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Sample records for unit firing behavior

  1. The compensatory interaction between motor unit firing behavior and muscle force during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Paola; De Luca, Carlo J; Kline, Joshua C

    2016-10-01

    Throughout the literature, different observations of motor unit firing behavior during muscle fatigue have been reported and explained with varieties of conjectures. The disagreement amongst previous studies has resulted, in part, from the limited number of available motor units and from the misleading practice of grouping motor unit data across different subjects, contractions, and force levels. To establish a more clear understanding of motor unit control during fatigue, we investigated the firing behavior of motor units from the vastus lateralis muscle of individual subjects during a fatigue protocol of repeated voluntary constant force isometric contractions. Surface electromyographic decomposition technology provided the firings of 1,890 motor unit firing trains. These data revealed that to sustain the contraction force as the muscle fatigued, the following occurred: 1) motor unit firing rates increased; 2) new motor units were recruited; and 3) motor unit recruitment thresholds decreased. Although the degree of these adaptations was subject specific, the behavior was consistent in all subjects. When we compared our empirical observations with those obtained from simulation, we found that the fatigue-induced changes in motor unit firing behavior can be explained by increasing excitation to the motoneuron pool that compensates for the fatigue-induced decrease in muscle force twitch reported in empirical studies. Yet, the fundamental motor unit control scheme remains invariant throughout the development of fatigue. These findings indicate that the central nervous system regulates motor unit firing behavior by adjusting the operating point of the excitation to the motoneuron pool to sustain the contraction force as the muscle fatigues. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and fire management utility of three data sources in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth; Laurie L. Kurth; Bernard R. Parresol; Roger D. Ottmar; Susan J. Prichard

    2012-01-01

    Landscape-scale fire behavior analyses are important to inform decisions on resource management projects that meet land management objectives and protect values from adverse consequences of fire. Deterministic and probabilistic geospatial fire behavior analyses are conducted with various modeling systems including FARSITE, FlamMap, FSPro, and Large Fire Simulation...

  3. Motor unit firing behavior during prolonged 50% MVC dorsiflexion contractions in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Anita; Kamen, Gary

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in motor unit firing behavior during prolonged contractions in young and older adults. Motor unit activity was recorded from the tibialis anterior of 16 subjects (8 young and 8 older), while they performed isometric dorsiflexion at 50% MVC until task failure. Mean motor unit firing rate, the standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) of the interspike intervals, and number of doublet discharges were calculated for a total of 52 motor units, tracked for an average of 92.9+/-68.6s. There was no age-related difference in the time to task failure. A modest decline in firing rate was observed in 71% of the motor units, with no significant age-related difference. The SD and CV of the interspike interval had a positive slope in 65% and 69% of the motor units, respectively, with no significant age-related differences. The number of doublet discharges remained stable throughout the contraction. Both groups exhibited motor unit dropout (discharge cessation) during the contraction. Thus, a fatiguing task producing modest changes in firing rate in young and older adults is accompanied by an appreciable increase in firing rate variability. The incidence of doublet discharges is not increased during fatiguing contractions.

  4. Examination of Poststroke Alteration in Motor Unit Firing Behavior Using High-Density Surface EMG Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Holobar, Ales; Gazzoni, Marco; Merletti, Roberto; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in high-density surface electromyogram (EMG) decomposition have made it a feasible task to discriminate single motor unit activity from surface EMG interference patterns, thus providing a noninvasive approach for examination of motor unit control properties. In the current study, we applied high-density surface EMG recording and decomposition techniques to assess motor unit firing behavior alterations poststroke. Surface EMG signals were collected using a 64-channel 2-D electrode array from the paretic and contralateral first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles of nine hemiparetic stroke subjects at different isometric discrete contraction levels between 2 to 10 N with a 2 N increment step. Motor unit firing rates were extracted through decomposition of the high-density surface EMG signals and compared between paretic and contralateral muscles. Across the nine tested subjects, paretic FDI muscles showed decreased motor unit firing rates compared with contralateral muscles at different contraction levels. Regression analysis indicated a linear relation between the mean motor unit firing rate and the muscle contraction level for both paretic and contralateral muscles (p < 0.001), with the former demonstrating a lower increment rate (0.32 pulses per second (pps)/N) compared with the latter (0.67 pps/N). The coefficient of variation (averaged over the contraction levels) of the motor unit firing rates for the paretic muscles (0.21 ± 0.012) was significantly higher than for the contralateral muscles (0.17 ± 0.014) (p < 0.05). This study provides direct evidence of motor unit firing behavior alterations poststroke using surface EMG, which can be an important factor contributing to hemiparetic muscle weakness.

  5. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Search Email subscriptions Training & Professional Development Fire Prevention & Public Education Operations Management & Safety Data Publications & Library Grants & Funding About USFA Hotel/Motel Contact Us Email subscriptions Disaster sheltering ...

  6. Modeling the spatial distribution of forest crown biomass and effects on fire behavior with FUEL3D and WFDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons; William Mell; Peter McCauley

    2010-01-01

    Crown fire poses challenges to fire managers and can endanger fire fighters. Understanding of how fire interacts with tree crowns is essential to informed decisions about crown fire. Current operational crown fire predictions in the United States assume homogeneous crown fuels. While a new class of research fire models, which model fire behavior with computational...

  7. Self-sustained firing of human motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorassini, M A; Bennett, D J; Yang, J F

    1998-05-08

    Motoneurons of invertebrates and vertebrates can continue to fire repetitively after being activated by a brief, excitatory synaptic input (self-sustained firing). This firing behavior is due to the activation of intrinsic, voltage-gated currents which produce sustained regenerative depolarizations (plateau potentials) of the cell. Examination of these intrinsic cellular properties has been performed in reduced animal preparations and it is unknown if such self-sustained firing occurs in motoneurons of the intact human. In this paper, we present evidence of this in the human by using a technique of dual motor unit recordings. Subjects were instructed to maintain a constant dorsiflexion effort, and the common synaptic input (e.g. descending drive) onto the tibialis anterior (TA) motoneuron pool was monitored by recording the firing frequency of a low threshold 'control' unit. Once the firing rate of the control unit was constant, vibration of the TA tendon recruited a second 'test' unit which continued to fire after the vibration (i.e. synaptic input) was removed, even though the firing rate of the control unit (and thus, the common drive) remained the same or decreased. Self-sustained firing of motoneurons such as this may reduce the need for prolonged synaptic input when constant muscle activation is required (e.g. for postural tone).

  8. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  9. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  10. Fire behavior sensor package remote trigger design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Jimenez; Jason Forthofer; James Reardon; Bret Butler

    2007-01-01

    Fire behavior characteristics (such as temperature, radiant and total heat flux, 2- and 3-dimensional velocities, and air flow) are extremely difficult to measure insitu. Although insitu sensor packages are capable of such measurements in realtime, it is also essential to acquire video documentation as a means of better understanding the fire behavior data recorded by...

  11. Single motor unit firing behavior in the right trapezius muscle during rapid movement of right or left index finger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Olsen, Henrik B; Blangsted, Anne K

    2014-01-01

    as %MVE. The intramuscular EMG signals were decomposed into individual MU action potential trains using a computer algorithm based on signal shape recognition and manual editing. Instantaneous firing rate (IFR) was calculated as the inverse of each inter-spike interval (ISI). All ISI shorter than 20 ms...... were defined as doublets. For all MU IFR was spike triggered averaged across the 10 DC to show the modulation during DC as well as for calculation of the cross correlation coefficient (CCC). RESULTS: All subjects showed surface EMG activity in both right and left trapezius ranging from 1.8 %MVE to 2...... in IFR with a clear temporal relation to the DC. During left hand DC 15 MUs were identified in four subjects, for two of the subjects with IFR modulations clearly related to DC. During both ipsi- and contralateral DC, doublets occurred sporadically as well as related to DC Conclusion: In conclusion, DC...

  12. Synthesis of knowledge of extreme fire behavior: volume 2 for fire behavior specialists, researchers, and meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Werth; Brian E. Potter; Martin E. Alexander; Craig B. Clements; Miguel G. Cruz; Mark A. Finney; Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick; Chad Hoffman; W. Matt Jolly; Sara S. McAllister; Roger D. Ottmar; Russell A. Parsons

    2016-01-01

    The National Wildfire Coordinating Group’s definition of extreme fire behavior indicates a level of fire behavior characteristics that ordinarily precludes methods of direct control action. One or more of the following is usually involved: high rate of spread, prolific crowning/ spotting, presence of fire whirls, and strong convection column. Predictability is...

  13. Conformity Behavior During a Fire Disaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duo, Qi; Shen, Huizhang; Zhao, Jidi; Gong, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    ..., the number of choices offered for making an escape was negatively related to conformity behavior, and decision-making performance was found to be a dual mediator both between the level of fear activation and conformity behavior and between the number of choices and conformity behavior. Keywords: conformity behavior, fire disaster, fear activation, number...

  14. Excitability and firing behavior of single slow motor axons transmitting natural repetitive firing of human motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudina, Lydia P; Andreeva, Regina E

    2017-08-01

    Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function, i.e., transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibers. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored. It was shown that axons displayed an early irresponsive period (within the first ~2-5 ms of a target ISI) that was followed by a responsive period (for the next 5-17 ms of the ISI), in which MUs fired axonal doublets, and a later irresponsive period. At the beginning of the responsive period, M-responses showed small latency delays. However, since at that ISI moment, MUs displayed excitability recovery with high firing index, slight latency changes may be considered as a functionally insignificant phenomenon. The duration of axonal doublet ISIs did not depend on motoneuron firing frequencies (range 4.3-14.6 imp/s). The question of whether or not traditionally described axonal recovery excitability cycle is realistic in natural motor control is discussed. In conclusion, the present approach, exploring, for the first time, excitability recovery in single slow axons during motoneuron natural activation, can provide further insight into axonal firing behavior in normal states and diseases.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Excitability of single slow axons was estimated by motor unit firing index in response to motor nerve stimulation, and its changes throughout a target interspike interval were explored during transmitting human motoneuron natural firing. It was found that axons exhibited early irresponsive

  15. Fire danger and fire behavior modeling systems in Australia, Europe, and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis M. Fujioka; A. Malcolm Gill; Domingos X. Viegas; B. Mike Wotton

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire occurrence and behavior are complex phenomena involving essentially fuel (vegetation), topography, and weather. Fire managers around the world use a variety of systems to track and predict fire danger and fire behavior, at spatial scales that span from local to global extents, and temporal scales ranging from minutes to seasons. The fire management...

  16. Human and biophysical influences on fire occurrence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hammer, Roger B.; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Clayton, Murray K.

    2013-01-01

    National-scale analyses of fire occurrence are needed to prioritize fire policy and management activities across the United States. However, the drivers of national-scale patterns of fire occurrence are not well understood, and how the relative importance of human or biophysical factors varies across the country is unclear. Our research goal was to model the drivers of fire occurrence within ecoregions across the conterminous United States. We used generalized linear models to compare the relative influence of human, vegetation, climate, and topographic variables on fire occurrence in the United States, as measured by MODIS active fire detections collected between 2000 and 2006. We constructed models for all fires and for large fires only and generated predictive maps to quantify fire occurrence probabilities. Areas with high fire occurrence probabilities were widespread in the Southeast, and localized in the Mountain West, particularly in southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Probabilities for large-fire occurrence were generally lower, but hot spots existed in the western and south-central United States The probability of fire occurrence is a critical component of fire risk assessments, in addition to vegetation type, fire behavior, and the values at risk. Many of the hot spots we identified have extensive development in the wildland–urban interface and are near large metropolitan areas. Our results demonstrated that human variables were important predictors of both all fires and large fires and frequently exhibited nonlinear relationships. However, vegetation, climate, and topography were also significant variables in most ecoregions. If recent housing growth trends and fire occurrence patterns continue, these areas will continue to challenge policies and management efforts seeking to balance the risks generated by wildfires with the ecological benefits of fire.

  17. Boreal Forest Fires - Behavior and Atmospheric Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    behavior on the ground, presenting a solid opportunity for mutually-beneficial collaboration between atmospheric modelers and the wildland fire research community.

  18. Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal E. Anderson

    1982-01-01

    Presents photographs of wildland vegetation appropriate for the 13 fuel models used in mathematical models of fire behavior. Fuel model descriptions include fire behavior associated with each fuel and its physical characteristics. A similarity chart cross-references the 13 fire behavior fuel models to the 20 fuel models used in the National Fire Danger Rating System....

  19. Linking 3D spatial models of fuels and fire: Effects of spatial heterogeneity on fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons; William E. Mell; Peter McCauley

    2011-01-01

    Crownfire endangers fire fighters and can have severe ecological consequences. Prediction of fire behavior in tree crowns is essential to informed decisions in fire management. Current methods used in fire management do not address variability in crown fuels. New mechanistic physics-based fire models address convective heat transfer with computational fluid dynamics (...

  20. Introduction-2nd Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference: The fire environment-innovations, management, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Cook; Bret W. Butler

    2007-01-01

    The 2nd Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference: Fire Environment -- Innovations, Management and Policy was held in Destin, FL, March 26-30, 2007. Following on the success of the 1st Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference, this conference was initiated in response to the needs of the National Wildfire Coordinating Group -- Fire Environment Working Team.

  1. In-situ characterization of wildland fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler; D. Jimenez; J. Forthofer; Paul Sopko; K. Shannon; Jim Reardon

    2010-01-01

    A system consisting of two enclosures has been developed to characterize wildand fire behavior: The first enclosure is a sensor/data logger combination that measures and records convective/radiant energy released by the fire. The second is a digital video camera housed in a fire proof enclosure that records visual images of fire behavior. Together this system provides...

  2. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  3. Preliminary results of fire behavior in maquis fuels under varying weather and slope conditions in turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulent Saglam; Ertugrul Bilgili; Omer Kucuk; Bahar Dinc Durmaz; Ismail Baysal

    2007-01-01

    The prediction of fire behavior is of vital importance to all fire management planning and decisionmaking processes including fire prevention, presuppression planning, and fire use. The effect of slope on fire behavior is well acknowledged, yet its effect on fire behavior is not well accounted for. Determining the effects of slope on fire behavior under field...

  4. Standard fire behavior fuel models: a comprehensive set for use with Rothermel's surface fire spread model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe H. Scott; Robert E. Burgan

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a new set of standard fire behavior fuel models for use with Rothermel's surface fire spread model and the relationship of the new set to the original set of 13 fire behavior fuel models. To assist with transition to using the new fuel models, a fuel model selection guide, fuel model crosswalk, and set of fuel model photos are provided.

  5. Performance of fire behavior fuel models developed for the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Ziel; W. Matt Jolly

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, 40 new fire behavior fuel models were published for use with the Rothermel Surface Fire Spread Model. These new models are intended to augment the original 13 developed in 1972 and 1976. As a compiled set of quantitative fuel descriptions that serve as input to the Rothermel model, the selected fire behavior fuel model has always been critical to the resulting...

  6. Pathological Fire Setting Behavior in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmagul Helvaci Celik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological fire setting behavior is characterized by various types of fire setting behavior that lasts at least 6 months. This behavior can be observed both during childhood and adolescence and it develops as a result of the complex interaction between individual, social and environmental factors. Sample population based studies show that fire setting behavior occurs in children and adolescents by 5-10%. The studies that have been conducted have yielded to various theories and findings concerning the mechanism of occurrence of pathological fire setting behavior, the factors that affect this behavior and the demographic, individual, family and environmental characteristics of the children and adolescents who engage in such behavior. The objectives of effective treatment strategies are reducing fire setting behavior as well as making significant changes in the causes underlying the psychopathology. Outpatient care is the preferred method. In addition, there are some inpatient treatment programs designed especially for young people who set fires. The two most common approaches in intervention concerning fire setting behavior are firefighting (fire service based training interventions and mental health based psycho-social interventions. Even though numerous studies have been conducted in the world concerning pathological fire setting behavior from the 19th century onwards, no epidemiological data or study on pathological fire setting behavior exists in Turkey. This seems to be the case in our country despite the fact that fire setting behavior at various degrees and even arson occurs in children and adolescents and results in material damage as well as serious injury and even death especially in the context of children who are pushed into crime. Our objective is to discuss pathological fire setting behavior in line with the literature on the subject, to increase the awareness of the fire service institutions and to shed light on further studies to

  7. Fire behavior modeling-a decision tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Cohen; Bill Bradshaw

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of an analytical model as a fire management decision tool is determined by the correspondence of its descriptive capability to the specific decision context. Fire managers must determine the usefulness of fire models as a decision tool when applied to varied situations. Because the wildland fire phenomenon is complex, analytical fire spread models will...

  8. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYERED FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    R. GUOBYS; V. Vekteris; V. MOKSHIN

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior under real fire conditions of new generation multilayered fire resistant structure (fire door, dimensions H × W × D: 2090 × 980 × 52 mm) combining high strength and fire safety. This fire door consists of two steel sheets (thickness 1.5 and 0.7 mm) with stone wool ( = 33 kg/m3, k = 0.037 W/mK, E = 5000 N/m2,  = 0.2) insulating layer in between. One surface of the structure was heated in fire furnace for spe...

  9. Comparison of methods for estimating motor unit firing rate time series from firing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lukai; Bonato, Paolo; Clancy, Edward A

    2016-12-01

    The central nervous system regulates recruitment and firing of motor units to modulate muscle tension. Estimation of the firing rate time series is typically performed by decomposing the electromyogram (EMG) into its constituent firing times, then lowpass filtering a constituent train of impulses. Little research has examined the performance of different estimation methods, particularly in the inevitable presence of decomposition errors. The study of electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroneurogram (ENG) firing rate time series presents a similar problem, and has applied novel simulation models and firing rate estimators. Herein, we adapted an ENG/ECG simulation model to generate realistic EMG firing times derived from known rates, and assessed various firing rate time series estimation methods. ENG/ECG-inspired rate estimation worked exceptionally well when EMG decomposition errors were absent, but degraded unacceptably with decomposition error rates of ⩾1%. Typical EMG decomposition error rates-even after expert manual review-are 3-5%. At realistic decomposition error rates, more traditional EMG smoothing approaches performed best, when optimal smoothing window durations were selected. This optimal window was often longer than the 400ms duration that is commonly used in the literature. The optimal duration decreased as the modulation frequency of firing rate increased, average firing rate increased and decomposition errors decreased. Examples of these rate estimation methods on physiologic data are also provided, demonstrating their influence on measures computed from the firing rate estimate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology to Characterize Fire Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Cram

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential of a fiber optic cable connected to distributed temperature sensing (DTS technology to withstand wildland fire conditions and quantify fire behavior parameters. We used a custom-made ‘fire cable’ consisting of three optical fibers coated with three different materials—acrylate, copper and polyimide. The 150-m cable was deployed in grasslands and burned in three prescribed fires. The DTS system recorded fire cable output every three seconds and integrated temperatures every 50.6 cm. Results indicated the fire cable was physically capable of withstanding repeated rugged use. Fiber coating materials withstood temperatures up to 422 °C. Changes in fiber attenuation following fire were near zero (−0.81 to 0.12 dB/km indicating essentially no change in light gain or loss as a function of distance or fire intensity over the length of the fire cable. Results indicated fire cable and DTS technology have potential to quantify fire environment parameters such as heat duration and rate of spread but additional experimentation and analysis are required to determine efficacy and response times. This study adds understanding of DTS and fire cable technology as a potential new method for characterizing fire behavior parameters at greater temporal and spatial scales.

  11. Evaluating Potential Changes in Fire Risk from Eucalyptus Plantings in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Goodrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewed interest in short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and bioproducts has prompted a reevaluation of the Eucalyptus species for the southern United States. One question that arises about the potential effects of introducing a nonnative species is what effect will there be on fire behavior. Our approximate answer based on modeling fire behavior using the Fuel Characteristic Classification System is that surface fire behavior in young stands differs little from surface fires common to pine plantations in the southern Coastal Plain. By the age of 9, the absence of a shrub layer, along with an increased height to live crown, reduced initiation potential despite increased bark shedding. When a shrub layer was introduced in the model, the initiation potential became equivalent to common Pinus fuelbeds. If a crown is ignited, however, the potentials for transmissivity and spread are very high, and the potential for crown fire behavior is more severe. Our modeling effort suggests that fire behavior at the stand level differs little from current conditions and points to the importance of avoiding the development of a shrub layer. Stands managed on short rotation (less than 10 years will likely be harvested before bark shedding presents a significant spotting problem.

  12. Integrating Fire Behavior Models and Geospatial Analysis for Wildland Fire Risk Assessment and Fuel Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Ager

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildland fire risk assessment and fuel management planning on federal lands in the US are complex problems that require state-of-the-art fire behavior modeling and intensive geospatial analyses. Fuel management is a particularly complicated process where the benefits and potential impacts of fuel treatments must be demonstrated in the context of land management goals and public expectations. A number of fire behavior metrics, including fire spread, intensity, likelihood, and ecological risk must be analyzed for multiple treatment alternatives. The effect of treatments on wildfire impacts must be considered at multiple scales. The process is complicated by the lack of data integration among fire behavior models, and weak linkages to geographic information systems, corporate data, and desktop office software. This paper describes our efforts to build a streamlined fuel management planning and risk assessment framework, and an integrated system of tools for designing and testing fuel treatment programs on fire-prone wildlands.

  13. Temporal scaling behavior of forest and urban fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Song, W.; Zheng, H.; Telesca, L.

    2009-04-01

    It has been found that many natural systems are characterized by scaling behavior. In such systems natural factors dominate the event dynamics. Forest fires in different countries have been found to exhibit frequency-size power law over many orders of magnitude and with similar value of parameters. But in countries with high population density such as China and Japan, more than 95% of the forest fire disasters are caused by human activities. Furthermore, with the development of society, the wildland-urban interface (WUI) area is becoming more and more populated, and the forest fire is much connected with urban fire. Therefore exploring the scaling behavior of fires dominated by human-related factors is very challenging. The present paper explores the temporal scaling behavior of forest fires and urban fires in Japan with mathematical methods. Two factors, Allan factor (AF) and Fano factor (FF) are used to investigate time-scaling of fire systems. It is found that the FF for both forest fires and urban fires increases linearly in log-log scales, and this indicates that it behaves as a power-law for all the investigated timescales. From the AF plot a 7 days cycle is found, which indicates a weekly cycle. This may be caused by human activities which has a weekly periodicity because on weekends people usually have more outdoor activities, which may cause more hidden trouble of fire disasters. Our findings point out that although the human factors are the main cause, both the forest fires and urban fires exhibit time-scaling behavior. At the same time, the scaling exponents for urban fires are larger than forest fires, signifying a more intense clustering. The reason may be that fires are affected not only by weather condition, but also by human activities, which play a more important role for urban fires than forest fires and have a power law distribution and scaling behavior. Then some work is done to the relative humidity. Similar distribution law characterizes the

  14. Impact of Climate Change on Fire Danger across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatzoglou, J. T.; Kolden, C.; Brown, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past three decades, the size and number of number of large wildfires have dramatically increased across the western United States. Large wildfires across much of the West preferentially occur during periods of extreme fire danger associated with critically low fuel moistures and limited relative humidity recovery. Anecdotal and analytical evidence suggests that fire danger and fire behavior have been unprecedented in recent years, therein contributing to the significant increase in wildland fire acres burned in recent years. Although fire danger, as a juxtaposition of climate and meteorological conditions, represents only a single determinant of wildfires, mounting evidence suggests that observed changes in climate have played a contributing role in increasing wildfire’s prevalence across the West and its subsequent effects on ecosystems and human infrastructure, Here, the impact of projected climate change on fire danger is examined across the western U.S. Projected changes in fire danger are assessed through a multimodel approach that uses downscaled daily meteorological fields. For a middle of the road climate change scenario results suggests an advance in the onset of fire season and an increase in the frequency of extreme fire danger conditions, with strong intermodel confidence across much of the desert southwest and intermountain western U.S. In addition, the alignment of climate change with low-frequency climate variability is projected to increase the likelihood of seasons that incur prolonged widespread fire danger. Such chronic and west-wide synchronous heightened wildfire potential is likely to tax fire suppression resources and reduce their efficacy, therein resulting in increased large catastrophic wildfires. Given the high degree of confidence regarding projected changes in fire danger and the increasing potential for anthropogenic ignitions, proactive efforts to mitigate the negative impacts of large wildfires are needed by land

  15. Muscular endurance training and motor unit firing patterns during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    With muscular training, the central nervous system may regulate motor unit firing rates to sustain force output and delay fatigue. The aims of this study were to investigate motor unit firing rates and patterns of the adductor pollicis (AdP) muscle in young, able-bodied adults throughout a sustained submaximal isometric fatiguing contraction and postactivation potentiation pre-post 4 weeks of muscular endurance training. Fifteen participants (training group: N = 10; control group: N = 5) performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and a sustained isometric 20 % MVC fatigue task pre-post training. Single-motor-unit potentials were recorded from the AdP during the fatigue task with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. Twitch force potentiation was measured during single-pulse electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve before and after MVCs. The training group endurance trained their AdP muscle at 20 % MVC for 4 weeks. Mean motor unit firing rates were calculated every 5 % of endurance time (ET). ET increased by 45.2 ± 8.7 % (p pattern consisted of an initial slowing followed by an increase in firing rate late in fatigue and remained consistent pre-post training. Potentiation did not change following training. These data suggest that the ability of the neuromuscular system to sustain motor unit firing rate may serve as a mechanism to augment the duration of submaximal muscle performance and delay muscular fatigue.

  16. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  17. 46 CFR 161.002-10 - Automatic fire detecting system control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting system control unit. 161.002-10...-10 Automatic fire detecting system control unit. (a) General. The fire detecting system control unit... and the battery to be charged. (h) Automatic fire detecting system, battery charging and control—(1...

  18. Integrating fire behavior models and geospatial analysis for wildland fire risk assessment and fuel management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Nicole M. Vaillant; Mark A. Finney

    2011-01-01

    Wildland fire risk assessment and fuel management planning on federal lands in the US are complex problems that require state-of-the-art fire behavior modeling and intensive geospatial analyses. Fuel management is a particularly complicated process where the benefits and potential impacts of fuel treatments must be demonstrated in the context of land management goals...

  19. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  20. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  1. Fire behavior in Mediterranean shrub species (Maquis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... experimental fires were carried out in tall maquis fuels in Asar District, Antalya, southwestern Turkey. ... and loam and sandy loam of limestone origin. ... Then, using linear regression models, equations were generated for.

  2. Log-periodic behavior in a forest-fire model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Malamud

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores log-periodicity in a forest-fire cellular-automata model. At each time step of this model a tree is dropped on a randomly chosen site; if the site is unoccupied, the tree is planted. Then, for a given sparking frequency, matches are dropped on a randomly chosen site; if the site is occupied by a tree, the tree ignites and an 'instantaneous' model fire consumes that tree and all adjacent trees. The resultant frequency-area distribution for the small and medium model fires is a power-law. However, if we consider very small sparking frequencies, the large model fires that span the square grid are dominant, and we find that the peaks in the frequency-area distribution of these large fires satisfy log-periodic scaling to a good approximation. This behavior can be examined using a simple mean-field model, where in time, the density of trees on the grid exponentially approaches unity. This exponential behavior coupled with a periodic or near-periodic sparking frequency also generates a sequence of peaks in the frequency-area distribution of large fires that satisfy log-periodic scaling. We conclude that the forest-fire model might provide a relatively simple explanation for the log-periodic behavior often seen in nature.

  3. Firing behavior and network activity of single neurons in human epileptic hypothalamic hamartoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N. Steinmetz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Human hypothalamic hamartomas (HH are intrinsically epileptogenic and are associated with treatment-resistant gelastic seizures. The basic cellular mechanisms responsible for seizure onset within HH are unknown. We used intra-operative microwire recordings of single neuron activity to measure the spontaneous firing rate of neurons and the degree of functional connection between neurons within the tumor.Technique: Fourteen patients underwent transventricular endoscopic resection of HH for treatment-resistant epilepsy. Prior to surgical resection, single neuron recordings from bundled microwires (total of 9 contacts were obtained from HH tissue. Spontaneous activity was recorded for two or three 5-minute epochs under steady-state general anesthesia. Off-line analysis included cluster analysis of single unit activity and probability analysis of firing relationships between pairs of neurons.Results: Altogether, 222 neurons were identified (mean 6 neurons per recording epoch. Cluster analysis of single neuron firing utilizing a mixture of Gaussians model identified two distinct populations on the basis of firing rate (median firing frequency 0.6 versus 15.0 spikes per second; p<10-5. Cluster analysis identified three populations determined by levels of burst-firing (median burst indices of 0.015, 0.18, and 0.39; p<10-15. Unbiased analysis of spontaneous single unit behavior showed that 51% of all possible neuron pairs within each recording epoch had a significant level of firing synchrony (p<10-15. The subgroup of neurons with higher median firing frequencies was more likely to demonstrate synchronous firing (p<10-7. Conclusions: HH tissue in-vivo contains neurons which fire spontaneously. The activity of single neurons is diverse but distributes into at least two electrophysiological phenoytpes. Functional linkage between single neurons suggests that HH neurons exist within local networks that may contribute to ictogenesis.

  4. The relationship of motor unit size, firing rate and force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwit, R A; Stashuk, D; Tracy, B; McHugh, M; Brown, W F; Metter, E J

    1999-07-01

    Using a clinical electromyographic (EMG) protocol, motor units were sampled from the quadriceps femoris during isometric contractions at fixed force levels to examine how average motor unit size and firing rate relate to force generation. Mean firing rates (mFRs) and sizes (mean surface-detected motor unit action potential (mS-MUAP) area) of samples of active motor units were assessed at various force levels in 79 subjects. MS-MUAP size increased linearly with increased force generation, while mFR remained relatively constant up to 30% of a maximal force and increased appreciably only at higher force levels. A relationship was found between muscle force and mS-MUAP area (r2 = 0.67), mFR (r2 = 0.38), and the product of mS-MUAP area and mFR (mS-MUAP x mFR) (r2 = 0.70). The results support the hypothesis that motor units are recruited in an orderly manner during forceful contractions, and that in large muscles only at higher levels of contraction ( > 30% MVC) do mFRs increase appreciably. MS-MUAP and mFR can be assessed using clinical EMG techniques and they may provide a physiological basis for analyzing the role of motor units during muscle force generation.

  5. Management and Climate Controls on Fire Trends in the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; McCarty, J. L.; Wang, D.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Randerson, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by forest fires in both scale and in the resources invested for management. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of satellite observations of active fires as a function of management type in the continental U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity Database (MTBS) to identify the location of large wildland fires and the MODIS Land Cover Type Product (MCD12Q1) to identify agricultural burning in croplands. A third class of fires, defined as prescribed or other fires included all residual fires not attributed to wildland or cropland fire types. Wildland fires dominated the interannual variation for U.S. active fires; however, there were no significant trends by region over the last decade. Agricultural and other/prescribed fires were responsible for 70% of total active fires, 50% of which were in the south and southeastern United States where contributions from wildland fires was relatively small. In the west, agricultural fires had a decreasing trend at a rate of 6% per year, mainly during the harvest season of October. Except for the west, prescribed fires were in-phase with agricultural fires on both seasonal and interannual timescales, possibly reflecting the similar management strategies. We also performed correlation analysis between fires and potential evapotranspiration (PE) to examine how climate controls varied by fire type. While climate is the dominant factor for wildland fires, agricultural and other non-wildland fires show no direct relationship to PE. Our result suggests that by targeting agricultural and prescribed fire management, there is potential to significantly reduce landscape fire emissions within the U.S., despite expected changes in climate over the next several decades. The trends (p < 0.01) in annual active fire detections across the

  6. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    analysis and the analysis of properties of individual motor unit potentials. To ensure comparable conditions we have examined motor unit firing intervals and turns at a force of 10% of maximum. The average of motor unit firing intervals and of interval variability was the same in controls and in patients......, and the diagnostic yield of the motor unit firing intervals analysis was none. Although the number of turns increased with decreasing motor unit firing intervals, this relation was physiological rather than pathophysiological. In patients with neurogenic disorders, interval variability indicated unstable firing...

  7. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYERED FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GUOBYS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior under real fire conditions of new generation multilayered fire resistant structure (fire door, dimensions H × W × D: 2090 × 980 × 52 mm combining high strength and fire safety. This fire door consists of two steel sheets (thickness 1.5 and 0.7 mm with stone wool ( = 33 kg/m3, k = 0.037 W/mK, E = 5000 N/m2,  = 0.2 insulating layer in between. One surface of the structure was heated in fire furnace for specified period of time of 60 min. Temperature and deformation of opposite surface were measured from outside at selected measuring points during fire resistance test. Results are presented as temperature-time and thermal deformation-time graphs. Experimental results were compared with numerical temperature field simulation results obtained from SolidWorks®Simulation software. Numerical results were found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The percent differences between door temperatures from simulation and fire resistance test don’t exceed 8%. This shows that thermal behaviour of such multilayered structures can be investigated numerically, thus avoiding costly and time-consuming fire resistance tests. It is established that investigated structure should be installed in a way that places thicker steel sheet closer to the potential heat source than thinner one. It is also obtained that stone wool layer of higher density should be used to improve fire resistance of the structure.

  8. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and potential application to fire and fuels management for the Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, Laurie; Hollingsworth, LaWen; Shea, Dan

    2011-12-20

    This study evaluates modeled fire behavior for the Savannah River Site in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern U.S. using three data sources: FCCS, LANDFIRE, and SWRA. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was used to build fuelbeds from intensive field sampling of 629 plots. Custom fire behavior fuel models were derived from these fuelbeds. LANDFIRE developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy attributes for the U.S. using satellite imagery informed by field data. The Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment (SWRA) developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover for the southeastern U.S. using satellite imagery.

  9. Fuels and fire behavior dynamics on large-scale savanna fires in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, B. J.; van Wilgen, B. W.; Trollope, W. S. W.; McRae, D. J.; Mason, J. A.; Weirich, F.; Potgieter, A. L. F.

    1996-10-01

    Biomass characterization and fire behavior documentation were carried out on two large (>2000 ha) experimental fires conducted in arid savanna fuels in Kruger National Park in September 1992. Prefire fuel loads, fuel consumption, spread rates, flame zone characteristics, and in-fire and perimeter wind field dynamics were measured in order to determine overall energy release rates for each fire. Convection column dynamics were also measured in support of airborne trace gas and particulate measurements. Energy release rates varied significantly between the two fires, and this was strongly reflected in convection column development. The lower-intensity fire produced a weak, poorly defined smoke plume, while a well-developed column with a capping cumulus top developed during the higher intensity fire. Further experimental burning studies, in savannas with higher fuel loads, are recommended to further explore the fire behavior-convection column dynamics relationship investigated in this study.

  10. Selection of fire spread model for Russian fire behavior prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra V. Volokitina; Kevin C. Ryan; Tatiana M. Sofronova; Mark A. Sofronov

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of fire behavior prediction is only possible if the models are supplied with an information database that provides spatially explicit input parameters for modeled area. Mathematical models can be of three kinds: 1) physical; 2) empirical; and 3) quasi-empirical (Sullivan, 2009). Physical models (Grishin, 1992) are of academic interest only because...

  11. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of the firing intervals of motor units has been suggested as a diagnostic tool in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Part of the increase in number of turns seen in patients with myopathy could be secondary to the decrease in motor unit firing intervals at threshold force...... of the motor units, as noted in previous studies. In the brachial biceps muscle we have studied the firing intervals of 164 motor units in 14 controls, 140 motor units in 13 patients with myopathy and 86 motor units in 8 patients with neurogenic disorders, and related the findings to those of the turns...... analysis and the analysis of properties of individual motor unit potentials. To ensure comparable conditions we have examined motor unit firing intervals and turns at a force of 10% of maximum. The average of motor unit firing intervals and of interval variability was the same in controls and in patients...

  12. Simulation of Quaking Aspen Potential Fire Behavior in Northern Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Justin DeRose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current understanding of aspen fire ecology in western North America includes the paradoxical characterization that aspen-dominated stands, although often regenerated following fire, are “fire-proof”. We tested this idea by predicting potential fire behavior across a gradient of aspen dominance in northern Utah using the Forest Vegetation Simulator and the Fire and Fuels Extension. The wind speeds necessary for crowning (crown-to-crown fire spread and torching (surface to crown fire spread were evaluated to test the hypothesis that predicted fire behavior is influenced by the proportion of aspen in the stand. Results showed a strong effect of species composition on crowning, but only under moderate fire weather, where aspen-dominated stands were unlikely to crown or torch. Although rarely observed in actual fires, conifer-dominated stands were likely to crown but not to torch, an example of “hysteresis” in crown fire behavior. Results support the hypothesis that potential crown fire behavior varies across a gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather, where it was likely under extreme and severe fire weather, and unlikely under moderate and high fire weather. Furthermore, the “fire-proof” nature of aspen stands broke down across the gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather.

  13. Impacts of climate on shrubland fuels and fire behavior in the Owyhee Basin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Shi, H.; Hawbaker, T.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    There is evidence that wildland fire is increasing as a function of global change. However, fire activity is spatially, temporally and ecologically variable across the globe, and our understanding of fire risk and behavior in many ecosystems is limited. After a series of severe fire seasons that occurred during the late 1990's in the western United States, the LANDFIRE program was developed with the goals of providing the fire community with objective spatial fuel data for assessing wildland fire risk. Even with access to the data provided by LANDFIRE, assessing fire behavior in shrublands in sagebrush-dominated ecosystems of the western United States has proven especially problematic, in part due to the complex nature of the vegetation, the variable influence of understory vegetation including invasive species (e.g. cheatgrass), and prior fire history events. Climate is undoubtedly playing a major role, affecting the intra- and inter-annual variability in vegetation conditions, which in turn impacts fire behavior. In order to further our understanding of climate-vegetation-fire interactions in shrublands, we initiated a study in the Owyhee Basin, which is located in southwestern Idaho and adjacent Nevada. Our goals include: (1) assessing the relationship between climate and vegetation condition, (2) quantifying the range of temporal variability in grassland and shrubland fuel loads, (3) identifying methods to operationally map the variability in fuel loads, and (4) assessing how the variability in fuel loads affect fire spread simulations. To address these goals, we are using a wide variety of geospatial data, including remotely sensed time-series data sets derived from MODIS and Landsat, and climate data from DAYMET and PRISM. Remotely-sensed information is used to characterize climate-induced temporal variability in primary productivity in the Basin, where fire spread can be extensive after senescence when dry vegetation is added to dead fuel loads. Gridded

  14. Normative collective behavior in the Station building fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, B E; Torres, Manuel R; Gill, Kimberly B; Hotchkiss, H Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This article offers a test of the normative explanation of collective behavior by examining the fire at the Station nightclub in Rhode Island that killed 100 and injured nearly 200 persons.Methods. Information on all persons at the club comes from content analysis of documents from the Rhode Island Police Department, the Rhode Island Office of the Attorney General, and The Providence Journal. We use negative binomial regression to test hypotheses about the effects of group-level predictors of the counts of dead and injured in 179 groups at the nightclub.Results. Results indicate that group-level factors such as distance of group members at the start of the fire, the number of intimate relations among them, the extent to which they had visited the nightclub prior to the incident, and the average length of the evacuation route they used predict counts of injured and dead. The research also looks at what behavioral differences exist between survivors and victims, ascertains the existence of role extension among employees of the nightclub, and provides support for the affirmation that dangerous contexts negate the protective influence of intimate relations in groups.Conclusion. We argue for the abandonment of current emphasis on irrationality and herd-like imitative behavior in studies of evacuation from structural fires in buildings and for the inclusion of group-level processes in social psychological explanations of these incidents.

  15. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L.; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M.; Morton, Douglas C.; Collatz, G. James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.

    2014-04-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems.

  16. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  17. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary dri

  18. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  19. Developing standardized strategic response categories for fire management units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Crystal S. Stonesifer; Robert C. Seli; Marlena Hovorka

    2013-01-01

    Federal wildland fire policy requires that publicly owned lands with burnable vegetation have a fire management plan (FMP); this applies to the five primary Federal fire agencies (Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Forest Service). FMPs are based on land and resource management plans and are...

  20. United States Geological Survey fire science: fire danger monitoring and forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, Jeff C.; Howard, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Each day, the U.S. Geological Survey produces 7-day forecasts for all Federal lands of the distributions of number of ignitions, number of fires above a given size, and conditional probabilities of fires growing larger than a specified size. The large fire probability map is an estimate of the likelihood that ignitions will become large fires. The large fire forecast map is a probability estimate of the number of fires on federal lands exceeding 100 acres in the forthcoming week. The ignition forecast map is a probability estimate of the number of fires on Federal land greater than 1 acre in the forthcoming week. The extreme event forecast is the probability estimate of the number of fires on Federal land that may exceed 5,000 acres in the forthcoming week.

  1. Fire behavior potential in central Saskatchewan under predicted climate change : summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisien, M.; Hirsch, K.; Todd, B.; Flannigan, M. [Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kafka, V. [Parks Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Flynn, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This study assesses fire danger and fire behaviour potential in central Saskatchewan using simulated climate scenarios produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), including scenario analysis of base, double and triple level carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and uses available forest fuels to develop an absolute measure of fire behaviour. For each of these climate scenarios, the CRCM-generated weather was used as input variables into the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction (FBP) System. Fire behavior potential was quantified using head fire intensity, a measure of the fire's energy output because it can be related to fire behavior characteristics, suppression effectiveness, and fire effects. The report discusses the implications of fire behavior potential changes for fire and forest management. Preliminary results suggest a large increase in area burned in the study area by the end of the twenty-first century. Some of the possible fire management activities for long-term prediction include: pre-positioning of resources, preparedness planning, prioritization of fire and forest management activities and fire threat evaluation. 16 refs., 1 tab, 7 figs.

  2. Control Of Motor Unit Firing During Step-Like Increases In Voluntary Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang eHu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In most skeletal muscles, force is generated by a combination of motor unit (MU recruitment and increases in the firing rate of previously active MUs. Two contrasting patterns of firing rate organization have been reported. In the first pattern, the earliest recruited MUs reach the highest firing rates as force is increased, and later recruited MUs fire at lower rates. When firing rate of multiple MUs are superimposed, these rate trajectories form a concentric layered profile termed ‘onion skin’. In the second pattern, called ‘reverse onion skin’, later recruited MUs reach higher firing rates, and crossing of firing rate trajectories for recorded MUs is common (although such trajectories are assembled routinely from different trials. Our present study examined the firing rate organization of concurrently active MUs of the first dorsal interosseous muscle during serial, step-like increases in isometric abduction forces. We used a surface sensor array coupled with MU discrimination algorithms to characterize MU firing patterns. Our objective was to determine whether ‘onion skin’ profiles are contingent upon the force trajectory of the motor task, examined here using step-like increases of force output, and also whether they are manifested at different force levels.Our results revealed that the overall ‘onion skin’ firing rate profile was retained as the force level increased with each force step up to 15% MVC. However, the distribution of firing rates across MUs was compressed with increasing force, and overlapping firing rate of units were observed. This rate compression was largely due to rate saturation of the relatively high frequency discharging MUs.Our results reflect flexible firing patterns across MUs at different levels of excitation drive. It is also evident that many units did not follow all the step increases consistently. This failure to track firing rate increases at higher forces could be due to an intrinsically

  3. A review of the relationships between drought and forest fire in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy; Peterson, David L.; Riley, Karin L.; Yongquiang Liu,; Luce, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The historical and pre-settlement relationships between drought and wildfire are well documented in North America, with forest fire occurrence and area clearly increasing in response to drought. There is also evidence that drought interacts with other controls (forest productivity, topography, fire weather, management activities) to affect fire intensity, severity, extent, and frequency. Fire regime characteristics arise across many individual fires at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, so both weather and climate—including short- and long-term droughts—are important and influence several, but not all, aspects of fire regimes. We review relationships between drought and fire regimes in United States forests, fire-related drought metrics and expected changes in fire risk, and implications for fire management under climate change. Collectively, this points to a conceptual model of fire on real landscapes: fire regimes, and how they change through time, are products of fuels and how other factors affect their availability (abundance, arrangement, continuity) and flammability (moisture, chemical composition). Climate, management, and land use all affect availability, flammability, and probability of ignition differently in different parts of North America. From a fire ecology perspective, the concept of drought varies with scale, application, scientific or management objective, and ecosystem.

