WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit f2 zim-sci

  1. Cyclic Co des over F2+uF2+v F2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-sheng; LIU Hua-lu

    2014-01-01

    We study the structure of cyclic codes of an arbitrary length n over the ring F2+uF2+vF2, which is not a finite chain ring. We prove that the Gray image of a cyclic code length n over F2+uF2+vF2 is a 3-quasi-cyclic code length 3n over F2.

  2. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  3. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management.

  4. Electron attachment to F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, D. L.; Christophorou, L. G.; Christodoulides, A. A.; Pichiarella, L.

    1986-08-01

    The rate constant ka for electron attachment to F2 has been measured at ambient (298 K) temperature T in the buffer gas Ar over the mean electron energy range 0.40-2.95 eV; similar measurements were made at T=233, 298, and 373 K in the buffer gas N2 over the range 0.04-0.75 eV. The ka() function attains a maximum value of 1.7×10-8 cm3 s-1 (T=298 K) at ˜0.04 eV and decreases monotonically with increasing above thermal energy; the magnitude of ka increases only slightly with increasing T. The ka() data at 298 K were unfolded and the resultant cross section σa(ɛ) shows a main maximum at ˜0.0 eV, a shoulder at ˜0.5 eV, and a weak maximum at ˜1.1 eV. Possible electron attachment processes are discussed to account for the energy dependence of σa(ɛ). Also discussed, in the light of the present measurements, are published experimental and theoretical results on ka() and σa(ɛ).

  5. Depth distributionthe of linear codes over ring F2+uF2+U2F2.%环F2+uF2+u2F2上线性码的深度分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华

    2011-01-01

    记R=F2+uF2+u2F2,定义了环R上码字的深度以及R上线性码的深度分布,研究了环R上码字深度的性质,给出了计算环R上码字深度的递归算法.利用环R上的线性码C及其生成矩阵,得到了域F2上的线性码C1,Cu,Cu2及相应的生成矩阵.通过域F2上的线性码C1,Cu,Cu2之间的关系,讨论了环R上的线性码的深度谱和深度分布,进而得到R上一类线性码的深度分布.%LetR=F2+uF2+u2+u2F2 ,the depth of a codeword and the depth distribution of linear codes over ring R are defined,a number of properties of the depth of codewords are studied, and the recursive algorithm for computing the depth of a codeword is given. Based on the linear codes over R and their generator matrices, the linear codes C1, Cu, Cu2 over F2 and their generator matrices are obtained. By using the relationship of C1, Cu, Cu2, the depth distribution and the depth spectrum of linear codes over R are discussed,moreover the depth distribution of a class of linear code over R is showed.

  6. Main: TE2F2NTPCNA [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TE2F2NTPCNA S000397 05-November-2005 (last modified) kehi te2f-2 found in the promoter of tobacco PCN...riptional activation in actively dividing cells and tissue; E2F; PCNA; meristematic tissue; cell cycle; tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) ATTCCCGC ...

  7. On sumsets in ${\\Bbb F}_2^n$

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Chaohua

    2012-01-01

    Let ${\\Bbb F}_2$ be the finite field of two elements, ${\\Bbb F}_2^n$ be the vector space of dimension $n$ over ${\\Bbb F}_2$. For sets $A,\\,B\\subseteq{\\Bbb F}_2^n$, their sumset is defined as the set of all pairwise sums $a+b$ with $a\\in A,\\,b\\in B$. Ben Green and Terence Tao proved that, let $K\\geq 1$, if$A,\\,B\\subseteq{\\Bbb F}_2^n$ and $|A+B|\\leq K|A|^{1\\over 2}|B|^{1\\over 2}$, then there exists a subspace $H\\subseteq{\\Bbb F}_2^n$ with $$ |H|\\gg\\exp(-O(\\sqrt{K}\\log K))|A| $$ and $x,\\,y\\in{\\Bbb F}_2^n$ such that $$ |A\\cap(x+H)|^{1\\over 2}|B\\cap(y+H)|^{1\\over 2}\\geq{1\\over 2K}|H|. $$ In this note, we shall use the method of Green and Tao with some modification to prove that if $$ |H|\\gg\\exp(-O(\\sqrt{K}))|A|, $$ then the above conclusion still holds true.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Melting Temperatures of SrF2and BaF2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yu Huang; Xin-lu Cheng; Chao-lei Fan; Qiong Chen; Xiao-li Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The shell-model molecular dynamics method was applied to simulate the melting temper-atures of SrF2 and BaF2 at elevated temperatures and high pressures. The same method was used to calculate the equations of state for SrF2 and BaF2 over the pressure range of 0.1 MPa-3 GPa and 0.1 MPa-7 GPa. Compared with previous results for equations of state, the maximum errors are 0.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Considering the pre-melting in the fluorite-type crystals, we made the necessary corrections for the simulated melting temper-atures of SrF2 and BaF2. Consequently, the melting temperatures of SrF2 and BaF2 were obtained for high pressures. The melting temperatures of SrF2 and BaF2 that were obtained by the simulation are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  9. The new readout electronics for the BaF2-calorimeter TAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexler, P; Thoring, U; Bonn, W; van der Duin, HAP; Holzmann, R; van der Kruk, G; Krusche, B; Lohner, H; Metag, [No Value; Nijboer, TW; Novotny, R; Potapov, A; Salz, C; Schadmand, S; Steinacher, M; Thiel, M; Vorenholt, H

    2003-01-01

    A highly compact and fast VME based readout board for BaF2 scintillation detectors has been designed, developed, and finally tested in an in-beam experiment. Adapted to the excellent properties of BaF2, the unit allows to digitize time, energy, and pulse-shape information of four detector channels i

  10. The new readout electronics for the BaF2-calorimeter TAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexler, P; Thoring, U; Bonn, W; van der Duin, HAP; Holzmann, R; van der Kruk, G; Krusche, B; Lohner, H; Metag, [No Value; Nijboer, TW; Novotny, R; Potapov, A; Salz, C; Schadmand, S; Steinacher, M; Thiel, M; Vorenholt, H

    A highly compact and fast VME based readout board for BaF2 scintillation detectors has been designed, developed, and finally tested in an in-beam experiment. Adapted to the excellent properties of BaF2, the unit allows to digitize time, energy, and pulse-shape information of four detector channels

  11. Assessment of equatorial F2-region peak parameters predictability using the IRI model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi S.

    2012-07-01

    Overall behaviour of the F2-layer is believed to be described by the F2-layer peak parameters, which depend on various geophysical parameters including local time, season, solar and geomagnetic activity conditions. A better understanding of the variability and modeling of ionospheric peak characteristics is crucial for the development of ionospheric prediction capabilities, improvements in existing ionospheric models, and for radio propagation studies. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model is used to assess the predictability of F2-region parameters and to validate F2-peak parameters simulation near the dip equator. We examine the main morphological patterns and climatological behaviour of equatorial F2 region over African sector using hourly observational values of F2 peak height of maximum electron density (hmF2), F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2), and propagation factor (M3000F2) hitherto made by the Ibadan ionosonde at 7.4oN, 3.9oE, dip latitude 2.3oS, in Nigeria; between January to December 1958, during a period of high solar activity (yearly averaged R12=190 units) and magnetically quiet conditions (Kp is less or equal to 3). The results of comparisons illustrate that good advancement has been made but reveal some important discrepancies. The trends in the experimental data are found to be in excellent agreement with the trends in the simulation results for maximum electron density and propagation factor, but fair-to-good for F2 layer peak altitude. The model is unable to capture the sharp postsunset and predawn enhancements in hmF2 and M3000F2, respectively. The model results have errors ranging from approximately 8-15 percent, 9-17 percent, and 3-5 percent, respectively, for hmF2, NmF2, and M3000F2. On average, the percent absolute relative difference of the model from the experimental observations varies from nearly 0-20 percent, 0-30 percent, and 0-10 percent for hmF2, NmF2, and M3000F2, in that order. Our results are essentially

  12. Behavior of foF2 and hmF2 after sunset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. D.; Vanina-Dart, L. B.

    2010-12-01

    The time behavior of the foF2 and hmF2 values at the time moment T(ss + 2 h) 2 h after sunset is considered. It is assumed that at this moment, the horizontal winds in the thermosphere in the strongest way influence hmF2 and, therefore, foF2. It is found that a fairly well pronounced and statistically significant change (trend) is observed for the foF2(ss + 2)/ foF2(14) ratio, the sign of the change being different for different stations and even different seasons at the same station. A similar picture is obtained for the value of hmF2(ss + 2). It is shown that a positive correlation between the trends of these two values is observed. This confirms the initial concept of the paper that the foF2 and hmF2 trends are caused by long-term trends in the thermospheric dynamics.

  13. Preliminary results on correlation in daily f0F2 and M(3000F2 variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Nissopoulos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of the hourly daily values of the factor M(3000F2 and the F2-layer critical frequency f0F2 is carried out first for each hour of the day through-out a given month of a given year at a given station (hour-to-hour variation and then for each day of a given month and year at a given station (day-to-day variation. This analysis shows that these ionospheric characteristics are poorly correlated. It is concluded that the daily values of the first characteristic cannot be estimated from the second by using a simple linear equation.

  14. Magnetic Excitations of Mixed CoF2/ZnF2 Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, R. A.; Dietrich, O. W.; Jones, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic excitations in mixed crystals of Co1-cZncF2 with c=0.14+or-0.02, 0.31+or-0.03 and 0.77+or-0.10 have been measured using neutron inelastic scattering techniques. The results for the first two crystals show that the excitations decrease in frequency with increasing zinc concentration...... and also have a finite lifetime. For the crystal containing the largest concentration of ZnF2 well defined magnetic excitations were not observed. These results are very similar to the predictions of the virtual lattice model in which each exchange interaction of CoF2 is reduced by the concentration of CoF...

  15. Correlations in daily deviations from the median of f0F2, M(3000F2 and VF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Xenos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The statistical analysis of the hourly daily deviations from the corresponding monthly-median values of the factor M(3000F2 and of the critical frequency of the F2-layer, f0F2, reveals that the correlation between these parameters is poor. A similar analysis between the hourly daily deviations from the corresponding monthly-median of the height h’F and the f0F2 leads to similar results. These results indicate that the factor M(3000F2, the height h’F and the critical frequency f0F2 may have a different daily variability.

  16. Spectroscopy of laser properties of Nd(3+)-doped CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Caird, John A.; Chase, L. L.; Smith, L. K.; Nielsen, N. D.; Krupke, William F.

    1990-03-01

    The optical properties of Nd(3+) in CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 were investigated in order to determine if these materials are useful as laser-pumped amplifier media. The CaF2:Nd crystal was found to not be useful because the impurities tend to cluster at very low concentration, leading to the formation of nonluminescent centers. On the other hand, the Nd(3+) centers in BaF2 exhibit unacceptably low transition strengths. SrF2:Nd appears to have adequate absorption strength, and, in addition, to have a remarkably long emission lifetime of 1280 microns. A maximum doping of 0.20 atomic percent Nd(3+) can be tolerated in SrF2 without the occurrence of detrimental clustering. The peak emission cross section of SrF2:Nd is 1.7 x 10(exp -20) sq cm at 1036.5 nm. Direct measurement of the gain spectrum of SrF2:Nd(3+) reveals the presence of the F-4(sub 3/2) yields G-2(sub 9/2) excited state absorption lines, although the impact on the emission cross section is minor.

  17. Analysis list: F2RL1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available F2RL1 + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/F2RL1.1.tsv htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/F2RL1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/F2RL...1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/F2RL1..tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/.gml ...

  18. Cyclic Code and Self-Dual Code over F2+ uF2 + u2F2%环F2+uF2+u2F2上的循环码及自对偶码

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯倩倩; 周伟刚

    2009-01-01

    We give the structures of a cyclic code over ring R = F2+ uF2 + u2F2 = {0, 1,u, u2,υ,υ2,uυ, υ3}, where υ3 = 0, of odd length and its dual code. For the cyclic code, necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of self-dual code are provided.

  19. Hardness of CaF2 and BaF2 solid lubricants at 25 to 670 deg C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, Daniel L.; Sliney, Harold E.

    1987-01-01

    Plastic deformation is a prominent factor in determining the lubricating value of solid lubricants. Little information is available and its direct measurement is difficult so hardness, which is an indirect measure of this property was determined for fluoride solid lubricant compositions. The Vickers hardness of BaF2 and CaF2 single crystals was measured up to 670 C in a vacuum. The orientation of the BaF2 was near the (013) plane and the CaF2 was about 16 degrees from the degrees from the (1'11) plane. The BaF2 has a hardness of 83 kg/sq mm at the 25 C and 9 at the 600 C. The CaF2 is 170 at 25 C and 13 at 670 C. The decrease in hardness in the temperature range of 25 to 100 C is very rapid and amounts to 40% for both materials. Melts of BaF2 and CaF2 were made in a platinum crucible in ambient air with compositions of 50 to 100 wt% BaF2. The Vickers hardness of these polycrystalline binary compositions at 25 C increased with increasing CaF2 reaching a maximum of 150 kn/sq mm near the eutectic. The polycrystalline CaF2 was 14% softer than that of the single crystal surface and BsF2 was 30% harder than the single crystal surface. It is estimated that the brittle to ductile transition temperature for CaF2 and BaF2 is less than 100 C for the conditions present in the hardness tester.

  20. F2+vF2上线性码的深度谱%ON THE DEPTH SPECTRA OF LINEAR CODES ON RING F2 + vF2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐刚

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the depth distribution and the depth spectra of linear codes over ring R = F2 + νF2 are studied. By using two homomorphisms of Abelian groups from R to F2 and the generator matrices of the codes over R, the upper bound and lower bound of the depth spectra of linear codes of type 4k12k22k3 are obtained.%本文研究了环R=F2+vF2上线性码的深度分布和深度谱.利用环R到F2加群的两个同态映射及R上线性码的生成矩阵,给出了环R上4k12k22k3型线性码的深度谱的上下界.

  1. F2上安全的Edwards曲线%Secure Edwards Curves over F2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 彭国华

    2009-01-01

    Edwards曲线提供了大量的可以抵挡旁道攻击的椭圆曲线,因此引起了人们特别的关注.最近Bernstein、Lange和Farashahi将一般的Edwards曲线推广到了特征为2的域上,并认为这类椭圆曲线必将会有广泛的应用.但是这类曲线的安全性却仍然是一个值得商榷的问题.文中通过双有理等价映射讨论了F2上的Edwards曲线与Koblitz曲线之间的关系,并由此推出这类Edwards曲线会在一些扩域上具有安全性.%The invention of Edwards curves has attracted much attention from the cryptologists,because they provide a large amount of elliptic curves which are possible to resist the side-channel attack.Recently,Bernstein,Lange and Farashahi generalize Edwards curves to binary field and recommend their wide applications.However,the security of these curves is open to question.In this paper the relation between an ordinary Edwards curve over F2 and one kind of Koblitz curve is discussed,in virtue of the birationally equivalence map,and form this,it is deduced that this Edwards curve is secure in some extension fields.

  2. Main: O2F2BE2S1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available coxin, the maize b-32 genes and the AP-1 pseudopalindrome; O2; opaque-2; be2S1; seed; Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) GCCACCTCAT ... ...O2F2BE2S1 S000163 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi opaque-2 recognition site F2 in Bertholletia excelsa (Bra...zil nut tree) 2S storage protein gene (be2S1); O2 protein binds to F1, F2 and F3 se

  3. Analysis list: Pou3f2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pou3f2 Embryonic fibroblast,Neural,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.bio...jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou3f2.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pou3f2.Pluripoten...e.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Neural.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Pluripotent_stem_cell.gml ...

  4. A Perturbative QCD Analysis of the Nucleon's Pauli Form Factor F_2(Q^2)

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V; Yuan, F; Belitsky, Andrei V.; Ji, Xiangdong; Yuan, Feng

    2003-01-01

    We perform a perturbative QCD analysis of the nucleon's Pauli form factor $F_2(Q^2)$ in the asymptotically large $Q^2$ limit. We find that the leading contribution to $F_2(Q^2)$ goes like $1/Q^6$, consistent with the well-known folklore. Its coefficient is expressed in terms of an overlap integral involving the leading and subleading light-cone wave functions of the nucleon, the latter describing the quark state with one unit of orbital angular momentum. We estimate the numerical size of the coefficient and comment on the contribution from the end-point region.

  5. Difluorophosphoryl nitrene F2P(O)N: matrix isolation and unexpected rearrangement to F2PNO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoqing; Beckers, Helmut; Willner, Helge; Neuhaus, Patrik; Grote, Dirk; Sander, Wolfram

    2009-12-14

    Triplet difluorophosphoryl nitrene F(2)P(O)N (X(3)A'') was generated on ArF excimer laser irradiation (lambda=193 nm) of F(2)P(O)N(3) in solid argon matrix at 16 K, and characterized by its matrix IR, UV/Vis, and EPR spectra, in combination with DFT and CBS-QB3 calculations. On visible light irradiation (lambda>420 nm) at 16 K F(2)P(O)N reacts with molecular nitrogen and some of the azide is regenerated. UV irradiation (lambda=255 nm) of F(2)P(O)N (X(3)A'') induced a Curtius-type rearrangement, but instead of a 1,3-fluorine shift, nitrogen migration to give F(2)PON is proposed to be the first step of the photoisomerization of F(2)P(O)N into F(2)PNO (difluoronitrosophosphine). Formation of novel F(2)PNO was confirmed with (15)N- and (18)O-enriched isotopomers by IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Theoretical calculations predict a rather long P-N bond of 1.922 A [B3LYP/6-311+G(3df)] and low bond-dissociation energy of 76.3 kJ mol(-1) (CBS-QB3) for F(2)PNO.

  6. Theoretical calculations of the high-pressure phases of ZnF2 and CdF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Wu, Z.

    2006-04-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory were used to study the high-pressure phases of both ZnF2 and CdF2. We found that the sequence of the pressure-induced phase transitions is: Rutile (P42/mnm) ↦ CaCl2 (Pnnm) ↦ PdF2 (Pa-3) and CaF2 (Fm3m) ↦ PbCl2 (Pnma) ↦ Ni2In (P63/mmc) for ZnF2 and CdF2 respectively. In ZnF2 the behavior of the ground-state total energy, of the Gibbs free energy and of the lattice constant vs. pressure shown that the phase transition at 4 GPa from the rutile-type phase to the CaCl2-type phase is a second-order phase transition. The mechanism of the structural change was also revealed by the transition from the PbCl2-type phase to the Ni2In-type phase in CdF2. Moreover, the high-pressure behavior of divalent metal fluorides was compared and discussed.

  7. Nuclear medium modification of the F2 structure function

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We study the nuclear effects in the electromagnetic structure function $F_{2}(x, Q^2)$ in nuclei in the deep inelastic lepton nucleus scattering process by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, pion and rho meson cloud contributions. Calculations have been done in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations for nuclear matter. The ratios $R_{F2}^A(x,Q^2)=\\frac{2F_2^A(x,Q^2)}{AF_{2}^{Deut}(x,Q^2)}$ are obtained and compared with the recent JLAB results for light nuclei that show a non trivial A dependence.

  8. Structure of the house dust mite allergen Der f 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Birthe R; Skov, Lars; Kastrup, Jette S

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray structure of the group 2 major allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 2) was determined to 1.83 A resolution. The overall Der f 2 structure comprises a single domain of immunoglobulin fold with two anti-parallel beta-sheets. A large hydrophobic cavity is formed in the interior of...... of Der f 2. Structural comparisons to distantly related proteins suggest a role in lipid binding. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity between group 2 house dust mite major allergens can be explained by conserved surface areas representing IgE binding epitopes....

  9. General formulae for f1 -> f2 γ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoura, L.

    2003-07-01

    At one-loop level the decay f_1 to f_2 γ, where f1 and f2 are two spin-1/2 particles with the same electric charge, is mediated by a boson B and a spin-1/2 fermion F. The boson B may have either spin - interacting with the fermions through the Dirac matrices 1 and γ_5 - or spin 1 - with V+ A and V- A couplings to the fermions. I give general formulae for the one-loop electroweak amplitude of f_1 to f_2 γ in all these cases.

  10. General formulae for f1 --> f2 gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Lavoura, L

    2003-01-01

    At one-loop level the decay f1 --> f2 gamma, where f1 and f2 are two spin-1/2 particles with the same electric charge, is mediated by a boson B and a spin-1/2 fermion F. The boson B may have either spin 0 - interacting with the fermions through Dirac matrices 1 and gamma5 - or spin 1 - with V+A and V-A couplings to the fermions. I give general formulae for the one-loop electroweak amplitude of f1 --> f2 gamma in all these cases.

  11. Semiannual and annual variations in the height of the ionospheric F2-peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    Full Text Available Ionosonde data from sixteen stations are used to study the semiannual and annual variations in the height of the ionospheric F2-peak, hmF2. The semiannual variation, which peaks shortly after equinox, has an amplitude of about 8 km at an average level of solar activity (10.7 cm flux = 140 units, both at noon and midnight. The annual variation has an amplitude of about 11 km at northern midlatitudes, peaking in early summer; and is larger at southern stations, where it peaks in late summer. Both annual and semiannual amplitudes increase with increasing solar activity by day, but not at night. The semiannual variation in hmF2 is unrelated to the semiannual variation of the peak electron density NmF2, and is not reproduced by the CTIP and TIME-GCM computational models of the quiet-day thermosphere and ionosphere. The semiannual variation in hmF2 is approximately "isobaric", in that its amplitude corresponds quite well to the semiannual variation in the height of fixed pressure-levels in the thermosphere, as represented by the MSIS empirical model. The annual variation is not "isobaric". The annual mean of hmF2 increases with solar 10.7 cm flux, both by night and by day, on average by about 0.45 km/flux unit, rather smaller than the corresponding increase of height of constant pressure-levels in the MSIS model. The discrepancy may be due to solar-cycle variations of thermospheric winds. Although geomagnetic activity, which affects thermospheric density and temperature and therefore hmF2 also, is greatest at the equinoxes, this seems to account for less than half the semiannual variation of hmF2. The rest may be due to a semiannual variation of tidal and wave energy transmitted to the thermosphere from lower levels in the atmosphere.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere - composition and chemistry - Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere

  12. Molecular CsF 5 and CsF 2 +

    KAUST Repository

    Rogachev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-06-03

    D5h star-like CsF5, formally isoelectronic with known XeF5− ion, is computed to be a local minimum on the potential energy surface of CsF5, surrounded by reasonably large activation energies for its exothermic decomposition to CsF+2F2, or to CsF3 (three isomeric forms)+F2, or for rearrangement to a significantly more stable isomer, a classical Cs+ complex of F5−. Similarly the CsF2+ ion is computed to be metastable in two isomeric forms. In the more symmetrical structures of these molecules there is definite involvement in bonding of the formally core 5p levels of Cs.

  13. PHOTOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF PbSe/BaF2/CaF2 FILMS ON Si(111)%硅基PbSe/BaF2/CaF2薄膜及其光电特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金进生; 常勇; 等

    2001-01-01

    PbSe films were grown on Si(111) by incorporation of BaF2/CaF2 buffers using molecular beam epitaxy. The measurements of both scanning electronic microscopy and high-resolution X-ray diffraction showed high crystalline quality of the PbSe films. The surface of PbSe was mirror-like and no cracks were observed. The full width at half-maximum of PbSe diffraction peak was only 153 arcsec. The epitaxial PbSe films were used to fabricate photodiodes. For the first time, metallic aluminum was used to form Al-PbSe Schottky diodes, which demonstrated better and more stable current-voltage characteristics than that obtained from Pb-PbSe Schottky diodes.%采用分子束外延方法在Si(111)衬底上生长了PbSe/BaF2/CaF2薄膜,扫描电镜和X-光衍射分析显示,通过生长BaF2/CaF2缓冲层的方法,在Si(111)衬底上外延的PbSe薄膜晶体质量高,PbSe表面光亮,无开裂现象发生,X-光衍射峰峰宽窄(153arcs).外延生长的PbSe薄膜被应用于制作光电二极管,首次采用热蒸发金属铝膜在PbSe表面形成Al-PbSe肖特基结光电二极管,获得了比Pb-PbSe肖特基结更为稳定和理想的电流-电压特性曲线.

  14. The deuteron structure function F2 with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Osipenko; G. Ricco; S. Simula; M. Battaglieri; M. Ripani

    2005-07-01

    The inclusive, inelastic eD scattering cross section has been measured with the CLAS detector in Hall B of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). Combining these data and previously measured world data we have extracted Nachtmann moments of the deuteron structure function F2 in the region 0.4 < Q2 < 100 GeV2/c2. These results are published in hep-ex/0506004. The purpose of the present CLAS-Note is to tabulate the CLAS deuteron F2 data. A description of the data analysis is reported in hep-ex/0506004.

  15. The deuteron structure function F2 with CLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Osipenko, M; Simula, S; Battaglieri, M; Ripani, M; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Cazes, A; Chen, S; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Coltharp, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dharmawardane, K V; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Donnelly, J; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Golovatch, E; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovski, V; Kühn, J; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lee, T; Li, J; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R C; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Müller, J; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nefedov, G; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabyan, Yu G; Shaw, J; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Stavinsky, A V; Stepanyan, S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L; Zhang, J

    2005-01-01

    The inclusive, inelastic eD scattering cross section has been measured with the CLAS detector in Hall B of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). Combining these data and previously measured world data we have extracted Nachtmann moments of the deuteron structure function F2 in the region 0.4 < Q2 < 100 GeV2/c2. These results are published in hep-ex/0506004. The purpose of the present CLAS-Note is to tabulate the CLAS deuteron F2 data. A description of the data analysis is reported in hep-ex/0506004.

  16. Spin waves in antiferromagnetic FeF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Rainford, B.D.; Guggenheim, H J

    1970-01-01

    Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin Hamilton......Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin...

  17. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus....... Deletion of the FP reduces blood pressure, coincident with a reduction in plasma renin concentration, angiotensin, and aldosterone, despite a compensatory up-regulation of AT1 receptors and an augmented hypertensive response to infused angiotensin II. Plasma and urinary osmolality are decreased in FP KOs...

  18. The Importance of Magnetic Reflection Condition and Polarization Factor: Case Study of MnF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Purwanto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron diffraction has been widely accepted as a versatile tool to investigate magnetic structure of crystalline materials, which contribute significantly to the scientific and technological advances. Starting from a general formulation of the magnetic structure factor, one can often simplify the formulation depending on the crystallographic structure and the magnetic wave propagation vector of the sample. The simplification allows magnetic moment coupling and polarization deduction without the need of the refinement process. This paper elaborates such simplification for MnF2 to provide the determination of the magnetic moment coupling and polarization direction simply based on the reflection condition and polarization factor. The determination of the magnetic structure excluding its magnitude by the reflection condition and polarization factor is much more conclusive than by any magnetic structure refinement. Furthermore, MnF2 illustrates a rare compound that has antiferromagnetic structure with zero magnetic wave propagation vector, i.e.; it has the same antiferromagnetic and crystallographic unit cell.

  19. 26 CFR 1.672(f)-2 - Certain foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain foreign corporations. 1.672(f)-2 Section... foreign corporations. (a) Application of general rule. Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this... to section 672(f) is a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957), a passive...

  20. The INGV Software for automatic Scaling of foF2 and MUF(3000)F2 from Ionograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzopane, M.; Scotto, C.

    The INGV software (AUTOSCALA) for automatic scaling of critical frequency f0F2 and MUF(3000)F2 was applied to the ionograms produced by the new Advanced Ionospheric Sounder (AIS-INGV). A test based on large amount of ionograms was performed comparing the automatic scaled parameters with the corresponding ones obtained by the standard manual method. The results of a comparison between the data obtained by AUTOSCALA and ARTIST programs are also shown and particular attention has been paid to the case of a strong ionospheric storm.

  1. About SnF 2 stannous fluoride. II. Crystal structure of β- and γ-SnF 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, G.; Pannetier, J.; Lucas, J.

    1980-06-01

    Two new structural modifications (β and γ) of SnF 2 have been prepared and their structures refined from X-ray powder data by analogy with high- and low-pressure TeO 2. Both structures are described and discussed using Galy's and Brown's models. Topological relationships to rutile and cristobalite structures are outlined.

  2. EPR and Magnetic Susceptibility Investigation of Fe Ions in B2O3-SrF2 Glass Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of an oxide-fluoride mixed vitreous matrix 2B2O3@SrF2, were explored by using Fe impurities as probes. Information about the structural units involving iron ions, their valence state, the strengths and type of interactions involving them was obtained using EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements.

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CLMA-2F2OA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CLMA-2F2OA 1CLM 2F2O A A LTEEQIAEFKEAFALFDKDGDGTITTKELGTVMRSLGQN...PTEAELQDMINEVDADGNGTIDFPEFLSLMARKMKEQDSEEELIEAFKVFDRDGNGLISAAELRHVMTNLGEKLTDDEVDEMIREADIDGDGHINYEEFVRMMVS---... 1CLM A 1CLMA VMTNLGE

  4. Radioactive contamination of BaF2 crystal scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Polischuk, O G; Bernabei, R; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Di Marco, A; Danevich, F A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I

    2013-01-01

    Barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal scintillators are promising detectors to search for double beta decay processes in $^{130}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 2619(3) keV) and $^{132}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 844(1) keV). The $^{130}$Ba isotope is of particular interest because of the indications on 2${\\beta}$ decay found in two geochemical experiments. The radioactive contamination of BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 113.4 hours in a low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was estimated as $T_{1/2}$ = 298.8 $\\pm$ 0.8(stat.) $\\pm$ 1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events pulse profiles.

  5. Measurements of $F_{2}$ and $xF_{3}^{\

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, U K; Alton, A; Arroyo, C G; Avvakumov, S; De Barbaro, L; De Barbaro, P; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, Arie; Bolton, T; Brau, J E; Buchholz, D; Budd, H S; Bugel, L; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Fleming, B T; Formaggio, J A; Frey, R; Goldman, J; Goncharov, M; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Marsh, W; Mason, D; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Suwonjandee, N; Nienaber, P; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Vaitaitis, A G; Vakili, M; Yu, J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2001-01-01

    We report on the extraction of the structure functions F_2 and Delta xF_3 = xF_3(nu)-xF_3(nubar) from CCFR nu_mu-Fe and nubar_mu-Fe differential cross sections. The extraction is performed in a physics model independent (PMI) way. This first measurement of Delta xF_3, which is useful in testingmodels of heavy charm production, is higher than current theoretical predictions. The ratio of the F_2(PMI) values measured in nu_mu and nubar_mu scattering is in agreement (within 5%) with the predictions of NLO PDFS using massive charm production schemes, thus resolvin long-standing discrepancy between the two sets of data.

  6. BaF2 TIME DIFFERENTIAL PERTURBED ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION SPECTROMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱升云; 勾振辉; 等

    1994-01-01

    A BaF2 time differential perturbed angular distribution spectrometer has been established at the HI-13 tandem accelerator in CIAE.The time resolution of the spectrometer is 195ps and the nonlinearity is less than 2%.The spectrometer works very stably and no time drift is found over a period of experimental runs.This spectrometer has been successfully used in the g-factor measurement of 43Sc(19/2-,3.1232MeV).

  7. Development of a cw Co : MgF 2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lieto, A.

    2003-03-01

    The results obtained in the development of a cryogenic cw Co : MgF 2 laser, realized at the Dipartimento di Fisica of the Università di Pisa are presented. The laser can be tuned continuously in the range between 1.6 and 2.1 μm, with a typical output power of 1-2 W. A preliminary application to the spectroscopy of a Tm : YLF doped crystal is reported by using a photoacoustic apparatus.

