currents yields qualitative agreement for the thickness dependence resulting from the finite magnon propagation length. This allows us to trace the origin of the observed signals to genuine bulk magnonic spin currents due to the spin Seebeck effect ruling out an interface origin and allowing us to gauge the reach of thermally excited magnons in this system for different temperatures. At low temperature, even quantitative agreement with the simulations is found.

  1. Stellar mixing length theory with entropy rain

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Stellar mixing length theory is modified to include the effects of a nongradient term that originates from the motion of convective elements with entropy perturbations of either sign. It is argued that such a term, first studied by Deardorff in the meteorological context, represents the effects of thin intense downdrafts caused by the rapid cooling in the granulation layer at the top of the convection zone. They transport heat nonlocally, as originally anticipated by Spruit in the 1990s, who describes the convection in the strongly stratified simulations of Stein & Nordlund as entropy rain. Although our model has ill-determined free parameters, it demonstrates that solutions can be found that look similar to the original ones, except that the deeper layers are now Schwarzschild stable, so no giant cells are produced and the typical convective scale is that of granules even at larger depth. Consequences for modeling solar differential, the global dynamo, and sunspots are briefly discussed.

  2. [Telomere length, telomerase activity, stress and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, I M; Mikhelson, V M; Spivak, D L

    2015-01-01

    The review is dedicated to analysis of data available at present time concerning possible influence of stress upon telomere lengths and telomerase activity, as well as various ways of counteracting it. Present-day telomerase theory of aging gains a new impetus, shedding light upon the influence of psychological state of humans and their ability to counteract stress, upon the process of aging. It also tends to regard telomere shortening and the decrease in the activity of telomerase as a marker of level of the ability to adapt to both inner and outer influences. Both aging and age-dependent diseases are proved to be substantially retarded not only by the administration of drugs, but also by psychological means, which forms a good way towards healthy longevity. With complete understanding of the impossibility to prevent or even to slow down natural senescence itself, these methods allow to remove causes, which accelerate senescence, and to increase the average human longevity.

  3. Short Telomere Length and Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller Madrid, Alexander; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short telomeres are associated with aging and have been associated with a high risk of ischemic heart disease in observational studies; however, the latter association could be due to residual confounding and/or reverse causation. We wanted to test the hypothesis that short telomeres...... are associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease using a Mendelian randomization approach free of reverse causation and of most confounding. METHODS: We genotyped 3 genetic variants in OBFC1 (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold containing 1), TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), and TERC...... logistic and instrumental variable analysis for genetic estimates. RESULTS: Observationally, a 200-bp-shorter telomere length was associated with a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for ischemic heart disease of 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.03). Per allele, telomeres were shorter by 67 bp (73-60). In meta...

  4. Variable length Markov chains and dynamical sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cénac, Peggy; Paccaut, Frédéric; Pouyanne, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Infinite random sequences of letters can be viewed as stochastic chains or as strings produced by a source, in the sense of information theory. The relationship between Variable Length Markov Chains (VLMC) and probabilistic dynamical sources is studied. We establish a probabilistic frame for context trees and VLMC and we prove that any VLMC is a dynamical source for which we explicitly build the mapping. On two examples, the ``comb'' and the ``bamboo blossom'', we find a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence and the unicity of a stationary probability measure for the VLMC. These two examples are detailed in order to provide the associated Dirichlet series as well as the generating functions of word occurrences.

  5. The heritability of leucocyte telomere length dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leucocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex trait associated with ageing and longevity. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL and its age-dependent attrition. Strong, but indirect evidence suggests that LTL at birth and its attrition during childhood largely explains interindividual LTL...... unique environmental factors, estimated at 72% (95% CI 56% to 84%) affected LTL attrition rate with no indication of shared environmental effects. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that estimated heritability of LTL and also its age-dependent attrition. As LTL attrition is much slower in adults than...... in children and given that having a long or a short LTL is largely determined before adulthood, our findings suggest that heritability and early life environment are the main determinants of LTL throughout the human life course. Thus, insights into factors that influence LTL at birth and its dynamics during...

  6. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse;

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... different population samples were used for comparison. In total 138 adult volunteers (68 men and 70 women aged 20-59 years) recruited within the Copenhagen area and 2504 (1153 men and 1351 women aged 20-59 y) randomly selected adults from the Danish Civil Registration System, whom participated...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results...

  7. Telomerase and telomere length in pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianju; Ullenbruch, Matthew; Young Choi, Yoon; Yu, Hongfeng; Ding, Lin; Xaubet, Antoni; Pereda, Javier; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A; Bitterman, Peter B; Henke, Craig A; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Phan, Sem H

    2013-08-01

    In addition to its expression in stem cells and many cancers, telomerase activity is transiently induced in murine bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis with increased levels of telomerase transcriptase (TERT) expression, which is essential for fibrosis. To extend these observations to human chronic fibrotic lung disease, we investigated the expression of telomerase activity in lung fibroblasts from patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The results showed that telomerase activity was induced in more than 66% of IPF lung fibroblast samples, in comparison with less than 29% from control samples, some of which were obtained from lung cancer resections. Less than 4% of the human IPF lung fibroblast samples exhibited shortened telomeres, whereas less than 6% of peripheral blood leukocyte samples from patients with IPF or hypersensitivity pneumonitis demonstrated shortened telomeres. Moreover, shortened telomeres in late-generation telomerase RNA component knockout mice did not exert a significant effect on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In contrast, TERT knockout mice exhibited deficient fibrosis that was independent of telomere length. Finally, TERT expression was up-regulated by a histone deacetylase inhibitor, while the induction of TERT in lung fibroblasts was associated with the binding of acetylated histone H3K9 to the TERT promoter region. These findings indicate that significant telomerase induction was evident in fibroblasts from fibrotic murine lungs and a majority of IPF lung samples, whereas telomere shortening was not a common finding in the human blood and lung fibroblast samples. Notably, the animal studies indicated that the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis was independent of telomere length.

  8. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  9. Burnout among physiotherapists and length of service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Śliwiński

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the development of burnout among physiotherapists with different length of service in physiotherapy. Material and Methods: The following research tools were used to study burnout: the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ, based on FLZ (Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit by Frahrenberg, Myrtek, Schumacher, and Brähler; the Burnout Scale Inventory (BSI by Steuden and Okła; and an ad hoc questionnaire to collect socio-demographic data. The survey was anonymous and voluntary and involved a group of 200 active physiotherapists working in Poland. Results: A statistical analysis revealed significant differences in overall life satisfaction between length-of-service groups (p = 0.03. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service reported greater satisfaction than those with less than 5 years and between 5 and 15 years of service. The results suggest that burnout in those with 5-15 years of service is higher in physiotherapists working in health care centers and increases with age and greater financial satisfaction, while it decreases with greater satisfaction with friend and family relations and greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. In those with more than 15 years of service, burnout increases in the case of working in a setting other than a health care or educational center and decreases with greater satisfaction with one's work and profession. Conclusions: Job satisfaction and a satisfying family life prevent burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service in the profession. Financial satisfaction, age and being employed in health care may cause burnout among physiotherapists with 5-15 years of service. Physiotherapists with more than 15 years of service experience more burnout if they work in a setting other than a health care or educational center and less burnout if they are satisfied with their profession.

  10. Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengh are both good predictors of post-inflatable prosthesis penile length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, EC; Maganty, A; Ramasamy, R; Eid, JF

    2015-01-01

    Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of refractory erectile dysfunction; however, current literature to aid surgeons on how best to counsel patients on their postoperative inflated penile length is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative parameters that could better predict postoperative penile length following insertion of an IPP. Twenty men were enrolled in a prospective study examining penile lengths before and after IPP surgery. Patients with Peyronie’s disease were excluded from this analysis. Baseline preoperative characteristics, including body mass index, history of hypertension, diabetes, Sexual Health Inventory for Men scores and/or prior radical prostatectomy were recorded. All patients underwent implantation with a three-piece inflatable Coloplast penile prosthesis. We compared stretched penile length to pharmacologically induced erect lengths. Postoperatively, we measured inflated penile lengths at 6 weeks and assessed patients’ perception of penile size at 12 weeks. The median (± interquartile range) stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length was 15 (± 3) and 14.25 (± 2) cm, respectively (P = 0.5). Median post-prosthesis penile length (13.5 ± 2.13 cm) was smaller than preoperative pharmacologically induced length (P = 0.02) and preoperative stretched penile length (P = 0.01). The majority of patients (70%) had a decrease in penile length (median loss 0.5 ± 1.5 cm); however, this loss was perceptible by 43% of men. Stretched penile length and pharmacologically induced erect penile length were equally good predictors of postoperative inflated length (Spearman’s correlation 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Pharmacologically induced erect penile length and stretched penile lengths are equal predictors of post-prosthesis penile length. The majority of men will experience some decrease in penile length following prosthesis implantation; however <50

  11. What is the difference between OASIS and OPERA? Roughly five pixels: orthographic structure biases the perceived length of letter strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetail, Fabienne; Content, Alain

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of monosyllabic-word-recognition processes, in contrast with multisyllabic-word processing, has accumulated over the past decades. One fundamental challenge regarding multisyllabic words concerns their parsing into smaller units and the nature of the cues determining the parsing. We propose that the organization of consonant and vowel letters provides powerful cues for parsing, and we present data from a new task showing that a word's orthographic structure, as determined by the number of vowel-letter clusters, influences estimations of its length. Words were briefly presented on a computer screen, and participants had to estimate word length by drawing a line on the screen with the mouse. In three experiments, participants estimated words comprising fewer orthographic units as shorter than words comprising more units even though the words matched for number of letters. Further results demonstrated that the length bias was driven by orthographic information and not by phonological structure.

  12. The association between global DNA methylation and telomere length in a longitudinal study of boilermakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason Y Y; De Vivo, Immaculata; Lin, Xihong; Grashow, Rachel; Cavallari, Jennifer; Christiani, David C

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if global DNA methylation, as reflected in LINE-1 and Alu elements, is associated with telomere length and whether it modifies the rate of telomeric change. A repeated-measures longitudinal study was performed with a panel of 87 boilermaker subjects. The follow-up period was 29 months. LINE-1 and Alu methylation was determined using pyrosequencing. Leukocyte relative telomere length was assessed via real-time qPCR. Linear-mixed models were used to estimate the association between DNA methylation and telomere length. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to explore the hypothesized relationship between DNA methylation, proxies of particulate matter exposure, and telomere length at baseline. There appeared to be a positive association between both LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels, and telomere length. For every incremental increase in LINE-1 methylation, there was a statistically significant 1.0 × 10(-1) (95% CI: 4.6 × 10(-2), 1.5 × 10(-1), P telomere length, controlling for age at baseline, current and past smoking status, work history, BMI (log kg/m(2) ) and leukocyte differentials. Furthermore, for every incremental increase in Alu methylation, there was a statistically significant 6.2 × 10(-2) (95% CI: 1.0 × 10(-2), 1.1 × 10(-1), P = 0.02) unit increase in relative telomere length. The interaction between LINE-1 methylation and follow-up time was statistically significant with an estimate -9.8 × 10(-3) (95% CI: -1.8 × 10(-2), -1.9 × 10(-3), P = 0.02); suggesting that the rate of telomeric change was modified by the degree of LINE-1 methylation. No statistically significant association was found between the cumulative PM exposure construct, with global DNA methylation and telomere length at baseline.