  4. Fire and explosion risk assessment in a process unit using Dow’s Fire and Explosion Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Nezamodini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the process industries, especially industries with hydrocarbons uses, due to flammability and reactivity of materials, high temperature, operation pressure, volatility and evaporability of liquid, fire and explosion hazard always has a great significances.The purpose of this study was to assess the quantitative fire safety using DOW’s fire and explosion index, in an oil extraction industry. .Material and Method: The required information for conducting this research was obtained from process documents, DOW’s fire and explosion guideline,the measured operational parameters and also interviews and consultation with the supervisors and experts. Following, the study was conducted in three phases: 1 determination of DOW index, the radius and area of contact, 2 determination of loss control credit factor and finally 3 loss estimation. .Result: Fire and explosion index in the understudy process unit was calculated 243.68 and thus severity of risk was extremely high and unacceptable. Radius of exposure and loss control credit factor wasobtained62.38 meters and 0.69, respectively. Finally,the most probable loss was estimated about 2863500 dollars. .Conclusion: DOW’s fire and explosion index is a suitable technique to measure the fire risk of whole plant or a part of it. Thus, this criterion can be used to propose the changes or amount of protective equipment according to their effect in reducing the losses.

  5. Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using

  6. Developing custom fire behavior fuel models from ecologically complex fuel structures for upper Atlantic Coastal Plain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol; Joe H. Scott; Anne Andreu; Susan Prichard; Laurie Kurth

    2012-01-01

    Currently geospatial fire behavior analyses are performed with an array of fire behavior modeling systems such as FARSITE, FlamMap, and the Large Fire Simulation System. These systems currently require standard or customized surface fire behavior fuel models as inputs that are often assigned through remote sensing information. The ability to handle hundreds or...

  7. Fires and related incidents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (2006–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alqassim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire incidents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, reported to the Forensic and Mechanical Engineering section of the Dubai Police Forensic Laboratory during 2006–2013 were reviewed. A detailed examination of more than 5000 incidents, representing a wide range of fire types is presented. Statistical comparisons on the type of incident and the cause and origin of the fire have been evaluated. City areas covered by each police station are also identified. The outcomes of the study indicate that more than one third of the total number of incidents involved motor vehicles and these accounted for more than half of all deliberately set fires in Dubai. A further one third of the incidents reviewed were in residential units. Electrical failures were shown to pose the highest risk of accidental fire and the Bur Dubai Police Station was the busiest in terms of fire investigation caseload.

  8. Cigarette Fires Involving Upholstered Furniture in Residences: The Role that Smokers, Smoker Behavior, and Fire Standard Compliant Cigarettes Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butry, David T; Thomas, Douglas S

    2017-05-01

    Residential structure fires pose a significant risk to life and property. A major source of these fires is the ignition of upholstered furniture by cigarettes. It has long been established that cigarettes and other lighted tobacco products could ignite upholstered furniture and were a leading cause of fire deaths in residences. In recent years, states have adopted fire standard compliant cigarettes ('FSC cigarettes') that are made with a wrapping paper that contains regularly spaced bands, which increases the likelihood of self-extinguishment. This paper measures the effectiveness of FSC cigarettes on the number of residential fires involving upholstered furniture, and the resulting fatalities, injuries, and extent of flame spread, while accounting for the under-reporting of fire incidents. In total, four models were estimated using fire department data from 2002 to 2011. The results provide evidence that FSC cigarettes, on average, reduced the number of residential fires by 45 %, reduced fatalities by 23 %, and extent of flame spread by 27 % in 2011. No effect on injuries was found. Within each state, effectiveness is moderated by the number of smokers and their consumption patterns. In general, FSC cigarettes are more effective in places with a large smoking population who engage in heavier smoking. There is a very limited effect on the lightest of smokers, suggesting behavioral differences between heavy and light smokers that influence fire risk.

  9. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system - BURN subsystem, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Carolyn H. Chase

    1989-01-01

    This is the third publication describing the BEHAVE system of computer programs for predicting behavior of wildland fires. This publication adds the following predictive capabilities: distance firebrands are lofted ahead of a wind-driven surface fire, probabilities of firebrands igniting spot fires, scorch height of trees, and percentage of tree mortality. The system...

  10. Variability of fire behavior, fire effects, and emissions in Scotch pine forests of central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. J. McRae; Susan Conard; G. A. Ivanova; A. I. Sukhinin; Steve Baker; Y. N. Samsonov; T. W. Blake; V. A. Ivanov; A. V. Ivanov; T. V. Churkina; WeiMin Hao; K. P. Koutzenogij; Nataly Kovaleva

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, replicated 4-ha experimental fires were conducted on a dry Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)/lichen (Cladonia sp.)/feathermoss (Pleurozeum schreberi) forest site in central Siberia. Observations from the initial seven surface fires (2000-2001) ignited under a range of burning...

  11. USE OF A LASER SCANNING SYSTEM FOR PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION AND SCENE ASSESSMENT OF FIRE RESCUE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk MAREK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study focused on usability of a 3D laser scanning system by fire rescue units during emergencies, respectively during preparations for inspection and tactical exercises. The first part of the study focuses on an applicability of a 3D scanner in relation to an accurate evaluation of a fire scene through digitization and creation of virtual walk-through of the fire scene. The second part deals with detailed documentation of access road to the place of intervention, including a simulation of the fire vehicle arrival.

  12. Do additional inputs change maximal voluntary motor unit firing rates after spinal cord injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K

    2012-01-01

    Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary drive and other concurrent inputs compared with an MVC alone. Motor unit firing rates, force, and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) were compared across 2 contractions: (a) MVC alone and (b) MVC combined with another input (combination contraction). Other inputs (conditions) included vibration, heat, or cold applied to the anterior surface of the forearm, electrical stimulation delivered to the anterior surface of the middle finger, a muscle spasm, or a voluntary contraction of the contralateral thenar muscles against resistance. The maximal firing frequency (n = 68 units), force, and electromyographic activity (n = 92 contraction pairs) were all significantly higher during the combined contractions compared with MVCs alone. There was a 3-way interaction between contraction, condition, and subject for maximal motor unit firing rates, force, and EMG. Thus, combined contraction responses were different for conditions across subjects. Some conditions (eg, a muscle spasm) resulted in more effective and more frequent responses (increases in unit firing frequency, force, EMG in >50% contractions) than others. Recruitment of new units also occurred in combined contractions. Motoneurons are still responsive to additional afferent inputs from various sources when rate modulation from voluntary drive is limited by SCI. Individuals with SCI may be able to combine inputs to control functional tasks they cannot perform with voluntary drive alone.

  13. Behavior and Preparedness to Fire Hazard in High Density Settlements in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saut Sagala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the hazards that may affect urban areas with high density settlements. Thus, research on fire mitigation is important to be conducted. This paper examines the behavior and preparedness of occupants in high density settlements towards fire risks in urban area. The case study is located at Kelurahan Sukahaji, Kecamatan Babakan Ciparay, Bandung that has very high density settlement as well as prone to fire hazards. This study assess 232 respondents in the study areas on information related to demography, understanding about fire, behavior and preparedness. The respondents understanding on the types of fire sources are still low. Similarly, the behavior related to the activites using fire are still dangerous because some activities are conducted with other activities which make people less aware of the fire hazards. Nevertheless, their knowledge on how to extinguish fires are quite good. This paper recommends more trainings on knowledge of fire source and behavior to be conducted to occupants living in high density settlements in order to reduce fire disaster risk.

  14. Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Keeley, Jon E.; Stephens, Scott L.; Roller, Gary B.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, after large stand-replacing fires in mid-elevation Sierra Nevada forests, dense shrub fields occupy sites formerly occupied by mature conifers, until eventually conifers overtop and shade out shrubs. Attempting to reduce fuel loads and expedite forest regeneration in these areas, the USDA Forest Service often disrupts this cycle by the logging of fire-killed trees, replanting of conifers and killing of shrubs. We measured the effects of these treatments on live and dead fuel loads and alien species and modeled potential fire behavior and fire effects on regenerating forests. Sampling occurred in untreated, logged and herbicide-treated stands throughout the Sierra Nevada in four large fire areas 4–21 years after stand-replacing fires. Logging fire-killed trees significantly increased total available dead fuel loads in the short term but did not affect shrub cover, grass and forb cover, alien species cover or alien species richness. Despite the greater available dead fuel loads, fire behavior was not modeled to be different between logged and untreated stands, due to abundant shrub fuels in both logged and untreated stands. In contrast, the herbicide treatment directed at shrubs resulted in extremely low shrub cover, significantly greater alien species richness and significantly greater alien grass and forb cover. Grass and forb cover was strongly correlated with solar radiation on the ground, which may be the primary reason that grass and forb cover was higher in herbicide treated stands with low shrub and tree cover. Repeat burning exacerbated the alien grass problem in some stands. Although modeled surface fire flame lengths and rates of spread were found to be greater in stands dominated by shrubs, compared to low shrub cover conifer plantations, surface fire would still be intense enough to kill most trees, given their small size and low crown heights in the first two decades after planting.

  15. Fire-settng behavior associated with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eytan, Ariel; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Thorens, Gabriel; Eugster, Nicole; Graf, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    This is a report on a male patient with a previous history of psychotic disorder who was arrested for arson. During the following hospitalization in a psychiatric unit, a genetic syndrome, namely Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), was diagnosed. The association between firesetting behavior and Klinefelter syndrome is reviewed, and the underlying explanatory hypothesis is discussed.

  16. Spatially explicit measurements of forest structure and fire behavior following restoration treatments in dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Paul Ziegler; Chad Hoffman; Michael Battaglia; William Mell

    2017-01-01

    Restoration treatments in dry forests of the western US often attempt silvicultural practices to restore the historical characteristics of forest structure and fire behavior. However, it is suggested that a reliance on non-spatial metrics of forest stand structure, along with the use of wildland fire behavior models that lack the ability to handle complex structures,...

  17. Modeling fire behavior on tropical islands with high-resolution weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Benoit; Francis M. Fujioka; David R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we consider fire behavior simulation in tropical island scenarios such as Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The development of a system to provide real-time fire behavior prediction in Hawaii is discussed. This involves obtaining fuels and topography information at a fine scale, as well as supplying daily high-resolution weather forecast data for the area of...

  18. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system-BURN Subsystem, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    1986-01-01

    Describes BURN Subsystem, Part 1, the operational fire behavior prediction subsystem of the BEHAVE fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system. The manual covers operation of the computer program, assumptions of the mathematical models used in the calculations, and application of the predictions.

  19. United Arab Emirates limestones: impact of petrography on thermal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaabed, Sulaiman; Soltan, Abdel Monem; Abdelghany, Osman; Amin, Bahaa Eldin Mahmoud; El Tokhi, Mohamed; Khaleel, Abbas; Musalim, Abdullah

    2014-12-01

    The thermal behavior of selected limestones from representative localities of the United Arab Emirates is investigated for their suitability for soft-burnt lime production. The limestone samples were collected from the Ghalilah, Musandam, Shauiba, Muthaymimah, Dammam and Asmari formations. The samples were characterized for petrography, mineral and chemical composition, together with physico-mechanical characteristics. Investigative methods included transmitted light microscopy (TLM), cathodoluminescence (CLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as X-ray micro-tomography (μ-CT), XRD, XRF and Archimedes method. The limestone samples were fired in an electrical muffle furnace for 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 hours at 800, 900, 1,000 and 1,100 °C. After firing the lime grains were tested to determine their hydration rate and microfabric. The Ghalilah and Musandam limes show the lowest and highest maximum hydration rates, respectively, due mainly to the impure nature of the former, and the smaller lime crystallites and dominance of post-calcination micro-cracks of the latter. The Dammam and Asmari limes preserve a "ghost" microfabric of the original limestone. Higher allochem contents impose lower activation energy requirements for calcination, which implies earlier calcination of the allochems. The Musandam, Shauiba and Muthaymimah limestones may be useful for the production of reactive soft-burnt lime under the applied firing conditions, however, the Dammam and Asmari limestones need more advanced calcination conditions than the applied ones. The Ghalilah limestone was found to be unsuitable for the production of lime.

  20. Forest fire spread with non-universal critical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelloufi, K.; Baara, Y.; Clerc, J. P.; Porterie, B.; Zekri, N.

    2013-10-01

    The critical behavior of spread dynamics is examined using a forest fire model. This model is characterized by long-range interactions due to flame radiation and a weighting process induced by the combustibles’ ignition energy and the flame residence time. Unlike magnetic systems, this model exhibits a non-universal phase transition. The critical exponents of the rate of spread depend both on the local interaction and on weighting. Near the transition, the exponent x of rate of spread is found to be equivalent to that of correlation time. The weighting process exhibits a new phase transition related to the heating process. This transition is analogous to the gelation transition in spin glasses.

  1. Detection of Variability of the Motor Unit Action Potential Shape by Means of the Firing Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Nikolic, Mile; Dahl, Kristian;

    1997-01-01

    The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed.......The motor unit action potential is a summation of the potentials of the individual muscle fibers from the same motor unit.By using a newly developed automatic EMG decomposition system, variability of the firing patterns of the muscle fibers are analyzed....

  2. Weather, fuels, fire behavior, plumes, and smoke - the nexus of fire meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; Timothy J. Brown; W. Matt Jolly

    2017-01-01

    In a pair of review papers, Potter (2012a, 2012b) summarized the significant fire weather research findings over about the past hundred years. Our scientific understanding of wildland fire-atmosphere interactions has evolved: from simple correlations supporting the notion that hot, dry, and windy conditions lead to more intense fires, we have moved towards more...

  3. Climate drives inter-annual variability in probability of high severity fire occurrence in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Alisa; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy

    2017-05-01

    A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function, leading to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Prior analyses of fire severity in California forests showed that time since last fire and fire weather conditions predicted fire severity very well, while a larger regional analysis showed that topography and climate were important predictors of high severity fire. There has not yet been a large-scale study that incorporates topography, vegetation and fire-year climate to determine regional scale high severity fire occurrence. We developed models to predict the probability of high severity fire occurrence for the western US. We predict high severity fire occurrence with some accuracy, and identify the relative importance of predictor classes in determining the probability of high severity fire. The inclusion of both vegetation and fire-year climate predictors was critical for model skill in identifying fires with high fractional fire severity. The inclusion of fire-year climate variables allows this model to forecast inter-annual variability in areas at future risk of high severity fire, beyond what slower-changing fuel conditions alone can accomplish. This allows for more targeted land management, including resource allocation for fuels reduction treatments to decrease the risk of high severity fire.

  4. Effect of tank diameter on thermal behavior of gasoline and diesel storage tanks fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ricardo Machado; Centeno, Felipe Roman

    2017-08-24

    Studies on fire behavior are extremely important as they contribute in a firefighting situation or even to avoid such hazard. Experimental studies of fire in real scale are unfeasible, implying that reduced-scale experiments must be performed, and results extrapolated to the range of interest. This research aims to experimentally study the fire behavior in tanks of 0.04m, 0.20m, 0.40m, 0.80m and 4.28m diameter, burning regular gasoline or diesel oil S-500. The following parameters were here obtained: burning rates, burning velocities, heat release rates, flame heights, and temperature distributions adjacent to the tank. Such parameters were obtained for each tank diameter with the purpose of correlating the results and understanding the relationship of each parameter for the different geometrical scale of the tanks. Asymptotic results for larger tanks were found as (regular gasoline and diesel oil S-500, respectively): burning rates 0.050kg/(m(2)s) and 0.031kg/(m(2)s), burning velocities 4.0mm/min and 2.5mm/min, heat release rates per unit area 2200kW/m(2) and 1500kW/m(2), normalized averaged flame heights (Hi/D, where Hi is the average flame height, D is the tank diameter) 0.9 and 0.8. Maximum temperatures for gasoline pools were higher than for diesel oil pools, and temperature gradients close to the tanks were also higher for the former fuel. The behavior of the maximum temperature was correlated as a function of the tank diameter, the heat release rate of each fuel and the dimensionless distance from the tank. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spread and burning behavior of continuous spill fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Huang, Hong; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Spill fire experiments with continuous discharge on a fireproof glass sheet were conducted to improve the understanding of spill fire spread and burning. Ethanol was used as the fuel and the discharge rate was varied from 2.8. mL/s to 7.6. mL/s. Three ignition conditions were used...... at the quasi-steady burning was lower than that of pool fires and the ratio of the spill fires' regression rate to the pool fires' regression rate was found to be approximately 0.89. With respect to the radiative penetration and the heat conduction between the fuel layer and the glass, a regression rate...... in the experiments; no ignition, instantaneous ignition and delayed ignition. The spread rate, regression rate, penetrated thermal radiation and the temperature of the bottom glass were analyzed. The experiments clearly show the entire spread process for spill fires. Further, the regression rate of spill fires...

  6. Motor unit firing behaviour of soleus muscle in isometric and dynamic contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, Jouni; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the detailed control of human locomotion and balance can be improved, when individual motor units can be isolated and their firing rates followed in natural movement of large, fuctionally important muscles. For this reason the present study investigated the motor unit discharge rate...... (MUDR) in isometric and dynamic contractions of the soleus muscle....

  7. Human-started wildfires expand the fire niche across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K.; Bradley, Bethany A.; Nagy, R. Chelsea; Fusco, Emily J.; Mahood, Adam L.

    2017-01-01

    The economic and ecological costs of wildfire in the United States have risen substantially in recent decades. Although climate change has likely enabled a portion of the increase in wildfire activity, the direct role of people in increasing wildfire activity has been largely overlooked. We evaluate over 1.5 million government records of wildfires that had to be extinguished or managed by state or federal agencies from 1992 to 2012, and examined geographic and seasonal extents of human-ignited wildfires relative to lightning-ignited wildfires. Humans have vastly expanded the spatial and seasonal “fire niche” in the coterminous United States, accounting for 84% of all wildfires and 44% of total area burned. During the 21-y time period, the human-caused fire season was three times longer than the lightning-caused fire season and added an average of 40,000 wildfires per year across the United States. Human-started wildfires disproportionally occurred where fuel moisture was higher than lightning-started fires, thereby helping expand the geographic and seasonal niche of wildfire. Human-started wildfires were dominant (>80% of ignitions) in over 5.1 million km2, the vast majority of the United States, whereas lightning-started fires were dominant in only 0.7 million km2, primarily in sparsely populated areas of the mountainous western United States. Ignitions caused by human activities are a substantial driver of overall fire risk to ecosystems and economies. Actions to raise awareness and increase management in regions prone to human-started wildfires should be a focus of United States policy to reduce fire risk and associated hazards. PMID:28242690

  8. Fuel treatment effects on modeled landscape level fire behavior in the northern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Moghaddas; B.M. Collins; K. Menning; E.E.Y. Moghaddas; S.L. Stephens

    2010-01-01

    Across the western United States, decades of fire exclusion combined with past management history have contributed to the current condition of extensive areas of high-density, shade-tolerant coniferous stands that are increasingly prone to high-severity fires. Here, we report the modeled effects of constructed defensible fuel profile zones and group selection...

  9. Coal Fires in the United States: A Case Study in Government Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal producing nations. Like most other environmental problems fires are not confined by political boundaries. Important economic coal seams in the United States are found across the Inter-montaine west, the Midwest, and Appalachia. The age of these deposits differs, as does the grade and sulfur content of the coal, the mining techniques utilized for exploitation of this resource, and the markets in which the coal is traded. Coal fires are ordinary occurrences under extraordinary conditions. Every coal bed exposed in an underground or surface mine has the potential to ignite. These fires are spread thinly over the political geography and over time, so that constituencies rarely coalesce to petition government to address the coal fire problem. Coal fires produce serious problems with long term consequences for society. They threaten mine safety, consume a non-renewable resource, and produce toxic gases with serious health effects for local populations. Additionally, as coal production in the developing world intensifies, these problems worsen. The lack of government attention to coal fires is due to the confluence of at least four independent political factors: 1) The separated powers, federated system in which decisions in the United States are made; 2) Low levels of political energy available in Congress to be expended on coal fires, measured by the magnitude of legislative majorities and seniority; 3) The mid-twentieth century model of scientific and technical information moving indirectly to legislators through the bureaucratic agencies; 4) The chronic and diffuse nature of fires across space and time.

  10. Intrapsychic dynamics, behavioral manifestations, and related interventions with youthful fire setters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dian L; Clements, Paul T

    2007-01-01

    Fire setting in youth has often been overlooked and misunderstood as a coping skill for expressing rage. The act of deliberate fire setting, if uninterrupted, may continue throughout an individual's lifetime. Forensic examiners, mental health care providers, and criminal justice professionals can help guide referral and treatment through better understanding of behaviors and intrapsychic dynamics.

  11. Information-Seeking and Sharing Behaviors among Fire Service Field Staff Instructors: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Lian J.

    2011-01-01

    Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…

  12. Thermal Behavior of Nano-TiO2 in Fire-Resistant Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion state of nano-TiO2 particles was studied by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM)and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Nanoparticles can be fully dispersed by specific hyperdispersant. The improvement of nano-TiO2 in thermal behavior and flame retardation of acrylic polymer and fire-resistant coating was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG)and fire-resistant time test. It is demonstrated that nano-TiO2 is helpful for enhancing the thermal stability,anti-oxidation and fire-resistant properties of acrylic polymer and fire-resistant coating.

  13. A portable system for characterizing wildland fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler; D. Jimenez; J. Forthofer; K. Shannon; Paul Sopko

    2010-01-01

    A field deployable system for quantifying energy and mass transport in wildland fires is described. The system consists of two enclosures: The first is a sensor/data logger combination package that allows characterization of convective/radiant energy transport in fires. This package contains batteries, a programmable data logger, sensors, and other electronics. The...

  14. Fire behavior and effects: Principles for archaeologists [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Ryan; Cassandra Koerner

    2012-01-01

    Fire is a natural component of earth's ecosystems. Fire has impacted most landscapes of the Americas, having left evidence of its passing in trees, soils, fossils, and cultural artifacts (Andreae 1991; Benton and Reardon 2006; Biswell 1989; Bowman and others 2009; Boyd and others 2005; Cochrane and others 1999; DeBano and others 1998; Jurney and others 2004;...

  15. 75 FR 58347 - Information Collection; Overcoming Barriers to Wildland Fire Defensible Space Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Overcoming Barriers to Wildland Fire Defensible Space Behaviors AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comment. SUMMARY: In... interested individuals and organizations on the new information collection, Overcoming Barriers to...

  16. Behavior of one-way reinforced concrete slabs subjected to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said M. Allam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A finite difference analysis was performed to investigate the behavior of one-way reinforced concrete slabs exposed to fire. The objective of the study was to investigate the fire resistance and the fire risk after extinguishing the fire. Firstly, the fire resistance was obtained using the ISO834 standard fire without cooling phase. Secondly, the ISO834 parametric fire with cooling phase was applied to study the effect of cooling time. Accordingly, the critical time for cooling was identified and the corresponding failure time was calculated. Moreover, the maximum risk time which is the time between the fire extinguishing and the collapse of slab was obtained. Sixteen one-way reinforced concrete slabs were considered to study the effect of important parameters namely: the concrete cover thickness; the plaster; and the live load ratio. Equations for heat transfer through the slab thickness were used in the fire resistance calculations. Studying the cooling time revealed that the slabs are still prone to collapse although they were cooled before their fire resistance. Moreover, increasing the concrete cover thickness and the presence of plaster led to an increase in the maximum risk time. However, the variation in the live load ratio has almost no effect on such time.

  17. Properties of human motor units after prolonged activity at a constant firing rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K V B; Edwards, S C; Van Tongeren, C; Bawa, P

    2004-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine if there are changes in the intrinsic properties of spinal motoneurons after prolonged submaximal contractions. To do this, we assessed whether or not the synaptic drive to motoneurons needs to increase in order to maintain a constant firing rate of a motor unit. Recruitment of new units and an increase in total electromyographic (EMG) activity of the muscle of interest were taken as estimates of an increase in synaptic drive. Subjects were asked to maintain a constant firing rate of a clearly identifiable (targeted) motor unit from the first dorsal interosseous muscle for approximately 10 min, while surface EMG and force were recorded simultaneously. For the 60 units studied, the duration of the constant-firing-rate period ranged from 73 to 1,140 s (448 +/- 227 s; mean +/- SD). There was a significant increase ( t-test, prate suggesting an increase in the net excitatory input to the motoneuron pool. Changes occurring simultaneously in other parameters, namely, variability in interspike interval, magnitude of force fluctuations, the duration of motor unit action potentials, and the median power frequency of surface EMG were also computed. The firing rates of 16 concurrently firing motoneurons, not controlled by the subject, remained constant. The key finding of this study is that after prolonged activity, a motoneuron requires a stronger excitatory input to maintain its firing rate. Additional results are indicative of significant changes in the characteristics of the synaptic inputs, changes at the neuromuscular junction (both pre- and postsynaptic regions) and the sarcolemma.

  18. Prefrontal single-unit firing associated with deficient extinction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J; Whittle, Nigel; Flynn, Shaun M; Graybeal, Carolyn; Pinard, Courtney R; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    The neural circuitry mediating fear extinction has been increasingly well studied and delineated. The rodent infralimbic subregion (IL) of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been found to promote extinction, whereas the prelimbic cortex (PL) demonstrates an opposing, pro-fear, function. Studies employing in vivo electrophysiological recordings have observed that while increased IL single-unit firing and bursting predicts robust extinction retrieval, increased PL firing can correlate with sustained fear and poor extinction. These relationships between single-unit firing and extinction do not hold under all experimental conditions, however. In the current study, we further investigated the relationship between vmPFC and PL single-unit firing and extinction using inbred mouse models of intact (C57BL/6J, B6) and deficient (129S1/SvImJ, S1) extinction strains. Simultaneous single-unit recordings were made in the PL and vmPFC (encompassing IL) as B6 and S1 mice performed extinction training and retrieval. Impaired extinction retrieval in S1 mice was associated with elevated PL single-unit firing, as compared to firing in extinguishing B6 mice, consistent with the hypothesized pro-fear contribution of PL. Analysis of local field potentials also revealed significantly higher gamma power in the PL of S1 than B6 mice during extinction training and retrieval. In the vmPFC, impaired extinction in S1 mice was also associated with exaggerated single-unit firing, relative to B6 mice. This is in apparent contradiction to evidence that IL activity promotes extinction, but could reflect a (failed) compensatory effort by the vmPFC to mitigate fear-promoting activity in other regions, such as the PL or amygdala. In support of this hypothesis, augmenting IL activity via direct infusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin rescued impaired extinction retrieval in S1 mice. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced modest reductions in fear during extinction retrieval and

  19. Development of customized fire behavior fuel models for boreal forests of northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi Wei; He, Hong Shi; Chang, Yu; Liu, Zhi Hua; Chen, Hong Wei

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined.

  20. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd’s paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. Case presentation A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS. eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. Conclusion The fire-setting behavior and Todd’s paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

  1. MOTOR UNIT FIRING RATES DURING SPASMS IN THENAR MUSCLES OF SPINAL CORD INJURED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eZijdewind

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury. Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical spinal cord injury. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG, surface EMG, and force were recorded during thenar muscle spasms that occurred spontaneously or that were triggered by movement of a shoulder or leg. Most spasms were submaximal (mean: 39%, SD: 33 of the force evoked by median nerve stimulation at 50 Hz with strong relationships between EMG and force (R2>0.69. Unit recruitment occurred over a wide force range (0.2-103% of 50 Hz force. Significant unit rate modulation occurred during spasms (frequency at 25% maximal force: 8.8 Hz, 3.3 SD; at maximal force: 16.1 Hz, 4.1 SD. Mean recruitment frequency (7.1 Hz, 3.2 SD was significantly higher than derecruitment frequency (5.4 Hz, 2.4 SD. Coactive unit pairs that fired for more than 4 s showed high (R2>0.7, n=4 or low (R2:0.3-0.7, n=12 rate-rate correlations, and derecruitment reversals (21 pairs, 29%. Later recruited units had higher or lower maximal firing rates than lower threshold units. These discrepant data show that coactive motoneurons are driven by both common inputs and by synaptic inputs from different sources during muscle spasms. Further, thenar motoneurons can still fire at high rates in response to various peripheral inputs after spinal cord injury, supporting the idea that low maximal voluntary firing rates and forces in thenar muscles result from reduced descending drive.

  2. 30 CFR 77.1909 - Explosives and blasting; use of permissible explosives and shot-firing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting; use of permissible explosives and shot-firing units. 77.1909 Section 77.1909 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... blasting; use of permissible explosives and shot-firing units. Except as provided in § 77.1909-1,...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1321 - Permits for firing more than 20 boreholes and for use of nonpermissible blasting units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use of nonpermissible blasting units. 75.1321 Section 75.1321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1321 Permits for firing more than 20 boreholes and for use of nonpermissible blasting units. (a) Applications for permits for firing more than 20 boreholes in...

  4. Motor unit firing rates during spasms in thenar muscles of spinal cord injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Bakels, Robert; Thomas, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms) commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical SCI

  5. Fire history, related to climate and land use in three southern Appalachian landscapes in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, William T; Lafon, Charles W; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D; LaForest, Lisa B

    2013-09-01

    Fire-maintained ecosystems and associated species are becoming increasingly rare in the southern Appalachian Mountains because of fire suppression policies implemented in the early 20th century. Restoration of these communities through prescribed fire has been hindered by a lack of information on historical fire regimes. To characterize past fire regimes, we collected and absolutely dated the tree rings on cross sections from 242 fire-scarred trees at three different sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina. Our objectives were to (1) characterize the historical frequency of fire in southern Appalachian mixed pine-oak forests, (2) assess the impact of interannual climatic variability on the historical occurrence of fire, and (3) determine whether changes in human culture and land use altered the frequency of fire. Results demonstrate that fires burned frequently at all three sites for at least two centuries prior to the implementation of fire suppression and prevention in the early to mid 20th century. Composite mean fire return intervals were 2-4 yr, and point mean fire return intervals were 9-13 yr. Area-wide fires that burned across multiple stands occurred at 6-13-yr intervals. The majority of fires were recorded during the dormant season. Fire occurrence exhibited little relationship with reconstructed annual drought conditions. Also, fire activity did not change markedly during the transition from Native American to Euro-American settlement or during the period of industrial logging at the start of the 20th century. Fire activity declined significantly, however, during the fire suppression period, with a nearly complete absence of fire during recent decades. The characterization of past fire regimes should provide managers with specific targets for restoration of fire-associated communities in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The fire chronologies reported here are among the longest tree-ring reconstructions of fire

  6. Mathematical model of optimizing the arrival of fire units with the use of information systems for monitoring transport logistics of Voronezh city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kochegarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the strong pace of construction is increasing in big cities. With their growth becomes a question of the deployment of firefighters and the number of fire stations. The most effective solution is the problem of finding the optimum route of fire departments, taking into account the information transport logistics systems within the city that will allow us to arrive at the scene at any time, regardless of the degree of congestion of city roads. Prompt arrival of fire units provides the most successful fire fighting. The main objective of the study is to develop a preliminary route and the route in case of unforeseen factors affecting the time fire engine arrived. To construct the routes used to develop actively in the current methods of machine learning artificial neural networks. To construct the optimal route requires a correct prediction of the future behavior of a complex system of urban traffic based on its past behavior. Within the framework of statistical machine learning theory considered the problem of classification and regression. The learning process is to select a classification or a regression function of a predetermined broad class of such functions. After determining the prediction scheme, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of its forecasts, which are measured not on the basis of observations, and on the basis of an improved stochastic process, the result of the construction of the prediction rules. The model is verified on the basis of data collected in real departures real fire brigades, which made it possible to obtain a minimum time of arrival of fire units.

  7. Reduced firing rates of high threshold motor units in response to eccentric overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Tom G; Pahar, Madhu; Chesham, Ross; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2017-01-01

    Acute responses of motor units were investigated during submaximal voluntary isometric tasks following eccentric overload (EO) and constant load (CL) knee extension resistance exercise. Ten healthy resistance-trained participants performed four experimental test sessions separated by 5 days over a 20 day period. Two sessions involved constant load and the other two used eccentric overload. EO and CL used both sessions for different target knee eccentric extension phases; one at 2 sec and the other at 4 sec. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and isometric trapezoid efforts for 10 sec at 70% MVC were completed before and after each intervention and decomposed electromyography was used to measure motor unit firing rate. The firing rate of later recruited, high-threshold motor units declined following the 2-sec EO but was maintained following 2sec CL (P units were maintained for both loading types following 4-sec extension phases. MVC and rate of force development where maintained following both EO and CL and 2 and 4 sec phases. This study demonstrates a slower firing rate of high-threshold motor units following fast eccentric overload while MVC was maintained. This suggests that there was a neuromuscular stimulus without cost to the force-generating capacity of the knee extensors. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Simulation of evacuation behaviors in fire using spacial grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; ZHAO Daoliang; LI Jian; FANG Weifeng; FAN Weicheng

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional Cellular Automata (CA) model to demonstrate the special phenomena of occupants evacuating from fire room is presented. A set of simple but effective models is proposed to investigate the effect of fire smoke on route choice. The concept of danger grade is introduced, and occupants select the target cell according to the value of danger grade at each time step. Some technique is introduced to substitute the human intelligence, such as premeditation. The simulation results show that human evacuation is influenced greatly by both human visual field and building exit.

  9. Fire Management Problem Analysis of Key Unit of Fire Safety%消防安全重点单位消防管理问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧萍

    2013-01-01

    消防安全重点单位一般都是对单位当地或者是国民经济发展有着较大的促进作用,它们也是消防部门的工作需要予以较多关注的对象。本文主要从这些重点单位的消防安全着手,简要的分析这些单位在消防安全方面所做的工作,并指出其存在的缺陷和不足,及时的为其安全管理部门提供相应的解决对策,帮助这些消防安全重点单位综合有效的做好消防的管理和监督工作。%Key unit of fire safety is usually important for the promotion of the local national economic development, so more attention from the fire department should be paid to them. This article mainly starts from the fire safety of these key units, briefly analyzes the fire safety work of these units and points out the defects and deficiencies, offering countermeasures for the safety management department to help these key units of fire safety to go a good job in fire safety management and monitoring comprehensively and effectively.

  10. Clarifying evacuation options through fire behavior and traffic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol L. Rice; Ronny J. Coleman; Mike. Price

    2011-01-01

    Communities are becoming increasingly concerned with the variety of choices related to wildfire evacuation. We used ArcView with Network Analyst to evaluate the different options for evacuations during wildfire in a case study community. We tested overlaying fire growth patterns with the road network and population characteristics to determine recommendations for...

  11. Fuel and fire behavior in high-elevation five-needle pines affected by mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2011-01-01

    Bark beetle-caused tree mortality in conifer forests affects the quantity and quality of forest fuels and has long been assumed to increase fire hazard and potential fire behavior. In reality, bark beetles and their effects on fuel accumulation and subsequent fire hazard have only recently been described. We have extensively sampled fuels in three conifer forest types...

  12. Surface fire intensity influences simulated crown fire behavior in lodgepole pine forests with recent mountain pine beetle-caused tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad M. Hoffman; Penelope Morgan; William Mell; Russell Parsons; Eva Strand; Steve. Cook

    2013-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks have had a significant impact on forests throughout western North America and have generated concerns about interactions and feedbacks between beetle attacks and fire. However, research has been hindered by a lack of experimental studies and the use of fire behavior models incapable of accounting for the heterogeneous fuel complexes. We...

  13. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  14. An application of the gas-fired chilling and heating units to domestic houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.; Yang, Y.M.; Chae, J.M.; Bang, H.S.; Kwon, O.B.; Yoo, S.I.; Kim, T.H. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co. (Korea); Lee, T.W.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hwang, I.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, C.D.; Park, S.J. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Following researches and considerations were performed in this study for an efficient application of gas-fired chilling and heating units to the residential buildings. (1) Status of domestic cooling and heating for residential building. (2) Various introduction schemes of outdoor unit. (3) Design exclusive area for the gas appliance and installation of it. (4) Ventilation of exhaust gas and heat. (5) Prepare the installation specifications or standards for gas-fired chilling and heating units. (6) Design technique of plumbing for cooling and heating. (7) Evaluation of unit's capacity considering the thermal load of domestic buildings. (8) Cooling and heating system with the unit. (9) Fundamental test for evaluation of applicability. (10) Actual design and construction of experimental house for an application and a demonstration of the developed gas units. (11) Field test for cooling and heating. (12) Evaluation of economic efficiency. (13) Establish a business potential. (14) Establishment of legal and systematic support, energy rate. (15) Troubleshooting in the course of development and application of the new gas appliance. 41 refs., 214 figs., 52 tabs.

  15. Anterior olfactory organ removal produces anxiety-like behavior and increases spontaneous neuronal firing rate in basal amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Carlos M; Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Molina-Jiménez, Tania

    2013-09-01

    Some chemical cues may produce signs of anxiety and fear mediated by amygdala nuclei, but unknown is the role of two anterior olfactory epithelial organs, the septal and vomeronasal organs (SO-VNOs). The effects of SO-VNO removal were explored in different groups of Wistar rats using two complementary approaches: (i) the assessment of neuronal firing rate in basal and medial amygdala nuclei and (ii) behavioral testing. Fourteen days after SO-VNO removal, spontaneous activity in basal and medial amygdala nuclei in one group was determined using single-unit extracellular recordings. A separate group of rats was tested in the elevated plus maze, social interaction test, and open field test. Compared with sham-operated and intact control rats, SO-VNO removal produced a higher neuronal firing rate in the basal amygdala but not medial amygdala. In the behavioral tests, SO-VNO removal increased signs of anxiety in the elevated plus maze, did not alter locomotion, and increased self-directed behavior, reflecting anxiety-like behavior. Histological analysis showed neuronal destruction in the accessory olfactory bulb but not anterior olfactory nucleus in the SO-VNO group. The present results suggest the participation of SO-VNO/accessory olfactory bulb/basal amygdala relationships in the regulation of anxiety through a process of disinhibition.

  16. Behavioral Objectives for Selected Units in Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard K., Ed.; Schmidt, B. June, Ed.

    This is a catalog of behavioral objectives organized by units. Each unit contains an outline of the content, a goal statement, and general and specific objectives. The catalog contains a total of 48 units on: business behavior and psychology; business law; business math; business principles and organization; business terminology; communication and…

  17. Single motor unit firing rate after stroke is higher on the less-affected side during stable low-level voluntary contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Mcnulty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Muscle weakness is the most common outcome after stroke and a leading cause of adult-acquired motor disability. Single motor unit properties provide insight into the mechanisms of post-stroke motor impairment. Motor units on the more-affected side are reported to have lower peak firing rates, reduced discharge variability and a more compressed dynamic range than healthy subjects. The activity of 169 motor units was discriminated from surface EMG in 28 stroke patients during sustained voluntary contractions 10% of maximal and compared to 110 units recorded from 16 healthy subjects. Motor units were recorded in three series: ankle dorsiflexion, wrist flexion and elbow flexion. Mean firing rates after stroke were significantly lower on the more-affected than the less-affected side (p< 0.001 with no between-side differences for controls. When data were combined, firing rates on the less-affected side were significantly higher than those either on the more-affected side or healthy subjects (p< 0.001. Motor unit mean firing rate was higher in the upper-limb than the lower-limb (p< 0.05. The coefficient of variation of motor unit discharge rate was lower for motor units after stroke compared to controls for wrist flexion (p< 0.05 but not ankle dorsiflexion. However, the dynamic range of motor units was compressed only for motor units on the more-affected side during wrist flexion. Our results show that the pathological change in motor unit firing rate occurs on the less-affected side after stroke and not the more-affected side as previously reported, and suggest that motor unit behavior recorded in a single muscle after stroke cannot be generalized to muscles acting on other joints even within the same limb. These data emphasize that the less-affected side does not provide a valid control for physiological studies on the more-affected side after stroke and that both sides should be compared to data from age- and sex-matched healthy subjects.

  18. Spatial fluctuation of forest fires and their regional behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingyu WANG; Long SUN; Lifu SHU; Xiaorui TIAN

    2008-01-01

    Historical forest fire records from Alaska State (1950-2000),California State (1895-2001), USA and Heilongjiang Province (1980-1999), China were used to calculate the longitude and latitude of the annual burned area's centroids for these regions. Fluctuation phenomena by year were analyzed using spectrum analysis. The results show that centroids of burned areas in these three regions are in a fluctuating condition that encircles the distribution center. The distribution centers are 151.11°W, 64.96°N in Alaska State, 120.02°W, 37.11°N in California State and 127.07°E, 49.59°N in Heilongjiang Province, respectively. The fluctuation of the burned area's centroids in Alaska State and California State in longitude has obvious periodicity,and the periodicities are 4.2 years,6.25 years in Alaska State and 6.24 years, 106 years in California State. The fluctuation of the burned area's centroids in Heilongjiang Province has a periodicity both in longitude and latitude, and the periodicities are both 3.3 years, 6.67 years. Fluctuation of the burned area's centroids in Alaska State and California State in latitude does not have periodicity, and big forest fires with low frequencies predominate.

  19. Fire and home range expansion: a behavioral response to burning among savanna dwelling vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nicole M; Parker, Christopher H; Keefe, Earl R; Coxworth, James; Barrett, Alan; Hawkes, Kristen

    2014-08-01

    The behavioral adaptations of primates to fire-modified landscapes are of considerable interest to anthropologists because fire is fundamental to life in the African savanna-the setting in which genus Homo evolved. Here we report the behavioral responses of a savanna-dwelling primate, vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), to fire-induced ecological change. Using behavioral and spatial data to characterize ranging patterns prior to and postburn and between burn and nonburn years, we show that these primates inhabiting small, spatially bound, riverine habitats take advantage of newly burned savanna landscapes. When subjects encountered controlled fires, they did not flee but instead avoided the path of the fire seemingly unbothered by its approach. After fire, the primates' home range expanded into newly burned but previously unused areas. These results contribute to understanding the response of non-human primates to fire-modified landscapes and can shed light on the nature and scope of opportunities and constraints posed by the emergence of fire-affected landscapes in the past. Results also expose deficiencies in our knowledge of fire-related behavioral responses in the primate lineage and highlight the need for further investigation of these responses as they relate to foraging opportunities, migration, resource use, and especially fire-centric adaptations in our own genus.

  20. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  1. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  2. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system--FUEL subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Burgan; Richard C. Rothermel

    1984-01-01

    This manual documents the fuel modeling procedures of BEHAVE--a state-of-the-art wildland fire behavior prediction system. Described are procedures for collecting fuel data, using the data with the program, and testing and adjusting the fuel model.

  3. An improved canopy wind model for predicting wind adjustment factors and wildland fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman; J. M. Forthofer; M. A. Finney

    2017-01-01

    The ability to rapidly estimate wind speed beneath a forest canopy or near the ground surface in any vegetation is critical to practical wildland fire behavior models. The common metric of this wind speed is the "mid-flame" wind speed, UMF. However, the existing approach for estimating UMF has some significant shortcomings. These include the assumptions that...

  4. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  5. Past, Present, and Future Old Growth in Frequent-fire Conifer Forests of the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Abella

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Old growth in the frequent-fire conifer forests of the western United States, such as those containing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi, giant sequoia (Sequioa giganteum and other species, has undergone major changes since Euro-American settlement. Understanding past changes and anticipating future changes under different potential management scenarios are fundamental to developing ecologically based fuel reduction or ecological restoration treatments. Some of the many changes that have occurred in these forests include shifts from historically frequent surface fire to no fire or to stand-replacing fire regimes, increases in tree density, increased abundance of fire-intolerant trees, decreases in understory productivity, hydrological alterations, and accelerated mortality of old trees. Although these changes are widespread, the magnitude and causes of changes may vary within and among landscapes. Agents of change, such as fire exclusion or livestock grazing, likely interacted and had multiple effects. For example, historical ranching operations may have altered both fire regimes and understory vegetation, and facilitated institutional fire exclusion through fragmentation and settlement. Evidence exists for large variation in presettlement characteristics and current condition of old growth across this broad forest region, although there are many examples of striking similarities on widely distant landscapes. Exotic species, climate change, unnatural stand-replacing wildfires, and other factors will likely continue to degrade or eradicate old growth in many areas. As a policy of fire exclusion is proving to be unsustainable, mechanical tree thinning, prescribed fire, or wildland fire use will likely be key options for forestalling continued eradication of old growth by severe crown fires. For many practical and societal reasons, the wildland-urban interface may afford some of the most immediate opportunities for re

  6. An analysis of motor unit firing pattern during sustained low force contraction in fatigued muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, H B; Christensen, H; Søgaard, K

    2001-01-01

    In the present study motor unit (MU) firing pattern was analysed during long-term static contraction in order to see if fatigue would induce rotation of activity between different MU. Surface as well as intramuscular EMG were obtained from ten subjects during a sustained hand lift for 5 minutes after performance of a 30% MVC fatiguing contraction of the extensor carpi radialis muscle. A newly developed decomposition program constituted a powerful tool to obtain detailed knowledge of long term activity pattern of MU during low force contractions. Although the muscle was highly fatigued the majority of MU showed a continuous firing pattern after recruitment and no clear incidences of rotation were found for any of the subjects. Therefore, long term, low force contractions, as performed during many occupational work tasks, may involve continuous activation of the low threshold MU and this could have mechanical as well as metabolic implications for these muscle fibers.