  8. Upsilon(1S)->gamma+f2'(1525); f2'(1525)->K0sK0s decays

    CERN Document Server

    Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hietala, J; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Brisbane, S; Martin, L; Powell, A; Spradlin, P; Wilkinson, G; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; Ecklund, K M; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Pearson, L J; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Ricciardi, S; Thomas, C; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Mountain, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Lincoln, A; Smith, M J; Zhou, P; Zhu, J; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Randrianarivony, K; Tatishvili, G; Briere, R A; Vogel, H; Onyisi, P U E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Das, S; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Sun, W M; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Lowrey, N; Mehrabyan, S; Selen, M; Wiss, J; Libby, J; Kornicer, M; Mitchell, R E; Tarbert, C M

    2011-01-01

    We report on a study of exclusive radiative decays of the Upsilon(1S) resonance into a final state consisting of a photon and two K0s candidates. We find evidence for a signal for Upsilon(1S)->gamma f_2'(1525); f_2'(1525)->K0sK0s, at a rate (4.0+/-1.3+/-0.6)x10^{-5}, consistent with previous observations of Upsilon(1S)->gamma f_2'(1525); f_2'(1525)->K+K-, and isospin. Combining this branching fraction with existing branching fraction measurements of Upsilon(1S)->gamma f_2'(1525) and J/psi->gamma f_2'(1525), we obtain the ratio of branching fractions: B(Upsilon(1S)->gamma f_2'(1525))/B(J/psi->gamma f_2'(1525))=0.09+/-0.02, approximately consistent with expectations based on soft collinear effective theory.

  9. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  10. The $f_2(1810)$ as a triangle singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ju-Jun; Oset, Eulogio

    2016-01-01

    We perform calculations showing that a source producing $K^* \\bar{K}^*$ in $J = 2$ and $L=0$ gives rise to a triangle singularity at $1810$ MeV with a width of about $200$ MeV from the mechanism $K^* \\to \\pi K$ and then $K\\bar{K}^*$ merging into the $a_1(1260)$ resonance. We suggest that this is the origin of the present $f_2(1810)$ resonance and propose to look at the $\\pi a_1(1260)$ mode in several reactions to clarify the issue.

  11. Yb:CaF2 thin-disk laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentsch, Katrin Sarah; Weichelt, Birgit; Günster, Stefan; Druon, Frederic; Georges, Patrick; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan; Graf, Thomas

    2014-01-27

    We present Ytterbium-doped CaF2 as a laser active material with good prospects for high-power operation in thin-disk laser configuration owing to its favorable thermal properties. Thanks to its broad emission bandwidth the material is also suitable for the generation of ultra-short pulses. The properties of the crystal as well as the challenges related to the coating, polishing, mounting and handling processes which are essential to achieve high power laser oscillation in thin-disk configuration are discussed. A wavelength tunability of 92 nm is demonstrated, which confirms the potential of Yb:CaF2 for the generation of ultra-short pulses. An output power of 250 W with an optical efficiency of η opt = 47% was measured in CW multimode thin-disk laser operation with a pump spot diameter of 3.6 mm. Using a smaller pump spot diameter of 1 mm the fundamental mode output power was 13 W with an optical efficiency of η opt = 34%.

  12. The 2009-2012 Ionosonde and IRI2012 Variability of foF 2, hmF 2, M3000F2, B 0, B1 Parameters over Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwabowski Michał

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparisons of variability and accordance of ionospheric parameters foF2, hmF2, M3000F2, B0, B1 over the middle latitude station in Warsaw (52.21°N, 21.06°E. Examination included observational data from Space Research Centre ionosonde in Poland and International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2012 model, for the time period of increasing solar activity from 2009 to 2012. The analysis concerned: trend, monthly median differences in twenty-four hours variability, local minima and maxima. Results are presented as tables of semi-annual data, and plots of difference in four-year period. The study indicated good agreement of foF2 and hmF2 parameters. Underestimations of B1 and M3000F2, variability of B0 parameter in Bil-2000, Gul-1987, and ABT-2009 option, were taken into consideration.

  13. Microbiologic effects of SnF2 and NaF mouthrinses in subjects with high caries activity: results after one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinanoff, N; Klock, B; Camosci, D A; Manwell, M A

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-two adults, considered to have high caries activity, rinsed for one yr with either SnF2 or acidulated NaF mouthrinses. Total colony-forming units and numbers of S. mutans and lactobacilli were estimated from saliva samples. Large reductions were found in the number of recoverable S. mutans in subjects rinsing with SnF2 but not in the NaF group.

  14. Radioluminescence and photoluminescence of Th:CaF$_2$ crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Stellmer, Simon; Schumm, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study thorium-doped CaF$_2$ crystals as a possible platform for optical spectroscopy of the Th-229 nuclear isomer transition. We anticipate two major sources of background signal that might cover the nuclear spectroscopy signal: VUV-photoluminescence, caused by the probe light, and radioluminescence, caused by the radioactive decay of Th-229 and its daughters. We find a rich photoluminescence spectrum at wavelengths above 260 nm, and radioluminescence emission above 220 nm. This is very promising, as fluorescence originating from the isomer transition, predicted at a wavelength shorter than 200 nm, could be filtered spectrally from the crystal luminescence. Furthermore, we investigate the temperature-dependent decay time of the luminescence, as well as thermoluminescence properties. Our findings allow for an immediate optimization of spectroscopy protocols for both the initial search for the nuclear transition using synchrotron radiation, as well as future optical clock operation with narrow-linewidth lase...

  15. Comment on "first accuracy evaluation of NIST-F2"

    CERN Document Server

    Gibble, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the treatment of the systematic frequency shifts due to microwave lensing and distributed cavity phase in "First accuracy evaluation of NIST-F2" 2014 Metrologia 51 174-182. We explain that the microwave lensing frequency shift is generally non-zero and finite in the limit of no applied microwave field. This systematic error was incorrectly treated and we find that it contributes a significant frequency offset. Accounting for this shift implies that the measured microwave amplitude dependence (e.g due to microwave leakage) is comparable to the total reported inaccuracy. We also discuss the importance of vertically aligning the fountain perpendicular to the axis of the cavity feeds, when the cavity has only two independent feeds. Finally, we note that background gas collisions have a different behavior for cold clock atoms than for clock atoms at room-temperature, and therefore room temperature measurements do not directly apply to laser-cooled clocks.

  16. Tests on the molecular structure \\\\of $f_2(1270)$, $f'_2(1525)$ from $\\psi (nS)$ and $\\Upsilon (nS)$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Lianrong

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous studies that support the vector-vector molecular structure of the $f_2(1270)$, $f'_2(1525)$, $\\bar{K}^{*\\,0}_2(1430)$, $f_0(1370)$ and $f_0(1710)$ resonances, we make predictions for $\\psi (2S)$ decay into $\\omega(\\phi) f_2(1270)$, $\\omega(\\phi) f'_2(1525)$, $K^{*0}(892) \\bar{K}^{*\\,0}_2(1430)$ and radiative decay of $\\Upsilon (1S),\\Upsilon (2S), \\psi (2S)$ into $\\gamma f_2(1270)$, $\\gamma f'_2(1525)$, $\\gamma f_0(1370)$, $\\gamma f_0(1710)$. Agreement with experimental data is found for three available ratios, without using free parameters, and predictions are done for other cases.

  17. X-ray crystal truncation rod scattering from MBE grown (CaF 2-SrF 2)/Si(111) superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, J.; Itoh, Y.; Shimura, T.; Takahashi, I.; Alvarez, J. C.; Sokolov, N. S.

    1994-01-01

    Flouride CaF 2-SrF 2 superlattices (SLs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied by means of X-ray diffractometry for the first time. The diffraction patterns showed reasonably good crystalline quality of the SLs and a type-B epitaxial relation to the Si(111) substrate. From the analysis of the crystal truncation rod (CTR) profiles, based on the pseudomorphic model, it was obtained that despite the same high temperature (770°C) of formation of the CaF 2/Si(111) interface its structure depended on the growth temperature of the SLs. The shape of the CTR profiles confirmed the existence of the superlattice which consists of one or two monolayer thick SrF 2 layers. Some CaF 2/SrF 2-interface roughness was noticeable.

  18. Defect-induced wetting on BaF 2(111) and CaF 2(111) at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellach, M.; Verdaguer, A.; Fraxedas, J.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction of water with freshly cleaved (111) surfaces of isostructural BaF2 and CaF2 single crystals at ambient conditions (room temperature and under controlled humidity) has been studied using scanning force microscopy in different operation modes and optical microscopy. Such surfaces exhibit contrasting behaviors for both materials: while on BaF2(111) two-dimensional water layers are formed after accumulation at step edges, CaF2(111) does not promote the formation of such layers. We attribute such opposed behavior to lattice match (mismatch) between hexagonal water ice and the hexagonal (111) surfaces of BaF2(CaF2). Optical microscope images reveal that this behavior also determines the way the surfaces become wetted at a macroscopic level.

  19. Computation of the chiral condensate using $N_f=2$ and $N_f=2+1+1$ dynamical flavors of twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl; Shindler, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We apply the spectral projector method, recently introduced by Giusti and L\\"uscher, to compute the chiral condensate using $N_f=2$ and $N_f=2+1+1$ dynamical flavors of maximally twisted mass fermions. We present our results for several quark masses at three different lattice spacings which allows us to perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. In addition we report our analysis on the $O(a)$ improvement of the chiral condensate for twisted mass fermions. We also study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for $N_f=2$ and $N_f=2+1+1$ dynamical flavors.

  20. Neural-network-based prediction techniques for single station modeling and regional mapping of the foF2 and M(3000F2 ionospheric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Xenos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Neural-Network-based single-station hourly daily foF2 and M(3000F2 modelling of 15 European ionospheric stations is investigated. The data used are neural networks and hourly daily values from the period 1964- 1988 for training the neural networks and from the period 1989-1994 for checking the prediction accuracy. Two types of models are presented for the F2-layer critical frequency prediction and two for the propagation factor M(3000F2. The first foF2 model employs the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12 and the local noon F2- layer critical frequency of the previous day. The second foF2 model, which introduces a new regional mapping technique, employs the Juliusruh neural network model and uses the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, and the previous day F2-layer critical frequency measured at Juliusruh at noon. The first M(3000F2 model employs the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, its ± 3 h deviations and the local noon cosine of the solar zenith angle (cos c12. The second model, which introduces a new M(3000F2 mapping technique, employs Juliusruh neural network model and uses the E-layer local noon calculated daily critical frequency (foE12, and the previous day F2-layer critical frequency measured at Juliusruh at noon.

  1. Distinguishing between MSSM and NMSSM through $\\Delta F=2$ processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    We study deviations between MSSM and $Z_3$ -invariant NMSSM, with respect to their predictions in $\\Delta F = 2$ processes. We find that potentially significant effects arise either from the well known double-penguin diagrams, due to the extra scalar NMSSM states, or from neutralino-gluino box contributions, due to the extended neutralino sector. Both are discussed to be effective in the large $tan \\beta$ regime. Enhanced genuine-NMSSM contributions in double penguins are expected for a light singlet spectrum (CP-even,CP-odd), while the magnitude of box effects is primarily controlled through singlino mixing. The latter is found to be typically subleading (but non-negligible) for $\\lambda \\lesssim 0.5$, however it can become dominant for $\\lambda \\sim$ $O(1)$. We also study the low $\\tan \\beta$ regime, where a distinction between MSSM and NMSSM can come instead due to experimental constraints, acting differently on the allowed parameter space of each model. To this end, we incorporate the recent limits from $...

  2. Nucleon isovector couplings from $N_f=2$ lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, Gunnar S; Glässle, Benjamin; Göckeler, Meinulf; Najjar, Johannes; Rödl, Rudolf H; Schäfer, Andreas; Schiel, Rainer W; Söldner, Wolfgang; Sternbeck, Andre

    2014-01-01

    We compute the axial, scalar, tensor and pseudoscalar isovector couplings of the nucleon as well as the induced tensor and pseudoscalar charges in lattice simulations with $N_f=2$ mass-degenerate non-perturbatively improved Wilson-Sheikholeslami-Wohlert fermions. The simulations are carried out down to a pion mass of 150 MeV and linear spatial lattice extents of up to 4.6 fm at three different lattice spacings ranging from approximately 0.08 fm to 0.06 fm. Possible excited state contamination is carefully investigated and finite volume effects are studied. The couplings, determined at these lattice spacings, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass. In this limit we find agreement with experimental results, where these exist, with the exception of the magnetic moment. A proper continuum limit could not be performed, due to our limited range of lattice constants, but no significant lattice spacing dependence is detected. Upper limits on discretization effects are estimated and these dominate the error budget...

  3. 17 CFR 240.17f-2 - Fingerprinting of securities industry personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fingerprinting of securities industry personnel. 240.17f-2 Section 240.17f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Activities § 240.17f-2 Fingerprinting of securities industry personnel. (a) Exemptions for the fingerprinting...

  4. High energy factorization predictions for the charm structure function $F_{2}^{c}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Munier, S

    1998-01-01

    High energy factorization predictions for F2^c are derived using BFKL descriptions of the proton structure function F2 at HERA. The model parameters are fixed by a fit of F2 at small x. Two different approaches of the non perturbative proton input are shown to correspond to the factorization at the gluon or quark level, respectively. The predictions for F2^c are in agreement with the data within the present error bars. However, the photon wave-function formulation (factorization at quark level) predicts significantly higher F2^c than both gluon factorization and a next-leading order DGLAP model.

  5. Validation of the TEC2F2 model over the African equatorial region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssessanga, Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a statistical method, TEC2F2, of estimating critical F2 layer frequency (foF2) from Global Positioning System (GPS) Vertical Total Electron content (VTEC) is extended from Africa's mid-latitudes to the equatorial region, and the results validated. The equatorial region is one of the most dynamic yet under-represented over Africa in ionospheric studies. The TEC2F2 method was first considered for the South African region (mid-latitudes). This region is covered by a network of ionosondes that provided a validation platform for the TEC2F2 method before being applied to other parts of Africa. The results show that over the African equatorial region, the TEC2F2 method is a potential candidate in more accurately estimating the foF2 parameter than the most recent version of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model.

  6. Effect of cryogenic temperature on spectroscopic and laser properties of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švejkar, Richard; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Nakladov, Andrei N.; Osiko, Vjatcheslav V.

    2016-03-01

    The laser and spectroscopic properties of crystal Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 at temperature range 80 - 300 K, which is appropriate for generation of radiation around 2.7 um is presented. The sample of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 (concentration Er(0.04), La(0.12):Ca(0.77)Sr(0.07)) had plan-parallel face-polished faces without anti-reflection coatings (thickness 8.2 mm). During spectroscopy and laser experiments the Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 was attached to temperature controlled copper holder and it was placed in vacuum chamber. The transmission and emission spectra of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 together with the fluorescence decay time were measured in dependence on temperature. The excitation of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 was carried out by a laser diode radiation (pulse duration 5 ms, repetition rate 20 Hz, pump wavelength 973 nm). Laser resonator was hemispherical, 140 mm in length with at pumping mirror (HR @ 2.7 µm) and spherical output coupler (r = 150 mm, R = 95 % @ 2.5 - 2.8 µm). Tunability of laser at 80 K in range 2690 - 2765 nm was obtained using MgF2 birefringent filter. With decreasing temperature of sample the fluorescence lifetime of manifold 4I11/2 (upper laser level) became shorter and intensity of up-conversion radiation was increasing. The highest slope efficiency with respect to absorbed power was 2.3 % at 80 K. The maximum output of peak amplitude power was 0.3 W at 80 K, i.e. 1.5 times higher than measured this value at 300 K. The wavelength generated by Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 laser (2.7 µm) is relatively close to absorption peak of water (3 µm) and so, one of the possible usage should be in medicine and spectroscopy.

  7. Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of Nd(3+), Y(3+)-codoped CaF(2) and SrF(2) crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Lu, Shunbin; Su, Liangbi; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuangchun

    2015-02-01

    By performing the Z-scan measurements at 800 nm using a femtosecond pulsed laser, we are able to characterize the nonlinear refractive indices of Nd, Y codoped CaF(2) and SrF(2) crystals. Based on our measured results, we conclude that the doped fluoride crystal possesses a small nonlinear refractive index and the doping of Nd(3+) and Y(3+) ions in CaF(2) can change its third-order nonlinear index, but the contribution is minor. The doped fluoride crystal may have large potential to be developed as the next generation of gain material for a high-energy laser system.

  8. Improved quantification of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha and F2-isoprostanes by gas chromatography/triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometry: partial cyclooxygenase-dependent formation of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweer, H; Watzer, B; Seyberth, H W; Nüsing, R M

    1997-12-01

    F2-isoprostanes are considered to be novel markers of lipid peroxidation. To study the in vivo formation of F2-isoprostanes, an improved method was developed for isotope dilution assays involving gas chromatography/triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) including thin-layer chromatography (TLC) (sum of all F2-isoprostanes) and high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) purification (prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha). Following the addition of isotopically labeled prostaglandins to urine, the sample was acidified and applied to a C18 cartridge. After elution, prostaglandins were derivatized to pentafluorobenzyl esters and subjected to TLC. A broad zone was scratched off, isoprostanes were eluted and after formation of their trimethylsilyl ether derivatives the sum of F2-isoprostanes was determined by GC/MS/MS. For the determination of PGE2 alpha and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha prior to trimethylsilylation an additional HPLC step was performed and the fractions containing PGF2 alpha and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha were analyzed by GC/MS/MS. Using this technique, 8-epi-PGF2 alpha concentrations in urine samples as low as 5 pg ml-1 could be determined with high accuracy. The excretion rates of isoprostanes were studied in comparison with the classical prostaglandins in three different groups: healthy adults, healthy children and children with hyper-PGE syndrome (HPS), a pathological situation associated with a stimulated PGE2 synthesis. F2-isoprostanes represented the main arachidonic acid metabolites in these groups and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha excretion was comparable in its amount to the classical prostanoids. To delineate the cyclooxygenase-catalyzed contribution, the influence of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases, on F2-isoprostane formation in healthy adults and in HPS children was analyzed. Significantly decreased excretion rates were observed 2 days after indomethacin administration for all prostanoids, including F2-isoprostanes and 8

  9. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  10. Transgenerational effects of obesity and malnourishment on diabetes risk in F2 generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Mervat Y; Saleh, Moustafa M; Saad, Mohamed I; Abdelkhalek, Taha M; Kamel, Maher A

    2016-01-01

    Transgenerational inheritance of various diseases and phenotypes has been demonstrated in diverse species and involves various epigenetic markers. Obesity and malnourishment are nutritional stresses that have effects on offspring through increasing their risk of diabetes and/or obesity. Obesity and malnourishment both affect glucose metabolism and alter oxidative stress parameters in key organs. We induced obesity and malnutrition in F0 female rats by the use of obesogenic diet and protein-deficient diet, respectively. F0 obese and malnourished females were mated with control males and their offspring (F1 generation) were maintained on control diets. The male and female F1 offspring were mated with controls and the resultant offspring (F2 generation) were maintained on control diet. Glucose-sensing markers, glucose metabolism, indicators of insulin resistance and oxidative stress parameters were assessed during fetal development and till the adulthood of the offspring. Glucose-sensing genes were significantly over-expressed in distinct fetal tissues of F2 offspring of malnourished F1 females (F2-MF1F), specifically in fetal pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue. Nuclear and mitochondrial 8-oxo-dG DNA content was significantly elevated in F2-MF1F fetal pancreas. Maternal FBG was significantly elevated in F2-MF1F and F2 offspring of obese F1 females (F2-OF1F) during pregnancy. Males and females offspring of F2-OF1 exhibited significantly elevated FBG and impaired OGTT. Offspring of F2-MF1F showed similar results, while that of F2-MF1M did not significantly deviate from controls. F2-OF1F and F2-MF1F offspring exhibited significant deviation in insulin levels and HOMA-IR levels from controls. Malnourishment has a stronger transgenerational effect through maternal line compared to obesity and malnourishment through paternal line in increasing risk of diabetes in F2 generation.

  11. Complex Refractive Index Measurements for BaF2 and CaF2 via Single-Angle Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; De Vetter, Brent M.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Cannon, Bret D.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2017-10-01

    We have re-investigated the optical constants n and k for the homologous series of inorganic salts barium fluoride (BaF2) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) using a single-angle near-normal incidence reflectance device in combination with a calibrated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with most previous works. However, certain features of the previously published data near the reststrahlen band exhibit distinct differences in spectral characteristics. Notably, our measurements of BaF2 do not include a spectral feature in the ~250 cm-1 reststrahlen band that was previously published. Additionally, CaF2 exhibits a distinct wavelength shift relative to the model derived from previously published data. We confirmed our results with recently published works that use significantly more modern instrumentation and data reduction techniques

  12. Compact setup for the production of $^{87}$Rb $|F = 2, m_F = +2\\rangle$ Bose-Einstein condensates in a hybrid trap

    CERN Document Server

    Nolli, Raffaele; Marmugi, Luca; Wickenbrock, Arne; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    We present a compact experimental apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation of $^{87}$Rb in the $|F = 2, m_F = +2\\rangle$ state. A pre-cooled atomic beam of $^{87}$Rb is obtained by using an unbalanced magneto-optical trap, allowing controlled transfer of trapped atoms from the first vacuum chamber to the science chamber. Here, atoms are transferred to a hybrid trap, as produced by overlapping a magnetic quadrupole trap with a far-detuned optical trap with crossed beam configuration, where forced radiofrequency evaporation is realized. The final evaporation leading to Bose-Einstein condensation is then performed by exponentially lowering the optical trap depth. Control and stabilization systems of the optical trap beams are discussed in detail. The setup reliably produces a pure condensate in the $|F = 2, m_F = +2\\rangle$ state in 50 s, which include 33 s loading of the science magneto-optical trap and 17 s forced evaporation.

  13. Computation of the chiral condensate using N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavors of twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IAS; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IKP; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JCHP; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We apply the spectral projector method, recently introduced by Giusti and Luescher, to compute the chiral condensate using N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavors of maximally twisted mass fermions. We present our results for several quark masses at three different lattice spacings which allows us to perform the chiral and continuum extrapolations. In addition we report our analysis on the O(a) improvement of the chiral condensate for twisted mass fermions. We also study the effect of the dynamical strange and charm quarks by comparing our results for N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical flavors.

  14. Dipole model analysis of F2cc¯${m{F}}_2^{{m{car c}}} $ derived from the new D* data in DIS at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luszczak Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I analyse the new D* deep inelastic scattering data from HERA with the help of dipole models. I calculate F2cc¯${m{F}}_2^{{m{car c}}} $ from the GBW [1] and BGK [2] saturation models. I compare results with the last values determined by H1 at low Q2. I find good agreement with the data.

  15. Low $Q^{2}$ low $\\times$ structure function analysis of CCFR data for $F_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Tamminga, B H; Alton, A; Arroyo, C G; Avvakumov, S; Barbaro, L; Barbaro, P D; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, Arie; Bolton, T; Brau, J E; Buchholz, D A; Budd, H S; Bugel, L; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Formaggio, J A; Frey, R; Goldman, J; Goncharov, M; Harris, D A; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Marsh, W; Mason, D; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schellman, H; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E G; Vakili, M; Vaitaitis, A G; Yang, U K; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of structure functions (SFs) from neutrino and muon deep inelastic scattering data have shown discrepancies in F2 for x < 0.1. A new SF analysis of the CCFR collaboration data examining regions in x down to x=.0015 and 0.4 < Q^2 < 1.0 is presented. Comparison to corrected charged lepton scattering results for F2 from the NMC and E665 experiments are made. Differences between muon and neutrino scattering allow that the behavior of F2 from muon scattering could be different from F2 from neutrino scattering as Q^2 approaches zero. Comparisons between F2 muon and F2 neutrino are made in this limit.

  16. Microstructure and Raman spectra of Ag-MgF2 cermet films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouhua Shi(史守华); Zhuoliang Cao(曹卓良); Zhaoqi Sun(孙兆奇)

    2003-01-01

    Ag-MgF2 cermet films with different Ag fractions were prepared by vacuum evaporation. The microstruc-ture of the films was examined by Raman scattering technique. The surface-enhanced Raman spectrumfor MgF2 molecules in the cermet film strongly suggests the existence of Ag nanoparticles dispersed inMgF2 matrix. The intensities of the Raman spectra of Ag-MgF2 cermet films increase with Ag fraction.The enhancement of Raman scattering disappears when Ag content reaches wt.20%. The analyses withthe transmission electron microscopy showed that Ag-MgF2 cermet films are mainly composed of amor-phous MgF2 matrix with embedded faced-center-cubic Ag nanoparticles. It suggests that the percolationthreshold should be around wt.20% of Ag content.

  17. Ionospheric foF2 morphology and response of F2 layer height over Jicamarca during different solar epochs and comparison with IRI-2012 model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B O Adebesin; B J Adekoya; S O Ikubanni; S J Adebiyi; O A Adebesin; B W Joshua; K O Olonade

    2014-06-01

    Diurnal, seasonal and annual foF2 variability and the response of the F2-layer height over Jicamarca (11.9°S, 76.8°W, 1°N dip) during periods of low (LSA), moderate (MSA) and high (HSA) solar activities was investigated. The relative standard deviation (R) was used for the analysis. The F2-layer critical frequency pre-noon peak increases by a factor of 2 more than the post-noon peak as the solar activity increases. The variability coefficient (R) is lowest during the day (7–16%) for the three solar epochs; increases during nighttime (20–26%, 14–26%, and 10–20%, respectively for the LSA, MSA and HAS years); and attained highest magnitude during sunrise (21–27%, 24–27%, and 19–30%, respectively in similar order). Two major peaks were observed in R – the pre-sunrise peak, which is higher, and the post-sunset peak. Generally, the variability increases as the solar activity decreases. Annually, R peaks within 23–24%, 19–24% and 15–24% for the LSA, MSA, and HSA periods, respectively. The ionospheric F2-layer height rises to the higher level with increasing solar activity. The foF2 comparison results revealed that Jicamarca is well represented on the IRI-2012 model, with an improvement on the URSI option. The importance of vertical plasma drift and photochemistry in the F2-layer was emphasized.

  18. Additive colouring of CaF2:Yb crystals: determination of Yb2+ concentration in CaF2:Yb crystals and ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheulin, A. S.; Angervaks, A. E.; Semenova, T. S.; Koryakina, L. F.; Petrova, M. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Reiterov, V. M.; Garibin, E. A.; Ryskin, A. I.

    2013-06-01

    When growing CaF2 crystal doped with rare-earth ions, most of these ions are present in a trivalent state. However, due to contact with graphite crucible, a small proportion of a number of ions (Eu, Sm, Yb and Tm) are reduced to a bivalent state. A similar situation takes place during fabrication of CaF2 ceramics doped with rare-earth metals. This fact is of particular importance for laser CaF2:Yb crystals (ceramics), a promising material for short-pulse, high-power, high-energy diode-pumped solid state lasers since the presence of bivalent Yb ions can be a source of thermal losses. To date, there has been no technique to determine Yb2+ concentration in as-grown crystals. The proposed technique is based on a total reduction of Yb3+ ions via the heating of as-grown CaF2 crystals with known concentration of Yb in the reducing atmosphere of metal vapour and determining the cross section of absorption bands of Yb2+ ions. The knowledge of these parameters allows estimation of the Yb2+ content in CaF2:Yb crystals or ceramics by analysing their absorption spectra. Examples of using this technique are given. The technology of CdF2 crystals reduction (an "additive colouring") and features of colouring of crystals doped with rare-earth ions are considered.

  19. F2-Isoprostanes in HDL are bound to neutral lipids and phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Julie M; Barden, Anne E; Croft, Kevin D; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Bultel-Poncé, Valérie; Giera, Martin; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-12-01

    Low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, interventions that raise HDL-C have failed to reduce cardiovascular events. We previously reported that HDL is the main carrier of plasma F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) that are markers of oxidative stress formed upon oxidation of arachidonic acid. F2-IsoPs are predominantly associated with phospholipids. However, there is evidence that F2-IsoPs in the liver of rats treated with carbon tetrachloride associate with the neutral lipids. To date it is not known whether F2-IsoPs are found in the neutral lipids in HDL in humans. Possible candidate neutral lipids include cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, diglycerides, and monoglycerides. This study aimed to identify the lipid classes within native and oxidized HDL that contain F2-IsoPs. We showed that F2-IsoPs in HDL are bound to neutral lipids as well as phospholipids. HDL-3 contained the highest concentration of F2-IsoPs in all lipid classes before and after in vitro oxidation. Using targeted LC/MS and high resolution MS, we were unable to provide conclusive evidence for the presence of the synthesized standards 15(R)-15-F2t-isoP cholesterol and 1-ent-15(RS)-15-F2t-isoprostanoyl-sn-glycerol in the neutral lipids of HDL. Our findings show that oxidized lipids such as F2-IsoPs are found in the core and surface of HDL. However, the exact molecular species remain to be definitively characterized. Future studies are required to determine whether the presence of F2-IsoPs in neutral lipids alters HDL function.

  20. On the tensor rank of multiplication in any extension of $\\F_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Ballet, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain new bounds for the tensor rank of multiplication in any extension of $\\F_2$. In particular, it also enables us to obtain the best known asymptotic bound. In this aim, we use the generalized algorithm of type Chudnovsky with derivative evaluations on places of degree one, two and four applied on the descent over $\\F_2$ of a Garcia-Stichtenoth tower of algebraic function fields defined over $\\F_{2^4}$.

  1. Mechanoluminescence and thermoluminesence in γ-irradiated rare earth doped CaF2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahme, Nameeta; Bisen, D. P.; Kher, R. S.; Khokhar, M. S. K.

    2009-08-01

    Mechanoluminescence (ML) and Thermoluminescence (TL) in γ-irradiated Dy, Ce, Er and Gd doped CaF2 crystals were studied. The crystals of doped CaF2 were grown by the Bridgman technique. The cleaved crystals were annealed at 450 ∘C for about two hours and cooled very slowly and then irradiated for different time from 60Co source having an exposure rate of 2.8×103 Gy/hr. ML was excited by applying uniaxial pressure on to the samples. Both the ML and TL intensities of CaF2 crystals increase with doping of rare earth impurities. Both the ML and TL intensity of γ-irradiated Dy, Ce, Er and Gd doped CaF2 crystals initially increase with increasing concentration of dopants obtaining an optimum value at 0.1 mole% level then further decreases with increasing dopant concentration. ML and TL intensity of γ-irradiated Dy, Ce, Er and Gd doped CaF2 crystals initially increases with the irradiation dose and then saturates at higher values of γ-doses. The order of ML and TL intensity for dopants were found similar and their order for decreasing intensity is CaF2:Dy>CaF2:Ce>CaF2:Er>CaF2:Gd. The ML spectra are almost similar to the TL spectra, this suggest that the centres emitting TL and ML may be the same although different processes cause their excitations.

  2. Spectroscopic, luminescent and laser properties of nanostructured CaF2:Tm materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapin, A. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Garibin, E. A.; Malov, A. V.; Osiko, V. V.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Ushakov, S. N.

    2013-08-01

    The laser quality transparent СаF2:Tm fluoride ceramics has been prepared by hot forming. Comparative study of absorption and emission spectra of СаF2:Tm (4 mol.% TmF3) ceramic and single crystal samples demonstrated that these materials possess almost identical spectroscopic properties. Laser oscillations of СаF2:Tm ceramics were obtained at 1898 nm under diode pumping, with the slope efficiency of 5.5%. Also, the continuous-wave (CW) laser have been obtained for СаF2:Tm single crystal at 1890 nm pumped by a diode laser was demonstrated.

  3. Mapping quantitative trait loci for binary trait in the F2:3 design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chengsong Zhu; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Zhigang Guo

    2008-12-01

    In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phenotypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits of biological interest and economic importance are seldom addressed. In this study, an attempt was made to map binary trait loci (BTL) in the F2:3 design. The fundamental idea was: the F2 plants were genotyped, all phenotypic values of each F2:3 progeny were measured for binary trait, and these binary trait values and the marker genotype informations were used to detect BTL under the penetrance and liability models. The proposed method was verified by a series of Monte–Carlo simulation experiments. These results showed that maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and liability models provide accurate estimates for the effects and the locations of BTL with high statistical power, even under of low heritability. Moreover, the penetrance model is as efficient as the liability model, and the F2:3 design is more efficient than classical F2 design, even though only a single progeny is collected from each F2:3 family. With the maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and the liability models developed in this study, we can map binary traits as we can do for quantitative trait in the F2:3 design.