  13. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  14. The ideal dimensions of a Halbach cylinder of finite length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    but with a possible shorter length is considered. The external radius and the length of the Halbach cylinder with the smallest possible dimensions are found as a function of a desired internal radius, length of the sample volume and mean flux density. It is shown that the optimal ratio between the outer and inner...... radius of the Halbach cylinder does not depend on the length of the sample volume. Finally, the efficiency of a finite length Halbach cylinder is considered and compared with the case of a cylinder of infinite length. The most efficient dimensions for a Halbach cylinder are found and it is shown...

  15. Length Matters: Informational Load in Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hemforth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will compare prosodic and pragmatic approaches to the role of constituent length in attachment ambiguities. Lengthening a constituent affects its informativity: longer constituents are usually less predictable (Levy & Florian, 2007 and demand a higher processing load than shorter ones (Almor, 1999. Following neo-Gricean accounts (Levinson, 1987 and 1991, increased informational load needs to be justified. This justification is achieved more easily when the long constituent conveys new information and when it relates to central elements of the utterance. Informational load is, however, not a simple question of length in numbers of characters or syllables but more likely a question of amount of information. In three off-line experiments using a cloze task, we will compare the effect of lengthening ambiguous prepositional phrases as in [1a/b/c] either by lengthening a city name or by adding information about the city. We will show that only lengthening by adding information increases attachment to a more central element of the utterance. These results will be discussed based on prosodic and pragmatic factors explaining the role of constituent length for attachment ambiguities.[1] Peter met the doctor of the lawyer from a. Apt. / b. Aix-en-Provence / c. the beautiful city of Apt.Dans cet article, nous comparons une approche prosodique avec une approche pragmatique pour rendre compte des effets de la longueur des constituants dans les ambigüités d’attachement. Augmenter la longueur d’un constituant a des conséquences sur l’information qu’il véhicule : plus un constituant est long et moins il est prédictible (Levy et Florian, 2007 et plus son coût de traitement augmente (Almor, 1999. Suivant les principes néo-gricéens (Levinson, 1987 et 1991, augmenter le poids informationnel doit être justifié. Cette justification est plus facilement satisfaite lorsqu’un constituant long véhicule une information

  16. On the Achievement of Prominence in English Sentence Translation from the Figure-Ground Theory---Illustrated with the Sentence Translation of ZhuangZi%图形-背景理论下英译句子中突显功能的实现--兼论《庄子》句子英译方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕新兵

    2016-01-01

    Figure-ground theory is important component of Cognitive Linguistics which is vital tool to achieve prominence. By discussing the relation of figure and ground in sentence level in ZhuangZi English version can make a conclusion that there are some differences between English and Chinese in sentence prominence. Different versions adopt different translation methods in simple sentences, complex sentences and other sentences. English and Chinese sentence pattern has its special method to achieve prominence while the translation of sentence must achieve promi-nence by fidelity to the original text.%图形-背景理论是认知语言学的重要理论,是实现突显功能的重要手段。通过对《庄子》英译本中句子层面对图形和背景关系的探讨,可以看出英汉两种语言在句子突显上的存在差异,译本中对简单句、复合句及其他句式应采用不同翻译方法。英汉句式对于突显功能的实现都有独特的方式,句子的翻译要在忠实原文的基础上实现突显功能。

  17. 《朱子语类》软硬反义概念词语类聚考%A Textual Research on Antithetical Words Denoting “Softness”and “Hardness”in Zhu Zi Yu-lei (朱子语类)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐时仪

    2016-01-01

    The system of vocabulary is composed of individual words which are clustered together on the basis of meaning relationships. A lexical cluster denoting the same meaning is equivalent to a lexical field. There are many words and expressions found in Zhu Zi Yu-lei (朱子语类) , literally Classified conversations of Master Zhu, deno-ting the concepts of softness and hardness respectively. This paper presents an investigation into the network of lexi-cal clustering under which antithetical words denoting softness and hardness are subsumed.%词汇系统由一个个概念词语类聚互相关联构成,同一概念的词语类聚相当于一个词汇场。《朱子语类》中表达软硬概念的有“柔、软、坚、硬、刚、顽”等词,形成以这些词及其组合的词语为核心而聚合其他词汇成分的软硬概念词语聚合网络。

  18. Ar fotosintēzi saistīto parametru sezonālās izmaiņas dažādām boreonemorālo briofītu sugām atkarībā no ūdens satura

    OpenAIRE

    Gaile, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Darbā aprakstītas ar fotosintēzi saistīto parametru izmaiņas dažādām briofītu sugām boreonemorālajos biotopos saistībā ar ūdens saturu. Mērķis bija noteikt fotosintēzes pigmentu koncentrāciju sezonālās izmaiņas dažādām briofītu sugām no atšķirīgiem biotopiem un meklēt to saistību ar augšanas substrātu, funkcionālo piederību, ūdens saturu, kā arī, fotosintēzes fotoķīmisko reakciju intensitāti, ko raksturo hlorofila fluorescences rādītāji. Kopā ievāca 25 briofītu sugu 26 paraugus no pieciem daž...

  19. Viyola Öğretiminde Türk Müziği Dizilerine Dayalı Oluşturulan Makamsal İçerikli Etütlerin İşlevsellik Durumuna İlişkin Öğretim Elemanı Görüşleri

    OpenAIRE

    DERİCAN, Betül; Albuz, Aytekin

    2008-01-01

    Bu araştırma; Müzik Öğretmenliği Anabilim dallarında uygulanmakta olan bireysel çalgı eğitimi viyola derslerinde, Türk müziği dizilerine dayalı olarak oluşturulan etütlerin kullanım durumu ve işlevselliğini tespit etmek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmada bir kısım veriler, alan yazın taraması yöntemiyle, bir kısım veriler ise; Üniversitelerin Eğitim Fakülteleri Güzel Sanatlar Eğitimi Bölümleri Müzik Eğitimi Anabilim Dallarındaki bireysel çalgı eğitimi viyola öğretim elemanlarına uygulanan anke...

  20. Comparison of length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood culture results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Briley, Danielle; Hozhabri, Neda S T; Armstrong, Kris; Puthottile, Jason; Benavides, Raul; Beal, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. The fatality rate for severe sepsis is about 40%, and treatment costs over $16 billion annually. It is critical to identify and treat the source of sepsis. While there are varying guidelines determining when to draw blood for culture, at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas, blood cultures are ordered for patients with new onset of fever, immunosuppression, or a suspicion of an underlying infectious etiology. We conducted a retrospective study of patients who had blood cultures after hospital admission or in the emergency department in December 2013. We compared length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood cultures. There was no significant difference for length of stay or outcomes among patients with positive and negative blood cultures. For patients admitted from the emergency department, there was a longer length of stay for patients with positive cultures; however, the overall prognosis was not worse.

  1. A molecule that detects the length of DNA by using chain fluctuation

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasa, Kuni H

    2015-01-01

    A class of nucleosome remodeling motors translocate nucleosomes, to which they are attached, toward the middle of DNA chain in the presence of ATP during in vitro experiments. Such a biological activity is likely be based on a physical mechanism for detecting and comparing the lengths of the flanking polymer chains. Here we propose that a pivoting mode of DNA fluctuation near the surface of the nucleosome coupled with binding reaction with a DNA binding site of the motor provides a physical basis for length detection. Since the mean frequency of fluctuation is higher for a shorter chain than a longer one due to its lower drag coefficient, a shorter chain has a higher rate of receptor binding, which triggers the ATP-dependent activity of the remodeling motor. Dimerization of such units allows the motor to compare the length of the flanking DNA chains, enabling the translocation of the nucleosome toward the center of the DNA.

  2. Constrained length minimum inductance gradient coil design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronik, B A; Rutt, B K

    1998-02-01

    A gradient coil design algorithm capable of controlling the position of the homogeneous region of interest (ROI) with respect to the current-carrying wires is required for many advanced imaging and spectroscopy applications. A modified minimum inductance target field method that allows the placement of a set of constraints on the final current density is presented. This constrained current minimum inductance method is derived in the context of previous target field methods. Complete details are shown and all equations required for implementation of the algorithm are given. The method has been implemented on computer and applied to the design of both a 1:1 aspect ratio (length:diameter) central ROI and a 2:1 aspect ratio edge ROI gradient coil. The 1:1 design demonstrates that a general analytic method can be used to easily obtain very short gradient coil designs for use with specialized magnet systems. The edge gradient design demonstrates that designs that allow imaging of the neck region with a head sized gradient coil can be obtained, as well as other applications requiring edge-of-cylinder regions of uniformity.

  3. Reconstruction of femoral length from fragmentary femora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offei, Eric Bekoe; Osabutey, Casmiel Kwabena

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of femoral length (FL) from fragmentary femora is an essential step in estimating stature from fragmentary skeletal remains in forensic investigations. While regression formulae for doing this have been suggested for several populations, such formulae have not been established for Ghanaian skeletal remains. This study, therefore, seeks to derive regression formulae for reconstruction of FL from fragmentary femora of skeletal samples obtained from Ghana. Six measurements (vertical head diameter, transverse head diameter, bicondylar breadth, epicondylar breadth, sub-trochanteric anterior-posterior diameter, and sub-trochanteric transverse diameter) were acquired from different anatomical portions of the femur and the relationship between each acquired measurement and FL was analyzed using linear regression. The results indicated significantly moderate-to-high correlations (r=0.580–0.818) between FL and each acquired measurement. The error estimates of the regression formulae were relatively low (i.e., standard error of estimate, 13.66–19.28 mm), suggesting that the discrepancies between actual and estimated stature were relatively low. Compared with other measurements, sub-trochanteric transverse diameter was the best estimate of FL. In the absence of a complete femur, the regression formulae based on the assessed measurements may be used to infer FL, from which stature can be estimated in forensic investigations. PMID:27722014

  4. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath.

    We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  5. Quantum Minimal Length and Transplanckian Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lubo, M

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we first give arguments supporting the idea that a B.T.Z black hole can face a transplankian problem even when its mass is small. K.M.M quantum theory is applied to the Hawking evaporation of the Schwarzchild and B.T.Z black holes. Working in the physically safe quasi position representation, we argue that the oscillating term present in a previous analysis is removed so that actually one doesn't need an average procedure. We expand the s wave function as the exponential of a series in the minimal length of the new quantum theory. This reduces an infinite order differential equation to a numerable set of finite order ones. We obtain the striking result that the infinity of arbitrary constants induced by the order of the wave equation has no physical meaning due to normalization. We finally construct gaussian wave pacqets and study their trajectories. We suggest a quantitative description of the non locality zone and its dependance on the K.M.M energy scale. Potential incidences on unitarity are ...

  6. Length-Limited Data Transformation and Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senecal, Joshua G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Scientific computation is used for the simulation of increasingly complex phenomena, and generates data sets of ever increasing size, often on the order of terabytes. All of this data creates difficulties. Several problems that have been identified are (1) the inability to effectively handle the massive amounts of data created, (2) the inability to get the data off the computer and into storage fast enough, and (3) the inability of a remote user to easily obtain a rendered image of the data resulting from a simulation run. This dissertation presents several techniques that were developed to address these issues. The first is a prototype bin coder based on variable-to-variable length codes. The codes utilized are created through a process of parse tree leaf merging, rather than the common practice of leaf extension. This coder is very fast and its compression efficiency is comparable to other state-of-the-art coders. The second contribution is the Piecewise-Linear Haar (PLHaar) transform, a reversible n-bit to n-bit wavelet-like transform. PLHaar is simple to implement, ideal for environments where transform coefficients must be kept the same size as the original data, and is the only n-bit to n-bit transform suitable for both lossy and lossless coding.