  7. Physiological consequences of doublet discharges on motoneuronal firing and motor unit force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz eMrówczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The double discharges are observed at the onset of contractions of mammalian motor units (MUs, especially during their recruitment to strong or fast movements. Doublets lead to MU force increase and improve ability of muscles to maintain high force during prolonged contractions. In this review we discuss an ability to produce doublets by fast and slow motoneurons (MNs, their influence on the course of action potential afterhyperpolarization as well as its role in modulation of the initial stage of the firing pattern of MNs. In conclusion, a generation of doublets is an important strategy of motor control, responsible for fitting the motoneuronal firing rate to the optimal for MUs at the start of their contraction, necessary for increment of muscle force.

  8. Engineering model for intumescent coating behavior in a pilot-scale gas-fired furnace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a fire, intumescent fire protective coatings expand and form a thermally insulating char that protects the underlying substrate from heat and subsequent structural failure. The intumescence includes several rate phenomena, which have been investigated and quantified in the literat......In the event of a fire, intumescent fire protective coatings expand and form a thermally insulating char that protects the underlying substrate from heat and subsequent structural failure. The intumescence includes several rate phenomena, which have been investigated and quantified...... and adjustable model parameters for a given coating, thereby providing models for industrial applications. In this work, these two challenges are addressed. Three experimental series, with an intumescent coating inside a 0.65 m3 gas-fired furnace, heating up according to so-called cellulosic fire conditions...... placed behind the substrate. A mathematical model, describing the intumescent coating behavior and temperatures in the furnace using a single overall reaction was developed and validated against experimental data. By including a decomposition front movement through the char, a good qualitative agreement...

  9. Application of computer vision in studying fire plume behavior of tilting flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminfar, Amirhessam; Cobian Iñiguez, Jeanette; Pham, Stephanie; Chong, Joey; Burke, Gloria; Weise, David; Princevac, Marko

    2016-11-01

    With the development in computer sciences especially in the field of computer vision, image processing has become an inevitable part of flow visualization. Computer vision can be used to visualize flow structure and to quantify its properties. We used a computer vision algorithm to study fire plume tilting when the fire is interacting with a solid wall. As the fire propagates to the wall the amount of air available for the fire to consume will decrease on the wall side. Therefore, the fire will start tilting towards the wall. Aspen wood was used for the fuel source and various configurations of the fuel were investigated. The plume behavior was captured using a digital camera. In the post processing, the flames were isolated from the image by using edge detection technics, making it possible to develop an algorithm to calculate flame height and flame orientation. Moreover, by using an optical flow algorithm we were able to calculate the speed associated with the edges of the flame which is related to the flame propagation speed and effective vertical velocity of the flame. The results demonstrated that as the size of the flame was increasing, the flames started tilting towards the wall. Leading to the conclusion that there should be a critical area of fire in which the flames start to tilt. Also, the algorithm made it possible to calculate a critical distance in which the flame will start orienting towards the wall

  10. Complex Behavior in an Integrate-and-Fire Neuron Model Based on Small World Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Min; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2005-01-01

    Based on our previously pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire neuron model in small world networks, we investigate the complex behavior of electroencephalographic (EEG)-like activities produced by such a model. We find EEG-like activities have obvious chaotic characteristics. We also analyze the complex behaviors of EEG-like signals,such as spectral analysis, reconstruction of the phase space, the correlation dimension, and so on.

  11. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  12. Calibration and evaluation of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System for improved wildland fire danger rating in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mark C.; Wooster, Martin J.; Kitchen, Karl; Manley, Cathy; Gazzard, Rob; McCall, Frank F.

    2016-05-01

    Wildfires in the United Kingdom (UK) pose a threat to people, infrastructure and the natural environment. During periods of particularly fire-prone weather, wildfires can occur simultaneously across large areas, placing considerable stress upon the resources of fire and rescue services. Fire danger rating systems (FDRSs) attempt to anticipate periods of heightened fire risk, primarily for early-warning and preparedness purposes. The UK FDRS, termed the Met Office Fire Severity Index (MOFSI), is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI) component of the Canadian Forest FWI System. The MOFSI currently provides daily operational mapping of landscape fire danger across England and Wales using a simple thresholding of the final FWI component of the Canadian FWI System. However, it is known that the system has scope for improvement. Here we explore a climatology of the six FWI System components across the UK (i.e. extending to Scotland and Northern Ireland), calculated from daily 2km × 2km gridded numerical weather prediction data and supplemented by long-term meteorological station observations. We used this climatology to develop a percentile-based calibration of the FWI System, optimised for UK conditions. We find this approach to be well justified, as the values of the "raw" uncalibrated FWI components corresponding to a very "extreme" (99th percentile) fire danger situation vary by more than an order of magnitude across the country. Therefore, a simple thresholding of the uncalibrated component values (as is currently applied in the MOFSI) may incur large errors of omission and commission with respect to the identification of periods of significantly elevated fire danger. We evaluate our approach to enhancing UK fire danger rating using records of wildfire occurrence and find that the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), Initial Spread Index (ISI) and FWI components of the FWI System generally have the greatest predictive skill for landscape fire activity across Great

  13. Disentangling the drivers of coarse woody debris behavior and carbon gas emissions during fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiwei; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Logtestijn, Richard S. P.; van Hal, Jurgen R.; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.

    2016-04-01

    The turnover of coarse woody debris, a key terrestrial carbon pool, plays fundamental roles in global carbon cycling. Biological decomposition and fire are two main fates for dead wood turnover. Compared to slow decomposition, fire rapidly transfers organic carbon from the earth surface to the atmosphere. Both a-biotic environmental factors and biotic wood properties determine coarse wood combustion and thereby its carbon gas emissions during fire. Moisture is a key inhibitory environmental factor for fire. The properties of dead wood strongly affect how it burns either directly or indirectly through interacting with moisture. Coarse wood properties vary between plant species and between various decay stages. Moreover, if we put a piece of dead wood in the context of a forest fuel bed, the soil and wood contact might also greatly affect their fire behavior. Using controlled laboratory burns, we disentangled the effects of all these driving factors: tree species (one gymnosperms needle-leaf species, three angiosperms broad-leaf species), wood decay stages (freshly dead, middle decayed, very strongly decayed), moisture content (air-dried, 30% moisture content in mass), and soil-wood contact (on versus 3cm above the ground surface) on dead wood flammability and carbon gas efflux (CO2 and CO released in grams) during fire. Wood density was measured for all coarse wood samples used in our experiment. We found that compared to other drivers, wood decay stages have predominant positive effects on coarse wood combustion (for wood mass burned, R2=0.72 when air-dried and R2=0.52 at 30% moisture content) and associated carbon gas emissions (for CO2andCO (g) released, R2=0.55 when air-dried and R2=0.42 at 30% moisture content) during fire. Thus, wood decay accelerates wood combustion and its CO2 and CO emissions during fire, which can be mainly attributed to the decreasing wood density (for wood mass burned, R2=0.91 when air-dried and R2=0.63 at 30% moisture content) as wood

  14. Using GRACE-Derived Water and Moisture Products as a Predictive Tool for Fire Response in the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, N. J.; Jensen, D.; Zajic, B.; Rodell, M.; Reager, J. T., II

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between wildfire activity and soil moisture in the United States has been difficult to assess, with limited ability to determine areas that are at high risk. This limitation is largely due to complex environmental factors at play, especially as they relate to alternating periods of wet and dry conditions, and the lack of remotely-sensed products. Recent drought conditions and accompanying low Fuel Moisture Content (FMC) have led to disastrous wildfire outbreaks causing economic loss, property damage, and environmental degradation. Thus, developing a programmed toolset to assess the relationship between soil moisture, which contributes greatly to FMC and fire severity, can establish the framework for determining overall wildfire risk. To properly evaluate these parameters, we used data assimilated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and data from the Fire Program Analysis fire-occurrence database (FPA FOD) to determine the extent soil moisture affects fire activity. Through these datasets, we produced correlation and regression maps at a coarse resolution of 0.25 degrees for the contiguous United States. These fire-risk products and toolsets proved the viability of this methodology, allowing for the future incorporation of more GRACE-derived water parameters, MODIS vegetation indices, and other environmental datasets to refine the model for fire risk. Additionally, they will allow assessment to national-scale early fire management and provide responders with a predictive tool to better employ early decision-support to areas of high risk during regions' respective fire season(s).

  15. Age-related changes in motor unit firing pattern of vastus lateralis muscle during low-moderate contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Holobar, Aleš; Kouzaki, Motoki; Ogawa, Madoka; Akima, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in motor unit activation properties remain unclear for locomotor muscles such as quadriceps muscles, although these muscles are preferentially atrophied with aging and play important roles in daily living movements. The present study investigated and compared detailed motor unit firing characteristics for the vastus lateralis muscle during isometric contraction at low to moderate force levels in the elderly and young. Fourteen healthy elderly men and 15 healthy young men performed isometric ramp-up contraction to 70 % of the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) during knee extension. Multichannel surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle using a two-dimensional grid of 64 electrodes and decomposed with the convolution kernel compensation technique to extract individual motor units. Motor unit firing rates in the young were significantly higher (~+29.7 %) than in the elderly (p  0.05). Firing rates at 60 % of the MVC force level for the motor units recruited at MVC were significantly correlated with MVC force in the elderly (r = 0.885, p  0.05). These results suggest that the motor unit firing rate in the vastus lateralis muscle is affected by aging and muscle strength in the elderly and/or age-related strength loss is related to motor unit firing/recruitment properties.

  16. The number of active motor units and their firing rates in voluntary contraction of human brachialis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanosue, K; Yoshida, M; Akazawa, K; Fujii, K

    1979-01-01

    To make clear the control mechanism of force generation in human muscle, the electrical activity of the brachialis muscle was studied at various levels of contraction force by recording single motor unit discharges as well as mass electromyograms (EMGs). The firing rate of motor units increased with force along an S-shaped curve. At low levels of force, motor units increased their firing rates steeply with force. At intermediate levels of force, each motor unit increased its firing rate linearly with force at lower rates. As the maximum of force was approached, the firing rate increased very steeply, reaching as high as 50 Hz or more. By applying a new method of statistical processing to mass EMGs, the number of active motor units and the size of action potential were estimated at each level of force. The number of active motor units increased monotonously with muscle force. Motor units recruited at high levels of force had larger amplitudes of action potentials than those recruited at lower levels. Calculations were made to determine how the relative contribution to an increase in muscle force is varied between recruitment and the increase in firing rate. The contribution of recruitment gradually decreased with the increase in force. Up to about 70% of the maximum force, recruitment is the major mechanism for increasing the force of contraction.

  17. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Bari, S; Sen, S L; Rahman, A; Khan, T F; Rahman, F

    2010-09-01

    Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  18. Managing burn patients in a fire disaster: Experience from a burn unit in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashreky S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although burn disaster is not a frequent event, with urbanisation and industrialisation, burn disaster is becoming an emerging problem in Bangladesh. On 3 June 2010, a fire disaster killed 124 people in Neemtali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This paper narrates the management of burn patients of this disaster in the burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. The burn unit managed 192 burn victims of the disaster. Forty-two victims were admitted and 150 of them received primary care at the emergency room and were sent back home. Ten patients among 42 in-patients died. The in-patient mortality was 23.8%. Burn unit in Dhaka Medical College Hospital is the only burn management centre in Bangladesh. Proper planning and coordinated effort by all sectors and persons concerned were the key elements in this successful management.

  19. Effect of Freezing Snow Disaster on Forest Fuel and Fire Behavior in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    After freezing snow disaster,stands of Pinus massoniana,Cunninghamia lanceolata. Liquidambar formosana,Cinnamomum camphora and Phyllostachys pubescens and new burned areas in Hunan Province were surveyed by setting field plots.Moisture content and fuel load were measured by sampling and fire behavior(such as rate of fire spread) was calculated.The results showed that fuel load got doubled instantly,fuel thickness enhanced,fuel continuity swelled and water content of fuel decreased as shrubs and herbs die...

  20. Bifurcation diagram globally underpinning neuronal firing behaviors modified by SK conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jiao; Ling, Heng-Li; Liu, Yi-Hui; Qu, Shi-Xian; Ren, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Neurons in the brain utilize various firing trains to encode the input signals they have received. Firing behavior of one single neuron is thoroughly explained by using a bifurcation diagram from polarized resting to firing, and then to depolarized resting. This explanation provides an important theoretical principle for understanding neuronal biophysical behaviors. This paper reports the novel experimental and modeling results of the modification of such a bifurcation diagram by adjusting small conductance potassium (SK) channel. In experiments, changes in excitability and depolarization block in nucleus accumbens shell and medium-spiny projection neurons are explored by increasing the intensity of injected current and blocking the SK channels by apamin. A shift of bifurcation points is observed. Then, a Hodgkin—Huxley type model including the main electrophysiological processes of such neurons is developed to reproduce the experimental results. The reduction of SK channel conductance also shifts the bifurcations, which is in consistence with experiment. A global bifurcation paradigm of this shift is obtained by adjusting two parameters, intensity of injected current and SK channel conductance. This work reveals the dynamics underpinning modulation of neuronal firing behaviors by biologically important ionic conductance. The results indicate that small ionic conductance other than that responsible for spike generation can modify bifurcation points and shift the bifurcation diagram and, thus, change neuronal excitability and adaptation.

  1. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492-1900 CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah; Swetnam, Thomas W

    2016-02-01

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact.

  2. Human Caused Fire Density in the Western United States (1986 - 2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Human-induced fires have increased the frequency at which fires occur on the landscape. Fires increase the probability of invasion by exotic plant species as well as...

  3. Fire behavior of halogen-free flame retardant electrical cables with the cone calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinier, Romain; Sonnier, Rodolphe; Zavaleta, Pascal; Suard, Sylvain; Ferry, Laurent

    2017-08-14

    Fires involving electrical cables are one of the main hazards in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Cables are complex assemblies including several polymeric parts (insulation, bedding, sheath) constituting fuel sources. This study provides an in-depth characterization of the fire behavior of two halogen-free flame retardant cables used in NPPs using the cone calorimeter. The influence of two key parameters, namely the external heat flux and the spacing between cables, on the cable fire characteristics is especially investigated. The prominent role of the outer sheath material on the ignition and the burning at early times was highlighted. A parameter of utmost importance called transition heat flux, was identified and depends on the composition and the structure of the cable. Below this heat flux, the decomposition is limited and concerns only the sheath. Above it, fire hazard is greatly enhanced because most often non-flame retarded insulation part contributes to heat release. The influence of spacing appears complex, and depends on the considered fire property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on projected future fire regimes in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Wimberly, Michael C

    2016-01-15

    We asked two research questions: (1) What are the relative effects of climate change and climate-driven vegetation shifts on different components of future fire regimes? (2) How does incorporating climate-driven vegetation change into future fire regime projections alter the results compared to projections based only on direct climate effects? We used the western United States (US) as study area to answer these questions. Future (2071-2100) fire regimes were projected using statistical models to predict spatial patterns of occurrence, size and spread for large fires (>400 ha) and a simulation experiment was conducted to compare the direct climatic effects and the indirect effects of climate-driven vegetation change on fire regimes. Results showed that vegetation change amplified climate-driven increases in fire frequency and size and had a larger overall effect on future total burned area in the western US than direct climate effects. Vegetation shifts, which were highly sensitive to precipitation pattern changes, were also a strong determinant of the future spatial pattern of burn rates and had different effects on fire in currently forested and grass/shrub areas. Our results showed that climate-driven vegetation change can exert strong localized effects on fire occurrence and size, which in turn drive regional changes in fire regimes. The effects of vegetation change for projections of the geographic patterns of future fire regimes may be at least as important as the direct effects of climate change, emphasizing that accounting for changing vegetation patterns in models of future climate-fire relationships is necessary to provide accurate projections at continental to global scales.

  5. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  6. Experimental study on flowing burning behaviors of a pool fire with dripping of melted thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiyuan; Tu, Ran; Wang, Nan; Ma, Xin; Jiang, Xi

    2014-02-28

    The objective of this work is to quantitatively investigate the dripping-burning and flowing fire of thermoplastics. A new experimental setup is developed with a heating vessel and a T-trough. Hot thermoplastic liquids are generated in the vessel by electric heating. N2 gas is continuously injected into the vessel to avoid a sudden ignition of fuel in it. The detailed flowing burning behaviors of pool fire in the T-trough are analyzed through the measurements of the mass, heat flux and temperatures etc. The experimental results suggest that a continuous dripping of melted thermoplastic liquids in a nearly constant mass rate can be successfully made in the new setup. It also shows that the mass dripping rate of melted PS liquid is smaller than PP and PE since its large viscosity. In addition, the flame spread velocities of hot liquids of PS in the T-trough are also smaller than that of PP and PE because of its large viscosity. The mass burning rate of the PP and PE pool fire in T-trough are smaller than PS. Finally, considering the heating, melting, dripping and flowing burning behaviors of these polymers, it is suggested that the fire hazard of PE and PP are obviously higher than PS for their faster flowing burning.

  7. Photo guide for estimating fuel loading and fire behavior in mixed-oak forests of the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2009-01-01

    A field guide of 45 pairs of photographs depicting ericaceous shrub, leaf litter, and logging slash fuel types of eastern oak forests and observed fire behavior of these fuel types during prescribed burning. The guide contains instructions on how to use the photo guide to choose appropriate fuel models for prescribed fire planning.

  8. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  9. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  10. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  11. Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns before and after Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenchao; Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Jianwei; Wang, Ruwei; Ren, Lele

    2017-03-09

    Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is an environmentally friendly building material. This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tube (RACFST) columns exposed to fire. Two groups of 12 columns were designed and tested, under axial compression, before and after fire, to evaluate the degradation of bearing capacity due to fire exposure. Six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests at room temperature and the other six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests after a fire exposure. The main parameters of the specimens include the wall thickness of the steel tube (steel content) and the type of concrete materials. Several parameters as obtained from the experimental results were compared and analyzed, including the load-bearing capacity, deformation capacity, and failure characteristics of the specimens. Meanwhile, rate of loss of bearing capacity of specimens exposed to fire were calculated based on the standards EC4 and CECS28:90. The results show that concrete material has a large influence on the rate of loss of bearing capacity in the case of a relatively lower steel ratio. While steel content has little effect on the rate of loss of bearing capacity of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns after fire, it has a relatively large influence on the loss rate of bearing capacity of the RACFST columns. The loss of bearing capacity of the specimens from the experiment is more serious than that from the calculation. As the calculated values are less conservative, particular attention should be given to the application of recycled aggregate concrete in actual structures.

  12. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Stock

    Full Text Available Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years were randomly assigned to training (n = 15 or control (n = 9 groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC and y-intercepts (pps of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70, but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  13. Firing rate modulation of human motor units in different muscles during isometric contraction with various forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, K; Narusawa, M

    1996-05-06

    To examine the factors affecting the control of human motor units, rate coding strategies of the motor units were investigated in upper limb and intrinsic hand muscles during voluntary isometric contraction of steady force levels up to 80% of maximal voluntary contraction. Numerous spike trains from single motor units were recorded from the m. first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the m. biceps brachii (BB) of eight human subjects by means of tungsten micro-electrodes, and the mean firing rate (MFR) was calculated for each subject and inter-individual comparisons made. The MFRs of the FDI were larger than that of the BB at the higher force level, and substantial differences were not found between these muscles at the lower force level. The slope of the linear regression line of MFRs vs. exerted forces for the FDI was more than twice that for the BB. Therefore, isometric force control of the FDI depends more on the rate coding strategy. The difference in rate coding between the FDI and BB motor units may be determined by factors other than muscle fiber composition, because both muscles are known to possess a similar composition of fiber types. Possible mechanisms underlying these characteristics of rate coding strategy are considered in this report.

  14. Units of analysis and kinetic structure of behavioral repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T; Lubinski, D

    1986-09-01

    It is suggested that molar streams of behavior are constructed of various arrangements of three elementary constituents (elicited, evoked, and emitted response classes). An eight-cell taxonomy is elaborated as a framework for analyzing and synthesizing complex behavioral repertoires based on these functional units. It is proposed that the local force binding functional units into a smoothly articulated kinetic sequence arises from temporally arranged relative response probability relationships. Behavioral integration is thought to reflect the joint influence of the organism's hierarchy of relative response probabilities, fluctuating biological states, and the arrangement of environmental and behavioral events in time.

  15. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492–1900 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J.; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I.; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact. PMID:26811459

  16. Behavior of portal frames of steel hollow sections exposed to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmoud El-Heweity

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study concerning the behavior of hollow sections steel portal frames exposed to fire. A model is developed to employ both thermal and structural responses incorporating material and geometric non-linearities. To establish the failure mechanism of a frame under fire conditions, a failure criterion is proposed and validated against available experimental data. The failure temperatures predicted through the suggested failure criterion show good agreement compared to the experimental results. A parametric study is then conducted using the calibrated model to focus on failure mechanisms and associated failure temperatures. Variables considered are fire condition and rafter’s inclination angle. The assessment of frame performance is based on the generated failure mechanism and enhancement of failure temperature due to the chosen parameters. Results indicate that the studied variables strongly affect the failure mechanisms of portal frames. Contradictory, their effects on the failure temperature are minimal. Finally, the study presents vital outlines for the designer to find out and hence trace the failure mechanism prior to the completion of the final design stage. Only at this point, the optimum fire protection or adequate section capacity can be accomplished and may seriously be implemented in the field of industrial steel constructions.

  17. Conversion of an 800 MW oil fired generating unit to burn Orimulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, J.; Halpin, M.; Morgan, D.; Alcantara, J.

    1998-07-01

    Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) is proposing to convert the two existing 800 megawatt (MW) residual oil fired generating units at its Manatee Plant located in Parrish, Florida, to burn Ormulsion. Ormulsion is the registered trademark name for a mixture of water and a naturally occurring heavy hydrocarbon known as bitumen. Orimulsion, which originates in Venezuela, will be shipped to Port Manatee in double-hulled vessels, stored at FPL's existing Port Manatee Terminal, and transported via FPL's existing fuel pipeline to the Manatee Plant. The proposed conversion involves modifications of the existing fuel handling facilities, enhancements of the boiler heat transfer surfaces and soot blowing system, and addition of new pollution control equipment. The Manatee Orimulsion conversion will result in overall environmental benefits and significant savings to FPL's customers. This paper summarizes the overall objectives of the project and briefly describes these modifications.

  18. Conversion of an 800 MW oil fired generating unit to burn Orimulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, J.; Halpin, M.; Morgan, D.; Alcantara, J.

    1998-04-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) is proposing to convert the two existing 800 megawatt (MW) residual oil fired generating units at its Manatee Plant located in Parrish, Florida, to burn Orimulsion. Orimulsion is the registered trademark name for a mixture of water and a naturally occurring heavy hydrocarbon known as bitumen. Orimulsion, which originates in Venezuela, will be shipped to Port Manatee in double-hulled vessels, stored at FPL`s existing Port Manatee Terminal, and transported via FPL`s existing fuel pipeline to the Manatee Plant. The proposed conversion involves modifications of the existing fuel handling facilities, enhancements of the boiler heat transfer surfaces and soot blowing system, and addition of new pollution control equipment. The Manatee Orimulsion conversion will result in overall environmental benefits and significant savings to FPL`s customers. This paper summarizes the overall objectives of the project and briefly describes these modifications.

  19. An investigation on graphene and nanoclay effects on hybrid nanocomposites post fire dynamic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ferreira Ávila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the post fire behavior of hybrid nanocomposites under dynamic loadings. A series of tests were performed to investigate how nanoparticles (i.e. nanoclay and graphene nanosheets affect the post-fire overall composite behavior. Carbon fiber/epoxy-nanoclay and carbon fiber/epoxy-graphene nanosheets were manufactured. The nanoparticles employed were Cloisite 30B nanoclay, and surface modified graphene nanosheets. The epoxy system used was RemLam M/HY956. The nanocomposites were made using ultrasonic mixer for nanoparticle dispersion in acetone followed by a shear mixing of acetone/nanoparticle/hardener. The following steps involved degassing, the addition of resin to the mixture and, the hand lay-up with vacuum assisted cure. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA indicates an average decrease on peak mass loss around 41% with the addition of small amount of nanoparticles. The sample plates were exposed to a heat flux of 800 kW.m-2 for a period up to 120 seconds. The post-fire low velocity impact tests indicated the impact resistance degraded as a function of heat exposure. However, the addition of nanoclay leads to an increase on impact peak force of 11.69%. The carbon oxidation could be the main cause of the increase on impact peak load is lower than expected, only 6.72%. The model predictions are overestimated by approximately 8%. Even though, it can be a good tool for composites design.

  20. Motor unit firing behaviour of soleus muscle in isometric and dynamic contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Kallio

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding the detailed control of human locomotion and balance can be improved, when individual motor units can be isolated and their firing rates followed in natural movement of large, fuctionally important muscles. For this reason the present study investigated the motor unit discharge rate (MUDR in isometric and dynamic contractions of the soleus muscle. METHODS: Eleven males performed isometric (10-100% MVC and dynamic (10-40% MVC plantar flexions. Intramuscular EMG was measured from Soleus with bipolar wire-electrodes and decomposed with custom built "Daisy" software. RESULTS: The Soleus MUDR was significantly higher in concentric compared to isometric or eccentric contractions at all submaximal force levels (P<0.05. In isometric contractions MUDR increased up to 100% MVC. CONCLUSION: Motor unit discharge properties of a large plantarflexor can be measured in dynamic and maximal contractions. For a given torque output, MUDR is dependent upon contraction type, as set by the major mechanical differences between concentric and eccentric actions.

  1. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  2. Fair Verbal Behavior: A Protocol Materials Unit for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Ina V. S.

    This protocol materials unit, based on the interaction component of instruction, is designed to help prospective teachers better understand verbal behaviors as related to fair (positive feedback) and unfair (negative feedback) responses. Fair verbal behavior is defined as following a standard of equal treatment toward all students and as free from…

  3. Marked by Fire: Anishinaabe Articulations of Nationhood in Treaty Making with the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Heidi Kiiwetinepinesiik

    2012-01-01

    The story, known as "The Theft of Fire," illustrates numerous meanings and teachings crucial to understanding Anishinaabe nationhood. This story contains two discernible points. First, it reveals how the Anishinaabe obtained fire. The second discernible feature within this story is the marking of the hare by his theft of fire. Stories…

  4. Marked by Fire: Anishinaabe Articulations of Nationhood in Treaty Making with the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Heidi Kiiwetinepinesiik

    2012-01-01

    The story, known as "The Theft of Fire," illustrates numerous meanings and teachings crucial to understanding Anishinaabe nationhood. This story contains two discernible points. First, it reveals how the Anishinaabe obtained fire. The second discernible feature within this story is the marking of the hare by his theft of fire. Stories…

  5. The Impact of the USS FORRESTAL’S 1967 Fire on United States Navy Shipboard Damage Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    United States Navy, 112 pages. This thesis examines the impact of the 1967 flight deck fire on the aircraft carrier USS Forrestal ( CVA 59) and...Compartment Check-Off List COMNAVAIRLANT Commander, Naval Air Force, US Atlantic Fleet COMNAVAIRPAC Commander, Naval Air Force, US Pacific Fleet CVA ...that morning, one of the United States Navy’s most modern aircraft carriers, USS Forrestal ( CVA 59) was operating in waters off the coast of Vietnam

  6. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  7. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  8. Motor unit firing rates and synchronisation affect the fractal dimension of simulated surface electromyogram during isometric/isotonic contraction of vastus lateralis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesin, Luca; Dardanello, Davide; Rainoldi, Alberto; Boccia, Gennaro

    2016-12-01

    During fatiguing contractions, many adjustments in motor units behaviour occur: decrease in muscle fibre conduction velocity; increase in motor units synchronisation; modulation of motor units firing rate; increase in variability of motor units inter-spike interval. We simulated the influence of all these adjustments on synthetic EMG signals in isometric/isotonic conditions. The fractal dimension of the EMG signal was found mainly influenced by motor units firing behaviour, being affected by both firing rate and synchronisation level, and least affected by muscle fibre conduction velocity. None of the calculated EMG indices was able to discriminate between firing rate and motor units synchronisation. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [The specificities of care in cognitive-behavior units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Special units have been created within rehabilitation units to provide care to patients with productive behavior disorders, associated with Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia. They must respect organizational and architectural constraints and develop multiple partnerships. Based on an assessment and their expertise in behavior disorders, the multidisciplinary team draws up and implements a personalized care program comprising non pharmacological approaches, the benefit of which can usually be seen in the abatement of the disorders. Thorough preparation of the patient's return home or admission to a nursing home enables knowledge concerning the patient's specific situation to be passed on to other caregivers and the patient's family.

  10. Motor unit firing rates of the gastrocnemii during maximal brief steady-state contractions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mitchell T; Rice, Charles L; Dalton, Brian H

    2016-02-01

    The human triceps surae (soleus, medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemii) is complex and important for posture and gait. The soleus exhibits markedly lower motor unit firing rates (MUFRs; ∼16Hz) during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) than other limb muscles, but this information is unknown for the MG and LG. During multiple visits, subjects performed a series of 5-7, ∼7-s plantar flexor MVCs with tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the MG and LG. During a separate testing session, another group of subjects performed submaximal isometric contractions at 25%, 50%, and 75% MVC with inserted fine-wires in the MG, LG and soleus. Maximum steady-state MUFRs for MG and LG (∼23Hz) were not different, but faster than prior reports for the soleus. No differences between the three triceps surae components were detected for 25% or 50% MVC, but at 75% MVC, the MG MUFRs were 31% greater than soleus. The triceps surae exhibit similar torque modulation strategies at 75% MVC) the gastrocnemii rely on faster rates to generate maximal torque than the soleus. Therefore, the MG and LG exhibit a larger range of MUFR capacities.

  11. Warning signs prior to aggressive behavior in child psychiatric units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faay, M.D.M.; Valenkamp, M.W.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at detecting and categorizing early warning signs of aggressive behavior in child psychiatric units. We analyzed 575 violent incident report forms and developed a coding scheme consisting of 16 warning signs. From the 575 incident report forms, a total of 1087 signs were coded. Most

  12. Defining old growth for fire-adapted forests of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Daniel Binkley; Peter Z. Fule; Johnson Marlin; Scott L. Stephens; Thomas W. Swetnam

    2007-01-01

    There are varying definitions of old-growth forests because of differences in environment and differing fire influence across the Intermountain West. Two general types of forests reflect the role of fire: 1) forests shaped by natural changes in structure and species makeup-plant succession-that are driven by competitive differences among species and individual trees...

  13. Climate change presents increased potential for very large fires in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Barbero; J. T. Abatzoglou; Sim Larkin; C. A. Kolden; B. Stocks

    2015-01-01

    Very large fires (VLFs) have important implications for communities, ecosystems, air quality and fire suppression expenditures. VLFs over the contiguous US have been strongly linked with meteorological and climatological variability. Building on prior modelling of VLFs (>5000 ha), an ensemble of 17 global climate models were statistically downscaled over the US...

  14. Defining Old Growth for Fire-adapted Forests of the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill R. Kaufmann

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There are varying definitions of old-growth forests because of differences in environment and differing fire influence across the Intermountain West. Two general types of forests reflect the role of fire: 1 forests shaped by natural changes in structure and species makeup - plant succession - that are driven by competitive differences among species and individual trees and by small-scale disturbances, and 2 forests where plant succession processes are disrupted by major biological disturbances (fire, insects, wind, or drought extending across larger areas. Some case examples of old-growth forests where fire was historically frequent are used. The examples sketch out the typical biophysical settings, fire regime, natural disturbance factors, spatial features of patches, and the processes and conditions that produce spatial changes of the landscape over time. These examples confirm the complexity of describing or defining old growth in frequent-fire forests. We define fire-adapted forests at three spatial scales, whereas the standard definition of old growth refers to a patch or stand condition. Our definition is based on ecological principles rather than on the cultural aspects of old growth. It focuses on central tendencies, given all the possible combinations of conditions and processes, that move forests toward old growth in the fire-adapted forests of the Intermountain West.

  15. Aerosol emissions from prescribed fires in the United States: A synthesis of laboratory and aircraft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. A. May; G. R. McMeeking; T. Lee; J. W. Taylor; J. S. Craven; I. Burling; A. P. Sullivan; S. Akagi; J. L. Collett; M. Flynn; H. Coe; S. P. Urbanski; J. H. Seinfeld; R. J. Yokelson; S. M. Kreidenweis

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol emissions from prescribed fires can affect air quality on regional scales. Accurate representation of these emissions in models requires information regarding the amount and composition of the emitted species. We measured a suite of submicron particulate matter species in young plumes emitted from prescribed fires (chaparral and montane ecosystems in California...

  16. A Wildland Fire Emission Inventory for the Western United States -Uncertainty Across Spatial and Temporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, S. P.; Hao, W.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of trace gases and aerosols by biomass burning (BB) have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the atmosphere, air quality, and climate. BB emissions depend on a range of variables including burned area, fuels, meteorology, combustion completeness, and emission factors (EF). Emission algorithms provide BB emission inventories (EI) which serve as critical input for Chemical Transport Models (CTM) employed in atmospheric sciences in a wide array of studies. Many different BB EI are commonly used and agreement among these EI is often poor. In general, the sensitivity of the emission estimates to the algorithm components is not well characterized and the performance of most algorithms have not been examined across the scales they are used. Understanding the sensitivity of EI to algorithm component uncertainties is crucial for assessing their impact on CTM simulations. We examine the spatial and temporal sensitivity of BB emission estimates of CO to uncertainties in mapped fuel loading, fuel consumption, burned area and emission factors. The study focuses on wildland fire in the western United States(2003 - 2008). Two fuel loading maps and 2 fuel consumption models provided 4 fuel load consumption emission scenarios with identical burned area and meteorology. The burned area used in the study was mapped using a MODIS burn scar algorithm. The emission algorithm was run at 1-day and 1-km2. Each of the 4 EI was aggregated across multiple spatial (dx= 10 - 200km2) and temporal (dt= 5day - 1yr) scales to evaluate the algorithm sensitivity to scale. At each (dx, dt) the native scale EI of the 4 scenarios were averaged to provide a ‘best estimate’ EI. The uncertainty associated with fuel load consumption (Uflc) was taken as half the range of emissions predicted by the 4 scenarios at each (dx, dt). Estimated uncertainties for the burned area (Ua) and EF (Uef) were combined with Uflc to provide the CO emissions uncertainty (U). The sensitivity of U

  17. A Simulation Study on the Effects of Dendritic Morphology on Layer V Prefontal Pyramidal Cell Firing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ePsarrou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyramidal cells, the most abundant neurons in neocortex, exhibit significant structural variability across different brain areas and layers in different species. Moreover, in response to a somatic step current, these cells display a range of firing behaviors, the most common being (1 repetitive action potentials (Regular Spiking - RS, and (2 an initial cluster of 2-5 action potentials with short ISIs followed by single spikes (Intrinsic Bursting - IB. A correlation between firing behavior and dendritic morphology has recently been reported. In this work we use computational modeling to investigate quantitatively the effects of the basal dendritic tree morphology on the firing behavior of 112 three-dimensional reconstructions of layer V PFC rat pyramidal cells. Particularly, we focus on how different morphological (diameter, total length, volume and branch number and passive (Mean Electrotonic Path length features of basal dendritic trees shape somatic firing when the spatial distribution of ionic mechanisms in the basal dendritic trees is uniform or non-uniform. Our results suggest that total length, volume and branch number are the best morphological parameters to discriminate the cells as RS or IB, regardless of the distribution of ionic mechanisms in basal trees. The discriminatory power of total length, volume and branch number remains high in the presence of different apical dendrites. These results suggest that morphological variations in the basal dendritic trees of layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC influence their firing patterns in a predictive manner and may in turn influence the information processing capabilities of these neurons.

  18. Using simulated 3D surface fuelbeds and terrestrial laser scan data to develop inputs to fire behavior models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Rowell; E. Louise Loudermilk; Carl Seielstad; Joseph O' Brien

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fine-scale variability in understory fuels is increasingly important as physics-based fire behavior modelsdrive needs for higher-resolution data. Describing fuelbeds 3Dly is critical in determining vertical and horizontal distributions offuel elements and the mass, especially in frequently burned pine ecosystems where fine-scale...

  19. Interim report on the performance of 400-megawatt and larger nuclear and coal-fired generating units: performance through 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report is an update of DOE/ERA-0007, Interim Report on the Performance of 400 Megawatt and Larger Nuclear and Coal-Fired Generating Units - Performance Through 1975. The most recent EEI data for nuclear units and for coal units less than 600 MW(e) and having at least one full year of commercial operation are included in this analysis. The analyses cover the following: coal and nuclear units, 400-MW nameplate and larger; historical data through 1976; four industry-recognized performance indices (capacity factor, availability factor, equivalent availability, and forced outage rate); four types of geographical analysis (national, individual, individual utilities, and individual utilities by states); and rankings of states and utilities by performance indices. (MCW)

  20. Updated logistic regression equations for the calculation of post-fire debris-flow likelihood in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Negri, Jacquelyn A.; Kean, Jason W.; Laber, Jayme L.; Tillery, Anne C.; Youberg, Ann M.

    2016-06-30

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can generate dangerous flash floods and debris flows. To reduce public exposure to hazard, the U.S. Geological Survey produces post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments for select fires in the western United States. We use publicly available geospatial data describing basin morphology, burn severity, soil properties, and rainfall characteristics to estimate the statistical likelihood that debris flows will occur in response to a storm of a given rainfall intensity. Using an empirical database and refined geospatial analysis methods, we defined new equations for the prediction of debris-flow likelihood using logistic regression methods. We showed that the new logistic regression model outperformed previous models used to predict debris-flow likelihood.

  1. Verification of Monthly Mean Forecasts for Fire Weather Elements in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Willlam H.; Charney, Joseph J.; McCutchan, Morris H.; Benoit, John W.

    1996-12-01

    The authors first review a system for specifying monthly mean anomalies of midday temperature (T), dew-point (D), and wind speed (W) at a large network of surface stations across the United States. Multiple regression equations containing approximately three terms were derived for each element and month from concurrent fields of 700-mb height anomaly (H) observed over North America and vicinity, plus the previous month's observed local anomaly of T, D, or W, during the 20-year period 1964-1983. Results of testing this forecast system on prognostic values of H prepared twice a month at the National Weather Service from 1973 to 1990 and on observed values of H during the independent period from 1984 to 1990 are presented.The authors pooled the data for all months and 122 stations to compute Heidke skill scores (HSS) for two, three, four, and five classes for each weather element. All scores showed skill that dropped steadily as the number of classes increased. In all cases skill was highest for T and lowest for W, the same result as that obtained in the original derivation. In order to examine the distribution of skill, we computed the HSS separately for each class. The skill scores for the first and last classes were greater than those for the middle class for all elements and months. It is encouraging that forecasts above the 90th percentile, the most critical category for fire potential, consistently showed greater skill than forecasts for any other class. Geographical and seasonal variations of skill based on prognostic height was also examined. The results showed that skill is strongly dependent on location, month, and weather element. Mean annual scores were positive for each element in all parts of the country, while monthly scores were highest in January and lowest in October.Although the forecasts based on prognostic heights were more skillful than climatology for all weather elements, they improved over month-to-month persistence only for T and D. If the

  2. Phase diagram and critical behavior of a forest-fire model in a gradient of immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisoni, Nara; Loscar, Ernesto S.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2011-01-01

    The forest-fire model with immune trees (FFMIT) is a cellular automaton early proposed by Drossel and Schwabl [Physica APHYADX0378-437110.1016/0378-4371(93)90001-K 199, 183 (1993)], in which each site of a lattice can be in three possible states: occupied by a tree, empty, or occupied by a burning tree (fire). The trees grow at empty sites with probability p, healthy trees catch fire from adjacent burning trees with probability (1-g), where g is the immunity, and a burning tree becomes an empty site spontaneously. In this paper we study the FFMIT by means of the recently proposed gradient method (GM), considering the immunity as a uniform gradient along the horizontal axis of the lattice. The GM allows the simultaneous treatment of both the active and the inactive phases of the model in the same simulation. In this way, the study of a single-valued interface gives the critical point of the active-absorbing transition, whereas the study of a multivalued interface brings the percolation threshold into the active phase. Therefore we present a complete phase diagram for the FFMIT, for all range of p, where, besides the usual active-absorbing transition of the model, we locate a transition between the active percolating and the active nonpercolating phases. The average location and the width of both interfaces, as well as the absorbing and percolating cluster densities, obey a scaling behavior that is governed by the exponent α=1/(1+ν), where ν is the suitable correlation length exponent (ν⊥ for the directed percolation transition and ν for the standard percolation transition). We also show that the GM allows us to calculate the critical exponents associated with both the order parameter of the absorbing transition and the number of particles in the multivalued interface. Besides, we show that by using the gradient method, the collapse in a single curve of cluster densities obtained for samples of different side is a very sensitive method in order to obtain the

  3. Molecular variation at a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of fire ant social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gotzek

    Full Text Available The fire ant Solenopsis invicta and its close relatives display an important social polymorphism involving differences in colony queen number. Colonies are headed by either a single reproductive queen (monogyne form or multiple queens (polygyne form. This variation in social organization is associated with variation at the gene Gp-9, with monogyne colonies harboring only B-like allelic variants and polygyne colonies always containing b-like variants as well. We describe naturally occurring variation at Gp-9 in fire ants based on 185 full-length sequences, 136 of which were obtained from S. invicta collected over much of its native range. While there is little overall differentiation between most of the numerous alleles observed, a surprising amount is found in the coding regions of the gene, with such substitutions usually causing amino acid replacements. This elevated coding-region variation may result from a lack of negative selection acting to constrain amino acid replacements over much of the protein, different mutation rates or biases in coding and non-coding sequences, negative selection acting with greater strength on non-coding than coding regions, and/or positive selection acting on the protein. Formal selection analyses provide evidence that the latter force played an important role in the basal b-like lineages coincident with the emergence of polygyny. While our data set reveals considerable paraphyly and polyphyly of S. invicta sequences with respect to those of other fire ant species, the b-like alleles of the socially polymorphic species are monophyletic. An expanded analysis of colonies containing alleles of this clade confirmed the invariant link between their presence and expression of polygyny. Finally, our discovery of several unique alleles bearing various combinations of b-like and B-like codons allows us to conclude that no single b-like residue is completely predictive of polygyne behavior and, thus, potentially causally

  4. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  5. An examination of nucleus accumbens cell firing during extinction and reinstatement of water reinforcement behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jonathan A; Ijames, Stephanie G; Roop, Richard G; Carelli, Regina M

    2002-03-08

    Electrophysiological recording procedures were used to examine nucleus accumbens (Acb) cell firing in rats (n = 13) during water reinforcement sessions consisting of three phases. During phase one (maintenance), a lever press resulted in water reinforcement (fixed ratio 1; 0.05 ml/press) paired with an auditory stimulus (0.5 s). Of 128 Acb neurons recorded during maintenance, 40 cells (31%) exhibited one of three types of neuronal firing patterns described previously [J. Neurosci. 14 (12) (1994) 7735-7746; J. Neurosci. 20 (11) (2000) 4255-4266]. Briefly, Acb neurons exhibited increases in firing rate within seconds preceding the reinforced response (type PR) or increases (type RFe) or decreases (type RFi) in activity seconds following response completion. In phase two (extinction), subsequent lever pressing had no programmed consequences (i.e., water reinforcement and the auditory stimulus were not presented). After 30 min of no responding, animals were given water reinforcement/auditory stimulus 'primes' to reestablish lever pressing behavior during the third phase (reinstatement). Results indicated that all types of phasic neurons (PR, RFe and RFi) exhibited an attenuated firing rate during extinction, and in some cases recovery of patterned discharges were observed during reinstatement. No significant changes in cell firing were observed for any cell type during presentation of the stimulus prime used to reestablish operant responding following extinction. These findings are discussed in terms of how Acb neurons process information related to 'natural' reinforcers versus drugs of abuse.

  6. Barriers to implementation of risk management for federal wildland fire management agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson; Alan A. Ager; Mark Finney

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation we review progress towards the implementation of a risk-based management framework for U.S. Federal wildland fire policy and operations. We first describe new developments in wildfire simulation technology that catalyzed the development of risk-based decision support systems for strategic wildfire management. These systems include new analytical...