  4. Measurement of Inclusive $\\rho^{0}, f_{0}(980), f_{2}(1270), K^{*0}_{2}(1430)$ and $f'_{2}(1525)$ Production in $Z^0$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rakoczy, D; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Chikilev, O G; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    DELPHI results are presented on the inclusive production of the neutral mesons$\\rho^0$, $f_0(980)$, $f_2(1270)$, K$^{*0}_2(1430)$ and $f^{'}_2(1525)$ in hadronic Z$^0$ decays. They are based on about 2 million multihadronic events collected in 1994 and 1995, using the particle identification capabilities of the DELPHI Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and measured ionization losses in the Time Projection Chamber. The total production rates per hadronic Z$^0$ decay have been determined to be: $1.19 \\pm 0.10$ for $\\rho^0$; $0.164 \\pm 0.021$ for $f_0(980)$;$0.214 \\pm 0.038$ for $f_2(1270)$; 0:073 \\pm 0:023 for $K^{*0}_2 (1430)$; and 0:012 \\pm 0:006 for $f_{2}$(1525). The total production rates for all mesons and differential cross-sections for the $\\rho^{0}$, $f_{0}$(980) and $f_{2}$(1270) are compared with the results of other LEP experiments and with models.

  5. X-ray Excitation Triggers Ytterbium Anomalous Emission in CaF2:Yb but Not in SrF2:Yb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Currie, Rosa B; Ivanovskikh, Konstantin V; Wells, Jon-Paul R; Reid, Michael F; Gordon, Robert A; Seijo, Luis; Barandiarán, Zoila

    2017-02-27

    Materials that luminesce after excitation with ionizing radiation are extensively applied in physics, medicine, security, and industry. Lanthanide dopants are known to trigger crystal scintillation through their fast d-f emissions; the same is true for other important applications as lasers or phosphors for lighting. However, this ability can be seriously compromised by unwanted anomalous emissions often found with the most common lanthanide activators. We report high-resolution X-ray-excited optical (IR to UV) luminescence spectra of CaF2:Yb and SrF2:Yb samples excited at 8949 eV and 80 K. Ionizing radiation excites the known anomalous emission of ytterbium in the CaF2 host but not in the SrF2 host. Wave function-based ab initio calculations of host-to-dopant electron transfer and Yb(2+)/Yb(3+) intervalence charge transfer explain the difference. The model also explains the lack of anomalous emission in Yb-doped SrF2 excited by VUV radiation.

  6. Phosphate Capacities of CaF2-MgO and CaF2-CaO-MgO Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, F.; Pickles, C. A.

    2015-02-01

    Previously published sulphide capacity data and thermodynamic arguments have been employed to calculate the phosphate capacities and the phosphorus partition ratios between a molten carbon saturated iron alloy and binary CaF2-MgO slags and also ternary CaF2 -CaO-MgO slags at 1450 °C. For the CaF2-MgO binary system, a linear relationship was found between the phosphate and the sulphide capacities as follows: log ? = 1.2 log Cs + 25.2. For the ternary CaF2-CaO-MgO system at 1450 °C, the logarithm of the calculated phosphate capacities ranged from 19.47 to 20.15. With the addition of CaO, the phosphate capacities initially increased, reached a maximum and then decreased slightly. The addition of MgO to the CaF2-CaO system resulted in a decrease in the phosphate capacity. The calculated phosphorus partition ratios increased slightly with increasing mole fraction of CaO in the ternary system.

  7. Implementing an analytical formula for calculating M(3000)F2 in the ionosonde operated in Havana

    CERN Document Server

    González, Arian Ojeda; Alazo, Katy; Calzadilla, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Determining the factor M(3000)F2 is very important for ionograms analysis obtained of Ionosonde. M(3000)F2 is the result of the maximum usable frequency (MUF), for to 3000 km distance, divided by the critical frequency of the F2 layer (FoF2). Nowadays, the graphic method to determine the M(3000)F2 is used in Havana station in the ionograms analysis. The purpose of this work is to implement an analytic method that allows us the direct obtaining of M(3000)F2, so it could be programmed and incorporated as part of ionograms elaboration process in Havana station. When is used a PC, some points in the ionogram can be determined. This dataset (f; h') are used to calculate analytically the factor M(3000)F2 . Comparison between the analytic method implemented and the old graphic method are shown. The new method is more accurate and the errors are diminished in the factor M(3000)F2.

  8. Maps of Ionospheric F2-Layer Characteristics Derived from GPS Radio Occultation Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chih Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO technique has been used to receive multi-channel GPS carrier phase signals from low Earth or biting (LEO satellites and demon strate active limb sounding of the Earth¡¦s ionosphere. Apply ing Abel inversion through compen sated total electron content (TEC values, the GPS RO observations can obtainion o spheric electron density (ne profiles and then scale F2-layer characteristics including foF2 and hmF2, especially, hmF2 that can not be directly deduced from ionosonde observations. From the GPS/MET and FS3/COS MIC mis sions, we can col lect on average two hundred and eighteen hundred vertical neprofiles, respectively, within one day. The retrieved foF2 and hmF2 re sults have been used to produce numerical maps representing complex prop erties on a world-wide scale. This paperpresents aphysically appeal ing represen tation of foF2 and hmF2 medians based on GPS RO data. The derived numerical maps have also been examined by ground-based ionosonde data.

  9. On the oscillator strengths of MgO and F2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Main, R.P.; Schadee, A.

    1969-01-01

    In a recent paper (R. P. Main, D. J. Carlson and R. A. DuPuis, JQSRT 7, 805 (1967)), measurements of oscillator strengths of electronic transitions in the MgO-, MgH-, and F2-molecules were reported. We point out that the results reported in that paper for F2 are almost certainly invalid, and that an

  10. Absence of systemic oxidative stress and increased CSF prostaglandin F2α in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Magda A; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Khademi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry nonenzymatic (F2-isoprostanes) and enzymatic oxidation products of arachidonic acid (prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α]) i...

  11. Pilot Milt Thompson and the M2-F2 Lifting Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Jay L. King, Joseph D. Huxman and Orion D. Billeter assist NASA research pilot Milt Thompson (on the ladder) into the cockpit of the M2-F2 lifting body research aircraft at the NASA Flight Research Center (now the Dryden Flight Research Center). The M2-F2 is attached to a wing pylon under the wing of NASA's B-52 mothership.

  12. A Theoretical Study of Super-Excited States of F2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-Hua; HE Chun-long; HAO Yu-Song; MO Yu-Xiang; Li Jia-Ming

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of quantum defect theory, we study super-excited states of F2 molecules which can dissociate into F+(3P2,1,0) and F-(1So) ion-pair. Based on our calculation, we present a vibrational resolved assignment of the high precision photofragment yield spectra for F- from the F2 ion-pair production.

  13. Optical properties of Cr3+ in fluorite-structure hosts and in MgF*2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, L. L.; Krupke, William F.

    1987-03-01

    We have examined the optical properties of Cr3+ in MgF2 and in the fluorite-structure hosts: CdF2, CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2. The properties of Cr3+ in MgF2 are similar to those observed for other fluoride crystals that have octahedral substitutional metal sites. Interestingly, Cr3+ is also found to be sixfold coordinated in the fluorite hosts, despite the fact that the metal sites of these crystal lattices are eightfold coordinated. The smaller ionic radius of Cr3+ compared to, say, Ca2+, undoubtedly results in considerable relaxation at the metal site. However, the crystal field stabilization energy present in the 4A2(d3) ground state also provides for the energetic preference of sixfold vs eightfold coordination. The similarity of the observed absorption spectra of Cr3+ in MgF2 and in fluorite give evidence that the ground state is octahedrally coordinated in all of these hosts. The reduction of this electronic stabilization energy in the 4T2(d3) excited state is considered to produce a configurational shift relative to the ground state. This shift may be the reason why Cr3+ luminesces effectively in MgF2 whereas it is largely quenched in the fluorite-structure materials.

  14. Determination of the ionospheric foF2 using a stand-alone GPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Dudy D.; Haralambous, Haris; Oikonomou, Christina; Kuntjoro, Wedyanto

    2017-09-01

    The critical frequency of ionospheric F2 layer (foF2) is a measure of the highest frequency of radio signal that may be reflected back by the F2 layer, and it is associated with ionospheric peak electron density in the F2 layer. Accurate long-term foF2 variations are usually derived from ionosonde observations. In this paper, we propose a new method to observe foF2 using a stand-alone global positioning system (GPS) receiver. The proposed method relies on the mathematical equation that relates foF2 to GPS observations. The equation is then implemented in the Kalman filter algorithm to estimate foF2 at every epoch of the observation (30-s rate). Unlike existing methods, the proposed method does not require any additional information from ionosonde observations and does not require any network of GPS receivers. It only requires as inputs the ionospheric scale height and the modeled plasmaspheric electron content, which practically can be derived from any existing ionospheric/plasmaspheric model. We applied the proposed method to estimate long-term variations of foF2 at three GPS stations located at the northern hemisphere (NICO, Cyprus), the southern hemisphere (STR1, Australia) and the south pole (SYOG, Antarctic). To assess the performance of the proposed method, we then compared the results against those derived by ionosonde observations and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model. We found that, during the period of high solar activity (2011-2012), the values of absolute mean bias between foF2 derived by the proposed method and ionosonde observations are in the range of 0.2-0.5 MHz, while those during the period of low solar activity (2009-2010) are in the range of 0.05-0.15 MHz. Furthermore, the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) values during high and low solar activities are in the range of 0.8-0.9 MHz and of 0.6-0.7 MHz, respectively. We also noticed that the values of absolute mean bias and RMSE between foF2 derived by the proposed method and the

  15. X-ray excited luminescence of polystyrene composites loaded with SrF2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, T. M.; Halyatkin, O. O.; Vistovskyy, V. V.; Hevyk, V. B.; Yakibchuk, P. M.; Gektin, A. V.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    The polystyrene film nanocomposites of 0.3 mm thickness with embedded SrF2 nanoparticles up to 40 wt% have been synthesized. The luminescent and kinetic properties of the polystyrene composites with embedded SrF2 nanoparticles upon the pulse X-ray excitation have been investigated. The luminescence intensity of the pure polystyrene scintillator film significantly increases when it is loaded with the inorganic SrF2 nanoparticles. The film nanocomposites show fast (∼2.8 ns) and slow (∼700 ns) luminescence decay components typical for a luminescence of polystyrene activators (p-Terphenyl and POPOP) and SrF2 nanoparticles, respectively. It is revealed that the fast decay luminescence component of the polystyrene composites is caused by the excitation of polystyrene by the photoelectrons escaped from the nanoparticles due to photoeffect, and the slow component is caused by reabsorption of the self-trapped exciton luminescence of SrF2 nanoparticles by polystyrene.

  16. The effect of CaF2 on thermodynamics of CaO-CaF2-SiO2(-MgO) slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chul-Hwan; Jo, Sung-Koo; Kim, Seon-Hyo; Lee, Kwang-Ro; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2004-02-01

    To address the role of CaF2 in the CaO-CaF2-SiO2(-MgO) slag system employed for the production of low-pressure rotor steels, the thermodynamic aspects of the slag were investigated by equilibrating it with liquid iron at 1873 K in CaO or MgO crucibles. Presaturation of slag with an oxide block piece of CaO or MgO in a Pt crucible and application of a carbon paste to the outside of an oxide crucible were designed to prevent crucible failure during the slag-metal experiments. The liquidus isotherm and phase boundary of the preceding slag system were investigated using the slag-metal equilibria. Also, the effect of CaF2 on the sulfide capacity and the activity coefficient of Fe t O were of particular interest in controlling the sulfur level and cleanliness of low-pressure rotor steels.

  17. In-situ Observations of the Ionospheric F2-Region from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Wright, Kenneth H.; Minow, Joseph I.; Chandler, Michael O.; Parker, Linda N.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station orbit provides an ideal platform for in-situ studies of space weather effects on the mid and low latitude F-2 region ionosphere. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) operating on the ISS since Aug 2006, is a suite of plasma instruments: a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP), a Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), and a Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP). This instrument package provides a new opportunity for collaborative multi-instrument studies of the F-region ionosphere during both quiet and disturbed periods. This presentation first describes the operational parameters for each of the FPMU probes and shows examples of an intra-instrument validation. We then show comparisons with the plasma density and temperature measurements derived from the TIMED GUVI ultraviolet imager, the Millstone Hill ground based incoherent scatter radar, and DIAS digisondes, Finally we show one of several observations of night-time equatorial density holes demonstrating the capabilities of the probes for monitoring mid and low latitude plasma processes.

  18. MgF2 prism/rhodium/graphene: efficient refractive index sensing structure in optical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Akhilesh Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Kumar

    2017-04-01

    A theoretical study of a noble surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensing probe has been carried out. The sensing probe consists of a magnesium fluoride (MgF2) prism with its base coated with rarely used noble metal rhodium (Rh) and a bio-compatible layer of graphene. The refractive indices (RIs) of the sensing medium vary from 1.33 to 1.36 refractive index unit (RIU). The thickness of Rh and the number of graphene layers have been optimized for maximum sensitivity in a constraint set by the detection accuracy (DA). For the operating wavelength of 632 nm, the optimized sensing probe Rh (12 nm)/graphene (single layer) demonstrates sensitivity of ~259 degree/RIU with corresponding DA of ~0.32 degree‑1 while for 532 nm of excitation, the optimized sensing probe Rh (12 nm)/graphene (three layer) exhibits sensitivity of ~240 degree/RIU and DA of ~0.27 degree‑1.

  19. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Decomposition treatment of SO2F2 using packed bed DBD plasma followed by chemical absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yong; Zheng, Qifeng; Liang, Xiaojiang; Gu, Dayong; Lu, Meizhen; Min, Min; Ji, Jianbing

    2013-07-16

    The technology of packed bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma followed by a chemical absorption has been developed and was found to be an efficient way for decomposition treatment of sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) in simulated residual fumigant. The effects of energy density, initial SO2F2 concentration, and residence time on the removal efficiency of SO2F2 for the DBD plasma treatment alone were investigated. It was found that the SO2F2 could be removed completely when initial volume concentration, energy density, and residence time were 0.5%, 33.9 kJ/L, and 5.1 s, respectively. The removal mechanism of SO2F2 in the packed bed DBD reactor was discussed. Based on the detailed analysis of SO2F2 molecular stability and its exhaust products in the DBD plasma reactor, it was concluded that the energetic electrons generated in the packed bed DBD reactor played a key role on the removal of SO2F2, and the major decomposition products of SO2F2 detected were SO2, SiF4, and S (Sulfur). Among these products, SiF4 was formed by the F atom reacted with the filler-quartz glass beads (SiO2) in the packed bed DBD reactor. Aqueous NaOH solution was used as the chemical absorbent for the gaseous products of SO2F2 after plasma pretreatment. It was found that the gaseous products in the plasma exhaust could be absorbed and fixed by the subsequent aqueous NaOH solution.

  1. Effect of 1918 PB1-F2 expression on influenza A virus infection kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Amber M [UNIV OF UTAH; Adler, Frederick R [UNIV OF UTAH; Mcauley, Julie L [ST. JUDES CHILDREN RESEARCH; Mccullers, Jonathan A [ST. JUDES CHILDREN RESEARCH

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the viral factors contributing to the lethality of the 1918 pandemic, although its unparalleled virulence was likely due in part to the newly discovered PB1-F2 protein. This protein, while unnecessary for replication, increases apoptosis in monocytes, alters viral polymerase activity in vitro, and produces enhanced inflammation and increased secondary pneumonia in vivo. However, the effects the PB1-F2 protein have in vivo remain unclear. To address the mechanisms involved, we intranasally infected groups of mice with either influenza A virus PR8 or a genetically engineered virus that expresses the 1918 PB1-F2 protein on a PR8 background, PR8-PB1-F2(1918). Mice inoculated with PR8 had viral concentrations peaking at 72 hours, while those infected with PR8-PB1-F2(1918) reached peak concentrations earlier, 48 hours. Mice given PR8-PB1-F2(1918) also showed a faster decline in viral loads. We fit a mathematical model to these data to estimate parameter values and select the best model. This model supports a lower viral clearance rate and higher infected cell death rate with the PR8-PB1-F2(1918) virus, although the viral production rate may also be higher. We hypothesize that the higher PR8-PB1-F2(1918) viral titers early in an infection are due to both an increase in viral production with decreased viral clearance, and that the faster decline in the later stages of infection result from elevated cell death rates. We discuss the implications these mechanisms have during an infection with a virus expressing a virulent PBI-F2 on the possibility of a pandemic and on the importance of antiviral treatments.

  2. Nuclear medium effects in $F_{2A}^{EM}(x,Q^2)$ and $F_{2A}^{Weak}(x,Q^2)$ structure functions

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Simo, I Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Recent phenomenological analysis of experimental data on DIS processes induced by charged leptons and neutrinos/antineutrinos beams on nuclear targets by CTEQ collaboration has confirmed the observation of CCFR and NuTeV collaborations, that weak structure function $F_{2A}^{Weak} (x,Q^2)$ is different from electromagnetic structure function $F_{2A}^{EM} (x,Q^2)$ in a nucleus like iron, specially in the region of low $x$ and $Q^2$. In view of this observation we have made a study of nuclear medium effects on $F_{2A}^{Weak} (x,Q^2)$ and $F_{2A}^{EM} (x,Q^2)$ for a wide range of $x$ and $Q^2$ using a microscopic nuclear model. We have considered Fermi motion, binding energy, nucleon correlations, mesonic contributions from pion and rho mesons and shadowing effects to incorporate nuclear medium effects. The calculations are performed in a local density approximation using a relativistic nucleon spectral function which includes nucleon correlations. The numerical results in the case of iron nucleus are compared wi...

  3. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.;

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  4. Vibrational spectra of (BaF2)n (n=1-6) clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ratnesh K.; Waters, Kevin; Nigam, Sandeep; Pandey, Ravindra; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2016-05-01

    The vibrational properties of alkaline-earth metal fluoride clusters (BaF2)n (n=1-6) are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. The calculated Raman and Infrared (IR) spectra reveals shift in Raman and IR peak position towards lower frequency region with the increase in the cluster size. Further the calculated spectra have been compared with the experimental vibrational spectra of bulk BaF2 crystal. Even though the smaller size cluster lacks translational symmetry, the structural and vibrational characteristic of (BaF2)5-6 are nearer to bulk counterpart.

  5. Optical Properties of MgF2 / MgF2 / Glass and MgF2 / TiO2 / Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghahramani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MgF2 thin films by thickness of 93 nm were deposited on MgF2 / glass and TiO2 / glass thin layers by resistance evaporation method under ultra-high vacuum (UHV conditions, rotating pre layer for sample one and normal deposition for second one. Optical properties were measured via spectrophotometer in spectral range of 300-1100 nm wave length. The optical constants such as, real part of refractive index (n, imaginary part of refractive index (k, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function ε1, ε2 respectively and absorption coefficient (, were obtained from Kramers-Kronig analysis of reflectivity curves. Band-gap energy was also estimated for these films.

  6. A variable transverse stiffness sandwich structure using fluidic flexible matrix composites (F2MC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyi; Lotfi, Amir; Shan, Ying; Wang, K. W.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Bakis, Charles E.

    2008-03-01

    Presented in this paper is the development of a novel honeycomb sandwich panel with variable transverse stiffness. In this structure, the traditional sandwich face sheets are replaced by the fluidic flexible matrix composite (F2MC) tube layers developed in recent studies. The F2MC layers, combined with the anisotropic honeycomb core material properties, provide a new sandwich structure with variable stiffness properties for transverse loading. In this research, an analytical model is derived based on Lekhitskii's anisotropic pressurized tube solution and Timoshenko beam theory. Experimental investigations are also conducted to verify the analytical findings. A segmented multiple-F2MC-tube configuration is synthesized to increase the variable stiffness range. The analysis shows that the new honeycomb sandwich structure using F2MC tubes of 10 segments can provide a high/low transverse stiffness ratio of 60. Segmentation and stiffness control can be realized by an embedded valve network, granting a fast response time.

  7. Phenotypic variation of F1 and F2 populations from three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Phenotypic variation of F1 and F2 populations from ... Key words: Solanum, genome, phenotype, taxonomy, evolution, interspecific hybridization, pollen viability, ..... This development affirms the views of .... The origins of.

  8. Measurement of the neutron F2 structure function via spectator tagging with CLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, N; Zhang, J; Bosted, P; Bultmann, S; Christy, M E; Fenker, H; Griffioen, K A; Keppel, C E; Kuhn, S E; Melnitchouk, W; Tvaskis, V; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfini, M; Arrington, J; Avakian, H; Baghdasaryan, H; Battaglieri, M; Biselli, A S; Branford, 5 D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Dey, B; Djalali, C; Dodge, G; Domingo, J; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hungerford, E; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ispiryan, M; Isupov, E L; Jawalkar, S S; Jo, H S; Kalantarians, N; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; King, P M; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Mao, Y; Markov, N; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Morrison, B; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Ni, A; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, I; Niculescu, G; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Pereira, S Anefalos; Pisano, S; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatie, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Sharabian, Y G; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zana, L; Zhao, B

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of the F2 structure function of the neutron from semi-inclusive scattering of electrons from deuterium, with low-momentum protons detected in the backward hemisphere. Restricting the momentum of the spectator protons to < 100 MeV and their angles to < 100 degrees relative to the momentum transfer allows an interpretation of the process in terms of scattering from nearly on-shell neutrons. The F2n data collected cover the nucleon resonance and deep-inelastic regions over a wide range of x for 0.65 < Q2 < 4.52 GeV2, with uncertainties from nuclear corrections estimated to be less than a few percent. These measurements provide the first determination of the neutron to proton structure function ratio F2n/F2p at 0.2 < x < 0.8, essentially free of nuclear corrections.

  9. QCD analysis of neutrino charged current structure function F2 in deep inelastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M.; Aleem, F.

    1985-08-01

    An analytic expression for the neutrino charged current structure function F2 (x, Q2) in deep inelastic scattering, consistent with quantum chromodynamics, is proposed. The calculated results are in good agreement with experiment.

  10. Microstructural and Optical Absorption Properties of Cu-MgF2 Nanoparticle Cermet Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兆奇; 孙大明; 阮图南

    2002-01-01

    We examine the microstructural and optical absorption spectra of 10-30 vol% Cu-MgF2 nanoparticle cermet films prepared by co-evaporation in vacuum. The results show that the Cu-MgF2 cermet films are mainly composed of the amorphous MgF2 matrix with embedded fcc Cu nanoparticles of average size 12-24 nm. The results also show that the optical absorption of the films decreases as the wavelength increases in the range of 200-800nm. The surface plasmon resonance absorption peaks of Cu nanoparticles in 10, 20 and 30 vo1% Cu-MgF2 films appear at 578, 588 and 606nm, respectively. The interband transition absorption of Cu starts from 590nm downwards.Based on the Maxwell-Garnett theory, the experimental optical absorption properties of the films have been quantitatively evaluated.

  11. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2006-01-01

    .... Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α...

  12. On the Rise of the Proton Structure Function F_2 Towards Low x

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solovev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement of the derivative (d ln F_2 / d lnx)_(Q^2)= -lambda(x,Q^2) of the proton structure function F_2 is presented in the low x domain of deeply inelastic positron-proton scattering. For 5*10^(-5)=1.5 GeV^2, lambda(x,Q^2) is found to be independent of x and to increase linearly with ln(Q^2).

  13. Basal Plane Fluorination of Graphene by XeF2 via a Radical Cation Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijun; Noffke, Benjamin W; Qiao, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qiqi; Gao, Xinfeng; Raghavachari, Krishnan; Li, Liang-shi

    2015-09-17

    Graphene fluorination with XeF2 is an attractive method to introduce a nonzero bandgap to graphene under mild conditions for potential electro-optical applications. Herein, we use well-defined graphene nanostructures as a model system to study the reaction mechanism of graphene fluorination by XeF2. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies show that the reaction can proceed through a radical cation mechanism, leading to fluorination and sp(3)-hybridized carbon in the basal plane.

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet - photon mediated production of [(18) F]F2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyczmonik, Anna; Keller, Thomas; Kirjavainen, Anna; Forsback, Sarita; Solin, Olof

    2017-01-25

    The chemistry of F2 and its derivatives are amenable to facile aliphatic or aromatic substitution, as well as electrophilic addition. The main limitation in the use of [(18) F]F2 for radiopharmaceutical synthesis is the low specific activity achieved by the traditional methods of production. The highest specific activities, 55 GBq/µmol, for [(18) F]F2 have been achieved so far by using electrical discharge in the post-target production of [(18) F]F2 gas from [(18) F]CH3 F. We demonstrate that [(18) F]F2 is produced by illuminating a gas mixture of neon/F2 /[(18) F]CH3 F with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons generated by an excimer laser. We tested several illumination chambers and production conditions. The effects of the initial amount of [(18) F]F(-) , amount of carrier F2 and number of 193 nm laser pulses at constant power were evaluated with regard to radiochemical yield and specific activity. The specific activity attained for [(18) F]F2 derived [(18) F]NFSi was 10.3 ± 0.9 GBq/µmol and the average radiochemical yield over a wide range of conditions was 6.7% from [(18) F]F(-) . The production can be improved by optimization of the synthesis device and procedures. The use of a commercially available excimer laser and the simplicity of the process can make this method relatively easy for adaptation in radiochemistry laboratories.

  15. The gluon density of the proton at low x from a QCD analysis of F$_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, S; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Arpagaus, M; Babaev, A; Ban, Y; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Barschke, R; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bernardi, G; Bernet, R; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Brasse, F W; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Buschhorn, G W; Bán, J; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charles, F; Charlet, M; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Colombo, M G; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Coutures, C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; De Wolf, E A; Del Buono, L; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duboc, J; Duhm, H; Düllmann, D; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichenberger, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Erlichmann, H; Evrard, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Forbush, M; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Gellrich, A; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Glazov, A; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Goritchev, P A; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hamon, O; Hampel, M; Hapke, M; Haynes, W J; Heatherington, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hildesheim, W; Hill, P; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Huet, Patrick; Hufnagel, H; Höppner, M; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jabiol, M A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johnson, D P; Johnson, L; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kasselmann, P; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Ko, W; Kolanoski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Krüger, U P; Krüner-Marquis, U; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhöfer, J; Kuznik, B; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Lamarche, F; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lanius, P; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Lehner, F; Leverenz, C; Levonian, S; Ley, C; Lindström, G; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lohmander, H; Lomas, J W; Lubimov, V; López, G C; Lüke, D; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, G; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Masson, S; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Mercer, D; Merz, T; Meyer, C A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Niedzballa, C; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Obrock, U; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pichler, C; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Prosi, R; Pérez, E; Rabbertz, K; Raupach, F; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Ribarics, P; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riess, S; Rietz, M; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rylko, R; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sahlmann, N; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleif, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schöning, A; Sciacca, G F; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu V; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Stella, B; Stephens, K; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stolze, K; Strachota, J; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Tapprogge, Stefan; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Van den Plas, D; Vartapetian, A H; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walther, A; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wellisch, H P; West, L R; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wright, A E; Wulff, N; Wünsch, E; Yiou, T P; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zimmer, M; Zimmermann, W; Zomer, F; Zuber, K; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W

    1995-01-01

    We present a QCD analysis of the proton structure function F_2 measured by the H1 experiment at HERA, combined with data from previous fixed target experiments. The gluon density is extracted from the scaling violations of F_2 in the range 2\\cdot 10^{-4}

  16. A new global model for the ionospheric F2 peak height for radio wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The F2-layer peak density height hmF2 is one of the most important ionospheric parameters characterizing HF propagation conditions. Therefore, the ability to model and predict the spatial and temporal variations of the peak electron density height is of great use for both ionospheric research and radio frequency planning and operation. For global hmF2 modelling we present a nonlinear model approach with 13 model coefficients and a few empirically fixed parameters. The model approach describes the temporal and spatial dependencies of hmF2 on global scale. For determining the 13 model coefficients, we apply this model approach to a large quantity of global hmF2 observational data obtained from GNSS radio occultation measurements onboard CHAMP, GRACE and COSMIC satellites and data from 69 worldwide ionosonde stations. We have found that the model fits to these input data with the same root mean squared (RMS and standard deviations of 10%. In comparison with the electron density NeQuick model, the proposed Neustrelitz global hmF2 model (Neustrelitz Peak Height Model – NPHM shows percentage RMS deviations of about 13% and 12% from the observational data during high and low solar activity conditions, respectively, whereas the corresponding deviations for the NeQuick model are found 18% and 16%, respectively.

  17. Luminescence and scintillation properties of BaF2sbnd Ce transparent ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junming; Sahi, Sunil; Groza, Michael; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Burger, Arnold; Kenarangui, Rasool; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Selim, Farida A.

    2016-08-01

    Cerium doped Barium Fluoride (BaF2sbnd Ce) transparent ceramic was fabricated and its luminescence and scintillation properties were studied. The photoluminescence shows the emission peaks at 310 nm and 323 nm and is related to the 5d-4f transitions in Ce3+ ion. Photo peak at 511 keV and 1274 keV were obtained with BaF2sbnd Ce transparent ceramic for Na-22 radioisotopes. Energy resolution of 13.5% at 662 keV is calculated for the BaF2sbnd Ce transparent ceramic. Light yield of 5100 photons/MeV was recorded for BaF2sbnd Ce(0.2%) ceramic and is comparable to its single crystal counterpart. Scintillation decay time measurements shows fast component of 58 ns and a relatively slow component of 434 ns under 662 keV gamma excitation. The slower component in BaF2sbnd Ce(0.2%) ceramic is about 200 ns faster than the STE emission in BaF2 host and is associated with the dipole-dipole energy transfer from the host matrix to Ce3+ luminescence center.

  18. Generation of (F+2)_AH Centres in Sodium Ion Doped KCl:CO^{2-3}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaf, M.; Chihi, I.; Hamaïdia, A.; Akrmi, El.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that (F+2)AH centres of KCl may be obtained from crystals doped with K{2}CO{3} and NaCl, grown by the Czochralski method in open atmosphere. The optical properties of (F+2)AH centres thus produced are exactly the same as those of (F+2)AH centres prepared by the usual technique, which involves superoxide doping and a controlled atmosphere. Nous montrons que les centres (F+2)AH de KCl peuvent être obtenus à partir de cristaux dopés par K{2}CO{3} et NaCl, fabriqués par la méthode de Czochralski à l'air libre. Les propriétés optiques des centres (F+2)AH ainsi produits sont exactement les mêmes que celles des centres (F+2)AH préparés par la technique habituelle, qui comporte le dopage par un superoxyde et l'emploi d'une atmosphère contrôlée.

  19. Daytime F2-layer positive storm effect at middle and lower latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    Full Text Available Daytime F2-layer positive storm effects at middle and lower latitudes in the winter thermosphere are analyzed using AE-C, ESRO-4 neutral gas composition data, ground-based ionosonde observations and model calculations. Different longitudinal sectors marked by the storm onset as 'night-time' and 'daytime' demonstrate different F2-layer positive storm mechanisms. Neutral composition changes in the 'night-time' sector with increased [O] and [N2] absolute concentrations, while (N2/Ostorm/(N2/Oquietapprox1 at F2-layer heights, are shown to contribute largely to the background NmF2 increase at lower latitudes lasting during daytime hours. Storm-induced surges of the equatorward wind give rise to an additional NmF2 increase above this background level. The mid-latitude F2-layer positive storm effect in the 'daytime' sector is due to the vertical plasma drift increase, resulting from the interaction of background (poleward and storm-induced (equatorward thermospheric winds, but not to changes of [O] and [N2] concentrations.