  7. Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Svetlana; Popović, Srdjan; Mrvošević Marojević, Ljiljana; Ivović, Miomira; Tančić-Gajić, Milina; Stojanović, Miloš; Marina, Ljiljana V.; Barać, Marija; Barać, Branko; Kovačević, Milena; Duišin, Dragana; Barišić, Jasmina; Djordjević, Miroslav L.; Micić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D) associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D : 4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT) and male to female transsexuals (MFT) and controls. We examined 42 MFT, 38 FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D : 4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male's left hand ratio was lower than in control female's left hand. There was no difference in 2D : 4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D : 4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D : 4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism. PMID:24982993

  8. Finger Length Ratios in Serbian Transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vujović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical prenatal hormone exposure could be a factor in the development of transsexualism. There is evidence that the 2nd and 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D associates negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with estrogens. The aim was to assess the difference in 2D : 4D between female to male transsexuals (FMT and male to female transsexuals (MFT and controls. We examined 42 MFT, 38 FMT, and 45 control males and 48 control females. Precise measurements were made by X-rays at the ventral surface of both hands from the basal crease of the digit to the tip using vernier calliper. Control male and female patients had larger 2D : 4D of the right hand when compared to the left hand. Control male’s left hand ratio was lower than in control female’s left hand. There was no difference in 2D : 4D between MFT and control males. MFT showed similar 2D : 4D of the right hand with control women indicating possible influencing factor in embryogenesis and consequently finger length changes. FMT showed the lowest 2D : 4D of the left hand when compared to the control males and females. Results of our study go in favour of the biological aetiology of transsexualism.

  9. Optimal Length Scale for a Turbulent Dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Mira; Alexakis, Alexandros; Fauve, Stephan

    2016-02-19

    We demonstrate that there is an optimal forcing length scale for low Prandtl number dynamo flows that can significantly reduce the required energy injection rate. The investigation is based on simulations of the induction equation in a periodic box of size 2πL. The flows considered are the laminar and turbulent ABC flows forced at different forcing wave numbers k_{f}, where the turbulent case is simulated using a subgrid turbulence model. At the smallest allowed forcing wave number k_{f}=k_{min}=1/L the laminar critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{c}^{lam} is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the turbulent critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{c}^{turb} due to the hindering effect of turbulent fluctuations. We show that this hindering effect is almost suppressed when the forcing wave number k_{f} is increased above an optimum wave number k_{f}L≃4 for which Rm_{c}^{turb} is minimum. At this optimal wave number, Rm_{c}^{turb} is smaller by more than a factor of 10 than the case forced in k_{f}=1. This leads to a reduction of the energy injection rate by 3 orders of magnitude when compared to the case where the system is forced at the largest scales and thus provides a new strategy for the design of a fully turbulent experimental dynamo.

  10. Inflation with a stringy minimal length, reworked

    CERN Document Server

    Palma, Gonzalo A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the formulation of scalar field theories on de Sitter backgrounds subject to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The GUP arises in several contexts in string theory, but is most readily thought of as resulting from using strings as effective probes of geometry, which suggests an uncertainty relation incorporating the string scale $l_s$. After reviewing the string theoretic case for the GUP, which implies a minimum length scale $l_s$, we follow in the footsteps of Kempf and concern ourselves as to how one might write down field theories which respect the GUP. We uncover a new representation of the GUP, which unlike previous studies, readily permits analytical solutions for the mode functions of a scalar field on de Sitter backgrounds. We find that scalar fields cannot be quantized on inflationary backgrounds with a Hubble radius $H^{-1}$ smaller than the string scale, implying a potential sub-planckian cutoff on the scale of inflation resulting from the GUP. We also compute or...

  11. Length-Limited Data Transformation and Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senecal, J G

    2005-05-17

    Scientific computation is used for the simulation of increasingly complex phenomena, and generates data sets of ever increasing size, often on the order of terabytes. All of this data creates difficulties. Several problems that have been identified are (1) the inability to effectively handle the massive amounts of data created, (2) the inability to get the data off the computer and into storage fast enough, and (3) the inability of a remote user to easily obtain a rendered image of the data resulting from a simulation run. This dissertation presents several techniques that were developed to address these issues. The first is a prototype bin coder based on variable-to-variable length codes. The codes utilized are created through a process of parse tree leaf merging, rather than the common practice of leaf extension. This coder is very fast and its compression efficiency is comparable to other state-of-the-art coders. The second contribution is the Piecewise-Linear Haar (PLHaar) transform, a reversible n-bit to n-bit wavelet-like transform. PLHaar is simple to implement, ideal for environments where transform coefficients must be kept the same size as the original data, and is the only n-bit to n-bit transform suitable for both lossy and lossless coding.

  12. First Russian long length HTS power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Eduard P.; Vysotsky, Vitaly S.; Firsov, Valery P.

    2012-11-01

    The Russian R&D Program for superconducting power devices is underway, supported both by government and electric power companies. In this program R&D on HTS power cables is considered as most advanced and close to commercialization. In the framework of the program, several, heavily instrumented, 5 m cables have been tested following by the 30 m - 3 phase experimental power cable development and testing in 2008-2009. The latest achievement is development and testing of the first long length 3 × 200 m power cable with rating 1.5/2 kA-20 kV. In parallel with just the cable development the innovative cryogenic system has been developed as well for the cable cooling. The system is using neon as working substance and radial turbo-machines in refrigerator. Cooling power is up to ∼8 kW at 65 K, inter-maintenance time ∼30,000 h. The cryogenic pump with superconducting motor can be used to provide subcooled liquid nitrogen flow ∼0.1-1.5 kg/s at 0.1-2.5 MPa pressure. After extensive tests at special test facility, HTS power cable and cryogenic system are planning to be installed at some substation in Moscow utility grid. In this review some details about Russian HTS power application program, 200 m cable and cryogenic system designs and tests results are presented.

  13. Debye screening length effects of nanostructured materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad

    2014-01-01

    This monograph solely investigates the Debye Screening Length (DSL) in semiconductors and their nano-structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, Bismuth, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V and Bismuth Telluride respectively. The DSL in opto-electronic materials and their quantum confined counterparts is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determination of 2D and 3D DSL and the importance of measurement of band gap in optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) have also been discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the DSL and the DSL in heavily doped ...

  14. Structural analysis of two length variants of the rDNA intergenic spacer from Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikumaran, M; Negi, M S

    1994-03-01

    Restriction enzyme analysis of the rRNA genes of Eruca sativa indicated the presence of many length variants within a single plant and also between different cultivars which is unusual for most crucifers studied so far. Two length variants of the rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) from a single individual E. sativa (cv. Itsa) plant were cloned and characterized. The complete nucleotide sequences of both the variants (3 kb and 4 kb) were determined. The intergenic spacer contains three families of tandemly repeated DNA sequences denoted as A, B and C. However, the long (4 kb) variant shows the presence of an additional repeat, denoted as D, which is a duplication of a 224 bp sequence just upstream of the putative transcription initiation site. Repeat units belonging to the three different families (A, B and C) were in the size range of 22 to 30 bp. Such short repeat elements are present in the IGS of most of the crucifers analysed so far. Sequence analysis of the variants (3 kb and 4 kb) revealed that the length heterogeneity of the spacer is located at three different regions and is due to the varying copy numbers of repeat units belonging to families A and B. Length variation of the spacer is also due to the presence of a large duplication (D repeats) in the 4 kb variant which is absent in the 3 kb variant. The putative transcription initiation site was identified by comparisons with the rDNA sequences from other plant species.

  15. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yudan; Wen, Guojun; Chen, Han

    2017-04-27

    The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  16. Validation of Navigation Ultrasound for Clavicular Length Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Anders Thorsmark; Villa, Chiara; Christensen, Ole M

    2017-01-01

    Accurate clavicular length measurement is considered important for the selection of patients requiring surgical treatment after a midclavicular fracture. As radiographic length measurements can be inaccurate to varying degrees, new measurement methods are needed. Use of novel technology, navigati...

  17. The ideal dimensions of a Halbach cylinder of finite length

    CERN Document Server

    Bjørk, R

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the smallest or optimal dimensions of a Halbach cylinder of a finite length for a given sample volume and desired flux density are determined using numerical modeling and parameter variation. A sample volume that is centered in and shaped as the Halbach cylinder bore but with a possible shorter length is considered. The external radius and the length of the Halbach cylinder with the smallest possible dimensions are found as a function of a desired internal radius, length of the sample volume and mean flux density. It is shown that the optimal ratio between the outer and inner radius of the Halbach cylinder does not depend on the length of the sample volume. Finally, the efficiency of a finite length Halbach cylinder is considered and compared with the case of a cylinder of infinite length. The most efficient dimensions for a Halbach cylinder are found and it is shown that the efficiency increases slowly with the length of the cylinder.

  18. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  19. Electrophoresis of semiflexible heteropolymers and the ``hydrodynamic Kuhn length''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubynsky, Mykyta V.; Slater, Gary W.

    Semiflexible polymers, such as DNA, are rodlike for short lengths and coil-like for long lengths. For purely geometric properties, such as the end-to-end distance, the crossover between these two behaviors occurs when the polymer length is on the order of the Kuhn length. On the other hand, for the hydrodynamic friction coefficient it is easy to see by comparing the expressions for a rod and a coil that the crossover should occur at the polymer length, termed by us the hydrodynamic Kuhn length, which is larger than the ordinary Kuhn length by a logarithmic factor that can be quite significant. We show that for the problem of electrophoresis of a heteropolymer consisting of several blocks of (in general) different stiffnesses, both of these length scales can be important depending on the details of the problem.

  20. Cervical Length: Why Does It Matter during Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During pregnancy, what's the significance of cervical length? Answers from Shannon K. Laughlin-Tommaso, ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/cervical-length/faq- ...

  1. Containment of extended length polymorphisms in silk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinali, Alberto; Vater, Wolfram; Rudakoff, Baerbel; Sponner, Alexander; Unger, Eberhard; Grosse, Frank; Guehrs, Karl-Heinz; Weisshart, Klaus

    2010-04-01

    The spider silk gene family to the current date has been developed by gene duplication and homogenization events as well as conservation of crucial sequence parts. These evolutionary processes have created an amazing diversity of silk types each associated with specific properties and functions. In addition, they have led to allelic and gene variants within a species as exemplified by the major ampullate spidroin 1 gene of Nephila clavipes. Due to limited numbers of individuals screened to date little is known about the extent of these heterogeneities and how they are finally manifested in the proteins. Using expanded sample sizes, we show that sequence variations expressed as deletions or insertions of tri-nucleotides lead to different sized and structured repetitive units throughout a silk protein. Moreover, major ampullate spidroins 1 can quite dramatically differ in their overall lengths; however, extreme variants do not spread widely in a spider population. This suggests that a certain size range stabilized by purifying selection is important for spidroin 1 gene integrity and protein function. More than one locus for spidroin 1 genes possibly exist within one individual genome, which are homogenized in size, are differentially expressed and give a spider a certain degree of adaptation on silk's composition and properties. Such mechanisms are shared to a lesser extent by the second major ampullate spidroin gene.