  7. Effect of Climate Change Projections on Forest Fire Behavior and Values-at-Risk in Southwestern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Kalabokidis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has the potential to influence many aspects of wildfire behavior and risk. During the last decade, Greece has experienced large-scale wildfire phenomena with unprecedented fire behavior and impacts. In this study, thousands of wildfire events were simulated with the Minimum Travel Time (MTT fire growth algorithm (called Randig and resulted in spatial data that describe conditional burn probabilities, potential fire spread and intensity in Messinia, Greece. Present (1961–1990 and future (2071–2100 climate projections were derived from simulations of the KNMI regional climate model RACMO2, under the SRES A1B emission scenario. Data regarding fuel moisture content, wind speed and direction were modified for the different projection time periods to be used as inputs in Randig. Results were used to assess the vulnerability changes for certain values-at-risk of the natural and human-made environment. Differences in wildfire risk were calculated and results revealed that larger wildfires that resist initial control are to be expected in the future, with higher conditional burn probabilities and intensities for extensive parts of the study area. The degree of change in the modeled Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index for the two time periods also revealed an increasing trend in frequencies of higher values for the future.

  8. Modeling the Pyrolysis and Combustion Behaviors of Non-Charring and Intumescent-Protected Polymers Using “FiresCone”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Shi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model, named FiresCone, was developed to simulate the pyrolysis and combustion processes of different types of combustible materials, which also took into account both gas and solid phases. In the present study, some non-charring and intumescent-protected polymer samples were investigated regarding their combustion behaviors in response to pre-determined external heat fluxes. The modeling results were validated against the experimental outcomes obtained from a cone calorimeter. The predicted mass loss rates of the samples were found to fit reasonably well with the experimental data collected under various levels of external irradiation. Both the experimental and modeling results showed that the peak mass loss rate of the non-charring polymer material occurred near the end of burning, whereas for the intumescent-protected polymer it happed shortly after the start of the experiment. “FiresCone” is expected to act as a practical tool for the investigation of fire behavior of combustible materials. It is also expected to model fire scenarios under complicated conditions.

  9. Single motor unit firing behaviour in the right trapezius muscle during rapid movement of right or left index finger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eSøgaard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer work is associated with low level sustained activity in the trapezius muscle that may cause myalgia. The activity may be attention related or part of a general multijoint motor program providing stabilization of the shoulder girdle for precise finger manipulation. This study examines single motor unit (MU firing pattern in the right trapezius muscle during fast movements of ipsi or contralateral index finger. Modulated firing rate would support a general multi joint motor program, while a generally increased and continuous firing rate would support attention related activation. 12 healthy female subjects were seated at a computer work place with elbows and forearms supported. Ten double clicks (DC were performed with right and left index finger on a computer mouse instrumented with a trigger.Surface EMG was recorded from right and left trapezius muscle. Intramuscular EMG was recorded with a quadripolar wire electrode in the right trapezius.Surface EMG was analysed as %MVE. The intramuscular EMG was decomposed into individual MU action potential trains. Instantaneous firing rate (IFR was calculated from inter-spike interval with ISI shorter than 20 ms defined as doublets. IFR was averaged across 10 DC to show IFR modulation.Surface EMG in both right and left trapezius was 1.8-2.5%MVE. During right hand DC a total of 32 MUs were identified. Four subjects showed no activity. Four showed MU activity with weak or no variations related to the timing of DC. Four subjects showed large modulation in IFR with temporal relation to DC. During left hand DC 15 MUs were identified in 4 subjects, for two of the subjects with IFR modulations related to DC. Doublets was found as an integrated part of MU activation in the trapezius muscle and for one subject temporarily related to DC. In conclusion, DC with ipsi- and contralateral fast movements of the index finger was found to evoke biomechanically as well as attention related activity pattern in the

  10. Behavior of steel-concrete composite slabs subjected to standard fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Finite element method is employed to calculate the temperature fields for two kinds of steel-concrete composite slabs: composite slab with profiled steel sheeting and LJMB composite slab.The calculated results are in good agreement with those of tests.Fire resistance of the two kinds of composite slabs is calculated by using a numeric method.The results show that: due to heat-absorbing of concrete,the performance of composite slabs under fire is better than that of unprotected steel structure,and fire resistance of composite slabs mentioned in this paper is at least 30 min subjected to standard fire.Parameters related to the fire-resistance are discussed.It was found that with increasing of concrete strength and thickness of slab,fire-resistance increases,and with increasing of steel strength and steel ratio,fire-resistance decreases.Also thickness of fire proof is calculated by a numeric method.The results obtained in this paper may be referenced for practical engineering.

  11. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 342, the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (FTP), which is located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 km (55 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of CAS 23-56-01. The FTP is an area approximately 100 m by 140 m (350 ft by 450 ft) located west of the town of Mercury, Nevada, which was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to train fire-fighting personnel (REECo, 1991; Jacobson, 1991). The surface and subsurface soils in the FTP have likely been impacted by hydrocarbons and other contaminants of potential concern (COPC) associated with burn activities and training exercises in the area.

  12. Intraspecific Variation among Social Insect Colonies: Persistent Regional and Colony-Level Differences in Fire Ant Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Bockoven

    Full Text Available Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.

  13. Intraspecific Variation among Social Insect Colonies: Persistent Regional and Colony-Level Differences in Fire Ant Foraging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockoven, Alison A; Wilder, Shawn M; Eubanks, Micky D

    2015-01-01

    Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.

  14. Studies on the behavior of Reinforced Concrete Short Column subjected to fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesha Balaji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the axial capacity of reinforced columns exposed to fire. The simplified method namely 500 °C isotherm method explained in Eurocode 2 is used to assess the capacity of the column. Finite element software ANSYS is used to perform the thermal analysis. A set of numerical studies were carried out to quantify the effect of various parameters on short columns subjected to fire. The study is performed on columns of different cross-sections to investigate the effect of eight parameters, namely the thermal boundary conditions, grades of concrete, grades of steel, types of aggregate, distribution of reinforcement on column faces, concrete cover, load eccentricity and support conditions. The fire ratings based on various failure criteria are determined, and minimum rating is accepted as design fire rating. A simplified interaction curve to predict the failure of columns under fire subjected to axial load and uniaxial moment for square cross-sections was also developed.

  15. Fire Management Plan North Tract Unit 8 Patuxent Research Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — North Tract Unit 8 (NT -8, Drop Zone) is a grassland unit composed of a mixture of dense, cool season grass dominated by Tall Fescue and a woody legume, Korean...

  16. A simulation study on the effects of dendritic morphology on layer V PFC pyramidal cell firing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Psarrou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of neuronal cells found in the cerebral cortex are pyramidal neurons. Their function has been associated with higher cognitive and emotional functions. Pyramidal neurons have a characteristic structure, consisting of a triangular shaped soma whereon descend two extended and complex dendritic trees, and a long bifurcated axon. All the morphological components of the pyramidal neurons exhibit significant variability across different brain areas and layers. Pyramidal cells receive numerous synaptic inputs along their structure, integration of which in space and in time generates local dendritic spikes that shape their firing pattern. In addition, synaptic integration is influenced by voltage-gated and ion channels, which are expressed in a large repertoire by pyramidal neurons. Electrophysiological categories of pyramidal cells can be established, based on the action potential frequency, generated from a fixed somatic stimulus: (1 cells that fire repetitive action potentials (Regular Spiking – RS, (2 cells that fire clusters of 2 – 5 action potentials with short ISIs (Intrinsic Bursting – IB, and (3 cells that fire in repetitive clusters of 2 – 5 action potentials with short ISIs (Repetitive Oscillatory Bursts – ROB. In vitro and in silico scientific studies, correlate the firing patterns of the pyramidal neurons to their morphological features. This study provides a quantitatively analysis via compartmental neuronal modelling of the effects of dendritic morphology and distribution and concentration of ionic mechanisms, along the basal and/or apical dendrites on the firing behavior of a 112-set of layer V rat PFC pyramidal cells. We focus on how particular morphological and passive features of the dendritic trees shape the neuronal firing patterns. Our results suggest that specific morphological parameters (such as total length, volume and branch number can discriminate the cells as RS or IB, regardless of what is the

  17. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  18. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, to an alarm pheromone component and its analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Di; Lu, Yong-Yue; Liao, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Lei; Chen, Li

    2014-12-10

    A characteristic behavior in ants is to move rapidly to emission sources of alarm pheromones. The addition of ant alarm pheromones to bait is expected to enhance its attractiveness. To search for candidate compounds for bait enhancement in fire ant control, 13 related alkylpyrazine analogues in addition to synthetic alarm pheromone component were evaluated for electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral activities in Solenopsis invicta. Most compounds elicited dose-dependent EAG and behavioral responses. There exists a correlation between the EAG and behavioral responses. Among the 14 tested alkylpyrazines, three compounds, 2-ethyl-3,6(5)-dimethyl pyrazine (1), 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine (7), and 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine (12), elicited significant alarm responses at a dose range of 0.1-1000 ng. Further bait discovery bioassay with the three most active alkylpyrazines demonstrated that food bait accompanied by sample-treated filter paper disk attracted significantly more fire ant workers in the first 15 min period. EAG and behavioral bioassays with pure pheromone isomers accumulated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine was significantly more active than 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine.

  19. Colony-level behavioral variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockoven, Alison A; Coates, Craig J; Eubanks, Micky D

    2017-09-13

    Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and have significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behavior at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions. Colonies varied significantly in their behavior. The most active colonies had up to 10 times more active foragers than the least active colony and more than 16 times as many workers outside the nest. Expression differences among colonies correlated with this colony-level behavioral variation. Colonies with higher sifor expression in foragers had, on average, significantly higher foraging activity, exploratory activity, and recruitment to nectar than colonies with lower expression. Expression of sifor was also strongly correlated with worker task (foraging versus working in the interior of the nest). These results provide insight into the genetic and physiological processes underlying collective differences in social behavior. Quantifying variation in expression of the foraging gene may provide an important tool for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of colony-level behavioral variation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Expected ozone benefits of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Timothy; Bull, Emily; Canty, Timothy; He, Hao; Zalewsky, Eric; Woodman, Michael; Aburn, George; Ehrman, Sheryl; Dickerson, Russell R

    2017-03-01

    On hot summer days in the eastern United States, electricity demand rises, mainly because of increased use of air conditioning. Power plants must provide this additional energy, emitting additional pollutants when meteorological conditions are primed for poor air quality. To evaluate the impact of summertime NOx emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units (EGUs) on surface ozone formation, we performed a series of sensitivity modeling forecast scenarios utilizing EPA 2018 version 6.0 emissions (2011 base year) and CMAQ v5.0.2. Coal-fired EGU NOx emissions were adjusted to match the lowest NOx rates observed during the ozone seasons (April 1-October 31) of 2005-2012 (Scenario A), where ozone decreased by 3-4 ppb in affected areas. When compared to the highest emissions rates during the same time period (Scenario B), ozone increased ∼4-7 ppb. NOx emission rates adjusted to match the observed rates from 2011 (Scenario C) increased ozone by ∼4-5 ppb. Finally in Scenario D, the impact of additional NOx reductions was determined by assuming installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) controls on all units lacking postcombustion controls; this decreased ozone by an additional 2-4 ppb relative to Scenario A. Following the announcement of a stricter 8-hour ozone standard, this analysis outlines a strategy that would help bring coastal areas in the mid-Atlantic region closer to attainment, and would also provide profound benefits for upwind states where most of the regional EGU NOx originates, even if additional capital investments are not made (Scenario A). With the 8-hr maximum ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) decreasing from 75 to 70 ppb, modeling results indicate that use of postcombustion controls on coal-fired power plants in 2018 could help keep regions in attainment. By operating already existing nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal devices to their full potential, ozone could be significantly curtailed, achieving ozone reductions by

  1. F-wave of single firing motor units: correct or misleading criterion of motoneuron excitability in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudina, Lydia P; Andreeva, Regina E

    2017-03-01

    Motoneuron excitability is a critical property for information processing during motor control. F-wave (a motoneuronal recurrent discharge evoked by a motor antidromic volley) is often used as a criterion of motoneuron pool excitability in normal and neuromuscular diseases. However, such using of F-wave calls in question. The present study was designed to explore excitability of single low-threshold motoneurons during their natural firing in healthy humans and to ascertain whether F-wave is a correct measure of motoneuronal excitability. Single motor units (MUs) were activated by gentle voluntary muscle contractions. MU peri-stimulus time histograms and motoneuron excitability changes within a target interspike interval were analysed during testing by motor antidromic and Ia-afferent volleys. It was found that F-waves could be occasionally recorded in some low-threshold MUs. However, during evoking F-wave, in contrast with the H-reflex, peri-stimulus time histograms revealed no statistically significant increase in MU discharge probability. Moreover, surprisingly, motoneurons appeared commonly incapable to fire a recurrent discharge within the most excitable part of a target interval. Thus, the F-wave, unlike the H-reflex, is the incorrect criterion of motoneuron excitability resulting in misleading conclusions. However, it does not exclude the validity of the F-wave as a clinical tool for other aims. It was concluded that the F-wave was first explored in low-threshold MUs during their natural firing. The findings may be useful at interpretations of changes in the motoneuron pool excitability in neuromuscular diseases.

  2. Post-fire phenological behavior and breeding biology of the Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirley Luciene dos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenological behavior of species in response to cerrado stricken by fire is little known. A phenological and reproductive biological study of Spiranthera odoratissima was carried out in an anthropized area of cerrado sensu stricto affected by fire in Goiânia County, Goiás, Brazil. Phenolocial observations indicated that the individuals bloomed in synchrony three months after the fire. The phenological rhythms were associated with the seasonal pluviometric effects, a characteristic pattern of shrublet species of the cerrado. Theflowers are white with a sweet odor and are grouped in panicle inflorescences. The blossoming occurs during dusk and begins at around 16h. It offers pollen and nectar to its visitors. The species produces 32.8μl (± 3.4 of nectar with an average concentration of 16.4% (± 0.43 in equivalents of sucrose. The pollination system (phalenophily was proposed based on an analysis of the fl ower’s characteristics. Observed visitors were bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, flies, wasps, ants and beetles, but due to the inflorescence behavior, they were considered to be merely resource thieves. It was observed that Trigona spinipes Fabr. can act as a secondary pollinator during the pilling of pollen. The results of manual pollination and the incompatibility index (ISI indicate that the species is xenogamous and self-compatible.

  3. Engineering model for intumescent coating behavior in a pilot-scale gas-fired furnace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a fire, intumescent fire protective coatings expand and form a thermally insulating char that protects the underlying substrate from heat and subsequent structural failure. The intumescence includes several rate phenomena, which have been investigated and quantified in the literat......In the event of a fire, intumescent fire protective coatings expand and form a thermally insulating char that protects the underlying substrate from heat and subsequent structural failure. The intumescence includes several rate phenomena, which have been investigated and quantified...... and adjustable model parameters for a given coating, thereby providing models for industrial applications. In this work, these two challenges are addressed. Three experimental series, with an intumescent coating inside a 0.65 m3 gas-fired furnace, heating up according to so-called cellulosic fire conditions......, were conducted and a very good repeatability was evident. The experiments were run for almost three hours, reaching a final gas temperature of about 1100 °C. Measurements include transient temperature developments inside the expanding char, at the steel substrate, and in the mineral wool insulation...

  4. Uncertainty and variability in health-related damages from coal-fired power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, J.I.; Baxter, L.K.; Schwartz, J. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Harvard School of Public Health

    2009-07-15

    The health-related damages associated with emissions from coal-fired power plants can vary greatly across facilities as a function of plant, site, and population characteristics, but the degree of variability and the contributing factors have not been formally evaluated. In this study, we modeled the monetized damages associated with 407 coal-fired power plants in the United States, focusing on premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We applied a reduced-form chemistry-transport model accounting for primary PM2.5 emissions and the influence of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on secondary particulate formation. Outputs were linked with a concentration-response function for PM2.5-related mortality that incorporated nonlinearities and model uncertainty. We valued mortality with a value of statistical life approach, characterizing and propagating uncertainties in all model elements. At the median of the plant-specific uncertainty distributions, damages across plants ranged from $30,000 to $500,000 per ton of PM2.5, $6,000 to $50,000 per ton of SO{sub 2}, $500 to $15,000 per ton of NOx, and $0.02 to $1.57 per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated. Variability in damages per ton of emissions was almost entirely explained by population exposure per unit emissions (intake fraction), which itself was related to atmospheric conditions and the population size at various distances from the power plant. Variability in damages per kilowatt-hour was highly correlated with SO{sub 2} emissions, related to fuel and control technology characteristics, but was also correlated with atmospheric conditions and population size at various distances.

  5. Duquesne Light Company`s modifications for nitric oxide RACT compliance on a 200 MW face fired pulverized coal unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, B.P.; Bionda, J.P.; Gabrielson, J.E. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hallo, A.; Gretz, G.F. [Duquesne Light Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the results of a research test program conducted on Duquesne Light Company`s Elrama Unit 4. The program was designed to determine the viability of achieving compliance with the recently enacted PA DER Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) regulations. These regulations stipulate presumptive RACT requirements for wall fired boilers which include the installation and operation of low NO{sub x} burners with separated overfire air. Duquesne Light Company contracted Energy Systems Associates (ESA) to aide in the design and testing of a novel low NO{sub x} burner design and separated overfire air system. A three-dimensional computational furnace model was developed by ESA of the Elrama Unit 4 furnace, and a two-dimensional fluid dynamics model was developed of the coal burner. By modifying the coal burners, it has been possible to reduce the nitric oxide emissions by 30% on Unit 4, with minimal impact of the unburned carbon in the ash. The burner modifications create fuel rich streams which are surrounded by air rich zones in the primary flame region, thus staging combustion at the burner. Additional nitric oxide reductions are realized when the combustion is further staged by use of the separated overfire air system.

  6. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  7. Cellular resilience: 5-HT neurons in Tph2(-/-) mice retain normal firing behavior despite the lack of brain 5-HT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Alberto; Waider, Jonas; Barbieri, Mario; Baytas, Ozan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Corradetti, Renato; Mlinar, Boris

    2015-11-01

    Considerable evidence links dysfunction of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transmission to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders characterized by compromised "social" cognition and emotion regulation. It is well established that the brain 5-HT system is under autoregulatory control by its principal transmitter 5-HT via its effects on activity and expression of 5-HT system-related proteins. To examine whether 5-HT itself also has a crucial role in the acquisition and maintenance of characteristic rhythmic firing of 5-HT neurons, we compared their intrinsic electrophysiological properties in mice lacking brain 5-HT, i.e. tryptophan hydroxylase-2 null mice (Tph2(-/-)) and their littermates, Tph2(+/-) and Tph2(+/+), by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in a brainstem slice preparation and single unit recording in anesthetized animals. We report that the active properties of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons in vivo (firing rate magnitude and variability; the presence of spike doublets) and in vitro (firing in response to depolarizing current pulses; action potential shape) as well as the resting membrane potential remained essentially unchanged across Tph2 genotypes. However, there were subtle differences in subthreshold properties, most notably, an approximately 25% higher input conductance in Tph2(-/-) mice compared with Tph2(+/-) and Tph2(+/+) littermates (presilience to complete brain 5-HT deficiency.

  8. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; John I. Blake; William T. Crolly

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuel beds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for...

  9. Cooperative behavior in periodically driven noisy integrate-fire models of neuronal dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulsara, A.R. [Naval Command Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Division, Code 364, San Diego, California 92152-5000 (United States); Elston, T.C. [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, MS-B258, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Doering, C.R. [Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division, MS-B258, Los Alamos National Labortory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lowen, S.B. [Electrical Engineering Department, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Lindenberg, K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry B034, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0340 (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The dynamics of the standard integrate-fire model and a simpler model (that reproduces the important features of the integrate-fire model under certain conditions) of neural dynamics are studied in the presence of a deterministic external driving force, taken to be time-periodic, and white background noise. Both models possess resonant phenomena in the first passage probability distribution and mean first passage time, arising from the interplay of characteristic time scales in the system. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Multi-model Predictive Control of Ultra-supercritical Coal-fired Power Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Wang; Weiwu Yan; Shihe Chen; Xi Zhang; Huihe Shao

    2014-01-01

    The control of ultra-supercritical (USC) power unit is a difficult issue for its characteristic of the nonlinearity, large dead time and coupling of the unit. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) based on multi-model and double layered optimization is introduced for coordinated control of USC unit. The linear programming (LP) com-bined with quadratic programming (QP) is used in steady optimization for computation of the ideal value of dynamic optimization. Three inputs (i.e. valve opening, coal flow and feedwater flow) are employed to control three outputs (i.e. load, main steam temperature and main steam pressure). The step response models for the dynamic matrix control (DMC) are constructed using the three inputs and the three outputs. Piecewise models are built at selected operation points. Double-layered multi-model predictive controller is implemented in sim-ulation with satisfactory performance.

  11. Experimental Study of the Behavior of Steel Structures Protected by Different Intumescent Coatings and Exposed to Various Fire Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucherini, Andrea; Costa, Razvan-Ioan; Giuliani, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Three different experimental setups corresponding to three different fire scenarios were used to investigate how different heating conditions and heating rates affect the behavior of two different thin intumescent coatings (solvent-based and water-based paints, respectively). The results confirm...... that the current procedure for the design of intumescent coatings has shortcomings, as different paints have different performances according to the heating conditions and, in particular, according to the fire’s heating rate. The tested water-based paint had better performance for low heating rates, while...

  12. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  13. Ash transformation and deposition behavior during co-firing biomass with sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Wu, Hao; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    to sewage sludge addition. However, the ash deposition propensity decreased significantly. In addition, the content of water soluble K and Cl in the deposits reduced as a result of sewage sludge addition. The results from present work suggest co-firing of sewage sludge could alleviate deposit formation...

  14. Physical characteristics of shrub and conifer fuels for fire behavior models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan R. Gallacher; Thomas H. Fletcher; Victoria Lansinger; Sydney Hansen; Taylor Ellsworth; David R. Weise

    2017-01-01

    The physical properties and dimensions of foliage are necessary inputs for some fire spread models. Currently, almost no data exist on these plant characteristics to fill this need. In this report, we measured the physical properties and dimensions of the foliage from 10 live shrub and conifer fuels throughout a 1-year period. We developed models to predict relative...

  15. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeff Eidenshink; Stephen Howard; Robert E. Burgan

    2015-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the...

  16. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Unburned Areas within Fire Perimeters in the Northwestern United States from 1984 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, A. J.; Kolden, C.; Lutz, J. A.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Hudak, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been concern about increasing extent and severity of wildfires across the globe given rapid climate change. Areas that do not burn within fire perimeters can act as fire refugia, providing (1) protection from the detrimental effects of the fire, (2) seed sources, and (3) post-fire habitat on the landscape. However, recent studies have mainly focused on the higher end of the burn severity spectrum whereas the lower end of the burn severity spectrum has been largely ignored. We developed a spatially explicit database for 2,200 fires across the inland northwestern USA, delineating unburned areas within fire perimeters from 1984 to 2014. We used 1,600 Landsat scenes with one or two scenes before and one or two scenes after the fires to capture the unburned proportion of the fire. Subsequently, we characterized the spatial and temporal patterns of unburned areas and related the unburned proportion to interannual climate variability. The overall classification accuracy detecting unburned locations was 89.2% using a 10-fold cross-validation classification tree approach in combination with 719 randomly located field plots. The unburned proportion ranged from 2% to 58% with an average of 19% for a select number of fires. We find that using both an immediate post-fire image and a one-year post fire image improves classification accuracy of unburned islands over using just a single post-fire image. The spatial characteristics of the unburned islands differ between forested and non-forested regions with a larger amount of unburned area within non-forest. In addition, we show trends of unburned proportion related primarily to concurrent climatic drought conditions across the entire region. This database is important for subsequent analyses of fire refugia prioritization, vegetation recovery studies, ecosystem resilience, and forest management to facilitate unburned islands through fuels breaks, prescribed burning, and fire suppression strategies.

  17. Oxy-fired boiler unit and method of operating the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Xinsheng; Zhang, Jundong; Joshi, Abhinaya; McCombe, James A.; Levasseur, Armand A.

    2016-12-06

    An oxy-combustion boiler unit is disclosed which includes a furnace for combusting fuel and for emitting flue gas resulting from combustion. The furnace has first, second and third combustion zones, and an air separation unit for separating oxygen gas from air and providing a first portion of the separated oxygen to a first oxidant flow, a second portion to a second oxidant flow, and a third portion of the separated oxygen gas to the first, second, and third zones of the furnace. A controller can cause the separated oxygen gas to be distributed so that the first and second oxygen flows have a desired oxygen content, and so that the first, second, and third zones of the furnace receive a desired amount of oxygen based on a combustion zone stoichiometry control.

  18. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W. [ABB Power Plant Labs., Windsor, CT (United States); Lookman, A.A. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L. [Ohio Edison, Akron, OH (United States); Johnson, S.A. [Quinapoxet Engineering Solutions, Inc., Windham, NH (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  19. The behavior-genetics debate in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesley, M.S.

    1993-12-31

    This paper, submitted to the Third Bioethics Seminar in Fukai, Japan, presents information on program activities and discusses primary topics concerning genetic factors in behavior. Proponents and critics views on genetic explanations of antisocial behavior are discussed.

  20. Improving disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units in managing veld fires: A case of Mangwe District in Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analysed disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units (DCPUs in managing veld fires in Mangwe District of Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. Veld fires have resulted in unnecessary material, environmental and economic losses. Communities’ livelihoods and property have been destroyed, and the natural environment depleted. The research sought to improve disaster risk reduction capacity of DCPUs in managing veld fires, through new intervention strategies and a new model. The objectives of the study were to investigate the main causes of veld fires; to analyse their impacts; to examine the effectiveness of the current intervention strategies; and to identify challenges in implementing these interventions. Furthermore, the study sought to recommend new possible intervention strategies. This mainly qualitative study employed self-administered questionnaires, interviews and focus-group discussions. Questionnaires were used to investigate members of the DCPU’s ideas, views and experiences, interviews solicited perceptions of community leaders and their subjects, whilst focus-group discussions assisted with information from members of the District Civil Protection Planning Committee. Veld fires in the district are mainly caused by human activities, and they are prevalent during the months of September and October. They affect livelihoods and the natural environment the most. This study found that DCPUs are not prepared to manage veld fires and therefore recommended new strategies and adoption of the community-based disaster risk reduction model. The new strategies include involving community leaders and members of the communities in DCPUs; regular training and workshops to members of DCPUs on veld fire management; creation of fire protection associations; regular campaigns and rehearsal of emergency drills by the DCPU personnel; the introduction of competitions and incentives in veld fire management; vigorous

  1. Sintering behavior of porous wall tile bodies during fast single-firing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei José Gomes Sousa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In ceramic wall tile processing, fast single-firing cycles have been widely used. In this investigation a fast single-firing porous wall tile mixture was prepared using raw materials from the North Fluminense region.Specimens were obtained by uniaxial pressing and sintered in air at various temperatures (1080 - 1200 °C using a fast-firing cycle (60 minutes. Evolution of the microstructure was followed by XRD and SEM. The results revealed that the main phases formed during the sintering step are anorthite, gehlenite and hematite. It appears that the sintering process is characterized by the presence of a small amount of a liquid phase below 1140 °C. As a result, the microstructure of the ceramic bodies showed a network of small dense zones interconnected with a porous phase. In addition, the strength of the material below 1140 °C appeared to be related to the type and quantity of crystalline phases in the sintered bodies.

  2. A Review of Fire Interactions and Mass Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Finney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire spread where none otherwise existed. Fire-fire interactions occur naturally when spot fires start ahead of the main fire and when separate fire events converge in one location. Interactions can be created intentionally during prescribed fires by using spatial ignition patterns. Mass fires are among the most extreme examples of interactive behavior. This paper presents a review of the detailed effects of fire-fire interaction in terms of merging or coalescence criteria, burning rates, flame dimensions, flame temperature, indraft velocity, pulsation, and convection column dynamics. Though relevant in many situations, these changes in fire behavior have yet to be included in any operational-fire models or decision support systems.

  3. Fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland); Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  4. Analysis of the personnel casualty reasons and evacuating behavior in the fire%火灾中人员伤亡原因及疏散行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞建军

    2012-01-01

    根据火灾调查取得的有关参数,使用FDS火灾模拟软件对火灾过程进行了模拟,取得了楼梯间内一氧化碳、二氧化碳、氧气含量及能见度等模拟数据.燃烧产物毒害性、高温烟气、烟气减光性是火灾中致人伤亡的原因.针对火灾中人员的疏散行为,分析了火灾事故教训,提出了预防伤亡的措施.%The paper uses the software of Fire Dynamics Simulator to simulate the course of fire by the parameter from the investigation the fire. FDS calculates the concentration of COi CO2 > O2 and the visibility in the course of fire. It is the poison from the products of combustion. the smoke and gas with high temperature and the strong smoke that make people die and injured in the fire. It analyzes the lessons of the fire accidents, puts forward the prevention measures of personnel casualty in the fire by analyzing of evacuating behavior.

  5. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelin; Orndorff, William; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2013-09-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated, which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coal-fired power plants. Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils. Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants, and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum, simulating rainfall irrigations, soils, and plants types. Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils, the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere, and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves). Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports. Some plants, such as tall fescue, were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil. Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application. However, mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates. Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  6. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance…

  7. Relationship of firing intervals of human motor units to the trajectory of post-spike after-hyperpolarization and synaptic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P B

    1996-04-15

    1. Interspike interval distributions from human motor units of a variety of muscles were analysed to assess the role of synaptic noise in excitation. The time course of the underlying post-spike after-hyperpolarization (AHP) was deduced by applying a specially developed transform to the interval data. Different firing rates were studied both by varying the firing voluntarily, and by selecting subpopulations of spikes for a given firing rate from long recordings with slight variations in frequency. 2. At low firing rates the interval histograms had an exponential tail. Thus at long intervals, the motoneurone was randomly excited by noise and its post-spike AHP was complete. This contrasts with the firing produced by intracellular current injection in the cat, when the membrane potential increases linearly until threshold is reached. The interval histogram was therefore analysed with the aid of a model of synaptic excitation to deduce the mean 'trajectory' of membrane voltage in the last part of the interspike interval. 3. The computer model, described in the Appendix, was used to determine the effect of the mean level of membrane potential on the probability of a spike being excited, per unit time, during an on-going interspike interval. All variables were treated as voltages, with synaptic noise simulated by time-smoothed Gaussian noise. This enabled an interval distribution to be transformed into a segment of the underlying trajectory of the membrane potential; the potential was expressed in terms of the noise amplitude and the spike threshold. 4. At low firing rates, the equilibrium value of the membrane voltage trajectory lay well below threshold; the deviation typically corresponded to the standard deviation of the noise or more. The noise standard deviation was estimated to be about 2 mV. 5. With increasing mean firing rate, the near-threshold portion of the trajectory obtainable from the histogram occurred earlier, was steeper and rose to a higher level

  8. 30 CFR 75.1911 - Fire suppression systems for diesel-powered equipment and fuel transportation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dry chemical type (ABC) fire suppression system listed or approved by a nationally recognized... in the compartment within reach of the operator. (f) The fire suppression system shall remain... where permissible electric equipment is required shall be permissible or intrinsically safe and...

  9. Release behavior of smoke and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filter under the fire accident. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Junichi; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukamoto, Michio; Tashiro, Shinsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Shiro [Nippon Muki Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Takita, Koji [Sanzo Environment Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Hitoshi [Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Uchiyama, Gunzo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    In a part of building ventilating installation of reprocessing plant, the pre-filter is equipped in front of a HEPA filter. The pre-filter plays a role in protection and repression of clogging of HEPA filter. However, in a fire accident, it is considered that large smoke generation cause the pre-filter clogging due to smoke loading, increase of differential pressure and breakdown. In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the demonstration tests to confirm the performance of ventilation filters by a fire accident were carried out. In the tests, smoke was generated from burning of the mock solid wastes (gloves made of rubber and/or cloth) or the mock recovered solvent (n-dodecane or tributyl phosphate / n-dodecane). The test data was acquired on generation of smoke, decrease evolution of smoke by transportation through the compositions of ventilation system (cell, duct, damper, filters) and clogging characteristics of the ventilation filters due to smoke loading. From the results, it was found that the performance of the whole of ventilation system was kept even if the pre-filter was breakdown. To adopt the analysis of the increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter using the safety analysis code, CELVA-1D, increase of differential pressure across the pre-filter was expressed by quadratic empirical equation with function of smoke loading per unit filtration area and it coefficients, ({alpha}, {beta}), were estimated. (author)

  10. Experimental Study on the Burning Behavior of Pool Fires in Rooms with Different Wall Linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie; Jomaas, Grunde

    2011-01-01

    An experimental test series, comprising 10 experiments with varying pool sizes, lining materials and amounts of liquid burning, was conducted under free burn and room burn conditions. The thermal feedback from the enclosure (ISO 9705 Room Corner Test facility) enhanced the burning rate of the poo...... in the shortest time. Given the profound difference between the enclosure tests and the free burn tests and also between enclosure tests with different linings, it is recommended to show great caution if free burn tests are to be used in design fire scenarios....

  11. Firing statistics of inhibitory neuron with delayed feedback. II: Non-Markovian behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, K G; Vidybida, A K

    2013-06-01

    The instantaneous state of a neural network consists of both the degree of excitation of each neuron the network is composed of and positions of impulses in communication lines between the neurons. In neurophysiological experiments, the neuronal firing moments are registered, but not the state of communication lines. But future spiking moments depend essentially on the past positions of impulses in the lines. This suggests, that the sequence of intervals between firing moments (inter-spike intervals, ISIs) in the network could be non-Markovian. In this paper, we address this question for a simplest possible neural "net", namely, a single inhibitory neuron with delayed feedback. The neuron receives excitatory input from the driving Poisson stream and inhibitory impulses from its own output through the feedback line. We obtain analytic expressions for conditional probability density P(tn+1|tn, …, t1, t0), which gives the probability to get an output ISI of duration tn+1 provided the previous (n+1) output ISIs had durations tn, …, t1, t0. It is proven exactly, that P(tn+1|tn, …, t1, t0) does not reduce to P(tn+1|tn, …, t1) for any n≥0. This means that the output ISIs stream cannot be represented as a Markov chain of any finite order.

  12. WRF-Fire: coupled weather-wildland fire modeling with the weather research and forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak

    2012-01-01

    A wildland fire behavior module (WRF-Fire) was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire behavior model that is two-way coupled with the atmospheric model. Near-surface winds from the atmospheric model are interpolated to a finer fire grid and used, with fuel properties...

  13. Comparison of crown fire modeling systems used in three fire management applications

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The relative behavior of surface-crown fire spread rate modeling systems used in three fire management applications—CFIS (Crown Fire Initiation and Spread), FlamMap and NEXUS— is compared using fire environment characteristics derived from a dataset of destructively measured canopy fuel and associated stand characteristics. Although the surface-crown modeling systems predict the same basic fire behavior characteristics (type of fire, spread rate) using the same basic fire environment characte...

  14. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-01

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  15. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S. [GZS College of Engineering & Technology, Bathinda (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-06-15

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10A1-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  16. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  17. Self-organized Criticality and Synchronization in a Pulse-coupled Integrate-and-Fire Neuron Model Based on Small World Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Min; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2005-01-01

    A lattice model for a set of pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire neurons with small world structure is introduced.We find that our model displays the power-law behavior accompanied with the large-scale synchronized activities among the units. And the different connectivity topologies lead to different behaviors in models of integrate-and-fire neurons.

  18. The effects of bark beetle outbreaks on forest development, fuel loads and potential fire behavior in salvage logged and untreated lodgepole pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. J. Collins; C. C. Rhoades; M. A. Battaglia; R. M. Hubbard

    2012-01-01

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestations have resulted in widespread tree mortality and the accumulation of dead woody fuels across the Rocky Mountain region, creating concerns over future forest stand conditions and fire behavior. We quantified how salvage logging influenced tree regeneration and fuel loads relative to nearby, uncut stands for 24 lodgepole pine...

  19. How to generate and interpret fire characteristics charts for the U.S. fire danger rating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Patricia L. Andrews; Deb Tirmenstein

    2017-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) indexes and components as well as primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. Computer software has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts for both fire danger and fire behavior in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and...

  20. Tree mortality from fires, bark beetles, and timber harvest during a hot and dry decade in the western United States (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Law, Beverly E.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.

    2017-06-01

    High temperatures and severe drought contributed to extensive tree mortality from fires and bark beetles during the 2000s in parts of the western continental United States. Several states in this region have greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets and would benefit from information on the amount of carbon stored in tree biomass killed by disturbance. We quantified mean annual tree mortality from fires, bark beetles, and timber harvest from 2003-2012 for each state in this region. We estimated tree mortality from fires and beetles using tree aboveground carbon (AGC) stock and disturbance data sets derived largely from remote sensing. We quantified tree mortality from harvest using data from US Forest Service reports. In both cases, we used Monte Carlo analyses to track uncertainty associated with parameter error and temporal variability. Regional tree mortality from harvest, beetles, and fires (MORTH+B+F) together averaged 45.8 ± 16.0 Tg AGC yr-1 (±95% confidence interval), indicating a mortality rate of 1.10 ± 0.38% yr-1. Harvest accounted for the largest percentage of MORTH+B+F (˜50%), followed by beetles (˜32%), and fires (˜18%). Tree mortality from harvest was concentrated in Washington and Oregon, where harvest accounted for ˜80% of MORTH+B+F in each state. Tree mortality from beetles occurred widely at low levels across the region, yet beetles had pronounced impacts in Colorado and Montana, where they accounted for ˜80% of MORTH+B+F. Tree mortality from fires was highest in California, though fires accounted for the largest percentage of MORTH+B+F in Arizona and New Mexico (˜50%). Drought and human activities shaped regional variation in tree mortality, highlighting opportunities and challenges to managing GHG emissions from forests. Rising temperatures and greater risk of drought will likely increase tree mortality from fires and bark beetles during coming decades in this region. Thus, sustained monitoring and mapping of tree mortality is necessary to

  1. Similarity in venom alkaloid chemistry of alate queens of imported fire ants: implication for hybridization between Solenopsis richteri and S. invicta in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Lu, Yong-Yue; Hu, Qiong-Bo; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2012-04-01

    Both cis- and trans-2-methyl-6-undecylpiperidines, MC11P, have been previously reported as the major components of the venom of alate queens of the imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri (black) and S. invicta (red). To identify the minor components of venom alkaloids from alate queens and compare the venom alkaloid chemistry of alate queen of their hybrid (S. richteri×S. invicta) with that of the two parental fire ant species (S. richteri and S. invicta), silica-gel short-column chromatography was utilized for separating cis-stereoisomers of venom alkaloids from trans-stereoisomers. GC/MS Analyses of venom-alkaloid chemistry of alate queens demonstrated that fewer alkaloid peaks were detected in the chromatograms of the alate queens compared to those of workers. Three new compounds, 7, 12, and 13, were detected as minor components in the venom of alate queens of all three fire ant species. Alate queens of hybrid fire ants showed cis- and trans-alkaloid patterns similar to those of the parental species. Similarity in venom-alkaloid chemistry of alate queens of S. richteri and S. invicta, and their hybrid may indicate their reproductive compatibility in the hybrid zone in southern United States, where all three species occur sympatrically.

  2. A Chronosequence Feasibility Assessment of Emergency Fire Rehabilitation Records within the Intermountain Western United States - Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program - Project 08-S-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Pilliod, David S.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.

    2009-01-01

    Department of the Interior (DOI) bureaus have invested heavily (for example, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) spent more than $60 million in fiscal year 2007) in seeding vegetation for emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation of non-forested arid lands over the past 10 years. The primary objectives of these seedings commonly are to (1) reduce the post-fire dominance of non-native annual grasses, such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (Bromus rubens); (2) minimize the probability of recurrent fire; and (3) ultimately produce desirable vegetation characteristics (for example, ability to recover following disturbance [resilience], resistance to invasive species, and a capacity to support a diverse flora and fauna). Although these projects historically have been monitored to varying extents, land managers currently lack scientific evidence to verify whether seeding arid and semiarid lands achieves desired objectives. Given the amount of resources dedicated to post-fire seeding projects, a synthesis of information determining the factors that result in successful treatments is critically needed. Although results of recently established experiments and monitoring projects eventually will provide useful insights for the future direction of emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation programs, a chronosequence approach evaluating emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation treatments (both referenced hereafter as ESR treatments) over the past 30 years could provide a comprehensive assessment of treatment success across a range of regional environmental gradients. By randomly selecting a statistically robust sample from the population of historic ESR treatments in the Intermountain West, this chronosequence approach would have inference for most ecological sites in this region. The goal of this feasibility study was to compile and examine historic ESR records from BLM field offices across the Intermountain West to

  3. Wildfire and Spatial Patterns in Forests in Northwestern Mexico: The United States Wishes It Had Similar Fire Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Stephens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the ecological effect of wildfire is important to resource managers, especially from forests in which past anthropogenic influences, e.g., fire suppression and timber harvesting, have been limited. Changes to forest structure and regeneration patterns were documented in a relatively unique old-growth Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in northwestern Mexico after a July 2003 wildfire. This forested area has never been harvested and fire suppression did not begin until the 1970s. Fire effects were moderate especially considering that the wildfire occurred at the end of a severe, multi-year (1999-2003 drought. Shrub consumption was an important factor in tree mortality and the dominance of Jeffrey pine increased after fire. The Baja California wildfire enhanced or maintained a patchy forest structure; similar spatial heterogeneity should be included in US forest restoration plans. Most US forest restoration plans include thinning from below to separate tree crowns and attain a narrow range for residual basal area/ha. This essentially produces uniform forest conditions over broad areas that are in strong contrast to the resilient forests in northern Baja California. In addition to producing more spatial heterogeneity in restoration plans of forests that once experienced frequent, low-moderate intensity fire regimes, increased use of US wildfire management options such as wildland fire use as well as appropriate management responses to non-natural ignitions could also be implemented at broader spatial scales to increase the amount of burning in western US forests.

  4. Brazil Fire Characterization and Burn Area Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate burn area. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and area burned. These estimates of fire activity and burned area have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine area burned over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and burned areas were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of burned areas within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and burned area estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.

  5. Linking Cellular Mechanisms to Behavior: Entorhinal Persistent Spiking and Membrane Potential Oscillations May Underlie Path Integration, Grid Cell Firing, and Episodic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Hasselmo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex plays an important role in spatial memory and episodic memory functions. These functions may result from cellular mechanisms for integration of the afferent input to entorhinal cortex. This article reviews physiological data on persistent spiking and membrane potential oscillations in entorhinal cortex then presents models showing how both these cellular mechanisms could contribute to properties observed during unit recording, including grid cell firing, and how they could underlie behavioural functions including path integration. The interaction of oscillations and persistent firing could contribute to encoding and retrieval of trajectories through space and time as a mechanism relevant to episodic memory.

  6. A Behavioral Analysis of the Laboratory Learning Process: Redesigning a Teaching Unit on Recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, T.; Verdonk, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a project in which observations of student and teaching assistant behavior were used to redesign a teaching unit on recrystallization. Comments on the instruction manual, starting points for teaching the unit, and list of objectives with related tasks are included. (JN)

  7. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  8. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  9. Fired up or burned out? How developmental challenge differentially impacts leader behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Stephen H; Colbert, Amy E; Choi, Daejeong

    2014-07-01

    Leadership development research has largely drawn on experiential and enactive learning theories to explore the positive effects of developmental challenge on leaders. In contrast, we examined potential positive and negative effects of developmental challenge (i.e., challenging job assignments) on leader behavior through an alternative theoretical lens--transactional stress theory. We predicted, on one hand, that developmental challenge may be associated with higher leader engagement and transformational leadership behavior; however, developmental challenge also has the potential to be associated with higher leader emotional exhaustion and laissez-faire leadership behavior. We further proposed that leadership self-efficacy (LSE) moderates these potential effects of developmental challenge and helps explain why leaders react either positively or negatively to developmental challenge. We tested our hypotheses in a sample of 153 leaders and 631 direct reports at a Fortune 500 company. Findings supported positive relationships among developmental challenge, leader engagement, and transformational leadership. However, we also found support for significant relationships among developmental challenge, emotional exhaustion, and laissez-faire leadership. Additionally, leaders lower in LSE were more likely to encounter the negative effects of developmental challenge by experiencing increased emotional exhaustion and displaying laissez-faire leadership behaviors. Our study contributes to theory and practice by elucidating a "dark side" of developmental challenge, identifying LSE as a moderator of the negative effects of developmental challenge, identifying antecedents of transformational and laissez-faire leadership behaviors, and investigating demands and stress in leadership roles.