  20. LATS refining ladle slag modifying with CaO-CaF2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongming Wang; Guirong Li; Zhongming Ren; Bo Li; Xuejun Zhang; Guomin Shi

    2007-01-01

    To reduce the slag sticking onto the snorkel of the ladle during the ladle alloying treatment station (LATS) process, CaO-CaF2 (the mass ratio of CaO/CaF2 is 1:1) was employed as the modifier of the LATS refining ladle slag. The effect of CaO-CaF2 on the melting point, viscosity, and desulfurizing capability of the ladle slag was investigated. The melting point of the unmodified ladle slag is 1439°C. When adding 20wt% CaO-CaF2, the melting point is decreased to 1327°C. At 1500°C, the viscosity of the unmodified ladle slag is 6.5 Pa·s, which can be decreased lower than 2 Pa·s by adding more than 10wt% CaO-CaF2. The experimental results of desulfurization of the melts show that the desulfurizing power of the ladle slag can be enhanced by adding CaO-CaF2.

  1. Synthesis and optical characterizations of Nd, Y: CaF2 transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zaichun; Mei, Bingchu; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Xiaoya; Su, Liangbi

    2017-09-01

    Highly transparent Nd, Y co-doped calcium fluoride (Nd, Y: CaF2) ceramics with different Y3+ ions doped concentrations were fabricated by hot-pressed method using Nd, Y: CaF2 nanopowders synthesized by co-precipitation method. According to the XRD calculations and SEM observations, the average grain size of nanopowders was about 22 nm. From the SEM micrograph of the nanopowders, it clearly shows that the nanoparticles exhibit nearly spherical morphology and agglomerated slightly. For 2 mm thickness sample, the transmittance of the as-fabricated Nd, Y: CaF2 (1 at.% Nd and 2 at.% Y) ceramic at 1400 nm reached up to 87%. The microstructure, absorption spectra and emission spectra of the Nd, Y: CaF2 ceramics were measured and discussed. Compared with the Nd: CaF2 ceramic, the Nd, Y: CaF2 ceramics fluorescent intensity increased drastically with the increase of Y3+ ions doped concentration.

  2. Ionospheric weather: cloning missed foF2 observations for derivation of variability index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Gulyaeva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A techique for filling the gaps of the missing F2-layer critical frequency is proposed and applied for the derivation of the ionospheric weather index, characterizing the degree of disturbance at each particular station. A daily-hourly analysis of ionosonde observations of foF2 for 16 stations at latitude range 37° to 70° N, longitudes of 10° W to 150° E, is performed during the solar minimum, 2006. Missed ionosonde observations are reconstructed by cloning data of another station. The process of gap filling considers hourly values of the F peak density NmF2 (deduced from foF2, normalized to the respective median, and assumes that this ratio remains the same for the parent and cloned data. It is shown that the correlation coefficient between cloned fcF2 and observed foF2 is greater than 0.75 for the positive and negative ionospheric disturbed days during a year at solar minimum, independent of the distance between the stations in high and middle latitudes. The quiet reference is determined as a running daily-hourly median for 27 days, preceding the day of observation calibrated for a seasonal trend with ITU-R foF2 predictions. The hourly deviation DNmF2 is defined as the logarithm of ratio of NmF2/NmF2med. A segmented logarithmic scale of the ionospheric weather index, W, is introduced, so that W=±1 refers to the quiet state, W=±2 to a moderate disturbance, W=±3 to the ionospheric storm, and W=±4 to the extreme or anomalous conditions. The catalog of the ionospheric disturbances for W exceeding ±2 at least during 3 consecutive hours is produced and presented online at the SRC and IZMIRAN web pages. It is found that the moderate disturbance is a prevailing state of the ionospheric weather for all stations. The stormy conditions comprise 1 to 20% of the times which occur more frequently at high latitudes, by night, during equinox and winter.

  3. Ionospheric weather: cloning missed foF2 observations for derivation of variability index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Stanislwska, I.; Tomasik, M.

    2008-02-01

    A techique for filling the gaps of the missing F2-layer critical frequency is proposed and applied for the derivation of the ionospheric weather index, characterizing the degree of disturbance at each particular station. A daily-hourly analysis of ionosonde observations of foF2 for 16 stations at latitude range 37° to 70° N, longitudes of 10° W to 150° E, is performed during the solar minimum, 2006. Missed ionosonde observations are reconstructed by cloning data of another station. The process of gap filling considers hourly values of the F peak density NmF2 (deduced from foF2), normalized to the respective median, and assumes that this ratio remains the same for the parent and cloned data. It is shown that the correlation coefficient between cloned fcF2 and observed foF2 is greater than 0.75 for the positive and negative ionospheric disturbed days during a year at solar minimum, independent of the distance between the stations in high and middle latitudes. The quiet reference is determined as a running daily-hourly median for 27 days, preceding the day of observation calibrated for a seasonal trend with ITU-R foF2 predictions. The hourly deviation DNmF2 is defined as the logarithm of ratio of NmF2/NmF2med. A segmented logarithmic scale of the ionospheric weather index, W, is introduced, so that W=±1 refers to the quiet state, W=±2 to a moderate disturbance, W=±3 to the ionospheric storm, and W=±4 to the extreme or anomalous conditions. The catalog of the ionospheric disturbances for W exceeding ±2 at least during 3 consecutive hours is produced and presented online at the SRC and IZMIRAN web pages. It is found that the moderate disturbance is a prevailing state of the ionospheric weather for all stations. The stormy conditions comprise 1 to 20% of the times which occur more frequently at high latitudes, by night, during equinox and winter.

  4. Measurement of F_2^ccbar and F_2^bbbar at High Q^2 using the H1 Vertex Detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A; Anthonis, T; Asmone, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Berndt, T; Bizot, J C; Böhme, J; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brisson, V; Broker, H B; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coppens, Y R; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; Delcourt, B; Demirchyan, R; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dingfelder, J; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Duprel, C; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Formánek, J; Franke, G; Frising, G; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Garutti, E; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gerhards, R; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Görlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Grab, C; Grässler, Herbert; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Haller, J; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Herrera-Corral, G; Herynek, I; Heuer, R D; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoting, P; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Kant, D; Kapichine, M; Karlsson, M; Katzy, J; Keller, N; Kennedy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Koblitz, B; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Koutouev, R; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kroseberg, J; Krüger, K; Kuckens, J; Kuhr, T; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leiner, B; Lemrani, R; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N A; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morozov, I; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nagovizin, V; Nankov, K; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, J; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C B; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D K; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Ossoskov, G; Ozerov, D; Paramonov, A A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pöschl, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Raicevic, N; Reimer, P; Reisert, B; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Scheins, J; Schilling, F P; Schleper, P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schneider, M; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schröder, V; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schwanenberger, C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sirois, Y; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Spitzer, H; Stamen, R; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Uraev, A; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Vargas, A; Trevino; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Winter, G G; Wissing, C; Woerling, E E; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zohrabyan, H G; Zomer, F

    2004-01-01

    Measurements are presented of inclusive charm and beauty cross sections in e^+p collisions at HERA for values of photon virtuality Q^2 > 150 GeV^2 and of inelasticity 0.1 < y < 0.7. The charm and beauty fractions are determined using a method based on the impact parameter, in the transverse plane, of tracks to the primary vertex, as measured by the H1 vertex detector. The data are divided into four regions in Q^2 and Bjorken x, and values for the structure functions F_2^{c\\bar{c}} and F_2^{b\\bar{b}} are obtained. The results are found to be compatible with the predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

  5. Broadly Tunable Room-temperature Operation Co∶MgF2 Laser%宽调谐室温Co∶MgF2激光器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔益本; 张伟; 张增明; 姜芸芸; 纪玉峰; 戎春华

    2001-01-01

    用双折射滤光片不同干涉级次和多组谐振腔镜连续调谐室温Co∶MgF2激光器,波长调谐范围达到1700~2550 nm,在2090 nm峰值波长的输出能量及效率分别为115 mJ和16%.

  6. Atmospheric histories and global emissions of halons H-1211 (CBrClF2), H-1301 (CBrF3), and H-2402 (CBrF2CBrF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Mühle, Jens; Trudinger, Cathy M.; Rigby, Matthew; Montzka, Stephen A.; Harth, Christina M.; Miller, Benjamin R.; Henne, Stephan; Krummel, Paul B.; Hall, Bradley D.; Young, Dickon; Kim, Jooil; Arduini, Jgor; Wenger, Angelina; Yao, Bo; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon; Maione, Michela; Etheridge, David M.; Li, Shanlan; Verdonik, Daniel P.; Park, Sunyoung; Dutton, Geoff; Steele, L. Paul; Lunder, Chris R.; Rhee, Tae Siek; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Wang, Ray H. J.; Hill, Matthias; Salameh, Peter K.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Zhou, Lingxi; Blunier, Thomas; Schwander, Jakob; Elkins, James W.; Butler, James H.; Simmonds, Peter G.; Weiss, Ray F.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Fraser, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    We report ground-based atmospheric measurements and emission estimates for the halons H-1211 (CBrClF2), H-1301 (CBrF3), and H-2402 (CBrF2CBrF2) from the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration global networks. We also include results from archived air samples in canisters and from polar firn in both hemispheres, thereby deriving an atmospheric record of nearly nine decades (1930s to present). All three halons were absent from the atmosphere until ˜1970, when their atmospheric burdens started to increase rapidly. In recent years H-1211 and H-2402 mole fractions have been declining, but H-1301 has continued to grow. High-frequency observations show continuing emissions of H-1211 and H-1301 near most AGAGE sites. For H-2402 the only emissions detected were derived from the region surrounding the Sea of Japan/East Sea. Based on our observations, we derive global emissions using two different inversion approaches. Emissions for H-1211 declined from a peak of 11 kt yr-1 (late 1990s) to 3.9 kt yr-1 at the end of our record (mean of 2013-2015), for H-1301 from 5.4 kt yr-1 (late 1980s) to 1.6 kt yr-1, and for H-2402 from 1.8 kt yr-1 (late 1980s) to 0.38 kt yr-1. Yearly summed halon emissions have decreased substantially; nevertheless, since 2000 they have accounted for ˜30% of the emissions of all major anthropogenic ozone depletion substances, when weighted by ozone depletion potentials.

  7. The HgF2 Ionic Switch: A Triumph of Electrostatics against Relativistic Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kelling J; Kretz, William J; Omorodion, Oluwarotimi

    2015-11-16

    A remarkable transition in the chemical bonding in (HgF2)n clusters as a function of n is identified and characterized. HgF2 is a fascinating material. Certain significant consequences of relativistic effects on the structure of the HgF2 molecule, dimer, and trimer disappear in the extended solid. Relativistic effects in Hg ensure that HgX2 molecules (X≡F, Cl, Br, and I) are linear, rigid, and form weakly bound dimers and trimers held together by weak electrostatic and van der Waals-type forces (unlike ZnX2 and CdX2 systems in which the intermonomer contacts are strong polar covalent bonds). For HgF2, the location and nature of an apparent transition from weak interactions in the smallest (HgF2)n clusters to ionic bonding in the (fluorite) HgF2 extended solid has remained a mystery. Computational evidence obtained at the M06-2X, B97D3, and MP2 levels of theory and reported herein indicate that polar covalent bonding in (HgF2)n begins as early as n=5. For n=2 through to n=13, the transition or switch from weak (primarily dipole-dipole-type) intermonomer interactions to a preference for polar covalent bonding occurs within the range 5

  8. Knockdown of E2F2 inhibits tumorigenicity, but preserves stemness of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daniela Emi; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2014-06-01

    Tumorigenicity of human pluripotent stem cells is a major threat limiting their application in cell therapy protocols. It remains unclear, however, whether suppression of tumorigenic potential can be achieved without critically affecting pluripotency. A previous study has identified hyperexpressed genes in cancer stem cells, among which is E2F2, a gene involved in malignant transformation and stem cell self-renewal. Here we tested whether E2F2 knockdown would affect the proliferative capacity and tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Transient E2F2 silencing in hESC significantly inhibited expression of the proto-oncogenes BMI1 and HMGA1, in addition to proliferation of hESC, indicated by a higher proportion of cells in G1, fewer cells in G2/M phase, and a reduced capacity to generate hESC colonies in vitro. Nonetheless, E2F2-silenced cells kept expression of typical pluripotency markers and displayed differentiation capacity in vitro. More importantly, E2F2 knockdown in hESC significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo, which was considerably smaller than tumors generated from control hESC, although displaying typical teratoma traits, a major indicator of pluripotency retention in E2F2-silenced cells. These results suggest that E2F2 knockdown can inhibit hESC proliferation and tumorigenicity without significantly harming stemness, providing a rationale to future protocols aiming at minimizing risks related to therapeutic application of cells and/or products derived from human pluripotent cells.

  9. Trends in the critical frequency foF2 after 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A. D.; Konstantinova, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of how the deep minimum of solar activity of 2008-2009 influenced trends in the critical frequency of the F2 layer and whether the negative trends in foF2 are conserved in the following five years is considered in the paper. The initial data series used in previous publications by the authors are completed by data to 2014 (2015). Methods of searching for trends that were described in the past several times by the authors were applied. It was found that, in the vast majority of cases, the monotonous change in the curves used to derive the foF2 trend was distorted in years close to the anomalously low minimum of solar activity in 2008-2009. That decreased the obtained trend in the critical frequency as compared with the results based on the data to 2009. However, subsequent years again lead to a tendency toward monotonous decrease in foF2. The causes of the anomalies indicated above lie apparently in the inadequacy of the solar activity index F10.7 for the description of changes in the aeronomical parameters determining the foF2 behavior in the period of a very deep minimum of activity that is widely described in some publications.

  10. Rare variants in NR2F2 cause congenital heart defects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Turki, Saeed; Manickaraj, Ashok K; Mercer, Catherine L; Gerety, Sebastian S; Hitz, Marc-Phillip; Lindsay, Sarah; D'Alessandro, Lisa C A; Swaminathan, G Jawahar; Bentham, Jamie; Arndt, Anne-Karin; Louw, Jacoba; Low, Jacoba; Breckpot, Jeroen; Gewillig, Marc; Thienpont, Bernard; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Harnack, Christine; Hoff, Kirstin; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Schubert, Stephan; Siebert, Reiner; Toka, Okan; Cosgrove, Catherine; Watkins, Hugh; Lucassen, Anneke M; O'Kelly, Ita M; Salmon, Anthony P; Bu'lock, Frances A; Granados-Riveron, Javier; Setchfield, Kerry; Thornborough, Chris; Brook, J David; Mulder, Barbara; Klaassen, Sabine; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Devriendt, Koen; Fitzpatrick, David F; Wilson, David I; Mital, Seema; Hurles, Matthew E

    2014-04-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defect worldwide and are a leading cause of neonatal mortality. Nonsyndromic atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) are an important subtype of CHDs for which the genetic architecture is poorly understood. We performed exome sequencing in 13 parent-offspring trios and 112 unrelated individuals with nonsyndromic AVSDs and identified five rare missense variants (two of which arose de novo) in the highly conserved gene NR2F2, a very significant enrichment (p = 7.7 × 10(-7)) compared to 5,194 control subjects. We identified three additional CHD-affected families with other variants in NR2F2 including a de novo balanced chromosomal translocation, a de novo substitution disrupting a splice donor site, and a 3 bp duplication that cosegregated in a multiplex family. NR2F2 encodes a pleiotropic developmental transcription factor, and decreased dosage of NR2F2 in mice has been shown to result in abnormal development of atrioventricular septa. Via luciferase assays, we showed that all six coding sequence variants observed in individuals significantly alter the activity of NR2F2 on target promoters.

  11. Solar Cycle variations of ƒoF2 from IGY to 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Goel

    Full Text Available Noontime monthly median values of F2-layer critical frequency foF2 (m for some ionospheric stations representing low- and mid-latitudes are examined for their dependence on solar activity for the years 1957 (IGY to 1990. This is the period for which ionospheric data in digital form is available in two CD-ROMs at the World Data Center, Boulder. It is observed that at mid-latitudes, foF2 (m shows nearly a linear relationship with R12 (the 12-month running average of the Zurich sunspot number, though this relation is nonlinear for low-latitudes. These results indicate some departures from the existing information often used in theoretical and applied areas of space research.Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; mid-latitude ionosphere; modelling and forecasting

  12. Sulfide capacities of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Simeon; Sakai, Toshihiko; Maeda, Masafumi

    1992-06-01

    The sulfide capacityC_{s^{2 - } } = ({text{pct S}}^{{text{2 - }}} )(p_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } /p_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } )^{1/2} ) of CaO-CaF2-CaCl2 slag was determined at temperatures from 1000 °C to 1300 °C by equilibrating molten slag, molten silver, and CO-CO2-Ar gas mixture. The sulfide capacity increases with replacing CaCl2 by CaF2 in slags of constant CaO contents. The sulfide capacity also increases with increasing temperature as well as with increasing CaO content at a constant ratio of CaF2/CaCl2 of unity. A linear relationship between the sulfide capacity and carbonate capacity in literature was observed on a logarithmic scale.

  13. Role of MgF2 on properties of glass–ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ghasemzadeh; A Nemati

    2012-10-01

    Formation of machinable glass–ceramic in the system MgO–SiO2–Al2O3–K2O–B2O3–F with and without addition of MgF2 has been investigated. Crystallization of glass sample was done by controlled thermal heat treatment at nucleation and crystallization temperatures. The results showed that MgF2 in high concentration had a synergistic effect and enhanced the formation of interlockedmica crystals. Non-isothermal DTA experiments showed that the crystallization activation energies of base glasses were changed in the range of 235–405 kJ/mol, while the crystallization activation energies of samples with addition of MgF2 were changed in the range of 548–752 kJ/mol.

  14. Behavior of Parameters of Nighttime Electron Density Enhancements of the Ionospheric F2 Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovets, Artur; Gordienko, Galina

    2017-04-01

    There is known a wide class of disturbances of the F2-layer of the ionosphere, which are superimposed on the regular diurnal variations of the electron density. Different types of disturbances are characterized by different mechanisms of their generation. Traveling ionospheric disturbances appear to be the most characteristic features of the inhomogeneous structure of the ionosphere. Another type of ionospheric disturbances presents the nighttime electron density enhancements in the ionospheric F2- layer maximum (NmF2). This type of irregularities is described in numerous papers. There is a concept that, in spite of the various mechanisms of ionospheric disturbances generation a response of F2-layer parameters exhibits similar features associated with the upward lift and the simultaneous expansion of the layer and then its subsequent downward movement, including layer compression, which results in the formation of the electron density peak in the layer maximum at the moment of greatest compression. The aim of this study is a verification of this concept on the example of disturbances related with the nighttime electron density enhancements, and the definition of precise quantitative relationships between the variations of different F2-layer parameters for such disturbances. By using the data of the ionospheric vertical sounding in Almaty, (76° 55'E, 43°15'N) during 2001-2012, analysis of the behavior the F2-layer parameters during the night electron density enhancements was carried out within framework of a single concept of effects of various types of ionospheric plasma perturbations in variations of height and half-thickness of the F2-layer, accompanied by increasing and decreasing NmF2 at moments of maximum compression and expansion of the layer. For a quantitative analysis of the parameters of nighttime enhancements we have selected 20 nights characterized by low magnetic activity (Dst> - 50 nT) and evident manifestations of the nighttime electron density

  15. Microwave, High-Resolution Infrared, and Quantum Chemical Investigations of CHBrF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Cludi, Lino; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    analysis by high-level quantum chemical calculations at the coupled-cluster level. In this context, the importance of relativistic effects, which are of the order of 6.5% and included in the present work using second-order direct perturbation theory, needs to be emphasized for accurate predictions......A combined microwave, infrared, and computational investigation of CHBrF2 is reported. For the vibrational ground state, measurements in the millimeter- and sub-millimeter-wave regions for (CHBrF2)-Br-79 and (CHBrF2)-Br-81 provided rotational and centrifugal-distortion constants up to the sextic...... terms as well as the hyperfine parameters (quadrupole-coupling and spin-rotation interaction constants) of the bromine nucleus. The determination of the latter was made possible by recording of spectra at sub-Doppler resolution, achieved by means of the Lamb-dip technique, and supporting the spectra...

  16. F2∑+-X2∑+ Band System of Cobalt Carbide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-ru Guo; Zhao-xia Zhang; Ting-ting Wang; Cong-xiang Chen; Yang Chen

    2008-01-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectrum of CoC was recorded in the spectral region from 13500 cm-1 to 22000 cm-1, in which the CoC molecules were produced by the reaction of sputtered cobalt atoms with methanol under supersonic jet cooled conditions. Much of the visible spectrum was assigned to transitions between the X2∑+ ground state and F2∑+ state. The 11 bands assigned as (v1=3-13, 0) transi-tions of the F2∑+-X2∑+ band system were observed and rotationally analyzed. Equilibrium constants for the F2∑+ state were Te=13628 cm-1,w,e=669 cm-1,weXe=4.3 cm-1, Be=0.546 cm-1, and Re=1.758 A. Some new bands were observed.

  17. Genetic analysis of F2 and transgressive segregants for seed yield in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Shivani, Ch. Sreelakshmi and C.V. Sameer Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of F2 variability for seed yield, number of capitula per plant and number of seeds per capitulum in 24 crosses ofline x tester set indicated potential of the crosses to throw large number of variable segregants. Maximum number of positivetransgressive segregants was found in TSF-1 x SFS 9920, TSF-1 x SSF 658, TSF-2 x ASD-07-10, Sagarmutyalu x SFS 9920andManjira x SSF 698 crosses. F1 per se performance, relative heterosis, D2 and GCA effects of parents were found to be goodindicators for predicting the phenotypic variance and genetic advance for seed yield in F2. Average GCA effects of parents hadmoderate degree of influence on the mean of 10% top yielding plants in F2.

  18. Analysis of laser durability of CaF2 for optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabosch, Guenter; Parthier, Lutz; Natura, Ute; Poehl, Karin; Letz, Martin; Muehlig, Christian; Knapp, Konrad

    2005-02-01

    Photolithography is a key technolgoy for the production of semiconductor devices. It supports the continuing trend towards higher integration density of microelectronic devices. The material used in the optics of lithography tools has to be of extremely high quality to ensure the high demand of the imaging. Due to its properties CaF2 is a material of choice for the application in lithography systems. Because of the compexity of the lithography tools single lenses or lens system modules cannot be replaced. Therefore the lens material has to last the full lifetime of the tool without major degradation. According to the roadmap for next generation of optical lithography tools, like immersion lithography, the requirements of CaF2 for radiation hardness are increasing considerably. We will present a detailed analysis of the key factors influencing the laser hardness covering the complete production chain. Some aspects of the evaluation methods for testing CaF2 laser durability will be presented.

  19. Measurement of the electron structure function F2e at LEP energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abdallah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hadronic part of the electron structure function F2e has been measured for the first time, using e+e− data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies of s=91.2–209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The electron structure function F2e data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the contribution of large target photon virtualities is significant. The data presented can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function F2γ analyses and help in refining existing parameterisations.

  20. A measurement of the proton structure function F$_{2}$(x,Q$^{2}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, T; Andreev, V; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Arpagaus, M; Aïd, S; Babaev, A; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bergstein, H; Bernardi, G; Bernet, R; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Brasse, F W; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Buschhorn, G W; Bán, J; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charles, F; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Colombo, M G; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Coutures, C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Danilov, M V; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; De Wolf, E A; Deffur, E; Del Buono, L; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duboc, J; Duhm, H; Düllmann, D; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichenberger, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Erlichmann, H; Evrard, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Forbush, M; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Gamerdinger, K; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Gellrich, A; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Goritchev, P A; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hamon, O; Hampel, M; Hanlon, E M; Hapke, M; Haynes, W J; Heatherington, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hildesheim, W; Hill, P; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Huet, Patrick; Hufnagel, H; Höppner, M; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jabiol, M A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johannsen, K; Johnson, D P; Johnson, L; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kasselmann, P; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Ko, W; Kolanoski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Krüger, U P; Krüner-Marquis, U; Kubenka, J P; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhöfer, J; Kuznik, B; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Lamarche, F; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lanius, P; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Leverenz, C; Levonian, S; Ley, C; Lindner, A; Lindström, G; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Loch, P; Lohmander, H; Lubimov, V; López, G C; Lüke, D; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Masson, S; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Mercer, D; Merz, T; Meyer, C A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Obrock, U; Olsson, J E; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pichler, C; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Prosi, R; Pérez, E; Raupach, F; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Ribarics, P; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riess, S; Rietz, M; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rylko, R; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sahlmann, N; Sankey, D P C; Savitsky, M M; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schwind, A; Schöning, A; Seehausen, U; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shooshtari, H; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Soloviev, Yu V; Spiekermann, J; Spitzer, H; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Stella, B; Stephens, K; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Strachota, J; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Sánchez, E; Tapprogge, Stefan; Taylor, R E; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Vartapetian, A H; Vazdik, Ya A; Vecko, M; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walker, I W; Walther, A; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wellisch, H P; West, L R; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wright, A E; Wulff, N; Wünsch, E; Yiou, T P; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zimmer, M; Zimmermann, W; Zomer, F; Zuber, K; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W; Niebergall, Friedrich

    1995-01-01

    A measurement of the proton structure function F_{\\!2}(x,Q^2) is reported for momentum transfer squared Q^2 between 4.5 GeV^2 and 1600 GeV^2 and for Bjorken x between 1.8\\cdot10^{-4} and 0.13 using data collected by the HERA experiment H1 in 1993. It is observed that F_{\\!2} increases significantly with decreasing x, confirming our previous measurement made with one tenth of the data available in this analysis. The Q^2 dependence is approximately logarithmic over the full kinematic range covered. The subsample of deep inelastic events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap in the hadronic energy flow close to the proton remnant is used to measure the "diffractive" contribution to F_{\\!2}.

  1. Optical constants and their dispersion of Ag-MgF2 nanoparticle composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoqi Sun(孙兆奇); Daming Sun(孙大明)

    2004-01-01

    Ag-MgF2 composite films with different Ag fractions were prepared through a co-evaporation method.Microstructure analysis shows that the films are composed of amorphous MgF2 matrix and embedded fcc-Ag nanoparticles. The optical constants and their dispersion of the films, within the wavelength range of 250 - 650 nm, were measured by reflecting spectroscopic ellipsometry. The maximum of the imaginary part ε" of the complex dielectric permittivity attributing to the surface plasmon resonance polarization of the Ag nanoparticles in an Ag-MgF2 film, and the tangent of the phase-shift angle δ resulting from the dielectric loss of the film, occur at λ = 435 nm and λ = 420 nm, respectively. Based on Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory, the experimentally observed dispersion spectra were reasonably described.

  2. Absence of systemic oxidative stress and increased CSF prostaglandin F2α in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Magda A.; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Khademi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS).  Methods: We determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry nonenzymatic (F2-isoprostanes) and enzymatic oxidation products of arachidonic acid (prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α......]) in plasma and CSF of 45 controls (other neurologic disease [OND] with no signs of inflammation) and 62 patients with MS. Oxidation products were correlated with disease severity and validated biomarkers of inflammation (chemokine ligand 13; matrix metalloproteinase-9; osteopontin) and axonal damage...... (neurofilament light protein).  Results: Compared with OND controls, plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes and PGF2α were significantly lower in patients with progressive disease, and decreased with increasing disability score (Expanded Disability Status Scale). In contrast, CSF concentrations of PGF2α...

  3. Investigations on transgenerational epigenetic response down the male line in F2 pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, Martin; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Gutzwiller, Andreas; Bee, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the nutritional effects on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation in a three generation Large White pig feeding experiment. A group of experimental (E) F0 boars were fed a standard diet supplemented with high amounts of methylating micronutrients whereas a control group (C) of F0 boars received a standard diet. These differentially fed F0 boars sired F1 boars which then sired 60 F2 pigs. Carcass traits were compared between 36 F2 descendants of E F0 boars and 24 F2 descendants of C F0 boars. The two F2 offspring groups differed with respect to backfat percentage (P = 0.03) and tended to differ with respect to adipose tissue (P = 0.09), fat thickness at the 10(th) rib (P = 0.08) and at the croup (P = 0.09) as well as percentages of shoulder (P = 0.07). Offspring from the experimental F0 boars had a higher percentage of shoulder and were leaner compared to the control group. Gene expression profiles showed significant twofold differences in mRNA level between 8 C F2 offspring and 8 E F2 offspring for 79, 64 and 53 genes for muscle, liver and kidney RNA, respectively. We found that in liver and muscle respective pathways of lipid metabolism and metabolic pathway were over-represented for the differentially expressed genes between these groups. A DNA methylation analysis in promoters of differentially expressed genes indicated a significant difference in DNA methylation at the IYD gene. If these responses on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation withstand verification and can indeed be attributed to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, it would open up pioneering application in pork production and would have implications for human health.

  4. Investigations on transgenerational epigenetic response down the male line in F2 pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Braunschweig

    Full Text Available We investigated the nutritional effects on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation in a three generation Large White pig feeding experiment. A group of experimental (E F0 boars were fed a standard diet supplemented with high amounts of methylating micronutrients whereas a control group (C of F0 boars received a standard diet. These differentially fed F0 boars sired F1 boars which then sired 60 F2 pigs. Carcass traits were compared between 36 F2 descendants of E F0 boars and 24 F2 descendants of C F0 boars. The two F2 offspring groups differed with respect to backfat percentage (P = 0.03 and tended to differ with respect to adipose tissue (P = 0.09, fat thickness at the 10(th rib (P = 0.08 and at the croup (P = 0.09 as well as percentages of shoulder (P = 0.07. Offspring from the experimental F0 boars had a higher percentage of shoulder and were leaner compared to the control group. Gene expression profiles showed significant twofold differences in mRNA level between 8 C F2 offspring and 8 E F2 offspring for 79, 64 and 53 genes for muscle, liver and kidney RNA, respectively. We found that in liver and muscle respective pathways of lipid metabolism and metabolic pathway were over-represented for the differentially expressed genes between these groups. A DNA methylation analysis in promoters of differentially expressed genes indicated a significant difference in DNA methylation at the IYD gene. If these responses on carcass traits, gene expression and DNA methylation withstand verification and can indeed be attributed to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, it would open up pioneering application in pork production and would have implications for human health.

  5. Dispersive calculation of complex Regge trajectories for the lightest $f_2$ resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, J A; Pelaez, J R; Szczepaniak, A P

    2015-01-01

    We apply a recently developed dispersive formalism to calculate the Regge trajectories of the $f_2(1270)$ and $f_2'(1525)$ mesons. Trajectories are calculated, not fitted to a family of resonances. Assuming that these spin-2 resonances can be treated in the elastic approximation the only input are the pole position and residue of the resonances. In both cases, the predicted Regge trajectories are almost real and linear, with slopes in agreement with the universal value of order 1 GeV$^{-2}$.

  6. Luminescent and kinetic properties of the polystyrene composites based on BaF2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkiv, T. M.; Halyatkin, O. O.; Vistovskyy, V. V.; Gektin, A. V.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Luminescence-kinetic properties of polystyrene composites based on BaF2 nanoparticles were studied. The electron emission from the nanoparticles due to the photoelectric effect is the main luminescence excitation mechanism in the case of polystyrene composites loaded with small BaF2 nanoparticles (~20 nm). Scintillation pulse of polystyrene composites possesses only fast decay component with the time constant τ~2 ns, and its emission intensity considerably exceeds the one for pure polystyrene scintillator upon the X-ray excitations.

  7. Low lying baryon spectrum with N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical twisted quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drach, Vincent; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Carbonell, Jaume; Papinutto, Mauro [UJF, CNRS/IN2P3, INPG (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie; Alexandrou, Constantia [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics

    2010-12-15

    We present first results on the octet and decuplet strange baryon spectrum with N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass quarks. We use an Osterwalder Seiler valence strange quark with a mass tuned to the kaon and compare the results with those obtained in the unitary setup. This comparison allows to perform a first study of the lattice artefacts introduced by the mixed action approach. We investigate the effect of the strange and charm quarks in the sea by using two lattice spacings and comparing with preceding N{sub f}=2 twisted mass fermion calculations. (orig.)

  8. Crystal structure of bis(fluorosulfato-κOxenon(II, Xe(SO3F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Malischewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermally unstable Xe(SO3F2 has been prepared by the reaction of XeF2 with HSO3F. Single crystals were obtained from HSO3F by slow cooling in a sealed tube. The molecular structure is characterized by the Xe atom covalently bonded to two O atoms of two fluorosulfate tetrahedra in an almost linear fashion [O—Xe—O = 179.13 (4°]. The crystal packing is strongly influenced by intermolecular van der Waals forces.