  2. Critical Lengths of Error Events in Convolutional Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...

  3. Heritability of telomere length in the Zebra Finch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, Els; Mulder, Ellis; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Briga, Michael; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length predicts survival in birds, and many stressors that presumably reduce fitness have also been linked to telomere length. The response to selection of telomere length will be largely determined by the heritability of this trait; however, little is known about the genetic component of t

  4. Advantages and risks in increasing cyclone separator length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, AC; de Groot, M; Peng, W; Dries, HWA; Kater, J

    2001-01-01

    The effect of cyclone length on separation efficiency and pressure drop has been investigated experimentally and theoretically by varying the length of the cylindrical segment of a cylinder-on-cone cyclone. Experimental results based on cyclone lengths from 2.65 to 6.15 cyclone diameters showed a ma

  5. Path-length-resolved optical Doppler perfusion monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Leeuwen, van Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2007-01-01

    We report the first path-length-resolved perfusion measurements on human skin measured with a phase-modulated low-coherence Mach-Zehnder interferometer with spatially separated fibers for illumination and detection. Optical path lengths of Doppler shifted and unshifted light and path-length-dependen

  6. Leg Length Versus Torso Length in Pedophilia: Further Evidence of Atypical Physical Development Early in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M

    2015-10-12

    Adult men's height results from an interaction among positive and negative influences, including genetic predisposition, conditions in utero, and influences during early development such as nutritional quality, pathogen exposure, and socioeconomic status. Decreased height, reflected specifically as a decreased leg length, is strongly associated with increased risk of poorer health outcomes. Although prior research has repeatedly shown that pedophiles are shorter than nonpedophiles, the largest study to date relied on self-reported height. In the present study, pedophiles demonstrated reduced measured height and reduced leg length as compared with teleiophiles. Given the prenatal and early childhood origins of height, these findings contribute additional evidence to a biological, developmental origin of pedophilia. In addition, the magnitude of this height difference was substantially larger than that found in children exposed to a variety of early environmental stressors, but similar to that seen in other biologically based neurodevelopmental disorders.

  7. Leg length discrepancy in scoliotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    The aetiological aspects as well as postural attitude implications represent an open question in scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is often recognised in scoliotic patients, but surprisingly still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge corrections in order to compensate pelvis tilt. In fact, literature reports conflicting results on the efficacy of LLD equalization also given the argued uncertainty of LLD clinical assessment and limitations related to X-ray measurements. Moreover concern is about anatomic and functional LLD and associated estimation of the pelvic torsion. In such a topic, a significant helpful tool has been demonstrated to be 3D kinematic optoelectronic measurements and other useful data obtained from force platforms and/or baropodographic systems. 135 (94.4%) out of 143 Scoliotic patients sample (av. age 16.4±10.2 Y range 4-66 Y), have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 143 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=10.2±5.2mm associated to a mean main scoliotic curve μ=16.4°±9.4° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=7.5±5.5mm and mean Global offset μ=10.1±7.1mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered postural parameters, after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The present investigation confirm results of a previous study demonstrating the efficacy of under-foot wedge use in leg asymmetry correction, posture re-balancing and spine deformities reduction, pointing out the significant contribution of the 3D opto-electronic measurement approach in the critical process of assessing the correct under-foot wedge size, therapy planning and monitoring.

  8. Pedestrian Stride Length Estimation from IMU Measurements and ANN Based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR can be used for continuous position estimation when satellite or other radio signals are not available, and the accuracy of the stride length measurement is important. Current stride length estimation algorithms, including linear and nonlinear models, consider a few variable factors, and some rely on high precision and high cost equipment. This paper puts forward a stride length estimation algorithm based on a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN, using a consumer-grade inertial measurement unit (IMU; it then discusses various factors in the algorithm. The experimental results indicate that the error of the proposed algorithm in estimating the stride length is approximately 2%, which is smaller than that of the frequency and nonlinear models. Compared with the latter two models, the proposed algorithm does not need to determine individual parameters in advance if the trained neural net is effective. It can, thus, be concluded that this algorithm shows superior performance in estimating pedestrian stride length.

  9. Relação peso-comprimento e fator de condição de Brycon opalinus (Pisces, Characiformes no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar- Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Mata Atlântica, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1034 Length-weight relationship and condition factor for Brycon opalinus (Pisces, Characiformes in Serra do Mar State Park – Santa Virgínia Unit, Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1034

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados a relação peso-comprimento e o fator de condição de Brycon opalinus, em três rios do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Estado de São Paulo. Foram constatadas diferentes condições nos três ambientes abordados e determinadas a sazonalidade, a época reprodutiva e as diferenças entre fêmeas e machos, segundo os parâmetros que evidenciam as melhores condições fisiológicas dos peixes. Essa espécie apresentou fator de condição variável ao longo das estações, nos três locais de coletas, influência do comprimento de primeira maturação gonadal e longo período reprodutivo com maior intensidade na primavera e verão.In this study, the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of Brycon opalinus were analyzed in three rivers within the Santa Virgínia Unit, at Serra do Mar State Park, in São Paulo State. The different conditions in these three environments were evidenced, such as the seasonality, reproductive period, and the differences between females and males according to the parameters which evidenced the best physiological condition of the fish. In this species, the condition factor varied along the seasons at all three collection sites. The length of the first gonadal maturation and the reproductive period were long, with the highest intensity in the spring and summer.

  10. Memory for tonal pitches: a music-length effect hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Vecchi, Tomaso; Granot, Roni; Basso, Demis; Schön, Daniele

    2009-07-01

    One of the most studied effects of verbal working memory (WM) is the influence of the length of the words that compose the list to be remembered. This work aims to investigate the nature of musical WM by replicating the word length effect in the musical domain. Length and rate of presentation were manipulated in a recognition task of tone sequences. Results showed significant effects for both factors (length and presentation rate) as well as their interaction, suggesting the existence of different strategies (e.g., chunking and rehearsal) for the immediate memory of musical information, depending upon the length of the sequences.

  11. Decomposing the queue length distribution of processor-sharing models into queue lengths of permanent customer queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.-K.; Berg, H. van den; Boucherie, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    We obtain a decomposition result for the steady state queue length distribution in egalitarian processor-sharing (PS) models. In particular, for multi-class egalitarian PS queues, we show that the marginal queue length distribution for each class equals the queue length distribution of an equivalent

  12. Network Packet Length Covert Channel Based on Empirical Distribution Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Network packet length covert channel modulates secret message bits onto the packet lengths to transmit secret messages. In this paper, a novel network packet length covert channel is proposed. The proposed scheme is based on the empirical distribution function of packet length series of legitimate traffic. Different from the existing schemes, the lengths of packets which are generated by the covert sender follow the distribution of normal traffic more closely in our scheme. To validate the security of the proposed scheme, the state-of-the-art packet length covert channel detection algorithm is adopted. The experimental results show that the packet length covert channel provides a significant performance improvement in detection resistance meanings

  13. Units of measurement past, present and future international system of units

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2010-01-01

    It is for the first time that the subject of quantities and their respective units is dealt this much in detail a glimpse of units of measurements of base quantities of length, time, mass and volume is given for ancient India three and four dimensional systems of measurement units are critically examined establishment of the fact that only four base units are needed to describe a system of units the basics to arrive at the unit of a derived quantity are explained basic, derived and dimensionless quantities including quantity calculus are introduced life history of scientists concerned with measurements units are presented to be inspiring to working metrologists and students. The International System of Units including, Metre Convention Treaty and its various organs including International National of Weights and Measure are described. The realisation of base units is given in detail. Classes of derived units within the SI, units permitted for time to come, units outside SI but used in special fields of measur...

  14. Quantitative analysis of cone photoreceptor distribution and its relationship with axial length, age, and early age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Obata

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It has not been clarified whether early age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with cone photoreceptor distribution. We used adaptive optics fundus camera to examine cone photoreceptors in the macular area of aged patients and quantitatively analyzed its relationship between the presence of early AMD and cone distribution. METHODS: Sixty cases aged 50 or older were studied. The eyes were examined with funduscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to exclude the eyes with any abnormalities at two sites of measurement, 2° superior and 5° temporal to the fovea. High-resolution retinal images with cone photoreceptor mosaic were obtained with adaptive optics fundus camera (rtx1, Imagine Eyes, France. After adjusting for axial length, cone packing density was calculated and the relationship with age, axial length, or severity of early AMD based on the age-related eye disease study (AREDS classification was analyzed. RESULTS: Patient's age ranged from 50 to 77, and axial length from 21.7 to 27.5 mm. Mean density in metric units and that in angular units were 24,900 cells/mm2, 2,170 cells/deg2 at 2° superior, and 18,500 cells/mm2, 1,570 cels/deg2 at 5° temporal, respectively. Axial length was significantly correlated with the density calculated in metric units, but not with that in angular units. Age was significantly correlated with the density both in metric and angular units at 2° superior. There was no significant difference in the density in metric and angular units between the eyes with AREDS category one and those with categories two or three. CONCLUSION: Axial length and age were significantly correlated with parafoveal cone photoreceptor distribution. The results do not support that early AMD might influence cone photoreceptor density in the area without drusen or pigment abnormalities.

  15. Long Focal Length Large Mirror Fabrication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, H. E.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this ambitious program are (1) to develop systems to make large superpolished optical mirrors, (2) to develop low scatter polishing techniques using centrifugal elutriation, (3) to develop a means of measuring scatter at any point on the mirror, (4) to polish a Hindle sphere to measure the optical figure of a one meter diameter convex mandrel, and (5) to fabricate low scatter, large adaptive optic graphite filled, cyanate ester replica transfer mirrors using these mandrels. Deliverables are a 30 cm diameter superpolished composite AO mirror. We fabricated a 1/3rd meter superpolished zerodur flat mandrel and with the support of our major subcontractor, Composite Mirror Applications Inc (CMA) we have demonstrated a 30 cm lightweight cyanate ester mirror with an rms microroughness between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and 8 faceplate influence function of 5 cm. The influence function was chosen to be comparable to the atmospheric correlation coefficient r(sub 0) which is about 5 cm at sea level. There was no print-thru of the graphite fibers in the cyanate ester surface (the bane of many previous efforts to use cyanate ester mirrors). Our subcontractor has devised a means for developing a 30-50 nm thick layer of graphite free pure ester resin on the surface of the mirrors. This graphite fiber filled material has a thermal expansion coefficient in the 10(exp -8) centimeter per Kelvin range (the same range of expansion coefficient as Zerodur and ULE glasses) and does not take up water and swell, so it is a nearly ideal mirror material in these areas. Unfortunately for these 0.8mm thick faceplates, the number of plies is not enough to result in isometric coverage. Isolated figure irregularities can appear, making it necessary to go to thicker faceplates. The influence function will then only approximate the length of r(sub 0), at higher altitudes or longer wavelengths. The influence function goes as the cube of the thickness, so we are now making a faceplate optimized for