  10. Pedestrian Choice Behavior at Shopping Mall Intersections in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitgood, Stephen; Davey, Gareth; Huang, Xiaoyi; Fung, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian navigation through public spaces reflects the nature of interaction between behavior and environment. This study compared pedestrian choice behavior at shopping mall intersections in China and the United States. The study found that in both countries (a) pedestrians chose movement patterns that involved the fewest steps and (b) there…

  11. Role of calcium conductance in firing behavior of retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Wang; Qingli Qiao; Nan Xie

    2011-01-01

    Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model of retinal ganglion cells consists of five ion channels; these are sodium channels, calcium channels, and 3 types of potassium channels. An increasing number of studies have investigated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels, and delayed rectifier potassium channels. However, little is known about calcium channels, and in particular the dynamics and computational models of calcium ions. Retinal prostheses have been designed to assist with sight recovery for the blind, and in the present study, the effects of calcium ions in retinal ganglion cell models were analyzed with regard to calcium channel potential and calcium-activated potassium potential. Using MATLAB software, calcium conductance and calcium current from the Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model, under clamped voltages, were numerically computed using backward Euler methods. Subsequently, the Fohlmeister-Coleman-Miller model was simulated with the absence of calcium-current (lc,) or calcium-activated potassium current (IK, ca). The model was also analyzed according to the phase plane method.The relationship curve between peak calcium current and clamped potentials revealed an inverted bell shape, and the calcium-activated potassium current increased the frequency of firing and the peak of membrane potential. Results suggested that calcium ion concentrations play an important role in controlling the peak and the magnitude of peak membrane voltage in retinal ganglion cells.

  12. Fire and Thinning in an Ohio Oak Forest: Grid-Based Analyses of Fire Behavior, Environmental Conditions, and Tree Regeneration Across a Topographic Moisture Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Todd Hutchinson; Joanne Rebbeck; Daniel A. Yaussy

    2004-01-01

    Prescribed fire alone and in combination with thinning were accomplished in late 2000 to spring 2001 at Zaleski State Forest in southern Ohio. Sites were monitored before and after the treatments were applied. Light was assessed via hemispherical photographs taken in July 2000 and 2001. Oak and hickory seedlings and saplings were sampled during those same time periods...

  13. Field tests of fabric filters on full-scale coal-fired utility boilers. Volume 1. Martin Drake Unit 6, Ray D. Nixon Unit 1, Cherokee Unit 3, Cameo Unit 2, and Arapahoe Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, L.G.; Cushing, K.M.; Merritt, R.L.; Smith, W.B.

    1985-10-01

    This report discusses the results of a field investigation of full-scale baghouses collecting fly ash at five coal-fired power plants. All five plants burned western, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal and were equipped with baghouses cleaned by reverse gas. Since all of the baghouses operated with clear stacks, particulate collection efficiencies were not measured. Instead, attention was focused on parameters associated with pressure drop, which is important because it is directly related to operating and capital costs. Cleaning-cycle information was taken at the baghouses, and measurements were made of air-to-cloth ratio and tube sheet pressure drop. In addition, seasoned bags and bag samples cut from seasoned bags were weighed to determie dustcake areal loading. Average drag (presure drop/air-to-cloth ratio) and drag measured using these bag samples were recorded. Also, data on the chemical analysis of the coals and their resultant fly ash were gathered, and particle size distribution measurements were made on fly ash samples. Electrical resistivity was measured on fly ash from three locations. 8 refs., 33 figs., 38 tabs.

  14. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  15. Effects of suicidal behavior on a psychiatric unit nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Beverley; Wallbridge, Hal

    2003-03-01

    1. Suicide of a psychiatric inpatient can have significant, although diverse, effects on the emotions and behavior of both individual nurses and team functioning. 2. The majority of participants in this study felt there was a need for formal debriefing or counseling for themselves and their colleagues after a critical incident, although there was less consensus about the timing and structure of such an intervention. 3. This research highlights the need for advanced training of critical incident stress management team members and for flexibility in the application of critical incident stress management techniques.

  16. The adsorption behavior of mercury on the hematite (1-102) surface from coal-fired power plant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J. E.; Jew, A. D.; Rupp, E.; Aboud, S.; Brown, G. E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the biggest environmental concerns caused by coal-fired power plants is the emission of mercury (Hg). Worldwide, 475 tons of Hg are released from coal-burning processes annually, comprising 24% of total anthropogenic Hg emissions. Because of the high toxicity of Hg species, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a standard on Hg and air toxic pollutants (Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, MATS) for new and existing coal-fired power plants in order to eliminate Hg in flue gas prior to release through the stack. To control the emission of Hg from coal-derived flue gas, it is important to understand the behavior, speciation of Hg as well as the interaction between Hg and solid materials, such as fly ash or metal oxides, in the flue gas stream. In this study, theoretical investigations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out in conjunction with experiments to investigate the adsorption behavior of oxidized Hg on hematite (α-Fe2O3), an important mineral component of fly ash which readily sorbes Hg from flue gas. For DFT calculation, the two α-Fe2O3 (1-102) surfaces modeled consisted of two different surface terminations: (1) M2-clean, which corresponds to the oxygen-terminated surface with the first layer of cations removed and with no hydroxyl groups and (2) M2-OH2-OH, which has bihydroxylated top oxygen atoms and a second layer of hydroxylated oxygen atoms. These surface terminations were selected because both surfaces are highly stable in the temperature range of flue gases. The most probable adsorption sites of Hg, Cl and HgCl on the two α-Fe2O3 surface terminations were suggested based on calculated adsorption energies. Additionally, Bader charge and projected density of states (PDOS) analyses were conducted to characterize the oxidation state of adsorbates and their bonding interactions with the surfaces. Results indicate that oxidized Hg physically adsorbs on the M2-clean surface with a binding energy of -0.103 eV and that

  17. Pre-fire and post-fire surface fuel and cover measurements collected in the southeastern United States for model evaluation and development - RxCADRE 2008, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; Andrew T. Hudak; Susan J. Prichard; Clinton S. Wright; Joseph C. Restaino; Maureen C. Kennedy; Robert E. Vihnanek

    2016-01-01

    A lack of independent, quality-assured data prevents scientists from effectively evaluating predictions and uncertainties in fire models used by land managers. This paper presents a summary of pre-fire and post-fire fuel, fuel moisture and surface cover fraction data that can be used for fire model evaluation and development. The data were collected in the...

  18. Developing the US Wildland Fire Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Noonan-Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new decision support tool, the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS has been developed to support risk-informed decision-making for individual fires in the United States. WFDSS accesses national weather data and forecasts, fire behavior prediction, economic assessment, smoke management assessment, and landscape databases to efficiently formulate and apply information to the decision making process. Risk-informed decision-making is becoming increasingly important as a means of improving fire management and offers substantial opportunities to benefit natural and community resource protection, management response effectiveness, firefighter resource use and exposure, and, possibly, suppression costs. This paper reviews the development, structure, and function of WFDSS, and how it contributes to increased flexibility and agility in decision making, leading to improved fire management program effectiveness.

  19. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying behavior in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Lorrin M; Faber, Ronald J; Aboujaoude, Elias; Large, Michael D; Serpe, Richard T

    2006-10-01

    Compulsive buying (uncontrolled urges to buy, with resulting significant adverse consequences) has been estimated to affect from 1.8% to 16% of the adult U.S. population. To the authors' knowledge, no study has used a large general population sample to estimate its prevalence. The authors conducted a random sample, national household telephone survey in the spring and summer of 2004 and interviewed 2,513 adults. The interviews addressed buying attitudes and behaviors, their consequences, and the respondents' financial and demographic data. The authors used a clinically validated screening instrument, the Compulsive Buying Scale, to classify respondents as either compulsive buyers or not. The rate of response was 56.3%, which compares favorably with rates in federal national health surveys. The cooperation rate was 97.6%. Respondents included a higher percentage of women and people ages 55 and older than the U.S. adult population. The estimated point prevalence of compulsive buying among respondents was 5.8% (by gender: 6.0% for women, 5.5% for men). The gender-adjusted prevalence rate was 5.8%. Compared with other respondents, compulsive buyers were younger, and a greater proportion reported incomes under 50,000 US dollars. They exhibited more maladaptive responses on most consumer behavior measures and were more than four times less likely to pay off credit card balances in full. A study using clinically valid interviews is needed to evaluate these results. The emotional and functional toll of compulsive buying and the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders suggests that studies of treatments and social interventions are warranted.

  20. Comparison of behavioral characteristics of dogs in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Miho; Kanbayashi, Shunichi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Serpell, James A; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the difference in dog owning between Japan and the United States, and the effect of these differences on dogs' behavioral characteristics. Behavioral evaluations of privately-owned dogs were obtained by using online questionnaire. We compared background and demographic information from the two countries and analyzed the effects of these differences on behavioral characteristics in dogs. The results indicated that there was a bias in the dog breeds kept in Japan compared to the United States and that Japanese dogs' body weight was lower than the US dogs. The main source of dog acquisition was pet stores in Japan and breeders and/or shelters in the United States. Multiple linear regression analysis found that Japanese dogs showed more aggression to household members and higher energy, restlessness and fear of non-social stimuli than US dogs, while US dogs showed more fear of unfamiliar persons, separation-related behavior and excitability. US dogs also showed higher levels of trainability and attachment to owners. The lower dog's body weight was, the higher the behavioral scores except for trainability were. When dogs that were obtained under 3 months of age were analyzed, the younger the dogs were when their owners obtained them, the higher the scores on some behavioral problem factors were. The higher rates of problem behaviors among Japanese dogs compared with US dogs suggest that the preference for small breed dogs and poor early development environment influenced the behavioral characteristics of dogs.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Optional SO2 Emissions Data Protocol for Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... element inspection, those procedures may be used to meet the requirement for periodic quality assurance... input of the unit for the fuel. Use the maximum potential sulfur content for the fuel (from Table D-6 of...). Any secondary elements, such as pressure and temperature transmitters, must be calibrated...

  2. Fine particle exposure of prescribed fire workers in the Southeastern United States and a comparison of several particulate matter sampling methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanosky, Jeffrey, David

    2001-07-01

    Personal exposure concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) of prescribed fire workers were measured at two locations in the southeastern United States. Non-impacted ambient concentrations were measured as an estimate of background concentrations during burn activities. Four sampling method comparison studies were designed and performed to compare the FRM with 1) other gravimetric PM2.5 sampling methods in ambient air, 2) optical PM2.5 sampling methods in indoor air, 3) an optical sampling method (Grimm) for particles with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) in ambient air, and 4) a gravimetric PM2.5 sampling method downwind of prescribed fires. The gravimetric PM2.5 sampling methods agreed well in ambient air (R2>0.96 for all) except for the MiniVol, the optical PM2.5 sampling methods agree less well in indoor air,(R2>0.592), the Grimm optical PM10 method agrees well in ambient air(R2>0.944 for all), and the personal method agrees well (n=9, R2=0.994) downwind of prescribed fires.

  3. Fine particle exposure of prescribed fire workers in the Southeastern United States and a comparison of several particulate matter sampling methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanosky, Jeffrey, David

    2001-07-01

    Personal exposure concentrations of particles with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) of prescribed fire workers were measured at two locations in the southeastern United States. Non-impacted ambient concentrations were measured as an estimate of background concentrations during burn activities. Four sampling method comparison studies were designed and performed to compare the FRM with 1) other gravimetric PM2.5 sampling methods in ambient air, 2) optical PM2.5 sampling methods in indoor air, 3) an optical sampling method (Grimm) for particles with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) in ambient air, and 4) a gravimetric PM2.5 sampling method downwind of prescribed fires. The gravimetric PM2.5 sampling methods agreed well in ambient air (R2>0.96 for all) except for the MiniVol, the optical PM2.5 sampling methods agree less well in indoor air,(R2>0.592), the Grimm optical PM10 method agrees well in ambient air(R2>0.944 for all), and the personal method agrees well (n=9, R2=0.994) downwind of prescribed fires.

  4. Prediction of spatially explicit rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for post-fire debris-flow generation in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Negri, Jacquelyn A.; Kean, Jason W.; Laber, Jayme L.; Tillery, Anne C.; Youberg, Ann M.

    2017-02-01

    Early warning of post-fire debris-flow occurrence during intense rainfall has traditionally relied upon a library of regionally specific empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds. Development of this library and the calculation of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds often require several years of monitoring local rainfall and hydrologic response to rainstorms, a time-consuming approach where results are often only applicable to the specific region where data were collected. Here, we present a new, fully predictive approach that utilizes rainfall, hydrologic response, and readily available geospatial data to predict rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for debris-flow generation in recently burned locations in the western United States. Unlike the traditional approach to defining regional thresholds from historical data, the proposed methodology permits the direct calculation of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for areas where no such data exist. The thresholds calculated by this method are demonstrated to provide predictions that are of similar accuracy, and in some cases outperform, previously published regional intensity-duration thresholds. The method also provides improved predictions of debris-flow likelihood, which can be incorporated into existing approaches for post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment. Our results also provide guidance for the operational expansion of post-fire debris-flow early warning systems in areas where empirically defined regional rainfall intensity-duration thresholds do not currently exist.

  5. Prediction of spatially explicit rainfall intensity–duration thresholds for post-fire debris-flow generation in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Negri, Jacquelyn; Kean, Jason W.; Laber, Jayme L.; Tillery, Anne C.; Youberg, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    Early warning of post-fire debris-flow occurrence during intense rainfall has traditionally relied upon a library of regionally specific empirical rainfall intensity–duration thresholds. Development of this library and the calculation of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds often require several years of monitoring local rainfall and hydrologic response to rainstorms, a time-consuming approach where results are often only applicable to the specific region where data were collected. Here, we present a new, fully predictive approach that utilizes rainfall, hydrologic response, and readily available geospatial data to predict rainfall intensity–duration thresholds for debris-flow generation in recently burned locations in the western United States. Unlike the traditional approach to defining regional thresholds from historical data, the proposed methodology permits the direct calculation of rainfall intensity–duration thresholds for areas where no such data exist. The thresholds calculated by this method are demonstrated to provide predictions that are of similar accuracy, and in some cases outperform, previously published regional intensity–duration thresholds. The method also provides improved predictions of debris-flow likelihood, which can be incorporated into existing approaches for post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment. Our results also provide guidance for the operational expansion of post-fire debris-flow early warning systems in areas where empirically defined regional rainfall intensity–duration thresholds do not currently exist.

  6. Climatic variability of near-surface turbulent kinetic energy over the United States: implications for fire-weather predications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman; Xindi. Bain

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high levels of ambient near-surface atmospheric turbulence are often associated with rapid and sometimes erratic wildland fire spread that may eventually lead to large burn areas. Previous research has also examined the feasibility of using near-surface atmospheric turbulent kinetic energy (TKEs) alone or in...

  7. Fire effects on noxious weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin Innes

    2012-01-01

    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS, www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/) has been providing reviews of scientific knowledge about fire effects since 1986. FEIS is an online collection of literature reviews on more than 1,100 species and their relationships with fire. Reviews cover plants and animals throughout the United States, providing a wealth of information for...

  8. [Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in a pilot psychogeriatric unit: management and outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, P; Belqadi, S; Mazouzi, S; Daraux, J; Drunat, O

    2011-03-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) are a major concern. The French government gave a consensual definition of reinforced intermediate-term care units for BPSD within the project "Plan Alzheimer 2008/2012". Our aim was to report one of the first experiences of this unit in France. Fifty-two patients (38 females, 14 males) were included, mean age 82.07±7.84 (73-97). About 80% of patients were improved and there was a high discharge rate to home of about 30%. Night-time behaviors, aberrant motor behaviors and agitation were the most frequent symptoms. Our study confirms that demented elderly patients greatly benefit from a specific BPSD care unit in agreement with the objective of Plan Alzheimer 2008/2012. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the fire resistant behavior of unfilled and carbon nanofibers reinforced polybenzimidazole coating for structural applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, H.M.S.; Stec, A.A.; Patel, P.; Bhowmik, S.; Benedictus, R.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing interest in epoxy-based carbon fiber composites for structural applications, it is important to improve the fire resistant properties of these materials. The fire resistant performance of these materials can be improved either by using high performance epoxy resin for manufacturing

  10. Study of the fire resistant behavior of unfilled and carbon nanofibers reinforced polybenzimidazole coating for structural applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, H.M.S.; Stec, A.A.; Patel, P.; Bhowmik, S.; Benedictus, R.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing interest in epoxy-based carbon fiber composites for structural applications, it is important to improve the fire resistant properties of these materials. The fire resistant performance of these materials can be improved either by using high performance epoxy resin for manufacturing c

  11. WRF-Fire Applied in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinkova, Nina; Jordanov, Georgi; Mandel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    WRF-Fire consists of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with a fire spread model, based on the level-set method. We describe a preliminary application of WRF-Fire to a forest fire in Bulgaria, oportunities for research of forest fire models for Bulgaria, and plans for the development of an Environmental Decision Support Systems which includes computational modeling of fire behavior.

  12. Cyclical Behavior of Inventories and Growth Projections Recent Evidence From Europe and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander W. Hoffmaister; Jens R Clausen

    2010-01-01

    In the United States and a few European countries, inventory behavior is mainly the outcome of demand shocks: a standard buffer-stock model best characterizes these economies. But most European countries are described by a modified buffer-stock model where supply shocks dominate. In contrast to the United States, inventories boost growth with a one-year lag in Europe. Moreover, inventories provide limited information to improve growth forecasts particularly when a modified buffer-stock model ...

  13. Fire risk in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  14. Energy consumption and distribution of 1 000 MW coal-fired power generating unit%1000MW燃煤机组能耗及其分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志平; 杨勇平

    2012-01-01

    目前火力发电机组的性能分析方法仍基于热力学第一定律与第二定律,应用基于热力学第一定律的热量法和基于热力学第二定律的单耗分析法,以1 000 MW机组为研究对象,以机组设计参数进行建模分析,确定机组在不同工况下的发电煤耗及其在各个环节中的附加煤耗分布,并对评价方法进行比较,进而从设计层面分析机组的节能方向和潜力.%The current performance analysis method is still based on the first law and second law of thermodynamics a-bout Thermal power generating units. This paper used heat balance method based the first law of thermodynamics and the specific consumption analysis method based the second law of thermodynamics to analyze 1000MW power generating unit. Math model to the unit design parameters was established. Coal consumption and distribution in the different conditions and all aspects of the unit were determined. Compared with the evaluation methods, then the energy-saving direction and potentials of coal-fired generating unit from the design level was analyzed.

  15. Microwave irradiation and instrumental behavior in rats: unitized irradiation and behavioral evaluation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebovitz, R.M.; Seaman, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A facility for the exposure of small animals to pulse-modulated microwave radiation (PM MWR) concurrent with their performance of operant behavioral tasks is described. The computer-managed facility comprises an array of 32 individual waveguide exposure cells, each enclosing instrumental conditioning apparatus within a plastic subhousing. The distribution of the microwave electric field intensity within the waveguide was measured by a nonperturbing probe and the modifications induced by the behavioral apparatus and animal within the waveguide determined. Input and interior voltage standing-wave ratios are presented to characterize the design of the chambers and to demonstrate the suitability of the chambers for whole-body irradiation of rat. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is presented utilizing data derived from incremental thermometric examination of saline loads and of selected sites in rat carcasses. This is compared with the whole-body SAR derived from the input/output energy balance equation for the waveguide. The results of continuous monitoring of the SAR by the latter method, while unrestrained rats were engaged in operant and exploratory behavior within the waveguide, are utilized to derive a relationship between chamber input power and the dose rate for adult rats behaviorally active within the waveguide. From these data, we conclude that the experimental array provides a practical method for exposing a large number of animals to PM MWR for long periods of time and coincident with the establishment and/or performance of complex operant behavior.

  16. A thermoanalytical, X-ray diffraction and petrographic approach to the forensic assessment of fire affected concrete in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqassim, M A; Jones, M R; Berlouis, L E A; Nic Daeid, N

    2016-07-01

    For most fires, forensic investigation takes place well after building materials have cooled and knowledge of the structural damage due to heat exposure can reveal the temperature reached during an incident. Recently, there have been significant changes in the types and hence characteristics of cementitious materials used in the United Arab Emirates. Few studies focus on the application of thermo-analytical, X-ray diffraction and petrographic techniques on newly developed structures and this work aims to address this deficiency by utilising a series of parametric laboratory-based tests to assess the effects of heat on hardened concrete. Specimens were made with a design mix typically used for low-rise residential homes and storage facilities. The key constituents were: Portland cement (PC), crushed gabbro stone and dune sand with water/cement ratios of 0.4-0.5. Portland cement substitutes included ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS), and silica fume (SF) at replacement percentages of up to 50% and 4%, respectively. The concrete cubes of 100-mm size were produced and standard cured to 28 days and then exposed to heat inside an electric furnace with pre-determined temperature regimes of 150°C, 300°C, 600°C and 900°C. Petrographic examination was utilised to compare the discolouration of the cooled concrete. Data derived from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are reported in order to assess the usefulness of these techniques in fire scene investigation to differentiate between these temperature regimes. The results from the TGA indicate that the majority of the percentage weight loss for all the mixtures occurred in the range 650-700°C, which corresponds to the decarbonation of calcium carbonate, mainly from the aggregates. The endothermic DSC peak at 70-120°C relates to the loss of evaporable water. Since both of these reactions are irreversible, this information can help fire investigators estimate the

  17. Phencyclidine affects firing activity of ventral tegmental area neurons that are related to reward and social behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, T; Okamoto, M; Suzuki, Y; Hoshino, K-Y; Jodo, E

    2013-06-14

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in motivation and affect, which suggests an impairment in the reward system. The psychotomimetic drug, phencyclidine (PCP), also induces schizophrenia-like negative symptoms, such as reduced motivation, blunted affect, and social withdrawal in both humans and animals. Previous studies have indicated that the dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play a pivotal role in the development of reward-associated learning and motivation. However, how PCP affects the activity of VTA neurons during performance of a reward-related task and social interaction with others in unanesthetized animals remains unclear. Here, we recorded the unit activity of VTA neurons in freely moving rats before and after systemic administration of PCP in a classical conditioning paradigm, and during social interaction with an unfamiliar partner. In the classical conditioning task, two different tones were sequentially presented, one of which accompanied electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle as an unconditioned stimulus. After identifying the response properties of recorded neurons in the classical conditioning task and social interaction, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of PCP. Our study demonstrated that most VTA neurons responsive to reward-associated stimuli were also activated during social interaction. Such activation of neurons was considerably suppressed by systemic administration of PCP, thus, PCP may affect the firing activity of VTA neurons that are involved in motivation, learning, and social interaction. Disruption of the response of VTA neurons to reward stimuli and socially interactive situations may be involved in PCP-induced impairments similar to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  18. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  19. Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Behavior of Unitized Composite Airframe Structures at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    suitability of this composite for use in aerospace components designed to contain high-temperature environments, mechanical tests were performed under... contain high-temperature environments, mechanical tests were performed under temperature conditions simulating the actual operating conditions. In all... MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF UNITIZED COMPOSITE AIRFRAME STRUCTURES AT ELEVATED

  20. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  1. 75 FR 62307 - Fire Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8577 of October 1, 2010 Fire Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During Fire Prevention Week, we reaffirm the importance of fire... consequences. Fire Prevention Week also calls our attention to the lifesaving work our firefighters perform...

  2. Nicotine reduction as an increase in the unit price of cigarettes: a behavioral economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Sved, Alan F; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    Urgent action is needed to reduce the harm caused by smoking. Product standards that reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes are now possible both in the U.S. and in countries party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Specifically, standards that required substantially reduced nicotine content in cigarettes could enable cessation in smokers and prevent future smoking among current non-smokers. Behavioral economics uses principles from the field of microeconomics to characterize how consumption of a reinforcer changes as a function of the unit price of that reinforcer (unit price=cost/reinforcer magnitude). A nicotine reduction policy might be considered an increase in the unit price of nicotine because smokers are paying more per unit of nicotine. This perspective allows principles from behavioral economics to be applied to nicotine reduction research questions, including how nicotine consumption, smoking behavior, use of other tobacco products, and use of other drugs of abuse are likely to be affected. This paper reviews the utility of this approach and evaluates the notion that a reduction in nicotine content is equivalent to a reduction in the reinforcement value of smoking-an assumption made by the unit price approach.

  3. Management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in a dedicated psychogeriatric unit: a pilot experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, Pierre; Feugeas, Marie Cécile Henry; Saad, Sawsan; Belqadi, Sana; Daraux, Jacques; Drunat, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The French government gave a consensual definition of reinforced care units for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia (BPSD) within the project "Plan Alzheimer 2008/2012." These Cognitive and Behavioral Units (CBU) differ in resources from the traditional reference units for BPSD management, the Acute Psychogeriatric Units (APU). However, a better understanding of their operational specificities may enhance the CBU and APU synergies. To describe one of the first CBU experiments, with regard to preexisting BPSD management in an APU in the same geriatric hospital. A total of 129 patients with BPSD, 35 from the CBU and 94 admitted to the APU before opening the colocated CBU. Patients from the CBU often showed comorbidities and a lower nutritional status, but these conditions were more frequent in the APU (P ≤ 10(-4)). Severe dementia, night time and aberrant motor behavior, and agitation were more frequent in the CBU (P ≤ 0.0015). In both the units, about 80% of patients were improved without increased use of psychotropic medications and there was a high discharge rate back home of about 30%. These findings that are still preliminary support a particular role for the CBU for elderly patients showing the most advanced dementia and disruptive BPSD. Colocated APU and CBU may allow for more effective integration of medical and psychiatric care in elderly patients with BPSD with frequent comorbidities.

  4. Incidence of violent behavior among patients in Psychiatric Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina C. Iversen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Both psychiatric acute units and psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs focus on acute treatment of behavioral disturbances such as violence and aggressive threats and acts. The aim of the present study is to describe the frequency of violent behavior; such as verbal or physical threats and physical attacks, among patients admitted to psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU. In addition the relationship between the episodes of threats and/or attacks in relation to time of the day, days of the week, and their seasonal variations was explored. Methods: All violent behavior was continuously assessed at the psychiatric emergency department. Data were collected during the period from May 2010 to May 2012. Results: Patients with only one hospitalization were less violent than those who have had two hospitalizations. There was a statistically significant difference in violence among patients without formal secondary education and those who have not formal education. Violent behavior showed two peaks during the day; the first occurring at 1 pm and the second at 8 pm. In regard to seasonality, summer had a higher incidence of violence. The most peaceful seasons of the year were spring and autumn. Conclusions: Violent behavior shows variation in daytime, days of the week and season in acute psychiatric intensive care. Daytime variation shows two peaks of violence at 1 pm and 8 pm, Sundays and Wednesdays being the quietest days regarding violence both in winter and summer. Patient's level of education and hospitalization status partially explain the variation.

  5. Operational experience of a 300-MW lignite-fired utility unit: environmental performance after retrofiitting of a low pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanetsakunvatana, Vicharn; Arkornsakul, P.

    2010-09-15

    The experimental data on major emissions from a 300-MW lignite-fired boiler operating under different fuel LHVs and turbine rotors are discussed. The thermal efficiency was quantified based on the heat loss method. The PM and CO2 emission rates were predicted. Specific emissions were quantified for the boiler of interest. The SO2, PM and NOx emission concentrations in flue gas were found lower than the respective emission standard. The CO2 emissions have also declined 4.65% in 2009, compared to 2008 and before. The clean development mechanism complied with UNFCCC methodology is adopted in this study responding to the global changes.

  6. Fire safety assessment of tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gkoumas, Konstantinos; Giuliani, Luisa; Petrini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    .g. structural and non structural, organizational, human behavior). This is even more truth for the fire safety design of such structures. Fire safety in tunnels is challenging because of the particular environment, bearing in mind also that a fire can occur in different phases of the tunnel’s lifecycle. Plans...... of nonlinear analyses for different fire exposures....

  7. Schaffer-specific local field potentials reflect discrete excitatory events at gamma frequency that may fire postsynaptic hippocampal CA1 units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Antonio; Makarov, Valeri A; Benito, Nuria; Herreras, Oscar

    2012-04-11

    Information processing and exchange between brain nuclei are made through spike series sent by individual neurons in highly irregular temporal patterns. Synchronization in cell assemblies, proposed as a network language for internal neural representations, still has little experimental support. We use a novel technique to extract pathway-specific local field potentials (LFPs) in the hippocampus to explore the ongoing temporal structure of a single presynaptic input, the CA3 Schaffer pathway, and its contribution to the spontaneous output of CA1 units in anesthetized rat. We found that Schaffer-specific LFPs are composed of a regular succession of pulse-like excitatory packages initiated by spontaneous clustered firing of CA3 pyramidal cells to which individual units contribute variably. A fraction of these packages readily induce firing of CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons, the so-called Schaffer-driven spikes, revealing the presynaptic origin in the output code of single CA1 units. The output of 70% of CA1 pyramidal neurons contains up to 10% of such spikes. Our results suggest a hierarchical internal operation of the CA3 region based on sequential oscillatory activation of pyramidal cell assemblies whose activity partly gets in the output code at the next station. We conclude that CA1 output may directly reflect the activity of specific ensembles of CA3 neurons. Thus, the fine temporal structure of pathway-specific LFPs, as an accurate readout of the activity of a presynaptic population, is useful in searching for hidden presynaptic code in irregular spikes series of individual neurons and assemblies.

  8. A Brief Review of High Entropy Alloys and Serration Behavior and Flow Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong ZHANG; Jun-wei QIAO; Peter KLIAW

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent alloys with high entropy of mixing,e.g.,high entropy alloys (HEAs)and/or multiprin-cipal-element alloys (MEAs),are attracting increasing attentions,because the materials with novel properties are being developed,based on the design strategy of the equiatomic ratio,multicomponent,and high entropy of mixing in their liquid or random solution state.Recently,HEAs with the ultrahigh strength and fracture toughness,excel-lent magnetic properties,high fatigue,wear and corrosion resistance,great phase stability/high resistance to heat-softening behavior,sluggish diffusion effects,and potential superconductivity,etc.,were developed.The HEAs can even have very high irradiation resistance and may have some self-healing effects,and can potentially be used as the first wall and nuclear fuel cladding materials.Serration behaviors and flow units are powerful methods to understand the plastic deformation or fracture of materials.The methods have been successfully used to study the plasticity of amorphous alloys (also bulk metallic glasses,BMGs).The flow units are proposed as:free volumes,shear transi-tion zones (STZs),tension-transition zones (TTZs),liquid-like regions,soft regions or soft spots,etc.The flow units in the crystalline alloys are usually dislocations,which may interact with the solute atoms,interstitial types,or sub-stitution types.Moreover,the flow units often change with the testing temperatures and loading strain rates,e.g., at the low temperature and high strain rate,plastic deformation will be carried out by the flow unit of twinning,and at high temperatures,the grain boundary will be the weak area,and play as the flow unit.The serration shapes are related to the types of flow units,and the serration behavior can be analyzed using the power law and modified power law.

  9. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  10. Full-scale ash deposition measurements at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 during suspension-firing of wood with and without coal ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    The formation of deposits during suspension-firing of wood at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 (AVV2) was studied by using an advanced deposit probe system. The tests were conducted both with and without coal ash addition, and at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 1250-1300 oC and 750......-800 oC respectively. The deposit formation process was studied quantitatively though the mass uptake data from the load-cell of the probe, while camera pictures were used to qualitatively verify the obtained mass uptake data and to explain the deposit buildup/shedding mechanisms. The collected deposits...... along with the fly ash and bottom ash from the plant were characterized extensively by SEM-EDS, ICP-OES/IC and XRD. Based on the results from the present work, the deposit formation and shedding mechanisms under different operational conditions were proposed and discussed. The influence of coal ash...

  11. Network of Spaces and Interaction-Related Behaviors in Adult Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbub Rashid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using three spatial network measures of “space syntax”, this correlational study describes four interaction-related behaviors among three groups of users in relation to visibility and accessibility of spaces in four adult intensive care units (ICUs of different size, geometry, and specialty. Systematic field observations of interaction-related behaviors show significant differences in spatial distribution of interaction-related behaviors in the ICUs. Despite differences in unit characteristics and interaction-related behaviors, the study finds that when nurses and physicians “interact while sitting” they prefer spaces that help maintain a high level of environmental awareness; that when nurses “walk” and “interact while walking” they avoid spaces with better global access and visibility; and that everyone in ICUs “walk” more in spaces with higher control over neighboring spaces. It is argued that such consistent behavioral patterns occur due to the structural similarities of spatial networks over and above the more general functional similarities of ICUs.

  12. Improving environmental performance through unit-level organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment: A capability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Elisa; Spitzeck, Heiko

    2016-11-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment (OCBEs) are increasingly advocated as a means of complementing formal practices in improving environmental performance. Adopting a capability perspective, we propose that a firm's employee involvement capability translates into environmental performance through the manifestation of unit-level OCBEs, and that this relationship is amplified by a shared vision capability. In a cross-country and multi-industry sample of 170 firms, we find support for our hypotheses, shedding light on contextual determinants of OCBEs, and on how firms may engender a positive relationship between top-down environmental initiatives and bottom-up behaviors.

  13. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  14. Behavior of the aggregate wind resource in the ISO regions in the United States

    KAUST Repository

    Gunturu, Udaya

    2015-04-01

    The collective behavior of wind farms in seven Independent System Operator (ISO) areas has been studied. The generation duration curves for each ISO show that there is no aggregated power for some fraction of time. Aggregation of wind turbines mitigates intermittency to some extent, but in each ISO there is considerable fraction of time when there is less than 5% capacity. The hourly wind power time series show benefit of aggregation but the high and low wind events are lumped in time, thus indicating that intermittency is synchronized in each region. The timeseries show that there are instances when there is no wind power in most ISOs because of large-scale high pressure systems. An analytical consideration of the collective behavior of aggregated wind turbines shows that the benefit of aggregation saturates beyond a certain number of generating units asymptotically. Also, the benefit of aggregation falls rapidly with temporal correlation between the generating units.

  15. Prediction of spatially explicit rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for post-fire debris-flow generation in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis; Negri, Jacquelyn; Kean, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Population expansion into fire-prone steeplands has resulted in an increase in post-fire debris-flow risk in the western United States. Logistic regression methods for determining debris-flow likelihood and the calculation of empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for debris-flow initiation represent two common approaches for characterizing hazard and reducing risk. Logistic regression models are currently being used to rapidly assess debris-flow hazard in response to design storms of known intensities (e.g. a 10-year recurrence interval rainstorm). Empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds comprise a major component of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) debris-flow early warning system at a regional scale in southern California. However, these two modeling approaches remain independent, with each approach having limitations that do not allow for synergistic local-scale (e.g. drainage-basin scale) characterization of debris-flow hazard during intense rainfall. The current logistic regression equations consider rainfall a unique independent variable, which prevents the direct calculation of the relation between rainfall intensity and debris-flow likelihood. Regional (e.g. mountain range or physiographic province scale) rainfall intensity-duration thresholds fail to provide insight into the basin-scale variability of post-fire debris-flow hazard and require an extensive database of historical debris-flow occurrence and rainfall characteristics. Here, we present a new approach that combines traditional logistic regression and intensity-duration threshold methodologies. This method allows for local characterization of both the likelihood that a debris-flow will occur at a given rainfall intensity, the direct calculation of the rainfall rates that will result in a given likelihood, and the ability to calculate spatially explicit rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for debris-flow generation in recently

  16. Prediction of stress-strain behavior of ceramic matrix composites using unit cell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the elastic modulus and the stress-strain curve of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs were predicted by using the unit cell model that consists of fiber bundles and matrix. The unit cell model was developed based on the observation of cross sections of CMCs. The elastic modulus of CMCs was calculated from the results of finite element analysis using the developed model. The non-linear behavior of stress-strain curve of CMCs was also predicted by taking the degradation of the elastic modulus into consideration, where the degradation was related to the experimentally measured crack density in CMCs. The approach using the unit cell model was applied to two kinds of CMCs, and good agreement was obtained between the experimental and the calculated results.

  17. Effects of using visualization and animation in presentations to communities about forest succession and fire behavior potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith; Donald E. Zimmerman; Carol Akerelrea; Garrett O' Keefe

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource managers use a variety of computer-mediated presentation methods to communicate management practices to the public. We explored the effects of using the Stand Visualization System to visualize and animate predictions from the Forest Vegetation Simulator-Fire and Fuels Extension in presentations explaining forest succession (forest growth and change...

  18. An annular-furnace boiler for the 660-MW power unit for ultrasupercritical parameters intended for firing brown slagging coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serant, F. A.; Belorutskii, I. Yu.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Gordeev, V. V.; Stavskaya, O. I.; Katsel, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present the main technical solutions adopted in designing annular-furnace boilers intended for operation on brown coals of the prospective Maikubensk open-cast mine in Kazakhstan as part of 660-MW power units for ultrasupercritical steam conditions. Results from 3D modeling of combustion processes are presented, which clearly show the advantages furnaces of this kind have over a traditional furnace in burning heavily slagging brown coals. The layout of the main and boiler auxiliary equipment in the existing boiler cell of the 500-MW power unit at the Ekibastuz GRES-1 district power station is shown. Appropriate attention is paid to matters concerned with decreasing harmful emissions.

  19. Family Perspectives of Traumatically Brain-Injured Patient Pain Behaviors in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbyl, Brandy L; Gélinas, Céline

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral scales allow for the pain assessment of vulnerable critically ill patients who are unable to self-report. However, validity of the use of such scales is limited in traumatic brain injury patients with an altered level of consciousness as a result of the different way that these patients express pain. Family participation is considered as an important component of pain assessment for those unable to self-report, but research in this area is minimal so far. This study aimed to describe what behaviors family caregivers deemed relevant to pain for patients with a traumatic brain injury with an altered level of consciousness in the intensive care unit. Using a mixed-method descriptive design, semistructured interviews were conducted and behaviors' relevance was quantitatively rated by seven family caregivers of nonverbal patients with traumatic brain injury in the intensive care unit of a tertiary trauma center in Montreal, Canada. Family caregivers were able to provide rich descriptions of a number of behaviors they observed in their loved ones that were perceived to be relevant indicators of pain, such as muscle tension and key facial expressions and body movements. Several factors influenced how behaviors were interpreted by family, including personal medical beliefs and intimate knowledge of the patient's history. The pain behaviors determined by family caregivers can be useful in the pain assessment process of traumatic brain injury patients with an altered level of consciousness. Their input could also be helpful in further development of pain assessment tools. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulation of crowd evacuation in fire based on agent behavior%火灾中基于个体行为的人群疏散仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆卓谟; 秦文虎

    2011-01-01

    为了指导火灾中的人群疏散,研究了一种新的人群疏散模型用于提高人群疏散仿真的真实性.通过分析个体对火灾警报的不同响应时间,个体在疏散过程中采取的不同运动速度,个体间的组运动方式,个体的出口选择等因素对人群疏散的影响,建立了个体行为特征与元胞自动机相结合的人群疏散模型.该模型包括个体对火灾警报响应模型、个体逃生速度模型、组运动模型和出口选择模型.仿真分析表明:火灾中不同的个体行为对建筑物内人群疏散的总体时间有较大影响;人群疏散仿真中引入个体的反应时间和组运动方式能使人群疏散仿真更加真实.%For guiding the crowd evacuation in fire, a new crowd evacuation model based on agent's behavior which can improve the realism of crowd evacuation is proposed. Through analyzing the influences of many factors on the evacuation process, including agent's different reaction time when encountering the fire alarm, different moving velocities in the process of evacuation, application of group movement and the selection of exits, a model combining the characteristics of agent behaviors and cellular automata is established. The model includes the agent's response of fire alarm model, the agent's evacuation speed model, the group movement model and exit selection model. The simulation results show that different agent behavior in fire remarkably influence total time of crowd evacuation in building. Crowd evacuation simulation integrating agent's reaction time and group movement can improve the realism greatly.

  1. Survey of 2014 behavioral management programs for laboratory primates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C

    2016-07-01

    The behavioral management of laboratory nonhuman primates in the United States has not been thoroughly characterized since 2003. This article presents the results of a survey behavioral management programs at 27 facilities and covering a total of 59,636 primates, 27,916 housed in indoor cages and 31,720 in group enclosures. The survey included questions regarding program structure, implementation, and methodology associated with social housing, positive reinforcement training, positive human interaction, exercise enclosures, and several categories of inanimate enrichment. The vast majority of laboratory primates are housed socially (83%). Since 2003, the proportion of indoor-housed primates reported to be housed singly has fallen considerably, from 59% to 35% in the facilities surveyed. The use of social housing remains significantly constrained by: 1) research protocol requirements, highlighting the value of closely involved IACUCs for harmonizing research and behavioral management; and 2) the unavailability of compatible social partners, underscoring the necessity of objective analysis of the methods used to foster and maintain compatibility. Positive reinforcement training appears to have expanded and is now used at all facilities responding to the survey. The use of enrichment devices has also increased in the participating facilities. For most behavioral management techniques, concerns over the possibility of negative consequences to animals are expressed most frequently for social housing and destructible enrichment, while skepticism regarding efficacy is limited almost exclusively to sensory enrichment. Behavioral management program staffing has expanded over time in the facilities surveyed, due not only to increased numbers of dedicated behavioral management technicians but also to greater involvement of animal care technicians, suggesting an increase in the integration of behavioral care into animal husbandry. Broad awareness of common practice may assist

  2. Motor unit firing during and after voluntary contractions of human thenar muscles weakened by spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    2003-01-01

    Spinal cord injury may change both the distribution and the strength of the synaptic input within a motoneuron pool and therefore alter force gradation. Here, we have studied the relative contributions of motor unit recruitment and rate modulation to force gradation during voluntary contractions of

  3. [Cognitive-behavioral specialized units: predictive factors of readmissions within three months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudemont, Céline; Merlet, Isabelle; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Liuu, Évelyne; Tartarin, Florence; Ragot, Stéphanie; Paccalin, Marc

    2012-09-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are frequent and belong to the natural evolution of the disease. Specialized cognitive-behavioral units (Unités cognitivo-comportementales) were created, in France (plan Alzheimer 2008-2012), to cope with this problem. Despite a stay in such a unit, some patients have to be rehospitalized. The main aim of the current study was to highlight the predictive factors of readmissions. Descriptive, retrospective study of demented patients ≥75 years, hospitalized between January 2010 and April 2011. We compared patients that had to be rehospitalized within 3 months (group 1), with the patients that did not need to be rehospitalized or after 3 months of time (group 2). Patients characteristics included: basic daily living activities (French GIR score), MMSE score, neuropsychiatric inventory score, type of BPSD, length of stay and antipsychotropic drugs. Two hundred thirty-five patients were included including, 147 women (62.5%), with mean age of 82.74±7.13 years. SPCD was the main reason for hospitalization. Thirty patients (12.77%) belonged to group 1. The mean number of psychotropic treatments increased during the stay (p=0.02), particularly in group 2 (p=0.01). The NPI score decreased during the hospitalization in both groups. Linear regression analysis showed that behavioral type of symptoms (OR: 3.18; 95% CI 1.32-7.65) and association of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs (OR: 4.77; 95% CI 1.35-16.83) were significantly predictive of an early readmission. The risk of readmission also significantly decreased as the length of stay increased. This work confirms the specificity and the need for such units. The results will help improving the outcome of demented patients with BPSD and treated with different antipsychotropic drugs.

  4. Behavioral correlation with television watching and videogame playing among children in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Said; Eapen, Valsamma; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Mabrouk, Abdelazim

    2014-08-01

    Television viewing and videogame use (TV/VG) appear to be associated with some childhood behavioral problems. There are no studies addressing this problem in the United Arab Emirates. One hundred ninety-seven school children (mean age, 8.7 ± 2.1 years) were assessed. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) subscale scores and socio-demographic characteristics were compared between children who were involved with TV/VG more than 2 hours/day and those involved less than 2 hours/day (the recommended upper limit by The American Academy of Pediatrics). Thirty-seven percent of children who were involved with TV/VG time of more than 2 hours/day scored significantly higher on CBCL syndrome scales of withdrawn, social problems, attention problems, delinquent behavior, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, externalizing problems and the CBCL total scores compared with their counterparts. Moreover, these children were younger in birth order and had fewer siblings. After controlling for these confounders using logistic regression, we found that TV/VG time more than 2 hours/day was positively associated with withdrawn (p = 0.008), attention problem (p = 0.037), externalizing problems (p = 0.007), and CBCL total (p = 0.014). Involvement with TV/VG for more than 2 hours/day is associated with more childhood behavioral problems. Counteracting negative effects of the over-involvement with TV/VG in children requires increased parental awareness.