  9. Low lying baryon spectrum with $N_f = 2+1+1$ dynamical twisted quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Drach, Vincent; Carbonell, Jaume; Papinutto, Mauro; Alexandrou, Constantia

    2010-01-01

    We present first results on the octet and decuplet strange baryon spectrum with $N_f=2+1+1$ twisted mass quarks. We use an Osterwalder Seiler valence strange quark with a mass tuned to the kaon and compare the results with those obtained in the unitary setup. This comparison allows to perform a first study of the lattice artefacts introduced by the mixed action approach. We investigate the effect of the strange and charm quarks in the sea by using two lattice spacings and comparing with preceding $N_f = 2$ twisted mass fermion calculations.

  10. Vertical motions of the midlatitude F2 layer during magnetospheric substorms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C. G.; Meng, C.

    1971-01-01

    Use of ground-based ionosonde records from midlatitude stations during winter nights to study vertical motions of the F2 layer associated with magnetospheric substorms. The results show that during substorms the F2 layer is lifted upward in the premidnight sector and pushed downward in the postmidnight sector. These motions are interpreted in terms of E x B drifts, the electric field being eastward on the eveningside and westward on the morningside. The results emphasize the importance of substorm effects on the midlatitude F region and the potential of ground-based hf sounding techniques in studying magnetospheric substorms.

  11. Microstructure and optical absorption of Au-MgF2 nanoparticle cermet films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhao-Qi; Cai Qi; Song Xue-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and optical absorption of Au-MgF2 nanoparticle cermet films with different Au contents are studied.The microstructural analysis shows that the films are mainly composed of the amorphous MgF2 matrix with embedded fcc Au nanoparticles with a mean size of 9.8-21.4nm.Spectral analysis suggests that the surface plasma resonance (SPR) absorption peak of Au particles appears at λ=492-537nm.With increasing Au content,absorption peak intensity increases,profile narrows and location redshifts.Theoretical absorption spectra are calculated based on Maxwell-Garnett theory and compared with experimental spectra.

  12. Measurement of the $F_{2}^{n}/F_{2}^{p}$ and d/u Ratios in Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering off $^{3}H$ and $^{3}He$

    CERN Document Server

    Petratos, G G; Bissey, F; Gómez, J; Katramatou, A T; Melnitchouk, W; Thomas, A W

    2000-01-01

    We discuss a possible measurement of the ratio of the nucleon structure functions, F2n/F2p, and the ratio of the up to down quark distributions, u/d, at large x, by performing deep inelastic electron scattering from the 3H and 3He mirror nuclei with the 11 GeV upgraded beam of Jefferson Lab. The measurement is expected to be almost free of nuclear effects, which introduce a significant uncertainty in the extraction of these two ratios from deep inelastic scattering off the proton and deuteron. The results are expected to test perturbative and non-perturbative mechanisms of spin-flavor symmetry breaking in the nucleon, and constrain the structure function parameterizations needed for the interpretation of high energy e-p, p-p and p-pbar collider data. The precision of the expected data can also allow for testing competing parameterizations of the nuclear EMC effect and provide valuable constraints on models of its dynamical origin.

  13. PREPARATION OF BaF2 POWDERS BY HYDROTHERMAL METHOD%水热法制备BaF2粉体材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 赵星

    2012-01-01

    以销酸钡和氟化铵为原料,以柠檬酸为络合剂,采用水热法合成了BaF2粉体。用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和X射线衍射仪(XRD)对产物的形貌和结构进行了表征,结果表明反应温度及pH值对产物的形状和尺寸有很大影响,可以通过改变温度和pH值调控产物的形貌。%BaF2 powders were synthesized by hydrothermal methods. For this preparation, Ba(NO3)2 and NH4F as the starting materials and citric acid served as chelator. The morphology and the structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The results show that the temperature and pH value of the reaction have significant effects on the particle size and shape. The morphology could be controlled synthesized by the temperature and pH value.

  14. 粉尘螨Der f2变应原的分离纯化及其特征%Purification and Characterization of Der f2 Allergen in Dermatophagoides f arinae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲁雁; 张剑霞; 江世益; 温廷桓; 项黎

    2001-01-01

    Purpose To purify Der f2 allergen from the spent culture medium extract of Dermatophagoides farinae mite(Dff). Methods We purified Der f2 with the aid of Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, DEAE-ion exchange chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detected the molecular weight of Der f2 using SDS-PAGE method,and analysed the thermostability of Der f2 by heating at 100℃ for 15 min. Results The pure Der f2 was obtained from Dff. The molecular weight of Der f2 was 14 000.The heated-treated Der f2 retained 50% ~83.3% of the activity of the native allergen. Conclusions The properties of purified allergen coincided with the characterization of Der f2.%目的用粉尘螨(Dermatophagoides farnae)代谢培养基浸液(Dff)分离纯化粉尘螨2类变应原(Der f2)。方法采用Sephadex G-100层析、DEAE离子交换层析、PAGE等方法分离纯化Der f2,并对Der f2作 SDS-PAGE测定和热稳定性测定。结果从Dff分离纯化得到较纯的Der f2,经SDS-PAGE测定其相对分子质 量为14 000,并经100℃加热15 min后,仍保留50%~83.3%生物学活性。结论从Dff中分离纯化的变应原, 其物化性质符合Der f2特征。

  15. Finding column depedencies in sparse matrices over $ F_ 2 $ by block Wiedemann

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninga, O.

    1998-01-01

    Large systems of linear equations over $mathbb{F_2$ with sparse coefficient matrices have to be solved as a part of integer factorization with sieve-based methods such as in the Number Field Sieve algorithm. In this report, we first discuss the Wiedemann algorithm to solve these systems and investig

  16. Magnon dispersion relation and exchange interactions in MnF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikotin, O.; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Dietrich, O. W.

    1969-01-01

    The magnon dispersion relation for MnF2 at 4·2 °K has been measured by means of the triple-axis neutron scattering technique along the symmetry lines in the (010) plane of the Brillouin zone. Using an exact dipole model, the three nearest-neighbour exchange constants were found to be J1 = 0·028 ±...

  17. Brillouin Lasing with a CaF_2 Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Grudinin, Ivan S; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering with both pump and Stokes beams in resonance with whispering gallery modes of an ultra high Q CaF_2 resonator is demonstrated for the first time. The resonator is pumped with 1064 nm light and has a Brillouin lasing threshold of 3.5 microwatt. Potential applications include optical generation of microwaves and sensitive gyros.

  18. 17 CFR 270.10f-2 - Exercise of warrants or rights received on portfolio securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... securities by a registered investment company pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights to subscribe to... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exercise of warrants or rights... AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.10f-2...

  19. Effect of CaF2 on Interfacial Phenomena of High Alumina Refractories with Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Pramod; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Edwards, Phil

    2008-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the interfacial phenomena between Al-alloy and industrial grade high alumina refractories containing varying contents of CaF2 at 1250 °C. Interfacial reaction products and phases formed in the heat-treated refractory samples were characterized using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively, while interfacial phenomena including dynamic wetting behavior were analyzed using the sessile drop technique. Refractories containing less than 5 wt pct CaF2 showed good resistance to reactions with the molten alloy, due to the dominance of corundum, and the presence of anorthite at the interface. However, with a further increase in the additive content, a glassy matrix of anorthite with CaF2 was formed. Formation of this phase significantly increased the intensity of reactions resulting in the buildup of an interfacial layer. The study thus revealed the strong catalytic effect of CaF2 on reactions of high alumina refractories with Al-alloy.

  20. Nucleon Structure Function F2 in the Resonance Region and Quark-Hadron Duality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-Bing; LI Ming-Fei

    2003-01-01

    Based on a simple nonrelativistic constituent quark model, the nucleon structure function F2 in theresonance region is estimated by taking the contributions from low-lying nucleon resonances into account. Calculatedresults are employed to study quark-hardon duality in the nucleon electron scattering process by comparing them to thescaling behavior from the data in deep inelastic scattering region.

  1. eta and eta ' mesons from N-f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottnad, Konstantin; Michael, Chris; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We determine mass and mixing angles of eta and eta' states using N-f = 2 + 1 + 1 Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We describe how those flavour singlet states need to be treated in this lattice formulation. Results are presented for three values of the lattice spacing, a = 0.061 fm, a = 0.078 fm and

  2. Clock Distributing for BaF2 Readout Electronics at CSNS-WNS

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bing; De-Liang-Zhang,; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Ya-Xi; Qi, Xin-Cheng; Qi-An,

    2016-01-01

    aF2 (Barium Fluoride) detector array is designed for the measurement of (n,{\\gamma}) cross section precisely at CSNS-WNS (white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source). It is a 4{\\pi}solid angle-shaped detector array consisting of 92 BaF2 crystal elements. To discriminate signals from BaF2 detector, pulse shape discrimination methodology is used, which is supported by waveform digitization technique. There are total 92 channels for digitizing. The precision and synchronization of clock distribution restricts the performance of waveform digitizing. In this paper, the clock prototype for BaF2 readout electronics at CSNS-WNS is introduced. It is based on PXIe platform and has a twin-stage tree topology. In the first stage, clock is distributed from the tree root to each PXIe crate synchronously through coaxial cable over long distance, while in the second stage, clock is further distributed to each electronic module through PXIe dedicated differential star bus. With the help of this topology, each tre...

  3. Response of MEDEA BaF 2 detectors to 20-280 MeV photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, G.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Frascaria, N.; Lhenry, I.; Roynette, J. C.; Suomijärvi, T.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Gillibert, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Sida, J. L.; Silveira Gomes, P. R.

    1993-05-01

    The response function of MEDEA BaF 2 crystals to high energy photons, up to 280 MeV, has been studied using monochromatic γ-rays from the in flight annihilation of positron beams. The experimental response functions are compared to the results of Monte Carlo simulations based on the EGS3 code and parametrized over the whole investigated energy range.

  4. Mapping of imprinted quantitative trait loci using immortalized F2 populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian Wen

    Full Text Available Mapping of imprinted quantitative trait loci (iQTLs is helpful for understanding the effects of genomic imprinting on complex traits in animals and plants. At present, the experimental designs and corresponding statistical methods having been proposed for iQTL mapping are all based on temporary populations including F2 and BC1, which can be used only once and suffer some other shortcomings respectively. In this paper, we propose a framework for iQTL mapping, including methods of interval mapping (IM and composite interval mapping (CIM based on conventional low-density genetic maps and point mapping (PM and composite point mapping (CPM based on ultrahigh-density genetic maps, using an immortalized F2 (imF2 population generated by random crosses between recombinant inbred lines or doubled haploid lines. We demonstrate by simulations that imF2 populations are very desirable and the proposed statistical methods (especially CIM and CPM are very powerful for iQTL mapping, with which the imprinting effects as well as the additive and dominance effects of iQTLs can be unbiasedly estimated.

  5. Ground state charmed meson spectra for N_f=2+1+1

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, T D

    2015-01-01

    We present a preliminary study of the charmed meson spectra using the electrically neutral subset of the new Budapest-Marseille-Wuppertal N_f=2+1+1 gauge configurations that utilise the 3-HEX smeared clover action. The analysis is performed with a focus on the hyperfine splitting.

  6. Relationship between Kinematics, F2 Slope and Speech Intelligibility in Dysarthria Due to Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Panying; Loucks, Torrey; Kim, Heejin; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A multimodal approach combining acoustics, intelligibility ratings, articulography and surface electromyography was used to examine the characteristics of dysarthria due to cerebral palsy (CP). CV syllables were studied by obtaining the slope of F2 transition during the diphthong, tongue-jaw kinematics during the release of the onset consonant,…

  7. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2009-06-17

    The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.

  8. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.; Holzinger, R.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC- 12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare

  9. In-Situ Conductivity Measurement of BaF2 under High Pressure and High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ai-Min; LI Xiao-Dong; LIU Jing; GAO Chun-Xiao; LI Ming; HE Chun-Yuan; HUANG Xiao-Wei; ZHANG Dong-Mei; YU Cui-Ling; ZOU Guang-Tian; LI Yan-Chun

    2006-01-01

    @@ We perform the in-situ conductivity measurement on BaF2 at high pressure using a microcircuit fabricated on a diamond anvil cell. The results show that BaF2 initially exhibits the electrical property of an insulator at pressure below 25 Gpa, it transforms to a wide energy gap semiconductor at pressure from 25 to 30 Gpa, and the conductivity increases gradually with increasing pressure from 30 Gpa. However, the metallization predicted by theoretical calculation at 30-33 Gpa cannot be observed. In addition, we measure the temperature dependence of the conductivity at several pressures and obtain the relationship between the energy gap and pressure. Based on the experimental data, it is predicted that BaF2 would transform to a metal at about 87 Gpa and ambient temperature. The conductivity of BaF2 reaches the order of 10-3Ω-1 cm-1 at 37 Gpa and 2400 K, the superionic conduction is not observed during the experiments, indicating the application of pressure elevates greatly the transition temperature of the superionic conduction.

  10. The Rho Resonance from $N_f=2+1+1$ Twisted Mass Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Helmes, C; Knippschild, B; Liu, L; Urbach, C; Werner, M; Wang, Z

    2015-01-01

    We present first results on the $\\rho$ resonance parameters obtained with $N_f=2+1+1$ Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. Using ensembles of the ETM collaboration, we provide results for two values of the lattice spacing and a range of pion mass values.

  11. Genetic linkage mapping in an F2 perennial ryegrass population using DArT markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaszewski, Céline; Byrne, Stephen; Foito, Alexandra;

    2012-01-01

    T markers, and a DArT array has recently been developed for the Lolium-Festuca complex. In this study, we report the first use of the DArTFest array to generate a genetic linkage map based on 326 markers in a Lolium perenne F2 population, consisting of 325 genotypes. For proof of concept, the map was used...

  12. Measurement of the Proton Structure Function $F_{2}$ at Very Low $Q^{2}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Breitweg, J; Derrick, Malcolm; Krakauer, D A; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Pellegrino, A; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Abbiendi, G; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, A; Amelung, C; Bornheim, A; Brock, I; Coboken, K; Crittenden, James Arthur; Deffner, R; Hartmann, H; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kerger, R; Paul, E; Schnurbusch, H; Stifutkin, A; Tandler, J; Voss, K C; Weber, A; Wieber, H; Bailey, D S; Barret, O; Brook, N H; Foster, B; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; McFall, J D; Piccioni, D; Rodrigues, E; Scott, J; Tapper, R J; Capua, M; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Jeoung, H Y; Kim, J Y; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Ma, K J; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Liu, W; Liu, X; Mellado, B; Paganis, S; Sampson, S; Schmidke, W B; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Klimek, K H; Olkiewicz, K; Piotrzkowski, K; Przybycien, M B; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Szuba, D; Kotanski, Andrzej; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bienlein, J K; Burgard, C; Dannheim, D; Desler, K; Drews, G; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Göbel, F; Göttlicher, P; Graciani, R; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hartner, G F; Hasell, D; Hebbel, K; Johnson, K F; Kasemann, M; Koch, W; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lindemann, L; Löhr, B; Martínez, M; Milite, M; Monteiro, T; Moritz, M; Notz, D; Pelucchi, F; Petrucci, M C; Rohde, M; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Schneekloth, U; Selonke, F; Sievers, M; Stonjek, S; Tassi, E; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Coldewey, C; López-Duran-Viani, A; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Straub, P B; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Maccarrone, G D; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Benen, A; Eisenhardt, S; Markun, P; Raach, H; Wölfle, S; Bussey, Peter J; Bell, M; Doyle, A T; Lee, S W; Lupi, A; MacDonald, N; McCance, G J; Saxon, D H; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, Ian O; Waugh, R; Bohnet, I; Gendner, N; Holm, U; Meyer-Larsen, A; Salehi, H; Wick, K; Garfagnini, A; Gialas, I; Gladilin, L K; Kcira, D; Klanner, Robert; Lohrmann, E; Poelz, G; Zetsche, F; Goncalo, R; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Tapper, A D; Walker, R; Mallik, U; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Ahn, S H; Lee, S B; Park, S K; Lim, H; Park, I H; Son, D; Barreiro, F; García, G; Glasman, C; González, O; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Redondo, I; Terron, J; Barbi, M S; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Ochs, A; Padhi, S; Riveline, M; Stairs, D G; Wing, M; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Bashkirov, V; Danilov, M V; Dolgoshein, B A; Gladkov, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Dementev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Golubkov, Yu A; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Vlasov, N N; Zotkin, S A; Bokel, C; Botje, M; Brümmer, N; Engelen, J; Grijpink, S; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P M; Schagen, S; Van Sighem, A; Tiecke, H G; Tuning, N; Velthuis, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Acosta, D; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Kim, C L; Ling, T Y; Boogert, S; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Matsushita, T; Quadt, A; Ruske, O; Sutton, M R; Walczak, R; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dosselli, U; Dusini, S; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Turcato, M; Voci, C; Adamczyk, L; Iannotti, L; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Toothacker, W S; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cormack, C; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Shah, T P; Epperson, D E; Heusch, C A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Wichmann, R; Williams, D C; Pavel, N; Abramowicz, H; Dagan, S; Kananov, S; Kreisel, A; Levy, A; Abe, T; Fusayasu, T; Umemori, K; Yamashita, T; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Inuzuka, M; Kitamura, S; Nishimura, T; Arneodo, M; Cartiglia, N; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Maselli, S; Monaco, V; Peroni, C; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Fagerstroem, C P; Galea, R; Koop, T; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Polenz, S; Sabetfakhri, A; Simmons, D; Butterworth, J M; Catterall, C D; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; West, B J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Grzelak, G; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Smalska, B; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Gadaj, T; Deppe, O; Eisenberg, Y; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Badgett, W F; Chapin, D; Cross, R; Foudas, C; Mattingly, S E K; Reeder, D D; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wildschek, T; Wodarczyk, M; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Hughes, V W; Bhadra, S; Cole, J E; Frisken, W R; Hall-Wilton, R; Khakzad, M; Menary, S R

    2000-01-01

    A measurement of the proton structure function F_2(x,Q^2) is presented in the kinematic range 0.045 GeV^2 < Q^2 < 0.65 GeV^2 and 6*10^{-7} < x < 1*10^{-3}. The results were obtained using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.9pb^-1 in e^+p reactions recorded with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Information from a silicon-strip tracking detector, installed in front of the small electromagnetic calorimeter used to measure the energy of the final-state positron at small scattering angles, together with an enhanced simulation of the hadronic final state, has permitted the extension of the kinematic range beyond that of previous measurements. The uncertainties in F_2 are typically less than 4%. At the low Q^2 values of the present measurement, the rise of F_2 at low x is slower than observed in HERA data at higher Q^2 and can be described by Regge theory with a constant logarithmic slope. The dependence of F_2 on Q^2 is stronger than at higher Q^2 values, approaching, at the lowest Q...

  13. A status report of the QCDSF N{sub f}=2+1 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, Meinulf [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, Roger [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Yoshifumi [DESY, Zeuthen (DE). John von Neumann Institute NIC] (and others)

    2007-12-20

    We report about on-going simulations of N{sub f}=2+1 lattice QCD. We use a tadpole improved Symanzik gauge action and stout link smeared Wilson fermions with a clover term. We employ the Hasenbusch trick for the degenerate u- and d-quarks, and the RHMC algorithm for the simulation of the strange quark. (orig.)

  14. Protein-protein docking with F(2Dock 2.0 and GB-rerank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul Chowdhury

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Computational simulation of protein-protein docking can expedite the process of molecular modeling and drug discovery. This paper reports on our new F(2 Dock protocol which improves the state of the art in initial stage rigid body exhaustive docking search, scoring and ranking by introducing improvements in the shape-complementarity and electrostatics affinity functions, a new knowledge-based interface propensity term with FFT formulation, a set of novel knowledge-based filters and finally a solvation energy (GBSA based reranking technique. Our algorithms are based on highly efficient data structures including the dynamic packing grids and octrees which significantly speed up the computations and also provide guaranteed bounds on approximation error. RESULTS: The improved affinity functions show superior performance compared to their traditional counterparts in finding correct docking poses at higher ranks. We found that the new filters and the GBSA based reranking individually and in combination significantly improve the accuracy of docking predictions with only minor increase in computation time. We compared F(2 Dock 2.0 with ZDock 3.0.2 and found improvements over it, specifically among 176 complexes in ZLab Benchmark 4.0, F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution as the top prediction for 22 complexes; where ZDock 3.0.2 does so for 13 complexes. F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution within the top 1000 predictions for 106 complexes as opposed to 104 complexes for ZDock 3.0.2. However, there are 17 and 15 complexes where F(2 Dock 2.0 finds a solution but ZDock 3.0.2 does not and vice versa; which indicates that the two docking protocols can also complement each other. AVAILABILITY: The docking protocol has been implemented as a server with a graphical client (TexMol which allows the user to manage multiple docking jobs, and visualize the docked poses and interfaces. Both the server and client are available for download. Server

  15. Protein-protein docking with F(2)Dock 2.0 and GB-rerank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rezaul; Rasheed, Muhibur; Keidel, Donald; Moussalem, Maysam; Olson, Arthur; Sanner, Michel; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2013-01-01

    Computational simulation of protein-protein docking can expedite the process of molecular modeling and drug discovery. This paper reports on our new F(2) Dock protocol which improves the state of the art in initial stage rigid body exhaustive docking search, scoring and ranking by introducing improvements in the shape-complementarity and electrostatics affinity functions, a new knowledge-based interface propensity term with FFT formulation, a set of novel knowledge-based filters and finally a solvation energy (GBSA) based reranking technique. Our algorithms are based on highly efficient data structures including the dynamic packing grids and octrees which significantly speed up the computations and also provide guaranteed bounds on approximation error. The improved affinity functions show superior performance compared to their traditional counterparts in finding correct docking poses at higher ranks. We found that the new filters and the GBSA based reranking individually and in combination significantly improve the accuracy of docking predictions with only minor increase in computation time. We compared F(2) Dock 2.0 with ZDock 3.0.2 and found improvements over it, specifically among 176 complexes in ZLab Benchmark 4.0, F(2) Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution as the top prediction for 22 complexes; where ZDock 3.0.2 does so for 13 complexes. F(2) Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution within the top 1000 predictions for 106 complexes as opposed to 104 complexes for ZDock 3.0.2. However, there are 17 and 15 complexes where F(2) Dock 2.0 finds a solution but ZDock 3.0.2 does not and vice versa; which indicates that the two docking protocols can also complement each other. The docking protocol has been implemented as a server with a graphical client (TexMol) which allows the user to manage multiple docking jobs, and visualize the docked poses and interfaces. Both the server and client are available for download. Server: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~bajaj/cvc/software/f

  16. Protein-Protein Docking with F2Dock 2.0 and GB-Rerank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rezaul; Rasheed, Muhibur; Keidel, Donald; Moussalem, Maysam; Olson, Arthur; Sanner, Michel; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Computational simulation of protein-protein docking can expedite the process of molecular modeling and drug discovery. This paper reports on our new F2 Dock protocol which improves the state of the art in initial stage rigid body exhaustive docking search, scoring and ranking by introducing improvements in the shape-complementarity and electrostatics affinity functions, a new knowledge-based interface propensity term with FFT formulation, a set of novel knowledge-based filters and finally a solvation energy (GBSA) based reranking technique. Our algorithms are based on highly efficient data structures including the dynamic packing grids and octrees which significantly speed up the computations and also provide guaranteed bounds on approximation error. Results The improved affinity functions show superior performance compared to their traditional counterparts in finding correct docking poses at higher ranks. We found that the new filters and the GBSA based reranking individually and in combination significantly improve the accuracy of docking predictions with only minor increase in computation time. We compared F2 Dock 2.0 with ZDock 3.0.2 and found improvements over it, specifically among 176 complexes in ZLab Benchmark 4.0, F2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution as the top prediction for 22 complexes; where ZDock 3.0.2 does so for 13 complexes. F2 Dock 2.0 finds a near-native solution within the top 1000 predictions for 106 complexes as opposed to 104 complexes for ZDock 3.0.2. However, there are 17 and 15 complexes where F2 Dock 2.0 finds a solution but ZDock 3.0.2 does not and vice versa; which indicates that the two docking protocols can also complement each other. Availability The docking protocol has been implemented as a server with a graphical client (TexMol) which allows the user to manage multiple docking jobs, and visualize the docked poses and interfaces. Both the server and client are available for download. Server: http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~bajaj/cvc/software/f

  17. Research on the Morphology Control of R.oryzae TZ-F2 for Intracellular Lipase Production%产胞内脂肪酶米根霉TZ-F2菌体形态控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱婵娟; 黄建丽; 陈扬法; 裴银波; 付永前

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to study the morphology control of R. oryzae TZ-F2 with intracellular lipase production. [ Method ] Separately reviewed effects of carbon source, nitrogen source, the initial pH value and cultivate speed on intracellular lipase, dry weight and morphology. [Result] Then got the optimal culture conditions:hogwash oil 40 g/L,tryptone 70 g/L,initial pH value 4.5,cultivate speed 150 r/min. Under these conditions,bacterial morphology could basically keep to ball,unit intracellular lipase activity reached 109.45 U/g,dry weight reached 31.67 g/L. [Conclusion] The study provides the theoretical basis for catalytic synthesis of biodiesel using Rhizopus oryzae cells.%[目的]研究产胞内脂肪酶米根霉TZ-F2菌体形态的控制.[方法]分别考察了碳源、氮源、初始pH以及培养转速对胞内脂肪酶、菌体干重以及菌体形态的影响.[结果]得到了最优的培养条件:地沟油40g/L,胰蛋白胨20 g/L,初始pH4.5,转速150 r/min.在此条件下,菌体形态基本能保持在球状,单位胞内脂肪酶活达109.45 U/g,干重达31.67 g/L.[结论]该研究为利用米根霉全细胞催化合成生物柴油提供了理论基础.

  18. Comparison of On-line and F2F Education Methods in Teaching Computer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available lthough online education provides opportunities to people who traditionally do not have access to universities, there is a need for more empirical studies to gain better understanding on how to deliver quality online education, especially when the subject of the course is related with IT. Learning to program is a complicated process. This study aims to find out the difference between students’ performance in online and face-to-face (F2F settings during a computer programming in the fall semester of the year 2010. The study was conducted at the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University. This online course is one of the required courses for students majoring in Mathematics. It is delivered in a learning management system developed in house through a project funded by Istanbul University. The goal is to introduce students with structured programming using the programming language C. Two topics -“Functions in C Programming” and “Loops in C Programming” - were presented to students online and F2F. The total of 62 students formed two groups: the online and F2F groups. The content analysis statistical technique is used, as well as a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions, which performed as a data collection tool to find out the views of the students in context to the process. While some results concluded that the performance of online students was satisfactory, but that their aggregate final grade was significantly lower than that of students who took an equivalent F2F class, others arrived at a conclusion reporting that there were no significant differences in overall outcomes. In case of making transition from F2F to online mode of teaching, prepossession about a new way of teaching is always an important barrier in students’ perceptions. One of the further researches is investigation of strategies for incorporating blended learning opportunities in programming courses.

  19. ITO-MgF2 Film Development for PowerSphere Polymer Surface Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambourger, Paul D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    Multi-kilogram class microsatellites with a PowerSphere electric power system are attractive for fulfilling a variety of potential NASA missions. However, PowerSphere polymer surfaces must be coated with a film that has suitable electrical sheet resistivity for electrostatic discharge control, be resistant to atomic oxygen attack, be transparent to ultraviolet light for composite structure curing and resist ultraviolet light induced darkening for efficient photovoltaic cell operation. In addition, the film must be tolerant of polymer layer folding associated with launch stowage of PowerSphere inflatable structures. An excellent film material candidate to meet these requirements is co-sputtered, indium oxide (In2O3) - tin oxide (SnO2), known as 'ITO', and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). While basic ITO-MgF2 film properties have been the subject of research over the last decade, further research is required in the areas of film durability for space-inflatable applications and precise film property control for large scale commercial production. In this paper, the authors present film durability results for a folded polymer substrate and film resistance to vacuum UV darkening. The authors discuss methods and results in the area of film sheet resistivity measurement and active control, particularly dual-channel, plasma emission line measurement of ITO and MgF2 plasma sources. ITO-MgF2 film polymer coupon preparation is described as well as film deposition equipment, procedures and film characterization. Durability testing methods are also described. The pre- and post-test condition of the films is assessed microscopically and electrically. Results show that an approx. 500A ITO-18vol% MgF2 film is a promising candidate to protect PowerSphere polymer surfaces for Earth orbit missions. Preliminary data also indicate that in situ film measurement methods are promising for active film resistivity control in future large scale production. Future film research plans are also

  20. Clock distribution for BaF2 readout electronics at CSNS-WNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Cao, Ping; Zhang, De-Liang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Ya-Xi; Qi, Xin-Cheng; An, Qi

    2017-01-01

    A BaF2 (Barium Fluoride) detector array is designed to precisely measure the (n, γ) cross section at the CSNS-WNS (white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source). It is a 4π solid angle-shaped detector array consisting of 92 BaF2 crystal elements. To discriminate signals from the BaF2 detector, a pulse shape discrimination method is used, supported by a waveform digitization technique. There are 92 channels for digitizing. The precision and synchronization of clock distribution restricts the performance of waveform digitizing. In this paper, a clock prototype for the BaF2 readout electronics at CSNS-WNS is introduced. It is based on the PXIe platform and has a twin-stage tree topology. In the first stage, clock is synchronously distributed from the tree root to each PXIe crate through a coaxial cable over a long distance, while in the second stage, the clock is further distributed to each electronic module through a PXIe dedicated differential star bus. With the help of this topology, each tree node can fan out up to 20 clocks with 3U size. Test results show the clock jitter is less than 20 ps, which meets the requirements of the BaF2 readout electronics. Besides, this clock system has the advantages of high density, simplicity, scalability and cost saving, so it can be useful for other clock distribution applications. Supported by National Research and Development plan (2016 YFA0401602) NSAF (U1530111) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11005107)

  1. F2 region response to geomagnetic disturbances across Indian latitudes: O(1S) dayglow emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhayaya, A. K.; Gupta, Sumedha; Brahmanandam, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    The morphology of ionospheric storms has been investigated across equatorial and low latitudes of Indian region. The deviation in F2 region characteristic parameters (foF2 and h'F) along with modeled green line dayglow emission intensities is examined at equatorial station Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N, 76.8°E, 0.63°S geomagnetic latitude) and low-latitude station Delhi (28.6°N, 77.2°E,19.2°N geomagnetic latitude) during five geomagnetic storm events. Both positive and negative phases have been noticed in this study. The positive storm phase over equatorial station is found to be more frequent, while the drop in ionization in most of the cases was observed at low-latitude station. It is concluded that the reaction as seen at different ionospheric stations may be quite different during the same storm depending on both the geographic and geomagnetic coordinates of the station, storm intensity, and the storm onset time. Modulation in the F2 layer critical frequency at low and equatorial stations during geomagnetic disturbance of 20-23 November 2003 was caused by the storm-induced changes in O/N2. It is also found that International Reference Ionosphere 2012 model predicts the F2 layer characteristic (foF2 and h'F) parameters at both the low and equatorial stations during disturbed days quite reasonably. A simulative approach in GLOW model developed by Solomon is further used to estimate the changes in the volume emission rate of green line dayglow emission under quiet and strong geomagnetic conditions. It is found that the O(1S) dayglow thermospheric emission peak responds to varying geomagnetic conditions.