  16. Macular Bruch's Membrane Length and Axial Length. The Beijing Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available To assess whether macular Bruch´s membrane gets lengthened in axial myopia.Using the enhanced depth imaging mode of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and examining a subgroup of participants of the population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study, we measured the length of Bruch´s membrane ("MacBMLength" from the fovea to the temporal edge of parapapillary gamma zone, and the distance between the fovea and the temporal optic disc border. Parapapillary gamma zone was defined as the parapapillary region without Bruch's membrane. We additionally measured ocular biometric parameters and assessed non-ophthalmologic variables.Measurements of MacBMLength were performed on 322 individuals. MacBMLength (mean: 3.99 ± 0.33 mm; range: 3.17-4.93 mm was not significantly associated with any systemic parameter or ocular biometric parameter. Gamma zone width (mean: 0.18 ± 0.30 mm; range: 0.00-2.61 mm was associated (multivariate analysis; correlation coefficient r:0.80 with longer axial length (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta: 0.60; non-standardized correlation coefficient B:0.11; 95%CI: 0.09,0.14 and with longer fovea-optic disc border distance (P<0.001; beta:0.28; B:0.19; 95%CI:0.14,0.25, but not with MacBMLength (P = 0.42. Fovea-temporal disc border distance (mean: 4.16 ± 0.44 mm; range: 3.17-5.86 mm was associated (overall correlation coefficient: 0.68 with longer axial length (P<0.001; beta: 0.36; B: 0.10; 95%CI: 0.06, 0.13, after adjusting for flatter anterior chamber depth (P = 0.003; beta:-0.14; B:-0.14; 95%CI: -0.23,-0.05 and wider parapapillary gamma zone (P<0.001; beta:0.42; B:0.62; 95%CI:0.44,0.81.In contrast to parapapillary gamma zone width and fovea-disc border distance, MacBMLength was not significantly associated with axial length. Axial elongation associated increase in fovea-disc distance may predominantly occur through development or elongation of parapapillary gamma zone, while macular Bruch´s membrane

  17. Determination of Arabidopsis thaliana telomere length by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Sedas, María I; Vega-Palas, Miguel A

    2014-07-02

    In humans, telomere length studies have acquired great relevance because the length of telomeres has been related to natural processes like disease, aging and cancer. However, very little is known about the influence of telomere length on the biology of wild type plants. The length of plant telomeres has been usually studied by Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF) analyses. This technique requires high amounts of tissue, including multiple cell types, which might be the reason why very little is known about the influence of telomere length on plant natural processes. In contrast, many of the human telomere length studies have focused on homogenous cell populations. Most of these studies have been performed by PCR, using telomeric degenerated primers, which allow the determination of telomere length from small amounts of human cells. Here, we have adapted the human PCR procedure to analyze the length of Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres. This PCR approach will facilitate the analysis of telomere length from low amounts of tissue. We have used it to determine that CG and non CG DNA methylation positively regulates Arabidopsis telomere length.

  18. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  19. Penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, M E; Almohsen, A E-R M; El Shahid, A R; Abd Al-Sameaa, M T; Mostafa, T

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men. Two thousand physically normal men (22-40 years) were subjected to measurement of stretched penile length, glans penis, testis size, index finger, weight, height, span, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio. The mean stretched penile length of the studied subjects was 13.84 ± 1.35 cm (range 12-19 cm), and the mean glans penis length was 2.6 ± 0.4 cm (range 1.7-3.8 cm). Penile length demonstrated positive significant correlation with glans penis length, index finger length, BMI and significant negative correlation with waist/hip ratio. On the other hand, penile length demonstrated nonsignificant correlation with age, weight, height, waist circumference, span or testicular size. It is concluded that the penile length-somatometric parameters relationship in healthy Egyptian men is mostly related to glans penis and index finger lengths.

  20. 76 FR 8772 - Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (75 FR 67108, November 1... COMMISSION Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan and Korea AGENCY: United..., Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed...

  1. 余秀华诗歌谱系与疼痛美学--以《诗经》、海子、“梨花体”为参照%The Pedigree of YU Xiu-hua’ s Poems and Her Pain Aesthetics---Taking “The Book of Songs”, Hai Zi,“Lihua Style” as a Reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云峰; 李俊国

    2015-01-01

    余秀华是新近爆红的诗人,她的诗歌理应纳入一个比较系统的评价体系之中。从互文与弃妇诗传统、意象选择与陌生化以及疼痛与戏仿三个方面分别将她的诗歌放在《诗经》、海子,以及与之同时而稍早的“梨花体”诗歌系统中,看她的诗对《诗经》以及当代诗人作品的继承、发扬和疏离,并由此衡量其诗歌创作的谱系、特色和得失。%As a newly -explosive poet, YU Xiu-hua’ s poems should be included in the evaluation system of a comparative system.There is a phenomenon of intertexuality between YU Xiu-hua’ s poetry and “The Book of Songs”, and her poems which reflect the difficulties and misfortune in marriage not only inherit but also develop the tradition of Chinese classical poems on deserted wives since “The Book of Songs”; her poetry is influenced profoundly by Hai Zi in the choice of image and the way of stranger; com-pared with Zhao Lihua, YU Xiu-hua’ s poems more meet for the reading expectation of poetic style which formed in a long time , it is mainly the pain in her poetry which conquers the readers.

  2. An Analysis of Corporation Environment Risk Management Based on Internal Control --A Case of ZiJin Mining Group Company%基于内部控制视角的企业环境风险管理研究——以紫金矿业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左锐; 曹健; 舒伟

    2012-01-01

    This paper made thorough analysis on the cause of environment risk management failure by taking the serious environment pollution accident caused by ZiJin Mining Group Company as an example and focu- sing on five dements of internal control. The result shows that the root cause for this accident lies in its in- ternal control failure, what's more, establish and implement risk-oriented internal control system would help enterprises to strengthen environment risk management, fulfill social responsibility, and enhance external competitiveness. At the meantime, this paper also recommended regulators to issue compulsory en- vironment information disclosure of listed companies, and provided a standardized environment disclosure norm.%以紫金矿业重大环境污染事故为例,文章对企业内部控制五大要素进行了分析,以探讨企业环境风险管理不当的成因。研究发现,造成环境污染事故的主要原因是企业内部控制失效。因而文章认为,建立并良好执行以风险为导向的内部控制制度,有助于企业加强环境风险管理,履行社会责任,提升企业的外部竞争优势。同时建议监管部门应出台上市公司环境信息披露的强制制度,提供标准化的环境披露规范。

  3. Factors affecting gestation length in the Thoroughbred mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies Morel, M C G; Newcombe, J R; Holland, S J

    2002-12-16

    In order to assist in the accurate prediction of the timing of parturition in the mare true gestation length, along with the potential effect of a number of factors, was investigated. Data from 433 Thoroughbred foal pregnancies were used. Sequential ultrasonic scanning allowed the true gestation length (fertilisation-parturition) to be ascertained, as apposed to previous work, which used the mating-parturition interval. An average gestation length of 344.1 +/- 0.49 days was evident. Colt foal pregnancies were significantly (P gestation length in all foals (P gestation length range (315-388 days), all resulting in viable foals is noteworthy and of clinical importance when considering the classification of dysmaturity in foals, (ii) mares carrying colt foals due to be born in the middle of the breeding season (April) are likely to have the longer gestation lengths.

  4. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... in phylogenetically independent contrasts. Some of the remaining variation was explained by the relative size of the sperm-storage organ, but only in the multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, suggesting that sperm-storage constraints become important for the evolution of sperm length in this derived group. Mate number...... affected sperm length to a minor extent, and only in interaction with other predictor variables, suggesting that sperm competition has not been a major selective force for sperm length evolution in these ants....

  5. The length of the glaciers in the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Huss, M.

    2014-01-01

    Glacier length is an important measure of glacier geometry but global glacier inventories are mostly lacking length data. Only recently semi-automated approaches to measure glacier length have been developed and applied regionally. Here we present 5 a first global assessment of glacier length using...... a fully automated method based on glacier surface slope, distance to the glacier margins and a set of trade-off functions. The method is developed for East Greenland, evaluated for the same area as well as for Alaska, and eventually applied to all ∼ 200000 glaciers around the globe. The evaluation...... highlights accurately calculated glacier length where DEM quality is good (East 10 Greenland) and limited precision on low quality DEMs (parts of Alaska). Measured length of very small glaciers is subject to a certain level of ambiguity. The global calculation shows that only about 1.5% of all glaciers...

  6. Far-from-equilibrium measurements of thermodynamic length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Edward H.; Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-11-05

    Thermodynamic length is a path function that generalizes the notion of length to the surface of thermodynamic states. Here, we show how to measure thermodynamic length in far-from-equilibrium experiments using the work fluctuation relations. For these microscopic systems, it proves necessary to define the thermodynamic length in terms of the Fisher information. Consequently, the thermodynamic length can be directly related to the magnitude of fluctuations about equilibrium. The work fluctuation relations link the work and the free energy change during an external perturbation on a system. We use this result to determine equilibrium averages at intermediate points of the protocol in which the system is out-of-equilibrium. This allows us to extend Bennett's method to determine the potential of mean force, as well as the thermodynamic length, in single molecule experiments.

  7. Regulation of Zi-Bu Pi-Yin Method on β-amyloid Peptide and Insulin Degrading Enzyme in Brain Tissues of Spleen Yin Deficiency Diabetic Rats%滋补脾阴法对脾阴虚糖尿病大鼠脑组织茁淀粉样蛋白及胰岛素降解酶的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丽娜; 战丽彬; 胡守玉; 闫云; 郑路平; 孙杰; 余丹

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe different forms of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) in the hippocampus and cortex in order to further explore the role of Aβ and IDE on spleen yin deficiency di-abetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD), and the effect of Zi-Bu Pi-Y in method. The rats were randomly divided into five groups, which were the blank control (Cont) group, diabetes (DM) group, spleen yin deficiency (pi) group, spleen yin deficiency diabetes (piDM) group and Zi-Bu Pi-Y in recipe (ZBPYR) group. Soluble and insoluble Aβ in the hippocampus and cortex of rats were extracted by gradient centrifugation, and then measured by ELISA. The ex-pression of IDE was observed by western blot. The results showed that the content of soluble and insoluble Aβ1-42 in the hippocampus and cortex of the DM group and piDM group were higher than the Cont group. The soluble and in-soluble Aβ1-42 content in the hippocampus and cortex of the ZBPYR group were reduced compared with the DM group and the piDM group. The soluble Aβ1-40 in the cortex of the DM group, pi group and piDM group were in-creased compared with the Cont group (P < 0.05). The soluble Aβ1-40 content of the ZBPYR group was decreased compared with the DM group and the piDM group (P < 0.05). The expression of IDE protein was decreased in the hippocampus of the DM group and the piDM group compared with the Cont group (P< 0.05), and the IDE protein level in the hippocampus of the ZBPYR group was increased compared with the DM group and the piDM group (P<0.05). The expression of IDE protein in the cortex of the DM group, pi group and piDM group was lower than the Cont group (P< 0.05). The IDE protein level in the cortex of the ZBPYR group was reduced compared to the DM group (P< 0.05). It was concluded that the increased Aβ1-42 in brain may be a major pathological change of DACD and spleen yin deficiency DACD. The decreased IDE expression may be one of the reasons to induce increasing of