  5. Sexual Self-Identification among Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Aleta; Dodge, Brian; Schick, Vanessa; Hubach, Randolph D.; Bowling, Jessamyn; Malebranche, David; Goncalves, Gabriel; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Previous social and behavioral research on identity among bisexual men, when not subsumed within the category of men who have sex with men (MSM), has primarily focused on samples of self-identified bisexual men. Little is known about sexual self-identification among men who are behaviorally bisexual, regardless of sexual identity. Using qualitative data from 77 in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of behaviorally bisexual men (i.e., men who have had sex with at least one woman and at least one man in the past six months) from a large city in the Midwestern United States, we analyzed responses from a domain focusing on sexual self-identity and related issues. Overall, participants’ sexual self-identification was exceptionally diverse. Three primary themes emerged: (1) a resistance to, or rejection of, using sexual self-identity labels; (2) concurrent use of multiple identity categories and the strategic deployment of multiple sexual identity labels; and (3) a variety of trajectories to current sexual self-identification. Based on our findings, we offer insights into the unique lived experiences of behaviorally bisexual men, as well as broader considerations for the study of men’s sexuality. We also explore identity-related information useful for the design of HIV/STI prevention and other sexual health programs directed toward behaviorally bisexual men, which will ideally be variable and flexible in accordance with the wide range of diversity found in this population. PMID:25344028

  6. Estimation of Forest Fire-fighting Budgets Using Climate Indexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the complexity and relative short length of current predicting system for fire behavior, it is inappropriate to be referred for planning fire-fighting budgets of BC government due to the severe uncertainty of fire behavior across fire seasons. Therefore, a simple weather derived index for

  7. Predictability of Operant Behavior of Rats by Prefrontal Multiple Unit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sei-Etsu; Akema, Tatsuo; Izaki, Yoshinori

    To investigate the possibility of a brain computer interface (BCI) constructed using activities of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we analyzed PFC multiple unit activities (MUAs) during a delayed reinforcement (DRF) lever press task in rats. In the DRF task, each trial consisted of two lever press responses (R1, R2): R1 as the trial initiation, R2 as a pre-conditioned response to a stimulus (buzzer) for a reward. Between R1 and the buzzer, rats were required to inhibit the lever press (waiting phase). The trial was evaluated as incorrect if rats pressed the lever during the waiting phase. Results show that the mean firing rate (MFR) was significantly lower around the time of R1 compared with the pre-trial time in correct trials, although no significant changes were found in incorrect trials. From a neuroengineering perspective, the MFR of each single trial was calculated. Most correct trials showed decreasing MFR around the time of R1. The PFC MUA might be useful for BCI.

  8. Systems for animal exposure in full-scale fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Two systems for exposing animals in full-scale fire tests are described. Both systems involve the simultaneous exposure of two animal species, mice and rats, in modular units; determination of mortality, morbidity, and behavioral response; and analysis of the blood for carboxyhemoglobin. The systems described represent two of many possible options for obtaining bioassay data from full-scale fire tests. In situations where the temperatures to which the test animals are exposed can not be controlled, analytical techniques may be more appropriate than bioassay techniques.

  9. State of Fire Behavior Models and their Application to Ecosystem and Smoke Management Issues: Special Session Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    directly captures the first order chemical reactions of combustion requires grid cells approximately 1 mm on a side. Similarly, fire starts with ignition...resources (N, P, water, light ) complicate ecological responses and are difficult to model; and 4) Currently, disturbance regimes are generally...The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere (SPA) model models photosynthesis and water balance at fine spatial and temporal scales across canopy and soil layers

  10. Modern fire regime resembles historical fire regime in a ponderosa pine forest on Native American land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda B. Stan; Peter Z. Fule; Kathryn B. Ireland; Jamie S. Sanderlin

    2014-01-01

    Forests on tribal lands in the western United States have seen the return of low-intensity surface fires for several decades longer than forests on non-tribal lands. We examined the surface fire regime in a ponderosa pinedominated (Pinus ponderosa) forest on the Hualapai tribal lands in the south-western United States. Using fire-scarred trees, we inferred temporal (...

  11. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  12. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  13. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D.; Grayson, Cary T.; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction.…

  14. Fire and Climate History of Mixed Conifer Woodlands in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, F.; Bradley, M.; Cheek, J.; Jamieson, L.; Kilpatrick, M.; Sibold, J.; Strachan, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    We investigated climate, fire, and species dynamics before and after Euro-American settlement at two locations in Lincoln County, Nevada. Both the Mt. Irish and Clover Mountains sites are isolated high ranges in the southern Great Basin Desert, not far from the floristic boundary with the northern Mojave Desert. At Mt. Irish, non-scarred ponderosa pines and single-leaf piñons were used to develop a tree-ring reconstruction of drought (mean PDSI for May-July, NV Clim. Div. 3) from 1396 to 2003. Fire-scarred ponderosas found at both study areas were then sampled, and crossdated fire-scar records were used to generate the fire history. A total of 12 plots, each 0.1 ha in size, was sampled at each site to quantify stand structure, age of surviving trees, and fuel loads. Additional information on species dynamics were collected at regularly spaced grid points. Density of pinyon pine at both sites has more than doubled since Euro-American settlement, with peak survivorship occurring in 1900-1940 at Mount Irish and 1930-1970 at the Clover Mountains. Pre-settlement trees occur throughout each site, particularly at Mount Irish, where in 1550-1860 fires that scarred at least two trees were very frequent (mean fire return interval: 4 years), while fires that scarred at least 10% of the recorder trees were relatively rare (mean fire return interval: 66 years). At the Clover Mountains, for the period 1785-2007, fires that scarred at least two trees and fires that scarred at least 10% of the recorder trees had more similar mean fire return intervals: 7 and 12 years. Fire frequency did not decrease during the 1780-1840 period, when fire was reduced or absent in other areas of the western United States. Much lower fire frequency was noted after Euro-American settlement at Mt. Irish, most likely because of less favorable climatic conditions, while the difference was less pronounced, and also affected by fire suppression activity, at the Clover Mountains. Fuel loads at the two

  15. An extended theory of planned behavior to predict consumers' willingness to buy mobile slaughter unit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksma, Djura L; Gerritzen, Marien A; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Poortvliet, P Marijn

    2017-06-01

    The current study investigated the determinants of consumers' intention to purchase meat from mobile slaughter units (MSU). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the value belief norm theory (VBN) were used as conceptual lenses to guide this investigation. We conducted a survey among 329 respondents in the Netherlands who buy meat for themselves and/or for others. The results indicated that (1) TPB and VBN explain a high proportion of the variance in consumers' intention to buy MSU meat, and that (2) an extended TPB that includes peoples' attitude, personal norm, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control turned out to be the best model to predict willingness to buy MSU meat. Further implications for future research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. GATEWAY Report Brief: Evaluating Tunable LED Lighting in the Swedish Medical Behavioral Health Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-08-23

    Summary of a GATEWAY report evaluation of a tunable LED lighting system installed in the new Swedish Medical Behavioral Health Unit in Seattle that incorporates color-tunable luminaires in common areas, and uses advanced controls for dimming and color tuning, with the goal of providing a better environment for staff and patients. The report reviews the design of the tunable lighting system, summarizes two sets of measurements, and discusses the circadian, energy, and commissioning implications as well as lessons learned from the project.

  17. Postconflict behavior among female Rhinopithecus roxellana within one-male units in the Qinling Mountains, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian ZHANG, Dapeng ZHAO, Baoguo LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For group-living primates, the information on postconflict management is crucial for understanding primate competition and cooperation. However, such information is poorly known for snub-nosed monkeys, especially for wild populations. In this study, from September 2007 to June 2008, we investigated postconflict behavior among adult females Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus roxellana within one-male units in a wild, provisioned group in the Qinling Mountains of China by means of the time-rule method and the PC-MC method. We obtained a total of 81 PC-MC pairs and each individual was involved in only 0.004 aggressive behavior per observation hour. The first affiliative behavior was more likely to occur within the first minute after a conflict. The postconflict affiliative behaviors most often seen were contact-sit, embrace and grooming. The affiliative contacts between adult females occur due to selective attraction, i.e. reconciliation. The pattern of postconflict affiliation demonstrates that the R. roxellana belongs to a tolerant species [Current Zoology 56 (2: 222–226, 2010].

  18. Data Assimilation of Satellite Fire Detection in Coupled Atmosphere-Fire Simulation by WRF-SFIRE

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin; Beezley, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Currently available satellite active fire detection products from the VIIRS and MODIS instruments on polar-orbiting satellites produce detection squares in arbitrary locations. There is no global fire/no fire map, no detection under cloud cover, false negatives are common, and the detection squares are much coarser than the resolution of a fire behavior model. Consequently, current active fire satellite detection products should be used to improve fire modeling in a statistical sense only, rather than as a direct input. We describe a new data assimilation method for active fire detection, based on a modification of the fire arrival time to simultaneously minimize the difference from the forecast fire arrival time and maximize the likelihood of the fire detection data. This method is inspired by contour detection methods used in computer vision, and it can be cast as a Bayesian inverse problem technique, or a generalized Tikhonov regularization. After the new fire arrival time on the whole simulation domain is...

  19. 旧石器时代的火塘与古人类用火%Remains of Human Fire-Use: An Overview of Paleolithic Hearth and Human Fire-use Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振宇; 关莹; 王春雪; 高星

    2012-01-01

    火塘作为旧石器时代反映古人类行为的重要遗迹一直受到学术界的关注.迄今为止,我国已经发现了丰富的火塘遗迹及其相关遗留物,但早期发现的火塘受限于本身保存不完整、当时技术手段的缺乏等客观因素及研究者的重视程度不够,对其研究并不深入.近年来,随着新遗址、新发现的增多,发掘、保存和信息提取手段的完善,越来越多的火塘信息被保存下来,为开展旧石器时代火塘研究提供了基础和机遇.本文主要介绍近年来学术界对火塘及其遗留物的研究手段和成果,同时列举了西方一些学者的研究实例,简要论述火塘在研究史前人类行为中的重要作用.%Fire utilization and control is considered as a distinguished characteristic of human beings within the evolutionary history. Hearth is the material representation of this characteristic, which is one of the most vital archaeological remains of ancient occupants. However, in the prehistoric time, especially in the Old Stone Age, because of the functional, size, shape, and the duration time varieties, hearths are diverse in dissimilar sites. In our study, we define the hearth as intentionally used, maintained and controlled fire, regardless of the physical structure or the duration.Hearth remains play a considerable role in the study of the evolution of human behaviors, the innovation of ancient diet, the development of social formation, and the interaction of human and the environment. In this paper, we review the published achievement of hearth study regard of types, functions, and the human behavioral interpretations.In the Lower and Middle Pleistocene, hearth is hard to be preserved, even the unearthed ones are normally not distinguished and defined. Only in Zhoukoudian Loc.1 (Beijing), Jinniushan Cave (Liaoning) and Longyadong Cave (Shaanxi) sites were found hearth remains. While in the Early Upper Pleistocene, more hearths were discovered in

  20. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  1. Trends in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Behaviors among High School Students--United States, 1991-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Romero, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper examined changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors among high school students in the United States during 1991-2005. Data from 8 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted during that period were analyzed. During 1991-2005, the percentage of US high school students engaging in HIV-related sexual risk…

  2. The Effect of Water Injection on the Fission Product Aerosol Behavior in Fukushima Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, Tae Woon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The most important factor affects human health is fission product that is released from the plant. Fission products usually released with types of aerosol and vapor. The amount of released aerosols out of the plant is crucial, because it can be breathed by people. In this study, the best estimated scenario of Fukushima unit 1 accident was modeled with MELCOR. The amount of released fission product aerosols was estimated according to the amount of added water into reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The analysis of Fukushima unit 1 accident was conducted in view of fission product aerosol release using MELCOR. First of all, thermodynamic results of the plant were compared to the measured data, and then fission product aerosol (CsOH) behavior was calculated with changing the amount of water injection. Water injection affects the amount of aerosol which released into reactor building, because it decreases the temperature of deposition surface. In this study, only aerosol behavior was considered, further study will be conducted including hygroscopic model.

  3. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelin Wang; William Orndorff; Yan Cao; Weiping Pan

    2013-01-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated,which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coalfired power plants.Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils.Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants,and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum,simulating rainfall irrigations,soils,and plants types.Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils,the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere,and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves).Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports.Some plants,such as tall fescue,were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil.Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application.However,mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates.Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  4. Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE): Modeling gaps and data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; Adam Kochanski; Kirk Baker; Ruddy Mell; Rodman Linn; Ronan Paugam; Jan Mandel; Aime Fournier; Mary Ann Jenkins; Scott Goodrick; Gary Achtemeier; Andrew Hudak; Matthew Dickson; Brian Potter; Craig Clements; Shawn Urbanski; Roger Ottmar; Narasimhan Larkin; Timothy Brown; Nancy French; Susan Prichard; Adam Watts; Derek McNamara

    2017-01-01

    Fire and smoke models are numerical tools for simulating fire behavior, smoke dynamics, and air quality impacts of wildland fires. Fire models are developed based on the fundamental chemistry and physics of combustion and fire spread or statistical analysis of experimental data (Sullivan 2009). They provide information on fire spread and fuel consumption for safe and...

  5. Effects of post-fire salvage logging and a skid trail treatment on ground cover, soils, and sediment production in the interior western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Lee H. MacDonald; Robert N. Coats; Peter R. Robichaud; Robert E. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Post-fire salvage logging adds another set of environmental effects to recently burned areas, and previous studies have reported varying impacts on vegetation, soil disturbance, and sediment production with limited data on the underlying processes. Our objectives were to determine how: (1) ground-based post-fire logging affects surface cover, soil water repellency,...

  6. Healing gardens and cognitive behavioral units in the management of Alzheimer's disease patients: the Nancy experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasseau Jonveaux, Therese; Batt, Martine; Fescharek, Reinhard; Benetos, Athanase; Trognon, Alain; Bah Chuzeville, Stanislas; Pop, Alina; Jacob, Christel; Yzoard, Manon; Demarche, Laetitia; Soulon, Laure; Malerba, Gabriel; Bouvel, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The French Alzheimer Plan 2008-2012 anticipates the implementation of new Units specialized in cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-behavioral therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Conceived for AD and other dementia patients of all ages, their objectives are to propose a cognitive rehabilitation program, to prevent or treat psycho-behavioral crises, and to provide support and educational therapy to the family and professional caregivers, in order to ease the patient's return to his or her previous way of life. Studies on green spaces and healing gardens in health-care settings have revealed objective and measurable improvements in the patient's well-being. The Plan officially stipulates for the first time the need to make healing gardens an integral part of these Units, but it does not provide specific recommendations or criteria for implementing such gardens. Although green spaces and gardens are available in many French Care Units, they are rarely specifically adapted to the needs of AD patients. In Nancy, the Art, Memory and Life garden, a specific concept guided by a neuropsychological approach, was developed and complemented by an artistic vision based on cultural invariants. The main objective of this article is to describe the various steps of the process that led to the creation of this garden: the collection of experiences and information by a pilot group, surveys of patients, visitors, and caregivers before and after establishment of the garden, and implementation of a multi-professional group project. The specifications, the organizational criteria, the therapeutic project, and the criteria for the conception of such a garden stemming from our clinical experience with the Art, Memory and Life garden in Nancy, are described herein. We also present the first assessment following the implementation of the project.

  7. Fire Effects on Soils in Lake States Forests: A Compilation of Published Research to Facilitate Long-Term Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hix

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fire-adapted forests of the Lake States region are poorly studied relative to those of the western and southeastern United States and our knowledge base of regional short- and long-term fire effects on soils is limited. We compiled and assessed the body of literature addressing fire effects on soils in Lake States forests to facilitate the re-measurement of previous studies for the development of new long-term datasets, and to identify existing gaps in the regional knowledge of fire effects on forest soils. Most studies reviewed addressed fire effects on chemical properties in pine-dominated forests, and long-term (>10 years studies were limited. The major gaps in knowledge we identified include: (1 information on fire temperature and behavior information that would enhance interpretation of fire effects; (2 underrepresentation of the variety of forest types in the Lake States region; (3 information on nutrient fluxes and ecosystem processes; and (4 fire effects on soil organisms. Resolving these knowledge gaps via future research will provide for a more comprehensive understanding of fire effects in Lake States forest soils. Advancing the understanding of fire effects on soil processes and patterns in Lake States forests is critical for designing regionally appropriate long-term forest planning and management activities.

  8. Satellites monitor Los Alamos fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; White, Benjamin

    A man-made fire that was intended to be a “controlled burn” for clearing brush and wilderness at the Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, became an inferno that devastated significant portions of Los Alamos during the first week of May 2000. Now known as the Cerro Grande fire, it was not confined to Los Alamos alone. The fire spread to 15% of the Santa Clara Indian Reservation and a substantial area of the surrounding national parks and U.S. forests.The National Weather Service estimates that more than 100,000 fires occur in the natural environment each year within the United States alone, of which about 90% are manmade. Remote sensing images from satellites could be used to detect and monitor these active fires and biomass burning. Forest fires have a significant environmental and economic impact, and timely information about their location and magnitude is essential to contain them.

  9. Behavioral Dynamics in Swimming: The Appropriate Use of Inertial Measurement Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Brice; Rouard, Annie; Chollet, Didier; Seifert, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    Motor control in swimming can be analyzed using low- and high-order parameters of behavior. Low-order parameters generally refer to the superficial aspects of movement (i.e., position, velocity, acceleration), whereas high-order parameters capture the dynamics of movement coordination. To assess human aquatic behavior, both types have usually been investigated with multi-camera systems, as they offer high three-dimensional spatial accuracy. Research in ecological dynamics has shown that movement system variability can be viewed as a functional property of skilled performers, helping them adapt their movements to the surrounding constraints. Yet to determine the variability of swimming behavior, a large number of stroke cycles (i.e., inter-cyclic variability) has to be analyzed, which is impossible with camera-based systems as they simply record behaviors over restricted volumes of water. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) were designed to explore the parameters and variability of coordination dynamics. These light, transportable and easy-to-use devices offer new perspectives for swimming research because they can record low- to high-order behavioral parameters over long periods. We first review how the low-order behavioral parameters (i.e., speed, stroke length, stroke rate) of human aquatic locomotion and their variability can be assessed using IMUs. We then review the way high-order parameters are assessed and the adaptive role of movement and coordination variability in swimming. We give special focus to the circumstances in which determining the variability between stroke cycles provides insight into how behavior oscillates between stable and flexible states to functionally respond to environmental and task constraints. The last section of the review is dedicated to practical recommendations for coaches on using IMUs to monitor swimming performance. We therefore highlight the need for rigor in dealing with these sensors appropriately in water. We explain the

  10. SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottuk, Daniel; Jr, John; Harada, Kazunori; Kuligowski, Erica; Puchovsky, Milosh; Torero, Jose´; Jr, John; WIECZOREK, CHRISTOPHER

    2016-01-01

    Revised and significantly expanded, the fifth edition of this classic work offers both new and substantially updated information. As the definitive reference on fire protection engineering, this book provides thorough treatment of the current best practices in fire protection engineering and performance-based fire safety. Over 130 eminent fire engineers and researchers contributed chapters to the book, representing universities and professional organizations around the world. It remains the indispensible source for reliable coverage of fire safety engineering fundamentals, fire dynamics, hazard calculations, fire risk analysis, modeling and more. With seventeen new chapters and over 1,800 figures, the this new edition contains: • Step-by-step equations that explain engineering calculations • Comprehensive revision of the coverage of human behavior in fire, including several new chapters on egress system design, occupant evacuation scenarios, combustion toxicity and data for human behavior analysis • Rev...

  11. Post-fire vegetation and fuel development influences fire severity patterns in reburns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppoletta, Michelle; Merriam, Kyle E; Collins, Brandon M

    2016-04-01

    In areas where fire regimes and forest structure have been dramatically altered, there is increasing concern that contemporary fires have the potential to set forests on a positive feedback trajectory with successive reburns, one in which extensive stand-replacing fire could promote more stand-replacing fire. Our study utilized an extensive set of field plots established following four fires that occurred between 2000 and 2010 in the northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA that were subsequently reburned in 2012. The information obtained from these field plots allowed for a unique set of analyses investigating the effect of vegetation, fuels, topography, fire weather, and forest management on reburn severity. We also examined the influence of initial fire severity and time since initial fire on influential predictors of reburn severity. Our results suggest that high- to moderate-severity fire in the initial fires led to an increase in standing snags and shrub vegetation, which in combination with severe fire weather promoted high-severity fire effects in the subsequent reburn. Although fire behavior is largely driven by weather, our study demonstrates that post-fire vegetation composition and structure are also important drivers of reburn severity. In the face of changing climatic regimes and increases in extreme fire weather, these results may provide managers with options to create more fire-resilient ecosystems. In areas where frequent high-severity fire is undesirable, management activities such as thinning, prescribed fire, or managed wildland fire can be used to moderate fire behavior not only prior to initial fires, but also before subsequent reburns.

  12. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  13. Fireside Corrosion Behavior of HVOF and Plasma-Sprayed Coatings in Advanced Coal/Biomass Co-Fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T.; Dudziak, T.; Simms, N. J.; Nicholls, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a systematic evaluation of coatings for advanced fossil fuel plants and addresses fireside corrosion in coal/biomass-derived flue gases. A selection of four candidate coatings: alloy 625, NiCr, FeCrAl and NiCrAlY were deposited onto superheaters/reheaters alloy (T91) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying. A series of laboratory-based fireside corrosion exposures were carried out on these coated samples in furnaces under controlled atmosphere for 1000 h at 650 °C. The tests were carried out using the "deposit-recoat" test method to simulate the environment that was anticipated from air-firing 20 wt.% cereal co-product mixed with a UK coal. The exposures were carried out using a deposit containing Na2SO4, K2SO4, and Fe2O3 to produce alkali-iron tri-sulfates, which had been identified as the principal cause of fireside corrosion on superheaters/reheaters in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The exposed samples were examined in an ESEM with EDX analysis to characterize the damage. Pre- and post-exposure dimensional metrologies were used to quantify the metal damage in terms of metal loss distributions. The thermally sprayed coatings suffered significant corrosion attack from a combination of aggressive combustion gases and deposit mixtures. In this study, all the four plasma-sprayed coatings studied performed better than the HVOF-sprayed coatings because of a lower level of porosity. NiCr was found to be the best performing coating material with a median metal loss of ~87 μm (HVOF sprayed) and ~13 μm (plasma sprayed). In general, the median metal damage for coatings had the following ranking (in the descending order: most to the least damage): NiCrAlY > alloy 625 > FeCrAl > NiCr.

  14. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice.

  15. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  16. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  17. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  18. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  19. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section 161.002-12...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A manual fire alarm system shall consist of a power supply, a control unit on which...

  20. Policy Options Analysis and the National Fire Operations Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    fire marshal or another office located within the state bureaucracy . The fire data is then forwarded to the United States Fire Administration at a...process. Organizational • Provides leadership to the fire service in the consensus development process. Budgetary • Does not have any contribution to

  1. A fire management simulation model using stochastic arrival times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric L. Smith

    1987-01-01

    Fire management simulation models are used to predict the impact of changes in the fire management program on fire outcomes. As with all models, the goal is to abstract reality without seriously distorting relationships between variables of interest. One important variable of fire organization performance is the length of time it takes to get suppression units to the...

  2. 46 CFR 108.419 - Fire main capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire main capacity. 108.419 Section 108.419 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.419 Fire main capacity. The diameter of the...

  3. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system...

  4. Evaluation of deriving fire cycle of forested landscape based on time-since-fire distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quan-fa; Kurt S. Pregitzer; JIANG Ming-xi; CHEN Wen-jun

    2006-01-01

    Estimation of fire cycle has been conducted by using the negative exponential function as an approximation of time-since-fire distribution of a landscape assumed .to be homogeneous with respect to fire spread processes. The authors imposed predefined fire cycles on a virtual landscape of 100 cell ×100 cell, and obtained a mosaic composing of patches with different stand ages (i.e. time since fire). Graphical and statistical methods (Van Wagner 1978; Reed et al. 1998) were employed to derive fire cycle from the virtual landscape. By comparing the predefined and the derived fire cycles, the two methods and tested the effects of sample size and hazard of burning (i.e., stand's susceptibility to fire in relation to its stand age) were evaluated on fire cycle deviation. The simulation results indicated a minimum sample size of 10 times of the annual burnt area would be required for partitioning time-since-fire distribution into homogeneous epochs indicating temporal change in fire cycle. Statistically, there was significant difference among the imposed and the derived fire cycle, regardless of sample sizes with or without consideration of hazard of burning. Both methods underestimated the more recent fire cycle without significant difference between them. The results imply that deviation of fire cycle based on time-since-fire distribution warrants cautious interpretation, especially when a landscape is spatially partitioned into small units and temporal changes in fire cycle are involved.

  5. Effect of a laboratory result pager on provider behavior in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, L; Stavroudis, Ta; Miller, Re; Lehmann, Hp; Lehmann, Cu

    2011-01-01

    A computerized laboratory result paging system (LRPS) that alerts providers about abnormal results ("push") may improve upon active laboratory result review ("pull"). However, implementing such a system in the intensive care setting may be hindered by low signal-to-noise ratio, which may lead to alert fatigue. To evaluate the impact of an LRPS in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Utilizing paper chart review, we tallied provider orders following an abnormal laboratory result before and after implementation of an LRPS. Orders were compared with a predefined set of appropriate orders for such an abnormal result. The likelihood of a provider response in the post-implementation period as compared to the pre-implementation period was analyzed using logistic regression. The provider responses were analyzed using logistic regression to control for potential confounders. The likelihood of a provider response to an abnormal laboratory result did not change significantly after implementation of an LRPS. (Odds Ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.63-1.30, p-value 0.58) However, when providers did respond to an alert, the type of response was different. The proportion of repeat laboratory tests increased. (26/378 vs. 7/278, p-value = 0.02). Although the laboratory result pager altered healthcare provider behavior in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, it did not increase the overall likelihood of provider response.

  6. Subjective Sexual Experiences of Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States: Sexual Attraction, Sexual Behaviors, & Condom Use

    OpenAIRE

    Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Malebranche, David; Murray, Maresa; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Studies concerning behaviorally bisexual men continue to focus on understanding sexual risk in according to a narrow range of sexual behaviors. Few studies have explored the subjective meanings and experiences related to bisexual men’s sexual behaviors with both male and female partners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Participants were asked about their subjective sexual experiences with male and fem...

  7. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  8. Response of fire detectors to different smokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkman, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the behavior of fire alarm systems based on smoke detectors on smoldering fires especially cable fires in nuclear power plants (NPP). Full-scale fire experiments were carried out in a laboratory designed according to the standard EN54-9. The laboratory was instrumented with additional equipment such as thermocouples and flow meters which are not used in standard fire sensitivity tests. This allows the results to be used as experimental data for validation tasks of numerical fire simulation computerized fluid dynamics (CFD)-codes. The ultimate goal of the research is to model theoretically smoldering and flaming cable fires, their smoke production, transfer of smoke to detectors, as well as the response of detectors and fire alarm systems to potential fires. This would allow the use of numerical fire simulation to predict fire hazards in different fire scenarios found important in PSA (probability safety assessment) of NPPs. This report concentrates on explaining full-scale fire experiments in the smoke sensitivity laboratory and experimental results from fire tests of detectors. Validation tasks with CFD-codes will be first carried out `blind` without any idea about corresponding experimental results. Accordingly, the experimental results cannot be published in this report. (orig.). 12 refs.

  9. The national Fire and Fire Surrogate study: effects of fuel reduction methods on forest vegetation structure and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylan W. Schwilk; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; James Mciver; John D. Bailey; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl E. Fiedler; Richy J. Harrod; Jason J. Moghaddas; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Carl N. Skinner; Scott L. Stephens; Thomas A. Waldrop; Daniel A. Yaussy; Andrew Youngblood

    2009-01-01

    Changes in vegetation and fuels were evaluated from measurements taken before and after fuel reduction treatments (prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, and the combination of the two) at 12 Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) sites located in forests with a surface fire regime across the conterminous United States. To test the relative effectiveness of fuel reduction...

  10. 建筑物火灾中人员行为EXODUS模拟的研究%Building fire behavior modeling of EXODUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂芬; 张宪立; 阎卫东

    2011-01-01

    通过对建筑物火灾疏散仿真系统平台Building EXODUS的研究,以学校教学楼建筑物为例,使用Building EXODUS软件模拟疏散情境.Building EXODUS软件是由格林威治大学开发的,模型包括了人与人之间、人与结构之间和人与环境之间互相作用.Building EXODUS是一种细网格的过程模拟软件,能比较真实地模拟疏散人员和场景的若干属性和行为,追踪疏散过程的诸多细节,在此基础上给出比较全面翔实的预测结果.%Based on the building fire evacuation simulation platform EXODUS, Teaching building of school buildings is taken as an example of evacuation simulation. Building EXODUS is developed by the University of Greenwich, which includes the relations among people, between people and the structure and the interaction between people and the environment. Building EXODUS is a fine mesh of process simulation software, which is able to compare real and simulated evacuation of a number of properties and behavior of the scene, track many details of the behavior of the evacuation process, On this basis, more comprehensive and informative prediction results are obtained.

  11. Massas cerâmicas para telhas: características e comportamento de queima Ceramic bodies for roofing tiles: characteristics and firing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. F. Vieira

    2003-12-01

    ceramic body from Campos showed a different firing behavior, with higher values of water absorption, flexural strength and lineal shrinkage.

  12. Status and Prospect of Forest Fire Research in Europe and the United States%欧美国家林火研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖化顺; 刘小永; 曾思齐

    2012-01-01

    Fire prevention is not only an important work of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, but also the important constituent part of biodiversity, global change and sustainable development. Forest fire is one of the greatest impact natural factors on forest health. Trends and results of forest fire researches in Europe and North America were reviewed. Relationship between forest fire and globle climate changing as well as trends of forest fire researches were discussed. Developmental directions of forest fire research in China were put forward.%林火是国际减灾战略的一项重要工作,也是生物多样性、全球气候变化和全球可持续发展的重要组成部分.森林火灾是对森林健康影响最大的自然因素之一.阐述了21世纪林业发达国家美国、加拿大、欧洲等国的林火研究方向与研究成果,以及林火与全球气候变化的研究,探讨了世界林火研究的发展趋势,提出了新时期我国林火研究的发展方向.

  13. Effect of PAHM (Poly-acrylonitrile Hollow Microsphere) addition on the Lightweight and Firing Behavior of Whiteware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. S.; Pee, J. H.; Kim, G. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Cho, W. S.; Kim, K. J.

    2011-10-01

    The pore generation technology using PAHM (Poly-acrylonitrile Hollow Microsphere) was studied in order to reduce the weights of tableware. In this study, we verify the property of modified slurry and plasticity of green body by adding PAHM. The modified slurry was prepared by adding 25~55vol% of PAHM to the slurry for whiteware. The viscosity of slurry was controlled to be low value (25~45vol%). However, the viscosity of modified slurry increased and the plasticity of modified green body decreased inside the 45~55vol% range. The formed specimen by slip casting was fired at 1225 °C, 1240°C. As the amount of PAHM content increased, the weight decreased and the addition of 45vol/% of PAHM resulted in a weight drop of 39%. However, when the PAHM content increased, the strength decreases over 50%. This is caused by the presence of a large volume of surface defects (pores) and defects from the agglomeration of PAHM.

  14. Modification of a prey catching response and the development of behavioral persistence in the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric

    2013-11-01

    The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response.

  15. Modeling regional-scale wildland fire emissions with the wildland fire emissions information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; Donald McKenzie; Tyler Erickson; Benjamin Koziol; Michael Billmire; K. Endsley; Naomi K.Y. Scheinerman; Liza Jenkins; Mary E. Miller; Roger Ottmar; Susan Prichard

    2014-01-01

    As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive, spatial data are needed to improve quantitative maps of carbon emissions from fire. The Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS) provides mapped estimates of carbon emissions from historical forest fires in the United States through a web browser. WFEIS improves access to data and provides a consistent...

  16. Short- and long-term effects on fuels, forest structure, and wildfire potential from prescribed fire and resource benefit fire in southwestern forests, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly E. Hunter; Jose M. Iniguez; Leigh B. Lentile

    2011-01-01

    Prescribed and resource benefit fires are used to manage fuels in fire-prone landscapes in the Southwest. These practices, however, typically occur under different conditions, potentially leading to differences in fire behavior and effects. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of recent prescribed fires, resource benefit fires, and repeated...

  17. The role of leader behaviors in hospital-based emergency departments' unit performance and employee work satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Hsu, Chung-Ping C; Juan, Chi-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chen, Jih-Chang

    2011-01-01

    The role of the leader of a medical unit has evolved over time to expand from simply a medical role to a more managerial one. This study aimed to explore how the behavior of a hospital-based emergency department's (ED's) leader might be related to ED unit performance and ED employees' work satisfaction. One hundred and twelve hospital-based EDs in Taiwan were studied: 10 in medical centers, 32 in regional hospitals, and 70 in district hospitals. Three instruments were designed to assess leader behaviors, unit performance and employee satisfaction in these hospital-based EDs. A mail survey revealed that task-oriented leader behavior was positively related to ED unit performance. Both task- and employee-oriented leader behaviors were found to be positively related to ED nurses' work satisfaction. However, leader behaviors were not shown to be related to ED physicians' work satisfaction at a statistically significant level. Some ED organizational characteristics, however, namely departmentalization and hospital accreditation level, were found to be related to ED physicians' work satisfaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fire-on-fire interactions in three large wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Casey C.

    Current knowledge about wildfire occurrence is not complete. Fire researchers and managers hold the assumption that previous wildfires affect subsequent wildfires; however, research regarding the interactions of large wildfires at their common boundaries is missing from the literature. This research focuses on understanding the influence of previous large wildfires on subsequent large wildfires in three wilderness areas: The Greater Bob Marshall, the Selway-Bitterroot, and the Frank Church. Data from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project, which mapped large wildfires in the western United States occurring since 1984, are used for the research. The combination of using wilderness areas and remotely sensed images allows an objective and consistent analysis of fire-on-fire interaction that is extensive in both time and space. Standardized methods for analyzing fire interactions do not currently exist, therefore methods were developed, tested, and refined to describe, quantify, and compare once-burned and re-burned locations within a subset of ten fires in terms of size, location, timing between fires, and severity. These methods were then used to address the question of whether re-burns occur within each of the three wilderness areas. Edge and re-burn characteristics were also derived and quantified. Results were statistically and empirically compared to randomized fire intersections and to published fire history research for each area. Although a low proportion of each study area burns or re-burns, when a new fire encounters a previous fire it re-burns onto the previously burned area approximately 80% of the time. Current large wildfires are behaving in a typical fashion, although on some landscapes the amount of re-burn is not different from what would be expected due to chance. Lastly, the complexity of the post-fire landscape was assessed using texture metrics. Pre-fire and post-fire landscapes were shown to be different, with post-fire landscapes

  19. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2-3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future.

  20. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2–3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664

  1. Subjective Sexual Experiences of Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States: Sexual Attraction, Sexual Behaviors, & Condom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnarrs, Phillip W; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Malebranche, David; Murray, Maresa; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Studies concerning behaviorally bisexual men continue to focus on understanding sexual risk in according to a narrow range of sexual behaviors. Few studies have explored the subjective meanings and experiences related to bisexual men's sexual behaviors with both male and female partners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Participants were asked about their subjective sexual experiences with male and female partners. Findings suggest adherence to normative gender roles, with attraction to men and women conforming to these stereotypes, as well as a segregation of sexual behaviors along gendered lines. Overall, condom use was influenced by perceptions of potential negative consequences. Based on these findings, it remains critical that public health and other social and behavioral sciences continue to study bisexual men's sexual health issues as separate and distinct from their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts.

  2. Parenting Behavior, Health, and Cognitive Development among Children in Black Immigrant Families: Comparing the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in child development in the United States are significant, with a particularly pronounced disadvantage among Black children. This report focuses on the development of children of Black immigrants, comparing against the outcomes for their peers in native-born and other immigrant families. The report also compares children in the…

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population.

  4. Culture of human cells in experimental units for spaceflight impacts on their behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Moscheni, Claudia; Maier, Jeanette Am; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Because space missions produce pathophysiological alterations such as cardiovascular disorders and bone demineralization which are very common on Earth, biomedical research in space is a frontier that holds important promises not only to counterbalance space-associated disorders in astronauts but also to ameliorate the health of Earth-bound population. Experiments in space are complex to design. Cells must be cultured in closed cell culture systems (from now defined experimental units (EUs)), which are biocompatible, functional, safe to minimize any potential hazard to the crew, and with a high degree of automation. Therefore, to perform experiments in orbit, it is relevant to know how closely culture in the EUs reflects cellular behavior under normal growth conditions. We compared the performances in these units of three different human cell types, which were recently space flown, i.e. bone mesenchymal stem cells, micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells. Endothelial cells are only slightly and transiently affected by culture in the EUs, whereas these devices accelerate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward osteogenic differentiation, in part by increasing the amounts of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that cell culture conditions in the EUs do not exactly mimic what happens in a culture dish and that more efforts are necessary to optimize these devices for biomedical experiments in space. Impact statement Cell cultures represent valuable preclinical models to decipher pathogenic circuitries. This is true also for biomedical research in space. A lot has been learnt about cell adaptation and reaction from the experiments performed on many different cell types flown to space. Obviously, cell culture in space has to meet specific requirements for the safety of the crew and to comply with the unique environmental challenges. For these reasons, specific devices for cell culture in space have been developed. It is important to clarify whether these

  5. Anal Cancer Incidence in the United States, 1977–2011: Distinct Patterns by Histology and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Meredith S.; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Coghill, Anna E.; Darragh, Teresa M.; Devesa, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC) are generally combined in cancer surveillance, their etiologies likely differ. Here, we describe demographic characteristics and trends in incidence rates (IRs) of anal cancer by histology (SCC, ADC) and behavior (invasive, in situ) in the United States. Methods With data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, we estimated age-adjusted anal cancer IRs across behavior/histology by demographic and tumor characteristics for 2000–2011. Trends in IRs and annual percent changes during 1977–2011 were also estimated and compared to rectal cancer. Results Women had higher rates of SCC (rate ratio [RR]=1.45; 95%CI 1.40–1.50) and lower rates of ADC (RR=0.68; 95%CI 0.62–0.74) and squamous carcinoma in situ (CIS) (RR=0.36; 95%CI 0.34–0.38) than men. Blacks had lower rates of SCC (RR=0.82; 95%CI 0.77–0.87) and CIS (RR=0.90; 95%CI 0.83–0.98) than non-Hispanic whites, but higher rates of ADC (RR=1.48; 95%CI 1.29–1.70). Anal cancer IRs were higher in men and blacks aged anal and rectal cancers. Conclusions Rates of anal SCC and CIS have increased strongly over time, in contrast to rates of anal ADC, similar to trends observed for rectal SCC and ADC. Impact Anal SCC and ADC likely have different etiologies, but may have similar etiologies to rectal SCC and ADC, respectively. Strong increases in CIS IRs over time may reflect anal cancer screening patterns. PMID:26224796

  6. International Students' Proactive Behaviors in the United States: Effects of Information-Seeking Behaviors on School Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehee; Lee, Seungjo

    2016-01-01

    Considering the continuous increase of international students, the main goal of this study was to examine how international students' proactive behaviors, particularly information seeking behaviors, would impact key emotional outcomes including communication satisfaction with instructors and school-life satisfaction. For this investigation, we…

  7. International Students' Proactive Behaviors in the United States: Effects of Information-Seeking Behaviors on School Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehee; Lee, Seungjo

    2016-01-01

    Considering the continuous increase of international students, the main goal of this study was to examine how international students' proactive behaviors, particularly information seeking behaviors, would impact key emotional outcomes including communication satisfaction with instructors and school-life satisfaction. For this investigation, we…

  8. Measuring wildland fire fighter performance with wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Vitalis, Antonios; Walker, Robyn; Riley, David; Pearce, H Grant

    2017-03-01

    Wildland (rural) fire fighting is a physically demanding and hazardous occupation. An observational study was conducted to explore the use of new technologies for the field study of fire fighters at wildfires and to understand the work pressures of wildland fire fighting. The research was carried out with two fire fighters at real fires wearing microphones, miniature video cameras, heart rate monitors and GPS units to record their actions and location at wildfire events. The fire fighters were exposed to high physiological workloads (heart rates of up to 180 beats per minute) and walked considerable distances at the fires. Results from this study have been used in presentations to fire fighters and non-operational fire personnel to understand the pressures fire fighters are under and how others complete the fire fighting tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of Fire Growth and Spread in a Model-Scale Railcar Using an Applied Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kazemipour; Mahyar Pourghasemi; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh

    2016-01-01

    Fire is a potential hazard in public transportation facilities such as subways or road tunnels due to its contribution to high number of deaths. To provide an insight into fire development behavior in tunnels which can serve as the basis for emergency ventilation design, model-scale railcar fire is explored numerically in this research. Fire growth and its spread are investigated by analyzing the HRR curve as the representative of fire behavior in different stages. Fire developmen...

  10. 我国火灾中人的行为研究动态%Developments of human behavior research in fires of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫文华; 孔祥昆; 郝爱玲; 邱培芳

    2012-01-01

    简要回顾我国火灾中人的行为研究历程,综合评述了人的行为研究中涉及到的研究内容如基础资料研究和模型研究,总结了主要研究方法如调查研究法、模拟研究法、实验研究法,指出了现有研究内容和研究方法存在的问题,针对我国今后的火灾中人的行为研究工作,建议加强对行为特征基础数据资料的搜集;在疏散模型的理论研究方面,注重个体特性和个体间的相互作用以及人员集群流动规律;尽量采取多种研究手段进行结合研究、比照研究.%The research history of human behavior in fires of China was reviewed briefly. Related research contents such as basic data and model were overviewed. Research methods such as investigation, simulation and experiments were summarized. The most popular problems of the existing research were pointed out. Suggestions on further study on this field in the future were carried out, including collecting basic data of behavior characteristics, focusing on the individual feature and interaction between individuals, and the laws of trunked in model and theoretical study, and comparing multiple research methods.

  11. Evaluation on Energy-saving and Emission Reduction of Pneumatic Induced Draft Fan of 600 MW Coal-fired Units%600 MW燃煤机组汽动引风机节能减排评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂才; 徐齐胜; 吴婕; 马晓茜; 彭晓为; 余岳溪

    2014-01-01

    针对大型燃煤机组改造项目,将给水泵汽轮机驱动引风机的方式应用于600 MW燃煤机组,对其节能减排效果进行评估和分析。计算和分析结果表明:相比于电动机驱动方式,给水泵汽轮机驱动方式具有减少厂用电量、降低供电煤耗、提高发电厂收益、减少污染物排放等优点,其中在亚临界压力机组上应用的节能减排效果最佳。%In the large coal-fired units transformation,the driving mode of induced draft fan of feed pump steam turbine is applied to 600 MW coal-fired units.The effect of energy-saving and emission reduction is evaluated.The calculation and anal-ysis results show that the driving mode,compared to electric driving mode,can reduce auxiliary power consumption,coal consumption for power supply,improve benefit of power plant and reduce pollutant emissions.The application of this mode in subcritical units is more significant in energy-saving and emission reduction.

  12. Review of UCN 5,6 Fire PSA Model based on ANS Fire PRA Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Lee, Yoon Hwan

    2006-12-15

    Recently, under the de-regulation environment, nuclear industry has attempted various approaches to improve the economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). This approach uses the fire risk and performance information to manage the resources effectively and efficiently that are used in the operation of NPP. In fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation, fire PSA quality is one of the most important things. The nuclear industry and regulatory body of U.S.A have developed a measure to evaluate the quality of fire PSA. ANS (American Nuclear Society) has developed a guidance called 'ANS Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. However, in Korea, there have been no attempts to evaluate the quality of fire PSA model itself. Therefore, we cannot be sure about the quality of fire PSA whether or not the present fire PSA model can be used for the risk-informed applications such as mentioned above. We can say that the evaluation of fire PSA model quality is the basis for the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation. In this report, we have evaluated the quality of fire PSA model for Ulchin 5 and 6 units based on the ANS Fire PRA Standard. We, also, have derived what items are to be improved to upgrade the quality of fire PSA model and how it can be improved. This report can be used as the base of the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation work in Korea.