  2. Identification of oligomer proanthocyanidins (F2) isolated from grape seeds as a formyl peptide receptor 1 partial agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingyu; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Ruijun; Sun, Baoshan; Wang, Lihui; Hou, Yue; Li, Xiaoqin; Wu, Chunfu

    2013-04-01

    Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) plays an important role in the rapid progression of glioblastoma and has been considered as a molecular target for the treatment. Previously, we have shown that oligomer proanthocyanidins (F2, degree of polymerization 2-15), isolated from grape seeds, inhibited FPR1-mediated chemotaxis of U-87 glioblastoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of F2 to interact with FPR1. The cross attenuation of chemotaxis revealed that F2 shared FPR1 with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF), which is a prototype agonist of FPR1. F2 was chemotactic for U-87 cells, and the chemotactic response was abolished when FPR1 gene was silenced or FPR1 was competitively occupied. We further show that F2 specifically blocked the binding of fluorescent agonist to FPR1. Interestingly, F2 exhibited the characteristic of a partial agonist for FPR1, as shown by its capacity to activate FPR1-mediated PI3K-PKC-MAPK pathways. Meanwhile, F2 also attenuated fMLF-triggered MAPK activation, suggesting that F2 could antagonize the effect of an agonist. Furthermore, F2 abolished the invasion of U-87 cells induced by fMLF. Thus, we have identified F2 as a novel, partial agonist for FPR1, which may be useful for glioblastoma therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influenza A virus protein PB1-F2 exacerbates IFN-beta expression of human respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goffic, Ronan; Bouguyon, Edwige; Chevalier, Christophe; Vidic, Jasmina; Da Costa, Bruno; Leymarie, Olivier; Bourdieu, Christiane; Decamps, Laure; Dhorne-Pollet, Sophie; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-10-15

    The PB1-F2 protein of the influenza A virus (IAV) contributes to viral pathogenesis by a mechanism that is not well understood. PB1-F2 was shown to modulate apoptosis and to be targeted by the CD8(+) T cell response. In this study, we examined the downstream effects of PB1-F2 protein during IAV infection by measuring expression of the cellular genes in response to infection with wild-type WSN/33 and PB1-F2 knockout viruses in human lung epithelial cells. Wild-type virus infection resulted in a significant induction of genes involved in innate immunity. Knocking out the PB1-F2 gene strongly decreased the magnitude of expression of cellular genes implicated in antiviral response and MHC class I Ag presentation, suggesting that PB1-F2 exacerbates innate immune response. Biological network analysis revealed the IFN pathway as a link between PB1-F2 and deregulated genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR and IFN-β gene reporter assay, we determined that PB1-F2 mediates an upregulation of IFN-β expression that is dependent on NF-κB but not on AP-1 and IFN regulatory factor-3 transcription factors. Recombinant viruses knocked out for the PB1-F2 and/or the nonstructural viral protein 1 (the viral antagonist of the IFN response) genes provide further evidence that PB1-F2 increases IFN-β expression and that nonstructural viral protein 1 strongly antagonizes the effect of PB1-F2 on the innate response. Finally, we compared the effect of PB1-F2 variants taken from several IAV strains on IFN-β expression and found that PB1-F2-mediated IFN-β induction is significantly influenced by its amino acid sequence, demonstrating its importance in the host cell response triggered by IAV infection.

  4. Synthesis and microstructure of fluorapatite-type Ca10-2xSmxNax(PO4)6F2 solid solutions for immobilization of trivalent minor actinide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Zhang, Haibin; Zhou, Xiaosong; Peng, Shuming

    2017-03-01

    Ca10-2xSmxNax(PO4)6F2 (x = 0.8-1.2) solid solutions were successfully synthesized by the solid state reaction method using samarium (Sm) as the surrogate for trivalent minor actinide neptunium (Np). The influences of calcining temperature, holding time and Sm doping content on the phase composition and microstructure of Ca10-2xSmxNax(PO4)6F2 were investigated. The results indicated that the optimized calcining temperature and holding time for preparing Ca10-2xSmxNax(PO4)6F2 were 1000 °C and 2 h. Ca10-2xSmxNax(PO4)6F2 were confirmed to be the discontinuous solid solutions and solid solubility limit of Sm in the Ca10-2xSmxNax(PO4)6F2 was 1.2 formula units. The rod-like grains of Ca10-2xSmxNax(PO4)6F2 had typical hexagonal characteristics with a diameter of 3-5 μm and a length of 10-20 μm. No significant changes on the microstructures of Ca10-2xSmxNax(PO4)6F2 were observed with the increase of Sm doping content. The Ca, Sm, Na, P, O and F elements were nearly distributed uniformly in the Ca8Sm1Na1(PO4)6F2 solid solution.

  5. The relation between foF2 and ICF during the solar eclipse%日食期间foF2与ICF的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张添益

    2001-01-01

    本文初步分析了1995年10月24日日食期间,F2层临界频率(foF2)和高频干扰重心频率(ICF)之间的相关性较差的原因.认为高频干扰重心频率ICF不仅受foF2的影响,还可能受D层吸收等因素影响.在探讨ICF与foF2的关系时,应综合加以考虑.

  6. EPR study of concentration dependence in Ce, Ce : La and Ce:Y doped SrF2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankert, O.; Vainchtein, David; Datema, H.C.; den Hartog, Hendrik

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results of an EPR-study of the concentration dependence of the doubly integrated intensity and linewidth of the signals associated with tetragonal Ce3+-F--dipoles in Sr1-xCexF2+x, Sr-1-0.005-x Ce0.005LaxF2+0.005+x and Sr-1-0.005-x Ce0.005YxF2+0.005+x are presented. Both show a nonlinear

  7. F2 slope as a Perceptual Cue for the Front-Back Contrast in Standard Southern British English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chládková, Kateřina; Hamann, Silke; Williams, Daniel; Hellmuth, Sam

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic studies of several languages indicate that second-formant (F2) slopes in high vowels have opposing directions (independent of consonantal context): front [iː]-like vowels are produced with a rising F2 slope, whereas back [uː]-like vowels are produced with a falling F2 slope. The present study first reports acoustic measurements that confirm this pattern for the English variety of Standard Southern British English (SSBE), where /uː/ has shifted from the back to the front area of the vowel space and is now realized with higher midpoint F2 values than several decades ago. Subsequently, we test whether the direction of F2 slope also serves as a reliable cue to the /iː/-/uː/ contrast in perception. The findings show that F2 slope direction is used as a cue (additional to midpoint formant values) to distinguish /iː/ from /uː/ by both young and older Standard Southern British English listeners: an otherwise ambiguous token is identified as /iː/ if it has a rising F2 slope and as /uː/ if it has a falling F2 slope. Furthermore, our results indicate that listeners generalize their reliance on F2 slope to other contrasts, namely /ɛ/-/ɒ/ and /æ/-/ɒ/, even though F2 slope is not employed to differentiate these vowels in production. This suggests that in Standard Southern British English, a rising F2 seems to be perceptually associated with an abstract feature such as [+front], whereas a falling F2 with an abstract feature such as [-front].

  8. Long-term trends in the relation between daytime and nighttime values of foF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The data from the vertical ionospheric sounding for 12 stations over the world were analyzed to find the relation between the values of foF2 for 02:00 LT and 14:00 LT of the same day. It is found that, in general, there exists a negative correlation between foF2(02 and foF2(14. The value of the correlation coefficient R(foF2 can be in some cases high enough and reach minus 0.7–0.8. The value of R(foF2 demonstrates a well pronounced seasonal variations, the highest negative values being observed at the equinox periods of the year. It is also found that R(foF2 depends on geomagnetic activity: the magnitude of R(foF2 is the highest for the choice of only magnetically quiet days (Ap<6, decreasing with the increase of the limiting value of Ap. For a fixed limitation on Ap, the value of R(foF2 depends also on solar activity. Apparently, the effects found are related to thermospheric winds. Analysis of long series of the vertical sounding data shows that there is a long-term trend in R(foF2 with a statistically significant increase in the R(foF2 magnitude after about 1980. Similar analysis is performed for the foF2(02/foF2(14 ratio itself. The ratio also demonstrates a systematic trend after 1980. Both trends are interpreted in terms of long-term changes in thermospheric circulation.

  9. NMR-based metabolic profiling of rice wines by F(2)-selective total correlation spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Masanori; Furihata, Kazuo; Wei, Feifei; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-05-16

    In this study, we performed NMR-based metabolic profiling of major rice wines (Japanese sake, Chinese Shaoxing wine, and Korean makgeolli). In the (1)H NMR spectra, the rice wines showed broad resonances in the region of about 7.9-9.0 ppm. These resonances showed many and complex correlations with approximately 0.5-4.5 ppm in the F(2)-selective TOCSY (total correlation spectroscopy) spectra, and these correlations were attributed mainly to peptides. These spectral patterns were characteristic of individual rice wines, and the combination of F(2)-selective TOCSY spectra and principal component analysis enabled us to classify the rice wine species. Furthermore, it also provided information about raw materials, namely, what type of koji (rice koji or wheat koji) was used. These spectra may be useful as a new "fingerprint" for quality control or food authentication.

  10. Cryogenic Ho:CaF2 laser pumped by Tm:fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Ma, Weiwei; Zhao, Beibei; Jiang, Dapeng; Su, Liangbi

    2016-06-01

    The laser operation in the pulsed as well as continuous-wave regime of a modified-Bridgeman-grown 0.5 at.% Ho:CaF2 crystal at 83 K pumped by a Tm:fiber laser is reported. The maximum output power was 2.37 W at 2060 nm or 1.3 W at 2110 and 2130 nm. Continuous tuning range over 90 nm from 2030 to 2120 nm was achieved using a birefringent filter. The Ho:CaF2 fundamental spectroscopic properties as absorption and fluorescence spectra at 83 and 293 K are also presented.

  11. 七色炫灯翻盖萌作三星Nori F2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    三星电子去年在韩国市场推出一款以鲜艳色彩和LED炫灯为主打的翻盖手机Nori F。如今.三星又推出了该机的续作Nori F2(型号SHW—A280),该机仍然以年轻用户为目标客户群体.相对于前代产品.F2增加了七彩炫灯功能,用户可对来电和短信定制7种个性化的闪灯.效果也够萌。

  12. Excited state absorption of Sm2+ in SrF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, L. L.; Krupke, William F.

    1988-10-01

    The excited state absorption spectrum of Sm2+ in SrF2 has been observed. The absorption peaks associated with the 5D0(4f6) excited state were found to be displaced by approximately 3000 cm-1 from the absorption bands arising from the 7F0(4f6) ground state (after taking the 5D0-7F0 energy separation into account). The observed peak separation is ascribed to the 4f-5d exchange interaction. From the measured peak positions, the exchange energy for the Sm2+ impurity was determined to be about the same order of magnitude as expected for the free ion. The implications of the properties of the excited state absorption bands for the performance of the SrF2:Sm2+ laser are considered.

  13. Proximity effects in superconducting triplet spin-valve F2/F1/S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deminov, R.G., E-mail: Raphael.Deminov@kpfu.ru [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Tagirov, L.R. [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Institut für Physik, Universität Augsburg, Augsburg D-86159 (Germany); Gaifullin, R.R. [Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Karminskaya, T.Yu.; Kupriyanov, M.Yu. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Fominov, Ya.V. [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Golubov, A.A. [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA+ Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the critical temperature T{sub c} of F2/F1/S trilayers (Fi is a ferromagnetic metal and S is a singlet superconductor), where the long-range triplet superconducting component is generated at noncollinear magnetizations of the F layers. In this paper we demonstrate a possibility of the spin-valve effect mode selection (standard switching effect, the triplet spin-valve effect or reentrant T{sub c}(α) dependence) by the variation of the F2/F1 interface transparency. - Highlights: • T{sub c} of FFS trilayer as a function of angle between magnetizations is calculated. • T{sub c} of FFS structure for arbitrary FF interface transparencies γ{sub B} is calculated. • Possibility of the spin-valve effect mode selection by the variation of γ{sub B} is shown.

  14. Nanostructuring CaF2 surfaces with slow highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A. S.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Ritter, R.; Wachter, G.; Facsko, S.; Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J.; Aumayr, F.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years the potential of slow highly charged ions (HCI) as tools for nanostructuring purposes has received considerable attention and a wide range of material classes, from insulating ionic crystals, polymers and ultrathin films, to semiconducting and conducting substrates have been investigated regarding their response to individual HCI impact. For the majority of investigated materials, however, consistent theoretical modeling to supplement with experimental evidence and to satisfactorily explain the complete physical process from ion approach and impact to the formation of an individual nanostructure is still lacking. CaF2, from both an experimental and theoretical point of view, might be considered the most thoroughly investigated material. Combining results from numerous studies has allowed for the generation of a "phase diagram" for nanostructuring of CaF2 in dependence of ion beam parameters. This paves the way for a first unified picture, as implications from this phase diagram should be applicable to similar materials as well.

  15. Comparison of the ionospheric F2 peak height between ionosonde measurements and IRI2016 predictions over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiukuan; Ning, Baiqi; Zhang, Man-Lian; Hu, Lianhuan

    2017-10-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is the most frequently used community empirical model. The latest version IRI2016 provides three options for the F2 peak height hmF2: AMTB2013, SHU-2015, and BSE-1979. In this paper, we used the hmF2 data derived by the ionosondes at Mohe, Beijing, Wuhan and Sanya ranging from year 2007 to 2016 to assess the performance of these three options in the model. The results show that the variability of the observed hmF2 versus local time, seasons and levels of solar activity could be reproduced well by the three options. However, the SHU-2015 option performs best at these four stations, followed by BSE-1979, and the AMTB2013 option is worst. Generally, the AMTB2013 and BSE-1979 options overestimate the hmF2 values, while the SHU-2015 option mainly underestimates the hmF2 values. This is the first evaluations of the three IRI2016 hmF2 options by manually scaled ionosonde data over China area to our knowledge. Overall, we recommend the usage of SHU-2015 hmF2 option over China region when using IRI2016 model in terms of hmF2 calculation.

  16. Adsorption behaviour of PuF6 on UO2F2 by the use of 236Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Minoru; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Kirishima, Akira

    2010-03-01

    To know the behavior of plutonium in the fluoride volatility process (FLUOREX PROCESS) for the spent nuclear fuel, both UO2 and PuO2 are fluorinated by fluorine forming volatile UF6 and PuF6, respectively. Then PuF6 is separated and recovered from UF6 by using adsorption materials such as uranyl fluoride UO2F2. In this paper, adsorption behavior of PuF6on UO2F2 was examined by the use of 236Pu tracer. First, the stability of UO2F2 in F2atmosphere was analyzed by TG-DTA method showing that uranium volatilized completely over 350 °C by the formation of UF6 and the adsorption of plutonium by UO2F2 should be done at temperatures lower than 250 °C. The behavior of PtF6 as a chemical analogue of PuF6 was also conducted for comparison and it showed that the deposition of PtF4 on UO2F2 at 200 °C. When the 236Pu doped U3O8 was reacted with 10%F2-He gas, the PuF6 vaporized at ca. 600 °C. Then adsorption of 236Pu on UO2F2 was observed by α ray measurement. The adsorption mechanism of Pu on UO2F2 was discussed with experimental data and thermodynamic consideration.

  17. [Induced abortion using prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha gel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, T H; Modly, T

    1974-01-01

    In this study of 20 patients in the 13th-17th week of pregnancy abortion was induced with intrauterine, extraamniotic application of prostaglandins (PG) E2 or F2 in gel form. The gel composition was as follows: 4% tylose MH 300, 2% glycerine, 1% chlorhexidine digluconate, 83% sterile distilled water and 10% PG stock solution. Both PGE2 and PGF2 gels were used. Final concentration was 2.5 mg E2 or 2.5 mg F2 per g of gel. Gel was applied via transcervical, extraamniotic polyethylene catheter every 2-3 hours. Results: PGE2-gel was used in 14 cases. After 3-4 applications both fetus and placenta were expelled. Average dose used was 4.6 mg E2/patient. First contractions started in 30 minutes; induction to expulsion time was 11 hours 35 minutes. F2-gel given to 6 patients resulted in expulsion of the fetus in all cases but placenta needed removal by curettage in 4 patients. Average dose per patient was 17.7 mg of F2; first contractions in 30 minutes, average expulsion time 17 hours 38 minutes. With both PGs there were painful contractions which were controlled with a combination of pentazocine and Valium. PGE2 caused vomiting in 5 patients. No increased bleeding or postabortion infection occurred. Follow-up curettage was done in all patients to ensure removal of all tissues. Overall evaluation of the PG-gels was considered good. PG stability in gel form is good; during 8 months of preservation in sterile aluminum tubes at -25 degrees Celsius no decline in clinical effectiveness was noted. The gel application is less expensive than the slow-injection pump method.

  18. Joint QTL analysis of three connected F2-crosses in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennewitz Jörn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous QTL mapping resource populations are available in livestock species. Usually they are analysed separately, although the same founder breeds are often used. The aim of the present study was to show the strength of analysing F2-crosses jointly in pig breeding when the founder breeds of several F2-crosses are the same. Methods Three porcine F2-crosses were generated from three founder breeds (i.e. Meishan, Pietrain and wild boar. The crosses were analysed jointly, using a flexible genetic model that estimated an additive QTL effect for each founder breed allele and a dominant QTL effect for each combination of alleles derived from different founder breeds. The following traits were analysed: daily gain, back fat and carcass weight. Substantial phenotypic variation was observed within and between crosses. Multiple QTL, multiple QTL alleles and imprinting effects were considered. The results were compared to those obtained when each cross was analysed separately. Results For daily gain, back fat and carcass weight, 13, 15 and 16 QTL were found, respectively. For back fat, daily gain and carcass weight, respectively three, four, and five loci showed significant imprinting effects. The number of QTL mapped was much higher than when each design was analysed individually. Additionally, the test statistic plot along the chromosomes was much sharper leading to smaller QTL confidence intervals. In many cases, three QTL alleles were observed. Conclusions The present study showed the strength of analysing three connected F2-crosses jointly. In this experiment, statistical power was high because of the reduced number of estimated parameters and the large number of individuals. The applied model was flexible and was computationally fast.

  19. Scientific and regulatory standards for assessing product performance using the similarity factor, f2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ruth E; Gray, Vivian; Dorantes, Angelica; Gold, Lynn; Pham, Loan

    2015-03-01

    The similarity factor, f2, measures the sameness of dissolution profiles. The following commentary is an overview of discussions and presentations from a group of industry and US regulatory experts that have integrated the science and regulatory research and practice for assessing product performance, particularly for modified-release (MR) dosage forms, using f2. For a drug development sponsor or applicant with an orally complex dosage formulation, it is critical to understand dissolution methods and the similarity factor and how and/or when to apply it in their NDA, ANDA, or PMA submission. As part of any regulatory submission, it is critical to justify that the product performance has not been impacted by any change in the manufacturing process and/or the delayed and/or prolonged drug release characteristics compared to a similar conventional or another orally complex dosage form. The purposes of this document are (1) to provide a description of appropriate dissolution methods, how is the f2 calculated and how it can be used to justify product performance similarity, or not; (2) to provide an overview of alternative methods available for dissolution profile comparisons, and (3) to illustrate how applying these concepts in a focused way supports approval of submissions and regulatory dossiers and aligns them with on-going science and regulatory initiatives. A case study will be used as an example to demonstrate how dissolution testing and the f2 calculation results can impact regulatory outcomes from an NDA (505(b)(1)), NDA (505(b)(2)), ANDA (505(j)), supplemental NDAs/ANDAs, or PMA perspective.

  20. A BaF2 crystal array for high energy -ray measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ray; S R Banerjee; P Das

    2001-07-01

    We shall discuss about the scientific motivation and construction of a 7 × 7 BaF2 crystal array at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. This detector would be used to measure high energy -ray photons from GDR decay and proton–neutron bremsstrahlung reactions at the present 88'' cyclotron and upcoming superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Calcutta. This detector can also be used to measure photons from quark–gluon plasma at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) in USA.

  1. Comparison of On-line and F2F Education Methods in Teaching Computer Programming

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    lthough online education provides opportunities to people who traditionally do not have access to universities, there is a need for more empirical studies to gain better understanding on how to deliver quality online education, especially when the subject of the course is related with IT. Learning to program is a complicated process. This study aims to find out the difference between students’ performance in online and face-to-face (F2F) settings during a computer programming in the fall seme...

  2. Diode-pumped Yb,Y:CaF2 laser mode-locked by monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongtong; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Shouzhen; Xu, Shicai; Su, Liangbi; Jiang, Dapeng; Qian, Xiaobo; Xu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The large-area and high-quality monolayer graphene saturable absorber with a sandwich structure is prepared by the chemical vapor deposition technique. Using graphene saturable absorber, the mode locking operation of a diode-pumped Yb,Y:CaF2 laser is demonstrated. Without extra negative dispersion elements, 4.8 ps pulses are yielded at 1051 nm. The pulse repetition rate is 60 MHz.

  3. Agraphia and acalculia after a left prefrontal (F1, F2) infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Tohgi, H; Saitoh, K.; S. Takahashi(Kobe University, J-657-8501 Kobe, Japan); Takahashi, H; Utsugisawa, K; Yonezawa, H.; Hatano, K.; Sasaki, T.

    1995-01-01

    A patient presented with agraphia and acalculia associated with a left frontal (F1, F2) infarction. He made mainly phonological but also lexical errors in writing (syllabograms), but his ability to write kanji (morphograms) was relatively preserved. Although he could add and subtract numbers, he could neither multiply nor divide them because of a difficulty in retrieving the multiplication tables and calculation procedures. Positron emission tomography showed decreased cerebral blood flow and...

  4. Evolution of dislocation structure and modelling of deformation resistance in CaF2 single crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Sadrabadi, Peiman

    2007-01-01

    he evolution of dislocation structure during plastic deformation in pure 111}-oriented CaF2 single crystals was investigated at constant strain rate (10−5 s−1) and constant stress (1 < / MPa < 22) in the temperature range of 0.5 < T/Tm < 0.8. The steady state and transient deformation behavior of the material is described by the composite model on the basis of microstructural data. In the following sections the important conclusions are briefly summarized. Microstructure evolution...

  5. Moments of structure functions for $N_f=2$ near the physical point

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, G S; Gläßle, B; Göckeler, M; Najjar, J; Rödl, R; Schäfer, A; Schiel, R; Sternbeck, A; Söldner, W

    2013-01-01

    We report on our on-going study of the lower moments of iso-vector polarised and unpolarised structure functions, $g_A$ and $\\langle x\\rangle_{u-d}$, respectively, and the iso-vector scalar and tensor charge, for $N_f=2$ non-perturbatively improved clover fermions. With pion masses which go down to about 150 MeV, we investigate finite volume effects and excited state contributions.

  6. On the order of the deconfining transition in N_f=2 QCD

    CERN Document Server

    D'Elia, M; Pica, C

    2004-01-01

    A careful study is made on the lattice of the phase diagram of QCD with two staggered flavors, to investigate the order of the chiral transition of N_f=2 QCD. The specific heat and the susceptibility of the chiral condensate are determined for different spatial sizes of the system, and a finite size scaling analysis provides a determination of the (pseudo)critical indices. The result is a strong indication that the chiral transition is first order.

  7. $_{3}$F$_{2}$(1) hypergeometric function and quadratic R-matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V B

    1994-01-01

    We construct a class of representations of the quadratic R-matrix algebra, given by the reflection equation with the spectral parameter, in terms of certain ordinary difference operators. These operators turn out to act as parameter shifting operators on the 3_F_2(1) hypergeometric function and its limit cases and on classical orthogonal polynomials. The relationship with the factorization method will be discussed.

  8. La2SrCr2O7F2: A Ruddlesden-Popper Oxyfluoride Containing Octahedrally Coordinated Cr(4+) Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghuan; Read, Gareth; Lang, Franz; Lancaster, Tom; Blundell, Stephen J; Hayward, Michael A

    2016-03-21

    The low-temperature fluorination of the n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper phase La2SrCr2O7 yields La2SrCr2O7F2 via a topochemical fluorine insertion reaction. The structure-conserving nature of the fluorination reaction means that the chromium centers of the initial oxide phase retain an octahedral coordination environment in the fluorinated product, resulting in a material containing an extended array of apex-linked Cr(4+)O6 units. Typically materials containing networks of octahedrally coordinated Cr(4+) centers can only be prepared at high pressure; thus, the preparation of La2SrCr2O7F2 demonstrates that low-temperature topochemical reactions offer an alternative synthesis route to materials of this type. Neutron diffraction, magnetization, and μ(+)SR data indicate that La2SrCr2O7F2 undergoes a transition to an antiferromagnetic state below TN ≈ 140 K. The structure-property relations of this phase and other Cr(4+) oxide phases are discussed.

  9. $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ Pairing in Dense Neutron Matter The Spectrum of Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zverev, M V; Khodel, V A

    2003-01-01

    The $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ pairing model is generally considered to provide an adequate description of the superfluid states of neutron matter at densities some 2-3 times that of saturated symmetrical nuclear matter. The problem of solving the system of BCS gap equations expressing the $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ model is attacked with the aid of the separation approach. This method, developed originally for quantitative study of S-wave pairing in the presence of strong short-range repulsions, serves effectively to reduce the coupled, singular, nonlinear BCS integral equations to a set of coupled algebraic equations. For the first time, sufficient precision becomes accessible to resolve small energy splittings between the different pairing states. Adopting a perturbative strategy, we are able to identify and characterize the full repertoire of real solutions of the $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ pairing model, in the limiting regime of small tensor-coupling strength. The P-F channel coupling is seen to lift the striking parametric degeneracie...

  10. Sintering of CaF 2 pellets as nuclear fuel analog for surface stability experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, José R. A.; Piazolo, Sandra; Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2011-12-01

    To enable a detailed study of the influence of microstructure and surface properties on the stability of spent nuclear fuel, it is necessary to produce analogs that closely resemble nuclear fuel in terms of crystallography and microstructure. One such analog can be obtained by sintering CaF 2 powder. This paper reports the microstructures obtained after sintering CaF 2 powders at temperatures up to 1240 °C. Pellets with microstructure, density and pore structure similar to that of UO 2 spent nuclear fuel pellets were obtained in the temperature range between 900 °C and 1000 °C. When CaF 2 was sintered above 1100 °C the formation of CaO at the grain boundaries caused the disintegration of the pellet due to hydration occurring after sintering. First results from a novel set-up of dissolution experiments show that changes in roughness, dissolution rate and etch pit shape of fluorite surfaces are strongly dependent on the crystallographic orientation of the expose surface. Consequently, the differences observed for each orientation will affect the overall dissolution rate and will lead to uncertainties in the estimation of dissolution rates of spent nuclear fuel.

  11. Growth and characterization of epitaxial SrF2 on InP(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharoy, S.; Hoffman, R. A.; Rieger, J. H.; Warner, J. D.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of 100-262.5-nm SrF2 films on n-type and p-type (100)InP in a conventional baked UHV system at base pressure about 200 ptorr, temperature 250-350 C, and growth rate from less than 100 to about 200 pm/s. Substrates are chemicomechanically polished, degreased, bombarded with 500-eV Ar ions for 3-4 min at 350 C, and annealed for 23-30 min at 350 C, producing a slightly In-rich (In/P = 1.02) In-island-free surface with a (4 x 1) or (1 x 1) LEED structure. Films grown at 350 C and less than 100 pm/s are found to be smooth and free of cracks in most cases, with a highly faceted (1 x 1) LEED structure. The electrical properties of the SrF2 films are found to be acceptable only when the ohmic contacts are applied prior to the substrate prior to SrF2 growth.

  12. On the diurnal variability in F2-region plasma density above the EISCAT Svalbard radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two long runs of EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, in February 2001 and October 2002, have been analysed with respect to variability in the F2 region peak density and altitude. The diurnal variation in the F2 peak density exhibits one maximum around 12:00 MLT and another around 23:00 MLT, consistent with solar wind controlled transport of EUV ionized plasma across the polar cap from day to night. High density plasma patch material is drawn in through the cusp inflow region independent of IMF BY. There is no apparent IMF BY asymmetry on the intake of high density plasma, but the trajectory of its motion is strongly BY dependent. Comparison with the international reference ionosphere model (IRI2001 clearly demonstrates that the model does not take account of the cross-polar transport of F2-region plasma, and hence has limited applicability in polar cap regions.

  13. One-step ahead prediction of foF2 using time series forecasting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belehaki

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of one-step ahead prediction of the critical frequency (foF2 of the middle-latitude ionosphere, using time series forecasting methods, is considered. The whole study is based on a sample of about 58000 observations of foF2 with 15-min time resolution, derived from the Athens digisonde ionograms taken from the Digisonde Portable Sounder (DPS4 located at Palaia Penteli (38° N, 23.5° E, for the period from October 2002 to May 2004. First, the embedding dimension of the dynamical system that generates the above sample is estimated using the false nearest neighbor method. This information is then utilized for the training of the predictors employed in this study, which are the linear predictor, the neural network predictor, the persistence predictor and the k-nearest neighbor predictor. The results obtained by the above predictors suggest that, as far as the mean square error is considered as performance criterion, the first two predictors are significantly better than the latter two predictors. In addition, the results obtained by the linear and the neural network predictors are not significantly different from each other. This may be taken as an indication that a linear model suffices for one step ahead prediction of foF2.

  14. Excited state absorption of Sm2+ in SrF2 and SrCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, L. L.; Krupke, William F.; Boatner, L. A.

    1988-06-01

    The excited state absorption spectrum of Sm2+ diluted as an impurity in the single crystal hosts SrF2 and SrCl2 has been observed. The absorption peaks associated with the 5D0(4f6) excited state were found to be displaced by approximately 3000 cm-1 from the absorption bands arising from the 7F0(4f6) ground state when the 5D0-7F0 energy was taken into account. The observed peak separation is ascribed to the 4f-5d exchange interaction. From the measured peak positions and band intensities, the exchange energy for the Sm2+ impurity in the two host crystals was determined to be about the same order of magnitude as that expected for the free ion. The implications of the properties of the excited state absorption bands for the performance of CaF2:Sm2+ and SrF2:Sm2+ lasers are considered.

  15. Psychoacoustical and ear canal cancellation of (2f1-f2)-distortion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, E; Harris, F P

    1990-06-01

    Level and phase of the (2f1-f2)-difference tone were measured as a function of primary-tone level using the psychoacoustical method of cancellation and the objective method of emission cancellation for four frequency separations of f1 = 1620 Hz and f2 in four subjects. Differences between hearing- and emission-cancellation levels ranged from 60-33 dB as delta f = f2-f1 increased from 180 to 432 Hz. For smaller separations of the primaries, phase changes for emission cancellation covered a wide range and had sharp "steps," whereas for hearing cancellation, the phase varied only slightly. With wider separations of the primaries, the phase became more varied for hearing cancellation and more homogeneous for emission cancellation. Both emission- and hearing-cancellation level functions were nonmonotonic as a function of constant SL1 and varied SL2. Remarkable phase shifts always appeared near minima in level at all separations of the primaries for emission cancellation. Four sources may be contributing to the differences in results: (a) the frequency-dependent attenuation of the middle-ear transfer function, (b) the frequency-dependent mismatch of the acoustical impedances at the eardrum, (c) the frequency dependence of the microphone's sensitivity mounted within the probe, and (d) the different reaction of active nonlinear cochlear processes on the hearing- and emission-cancellation tones.

  16. [Cardiovascular effect of 15(S)-15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzke, U; Schwarz, R

    1978-01-01

    The reaction of the cardiovascular system on one intramuscular injection of 250 microgram 15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha was examined in 14 normotensive healthy pregnant women between 7th and 11th weeks of gestation with the method of quantitative sphygmometry with unbloody graphic recording of arterial blood pressure and direct electronic determination of velocity of aortic pulse wave. The tests were done in 10 patients in intervals of 5 minutes for one hour and in 4 subjects for 12 hours in intervals of one hour. Systolic blood pressure remains nearly constant, but diastolic blood pressure increases and then decreases significantly. Heart rate decreases significantly. Aortic pulse wave velocity decreases in a characteristic manner. Analogous to the biphasic behaviour of blood pressure cardiac output decreases significantly, but then increases insignificantly. The inverse changes of total peripheral resistance are insignificant. Comparing these reactions with the cardiovascular effects of prostaglandin F2alpha or E2, 15-methyl-prostaglandin F2alpha shows the smallest circulatory alterations.