  8. The regulation and research of mechanism of Plus SiJunZi Decoction in immune system of the aging rat%加味四君子汤对增龄大鼠免疫系统的调节作用及其初步机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鹤; 张力华; 何学斌; 郝栋; 董玲玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察中药复方制剂加味四君子汤对增龄大鼠免疫系统功能的调节作用,并对可能的作用机制行初步探讨. 方法 选取50只12月龄健康Wistar大鼠,雌雄各半,随机分为5组,即加味四君子汤(以下简称药物)低剂量组、中剂量组、高剂量组,阳性对照组、老年对照组,每组各10只;另选取10只3月龄的Wistar大鼠作为青年对照组.各组分别给予加味四君子汤1.6、3.2、6.4 g/(kg·d),六味地黄丸混悬液1.5 g/(kg·d),2ml蒸馏水灌胃,持续给药90d.称量大鼠体重后处死,观察试验大鼠的血清免疫球蛋白(IgG)水平;计算胸腺指教、脾脏指数;将胸腺和脾脏组织进行HE染色,光镜下观察组织形态学改变;用免疫组化法检测胸腺白介素-2(IL-2)的表达情况及脾脏肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)的表达情况. 结果 与青年对照组相比较,各组大鼠血清IgG、胸腺IL-2、胸腺和脾脏指数均显著降低(P<0.01),脾脏TNF-α表达水平均明显升高(P<0.01);与老年对照组比较,药物组的IgG、胸腺IL-2、胸腺指数升高(P<0.05或P<0.01),脾脏TNF-α表达水平降低(P<0.01).光镜下,药物组胸腺有不同程度的萎缩,胸腺组织被脂肪替代等病理变化程度降低,胸腺细胞分布较密,着色良好.脾脏的白髓分界欠清晰,白髓略微增多,中性粒细胞数量增多,淋巴细胞排列比较疏松. 结论 加味四君子汤通过细胞因子之间的相互调节作用,增加机体的体液免疫、控制机体的高炎性状态,从而延缓老龄大鼠的炎性免疫衰老.%Objective To observe the regulation function of traditional Chinese medicine Plus SiJunZi Decoction in the immune system of aging rats, and to discusse the mechanism. Methods Fifty Wistar rats (male 25 and female 25, 12 months old)were randomly divided into 5 groups, low dose group, middle dose group, high dose group, positive control group and the elderly control group with 10 rats in each group

  9. A precise length etalon generator controlled by femtosecond mode-locked laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmid, Radek; Čip, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    2007-09-01

    The progress in the field of optical frequency standards is oriented to femtosecond mode-locked lasers stabilized by technique of the optical frequency synthesis. Such a laser produces a supercontinuum light, which is composed of a cluster of coherent frequency components in certain interval of wavelengths. A value of the repetition rate of femtosecond pulses determines (in the frequency domain) spacing of these coherent components. If we control the mode-locked laser by means of i.e. atomic clocks we ensure frequency of these components very stable. With respect to definition of SI unit "one meter" on basis of speed of light the stabilized mode-locked laser can be used for implementation of this definition by non-traditional way. In the work we present our proposal of a system, which converts excellent frequency stability of components generated by the mode-locked laser to a net of discrete absolute lengths represented by a distance of two mirrors of an optical resonator. On basis of theory, the optical resonator with a cavity length has a periodic frequency spectrum Similarly the frequency of i-th comb component could be written as: f i = f ceo + i f rep, where f ceo is the comb offset frequency and f rep is the repetition rate. For the simplicity we presume the offset frequency f ceo equals to zero. If the supercontinuum beam of the mode-locked laser illuminates the resonator and at the same time the cavity length L is adjusted to length L p = c / (2 p f rep ) then both spectra fit. The symbol 'p' is an integer value. It produces intensity maximum in the output of the cavity, which is detected by a photodetector and locked in the servo-loop. For absolute discrete values of cavity lengths L p that well satisfy the condition above we obtain precise etalons of length.

  10. Utilization of coincidence criteria in absolute length measurements by optical interferometry in vacuum and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schödel, R.

    2015-08-01

    Traceability of length measurements to the international system of units (SI) can be realized by using optical interferometry making use of well-known frequencies of monochromatic light sources mentioned in the Mise en Pratique for the realization of the metre. At some national metrology institutes, such as Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany, the absolute length of prismatic bodies (e.g. gauge blocks) is realized by so-called gauge-block interference comparators. At PTB, a number of such imaging phase-stepping interference comparators exist, including specialized vacuum interference comparators, each equipped with three highly stabilized laser light sources. The length of a material measure is expressed as a multiple of each wavelength. The large number of integer interference orders can be extracted by the method of exact fractions in which the coincidence of the lengths resulting from the different wavelengths is utilized as a criterion. The unambiguous extraction of the integer interference orders is an essential prerequisite for correct length measurements. This paper critically discusses coincidence criteria and their validity for three modes of absolute length measurements: 1) measurements under vacuum in which the wavelengths can be identified with the vacuum wavelengths, 2) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained from environmental parameters using an empirical equation, and 3) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained interferometrically by utilizing a vacuum cell placed along the measurement pathway. For case 3), which corresponds to PTB’s Kösters-Comparator for long gauge blocks, the unambiguous determination of integer interference orders related to the air refractive index could be improved by about a factor of ten when an ‘overall dispersion value,’ suggested in this paper, is used as coincidence criterion.

  11. On some length biased inequalities for reliability measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyede BroderickO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note, inequalities for length biased and the original residual life function and equilibrium distribution function with monotone hazard rate and mean residual life functions are derived. We also obtain estimates of the length biased probability density function and hazard function under random censoring. Finally, the Bayesian exponential reliability estimate under length biased sampling using a conjugate prior for the scale parameter is given.

  12. Alberta original the first to produce 40-foot pipe lengths : slurry pipeline production enters age of robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-07-01

    The Resources Letter conducted an interview with an Alberta original, Doug Golosky, regarding his latest innovation, a computerized welding machine that can weld 40-foot pipe length. The welder started his own company, Clearwater Welding, in 1984 and has since worked extensively for both Syncrude and Suncor. Since 1998 Clearwater Welding has collaborated with Matrix Wear Technologies Inc. to respond to the need for an improved pipeline product, particularly in the maintenance of chromium carbide overlaid piping which is commonly used for oil sand pipelines. Golosky, together with a mechanical engineer, designed a robotic, computerized machine that can weld 40 foot length chromium carbide pipes. Only one other company can produce 40-foot length pipes, and they are in the United States. The welder has been so successful that they are looking into the prospect of welding 80-foot pipe lengths. Because the system is computerized, it has proven to be very cost efficient. 1 fig.

  13. Effectiveness of Group-Delivered Cognitive Therapy and Treatment Length in Women Veterans with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane T. Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness and length of group-delivered cognitive treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD was examined in a sample of women veterans. The sample included 271 primarily non-Hispanic white (61% and Hispanic (25% women veterans treated in 8-, 10-, or 12-group length sessions with manualized cognitive therapy for PTSD. Outcome was measured with the PTSD Symptom Checklist (PCL in an intention-to-treat analysis (N = 271, in completer subjects (n = 172, and with group as the unit of analysis (n = 47 groups. Significant decreases in PTSD were found in the full sample (effect size [ES] range = 0.27 to 0.38, completers (ES range = 0.37 to 0.54, and group as the unit of analysis (ES range = 0.71 to 0.92, suggesting effectiveness of cognitive group treatment for PTSD. PCL scores significantly improved in the 8, 10, and 12 group lengths, with no differences between each. Clinical improvement showed a third decreasing 10 or more PCL points and 22% no longer meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria, with the best results in the 10-session group. The results suggest group-delivered cognitive therapy is an effective, efficient, time-limited treatment for PTSD.

  14. Approximating the Edge Length of 2-Edge Connected Planar Geometric Graphs on a Set of Points

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrev, Stefan; Krizanc, Danny; Morales-Ponce, Oscar; Stacho, Ladislav

    2011-01-01

    Given a set $P$ of $n$ points in the plane, we solve the problems of constructing a geometric planar graph spanning $P$ 1) of minimum degree 2, and 2) which is 2-edge connected, respectively, and has max edge length bounded by a factor of 2 times the optimal; we also show that the factor 2 is best possible given appropriate connectivity conditions on the set $P$, respectively. First, we construct in $O(n\\log{n})$ time a geometric planar graph of minimum degree 2 and max edge length bounded by 2 times the optimal. This is then used to construct in $O(n\\log n)$ time a 2-edge connected geometric planar graph spanning $P$ with max edge length bounded by $\\sqrt{5}$ times the optimal, assuming that the set $P$ forms a connected Unit Disk Graph. Second, we prove that 2 times the optimal is always sufficient if the set of points forms a 2 edge connected Unit Disk Graph and give an algorithm that runs in $O(n^2)$ time. We also show that for $k \\in O(\\sqrt{n})$, there exists a set $P$ of $n$ points in the plane such th...

  15. Evaluation of a pediatric hospitalist service: impact on length of stay and hospital charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellet, P S; Whitaker, R C

    2000-03-01

    Inpatient medical services supervised by pediatric hospitalist physicians are a new development in academic medical centers in the United States. In a large pediatric teaching hospital, we compared length of stay, readmission rates, and hospital charges for children admitted to medical services with and without a hospitalist system of care. This retrospective observational study compared a baseline year of a traditional ward service (TS) with a subsequent year of a new hospitalist system of care called the Generalist Inpatient Service (GIS). Data were obtained from the hospital's clinical, demographic, and financial databases and from selected record review. All hospitalizations were at least 24 hours long and did not involve a stay in an intensive care unit. The average length of stay was longer for the 627 TS hospitalizations than for the 813 GIS hospitalizations (2.7 +/- 2.0 vs 2.4 +/- 1.7 days). Total hospital charges were significantly lower on the GIS ($3002 +/- $2160 vs $2720 +/- $1933) because of lower room and respiratory therapy charges. Three readmissions to the TS and 8 to the GIS occurred within 24 hours of hospital discharge and were, therefore, considered potentially preventable by a longer initial hospital stay. In a large pediatric teaching hospital, a system of inpatient care provided by hospitalists can reduce length of stay. This model has the potential to control hospital charges in a period of increasing health care costs.

  16. Length-weight and length-length relationships of seven loach species (Teleostei: Cypriniformes from five localities in northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Keskar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight (LWR and length-length (LLR relationships of seven loach species (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Botia striata, Lepidocephalichthys thermalis, Paracanthocobitis mooreh, Indoreonectes evezardi, Nemacheilus anguilla, Nemachilichthys rueppelli and Schistura denisoni were studied from five localities within the Krishna River system of the Indian Western Ghats: Lonawala (Indrayani River, Paud (Mula River, Warje (Mutha River, Bhor (Nira River and Patan (Koyna River.  With the exception of L. thermalis all species are endemic to peninsular India, and to our knowledge this is the first presentation of LWR and LLR data for them.  New maximum lengths are also reported for I. evezardi, N. anguilla, N. rueppelli and S. denisoni. 

  17. Effects of soil moisture on cotton root length density and yield under drip irrigation with plastic mulch in Aksu Oasis farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yilihamu; Yimamu

    2010-01-01

    Effects of soil moisture on cotton root length density (total root length per unit soil volume) and yield under drip irrigation with plastic mulch were studied through field experiments. The results indicate that spatial distributions of root length density of cotton under various water treatments were basically similar. Horizontally, both root length densities of cotton in wide and narrow rows were similar, and higher than that between mulches. Vertically, root length density of cotton decreased with increasing soil depth. The distribution of root length density is different under different irrigation treatments. In conditions of over-irrigation, the root length density of cotton between mulches would increase. However, it would decrease in both the wide rows and narrow rows. The mean root length density of cotton increased with increasing irrigation water. Water stress caused the root length density to increase in lower soil layers. There is a significant correlation between root length density and yields of cotton at the flower-boll and wadding stages. The regression between irrigation amount and yield of cotton can be expressed as y = -0.0026x2+18.015x-24845 (R2 = 0.959). It showed that the irrigation volume of 3,464.4 m3/hm2 led to op-timal root length density. The yield of cotton was 6,360 .8 kg/hm2 under that amount of irrigation.

  18. Telomere length variations in aging and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined effect of oxidative stress, inflammation and repeated cell replication on it, and thus forming an association between telomere length and chronological aging and related diseases. Thus, decrease in telomere length was found to be important in determining both, the variations in longevity and age-related diseases in an individual. Ongoing and progressive research in the field of telomere length dynamics has proved that aging and age-related diseases apart from having a synergistic effect on telomere length were also found to effect telomere length independently also. Here a short description about telomere length variations and its association with human aging and age-related diseases is reviewed.