  13. Effectiveness of Prescribed Fire as a Fuel Treatment in Californian Coniferous Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Vaillant; JoAnn Fites-Kaufman; Scott L. Stephens

    2006-01-01

    Effective fire suppression for the past century has altered forest structure and increased fuel loads. Prescribed fire as a fuels treatment can reduce wildfire size and severity. This study investigates how prescribed fire affects fuel loads, forest structure, potential fire behavior, and modeled tree mortality at 80th, 90th, and 97.5th percentile fire weather...

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF NATURAL GAS REBURN FOR NOX EMISSIONS REDUCTION AT OHIO EDISON COMPANY'S CYCLONE-FIRED NILES PLANT UNIT NO. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a demonstration of reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. The project included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of O...

  15. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sean A; Holsinger, Lisa M; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R

    2015-09-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely sensed data identifying fire activity over the last four decades provides an opportunity to explicitly quantify-the ability of wildland fire to limit the progression of subsequent fire. Furthermore, advances in fire progression mapping now allow an evaluation of how daily weather as a top-down control modifies this effect. In this study, we evaluated the ability of wildland fire to create barriers that limit the spread of subsequent fire along a gradient representing time between fires in four large study areas in the western United States. Using fire progression maps in conjunction with weather station data, we also evaluated the influence of daily weather. Results indicate that wildland fire does limit subsequent fire spread in all four study areas, but this effect decays over time; wildland fire no longer limits subsequent fire spread 6-18 years after fire, depending on the study area. We also found that the ability of fire to regulate, subsequent fire progression was substantially reduced under extreme conditions compared to moderate weather conditions in all four study areas. This study increases understanding of the spatial feedbacks that can lead to self-regulating landscapes as well as the effects of top-down controls, such as weather, on these feedbacks. Our results will be useful to managers who seek to restore natural fire regimes or to exploit recent burns when managing fire.

  16. Space-based observations of fire NOx emission coefficients: a global biome-scale comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mebust

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents both a significant and highly variable source of NOx to the atmosphere. This variability stems from both the episodic nature of fires, and from fire conditions such as the modified combustion efficiency of the fire, the nitrogen content of the fuel and possibly other factors that have not been identified or evaluated by comparison with observations. Satellite instruments offer an opportunity to observe emissions from wildfires, providing a large suite of measurements which allow us to study mean behavior and variability on the regional scale in a statistically rigorous manner. Here we use space-based measurements of fire radiative power from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer in combination with NO2 tropospheric column densities from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument to measure mean emission coefficients (ECs in g NO MJ−1 from fires for global biomes, and across a wide range of smaller-scale ecoregions, defined as spatially-distinct clusters of fires with similar fuel type. Mean ECs for all biomes fall between 0.250–0.362 g NO MJ−1, a range that is smaller than found in previous studies of biome-scale emission factors. The majority of ecoregion ECs fall within or near this range, implying that under most conditions, mean fire emissions per unit energy are similar between different regions regardless of fuel type or spatial variability. In contrast to these similarities, we find that about 24% of individual ecoregion ECs deviate significantly (p x emissions.

  17. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  18. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  19. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities . DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400...

  20. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  1. The economics of sexuality: the effect of HIV/AIDS on homosexual behavior in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew M

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, I test a simple microeconomic theory of sexuality. I apply the theory to make predictions about the effect of AIDS on sexuality, since AIDS dramatically altered the cost of sexual activities. Using a nationally representative dataset on sexuality in the United States, I estimate the effect of AIDS on male and female homosexual behavior. To do so, I postulate that people who have a relative with AIDS, on average, have more knowledge, awareness, and fear of AIDS. Empirically, this variable is uncorrelated with a number of individual background characteristics. I present evidence that AIDS causes some men to shift from homosexual to heterosexual behavior, whereas AIDS causes some women to shift from heterosexual to homosexual behavior. Thus, sexual behavior may respond to incentives. I consider alternative hypotheses, including biological theories of sexual orientation and stigma-related survey bias, and argue that they are unlikely to explain the results.

  2. More people than ever before are receiving behavioral health care in the United States, but gaps and challenges remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanic, David

    2014-08-01

    The high prevalence of mental illness and substance abuse disorders and their significant impact on disability, mortality, and other chronic diseases have encouraged new initiatives in mental health policy including important provisions of the Affordable Care Act and changes in Medicaid. This article examines the development and status of the behavioral health services system, gaps in access to and quality of care, and the challenges to implementing aspirations for improved behavioral and related medical services. Although many more people than ever before are receiving behavioral health services in the United States-predominantly pharmaceutical treatments-care is poorly allocated and rarely meets evidence-based standards, particularly in the primary care sector. Ideologies, finances, and pharmaceutical marketing have shaped the provision of services more than treatment advances or guidance from a growing evidence base. Among the many challenges to overcome are organizational and financial realignments and improved training of primary care physicians and the behavioral health workforce.

  3. How Peer Communication and Engagement Motivations Influence Social Media Shopping Behavior: Evidence from China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; Men, Linjuan Rita

    2015-10-01

    Based on consumer socialization theory, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model of social media shopping behavior, which links the antecedents of user motivations of engagement and peer communication about products to shopping behavior through social media. A cross-cultural survey was conducted with social media users in two culturally distinct markets with the largest Internet population: China (n=304) and the United States (n=328). Findings showed that social interaction, information, and remuneration were positive antecedents of peer communication for users from both countries. Peer communication positively impacted social media shopping behavior, and cultural differences were observed, with social interaction being important to Chinese users' shopping behavior, while remuneration was more important to American users. Implications are discussed.

  4. Fire and EMS Districts, Fire District boundaries within Sedgwick County. Cover is programmatically derived from taxing unit districts. Used for Public Safety map rolls. Primary attribute is fire district name. Published to scfiredia.shp., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. It is...

  5. Fire and EMS Districts, Fire bond district boundaries within Sedgwick County. Cover is programmatically derived from taxing unit districts. Primary attribute is fire bond district name. Published to scfbddia.shp., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. It is...

  6. Use of numerical modeling in design for co-firing biomass in wall-fired burners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with coal or gas in the existing units has gained increasing interest in the recent past to increase the production of environmentally friendly, renewable green power. This paper presents design considerations for co-firing biomass with natural gas in wall-fired burners by use...... and reaction of a particle. To better understand biomass combustion and thus improve the design for co-firing biomass in wall-fired burners, non-sphericity of biomass particles is considered. To ease comparison, two cases are numerically studied in a 10m long gas/biomass co-fired burner model. (1) The biomass...... the design for co-firing biomass in wall-fired burners are finally suggested....

  7. Wildland Fire Behaviour Case Studies and Fuel Models for Landscape-Scale Fire Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Antoine Santoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the extension of a physical model for the spreading of surface fire at landscape scale. In previous work, the model was validated at laboratory scale for fire spreading across litters. The model was then modified to consider the structure of actual vegetation and was included in the wildland fire calculation system Forefire that allows converting the two-dimensional model of fire spread to three dimensions, taking into account spatial information. Two wildland fire behavior case studies were elaborated and used as a basis to test the simulator. Both fires were reconstructed, paying attention to the vegetation mapping, fire history, and meteorological data. The local calibration of the simulator required the development of appropriate fuel models for shrubland vegetation (maquis for use with the model of fire spread. This study showed the capabilities of the simulator during the typical drought season characterizing the Mediterranean climate when most wildfires occur.

  8. An Overview of Wood Fire-Retardant in the United States%美国阻燃处理木材的现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪磊; 陈志林; 蔡智勇

    2011-01-01

    This article reviewed the current status of wood fire retardants, and their corresponding manufacturing specifications and standards in the US. The author also introduced five major fireretardant manufacturers in the US and their flame retardant formulations and market. It was expected that this paper would provide useful suggestions to the domestic fire-retardant industry.%总结美国阻燃处理木材的规范与标准,介绍美国主要阻燃处理木材生产商的阻燃木材产品,分析主要阻燃剂的配方及合成工艺、处理木材的工艺与技术特点,为国内阻燃处理木材行业的技术发展提出建议.

  9. Construction And Application Of Thermal Power Plant Coal-Fired Unit Price Analysis Model%火力发电厂燃煤单价分析模型的构建与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭; 王树政; 方良兵

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the background, model innovation of analysis coal-fired unit price analysis model construction. It also introduces model construction method and contented model application casesdetail. It finally proposes economic benefits after the model is applied. Through establishment of model embedded into EXCEL table, we can quantitatively analyze the whole the process of coal-fired price from entering the factory to burning in the furnace, it reveals the standard coal unit price change trend and its cause, which help guide the business management practice and provide effective reference for administrators decision-making.%简单介绍了燃煤单价分析模型构建的背景,模型的创新点,详细介绍了模型的构建方法和内容及模型应用的实例,最后给出了模型应用后的经济效益。通过建立模型嵌入到EXCEL表格中,文表并茂进行定量分析,可以实现对燃煤价格从入厂到入炉的全过程分析,揭示标煤单价变化的态势及其成因,有助于指导经营管理实践,为管理者制订决策提供有效的参考。

  10. 燃气电厂直接空冷机组噪声治理及预测评价%Noise Control and Forecast Evaluation of Direct Air-cooling Unit in Gas-fired Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭欣

    2014-01-01

    阐述了燃气电厂噪声的主要来源,结合山西省某采用直接空冷机组的燃气电厂的工程实例,提出了采用直接空冷机组的燃气电厂噪声治理的措施,针对直接空冷系统提出了在直接空冷风机下部装设导流消音装置和挡风墙内装设消音板的噪声控制技术,并利用噪声预测软件对燃气电厂全厂噪声进行了预测和评价。%The sources of the noise about gas plants were elaborated. Based on the operating situation of a gas-fired plant with direct air-cooling unit,some methods were put forward for noise control of the gas plants with direct air-cooling unit,and it was proposed to install flow guide sound arrester under air-cooling fan and to install noise reduction plate inside the wind-break wall. What is more, noise-forecast software was adopted to forecast and evaluate the noise of gas-fired plants.

  11. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  12. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  13. Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    With effect from 15 April 2004, the Fire Brigade will no longer issue master keys on loan. Contractors' personnel requiring access to locked premises in order to carry out work must apply to the CERN staff member responsible for the contract concerned.

  14. Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to the nearest exit. Don't stop. Don't go back . In case of fire, do not try to rescue pets or possessions. Once you are out, do not go back in for any reason. Firefighters have the best chance of rescuing people who are trapped. Let firefighters know right away if anyone is missing. ...

  15. Fire characteristics associated with firefighter injury on large federal wildland fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Carla; Lynch, Charles F; Torner, James; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-02-01

    Wildland fires present many injury hazards to firefighters. We estimate injury rates and identify fire-related factors associated with injury. Data from the National Interagency Fire Center from 2003 to 2007 provided the number of injuries in which the firefighter could not return to his or her job assignment, person-days worked, and fire characteristics (year, region, season, cause, fuel type, resistance to control, and structures destroyed). We assessed fire-level risk factors of having at least one reported injury using logistic regression. Negative binomial regression was used to examine incidence rate ratios associated with fire-level risk factors. Of 867 fires, 9.5% required the most complex management and 24.7% required the next-highest level of management. Fires most often occurred in the western United States (82.8%), during the summer (69.6%), caused by lightening (54.9%). Timber was the most frequent fuel source (40.2%). Peak incident management level, person-days of exposure, and the fire's resistance to control were significantly related to the odds of a fire having at least one reported injury. However, the most complex fires had a lower injury incidence rate than less complex fires. Although fire complexity and the number of firefighters were associated with the risk for at least one reported injury, the more experienced and specialized firefighting teams had lower injury incidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fire modeling of the Heiss Dampf Reaktor containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolette, V.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, K.T. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes Sandia National Laboratories` participation in the fire modeling activities for the German Heiss Dampf Reaktor (HDR) containment building, under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize Sandia`s participation in the HDR fire modeling efforts and (2) to summarize the results of the international fire modeling community involved in modeling the HDR fire tests. Additional comments, on the state of fire modeling and trends in the international fire modeling community are also included. It is noted that, although the trend internationally in fire modeling is toward the development of the more complex fire field models, each type of fire model has something to contribute to the understanding of fires in nuclear power plants.

  17. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn L. Rhodes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of

  18. Joint influences of individual and work unit abusive supervision on ethical intentions and behaviors: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Sean T; Schaubroeck, John M; Peng, Ann C; Lord, Robert G; Trevino, Linda K; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Avolio, Bruce J; Dimotakis, Nikolaos; Doty, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    We develop and test a model based on social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1991) that links abusive supervision to followers' ethical intentions and behaviors. Results from a sample of 2,572 military members show that abusive supervision was negatively related to followers' moral courage and their identification with the organization's core values. In addition, work unit contexts with varying degrees of abusive supervision, reflected by the average level of abusive supervision reported by unit members, moderated relationships between the level of abusive supervision personally experienced by individuals and both their moral courage and their identification with organizational values. Moral courage and identification with organizational values accounted for the relationship between abusive supervision and followers' ethical intentions and unethical behaviors. These findings suggest that abusive supervision may undermine moral agency and that being personally abused is not required for abusive supervision to negatively influence ethical outcomes.

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors of Hispanics in the United States and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Jeffrey H; Kay, Linda S; Passin, Warren F; Lyles, Cynthia M; Crepaz, Nicole; Marín, Barbara V

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review examines the overall efficacy of HIV behavioral interventions designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors or incident sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Hispanics residing in the United States or Puerto Rico. Data from 20 randomized and nonrandomized trials (N = 6,173 participants) available through January 2006 were included in this review. Interventions successfully reduced the odds of unprotected sex and number of sex partners, increased the odds of condom use, and decreased the odds of acquiring new STD infections. Interventions successful in reducing the odds of any sex risk behavior used non-peer deliverers; included >or=4 intervention sessions; taught condom use or problem solving skills; or addressed barriers to condom use, sexual abstinence, or peer norms. Interventions that included the Hispanic cultural belief of machismo or those developed based on ethnographic interviews were successful in reducing the odds of sex risk behaviors among non-drug users. Interventions targeting injection drug users (IDUs; N = 3,569) significantly reduced the odds of injection drug use and the odds of sharing cotton or cookers, but did not significantly reduce the odds of engaging in risky sex behavior or needle sharing. Further development of culturally appropriate HIV prevention interventions for Hispanic populations, particularly men and persons living with HIV, are warranted.

  20. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  1. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  2. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Tuning Hospital Lighting: Evaluating Tunable LED Lighting at the Swedish Hospital Behavioral Health Unit in Seattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Andrea [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clark, Edward [ZGF Architects LLP, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-08-23

    The GATEWAY program evaluated a tunable LED lighting system installed in the new Swedish Medical Behavioral Health Unit in Seattle that incorporates color-tunable luminaires in common areas, and uses advanced controls for dimming and color tuning, with the goal of providing a better environment for staff and patients. The report reviews the design of the tunable lighting system, summarizes two sets of measurements, and discusses the circadian, energy, and commissioning implications as well as lessons learned from the project.

  3. The analysis of fire losses and characteristics of residential fires based on investigation data in Selangor, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a research in progress where authors seek to investigate the factors of residential fires. As part of the research, this paper aims to analyse the fire problems faced by the community of Malaysia. Data regarding residential fires between 2012 and 2014 was collected from fire investigation reports prepared by the Selangor Fire and Rescue Department. Descriptive analysis is conducted to summarize the data collected and describe the common phenomenon of residential fires. The distributions of the fire characteristics suggested that residential fires are commonly occurred during daytime, confined within the room of fire origin, caused by electrical failure and cooking negligence, started from kitchen, and occurred in multi-units housing. Further analysis will be conducted in order to investigate the relationships between the characteristics and residential fires.

  4. Experimental study on the mechanical behavior of lightweight concrete filled steel tubular short columns after fire%轻骨料钢管混凝土短柱受火后力学性能的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新堂; 周明; 王万祯; 仇心金

    2011-01-01

    Ceramsite concrete filled steel tube (CCFST) has not only the advantage of lightweight, but also good ductility that the ordinary concrete-filled steel tube structure has. However, study on the performance of CCFST structure after fire is still on the exploration stage. The mechanical behavior of twelve unprotected short columns of CCFST after fire was experimentally investigated. Effects of the parameters, such as the maximum value of fire temperature, fire duration, and slenderness ratio of the specimen and steel proportion on the strength and ductility of CCFST were discussed. The test results show that the CCFST short columns after fire had higher bearing capacity and better ductility, there was no descent segment in the load-displacement curves for most of the specimens after fire, and the bearing load increased again after the descent segment. It was concluded that effect of the maximum value of fire temperature and fire duration on the behavior of CCFST short columns after fire is related to geometrical parameters, and the degree of variation of the maximum value of fire temperature on the bearing capacity of the CCFST short columns increase with the slenderness ratio of the specimen.%钢管陶粒混凝土不仅具有陶粒混凝土轻质的特点,也拥有一般钢管混凝土结构的良好延性,但日的对火灾后钢管陶粒混凝土结构的性能还缺乏研究。通过对3组12根钢管陶粒混凝土短柱受火后力学性能的对比试验研究,讨论小同参数的钢管陶粒混凝土短柱受火后的剩余承载力和破坏形态的变化,重点讨论火灾最高保持温度、最高炉温持续时问、试件长细比、含钢率等参数对钢管陶粒混凝土短柱承载力和延性的影响。试验结果表明,钢管陶卡证混凝土短柱受火后仍然具有较高的承载力和良好的延性,火灾后多数试件的荷载一位移曲线并没有出现下降段,甚至出现承载力部分下降后又重新上升

  5. When do business units benefit more from collective citizenship behavior of management teams? An upper echelons perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Gong, Yaping; Liu, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Drawing upon the notion of managerial discretion from upper echelons theory, we theorize which external contingencies moderate the relationship between collective organizational citizenship behavior (COCB) and unit performance. Focusing on business unit (BU) management teams, we hypothesize that COCB of BU management teams enhances BU performance and that this impact depends on environmental uncertainty and BU management-team decision latitude, 2 determinants of managerial discretion. In particular, the positive effect of COCB is stronger when environmental uncertainty or the BU management-team decision latitude is greater. Time-lagged data from 109 BUs of a telecommunications company support the hypotheses. Additional exploratory analysis shows that the positive moderating effect of environmental uncertainty is further amplified at higher levels of BU management-team decision latitude. Overall, this study extends the internally focused view in the micro OCB literature by introducing external contingencies for the COCB-unit-performance relationship.

  6. Spontaneous motor unit behavior in human thenar muscles after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    2001-01-01

    Our first aim was to characterize spontaneous motor unit activity in thenar muscles influenced by chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Thenar surface electromyography (EMG), intramuscular EMG, and abduction and flexion forces were recorded. Subjects were instructed to relax for 2 min. Units still fi

  7. Not Getting Burned: The Importance of Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory S. Amacher; Arun S. Malik; Robert G. Haight

    2005-01-01

    We extend existing stand-level models of forest landowner behavior in the presence of fire risk to include the level and timing of fuel management activities. These activities reduce losses if a stand ignites. Based on simulations, we find the standard result that fire risk reduces the optimal rotation age does not hold when landowners use fuel management. Instead,...

  8. 利用CONE研究阻燃胶合板的动态燃烧行为%Dynamic Combustion Behaviors of Plywood Treated with Fire Retardant Using CONE Calorimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奉强; 宋永明; 孙理超; 冯建稳; 谢延军; 王清文

    2012-01-01

    Fire safety of interior wooden structures is closely associated with the flammability of indoor wooden structures. The effect of the treatment with phosphoric-nitrogen-boric(P-N-B) components based fire retardant FRW on the dynamic combustion behaviors of the plywood was investigated using a CONE calorimeter at a heat fluxes of 25, 50 and 75 kW/m2 respectively. The results show that the peak value of heat release rate(pkHRR), quantity of smoke release, and fire growth index(FGI) of untreated plywood are quite high, suggesting a high fire risk. The treatment of plywood with a P-N-B components based fire retardant FRW results in a greater char yield and less release of heat and smoke compared to those of untreated controls: Increasing fire intensity during test only slightly influenced the yield of carbon monoxide. Consequently, it demonstrates that the treatment with P-N-B components based fire retardant FRW can significantly restrain the combustion and reduce the yield of heat and smoke.%利用锥形量热仪CONE调查了磷-氮-硼系阻燃剂FRW处理胶合板在不同热辐射通量条件下的动态燃烧行为.结果显示:随热辐射通量提高,未阻燃胶合板的热释放速率峰值、烟气释放量和火势增长指数上升明显,火灾危险性高;阻燃胶合板的成炭率较高、热释放和烟释放较低;在燃烧过程中CO产率受热辐射通量增大的影响较小;FRW能显著抑制胶合板的可燃性,从而降低胶合板在使用过程中的火灾安全风险.

  9. Climate effects on fire regimes and tree recruitment in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter M

    2006-10-01

    Climate influences forest structure through effects on both species demography (recruitment and mortality) and disturbance regimes. Here, I compare multi-century chronologies of regional fire years and tree recruitment from ponderosa pine forests in the Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming to reconstructions of precipitation and global circulation indices. Regional fire years were affected by droughts and variations in both Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Fires were synchronous with La Niñas, cool phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and warm phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). These quasi-periodic circulation features are associated with drought conditions over much of the western United States. The opposite pattern (El Niño, warm PDO, cool AMO) was associated with fewer fires than expected. Regional tree recruitment largely occurred during wet periods in precipitation reconstructions, with the most abundant recruitment coeval with an extended pluvial from the late 1700s to early 1800s. Widespread even-aged cohorts likely were not the result of large crown fires causing overstory mortality, but rather were caused by optimal climate conditions that contributed to synchronous regional recruitment and longer intervals between surface fires. Synchronous recruitment driven by climate is an example of the Moran effect. The presence of abundant fire-scarred trees in multi-aged stands supports a prevailing historical model for ponderosa pine forests in which recurrent surface fires affected heterogenous forest structure, although the Black Hills apparently had a greater range of fire behavior and resulting forest structure over multi-decadal time scales than ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest that burned more often.

  10. Quantifying soil burn severity for hydrologic modeling to assess post-fire effects on sediment delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mariana; Brooks, Erin; Lew, Roger; Kolden, Crystal; Quinn, Dylan; Elliot, William; Robichaud, Pete

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a secondary fire effect with great implications for many ecosystem resources. Depending on the burn severity, topography, and the weather immediately after the fire, soil erosion can impact municipal water supplies, degrade water quality, and reduce reservoirs' storage capacity. Scientists and managers use field and remotely sensed data to quickly assess post-fire burn severity in ecologically-sensitive areas. From these assessments, mitigation activities are implemented to minimize post-fire flood and soil erosion and to facilitate post-fire vegetation recovery. Alternatively, land managers can use fire behavior and spread models (e.g. FlamMap, FARSITE, FOFEM, or CONSUME) to identify sensitive areas a priori, and apply strategies such as fuel reduction treatments to proactively minimize the risk of wildfire spread and increased burn severity. There is a growing interest in linking fire behavior and spread models with hydrology-based soil erosion models to provide site-specific assessment of mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion. The challenge remains, however, that many burn severity mapping and modeling products quantify vegetation loss rather than measuring soil burn severity. Wildfire burn severity is spatially heterogeneous and depends on the pre-fire vegetation cover, fuel load, topography, and weather. Severities also differ depending on the variable of interest (e.g. soil, vegetation). In the United States, Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps, derived from Landsat satellite images, are used as an initial burn severity assessment. BARC maps are classified from either a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) or differenced Normalized Burned Ratio (dNBR) scene into four classes (Unburned, Low, Moderate, and High severity). The development of soil burn severity maps requires further manual field validation efforts to transform the BARC maps into a product more applicable for post-fire soil rehabilitation activities

  11. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  12. On The Usage Of Fire Smoke Emissions In An Air Quality Forecasting System To Reduce Particular Matter Forecasting Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. C.; Pan, L.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; ONeill, S. M.; Ruminski, M.; Shafran, P.; DiMego, G.; Huang, J.; Stajner, I.; Upadhayay, S.; Larkin, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires contribute to air quality problems not only towards primary emissions of particular matters (PM) but also emitted ozone precursor gases that can lead to elevated ozone concentration. Wildfires are unpredictable and can be ignited by natural causes such as lightning or accidently by human negligent behavior such as live cigarette. Although wildfire impacts on the air quality can be studied by collecting fire information after events, it is extremely difficult to predict future occurrence and behavior of wildfires for real-time air quality forecasts. Because of the time constraints of operational air quality forecasting, assumption of future day's fire behavior often have to be made based on observed fire information in the past. The United States (U.S.) NOAA/NWS built the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) based on the U.S. EPA CMAQ to provide air quality forecast guidance (prediction) publicly. State and local forecasters use the forecast guidance to issue air quality alerts in their area. The NAQFC fine particulates (PM2.5) prediction includes emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, as well as natural sources such as dust storms and fires. The fire emission input to the NAQFC is derived from the NOAA NESDIS HMS fire and smoke detection product and the emission module of the US Forest Service BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework. This study focuses on the error estimation of NAQFC PM2.5 predictions resulting from fire emissions. The comparisons between the NAQFC modeled PM2.5 and the EPA AirNow surface observation show that present operational NAQFC fire emissions assumption can lead to a huge error in PM2.5 prediction as fire emissions are sometimes placed at wrong location and time. This PM2.5 prediction error can be propagated from the fire source in the Northwest U.S. to downstream areas as far as the Southeast U.S. From this study, a new procedure has been identified to minimize the aforementioned error. An additional 24 hours

  13. Avoidance of fire by Louisiana pine snakes, Pituophis melanoleucus ruthveni

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; John C. Tull; Marc Ealy; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer; Robert R. Fleet

    1998-01-01

    Wildfire and prescribed fire are important influences on pine ecosystems in the southeastern United States (Komarek 1968, 1974; Platt et al. 1988). Although considerable research on the impact of fire on vertebrates due to changes in vegetation structure has been reported, the direct impact of fire on vertebrates is not well known (Means and Campbell 1981). The...

  14. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section 108.413 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection...

  15. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108.404 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If...

  16. Simulation of the 2009 Harmanli fire (Bulgaria)

    CERN Document Server

    Jordanov, Georgi; Dobrinkova, Nina; Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Sousedík, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    We use a coupled atmosphere-fire model to simulate a fire that occurred on August 14--17, 2009, in the Harmanli region, Bulgaria. Data was obtained from GIS and satellites imagery, and from standard atmospheric data sources. Fuel data was classified in the 13 Anderson categories. For correct fire behavior, the spatial resolution of the models needed to be fine enough to resolve the essential micrometeorological effects. The simulation results are compared to available incident data. The code runs faster than real time on a cluster. The model is available from openwfm.org and it extends WRF-Fire from WRF 3.3 release.

  17. Impact of the irregular microgeometry of polyurethane foam on the macroscopic acoustic behavior predicted by a unit-cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutres, O; Ouisse, M; Atalla, N; Ichchou, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of the macroscopic sound absorption behavior of highly porous polyurethane foams using two unit-cell microstructure-based models recently developed by Doutres, Atalla, and Dong [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064901 (2011); J. Appl. Phys. 113, 054901 (2013)]. In these models, the porous material is idealized as a packing of a tetrakaidecahedra unit-cell representative of the disordered network that constitutes the porous frame. The non-acoustic parameters involved in the classical Johnson-Champoux-Allard model (i.e., porosity, airflow resistivity, tortuosity, etc.) are derived from characteristic properties of the unit-cell and semi-empirical relationships. A global sensitivity analysis is performed on these two models in order to investigate how the variability associated with the measured unit-cell characteristics affects the models outputs. This allows identification of the possible limitations of a unit-cell micro-macro approach due to microstructure irregularity. The sensitivity analysis mainly shows that for moderately and highly reticulated polyurethane foams, the strut length parameter is the key parameter since it greatly impacts three important non-acoustic parameters and causes large uncertainty on the sound absorption coefficient even if its measurement variability is moderate. For foams with a slight inhomogeneity and anisotropy, a micro-macro model associated to cell size measurements should be preferred.

  18. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE... United States....

  19. A review of the neural and behavioral consequences for unitizing emotional and neutral information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eMurray

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A special type of association, called a unitization, is formed when pieces of information are encoded as a single representation in memory (e.g., shirt and blue are encoded as a blue shirt; Graf & Schacter, 1989 and typically are later reactivated in memory as a single unit, allowing access to the features of multiple related stimuli at once (Bader et al., 2010; Diana et al., 2011. This review examines the neural processes supporting memory for unitizations and how the emotional content of the material may influence unitization. Although associative binding is typically reliant on hippocampal processes and supported by recollection, the first part of this review will present evidence to suggest that when two items are unitized into a single representation, memory for those bound items may be accomplished on the basis of familiarity and without reliance on the hippocampus. The second part of this review discusses how emotion may affect the processes that give rise to unitizations. Emotional information typically receives a mnemonic benefit over neutral information, but the literature is mixed on whether the presence of emotional information impedes or enhances the associative binding of neutral information (reviewed by Mather, 2007. It has been suggested that the way the emotional and neutral details are related together may be critical to whether the neutral details are enhanced or impeded (Mather, 2007; Mather & Sutherland, 2011. We focus on whether emotional arousal aides or inhibits the creation of a unitized representation, presenting preliminary data and future directions to test empirically the effects of forming and retrieving emotional and neutral unitizations.

  20. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Tianhuan Luo; Bo Li; Qian Zhao; Ji Zhou

    2015-01-01

    With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3) with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The ...

  1. Reformulation of Rothermel's wildland fire behaviour model for heterogeneous fuelbeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. Sandberg; Cynthia L. Riccardi; Mark D. Schaaf

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) includes equations that calculate energy release and one-dimensional spread rate in quasi-steady-state fires in heterogeneous but spatially uniform wildland fuelbeds, using a reformulation of the widely used Rothermel fire spread model. This reformulation provides an automated means to predict fire behavior...

  2. Evaluation of Handwashing Behaviors and Analysis of Hand Flora of Intensive Care Unit Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Yildiz Findik, BSN, MSc, PhD

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: The number of colonies of the microorganisms in the hand flora of the nurses increased postshift. The handwashing behavior of intensive care nurses must be improved as they nurse critical patients.

  3. The Association between Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use and Suicidal Behavior among United States Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Divin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence represents a vulnerable time for the development of both drug use/abuse and mental illness. Although previous research has substantiated a relationship between drug use and suicidal behavior, little research has examined this relationship with non-medical prescription drug use. Given the growing prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU among adolescents, this study explored the association between NMPDU and suicidal behavior. Nationally representative data were derived from 16, 410 adolescents who completed the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Approximately 19.8% of participants reported lifetime NMPDU. NMPDU was associated with significantly increased odds of suicidal behavior (P < 0.01, with seriously considering attempting suicide and making a plan about attempting suicide representing the strongest correlates for males and females. Results suggest the importance of 1 continued reinforcement of drug education programs in high school begun at earlier ages and 2 mental health care and screenings among adolescents.

  4. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  5. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  6. Preliminary Investigation of Food Guarding Behavior in Shelter Dogs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Slater

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey given to animal shelters across the US reported food bowl guarding as one of the most common reasons for euthanasia and only 34% attempted to modify this guarding behavior. This study identified 96 dogs that guarded their food bowl during an assessment, and then placed them into a home on a modification program. Food guarding behavior was identified as stiffening, gulping, growling, freezing, and/or biting a fake hand during the SAFER® food bowl assessment. Dogs that exhibited guarding behavior over toys were excluded. Follow-up was done at 3 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months post adoption to measure all guarding behavior in the home. Six adopters reported at least one incident involving guarding in the first three weeks, of which only one was around the food bowl. By three months, those adopters reported no guarding behavior except one new occurrence of a dog guarding a rawhide was reported in the third month. For dog identified with food guarding, the return rate to the shelter was 5% and 9% for adult dogs not identified with guarding behavior. Adopters did not comply with at least one aspect of the program, so it is unclear why so little guarding was reported. The key finding is that dogs that guarded their food bowl in the shelter were not guarding their food in their new homes.

  7. Dynamics of Health Behaviors and Socioeconomic Differences in Mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil K.; House, James S.; Elliott, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Background To measure the explanatory role of behavioral factors to educational and income disparities in mortality among U.S. adults (ages 25+). Methods Data were from 4 waves of the American Changing Lives Study (N=3,617). There were 1,832 deaths between 1986 and 2011. Smoking, physical activity, alcohol, and BMI were examined. Results Those with 0–11 years of schooling had an 88% (95% CI: 48%, 139%) increased risk of dying compared to those with 16+ years of schooling. Behavioral factors explained 41% (95% CI: 26%, 55%) and 50% (95% CI: 30%, 70%) of this excess in models that treated behavioral factors as fixed (single point in time) and time-varying (repeated), respectively. The lowest income group (bottom 20th percentile) had a 209% (95% CI: 172%, 256%) increased risk of dying relative to the highest income group (top 40th percentile). Behavioral factors explained 24% (fixed, 95% CI: 13%, 35%) and 39% (repeated, 95% CI: 22%, 56%) of this difference. Analyses of deaths by causes indicated that behavioral factors were more consequential to disparities in cardiovascular mortality, explaining up to 83% of educational differences, compared to cancer and other death causes. Conclusion Behavioral factors are one of a number of factors which explain socioeconomic mortality disparities, but their estimated explanatory role depends on a number of parameters including the SES measure examined, the cause of death, and age. In this nationally representative sample, findings based on repeated measures did not warrant a reevaluation of earlier estimates. PMID:25563741

  8. Mapping the Daily Progression of Large Wildland Fires Using MODIS Active Fire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Sedano, Fernando; Hook, Simon J.; Randerson, James T.; Jin, Yufang; Rogers, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    High temporal resolution information on burned area is a prerequisite for incorporating bottom-up estimates of wildland fire emissions in regional air transport models and for improving models of fire behavior. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire product (MO(Y)D14) as input to a kriging interpolation to derive continuous maps of the evolution of nine large wildland fires. For each fire, local input parameters for the kriging model were defined using variogram analysis. The accuracy of the kriging model was assessed using high resolution daily fire perimeter data available from the U.S. Forest Service. We also assessed the temporal reporting accuracy of the MODIS burned area products (MCD45A1 and MCD64A1). Averaged over the nine fires, the kriging method correctly mapped 73% of the pixels within the accuracy of a single day, compared to 33% for MCD45A1 and 53% for MCD64A1.

  9. Study on Fire-resistance Behavior of Concrete and Test Technique of Fire Damage of Concrete Sturctures%混凝土耐火性能及损伤检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡森林

    2013-01-01

    Study on component of the concrete, Have discussed physical chemistry change and mechanics function effect on concrete when concrete test specimen in high temperature environment, then test technique of fire damage of concrete structures are summarized.%  从混凝土组分出发,讨论了高温下的物理化学变化及其对混凝土力学性能的影响,并对混凝土耐火性能的试验方法进行了概括总结。

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indirectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas, or pyrolysis gas. {The interest in this cycle arise from a recent...... demonstration of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants.} A preliminary analysis of the ideal recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained...... for the indirectly fired gas turbine (IFGT) and for the supplementary-fired IFGT. Both results show that the combination of external firing and internal firing have the potential of reducing or solving some problems with the use of biomass both in the recuperated and the indirectly fired gas turbine: The former...

  11. Muscle fiber and motor unit behavior in the longest human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A John; Duxson, Marilyn J; Butler, Jane E; Hodges, Paul W; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2005-09-14

    The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body. It is strap-like, up to 600 mm in length, and contains five to seven neurovascular compartments, each with a neuromuscular endplate zone. Some of its fibers terminate intrafascicularly, whereas others may run the full length of the muscle. To assess the location and timing of activation within motor units of this long muscle, we recorded electromyographic potentials from multiple intramuscular electrodes along sartorius muscle during steady voluntary contraction and analyzed their activity with spike-triggered averaging from a needle electrode inserted near the proximal end of the muscle. Approximately 30% of sartorius motor units included muscle fibers that ran the full length of the muscle, conducting action potentials at 3.9 +/- 0.1 m/s. Most motor units were innervated within a single muscle endplate zone that was not necessarily near the midpoint of the fiber. As a consequence, action potentials reached the distal end of a unit as late as 100 ms after initiation at an endplate zone. Thus, contractile activity is not synchronized along the length of single sartorius fibers. We postulate that lateral transmission of force from fiber to endomysium and a wide distribution of motor unit endplates along the muscle are critical for the efficient transmission of force from sarcomere to tendon and for the prevention of muscle injury caused by overextension of inactive regions of muscle fibers.

  12. The effects of parental presence in the postanesthetic care unit on children's postoperative behavior: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, David R; Dick, Bruce D; Crawford, Susan

    2010-04-01

    The effects on children of parental presence in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) have not been extensively studied. The few published studies are retrospective, nonrandomized, or lack adequate controls. They suggest that parental presence in the PACU decreases crying and negative behavior change postoperatively. We performed this prospective, randomized, controlled study to determine whether the presence of a parent affected crying behaviors in the PACU and behavior change 2 weeks postoperatively. Randomly selected patients, aged 2.0 to 8 years 11 months, ASA physical status I or II, and scheduled for elective outpatient surgery with an anticipated PACU stay of >10 minutes were randomly assigned to the parent present group (n = 150) or parent absent group (n = 150) in the PACU. All parents underwent the same preparation program. Reunification occurred once children's eyes had opened for the parent present group. In the PACU, crying was scored each minute after eye opening using a 5-point scale. Negative behavior change 2 weeks after discharge was determined using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. Because the anesthesia technique to be used was not determined a priori, data on the technique used were collected to ensure that groups were similar. Multiple and logistic regression techniques were used to determine predictors of crying in the PACU and behavior change 2 weeks postoperatively. Parental presence in the PACU made no difference in crying in the PACU. Negative behavior change 2 weeks postoperatively occurred more frequently in the parent absent group than the parent present group (45.8% vs 29.3%; P = 0.007). Multiple regression identified the following significant factors as predictive of larger proportion of time spent crying in the PACU (R(2) = 0.256, F[5, 273] = 15.66, P < 0.001): age <5 years (P < 0.001) and higher Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale score at 15 minutes after arrival in day surgery (P < 0.001). Parental

  13. Geometry-of-fire tracking algorithm for direct-fire weapon systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Caleb K.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The continuous cycle for validating geometry of fires on a battlefield impedes momentum. A force that can decide and act quicker than the enemy has an advantage. The goal of this thesis is to provide dismounted infantry units with this advantage by developing a sensor network that streamlines the geometry-of-fire validation cycle for direct-fire weapon systems. This is the first attempt to develop technology for this specific applicati...

  14. Mechanical behavior of regular open-cell porous biomaterials made of diamond lattice unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S M; Campoli, G; Amin Yavari, S; Sajadi, B; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-06-01

    Cellular structures with highly controlled micro-architectures are promising materials for orthopedic applications that require bone-substituting biomaterials or implants. The availability of additive manufacturing techniques has enabled manufacturing of biomaterials made of one or multiple types of unit cells. The diamond lattice unit cell is one of the relatively new types of unit cells that are used in manufacturing of regular porous biomaterials. As opposed to many other types of unit cells, there is currently no analytical solution that could be used for prediction of the mechanical properties of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cells. In this paper, we present new analytical solutions and closed-form relationships for predicting the elastic modulus, Poisson׳s ratio, critical buckling load, and yield (plateau) stress of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cell. The mechanical properties predicted using the analytical solutions are compared with those obtained using finite element models. A number of solid and porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) specimens were manufactured using selective laser melting. A series of experiments were then performed to determine the mechanical properties of the matrix material and cellular structures. The experimentally measured mechanical properties were compared with those obtained using analytical solutions and finite element (FE) models. It has been shown that, for small apparent density values, the mechanical properties obtained using analytical and numerical solutions are in agreement with each other and with experimental observations. The properties estimated using an analytical solution based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory markedly deviated from experimental results for large apparent density values. The mechanical properties estimated using FE models and another analytical solution based on the Timoshenko beam theory better matched the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Human Factors in Fire Safety Management and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-01-01

    Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behavior, compartmentalization, and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. Problems still occurred despite of the adequate fire safety systems installed. For most people in high-risk buildings, not all accidents were caused by ...

  16. Avaliação de brigadas de incêndios florestais em unidades de conservação Evaluation of forest fire volunteer brigades in conservation units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César da Silva

    2003-02-01

    brigades located in each Conservation Unit. The methodology consisted in applying questionnaires and interviews to the brigadiers and their coordinators. The data set was analyzed for the three brigades, with the best training level and brigadier satisfaction being found at the IBGE Ecological Reserve, and the worst at the UnB´s Água Limpa Farm. No individual protection equipment was available to the forest fire fighters and the number of forest fire fighting equipments and tools was not sufficient. No road maintenance machines were at the disposal of the brigades. Only the IBGE Ecological Reserve Brigade was supplied with a pipe truck for forest fire fighting. Água Limpa farm Brigade had the greatest participation in educational campaigns at the nearby communities. It was concluded that all the brigades have a good training and skill level and despite the limitation of tools and equipments, they are able to fight small forest fires. The worst problem found was the lack of individual protection during forest fire fighting, what may cause accidents.

  17. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Fire ant allergy Share | Fire Ant Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in ...

  18. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  19. 600 MW燃煤空冷机组特殊材料的焊接工艺%Special material welding process of 600 MW coal-fired air cooling unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德云; 石南辉

    2013-01-01

    In order to of air cooling unit welding construction can have a better understanding, through their participation in the installation of the observation of shanxi mountain power plant phase ii 2×600 MW coal-fired empty cold engineering #3 unit project construction management experience was summarized, with emphasis on the special materials of the main parts of welding process (such as: SA335 - P91 joint of hot,WB36 steel welding,TP347H welding) were introduced,the hope can give similar unit installation construction and provide some reference,this project won the "2009 annual national excellent welding engineering award".%为更好地了解空冷机组焊接施工,通过对某发电厂二期2×600 MW燃煤空冷工程#3机组工程的施工管理经验进行总结,重点对特殊材料主要部件的焊接工艺(如:SA335-P91焊口的后热、WB36钢焊接、TP347H的焊接)加以介绍,希望能给类似机组的安装施工提供一些借鉴.

  20. Health disparities experienced by people with disabilities in the United States: a Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, Jennifer R; Bungum, Tim

    2012-09-09

    The Americans with Disabilities Act became law in 1990; since then research has shown that people with disabilities continue to experience barriers to health care. The purpose of this study was to compare utilization of preventive services, chronic disease rates, and engagement in health risk behaviors of participants with differing severities of disabilities to those without disabilities. This study was a secondary analysis of 2010 data collected in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System national survey in the United States. Rao Chi square test and logistic regression were employed. Participants with disabilities had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios for all chronic diseases, for physical inactivity, obesity and smoking. They were significantly more likely to participate in some preventive services (flu/pneumonia vaccination, HIV test) and significantly less likely to participate in other preventive services (mammogram, Pap test). Our findings suggest that people with disabilities are less able to fully participate in all preventive services offered.

  1. The effect of preceptor behavior on the critical thinking skills of new graduate nurses in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddoura, Mahmoud A

    2013-11-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of preceptor behaviors on the critical thinking of new graduate nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU). This study explored the perceptions of new graduates on the effect of preceptor behaviors and strategies on the development of their critical thinking skills, using a qualitative exploratory descriptive design. Data were collected with demographic surveys and semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed with a qualitative content analysis approach. The study showed that relationships between new graduates and their preceptors played a key role in the development of critical thinking skills in new graduate nurses, and specific practical implications were suggested. The study data are useful for critical care nurses, preceptors, nurse educators, and clinical nurse specialists. The findings contribute to efforts to enhance the preceptor-preceptee relationship and develop critical thinking skills in new graduates.

  2. Material Analysis for a Fire Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Alexander; Nemer, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    This report consolidates technical information on several materials and material classes for a fire assessment. The materials include three polymeric materials, wood, and hydraulic oil. The polymers are polystyrene, polyurethane, and melamine- formaldehyde foams. Samples of two of the specific materials were tested for their behavior in a fire - like environment. Test data and the methods used to test the materials are presented. Much of the remaining data are taken from a literature survey. This report serves as a reference source of properties necessary to predict the behavior of these materials in a fire.

  3. Music listening preferences and preadmission dysfunctional psychosocial behaviors of adolescents hospitalized on an in-patient psychiatric unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, C K; Demi, A S

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between music listening preferences and preadmission, dysfunctional psychosocial behaviors (PDPB) of 60 adolescents who were hospitalized on an in-patient psychiatric unit. Findings were that hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to music with negative lyrics/themes had a history of more PDPB than hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to music that did not contain negative lyrics/themes; and hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to heavy metal music had a history of more PDPB than hospitalized adolescents who primarily listened to other types of music.