  17. Effect of CaF2 content on rate of fluoride release from filled resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, K J; Zhang, N-Z; Shen, C

    2005-05-01

    Information on the time-dependent release of fluoride from filled resins containing fluoride particles as a function of particle content and solution pH is limited. This study characterized the fluoride ion release from filled resins containing CaF2 particles as a function of filler content and pH. Urethane dimethacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate resins were used to make filled-resin disks containing 9.09, 23.08, or 33.33 mass% CaF2 filler. Fluoride ion release for the 9.09 mass% concentration was independent of pH. Increasing the filler content from 9.09 to 33.33 mass% increased the fluoride release rate in pH 4.0 buffer solution, because of greater surface degradation. Fluoride ion release from disks stored in pH 6.0 buffer solutions occurred mainly by diffusion from disk surfaces, while fluoride release from disks in pH 4.0 buffers was controlled by diffusion from disk surfaces and degeneration of the resin matrix, which exposed more CaF2 particle surface area.

  18. Evaluation Software for BaF2 Detector Array Electronics at CSNS-WNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaxi; Cao, Ping; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Deliang; He, Bing; Qi, Xincheng; An, Qi

    2017-06-01

    The “in programming barium fluoride (BaF2) detector array” is one of the experiment facilities at China Spallation Neutron Source-White Neutron Sources, which is designed for the measurement of neutron capture cross section with high accuracy. It consists of 92 crystal elements with completely 4π solid-angle coverage, which needs 92 analog channels and 92 digitization channels for data acquisition. Accordingly, the readout electronics is comprised with four distributed readout PXIe crates, containing 46 field digitization modules (FDMs). Each FDM supports two valid channels for signal digitizing. In this paper, evaluation software is designed for evaluating the performance of BaF2 readout electronics. It focuses on evaluating the performance of data transmission, waveform digitizing, and working status monitoring. Test results show that the evaluation software can correctly acquire and assemble data from the BaF2 readout system and evaluate the analog digital converter (ADC) performance under ADC test mode. FDMs in the readout system can also be monitored and controlled by this software in real time.

  19. The essential role of charge-shift bonding in hypervalent prototype XeF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braïda, Benoît; Hiberty, Philippe C.

    2013-05-01

    Hypervalency in XeF2 and isoelectronic complexes is generally understood in terms of the Rundle-Pimentel model (which invokes a three-centre/four-electron molecular system) or its valence bond version as proposed by Coulson, which replaced the old expanded octet model of Pauling. However, the Rundle-Pimentel model is not always successful in describing such complexes and has been shown to be oversimplified. Here using ab initio valence bond theory coupled to quantum Monte Carlo methods, we show that the Rundle-Pimentel model is insufficient by itself in accounting for the great stability of XeF2, and that charge-shift bonding, wherein the large covalent-ionic interaction energy has the dominant role, is a major stabilizing factor. The energetic contribution of the old expanded octet model is also quantified and shown to be marginal. Generalizing to isoelectronic systems such as ClF3, SF4, PCl5 and others, it is suggested that charge-shift bonding is necessary, in association with the Rundle-Pimentel model, for hypervalent analogues of XeF2 to be strongly bonded.

  20. High-pressure polymorphism of Pb F2 to 75 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Camelia V.; Dutta, Rajkrishna; White, Claire E.; Prakapenka, Vitali; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2016-07-01

    Lead fluoride, Pb F2 , was investigated experimentally in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell by x-ray diffraction to pressures of 75 GPa at room temperature and to 64.5 GPa and 2430 K, as well as through first-principles density functional theory calculations up to 70 GPa. During room temperature compression, no discontinuous changes in the x-ray diffraction pattern or volume were observed, but the lattice parameters displayed highly anomalous trends between 10-22 GPa with enhanced compressibility along the a direction and reduced or even negative compressibility along b and c . Theoretical calculations of valence electron densities at 22 GPa showed that α -Pb F2 underwent a pressure-induced isosymmetric phase transition to a postcotunnite C o2Si structure and also revealed the detailed atomic rearrangements associated with the development of an extra Pb-F bond in the high-pressure phase. Our x-ray results and theoretical calculations are consistent with an isosymmetric phase transition smoothly occurring over 10-22 GPa rather than abruptly as previously suggested. The characteristic values for the cell constants a /c and (a +c )/b , which are used to distinguish among cotunnite-, C o2Si -, and N i2In -type phases, require modification based on our results. An equation of state fit yields a bulk modulus, K0, of 72(3) GPa for the cotunnite-type, and an ambient-pressure volume, V0, of 182 (2 ) Å3 , and K0=81 (4 ) GPa for the C o2Si -type phase when fixing the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus, K0 '=4 . Upon heating above 1200 K at pressures at or above 25.9 GPa, Pb F2 partially transformed to the hexagonal N i2In -type phase but wholly or partially reverted back to C o2Si -type phase upon temperature quench. From 43-65 GPa, nearly complete transformation to the N i2In -type Pb F2 was observed at high temperature, but the material partially transformed back to the orthorhombic phase upon temperature quench. Our results show that high-pressure behavior of Pb F

  1. The F1-F2 vowel chart for Czech whispered vowels a, e, i, o, u.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grepl, Michal; Furst, Tomas; Pesak, Josef

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to present the formant chart of the Czech vowels a, e, i, o, u and show that this can be achieved by means of digital methods of sound processing. A group of 35 Czech students of the Pedagogical Faculty of Palacky University was tested and a record of whispered vowels was taken from each of them. The record was digitalized and processed by the Discrete Fourier Trasform. The result is the power spectrum of the individual vocals - the graphic output consists of a plot of the relative power of individual frequencies in the original sound. The values of the first two maxima which represent the first and the second formants were determined from the graph. The values were plotted on a formant chart. Altogether, 175 spectral analyses of individual vowels were performed. In the resulting power spectrum, the first and the second formant frequencies were identified. The first formant was plotted against the second one and pure vocal formant regions were identified. Frequency bands for the Czech vowel "a" were circumscribed between 850 and 1150 Hz for first formant (F1) and between 1200 and 2000 Hz for second formant (F2). Similarly, borders of frequency band for vowel "e" they were 700 and 950 Hz for F1 and 1700 and 3000 Hz for F2. For vowel "i" 300 and 450 Hz for F1 and 2000 and 3600 Hz for F2, for vowel "o" 600 and 800 Hz for F1 and 600 and 1400 Hz for F2, for vowel "u" 100 and 400 Hz for F1 and 400 and 1200 Hz for F2. At low frequencies it is feasible to invoke the source-filter model of voice production and associate vowel identity with frequencies of the first two formants in the voice spectrum. On the other hand, subject to intonation, singing or other forms of exposed voice (such as emotional speech, focused speech), the formant regions tend to spread. In spectral analysis other frequencies dominate, so specific formant frequency bands are not easily recognizable. Although the resulting formant map is not much different from the formant

  2. Gas phase UV and IR absorption spectra of CxF2x+1CHO (x=1-4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashikawa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Waterland, RL

    2004-01-01

    The UV and IR spectra of CxF2x+1 CHO (x = 1-4) were investigated using computational and experimental techniques. CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1-4) have broad UV absorption features centered at 300-310 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section increases significantly and shifts slightly to the red with increas...

  3. A Theoretical Framework for Association Studies in F2 Family Pools Using Allele Frequencies from Genotyping-By-Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janss, Luc L; Ashraf, Bilal H; Greve-Pedersen, Morten

    a sequencing approach to obtain Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) frequencies is considered here. In this work we develop the theoretical framework to perform association studies using allele frequencies from such F2 family pools. We show that expected allele frequencies in the F2 families will have...

  4. Prefrontal and agranular cingulate projections to the dorsal premotor areas F2 and F7 in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, Giuseppe; Rozzi, Stefano; Calzavara, Roberta; Matelli, Massimo

    2003-02-01

    The superior sector of Brodmann area 6 (dorsal premotor cortex, PMd) of the macaque monkey consists of a rostral and a caudal architectonic area referred to as F7 and F2, respectively. The aim of this study was to define the origin of prefrontal and agranular cingulate afferents to F7 and F2, in the light of functional and hodological evidence showing that these areas do not appear to be functionally homogeneous. Different sectors of F7 and F2 were injected with neural tracers in seven monkeys and the retrograde labelling was qualitatively and quantitatively analysed. The dorsorostral part of F7 (supplementary eye field, F7-SEF) was found to be a target of strong afferents from the frontal eye field (FEF), from the dorsolateral prefrontal regions located dorsally (DLPFd) and ventrally (DLPFv) to the principal sulcus and from cingulate areas 24a, 24b and 24c. In contrast, the remaining part of F7 (F7-non SEF) is only a target of the strong afferents from DLPFd. Finally, the ventrorostral part of F2 (F2vr), but not the F2 sector located around the superior precentral dimple (F2d), receives a minor, but significant, input from DLPFd and a relatively strong input from the cingulate gyrus (areas 24a and 24b) and area 24d. Present data provide strong hodological support in favour of the idea that areas F7 and F2 are formed by two functionally distinct sectors.

  5. Effect of preionization, fluorine concentration, and current density on the discharge uniformity in F2 excimer laser gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, D.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Boller, Klaus J.; Peters, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The discharge homogeneity in F2-based excimer laser gas mixtures and its dependence on various key parameters, such as the degree of preionization, preionization delay time, F2 concentration and current density, is investigated in a small x-ray preionized discharge chamber. The spatial and temporal

  6. 用于ArF准分子激光器的CaF2衬底性能的实验表征%Characterization of CaF2 Substrates for ArF Excimer Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文渊; 金春水; 靳京城

    2011-01-01

    Experimental characterizations of the CaF2 substrates for applications of ArF excimer lasers are performed. The measured absorption for an excimer-grade CaF2 substrate with 5 mm thickness is equal to 922 X 10~6. The root-mean-square (RMS) surface ronghness measured by atomic force microscope (AFM) and white light interferometer (WLI) are 0.22 and 1.24 nm, respectively, and the corresponding calculated surface scattering losses areO.005% andO.25%, respectively. The emission of impurity of Ce3+ and Eu3"1" ions in the ultraviolet (UV)-grade CaF2 substrates is detected and ascertained by fluorescence. No water molecular or other contamination on the surface of CaF2 is detected in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results prove that laser calorimeters are suited to precisely measure the weak absorption of excimer-grade CaF2 substrates; the power spectral densities (PSDs) obtained by different measuring methods should be compared with each other and combined with the practical scattering losses to appropriately evaluate the surface roughness of CaF2 substrates; spectroscopy methods, such as fluorescence, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, can effectively detect the trace impurities or defects in the CaF2 crystal and the contaminations on the surface of the polished CaF2 substrates.%对用于ArF准分子激光器的CaF2衬底进行了表征实验研究.采用分光光度计测量了CaF2衬底的透射光谱和反射光谱,利用激光量热法测量了CaF2衬底吸收,分别利用原子力显微镜(AFM)和白光干涉仪(WLI)测量了CaF2衬底的表面粗糙度,并计算了功率谱密度(PSD)和表面散射,最后分别测量了CaF2衬底的荧光光谱、红外光谱和拉曼光谱.激光量热法测量5 mm厚准分子级CaF2衬底的吸收结果为922×10-6.AFM和WLI测得的CaF2衬底表面粗糙度均方根值分别为0.22和1.24 nm,计算表面散射损耗分别为0.005%和0.25%.荧光光谱在紫外(UV)级CaF2

  7. On the mechanism of the post-midnight winter NmF2 enhancements: dependence on solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Leschinskaya

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the NmF2 peak formation at different levels of solar activity is analyzed using Millstone Hill IS radar observations. The hmF2 nighttime increase due to thermospheric winds and the downward plasmaspheric fluxes are the key processes responsible for the NmF2 peak formation. The electron temperature follows with the opposite sign the electron density variations in this process. This mechanism provides a consistency with the Millstone Hill observations on the set of main parameters. The observed decrease of the nighttime NmF2 peak amplitude with solar activity is due to faster increasing of the recombination efficiency compared to the plasmaspheric flux increase. The E×B plasma drifts are shown to be inefficient for the NmF2 nighttime peak formation at high solar activity.Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere; plasma temperature and density

  8. Anomalous increase in the foF2 critical frequency prior to the Spanish earthquake of May 11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegai, V. V.; Legen'ka, A. D.; Kim, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    A study of variations in the critical frequency of the F2 layer ( foF2) prior to a shallow-focus eartquake with a magnitude M = 5.1 which occurred in Spain on May 11, 2011, is carried out. The obtained results show that a positive disturbance in the foF2 value was observed at the ionospheric Del'ebre station, which is the closest to the earthquake epicenter. At the same time, no disturbances in foF2 are revealed at ionospheric stations located at a greater distance from the epicenter. This fact makes it possible to conclude that the positive disturbance in the F2 layer observed at the Del'ebre station could have a sesmogenic nature.

  9. Next Generation Mapping of Enological Traits in an F2 Interspecific Grapevine Hybrid Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Manns, David C.; Sacks, Gavin L.; Mansfield, Anna Katharine; Luby, James J.; Londo, Jason P.; Reisch, Bruce I.; Cadle-Davidson, Lance E.; Fennell, Anne Y.

    2016-01-01

    In winegrapes (Vitis spp.), fruit quality traits such as berry color, total soluble solids content (SS), malic acid content (MA), and yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) affect fermentation or wine quality, and are important traits in selecting new hybrid winegrape cultivars. Given the high genetic diversity and heterozygosity of Vitis species and their tendency to exhibit inbreeding depression, linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has relied on F1 families with the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and other markers. This study presents the construction of a genetic map by single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology in an F2 mapping family of 424 progeny derived from a cross between the wild species V. riparia Michx. and the interspecific hybrid winegrape cultivar, ‘Seyval’. The resulting map has 1449 markers spanning 2424 cM in genetic length across 19 linkage groups, covering 95% of the genome with an average distance between markers of 1.67 cM. Compared to an SSR map previously developed for this F2 family, these results represent an improved map covering a greater portion of the genome with higher marker density. The accuracy of the map was validated using the well-studied trait berry color. QTL affecting YAN, MA and SS related traits were detected. A joint MA and SS QTL spans a region with candidate genes involved in the malate metabolism pathway. We present an analytical pipeline for calling intercross GBS markers and a high-density linkage map for a large F2 family of the highly heterozygous Vitis genus. This study serves as a model for further genetic investigations of the molecular basis of additional unique characters of North American hybrid wine cultivars and to enhance the breeding process by marker-assisted selection. The GBS protocols for identifying intercross markers developed in this study can be adapted for other heterozygous species. PMID:26974672

  10. On variations of foF2 and F-spread before strong earthquakes in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Liperovskaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical analysis of the variations of the dayly-mean frequency of the maximum ionospheric electron density foF2 is performed in connection with the occurrence of (more than 60 earthquakes with magnitudes M>6.0, depths h<80 km and distances from the vertical sounding station R<1000 km. For the study, data of the Tokyo sounding station are used, which were registered every hour in the years 1957–1990. It is shown that, on the average, foF2 decreases before the earthquakes. One day before the shock the decrease amounts to about 5%. The statistical reliability of this phenomenon is obtained to be better than 0.95. Further, the variations of the occurrence probability of the turbulization of the F-layer (F spread are investigated for (more than 260 earthquakes with M>5.5, h<80 km, R<1000 km. For the analysis, data of the Japanese station Akita from 1969–1990 are used, which were obtained every hour. It is found that before the earthquakes the occurrence probability of F spread decreases. In the week before the event, the decrease has values of more than 10%. The statistical reliability of this phenomenon is also larger than 0.95. Examining the seismo-ionospheric effects, here periods of time with weak heliogeomagnetic disturbances are considered. For the foF2 analysis, the Wolf number is less than 100 and the index ΣKp is smaller than 30, and in case of the F-spread study a Wolf number less than 80 and ΣKp smaller than 17 are chosen.

  11. Next Generation Mapping of Enological Traits in an F2 Interspecific Grapevine Hybrid Family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Yang

    Full Text Available In winegrapes (Vitis spp., fruit quality traits such as berry color, total soluble solids content (SS, malic acid content (MA, and yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN affect fermentation or wine quality, and are important traits in selecting new hybrid winegrape cultivars. Given the high genetic diversity and heterozygosity of Vitis species and their tendency to exhibit inbreeding depression, linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has relied on F1 families with the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR and other markers. This study presents the construction of a genetic map by single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS technology in an F2 mapping family of 424 progeny derived from a cross between the wild species V. riparia Michx. and the interspecific hybrid winegrape cultivar, 'Seyval'. The resulting map has 1449 markers spanning 2424 cM in genetic length across 19 linkage groups, covering 95% of the genome with an average distance between markers of 1.67 cM. Compared to an SSR map previously developed for this F2 family, these results represent an improved map covering a greater portion of the genome with higher marker density. The accuracy of the map was validated using the well-studied trait berry color. QTL affecting YAN, MA and SS related traits were detected. A joint MA and SS QTL spans a region with candidate genes involved in the malate metabolism pathway. We present an analytical pipeline for calling intercross GBS markers and a high-density linkage map for a large F2 family of the highly heterozygous Vitis genus. This study serves as a model for further genetic investigations of the molecular basis of additional unique characters of North American hybrid wine cultivars and to enhance the breeding process by marker-assisted selection. The GBS protocols for identifying intercross markers developed in this study can be adapted for other heterozygous species.

  12. Identification of genes and networks driving cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse F2 intercross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M J Derry

    Full Text Available To identify the genes and pathways that underlie cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes we performed an integrated analysis of a mouse C57BL/6JxA/J F2 (B6AF2 cross by relating genome-wide gene expression data from adipose, kidney, and liver tissues to physiological endpoints measured in the population. We have identified a large number of trait QTLs including loci driving variation in cardiac function on chromosomes 2 and 6 and a hotspot for adiposity, energy metabolism, and glucose traits on chromosome 8. Integration of adipose gene expression data identified a core set of genes that drive the chromosome 8 adiposity QTL. This chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature contains genes associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation and maps to a subnetwork with conserved function in humans that was previously implicated in human obesity. In addition, human eSNPs corresponding to orthologous genes from the signature show enrichment for association to type II diabetes in the DIAGRAM cohort, supporting the idea that the chromosome 8 locus perturbs a molecular network that in humans senses variations in DNA and in turn affects metabolic disease risk. We functionally validate predictions from this approach by demonstrating metabolic phenotypes in knockout mice for three genes from the trans eQTL signature, Akr1b8, Emr1, and Rgs2. In addition we show that the transcriptional signatures for knockout of two of these genes, Akr1b8 and Rgs2, map to the F2 network modules associated with the chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature and that these modules are in turn very significantly correlated with adiposity in the F2 population. Overall this study demonstrates how integrating gene expression data with QTL analysis in a network-based framework can aid in the elucidation of the molecular drivers of disease that can be translated from mice to humans.

  13. Classifying genotype F of hepatitis B virus into F1 and F2 subtypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideaki Kato; Takanobu Kato; Yuzo Miyakawa; Masashi Mizokami; Kei Fujiwara; Robert G. Gish; Hiroshi Sakugawa; Hiroshi Yoshizawa; Fuminaka Sugauchi; Etsuro Orito; Ryuzo Ueda; Yasuhito Tanaka

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the propriety of providing hepatitis B virus(HBV) genotypes F and H with two distinct genotypes.METHODS: Eleven HBV isolates of genotype F (HBV/F)were recovered from patients living in San Francisco,Japan, Panama, and Venezuela, and their full-length sequences were determined. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out among them along with HBV isolates previously reported.RESULTS: Seven of them clustered with reported HBV/F isolates in the phylogenetic tree constructed on the entire genomic sequence. The remaining four flocked on another branch along with three HBV isolates formerly reported as genotype H. These seven HBV isolates, including the four in this study and the three reported, had a sequence divergence of 7.3-9.5% from the other HBV/F isolates,and differed by > 13.7% from HBV isolates of the other six genotypes (A-E and G). Based on a marked genomic divergence, falling just short of >8% separating the seven genotypes, these seven HBV/F isolates were classified into F2 subtype and the former seven into F1 subtype provisionally. In a pairwise comparison of the S-gene sequences among the 7 HBV/F2 isolates and against 47HBV/F1 isolates as well as 136 representing the other six genotypes (A-E and G), two clusters separated by distinct genetic distances emerged.CONCLUSION: Based on these analyses, classifying HBV/F isolates into two subtypes (F1 and F2) would be more appropriate than providing them with two distinct genotypes (F and H).

  14. Increasing F2-isoprostanes in the first month after birth predicts poor respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes in very preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, MA; Aschner, JL; Stark, AR; Moore, PE; Slaughter, JC; Steele, S; Beller, A; Milne, GL; Settles, O; Chorna, O; Maitre, NL

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined the association between increased early oxidative stress, measured by F2-isoprostanes (IsoPs), and respiratory morbidity at term equivalent age and neurological impairment at 12 months of corrected age (CA). STUDY DESIGN Plasma samples were collected from 136 premature infants on days 14 and 28 after birth. All participants were infants born at ≤28 weeks of gestational age enrolled into the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program (PROP) study. Respiratory morbidity was determined at 40 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) by the Respiratory Severity Index (RSI), a composite measure of oxygen and pressure support. Neurodevelopmental assessment was performed using the Developmental Assessment of Young Children (DAYC) at 12 months of CA. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated associations between IsoP change, RSI and DAYC scores. Mediation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between IsoPs and later outcomes. RESULTS Developmental data were available for 121 patients (90% of enrolled) at 12 months. For each 50-unit increase in IsoPs, regression modeling predicted decreases in cognitive, communication and motor scores of − 1.9, − 1.2 and − 2.4 points, respectively (Ppreterm infants at risk for respiratory morbidity at term equivalent age and worse developmental outcomes at 12 months of CA. Poor neurodevelopment is largely independent of respiratory morbidity. PMID:27171764

  15. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  16. Nucleon form factors and couplings with $N_\\mathrm{f} = 2 + 1$ Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Djukanovic, Dalibor; von Hippel, Georg; Junnarkar, Parikshit; Meyer, Harvey B; Wittig, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    We present updated results on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors and axial coupling calculated using CLS ensembles with $N_\\mathrm{f}=2+1$ dynamical flavours of Wilson fermions. The measurements are performed on large, fine lattices with a pseudoscalar mass reaching down to 200 MeV. The truncated-solver method is employed to reduce the variance of the measurements. Estimation of the matrix elements is challenging due to large contamination from excited states and further investigation is necessary to bring these effects under control.

  17. The incorporation site of Er in nanosized CaF 2

    CERN Document Server

    D'Acapito, Francesco; Blanc, Wilfried; Benabdesselam, Mourad; Mady, Franck; Gredin, Patrick; Mortier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation site of Er dopants inserted at high and low concentration (respectively 5 and 0.5 mol %) in nanoparticles of CaF 2 is studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at the Er L III edge. The experimental data are compared with the results of structural modeling based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). DFT-based molecular dynamics is also used to simulate complete theoretical EXAFS spectra of the model structures. The results is that Er substitutes for Ca in the structure and in the low concentration case the dopant ions are isolated. At high concentration the rare earth ions cluster together binding Ca vacancies.

  18. Exploring the chiral regime of $N_f=2$ QCD with mixed actions

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardoni, Fabio; Garron, Nicolas; Necco, Silvia; Pena, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We report on our simulations with Neuberger valence fermions on CLS $N_f=2$ configurations with non-perturbatively $O(a)$-improved Wilson sea quarks. We consider the matching of QCD to ChPT in the so called mixed-regime in which the sea quarks are in the $p$-regime while the valence quarks are in the $\\epsilon$-regime. From this matching, we can get information on $\\Sigma$, $L_6$ and the combination $L_8+2L_6+2L_7$.

  19. Baryon axial charges and momentum fractions with N{sub f}=2+1 dynamical fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2011-02-15

    We report on recent results of the QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration on investigations of baryon structure using configurations generated with N{sub f}=2+1 dynamical flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions. With the strange quark mass as an additional dynamical degree of freedom in our simulations we avoid the need for a partially quenched approximation when investigating the properties of particles containing a strange quark, e.g. the hyperons. In particular, we focus on the nucleon and hyperon axial coupling constants and quark momentum fractions. (orig.)

  20. Strange and charmed baryons using N{sub f}=2 twisted mass QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papinutto, Mauro; Carbonell, Jaume [UJF, CNRS/IN2P, INPG (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie; Drach, Vincent [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Alexandrou, Constantia [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics

    2010-12-15

    We compute the mass spectrum for strange/charmed baryons in the partially quenched approach using N{sub f}=2 twisted mass QCD configurations. We investigate two main issues: the size of lattice artefacts using three values of the lattice spacing (the smallest of which is approximately 0.05 fm) and the dependence of baryon masses on meson (or quark) masses. We thus perform a global fit in order to extrapolate simultaneously to the continuum limit and to the physical point. We estimate the masses of {omega}{sub sss}, {xi}{sub dss}, {lambda}{sub uds}, {omega}{sub ccc}, {xi}{sub dcc}, {lambda}{sub udc}. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of the Low-x Behaviour of the Photon Structure Function $F2-\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schmitt, S.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Ward, J.J.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    The photon structure function F2-gamma(x,Q**2) has been measured using data taken by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies of 91Gev, 183Gev and 189Gev, in Q**2 ranges of 1.5 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP1), and 7.0 to 30.0 GeV**2 (LEP2), probing lower values of x than ever before. Since previous OPAL analyses, new Monte Carlo models and new methods, such as multi-variable unfolding, have been introduced, reducing significantly the model dependent systematic errors in the measurement.

  2. Creation of nanohillocks on CaF2 surfaces by single slow highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A S; Heller, R; Meissl, W; Ritter, R; Facsko, S; Lemell, C; Solleder, B; Gebeshuber, I C; Betz, G; Toulemonde, M; Möller, W; Burgdörfer, J; Aumayr, F

    2008-06-13

    Upon impact on a solid surface, the potential energy stored in slow highly charged ions is primarily deposited into the electronic system of the target. By decelerating the projectile ions to kinetic energies as low as 150 x q eV, we find first unambiguous experimental evidence that potential energy alone is sufficient to cause permanent nanosized hillocks on the (111) surface of a CaF(2) single crystal. Our investigations reveal a surprisingly sharp and well-defined threshold of potential energy for hillock formation which can be linked to a solid-liquid phase transition.

  3. Primjena industrijskog otpada CaF2 u procesu ozelenjivanja odlagališta fosfogipsa

    OpenAIRE

    Leaković, S.; Lisac, H.; Vukadin, R.

    2012-01-01

    U procesu proizvodnje fosforne kiseline nastaje fosfogips kao sporedni produkt reakcije sirovog fosfata i sumporne kiseline. On se kao neopasni otpad trajno odlaže na posebno uređenom odlagalištu. Prilikom proizvodnje fosforne kiseline nastaje i otpadna voda onečišćena fluoridima i fosforom. Takva otpadna voda se prije ispuštanja u prirodni prijamnik obrađuje neutralizacijom vapnenim hidratom. Nastali produkt neutralizacije je kalcijev fluorid (CaF2), koji se kao neopasni otpad odlaže u po...

  4. Current status of the Standard Model CKM fit and constraints on $\\Delta F=2$ New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, J; Descotes-Genon, S; Lacker, H; Menzel, A; Monteil, S; Niess, V; Ocariz, J; Orloff, J; Perez, A; Qian, W; Tisserand, V; Trabelsi, K; Urquijo, P; Silva, L Vale

    2015-01-01

    This letter summarises the status of the global fit of the CKM parameters within the Standard Model performed by the CKMfitter group. Special attention is paid to the inputs for the CKM angles $\\alpha$ and $\\gamma$ and the status of $B_s\\to\\mu\\mu$ and $B_d\\to \\mu\\mu$ decays. We illustrate the current situation for other unitarity triangles. We also discuss the constraints on generic $\\Delta F=2$ New Physics. All results have been obtained with the CKMfitter analysis package, featuring the frequentist statistical approach and using Rfit to handle theoretical uncertainties.

  5. On a two Pomeron description of the F_2 structure function

    CERN Document Server

    Lengyel, A I

    2003-01-01

    We perform a global fit to the inclusive structure function considering a QCD inspired model describing the ep scattering. In lines of a two Pomeron approach, the structure function F_2 has a hard piece given by the model and the remaining soft contributions: the soft Pomeron and non-singlet content. We have investigated several choices for the soft Pomeron and its implication in the data description. In particular, we carefully estimated the relative role of the hard and the soft contributions in a large span of x and Q^2.

  6. IMPURITY CENTRES.Ni+ and Ni3+ centers in X-irradiated CaF2

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, J.; Den Hartog, H.; Alcalá, R

    1980-01-01

    Optical and EPR measurements of CaF2 : Ni before and after X-irradiation are reported. An absorption band at 255 nm grows during X-irradiation. The thermal evolution of this band and some bleaching experiments in 15 K X-irradiated samples containing Vk centers indicate that the 255 nm band is due to Ni+ centers. Some EPR signals associated with the Ni+ centers are also observed. Low temperature measurements show that there are two slightly different kinds of centers one of them having tetrago...

  7. Strange and charmed baryons using N_f=2 twisted mass QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Papinutto, Mauro; Drach, Vincent; Alexandrou, Constantia

    2010-01-01

    We compute the mass spectrum for strange/charmed baryons in the partially quenched approach using N_f=2 twisted mass QCD configurations. We investigate two main issues: the size of lattice artefacts using three values of the lattice spacing (the smallest of which is approximately 0.05 fm) and the dependence of baryon masses on meson (or quark) masses. We thus perform a global fit in order to extrapolate simultaneously to the continuum limit and to the physical point. We estimate the masses of Omega_{sss}, Xi_{dss}, Lambda_{uds}, Omega_{ccc}, Xi_{dcc}, Lambda_{udc}.

  8. Pseudoscalar decay constants from N_f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Farchioni, Federico; Jansen, Karl; Petschlies, Marcus; Urbach, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    We present first results for the pseudoscalar decay constants $f_K$, $f_D$ and $f_{D_s}$ from lattice QCD with N_f=2+1+1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The lattice simulations have been performed by the European Twisted Mass collaboration (ETMC) using maximally twisted mass quarks. For the pseudoscalar decay constants we follow a mixed action approach by using so called Osterwalder-Seiler fermions in the valence sector for strange and charm quarks. The data for two values of the lattice spacing and several values of the up/down quark mass is analysed using chiral perturbation theory.

  9. Longitudinal Structure Function FL from Charm Structure Function F2c

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Rezaei; G.R.Boroun

    2013-01-01

    We predict the effect of the charm structure function on the longitudinal structure function at small x.In NLO analysis we find that the hard Pomeron behavior gives a good description of FL and Fkc (k =2,L) at small x values.We conclude that a direct relation between FL∝ F2c would provide useful information on how to measure longitudinal structure function at high Q2 values.Having checked that this model gives a good description of the data,when compared with other models.

  10. Measurement of the photon structure function F2 gamma with the L3 detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kraber, M; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2005-01-01

    The e+e- -> e+e- hadrons reaction, where one of the two electrons is detected in a low polar-angle calorimeter, is analysed in order to measure the hadronic photon structure function F2gamma . The full high-energy and high-luminosity data set, collected with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies 189-209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608/pb is used. The Q^2 range 11-34GeV^2 and the x range 0.006-0.556 are considered. The data are compared with recent parton density functions.

  11. Changes of NmF2 and hmF2 over Biak (1°S, 136°E) during total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggarani, Sefria; Asnawi, Jiyo; Dear, Varuliantor; Ekawati, Sri

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric responses to solar eclipse is interesting to learn. In this paper, we presented ionspheric F2 responses to total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016 over Indonesia from Biak station (-1 ° 136.0 °) which is within the obscuration 86.55%. The total solar eclipse over Biak occurred at 00:58 UT (09:58 local time) in F2 layer height of ionosphere (h ≈ 300 km). Observation of the ionospheric F2 over Biak during the total solar eclipse investigated using ionosonde with 15 minutes resolution. Ionization and recombination processes that occur in the ionosphere proceed by solar radiation. At the time of the ionosphere receives solar radiation, ionization process dominated in the F2 layer. Diurnal ionosphere parameters changed following the solar radiation. During the solar eclipse, the process of ionization in the F2 layer disturbed. Total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016 affected almost simultaneous decrease in maximum electron density (NmF2) ∼52% and increase hmF2 ∼24% at the elapsed time of totality observed from Biak Station.