  19. 21 CFR 26.5 - Length of transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.5 Length of...

  20. Effects of Ethanol Pulping on the Length of Bamboo Cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Yang; Liao Junhe; Luo Xuegang

    2006-01-01

    On the conditions of different ethanol concentration, acids and catalyzers, the effects of ethanol pulping on the cellulose length of bamboo were studied. The results indicates that ethanol pulping has remarkable effects on the length of cellulose, which is clearly reduced with adding ethanol and acid. The margin of length of cellulose become smaller with the increase of the catalyzer. When the ethanol concentration was 70%, the concentration of acid was 0.3% and some NaOH was used as catalyzer, the length of cellulose was the longest.

  1. How does harvest size vary with hunting season length?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Asferg, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    season length (population management/ethical/other). In non-sedentary species, changes in bag size correlated positively with changes in season length (overall response: b = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.14-0.95): reducing the hunting season to 50% of its initial length would on average result in a 31% reduction (95...... species, changes in season length had no effect on bag size. Our results suggest that manipulating hunting seasons of duration ≥ 1 month by less than 50% is generally inefficient as a means of predictably changing harvest rates. This may be because recreational hunters either invest a fixed effort or aim...

  2. Ultra-low-loss tapered optical fibers with minimal lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, Ryutaro

    2014-01-01

    We design and fabricate ultra-low-loss tapered optical fibers (TOFs) with minimal lengths. We first optimize variations of the torch scan length using the flame-brush method for fabricating TOFs with taper angles that satisfy the adiabaticity criteria. We accordingly fabricate TOFs with optimal shapes and compare their transmission to TOFs with a constant taper angle and TOFs with an exponential shape. The highest transmission measured for TOFs with an optimal shape is in excess of 99.7 % with a total TOF length of only 23 mm, whereas TOFs with a constant taper angle of 2 mrad reach 99.6 % transmission for a 63 mm TOF length.

  3. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  4. Maintaining realism in auditory length-perception experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length......-estimation experiment. A comparison of the length-estimation accuracy for the three presentation methods indicates that the choice of presentation method is important for maintaining realism and for maintaining the acoustic cues utilized by listeners in perceiving length....

  5. Maintaining realism in auditory length-perception experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length......-estimation experiment. A comparison of the length-estimation accuracy for the three presentation methods indicates that the choice of presentation method is important for maintaining realism and for maintaining the acoustic cues utilized by listeners in perceiving length....

  6. Influence of Slot Defect Length on Magnetic Flux Leakage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songling HUANG; Luming LI; Haiqing YANG; Keren SHI

    2004-01-01

    A key issue, which influences the applications of magnetic flux leakage testing, is defect quantification. There have been many research on the relationship between width, depth and magnetic flux leakage of slot defect. However, the length factor is often ignored. The relationship between characteristics of defect leakage field and defect length was investigated. The magnetic flux leakages of a series of plate specimens with the same width, same depth and different length slot defects were tested under the same magnetizing conditions. Testing results show that defect length is an important parameter needed to consider in quantifying defects.

  7. Population structure, length-weight and length-length relationships of six populations of the Bartail Flathead Platycephalus indicus (Scorpaeniformes: Platycephalidae along the Persian Gulf coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mousavi-Sabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The size frequency distribution for age structure, length-weight (LWR and length-length (LLR relationships of six populations of Platycephalus indicus along the Persian Gulf coastal waters in Iran are reported.  A total of 180 P. indicus specimens were studied from six localities including Charak, Bandar-Abbas, Shif, Motaf, Khur-Musa and Bahrekan.  The maximum standard length recorded for the studied populations ranged between 300 to 510 mm and the b values of the length-weight relationships ranged between 3.0 and 3.2.  The obtained results indicated isometric growth patterns for all these populations with the exception of the Bahrekan population which showed a positive allometric growth pattern.  The LLR between the total and standard lengths in these populations were found to be highly significant.  The results would be useful for further studies on population assessment and sustainable conservation of the fish along the Persian Gulf coastal waters.

  8. Statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences formed from the sum of maximum-length sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, G. R.; Weathers, G. D.; Graf, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    The statistics of filtered pseudorandom digital sequences called hybrid-sum sequences, formed from the modulo-two sum of several maximum-length sequences, are analyzed. The results indicate that a relation exists between the statistics of the filtered sequence and the characteristic polynomials of the component maximum length sequences. An analysis procedure is developed for identifying a large group of sequences with good statistical properties for applications requiring the generation of analog pseudorandom noise. By use of the analysis approach, the filtering process is approximated by the convolution of the sequence with a sum of unit step functions. A parameter reflecting the overall statistical properties of filtered pseudorandom sequences is derived. This parameter is called the statistical quality factor. A computer algorithm to calculate the statistical quality factor for the filtered sequences is presented, and the results for two examples of sequence combinations are included. The analysis reveals that the statistics of the signals generated with the hybrid-sum generator are potentially superior to the statistics of signals generated with maximum-length generators. Furthermore, fewer calculations are required to evaluate the statistics of a large group of hybrid-sum generators than are required to evaluate the statistics of the same size group of approximately equivalent maximum-length sequences.

  9. Factors influencing the clinical expression of intermediate CAG repeat length mutations of the Huntington's disease gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panegyres, Peter K; Shu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Huei-Yang; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-02-01

    Our aim is to elucidate the clinical variables associated with the development of manifest HD in patients with intermediate CAG repeat lengths. 2,167 participants were seen throughout 44 research sites in the United States, Canada or Australia over a five-year natural history observational study (2006-2011) (Trial # NCT00313495). The Chi-square test and a generalised linear model were used to examine the differences in demographics and cognitive tests among three groups of CAG repeat length. The mixed model was then used to examine the time effect on cognitive assessments by CAG groups. No patient with CAG repeat length 27-35 developed manifest HD, whereas three patients with 36-39 did. Total motor score, maximal chorea score and maximal dystonia score were significantly different at baseline (p CAG 36-39; those with an associated university degree or higher education were less frequently diagnosed as manifest HD (OR 0.10, 95 % CI 0.02-0.54, p = 0.007). Age, smoking and lower education achievement were found to be significantly associated with higher odds of manifest HD in patients with intermediate CAG repeat length mutations.

  10. Factors affecting ED length-of-stay in surgical critical care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B; Sullivan, S; Levine, A; Dallara, J

    1995-09-01

    To determine what patient characteristics are associated with prolonged emergency department (ED) length-of-stay (LOS) for surgical critical care patients, the charts of 169 patients admitted from the ED directly to the operating room (OR) or intensive care unit (ICU) during a 6-week period in 1993 were reviewed. The ED record was reviewed for documentation of factors that might be associated with prolonged ED LOS, such as use of computed tomographic (CT), radiology special procedures, and the number of plain radiographs and consultants. ED LOS was considered to be the time from triage until a decision was made to admit the patient. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, use of CT and special procedures were the strongest independent predictors of prolonged ED length-of-stay. The number of plain radiographs and consultants had only a minimal effect. Use of a protocol-driven trauma evaluation system was associated with a shorter ED LOS. In addition to external factors that affect ED overcrowding, ED patient management decisions may also be associated with prolonged ED length-of-stay. Such ED-based factors may be more important in surgical critical care patients, whose overall ED LOS is affected more by the length of the ED work-up rather than the time spent waiting for a ICU bed or operating suite.

  11. An integrated restriction fragment length polymorphism--amplified fragment length polymorphism linkage map for cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedil, M A; Wye, C; Berry, S; Segers, B; Peleman, J; Jones, R; Leon, A; Slabaugh, M B; Knapp, S J

    2001-04-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) maps have been constructed for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) using three independent sets of RFLP probes. The aim of this research was to integrate RFLP markers from two sets with RFLP markers for resistance gene candidate (RGC) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Genomic DNA samples of HA370 and HA372, the parents of the F2 population used to build the map, were screened for AFLPs using 42 primer combinations and RFLPs using 136 cDNA probes (RFLP analyses were performed on DNA digested with EcoRI, HindIII, EcoRV, or DraI). The AFLP primers produced 446 polymorphic and 1101 monomorphic bands between HA370 and HA372. The integrated map was built by genotyping 296 AFLP and 104 RFLP markers on 180 HA370 x HA372 F2 progeny (the AFLP marker assays were performed using 18 primer combinations). The HA370 x HA372 map comprised 17 linkage groups, presumably corresponding to the 17 haploid chromosomes of sunflower, had a mean density of 3.3 cM, and was 1326 cM long. Six RGC RFLP loci were polymorphic and mapped to three linkage groups (LG8, LG13, and LG15). AFLP markers were densely clustered on several linkage groups, and presumably reside in centromeric regions where recombination is reduced and the ratio of genetic to physical distance is low. Strategies for targeting markers to euchromatic DNA need to be tested in sunflower. The HA370 x HA372 map integrated 14 of 17 linkage groups from two independent RFLP maps. Three linkage groups were devoid of RFLP markers from one of the two maps.

  12. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  13. Improved efficiency of photoconductive THz emitters by increasing the effective contact length of electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of a surface modification at the interface between metallic electrodes and semiconducting substrate in Semi-Insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs based photoconductive emitters (PCE on the emission of Tera-Hertz (THz radiation. We partially etch out a 500 nm thick layer of SI-GaAs in grating like pattern with various periods before the contact deposition. By depositing the electrodes on the patterned surface, the electrodes follow the contour of the grating period. This increases the effective contact length of the electrodes per unit area of the active regions on the PCE. The maxima of the electric field amplitude of the THz pulses emitted from the patterned surface are enhanced by up to more than a factor 2 as compared to an un-patterned surface. We attribute this increase to the increase of the effective contact length of the electrode due to surface patterning.

  14. Measurements of 3D slip velocities and plasma column lengths of a gliding arc discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan, E-mail: zhongshan.li@forbrf.lth.se, E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de [Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Moseev, Dmitry [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); FOM Institute DIFFER, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kusano, Yukihiro [Department of Wind Energy, Section for Composites and Materials Mechanics, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Salewski, Mirko [Department of Physics, Section for Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Alpers, Andreas, E-mail: zhongshan.li@forbrf.lth.se, E-mail: alpers@ma.tum.de; Gritzmann, Peter; Schwenk, Martin [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2015-01-26

    A non-thermal gliding arc discharge was generated at atmospheric pressure in an air flow. The dynamics of the plasma column and tracer particles were recorded using two synchronized high-speed cameras. Whereas the data analysis for such systems has previously been performed in 2D (analyzing the single camera image), we provide here a 3D data analysis that includes 3D reconstructions of the plasma column and 3D particle tracking velocimetry based on discrete tomography methods. The 3D analysis, in particular, the determination of the 3D slip velocity between the plasma column and the gas flow, gives more realistic insight into the convection cooling process. Additionally, with the determination of the 3D slip velocity and the 3D length of the plasma column, we give more accurate estimates for the drag force, the electric field strength, the power per unit length, and the radius of the conducting zone of the plasma column.