  4. Fault Lines in Our Democracy: Civic Knowledge, Voting Behavior, and Civic Engagement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Richard J.; Sum, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the United States faces historic challenges, including a struggling economy, an aging infrastructure and global terrorism. Solutions will have to come from educated, skilled citizens who understand and believe in our democratic system and are civically engaged. This incisive new report examines these fault lines and…

  5. Factors That Influence Human Behavior And Negatively Affect Energy Consumption In USMC Ground Units During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Boston: Prentice Hall Bulanow, Peter, Paul Tabler, and Shawn Charchan. 2011. Expeditionary Energy Assessment: Environmental Control Unit Alternatives...U.S. ARMY Rapid Equipping Force. Kotter, John P., and Leonard Schlesinger. 2008. “Choosing Strategies for Change.” Harvard Business Review 86.7

  6. Nurses\\' perception of caring behaviors in intensive care units in hospitals of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi SE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Caring is the core of nursing however, different individules have different perceptions of it. Continuous assessment and measurement of caring behaviors results in the identification of their problems. The careful planning of interventions and problem solving will improve care. The aim of this study was to identify nurses' perception of caring behaviors in the intensive care units. Materials and Method: In this descriptive-analytic study, 140 nurses were selected from intensive care units of hospitals affiliated to Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, using the census method in 2012. The data collection tool was the Caring Behaviors Inventory for Elders (CBI-E. This questionnaire consisted of two parts including demographic information and 28 items related to care. Face and content validity of the Persian version of the questionnaire were provided by professionals, and after deletion of 4 items a 24-item questionnaire was provided. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to assess reliability (&alpha = 0.71. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 18 and descriptive-analytic statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Based on the findings, nurses paid more attention to the physical–technical aspects (95.71 ± 12.76 of care in comparison to its psychosocial aspects (75.41 ± 27.91. Nurses had the highest score in care behavior of "timely performance of medical procedures and medication administration". Conclusion: Since nurses paid more attention to the technical aspects of care than its psychosocial aspects, by providing nurses with a correct perception of care, patients can be provided with needs-based care. This will increase patient satisfaction with nursing care, and indirectly result in the positive attitude of patients and society toward the nursing profession and its services. Moreover, nursing education officials can use these results to assist nurses in meeting

  7. Exposure to Suicide: Incidence and Association with Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: United States, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Alex E.; Sacks, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    From a national random telephone survey of U.S. adults, estimates the 12-month incidence of exposure to suicide and its association with suicidal ideation, planning, and behavior. Of 5,238 respondents, 342 reported knowing a suicide decedent from the previous year. Univariate analysis showed persons reporting such exposure were significantly more…

  8. Association between Bullying Victimization and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Marci Feldman; Everett Jones, Sherry; Barrios, Lisa; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Holt, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood exposure to adverse experiences has been associated with adult asthma, smoking, sexually transmitted disease, obesity, substance use, depression, and sleep disturbances. Conceptualizing bullying as an adverse childhood experience, 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data were used to examine the relationship between…

  9. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  10. Living with fire: Fire ecology and policy for the twenty-first century [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2010-01-01

    This is a well-written polemic about the failure of fire policy and management in the United States. The book contains enough ecology and history for nonspecialists to understand the complexities of the policy and management dilemmas that we face today. The authors provide a particularly good treatment of the diversity of roles that fire plays in different ecosystems,...

  11. Combining turbulent kinetic energy and Haines Index predictions for fire-weather assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman; Xindi Bian

    2007-01-01

    The 24- to 72-hour fire-weather predictions for different regions of the United States are now readily available from the regional Fire Consortia for Advanced Modeling of Meteorology and Smoke (FCAMMS) that were established as part of the U.S. National Fire Plan. These predictions are based on daily real-time MM5 model simulations of atmospheric conditions and fire-...

  12. 46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detectors for electric fire detection system. 108.407... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system must be located where— (1)...

  13. 77 FR 1945 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, National Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ...; Comment Request, National Fire Department Census AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... collect data for the development and continuation of the National Fire Department Census. DATES: Comments..., Statistician, United States Fire Administration, National Fire Data Center, (301) 447-1154 for additional...

  14. Orientation behaviors in residents relocated to a redesigned dementia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Margaret C; MacLean, Jill; Borrie, Michael; Geiger, Julia

    2004-01-01

    This descriptive study took advantage of a scheduled environmental renovation in a secured dementia care unit. A convenience sample of 19 residents who were relocated to the unit completed a performance-based orientation task involving locating their own room. The study included a brief structured interview and tests of psychological function (cognition, depression, and visual-spatial ability) two months after admission. Intrusions (uninvited entry into another resident's room) were tracked for one week. Eighty-four percent of participants were able to find their own rooms during the orientation task. The majority of participants reported use of color (n = 13) and structure (n = 12) as cues for locating their rooms. Thirty-eight percent of those who could find their own rooms also intruded into others' rooms; these intrusions were most commonly related to seeking social interaction. The results attest to the importance of understanding the multiple factors that determine environmental use in this population.

  15. Fire-safe polymers and polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiqing

    The intrinsic relationships between polymer structure, composition and fire behavior have been explored to develop new fire-safe polymeric materials. Different experimental techniques, especially three milligram-scale methods---pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and pyrolysis GC/MS---have been combined to fully characterize the thermal decomposition and flammability of polymers and polymer composites. Thermal stability, mass loss rate, char yield and properties of decomposition volatiles were found to be the most important parameters in determining polymer flammability. Most polymers decompose by either an unzipping or a random chain scission mechanism with an endothermic decomposition of 100--900 J/g. Aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, conjugated double or triple bonds and heteroatoms such as halogens, N, O, S, P and Si are the basic structural units for fire-resistant polymers. The flammability of polymers can also be successfully estimated by combining pyrolysis GC/MS results or chemical structures with TGA results. The thermal decomposition and flammability of two groups of inherently fire-resistant polymers---poly(hydroxyamide) (PHA) and its derivatives, and bisphenol C (BPC II) polyarylates---have been systematically studied. PHA and most of its derivatives have extremely low heat release rates and very high char yields upon combustion. PHA and its halogen derivatives can completely cyclize into quasi-polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures at low temperatures. However, the methoxy and phosphate derivatives show a very different behavior during decomposition and combustion. Molecular modeling shows that the formation of an enol intermediate is the rate-determining step in the thermal cyclization of PHA. BPC II-polyarylate is another extremely flame-resistant polymer. It can be used as an efficient flame-retardant agent in copolymers and blends. From PCFC results, the total heat of combustion of these copolymers or blends

  16. Shortening behavior of the different components of muscle-tendon unit during isokinetic plantar flexions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauraix, Hugo; Nordez, Antoine; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-10-01

    The torque-velocity relationship has been widely considered as reflecting the mechanical properties of the contractile apparatus, and the influence of tendinous tissues on this relationship obtained during in vivo experiments remains to be determined. This study describes the pattern of shortening of various muscle-tendon unit elements of the triceps surae at different constant angular velocities and quantifies the contributions of fascicles, tendon, and aponeurosis to the global muscle-tendon unit shortening. Ten subjects performed isokinetic plantar flexions at different preset angular velocities (i.e., 30, 90, 150, 210, 270, and 330°/s). Ultrafast ultrasound measurements were performed on the muscle belly and on the myotendinous junction of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. The contributions of fascicles, tendon, and aponeurosis to global muscle-tendon unit shortening velocity were calculated for velocity conditions for four parts of the total range of motion. For both muscles, the fascicles' contribution decreased throughout the motion (73.5 ± 21.5% for 100-90° angular range to 33.7 ± 20.2% for 80-70°), whereas the tendon contribution increased (25.8 ± 15.4 to 55.6 ± 16.8%). In conclusion, the tendon contribution to the global muscle-tendon unit shortening is significant even during a concentric contraction. However, this contribution depends on the range of motion analyzed. The intersubject variability found in the maximal fascicle shortening velocity, for a given angular velocity, suggests that some subjects might possess a more efficient musculoarticular complex to produce the movement velocity. These findings are of great interest for understanding the ability of muscle-tendon shortening velocity.

  17. State behavior during the Ukrainian crisis: the perspectives of Romania, France, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    A work of the United States Government is not subject to copyright, however further publication or sale of copyrighted images is not permissible. ii ...referendum pertaining to Crimea’s status, and pursued an all-out campaign in favor of Crimea’s reunification with Russia. The vote, held on 16 March...2014 Reunification Treaty that Russia used to legalize the annexation of Crimea.133 The Ukrainians responded through Prime Minister Arseniy

  18. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhuan Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3 with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric constant are also measured under different sintering temperatures. The dielectric spectra showed a slight permittivity decrease with the increase of temperature and exhibited a loss of 0.0005, combined with a higher microwave dielectric constant of ~167 and quality factor Q of 2049. Therefore, CaTiO3 is a kind of versatile and potential metamaterial unit cell. The permittivity of CaTiO3 at higher microwave frequency was also examined in the rectangular waveguide and we got the permittivity of 165, creating a new method to test permittivity at higher microwave frequency.

  19. Enhancing behavioral change with motivational interviewing: a case study in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrabissa, Giada; Ceccarini, Martina; Borrello, Maria; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Titon, Annamaria; Nibbio, Ferruccio; Montano, Mariella; Bertone, Gianandrea; Gondoni, Luca; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Psychological interventions in cardiac rehabilitation programs appear relevant in as much they significantly contribute to achieve the goals of rehabilitation, to reduce the risk of relapses and to improve patients' adherence to therapy. To this aim, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promising results in improving motivation to change and individuals' confidence in their ability to do so. The purpose of this article is to integrate theory with practice by describing a three-session case scenario. It illustrates how MI's skills and strategies can be used to enhance heart-healthy habits. MI may be synergistic with other treatment approaches and it is used here in conjunction with brief strategic therapy. By the use of MI principles and techniques, the patient reported an increase in his motivation and ability to change, developing a post discharge plan that incorporates self-care behaviors. MI may be effective in motivating and facilitating health behavior change among obese patients suffering from heart failure.

  20. A GIS-based framework for evaluating investments in fire management: Spatial allocation of recreation values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando González-Cabán; Catrina I. Páez; Edgard. Chávez

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service is responsible for developing tools to facilitate effective and efficient fire management on wildlands and urban-wildland interfaces. Existing GIS-based fire modeling software only permits estimation of the costs of fire prevention and mitigation efforts as well as the effects of those efforts on fire behavior. This research demonstrates how the...

  1. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  2. Predicting Developmental Change in Healthy Eating and Regular Exercise among Adolescents in China and the United States: The Role of Psychosocial and Behavioral Protection and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S.; Costa, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of developmental change in health-enhancing behavior--healthy eating and regular exercise--among adolescents in China and the United States. The application of a conceptual framework comprising psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors--both proximal and distal and at both the individual…

  3. Predicting Developmental Change in Healthy Eating and Regular Exercise among Adolescents in China and the United States: The Role of Psychosocial and Behavioral Protection and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S.; Costa, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a cross-national study of developmental change in health-enhancing behavior--healthy eating and regular exercise--among adolescents in China and the United States. The application of a conceptual framework comprising psychosocial and behavioral protective and risk factors--both proximal and distal and at both the individual…

  4. Residential Cooking Behavior in the United States: Data Collected from a Web-Based Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. W; Andrew, E. E; Hu, T. C; Singer, B. C; Ding, L.; Logue, J. M

    2014-08-01

    Cooking has a significant impact on indoor air quality. When cooking occurs, how foods are cooked, and the types of food that are cooked have all been shown to impact the rate at which occupants are exposed to pollutants. Home occupancy characteristics impact how concentrations in the home translate into exposures for the occupants. With the intent of expanding our understanding of cooking behavior in the U.S., we developed and advertised an online survey to collect household cooking behavior for the 24 hrs prior to taking the survey. The survey questions were designed to address gaps in knowledge needed to predict the impact of cooking on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants. The survey included the following questions: 1) which meals households ate at home; 2) number of household members at home during cooking; 3) the type of oil used for cooking; 4) the type of foods cooked at each meal; 5) the type of cooking devices used; and 6) the methods selected for food preparation. We also collected information on household characteristics such as their location (zip code), ethnicity, and ages of family members. We analyzed the variability in home cooking characteristics for households in different climate zones and with four different types of family compositions: 1 senior living alone, 1 adult living alone, 2 or more adults/seniors, and families with children. We used simple statistical tests to determine if the probability of certain cooking behaviors differed between these subgroups.

  5. Firing temperature accuracy of four dental furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Per; Ciber, Edina; Dérand, Tore

    2011-01-01

    In spite of using recommended firing and displayed temperatures, low-fired dental porcelain more often demonstrates unsatisfactory results after firing than porcelain fired at higher temperatures. It could therefore be anticipated that temperatures shown on the display are incorrect, implying that the furnace does not render correct firing programs for low-fired porcelain. The purpose of this study is to investigate deviations from the real temperature during the firing process and also to illustrate the service and maintenance discipline of furnaces at dental laboratories. Totally 20 units of four different types of dental furnaces were selected for testing of temperature accuracy with usage of a digital temperature measurement apparatus, Therma 1. In addition,the staffs at 68 dental laboratories in Sweden were contacted for a telephone interview on furnace brand and on service and maintenance program performed at their laboratories. None of the 20 different dental furnaces in the study could generate the firing temperatures shown on the display, indicating that the hypothesis was correct. Multimat MCII had the least deviation of temperature compared with displayfigures. 62 out of 68 invited dental laboratories chose to participate in the interviews and the result was that very few laboratories had a service and maintenance program living up to quality standards. There is room for improving the precision of dental porcelain furnaces as there are deviations between displayed and read temperatures during the different steps of the firing process.

  6. Litter Species Composition and Topographic Effects on Fuels and Modeled Fire Behavior in an Oak-Hickory Forest in the Eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Matthew B; Hutchinson, Todd F; Dietenberger, Mark; Matt, Frederick; Peters, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Mesophytic species (esp. Acer rubrum) are increasingly replacing oaks (Quercus spp.) in fire-suppressed, deciduous oak-hickory forests of the eastern US. A pivotal hypothesis is that fuel beds derived from mesophytic litter are less likely than beds derived from oak litter to carry a fire and, if they do, are more likely to burn at lower intensities. Species effects, however, are confounded by topographic gradients that affect overstory composition and fuel bed decomposition. To examine the separate and combined effects of litter species composition and topography on surface fuel beds, we conducted a common garden experiment in oak-hickory forests of the Ohio Hills. Each common garden included beds composed of mostly oak and mostly maple litter, representative of oak- and maple-dominated stands, respectively, and a mixture of the two. Beds were replenished each fall for four years. Common gardens (N = 16) were established at four topographic positions (ridges, benches on south- and northeast-facing slopes, and stream terraces) at each of four sites. Litter source and topographic position had largely independent effects on fuel beds and modeled fire dynamics after four years of development. Loading (kg m-2) of the upper litter layer (L), the layer that primarily supports flaming spread, was least in more mesic landscape positions and for maple beds, implying greater decomposition rates for those situations. Bulk density in the L layer (kg m-3) was least for oak beds which, along with higher loading, would promote fire spread and fireline intensity. Loading and bulk density of the combined fermentation and humic (FH) layers were least on stream terrace positions but were not related to species. Litter- and FH-layer moistures during a 5-day dry-down period after a rain event were affected by time and topographic effects while litter source effects were not evident. Characteristics of flaming combustion determined with a cone calorimeter pointed to greater fireline

  7. Special Care Units and Traditional Care in Dementia: Relationship with Behavior, Cognition, Functional Status and Quality of Life - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen S. Kok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Special care facilities for patients with dementia gain increasing attention. However, an overview of studies examining the differences between care facilities with respect to their effects on behavior, cognition, functional status and quality of life is lacking. Results: Our literature search resulted in 32 studies published until October 2012. Overall, patients with dementia who lived at special care units (SCUs showed a significantly more challenging behavior, more agitation/aggression, more depression and anxiety, more cases of global cognitive impairment and a better psychosocial functioning. There was a tendency towards a better functional status in specialized care facilities, and a better quality of life was found in favor of the SCU group compared to the traditional nursing home (n-SCU group. Longitudinal studies showed an increased number of neuropsychiatric cases, more patients displaying deteriorating behavior and resistance to care as well as less decline in activities of daily living (ADL in the SCU group compared to the n-SCU group. Patients in small-scale, homelike SCUs showed more agitation and less ADL decline compared to SCU patients. Conclusion: This review shows that the patient characteristics in SCU and n-SCU settings and, to a minor extent, in SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU settings are different. Over time, there are differences between n-SCU, SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU facilities for some variables.

  8. Sociometric approaches for managing military units and predicting of behavior of military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudro, Nataliya M.; Puzikova, Svetlana M.

    2017-09-01

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan military service becomes attractive primarily for that category of people who have no opportunity to acquire high quality vocational or higher education, decent income by the speciality available, or those who have not yet identified themselves professionally and socially. Its a serious problem how to ensure ability of military units to execute their service duties in conditions of more and more increasing requirements for professional competences of military personnel, increased intellectualization of military service when the quality of "human material" often is not corresponding to the required standards. This problem in the national and foreign science is still being developed and has no final solutions accessible for the scientific society. This article presents an effort to offer specialists in the military administration area one of probable tools to forecast successfulness of execution of professional tasks by military units based on results of sociometric studies and algorithms of plotting Bayesian networks. Using these tools a military leader will be able to evaluate effectiveness of his managerial activity, correct mechanisms of individual and mentoring activity with regard to individual servicemen, provide an opportunity to eliminate risks of failing to fulfill professional tasks on time and failing to ensure combat readiness of entrusted military team.

  9. Controls on variations in MODIS fire radiative power in Alaskan boreal forests: implications for fire severity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kirsten; Kasischke, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Fire activity in the Alaskan boreal forest, though episodic at annual and intra-annual time scales, has experienced an increase over the last several decades. Increases in burned area and fire severity are not only releasing more carbon to the atmosphere, but likely shifting vegetation composition in the region towards greater deciduous dominance and a reduction in coniferous stands. While some recent studies have addressed qualitative differences between large and small fire years in the Alaskan boreal forest, the ecological effects of a greater proportion of burning occurring during large fire years and during late season fires have not yet been examined. Some characteristics of wildfires that can be detected remotely are related to fire severity and can provide new information on spatial and temporal patterns of burning. This analysis focused on boreal wildfire intensity (fire radiative power, or FRP) contained in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily active fire product from 2003 to 2010. We found that differences in FRP resulted from seasonality and intra-annual variability in fire activity levels, vegetation composition, latitudinal variation, and fire spread behavior. Our studies determined two general categories of active fire detections: new detections associated with the spread of the fire front and residual pixels in areas that had already experienced front burning. Residual pixels had a lower average FRP than front pixels, but represented a high percentage of all pixels during periods of high fire activity (large fire years, late season burning, and seasonal periods of high fire activity). As a result, the FRP from periods of high fire activity was less intense than those from periods of low fire activity. Differences related to latitude were greater than expected, with higher latitudes burning later in the season and at a higher intensity than lower latitudes. Differences in vegetation type indicate that coniferous vegetation

  10. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  11. Detailed Analysis of Motor Unit Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Mile; Sørensen, John Aasted; Dahl, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability.......System for decomposition of EMG signals intotheir constituent motor unit potentials and their firing patterns.The aim of the system is detailed analysis ofmotor unit variability....

  12. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  13. Cohabitation Expectations among Young Adults in the United States: Do They Match Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Smock, Pamela J; Dorius, Cassandra; Cooksey, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Cohabitation continues to rise, but there is a lack of knowledge about expectations to cohabit and the linkage between expectations and subsequent cohabitation. We capitalize on a new opportunity to study cohabitation expectations by drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79) main youth and two waves (2008 and 2010) of the NLSY young adult (YA) surveys (n=1,105). We find considerable variation in cohabitation expectations: 39.9% have no expectation of cohabiting in the future and 16.6% report high odds of cohabiting in the next two years. Cohabitation expectations are associated with higher odds of entering a cohabiting relationship, but are not perfectly associated. Only 38% of young adults with certain cohabitation expectations in 2008 entered a cohabiting union by 2010. Further investigation of the mismatch between expectations and behaviors indicates that a substantial minority (30%) who entered a cohabiting union had previously reported no or low expectations, instances of what we term "unplanned cohabitation." Our findings underscore the importance of considering not just behavior, but also individuals' expectations for understanding union formation, and more broadly, family change.

  14. Enhancing Behavioral Change with Motivational Interviewing: a case study in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada ePietrabissa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: psychological interventions in Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR programs appear relevant in as much they significantly contribute to achieve the goals of rehabilitation, to reduce the risk of relapses and to improve patients’ adherence to therapy. To this aim, Motivational Interviewing (MI has shown promising results in improving motivation to change and individuals’ confidence in their ability to do so. Objective: the purpose of this article is to integrate theory with practice by describing a 3-session case scenario. It illustrates how the use of MI’s skills and strategies can be used to enhance health. MI may be synergistic with other treatment approaches and it is used here in conjunction with Brief Strategic Therapy (BST. Conclusions: by the use of Motivational Interviewing principles and technique, the patient reported an increase in his motivation and ability to change, developing a post discharge plan that incorporates self-care behaviors. Clinical Implications: Motivational Interviewing may be effective in motivating and facilitating health behavior change in patients suffering from heart failure.

  15. Uniting Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic and Lubricant Infused Slippery Behavior on Copper Oxide Nano-structured Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujjain, Sanjeev Kumar; Roy, Pritam Kumar; Kumar, Sumana; Singha, Subhash; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2016-01-01

    Alloys, specifically steel, are considered as the workhorse of our society and are inimitable engineering materials in the field of infrastructure, industry and possesses significant applications in our daily life. However, creating a robust synthetic metallic surface that repels various liquids has remained extremely challenging. The wettability of a solid surface is known to be governed by its geometric nano-/micro structure and the chemical composition. Here, we are demonstrating a facile and economical way to generate copper oxide micro-nano structures with spherical (0D), needle (1D) and hierarchical cauliflower (3D) morphologies on galvanized steel substrates using a simple chemical bath deposition method. These nano/micro textured steel surfaces, on subsequent coating of a low surface energy material display excellent superhydrophobic, superoleophobic and slippery behavior. Polydimethylsiloxane coated textured surfaces illustrate superhydrophobicity with water contact angle about 160°(2) and critical sliding angle ~2°. When functionalized with low-surface energy perfluoroalkylsilane, these surfaces display high repellency for low surface tension oils as well as hydrocarbons. Among them, the hierarchical cauliflower morphology exhibits re-entrant structure thereby showing the best superoleophobicity with contact angle 149° for dodecane. Once infused with a lubricant like silicone oil, they show excellent slippery behavior with low contact angle hysteresis (~ 2°) for water drops. PMID:27752098

  16. Health status and health behaviors among citizen endurance Nordic skiers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul J; Bovard, Ralph S; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Beebe, Timothy J; Wang, Zhen

    2017-07-24

    More than two-thirds of Americans are overweight or obese (69%) placing them at high risk for a wide array of chronic diseases. Physical activity anchors most approaches to obesity prevention and weight management, but physical activity levels remain low in the general US population. As a group, citizen athletes who compete in Nordic skiing events such as the American Birkebeiner participate in fitness cultures that promote physical activity. During October-November 2014, we emailed a 48 question online survey to 23,611 individuals who had participated in the American Birkebeiner ski event, the largest citizen ski race in North America. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Binomial and student t test were used to compare binary and continuous outcomes to health behaviors of the US population. 5433 individuals responded. Obesity prevalence (BMI ≥30) was 3% and average BMI was 24. Skiers reported very good health (88%), higher fitness than peers (99%), freedom from depression (93%) low levels of smoking (3%), high consumption of fruits and vegetables, moderate alcohol use, and high levels of physical activity. Fifteen percent practiced all 4 healthy living characteristics known to reduce cardiovascular event risk. As a group, citizen endurance Nordic skiers enjoy low levels of obesity, below average BMI, and report lifestyle behaviors known to decrease obesity, promote health, and reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Future research should explore hypotheses that explain how the fitness cultures surrounding citizen athletic events support weight loss, cardiovascular fitness, and healthy lifestyle habits.

  17. United States women and pornography through four decades: exposure, attitudes, behaviors, individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul J; Bae, Soyoung; Funk, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    Responding to a call for research on pornography and women's sexuality made by Weinberg, Williams, Kleiner, and Irizarry (2010), this study assessed pornography consumption, predictors, and correlates using nationally representative data gathered from U.S. women between 1973 and 2010 (N = 18,225). Women who were younger, less religious, and non-White were more likely to consume pornography. Women who consumed pornography had more positive attitudes toward extramarital sex, adult premarital sex, and teenage sex. Women who consumed pornography also had more sexual partners in the prior year, prior 5 years, and were more likely to have engaged in extramarital sex and paid sex. Consistent with Wright's (2011a) acquisition, activation, application model of mass media sexual socialization and the theorizing of Linz and Malamuth (1993), liberal-conservative ideology moderated the association between pornography exposure and sexual behavior. Specifically, the positive association between pornography exposure and women's recent sexual behavior was strongest for the most liberal women and weakest for the most conservative women. Cultural commentators and some academics argue that technological advances have resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of individuals who consume pornography. Little support was found for this assertion among U.S. women.

  18. Uniting Superhydrophobic, Superoleophobic and Lubricant Infused Slippery Behavior on Copper Oxide Nano-structured Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujjain, Sanjeev Kumar; Roy, Pritam Kumar; Kumar, Sumana; Singha, Subhash; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2016-10-01

    Alloys, specifically steel, are considered as the workhorse of our society and are inimitable engineering materials in the field of infrastructure, industry and possesses significant applications in our daily life. However, creating a robust synthetic metallic surface that repels various liquids has remained extremely challenging. The wettability of a solid surface is known to be governed by its geometric nano-/micro structure and the chemical composition. Here, we are demonstrating a facile and economical way to generate copper oxide micro-nano structures with spherical (0D), needle (1D) and hierarchical cauliflower (3D) morphologies on galvanized steel substrates using a simple chemical bath deposition method. These nano/micro textured steel surfaces, on subsequent coating of a low surface energy material display excellent superhydrophobic, superoleophobic and slippery behavior. Polydimethylsiloxane coated textured surfaces illustrate superhydrophobicity with water contact angle about 160°(2) and critical sliding angle ~2°. When functionalized with low-surface energy perfluoroalkylsilane, these surfaces display high repellency for low surface tension oils as well as hydrocarbons. Among them, the hierarchical cauliflower morphology exhibits re-entrant structure thereby showing the best superoleophobicity with contact angle 149° for dodecane. Once infused with a lubricant like silicone oil, they show excellent slippery behavior with low contact angle hysteresis (~ 2°) for water drops.

  19. Animation of Sequoia Forest Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Continued hot, dry weather in the American west contributed to the spread of numerous fires over the weekend of July 29-30, 2000. This is the most active fire season in the United States since 1988, when large portions of Yellowstone National Park burned. One of the largest fires currently burning has consumed more than 63,000 acres in Sequoia National Forest. This NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) image shows the fire on the afternoon of July 30, 2000. Note the clouds above the smoke plume. These often form during large fires because updrafts lift warm air near the ground high into the atmosphere, cooling the air and causing the water vapor it contains to condense into droplets. The soot particles in the smoke also act as condensation nuclei for the droplets. View the animation of GOES data to see the smoke forming clouds. Image and Animation by Robert Simmon and Marit-Jentoft Nilsen, NASA GSFC, based on data from NOAA.

  20. Development of technical solutions on a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, A. L.; Verbovetsky, E. Kh.; Somova, E. V.; Smolin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Development of a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with advanced ultra-supercritical steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C is presented. The main technical solutions providing the reliability, profitability, and low emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere are given. The fuel is the black coal of (Taldinskoye field, Kuznetsk basin). The gross efficiency of the boiler is 94%. The U-shaped configuration of a boiler is chosen, which allows the reduction of the capital expenditure for steam turbine piping made of expensive nickel alloys. The horizontal connection flue of the boiler, where the primary and reheat steam screens are located, is equipped with two cold funnels. The upper section of the convection shaft is separated with a vertical screen wall into two parallel "split tail" flues, which allows one to control the reheat steam temperature by redistributing the flue gas between the gas flues. The URS screens are two-stage with a lifting motion of the medium and a partial bypassing of the first stage. The lower radiant section is two-stage. To reduce the temperature of screen walls at the fire chamber outlet, the lowering motion of the working medium and combustion gases is used. The hydrodynamics of the screens with the lowering motion of the medium for preventing the aperiodic instability in the start regimes is analyzed. Besides the stepwise combustion of coal dust providing the improved environmental parameters, the boiler plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, an ash collector (an electric filter combined with a filter bag), and a desulphurization device.

  1. Cost Analysis on the Project of 1 O00-MW Class Coal-Fired Generating Units%1 000 MW级燃煤机组工程造价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建焕

    2012-01-01

    燃煤电站工程造价是投资决策的重要依据之一,也是决定项目是否可行及主管部门进行项目审批的重要内容.对目前正在建设和已经投产的几个1 000 MW级燃煤电站工程造价数据进行了指标计算和分析归纳,将1 000 MW级超超临界燃煤机组造价水平按统一的静态投资基准期,采用类比的方法进行分析研究,通过各项费用的变动情况,分析建设性质、技术方案和厂址条件对工程造价的影响.%The cost of coal-fired generating projects is one of the vital bases for investment decisions. Meanwhile, it is also a decisive reference for the management departments to evaluate the feasibility of project during the approval process. By taking advantage of the data from several 1 000-MW class coal-fired generating projects (some are still under construction while some are already put into operation) the index calculation and analytical induction are performed. The cost of several 1 000-MW class ultra-supercriticai units in static investment period is studied with analogy. The impacts of construction properties, technical plans and site conditions on engineering cost are analyzed considering the variances of each single item cost.

  2. Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors and Conditions Among States and Selected Local Areas - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Sonya; Mawokomatanda, Tebitha; Xu, Fang; Chowdhury, Pranesh P; Pierannunzi, Carol; Flegel, David; Garvin, William; Town, Machell

    2017-09-15

    Chronic diseases and conditions (e.g., heart diseases, stroke, arthritis, and diabetes) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. These conditions are costly to the U.S. economy, yet they are often preventable or controllable. Behavioral risk factors (e.g., excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use, poor diet, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep) are linked to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Adopting positive health behaviors (e.g., staying physically active, quitting tobacco use, obtaining routine physical checkups, and checking blood pressure and cholesterol levels) can reduce morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and conditions. Monitoring the health risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services at multilevel public health points (states, territories, and metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas [MMSA]) can provide important information for development and evaluation of health intervention programs. 2013 and 2014. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. BRFSS collects data on health risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services and practices related to the leading causes of death and disability in the United States and participating territories. This is the first BRFSS report to include age-adjusted prevalence estimates. For 2013 and 2014, these age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, and selected MMSA. Age-adjusted prevalence estimates of health status indicators, health care access and preventive practices, health risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, and cardiovascular conditions vary by state, territory

  3. Self-organized criticality of forest fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Self-organized criticality (SOC) of forest fires in China from 1950 to 1989 is studied. The stability, scale- invariant character of SOC and external effects on SOC of forest fires in China are analyzed in detail. Forest-fire cellular automata model is a typical model for the research of SOC. Based on the traditional forest-fire model, an improved model, in which effects of tree species, meteorological conditions and human efforts on forest fires are considered, is introduced. Actual forest fire data in China are compared with simulation results of the two models. It is shown that forest fire data in China have SOC behavior and simulation results of the improved model accord better with actual forest fire data than those of the traditional model.

  4. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Related to Sodium Intake and Reduction Among Adult Consumers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deesha; Cogswell, Mary E; John, Katherine; Creel, Stephanie; Ayala, Carma

    2017-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and determinants of sodium-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among U.S. adults Design. A cross-sectional survey was used. The study was set in the United States in 2012. Participants were 6122 U.S. adults. Sodium-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were measured. Chi-squared tests were used to determine differences in sodium-related knowledge, attitude, and behaviors by respondent characteristics; multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between selected respondent characteristics and health professional advice, reported action, or knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (adjusted for all other respondent characteristics). About three-fourths of respondents answered eating too much sodium is "somewhat" or "very" harmful to their health. Twenty-six percent reported receiving health professional advice, and 45% reported taking action to reduce their sodium intake. The prevalence of reported action was highest among adults receiving advice, those with hypertension, blacks, and those aged ≥65 years. Sixty-two percent who reported action agreed that most of their sodium comes from processed or restaurant foods. Of those reporting action, the most common tactics to reduce sodium intake were checking nutrition labels, using other spices than salt, and choosing low-sodium foods; requesting lower-sodium options when eating out was the least common tactic. Results suggest almost half of adults overall and the vast majority of those receiving health professional advice are taking some action to watch or reduce sodium intake. Although a substantial proportion report using recommended tactics to lower intake, many are not using the most effective tactics. In order to reach the general population, health communication messages could be simpler and focus on the most effective tactics to reduce sodium intake. Furthermore, health professionals can help reduce sodium intake by discussing the benefits of sodium reduction

  6. Construct validity test of evaluation tool for professional behaviors of entry-level occupational therapy students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon K. Yuen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to test the construct validity of an instrument to measure student professional behaviors in entry-level occupational therapy (OT students in the academic setting. Methods: A total of 718 students from 37 OT programs across the United States answered a self-assessment survey of professional behavior that we developed. The survey consisted of ranking 28 attributes, each on a 5-point Likert scale. A split-sample approach was used for exploratory and then confirmatory factor analysis. Results: A three-factor solution with nine items was extracted using exploratory factor analysis [EFA] (n=430, 60%. The factors were ‘Commitment to Learning’ (2 items, ‘Skills for Learning’ (4 items, and ‘Cultural Competence’ (3 items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA on the validation split (n=288, 40% indicated fair fit for this three-factor model (fit indices: CFI=0.96, RMSEA=0.06, and SRMR=0.05. Internal consistency reliability estimates of each factor and the instrument ranged from 0.63 to 0.79. Conclusion: Results of the CFA in a separate validation dataset provided robust measures of goodness-of-fit for the three-factor solution developed in the EFA, and indicated that the three-factor model fitted the data well enough. Therefore, we can conclude that this student professional behavior evaluation instrument is a structurally validated tool to measure professional behaviors reported by entry-level OT students. The internal consistency reliability of each individual factor and the whole instrument was considered to be adequate to good.

  7. The Safety Organizing Scale: development and validation of a behavioral measure of safety culture in hospital nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogus, Timothy J; Sutcliffe, Kathleen M

    2007-01-01

    Evidence that medical error is a systemic problem requiring systemic solutions continues to expand. Developing a "safety culture" is one potential strategy toward improving patient safety. A reliable and valid self-report measure of safety culture is needed that is both grounded in concrete behaviors and is positively related to patient safety. We sought to develop and test a self-report measure of safety organizing that captures the behaviors theorized to underlie a safety culture and demonstrates use for potentially improving patient safety as evidenced by fewer reported medication errors and patient falls. A total of 1685 registered nurses from 125 nursing units in 13 hospitals in California, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, and Ohio completed questionnaires between December 2003 and June 2004. The authors conducted a cross-sectional assessment of factor structure, dimensionality, and construct validity. The Safety Organizing Scale (SOS), a 9-item unidimensional measure of self-reported behaviors enabling a safety culture, was found to have high internal reliability and reflect theoretically derived and empirically observed content domains. The measure was shown to discriminate between related concepts like organizational commitment and trust, vary significantly within hospitals, and was negatively associated with reported medication errors and patient falls in the subsequent 6-month period. The SOS not only provides meaningful, behavioral insight into the enactment of a safety culture, but because of the association between SOS scores and reported medication errors and patient falls, it also provides information that may be useful to registered nurses, nurse managers, hospital administrators, and governmental agencies.

  8. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities. 921150...

  9. Prevalence of Physical Activity in the United States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. Ainsworth, PhD, MPH

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The health benefits of regular cardiovascular exercise are well-known. Such exercise, however, has traditionally been defined as vigorous physical activity, such as jogging, swimming, or aerobic dance. Exercise of moderate intensity also promotes health, and many U.S. adults may be experiencing the health benefits of exercise through lifestyle activities of moderate intensity, such as yard work, housework, or walking for transportation. Until recently, public health surveillance systems have not included assessments of this type of physical activity, focusing on exercise of vigorous intensity. We used an enhanced surveillance tool to describe the prevalence and amount of both moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity among U.S. adults. Methods We analyzed data from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based, random-digit–dialed telephone survey administered to U.S. adults aged 18 years and older (n = 82,834 men and 120,286 women. Physical activity behavior was assessed using questions designed to quantify the frequency of participation in moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activities performed during leisure time or for household chores and transportation. Results Overall, 45% of adults (48% of men and 43% of women were active at recommended levels during nonworking hours (at least 30 minutes five or more days per week in moderate-intensity activities, equivalent to brisk walking, or at least 20 minutes three or more days per week in vigorous activities, equivalent to running, heavy yard work, or aerobic dance. Less than 16% of adults (15% of men and 17% of women reported no moderate or vigorous activity in a usual week. Conclusion Integrating surveillance of lifestyle activities into national systems is possible, and doing so may provide a more accurate representation of the prevalence of recommended levels of physical activity. These results, however, suggest that the majority of U

  10. Fire analog: a comparison between fire plumes and energy center cooling tower plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1977-10-01

    Thermal plumes or convection columns associated with large fires are compared to thermal plumes from cooling towers and proposed energy centers to evaluate the fire analog concept. Energy release rates of mass fires are generally larger than for single or small groups of cooling towers but are comparable to proposed large energy centers. However, significant physical differences exist between cooling tower plumes and fire plumes. Cooling tower plumes are generally dominated by ambient wind, stability and turbulence conditions. Fire plumes, depending on burning rates and other factors, can transform into convective columns which may cause the fire behavior to become more violent. This transformation can cause strong inflow winds and updrafts, turbulence and concentrated vortices. Intense convective columns may interact with ambient winds to create significant downwind effects such as wakes and Karman vortex streets. These characteristics have not been observed with cooling tower plumes to date. The differences in physical characteristics between cooling tower and fire plumes makes the fire analog concept very questionable even though the approximate energy requirements appear to be satisfied in case of large energy centers. Additional research is suggested in studying the upper-level plume characteristics of small experimental fires so this information can be correlated with similar data from cooling towers. Numerical simulation of fires and proposed multiple cooling tower systems could also provide comparative data.

  11. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  12. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  13. A case study on fractal simulation of forest fire spread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper relates to the semi-empirical model based on fire field energy balance and the physical model based on land temperature,aiming to provide a practical way of describing fire spread.Fire spread is determined by the characteristics of combustible materials and the agency of meteorological factors and terrains.Combustible materials,such as surface area,have no featured scale,yet the process of forest fire spread contains the self-replicating feature,both of which contribute to the self-similarity of fire spread.Consequently,fire behavior can be described by fractal geometry.In this research,we select Wuchagou forest in Da Hinggan Mountains as the experimental site where a forest fire took place three years ago.The forest fire was detected on low-resolution NOAA-AVHRR images,and fire spread was simulated on high-resolution TM images as another attempt to merge information.Based on remote sensing and GIS,we adopted the method of limited spreading lumping (DLA) to describe growing phenomenon to simulate the dynamic process of fire spread and adjusting shape of the result of fire simulation by the scale rule.As a result,the simulated fire and the actual fire manifest the self-similarity in their spreading shapes as well as the quantitative similarity in their areas.

  14. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  15. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-03-01

    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  16. Forest fire forecasting tool for air quality modelling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R. M.; Pecci, J.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    Adverse effects of smoke on air quality are of great concern; however, even today the estimates of atmospheric fire emissions are a key issue. It is necessary to implement systems for predicting smoke into an air quality modelling system, and in this work a first attempt towards creating a system of this type is presented. Wild land fire spread and behavior are complex phenomena due to both the number of involved physic-chemical factors, and the nonlinear relationship between variables. WRF-Fire was employed to simulate spread and behavior of some real fires occurred in South-East of Spain and North of Portugal. The use of fire behavior models requires the availability of high resolution environmental and fuel data. A new custom fuel moisture content model has been developed. The new module allows each time step to calculate the fuel moisture content of the dead fuels and live fuels. The results confirm that the use of accurate meteorological data and a custom fuel moisture content model is crucial to obtain precise simulations of fire behavior. To simulate air pollution over Europe, we use the regional meteorological-chemistry transport model WRF-Chem. In this contribution, we show the impact of using two different fire emissions inventories (FINN and IS4FIRES) and how the coupled WRF-Fire- Chem model improves the results of the forest fire emissions and smoke concentrations. The impact of the forest fire emissions on concentrations is evident, and it is quite clear from these simulations that the choice of emission inventory is very important. We conclude that using the WRF-fire behavior model produces better results than using forest fire emission inventories although the requested computational power is much higher. (Author)

  17. Forest fire forecasting tool for air quality modelling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J.L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R.M.; Pecci, J.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    Adverse effects of smoke on air quality are of great concern; however, even today the estimates of atmospheric fire emissions are a key issue. It is necessary to implement systems for predicting smoke into an air quality modelling system, and in this work a first attempt towards creating a system of this type is presented. Wildland fire spread and behavior are complex Phenomena due to both the number of involved physic-chemical factors, and the nonlinear relationship between variables. WRF-Fire was employed to simulate spread and behavior of some real fires occurred in South-East of Spain and North of Portugal. The use of fire behavior models requires the availability of high resolution environmental and fuel data. A new custom fuel moisture content model has been developed. The new module allows each time step to calculate the fuel moisture content of the dead fuels and live fuels. The results confirm that the use of accurate meteorological data and a custom fuel moisture content model is crucial to obtain precise simulations of fire behavior. To simulate air pollution over Europe, we use the regional meteorological-chemistry transport model WRF-Chem. In this contribution, we show the impact of using two different fire emissions inventories (FINN and IS4FIRES) and how the coupled WRF-FireChem model improves the results of the forest fire emissions and smoke concentrations. The impact of the forest fire emissions on concentrations is evident, and it is quite clear from these simulations that the choice of emission inventory is very important. We conclude that using the WRF-fire behavior model produces better results than using forest fire emission inventories although the requested computational power is much higher. (Author)

  18. Absence of lateral gastrocnemius activity and differential motor unit behavior in soleus and medial gastrocnemius during standing balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Martin E; Dakin, Christopher J; Luu, Billy L; Inglis, John Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-15

    In a standing position, the vertical projection of the center of mass passes in front of the ankle, which requires active plantar-flexor torque from the triceps surae to maintain balance. We recorded motor unit (MU) activity in the medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius muscle and the soleus (SOL) in standing balance and voluntary isometric contractions to understand the effect of functional requirements and descending drive from different neural sources on motoneuron behavior. Single MU activity was recorded in seven subjects with wire electrodes in the triceps surae. Two 3-min standing balance trials and several ramp-and-hold contractions were performed. Lateral gastrocnemius MU activity was rarely observed in standing. The lowest thresholds for LG MUs in ramp contractions were 20-35 times higher than SOL and MG MUs (P triceps surae motoneurons.

  19. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  20. Winter behavior of bats and the progression of white-nose syndrome in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Riley F; McCracken, Gary F

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the winter behavior of bats in temperate North America can provide insight into how bats react to perturbations caused by natural disturbances such as weather, human-induced disturbances, or the introduction of disease. This study measured the activity patterns of bats outside of their hibernaculum and asked how this winter activity varied by time, temperature, bat species, body condition, and WNS status. Over the course of three winters (2011-2013), we collected acoustic data and captured bats outside of five hibernacula in Tennessee, United States. During this time, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, became established in hibernacula throughout the region, allowing us to track disease-related changes in the winter behavior of ten bat species. We determined that bats in the southeastern United States were active during winter regardless of disease. We recorded activity outside of hibernacula at temperatures as low as -13°C. Although bat activity was best determined by a combination of variables, the strongest factor was mean daily temperature (R(2) = .2879, F1,1450 = 586.2, p < .0001). Bats that left the hibernacula earlier in evening had lower body condition than those that left 2-4 hr after sunset (F7,932 = 7.225, p < .0001, Tukey HSD, p < .05). The number of daytime emergences from hibernacula, as determined via acoustic detection, increased the longer a site was P. destructans positive (F3,17 808 = 124.48, p < .0001, Tukey HSD, p < .05). Through the use of passive acoustic monitoring and monthly captures, we determined that winter activity was driven by both ambient temperature and the presence of P. destructans.