  15. Estimation of height of an individual from forearm length on the population of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Bhusan Mohanty1, Divya Agrawal1, Kunal Mishra2, Pusparaj Samantsinghar2, Prafulla Kumar Chinara1

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Height is a fundamental unit to assess growth and nutrition, for calculating body surface area and predicting pulmonary function in a person. But measurement of height may be hindered by muscle weakness, joint & spinal deformity. So, some alternative method should be there to measure height of a person in these cases. Also, when dismembered human fragments are encountered in scenes of mass disaster, the height of a person is to be calculated for identification. Estimation of stature from skeletal fragments is of great interest in forensic science. The aim of the current study is to find out a regression equation that could calculate the height of a person precisely and reproducibly from forearm length. 300 stu-dents (M = 206, F = 94 aged 18-25 years, who had no disability, were studied at SCB Medical College, Cuttack. Height & forearm lengths were measured. Prediction equation for height was de-rived using linear equation method.

  16. Instructional Format and Segment Length In Interactive Video Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Plon W.; Breman, Jeroen

    The purpose of this study was to gather further insight into a previous investigation of the relationship between self-chosen and program-controlled segment length of an interactive videodisk program, and performance on post- and retention tests. The initial study by Verhagen, which questioned what is the optimum length of well-designed…

  17. Variation in gestation length among captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, J E; Shipka, M P

    2009-07-15

    An estimated 90% of reindeer females are mated in a 10- to 21-d interval and give birth in an equally synchronized manner. Reported gestation length in reindeer is highly variable (range, 203 to 240 d), almost twice the reindeer estrous cycle length. Previously, we identified a significant, negative relationship between gestation length and conception date in a small group of reindeer. In the current study, the negative relationship was investigated in a switchback design, where reindeer were divided into two groups synchronized for early and late mating over a 2-yr trial. Regression analysis of 11 paired observations produced a negative (Pgestation length and conception date (slope= -0.31). Dam weight at breeding and prior to parturition, calf birth weight, and calf sex were not significant variables in the regression. Regression analysis of a larger data set from two University of Alaska Fairbanks reindeer herds, where conception date (verified by systemic progesterone) and gestation length were recorded (historical data set), supported previous conclusions (n=70; slope= -0.37; Pgestation length, there was a positive relationship (r(2)=0.19; P=0.014) between male birth weight and gestation length in the larger data set. The negative relationship between conception date and gestation length enhanced calving synchrony, though the limits of gestation plasticity and underlying mechanisms are not clear. The potential role of photoperiod on early embryonic development is discussed.

  18. Newton's Radii, Maupertuis' Arc Length, and Voltaire's Giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Given two arc length measurements along the perimeter of an ellipse--one taken near the long diameter, the other taken anywhere else--how do you find the lengths of major and minor axes? This was a problem of great interest from the time of Newton's "Principia" until the mid-eighteenth century when France launched twin geodesic…

  19. Uncoupling of Longevity and Telomere Length in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, after completing its developmental stages and a brief reproductive period, spends the remainder of its adult life as an organism consisting exclusively of post-mitotic cells. Here we show that telomere length varies considerably in clonal populations of wild-type worms, and that these length differences are conserved over at least ten generations, suggesting a length regulation mechanism in cis. This observation is strengthened by the finding that the bulk telomere length in different worm strains varies considerably. Despite the close correlation of telomere length and clonal cellular senescence in mammalian cells, nematodes with long telomeres were neither long lived, nor did worm populations with comparably short telomeres exhibit a shorter life span. Conversely, long-lived daf-2 and short-lived daf-16 mutant animals can have either long or short telomeres. Telomere length of post-mitotic cells did not change during the aging process, and the response of animals to stress was found independent of telomere length. Collectively, our data indicate that telomere length and life span can be uncoupled in a post-mitotic setting, suggesting separate pathways for replication-dependent and -independent aging.

  20. Word Length Effects in Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Georgina Anne

    2007-01-01

    The word length effect has been a central feature of theorising about immediate memory. The notion that short-term memory traces rapidly decay unless refreshed by rehearsal is based primarily upon the finding that serial recall for short words is better than that for long words. The decay account of the word length effect has come under pressure…

  1. The impact of cultural distance on bilateral arm's length exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.H.L.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Hennart, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have argued and regularly found that cultural distance is negatively related to bilateral export flows, which are the sum of arm’s length and intra-firm exports. However, these macro-level studies overlook the firm-level insights that arm’s length exports are a substitute for arm’s

  2. The impact of cultural distance on bilateral arm's length exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.H.L.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Hennart, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have argued and regularly found that cultural distance is negatively related to bilateral export flows, which are the sum of arm’s length and intra-firm exports. However, these macro-level studies overlook the firm-level insights that arm’s length exports are a substitute for arm’s len

  3. Political Television Commercials: An Experimental Study of Type and Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaid, Lynda Lee; Sanders, Keith R.

    1978-01-01

    Looks at the type of political television commercial (image or issue) and the length (five minutes or sixty seconds) and compares the effects of the type and length on candidate evaluation, recall of commercial content, and the likelihood of voting for the candidate. (MH)

  4. Anyons in quantum mechanics with a minimal length

    CERN Document Server

    Buisseret, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    The existence of anyons, \\textit{i.e.} quantum states with an arbitrary spin, is a generic feature of standard quantum mechanics in $(2+1)-$dimensional Minkowski spacetime. Here it is shown that relativistic anyons may exist also in quantum theories where a minimal length is present. The interplay between minimal length and arbitrary spin effects are discussed.

  5. Heritability of sperm length in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; de Jong, Gerdien; Schmid-Hempel, Regula

    2006-01-01

    Sperm length is highly variable, both between and within species, but the evolutionary significance of this variation is poorly understood. Sexual selection on sperm length requires a significant additive genetic variance, but few studies have actually measured this. Here we present the first est...

  6. Microtubule length dependence of motor traffic in cells

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-01-01

    In living cells, motor proteins, such as kinesin and dynein can move processively along microtubule (MT), and also detach from or attach to MT stochastically. Experiments have found that, the traffic of motor might be jammed, and various theoretical models have been designed to understand this traffic jam phenomenon. But previous studies mainly focus on motor attachment/detachment rate dependent properties. Recent experiment of Leduc {\\it et al.} found that the traffic jam formation of motor protein kinesin depends also on the length of MT [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. {\\bf 109}, 6100-6105 (2012)]. In this study, the MT length dependent properties of motor traffic will be analyzed. We found that MT length has one {\\it critical value} $N_c$, traffic jam occurs only when MT length $N>N_c$. The jammed length of MT increases with total MT length, while the non-jammed MT length might not change monotonically with the total MT length. The critical value $N_c$ increases with motor detachment rate from MT, but decre...

  7. Telomere length in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michelle L; Chavez, Elizabeth; Vulto, Irma; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2009-06-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder caused by mutations in the gene LMNA, which encodes the nuclear matrix protein lamin A. Previous research has shown that the average telomere length in fibroblasts from HGPS patients is shorter than in age-matched controls. How mutations in lamin A lead to shortened telomere lengths is not known nor is the contribution of individual chromosome ends to the low average length understood. To measure the telomere length of individual chromosomes, we used quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH). In agreement with previous studies, we found that the average telomere length in HPGS fibroblasts is greatly reduced; however, the telomere length at chromosome ends was variable. In contrast, the telomere length in hematopoietic cells which typically do not express lamin A, was within the normal range for three out of four HGPS patient samples. Our results suggest that mutant lamin A decreases telomere length via a direct effect and that expression of mutant LMNA is necessary for telomere loss in HGPS.

  8. Cholecystectomy During the Weekend Increases Patients' Length of Hospital Stay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian;

    2016-01-01

    30 days between week time and weekend time. A longer postoperative length of stay was observed for patients operated on Fridays and Saturdays even though surgical complication rates were alike between weekdays. Patients with acute cholecystitis had a longer length of stay on Saturdays. CONCLUSION: We...

  9. Newton's Radii, Maupertuis' Arc Length, and Voltaire's Giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Given two arc length measurements along the perimeter of an ellipse--one taken near the long diameter, the other taken anywhere else--how do you find the lengths of major and minor axes? This was a problem of great interest from the time of Newton's "Principia" until the mid-eighteenth century when France launched twin geodesic expeditions--one to…

  10. Time bucket length and lot-splitting approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J

    2004-01-01

    The effect of time bucket length on the choice of a lot-splitting approach is studied. Due to the continuing pressure to reduce throughput times and increase efficiency, managers apply various measures, such as lot splitting and cycle time reduction programmes, that change the length of the time buc

  11. Quantum Tunneling In Deformed Quantum Mechanics with Minimal Length

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xiaobo; Tao, Jun; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In the deformed quantum mechanics with a minimal length, one WKB connection formula through a turning point is derived. We then use it to calculate tunnelling rates through potential barriers under the WKB approximation. Finally, the minimal length effects on two examples of quantum tunneling in nuclear and atomic physics are discussed

  12. Word Length Effects in Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Georgina Anne

    2007-01-01

    The word length effect has been a central feature of theorising about immediate memory. The notion that short-term memory traces rapidly decay unless refreshed by rehearsal is based primarily upon the finding that serial recall for short words is better than that for long words. The decay account of the word length effect has come under pressure…

  13. Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    1996-01-01

    In third world countries the length of breastfeeding often has a major influence on child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status. When evaluating the impact of length of breastfeeding the reason why a mother terminates breastfeeding is usually not taken into consideration....

  14. Leg length, sitting height and postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, L; Christensen, J; Frederiksen, K

    2012-01-01

    Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height.......Tallness has consistently been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We investigated the association further by decomposing height into leg length and sitting height....

  15. 42 CFR 402.205 - Length of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum time limit for the period of exclusion. Social Security Actparagraph Code of Federal... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Length of exclusion. 402.205 Section 402.205 Public... PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS Exclusions § 402.205 Length of exclusion....

  16. Resonance and Neck Length for a Spherical Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Corning

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the neck length of a spherical resonator and its period of fundamental resonance was investigated. This was done by measuring the frequency of fundamental resonance of the resonator at 6 different neck lengths. It was found that its resonance resembled Helmholtz resonance but was not that of ideal Helmholtz resonance.

  17. Common variants near TERC are associated with mean telomere length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codd, Veryan; Mangino, Massimo; van der Harst, Pim; Braund, Peter S.; Kaiser, Michael; Beveridge, Alan J.; Rafelt, Suzanne; Moore, Jasbir; Nelson, Chris; Soranzo, Nicole; Zhai, Guangju; Valdes, Ana M.; Blackburn, Hannah; Mateo Leach, Irene; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Goodall, Alison H.; Ouwehand, Willem; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Navis, Gerjan; Burton, Paul R.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hall, Alistair S.; Thompson, John R.; Spector, Tim; Samani, Nilesh J.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted genome-wide association analyses of mean leukocyte telomere length in 2,917 individuals, with follow-up replication in 9,492 individuals. We identified an association with telomere length on 3q26 (rs12696304, combined P = 3.72 x 10(-14)) at a locus that includes TERC, which encodes the

  18. Properties of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Finite Lengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Di-Li; PAN Bi-Cai

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with finite lengths should be natural components of future "nano devices". Based on orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations, we report on our study of formation energies, optimal geometrical structures and active sites of carbon nanotubes with finite lengths. This should be useful to understand the properties of such natural components.

  19. Estimating head and body length in fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present estimates for head and body length (HBL) of fossil rodents. We assembled HBL data and tooth row length data (LTR, UTR) for a large number of extant rodents, and calculated regression lines of HBL on LTR and UTR for all rodents together (all-rodents equation), and for separate taxonomic gr

  20. The impact of cultural distance on bilateral arm's length exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.H.L.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Hennart, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have argued and regularly found that cultural distance is negatively related to bilateral export flows, which are the sum of arm’s length and intra-firm exports. However, these macro-level studies overlook the firm-level insights that arm’s length exports are a substitute for arm’s len