  12. Unresolved issues in the analysis of F2-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, isofurans, neurofurans, and F2-dihomo-isoprostanes in body fluids and tissue using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H-C; Wei, H-J; Lin, C-L

    2015-01-01

    F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) generated from arachidonic acid (AA) have been recognized as the most reliable marker of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in vivo. F2-IsoPs are initially produced in esterified form on phospholipids, and then released into body fluids in free form. The same mechanism can lead to generation of F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) and F2-dihomo-IsoPs from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and adrenic acid, respectively. In addition, isofurans (IsoFs) and neurofurans (NFs) may be preferentially produced from AA and DHA, respectively, under high oxygen tension. The detection of F2-IsoPs using gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS) has been widely employed, which is important for human body fluids containing low quantity of free-form F2-IsoPs. F4-NPs have also been detected using GC/NICI-MS, but multiple peaks need to be quantified. In this paper, we summarize the basic workflow of the GC/NICI-MS method for analyzing F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs, and various formats of assays conducted by different groups. We then discuss the feasibility of simultaneous analysis of IsoFs, NFs, and F2-dihomo-IsoPs with F2-IsoPs or F4-NPs. Representative GC chromatograms for analyzing these markers in human body fluids and rat brain tissue are demonstrated. Furthermore, we discuss several factors that may affect the performance of the analysis, such as those related to the sample processing steps, interference from specimens, types of GC liners used, and the addition of electron multiplier voltage in the method setting for the MS detector. Finally, we question the appropriateness of measuring total (free plus esterified) levels of these markers in body fluids.

  13. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by IAV virulence protein PB1-F2 contributes to severe pathophysiology and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L McAuley

    Full Text Available The ability for a host to recognize infection is critical for virus clearance and often begins with induction of inflammation. The PB1-F2 of pathogenic influenza A viruses (IAV contributes to the pathophysiology of infection, although the mechanism for this is unclear. The NLRP3-inflammasome has been implicated in IAV pathogenesis, but whether IAV virulence proteins can be activators of the complex is unknown. We investigated whether PB1-F2-mediated activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome is a mechanism contributing to overt inflammatory responses to IAV infection. We show PB1-F2 induces secretion of pyrogenic cytokine IL-1β by activating the NLRP3-inflammasome, contributing to inflammation triggered by pathogenic IAV. Compared to infection with wild-type virus, mice infected with reverse engineered PB1-F2-deficient IAV resulted in decreased IL-1β secretion and cellular recruitment to the airways. Moreover, mice exposed to PB1-F2 peptide derived from pathogenic IAV had enhanced IL-1β secretion compared to mice exposed to peptide derived from seasonal IAV. Implicating the NLRP3-inflammasome complex specifically, we show PB1-F2 derived from pathogenic IAV induced IL-1β secretion was Caspase-1-dependent in human PBMCs and NLRP3-dependent in mice. Importantly, we demonstrate PB1-F2 is incorporated into the phagolysosomal compartment, and upon acidification, induces ASC speck formation. We also show that high molecular weight aggregated PB1-F2, rather than soluble PB1-F2, induces IL-1β secretion. Furthermore, NLRP3-deficient mice exposed to PB1-F2 peptide or infected with PB1-F2 expressing IAV were unable to efficiently induce the robust inflammatory response as observed in wild-type mice. In addition to viral pore forming toxins, ion channel proteins and RNA, we demonstrate inducers of NLRP3-inflammasome activation may include disordered viral proteins, as exemplified by PB1-F2, acting as host pathogen 'danger' signals. Elucidating

  14. The ubiquitination of the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein is crucial for its biological function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Košík

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify what influences the short half-life of the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein and whether a prolonged half-life affects the properties of this molecule. We hypothesized that the short half-life of PB1-F2 could conceal the phenotype of the protein. Because proteasome degradation might be involved in PB1-F2 degradation, we focused on ubiquitination, a common label for proteasome targeting. A cluster of lysine residues was demonstrated as an ubiquitination acceptor site in evolutionary and functionally distinct proteins. The PB1-F2 sequence alignment revealed a cluster of lysines on the carboxy terminal end of PB1-F2 in almost all of the GenBank sequences available to date. Using a proximity ligation assay, we identified ubiquitination as a novel posttranslational modification of PB1-F2. Changing the lysines at positions 73, 78, and 85 to arginines suppressed the ubiquitination of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1-derived PB1-F2. The mutation of the C-terminal lysine residue cluster positively affected the overall expression levels of avian A/Honk Kong/156/1997 (H5N1- and mammalian A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1-derived PB1-F2. Moreover, increased PB1-F2 copy numbers strengthened the functions of this virus in the infected cells. The results of a minigenome luciferase reporter assay revealed an enhancement of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in the presence of stabilized PB1-F2, regardless of viral origin. IFNβ antagonism was enhanced in 293T cells transfected with a plasmid expressing stabilized K→R mutant variants of PB1-F2. Compared with PB1-F2 wt, the loss of ubiquitination enhanced the antibody response after DNA vaccination. In summary, we revealed that PB1-F2 is an ubiquitinated IAV protein, and this posttranslational modification plays a central role in the regulation of the biological functions of this protein.

  15. The thermodynamic behavior of sulfur in BaO-BaF2 slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, Ivan P.; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka; Sano, Nobuo

    1991-06-01

    A gas-slag-metal equilibration technique was used to determine the sulfide capacity of the BaO-BaF2 system at 1473 and 1573 K. The dependence of carbonate capacity on the slag composition was also measured at these temperatures. It was found that the BaO-BaF2 system has the highest sulfide capacities among the fluxes which are of metallurgical interest. The dependence of sulfide and carbonate capacities on the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 was also investigated. The partial pressure of CO2 proved to have a strong effect on these values at the investigated temperatures. The influence of temperature on the sulfide and carbonate capacities was studied in the temperature range between 1423 and 1623 K. The data for sulfide and carbonate capacities were correlated in order to check if the carbonate capacity can be used as a measure of basicity of slags. It was found that the carbonate capacity can be used as a representative measure of the slag basicity at low contents of BaO and at temperatures higher than 1623 K when the carbonate dissolution into the slag is low and the ratio of the activity coefficient of a sulfide ion to that of a carbonate ion is independent of slag composition.

  16. Computation of quark mass anomalous dimension at $O(1/N_{f}^{2})$ in quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuchini, M; Gracey, J A; Manashov, A N

    2000-01-01

    We present the formalism to calculate d-dimensional critical exponents in QCD in the large N_f expansion where N_f is the number of quark flavours. It relies in part on demonstrating that at the d-dimensional fixed point of QCD the critical theory is equivalent to a non-abelian version of the Thirring model. We describe the techniques used to compute critical two and three loop Feynman diagrams and as an application determine the quark wave function, eta, and mass renormalization critical exponents at O(1/N_f^2) in d-dimensions. Their values when expressed in relation to four dimensional perturbation theory are in exact agreement with the known four loop MSbar results. Moreover, new coefficients in these renormalization group functions are determined to six loops and O(1/N_f^2). The computation of the exponents in the Schwinger Dyson approach is also provided and an expression for eta in arbitrary covariant gauge is given.

  17. Long-term trends of foF2 independent of geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the foF2 data at a series of ionospheric stations is performed to reveal long-term trends independent of the long-term changes in geomagnetic activity during the recent decades (nongeomagnetic trends. The method developed by the author and published earlier is used. It is found that the results for 21 out of 23 stations considered agree well and give a relative nongeomagnetic trend of -0.0012 per year (or an absolute nongeomagnetic trend of about -0.012 MHz per year for the period between 1958 and the mid-nineties. The trends derived show no dependence on geomagnetic latitude or local time, a fact confirming their independence of geomagnetic activity. The consideration of the earlier period (1948–1985 for a few stations for which the corresponding data are available provides significantly lower foF2 trends, the difference between the later and earlier periods being a factor of 1.6. This is a strong argument in favor of an anthropogenic nature of the trends derived.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances; mid-latitude ionosphere

  18. Complete NLO QCD Corrections for Tree Level Delta F = 2 FCNC Processe

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    2012-01-01

    Anticipating the important role of tree level FCNC processes in the indirect search for new physics at distance scales as short as 10^-19-10^-21 m, we present complete NLO QCD corrections to tree level Delta F=2 processes mediated by heavy colourless gauge bosons and scalars. Such contributions can be present at the fundamental level when GIM mechanism is absent as in numerous Z' models, gauged flavour models with new heavy neutral gauge bosons and Left-Right symmetric models with heavy neutral scalars. They can also be generated at one loop in models having GIM at the fundamental level and MFV of which Two-Higgs Doublet models with and without SUSY are the best known examples. In models containing vectorial heavy fermions that mix with the standard chiral quarks and models in which Z and SM neutral Higgs H mix with new heavy gauge bosons and scalars also tree-level Z and SM neutral Higgs contributions to Delta F=2 processes are possible. In all these extensions new local operators are generated having Wilson...

  19. UV-vis spectroscopic studies of CaF2 photo-thermo-refractive glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Martina; Herrmann, Andreas; Hein, Joachim; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-12-01

    A photo-thermo-refractive glass based on the system Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/ZnO/SiO2 doped with Ag2O, CeO2, SnO2, Sb2O3 and KBr was investigated. This glass undergoes a permanent refractive index change after UV irradiation and subsequent two step heat treatment at temperatures above Tg. This is due to the formation of Ag metal clusters which act as nucleation centers for CaF2 crystallization. Oxidation of Ce3+ by UV light is the initial reaction and acts as photosensitizer in the glass. The UV-vis absorption spectra during this photo-induced crystallization process were measured. The spectral components that form the absorption spectra of cerium were studied in detail by a band separation with Gaussian functions. Deconvolution of the cerium absorption bands shows an envelope of five spectral components for the trivalent cerium due to the 4f-5d transitions and two spectral components for the tetravalent cerium caused by charge transfer transitions. The effect of different dopants and melting conditions on the photo-thermal process were studied to investigate the influence of glass technology on the photoprocess.

  20. A Study on molecular characterization of Razi Bacillus anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon, K.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, has affected humans since ancient times. For genomic characterization of Razi B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping method developed by Van Erth, variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR-8 analysis proposed by Keim, and multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA-3 introduced by Levy were employed. In the SNPs typing system, where the nucleotide content of the genome at 13 evolutionary canonical loci was collectively analyzed, the originally South African 34F2 substrain was categorized in the A.Br.001/002 subgroup. In the VNTR-8 analysis, fragments with lengths of 314, 229, 162, 580, 532, 158, and 137 bp were identified at the following loci: vrrA, vrrB1, vrrB2, vrrC1, vrrC2, CG3, and pxO1, respectively. In addition, application of Levy's MLVA-3 genotyping method revealed that the genome of this strain carried 941, 451, and 864 bp fragments at AA03, AJ03, and AA07 loci, respectively. The present findings are undoubtedly helpful in meeting the requirements set by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE and World Health Organization (WHO for anthrax vaccine manufacturers including Razi Institute. However, further similar studies are required to promote the current epidemiological knowledge of anthrax in Iran.

  1. Laser characteristics of TGT-grown Nd,Y-codoped:SrF2 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Su, Liangbi; Jiang, Dapeng; Ma, Fengkai; Zhang, Qian; Cao, Yuexin; Xu, Jun

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution we present spectroscopic and laser properties of TGT (temperature gradient technique) grown Nd,Y:SrF2 crystals with neodymium concentration of 0.4, 0.65 and 0.8 at.%. The absorption cross-section, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay time were measured. For the laser experiments, the noncoated crystal samples 3.5 or 5 mm thick were pumped by a 796 nm laser diode matching the Nd:SrF2 absorption peak. Several output couplers with reflectivity ranging from 70 to 98 % at the generated wavelength were tested. In the pulsed pumping regime (pulseduration 2 ms, frequency 10 Hz), the maximum average output power of 75 mW was obtained with the slope efficiency as high as 48 % and the optical-to-optical efficiency of 42 % with respect to the absorbed pump power. The output beam spatial profile was nearly Gaussian in both axes, oscillations started at the wavelength of 1057 nm. At higher pumping levels, the second emission line at 1050 nm appears corresponding to our fluorescence measurements. Wavelength tuning using birefringent filter from 1048 to 1070 nm is probably given by crystal-field splitting of the 4F3/2 manifold in Nd3+. True-CW laser operation was also successfully obtained at lower pumping level with the maximum output power of 90 mW using output coupler reflectivity of 98 %.

  2. Segregation of Species-Specific Male Attractiveness in F2 Hybrid Lake Malawi Cichlid Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Svensson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the huge radiations of haplochromine cichlid fish in Lakes Malawi and Victoria, closely related species are often reproductively isolated via female mate choice although viable fertile hybrids can be produced when females are confined only with heterospecific males. We generated F2 hybrid males from a cross between a pair of closely related sympatric cichlid fish from Lake Malawi. Laboratory mate choice experiments using microsatellite paternity analysis demonstrated that F2 hybrid males differed significantly in their attractiveness to females of the two parental species, indicating heritable variation in traits involved in mate choice that may contribute to reproductive isolation between these species. We found no significant correlation between male mating success and any measurement of male colour pattern. A simple quantitative genetic model of reproductive isolation suggests that there may be as few as two chromosomal regions controlling species-specific attractiveness. We propose that adaptive radiation of Lake Malawi cichlids could be facilitated by the presence of genes with major effects on mate choice and reproductive isolation.

  3. Chiral phase transition of QCD with N f = 2 + 1 flavors from holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danning; Huang, Mei

    2017-02-01

    Chiral phase transition for three-flavor N f = 2 + 1 QCD with m u = m d ≠ m s is investigated in a modified soft-wall holographic QCD model. Solving temperature dependent chiral condensates from equations of motion of the modified soft-wall model, we extract the quark mass dependence of the order of chiral phase transition in the case of N f = 2 + 1, and the result is in agreement with the "Columbia Plot", which is summarized from lattice simulations and other non-perturbative methods. First order phase transition is observed around the three flavor chiral limit m u/ d = 0, m s = 0, while at sufficient large quark masses it turns to be a crossover phase transition. The first order and crossover regions are separated by a second order phase transition line. The second order line is divided into two parts by the m u/ d = m s line, and the m s dependence of the transition temperature in these two parts are totally contrast, which might indicate that the two parts are governed by different universality classes.

  4. Inner-shell photoionization and core-hole decay of Xe and XeF$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, Stephen H; Picón, Antonio; Lehmann, C Stefan; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F

    2015-01-01

    Photoionization cross sections and partial ion yields of Xe and XeF$_2$ from Xe 3d$_{5/2}$, Xe 3d$_{3/2}$, and F 1s subshells in the 660--740 eV range are compared to explore effects of the F ligands. The Xe 3d - $\\epsilon$f continuum shape resonances dominate the photoionization cross sections of both the atom and molecule, but prominent resonances appear in the XeF$_2$ cross section due to nominal excitation of Xe 3d and F 1s electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), a delocalized anti-bonding MO. The subshell ionization thresholds, the LUMO resonance energies and their oscillator strengths are calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster methods. Several charge states and fragment ions are produced from the atom and molecule due to alternative decay pathways from the inner-shell holes. Total and partial ion yields vary in response to the shape resonances and LUMO resonances. Previous calculations and measurements of atomic Xe 3d core-hole decay channels and our calculated results for XeF$_...

  5. The $N_f=2 chiral phase transition from imaginary chemical potential with Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Cuteri, Francesca; Philipsen, Owe; Pinke, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The finite temperature chiral and deconfinement phase transitions at zero density for light and heavy quarks, respectively, have analytic continuations to imaginary chemical potential. At some critical imaginary chemical potential, they meet the Roberge-Weiss transition between adjacent $Z3$ sectors. For light and heavy quarks, where the chiral and deconfinement transitions are first order, the transition lines meet in a triple point. For intermediate masses chiral or deconfinement transitions are crossover and the Roberge-Weiss transition ends in a second order point. At the boundary between these regimes the junction is a tricritical point, as shown in studies with $N_f=2,3$ flavors of staggered and Wilson quarks on $N_\\tau=4$ lattices. Employing finite size scaling we investigate the nature of this point as a function of quark mass for $N_f=2$ flavors of Wilson fermions with a temporal lattice extent of $N_\\tau=6$. In particular we are interested in the change of the location of tricritical points compared...

  6. The Early Universe $f^{2}FF$ Model of Primordial Magnetic Field in Natural Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    AlMuhammad, Anwar S

    2015-01-01

    We study the simple gauge invariant model ${f^2}FF$ as a way to generate primordial magnetic fields (PMF) in Natural Inflation (NI). We compute both magnetic and electric spectra generated by the ${f^2}FF$ model in NI for different values of model parameters and find that both de Sitter and power law expansion lead to the same results at sufficiently large number of e-foldings. We also find that the necessary scale invariance property of the PMF cannot be obtained in NI in first order of slow roll limits under the constraint of inflationary potential, $V\\left( 0 \\right) \\simeq 0$. Furthermore, if this constraint is relaxed to achieve scale invariance, then the model suffers from the backreaction problem for almost all values of model parameters. We show that there is a narrow range of the height of the potential $\\Lambda $ around ${\\Lambda _{\\min }} \\approx 0.00874{M_{{\\rm{Pl}}}}$ and of the co-moving wave number $k$ around ${k_{\\min }} \\sim 0.0173{\\rm{Mp}}{{\\rm{c}}^{ - 1}}$, at which the problem of backreact...

  7. The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF2 nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovylina, M; Erekhinsky, M; Morales, R; Schuller, I K; Labarta, A; Batlle, X

    2010-04-30

    The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF(2) nanostructures by focused ion beam lithography is reported. High quality nano-elements, with controlled removal depth and no significant re-deposition, were carved using small ion beam currents (30 pA), moderate dwell times (1 micros) and repeated passages over the same area. Two types of nanostructures were fabricated: square arrays of circular dots with diameters from 125 +/- 8 to 500 +/- 12 nm and periodicities ranging from 200 +/- 8 to 1000 +/- 12 nm, and square arrays of square antidots (207 +/- 8 nm in edge length) with periodicities ranging from 300 +/- 8 to 1200 +/- 12 nm. The arrays were characterized using scanning ion and electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The effect of the patterning on the exchange bias field (i.e., the shift in the hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic Ni due to proximity to antiferromagnetic FeF(2)) was studied using magneto-transport measurements. These high quality nanostructures offer a unique method to address some of the open questions regarding the microscopic origin of exchange bias. This is not only of major relevance in the fabrication and miniaturization of magnetic devices but it is also one of the important proximity phenomena in nanoscience and materials science.

  8. Intense-Field Multiple-Detachment of F2¯: Competition with Photodissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Abhishek; Albeck, Yishai; Strasser, Daniel

    2017-04-07

    The competition of intense-field multiple-detachment with efficient photodissociation of F2¯ is studied as a function of laser peak intensity. The main product channels are disentangled and characterized by 3D coincidence fragment imaging. The presented kinetic energy release spectra, angular distributions as well as two color pump-probe measurements allow identification of competing sequential and non-sequential mechanisms. Dissociative detachment, producing two neutral atoms (F + F) is found to be dominated by a sequential mechanism of photodissociation (F¯ + F) followed by detachment of the atomic anion fragment. In contrast, dissociative ionization (F + F(+)) shows competing contributions of both a sequential two-step mechanism as well as a non-sequential double-detachment of the molecular anion, which are distinguished by the kinetic energy released in the dissociation. Triple-detachment is found to be non-sequential in nature and results in Coulomb explosion (F(+)+F(+)). Furthermore, the measured kinetic energy release for dissociation on the (2)Σg(+) state provides a direct measurement of the F2¯ dissociation energy, D0 = 1.26±0.03 eV.

  9. ROLE OF SINGLE INJECTION OF PROSTAGLANDIN F2 ALPHA ON BREEDING EFFICIENCY OF BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Iqbal, Muhammad Aleem and Muhammad Amir Saeed

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 20 Nili-Ravi buffaloes were divided into two equal groups. Group A buffaloes (treatment group were administered with prostaglandin F2 alpha (Lutalyse, Upjohn, 2 hours after calving while the group B buffaloes were not given any treatment and designated as control. The reproductive organs of each experimental buffalo were rectally palpated on days 14 and 21 postpartum, followed by twice a week rectal palpation until the first postpartum oestrus. The results revealed that cervical and uterine involution was completed significantly (P0.05. Follicular activity resumed independently of uterine involution. It was however, delayed slightly by the retained corpus luteum of pregnancy. The mean postpartum interval of initial follicular development was 21.20 ± 5.71 days in treated and 28.20 ± 8.75 days in control groups, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P< 0.05. Postpartum oestrus interval was shortened in treated group (79. 50 ± 19.83 days as compared to control group (103.0 ± 17.45 days and the difference was significant (P< 0.05. So it seems beneficial to administer prostaglandin F2 alpha in postpartum buffaloes to reduce the period for uterine involution and enhance the subsequent reproductive performance.

  10. Response of the Ionospheric F2-region Over Irkutsk and Hainan to Strong Geomagnetic Storms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E B Romanova; G A Zherebtsov; K G Ratovsky; N M Polekh; J K Shi; X Wang; G J Wang

    2013-01-01

    The ionospheric responses to two strong storms on 17-19 August 2003 and 22-23 January 2004 are studied,using the data from Irkutsk (52.5°N,104°E) and Hainan (19.5°N,109°E)ionospheric stations.The analysis of variations in relative deviations of the critical frequency Af0F2 revealed that at middle latitudes (Irkutsk) negative disturbances were observed in the summer ionosphere; positive and negative ones,in the winter ionosphere during the main and recovery phases respectively.At low latitudes (Hainan),the disturbances were positive in all the cases considered.Mechanisms of the disturbances were analyzed with the aid of empirical models of the neutral atmosphere NRLMSISE-00 and thermospheric wind HWM07.The main factors determining Δf0F2 variations at middle latitudes during the storms were demonstrated to be the disturbed equatorward thermospheric wind transporting the disturbed atmospheric composition,the increase in the atomic oxygen concentration,and the passage of internal gravity waves.At low latitudes,the effects associated with neutral composition variations are less significant than those of the thermospheric wind and electric fields.

  11. Elastic properties of Na2O–ZnO–ZnF2–B2O3 oxyfluoride glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shantala D Patil; V M Jali; R V Anavekar

    2009-12-01

    Elastic properties of Na2O–ZnO–ZnF2–B2O3 oxyfluoride glasses with different ZnF2 concentrations have been investigated using ultrasonic velocity measurements at room temperature, at a frequency of 10 MHz. Glasses prepared by melt quenching method were suitably polished for the ultrasonic velocity measurements using pulse-echo superposition method. Various elastic moduli have been calculated and their compositional dependence has been examined. The compositional dependence of elastic moduli with the concentration of ZnF2 shows decrease in the moduli initially, with further increase in ZnF2 the moduli sharply increases and then again tend to decrease when ZnF2 concentration is 20 mol%. The values of Poisson’s ratio lie in the range of 0.24–0.30, which is typical to covalent bonded network. The variation of D with ZnF2 indicates complex behaviour of the glass network. The results have been analysed in view of the modified borate glass network. Addition of ZnF2 into the pure glass seems to influence the borate network by replacement of B–O–B linkages with B–O–Zn.

  12. Effect of the CaF2-fraction in the glass-ceramic with abrasion resistance on crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bin-liang; Zhao Yun-cai

    2005-01-01

    Investigated the effect of an addition of CaF2 on the crystallization of a glass-ceramic with abrasion resistance. X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the effect. The results showed that a suitable addition of CaF2 promoted crystallization by forming an intermediate crystalline phase. CaF2 can decrease the temperature and active energy of the base-glass for crystallization. When 4 mass-% of CaF2-fraction is added in the glass, the crystallization temperature and active energy is 936℃and 172.75 k J/mol respectively.When CaF2 is increased to 6 mass-%, the temperature and active energy decrease to 890℃ and 88.81 kJ/mol. CaF2 is an efficient nucleating agent for the glass-ceramics with abrasion resistant, the optimal content of CaF2 is about 6 mass-%.

  13. Comparison of the Kriging and neural network methods for modeling foF2 maps over North China region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Jing; Lan, Ting; Yang, Guobin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhu, Peng; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    The F2 layer critical frequency of the ionosphere (foF2) is one of the most significant parameters for studying the ionosphere. To investigate the large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere over particular regions, modeling foF2 is an effective method. In this paper, we use both the Kriging (KG) and neural network (NN) methods to reconstruct foF2 maps over North China. The neural network is trained by the genetic algorithm (GA) to avoid the 'local minimum' phenomenon in most NN applications. We then carry out a comparison between foF2 provided by both the KG and NN methods with vertical model operation of ionosonde data including Beijing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Changchun. All of the foF2 data used in the comparison are obtained from the oblique and vertical mode operation of ionosonde from the China Ground-based Seismo-ionospheric Monitoring Network. To allow for a possible seasonal and diurnal variation, data obtained from summer, winter, and equinox months are applied in the present comparison. In addition, we make a comparison during a magnetic storm period. The results of our comparisons demonstrate that both the KG and NN methods are appropriate tools for modeling foF2 maps. However, when the data set is spare, the performance of the NN method is better than the KG method. On the other hand, the KG method is more robust than the NN method during a magnetic storm.

  14. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ginsenoside F2 on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells SGC7901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside F2 (F2, a protopanaxdiol type of saponin, was reported to inhibit human gastric cancer cells SGC7901. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of F2, an iTRAQ-based proteomics approach was applied to define protein expression profiles in SGC7901 cells in response to lower dose (20 μM and shorter duration (12 hour of F2 treatment, compared with previous study. 205 proteins were screened in terms of the change in their expression level which met our predefined criteria. Further bioinformatics and experiments demonstrated that F2 treatment downregulated PRR5 and RPS15 and upregulated RPL26, which are implicated in ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway. F2 also inhibited CISD2, Bcl-xl, and NLRX1, which are associated with autophagic pathway. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that F2 treatment increased Atg5, Atg7, Atg10, and PUMA, the critical downstream effectors of ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway, and Beclin-1, UVRAG, and AMBRA-1, the important molecules in Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway. The 6 differentially abundant proteins, PRR5, CISD2, Bcl-xl, NLRX1, RPS15, and RPL26, were confirmed by western blot. Taken together, ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway and Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway might be the most significantly regulated biological process by F2 treatment in SGC7901 cells, which provided valuable insights into the deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of F2 for gastric cancer treatment.

  15. A method for f0F2 monitoring over Spain using the El Arenosillo digisonde current observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Miro

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ionosphere monitoring implies: observations, prediction and mapping of ionospheric parameters. A case with one available (El Arenosillo ionosonde is considered. Some statistical methods for f0F2 short-term (1-24 h in advance prediction are compared. The analysis of multi-dimensional regression for Df0F2 (relative deviation from running median with Ap, F10.7 and previous Df0F2 observations has shown that inclusion of additional terms with Ap and F10.7 improves the prediction accuracy for lead time more than 15 h. For lead time 1-6 h a linear regression with earlier observed Df0F2 provides the f0F2 forecast with Relative Mean Deviation (RMD 6-11%. This is acceptable from a practical point of view. A 24-h forecast can be done with RMD 10-11%. Multi-regressional methods provide better prediction accuracy than the usual 10-day running median or quasi-inertial method based on such median. Hourly f0F2 values may be used to calculate the effective index R12eff used as input to the ITU-R monthly median model. This allows the ITU-R model to "breathe" following hour-to-hour f0F2 variations. Then standard surfering methods may be applied for f0F2 mapping over the whole area. The f0F2 mapping accuracy based on the hourly R12eff index is shown to be 9-11% depending on solar activity level.

  16. Theoretical Study on the Reaction Mechanism of F2+2HBr=2HF+Br2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The gas phase reaction mechanism of F2 + 2HBr = 2HF + Br2 has been investigated by (U)MP2 at 6-311G** level, and a series of four-center and three-center transition states have been obtained. The reaction mechanism was achieved by comparing the activation energy of seven reaction paths, i.e. the dissociation energy of F2 is less than the activation energy of the bimolecular elementary reaction F2 + HBr → HF + BrF. Thus it is theoretically proved that the title reaction occurs more easily inthe free radical reaction with three medium steps.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of host immune and cell death responses associated with the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Le Goffic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Airway inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of influenza viruses and can lead to a fatal outcome. One of the challenging objectives in the field of influenza research is the identification of the molecular bases associated to the immunopathological disorders developed during infection. While its precise function in the virus cycle is still unclear, the viral protein PB1-F2 is proposed to exert a deleterious activity within the infected host. Using an engineered recombinant virus unable to express PB1-F2 and its wild-type homolog, we analyzed and compared the pathogenicity and host response developed by the two viruses in a mouse model. We confirmed that the deletion of PB1-F2 renders the virus less virulent. The global transcriptomic analyses of the infected lungs revealed a potent impact of PB1-F2 on the response developed by the host. Thus, after two days post-infection, PB1-F2 invalidation severely decreased the number of genes activated by the host. PB1-F2 expression induced an increase in the number and level of expression of activated genes linked to cell death, inflammatory response and neutrophil chemotaxis. When generating interactive gene networks specific to PB1-F2, we identified IFN-γ as a central regulator of PB1-F2-regulated genes. The enhanced cell death of airway-recruited leukocytes was evidenced using an apoptosis assay, confirming the pro-apoptotic properties of PB1-F2. Using a NF-kB luciferase adenoviral vector, we were able to quantify in vivo the implication of NF-kB in the inflammation mediated by the influenza virus infection; we found that PB1-F2 expression intensifies the NF-kB activity. Finally, we quantified the neutrophil recruitment within the airways, and showed that this type of leukocyte is more abundant during the infection of the wild-type virus. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PB1-F2 strongly influences the early host response during IAV infection and provides new insights into the

  18. Measurement of F_2^{c\\bar{c}} and F_2^{b\\bar{b}} at Low Q^2 and x using the H1 Vertex Detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A; Anthonis, T; Aplin, S; Asmone, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Babaev, A; Backovic, S; Bähr, J; Baghdasaryan, A; Baranov, P; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baudrand, S; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Behnke, O; Behrendt, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berger, N; Bizot, J C; Boenig, M O; Boudry, V; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brisson, V; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Büsser, F W; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; De Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, W; Essenov, S; Falkewicz, A; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Finke, L; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Franke, G; Frisson, T; Gabathuler, E; Garutti, E; Gayler, J; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Ginzburgskaya, S; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Görlich, L; Göttlich, M; Gogitidze, N; Gorbounov, S; Goyon, C; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Gregori, M; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Gwilliam, C; Haidt, D; Hajduk, L; Hansson, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Herrera-Corral, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hovhannisyan, A; Hreus, T; Hussain, S; Ibbotson, M; Ismail, M; Jacquet, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Jönsson, L B; Johnson, D P; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Keller, N; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Klimkovich, T; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Knutsson, A; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Krüger, K; Kuckens, J; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Lastoviicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lindfeld, L; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Loktionova, N; López-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lucaci-Timoce, A I; Lüders, H; Lüke, D; Lux, T; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marshall, R; Martisikova, M; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Milstead, D; Mladenov, D M; Mohamed, A; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Müller, K; Murn, P; Nankov, K; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Oganezov, R; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Papadopoulou, T D; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Pérez, E; Perez-Astudillo, D; Perieanu, A; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Portheault, B; Povh, B; Prideaux, P; Raicevic, N; Reimer, P; Rimmer, A; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salvaire, F; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Schilling, F P; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, C; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Tzamariudaki, E; Urban, M; Usik, A; Utkin, D; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas1, A; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; Vujicic, B; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wessling, B; Wigmore, C; Wissing, C; Wolf, R; Wünsch, E; Xella, S M; Yan, W; Yeganov, V; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhelezov, A; Zhokin, A; Zhu, Y C; Zimmermann, J; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2006-01-01

    Measurements are presented of inclusive charm and beauty cross sections in e^+p collisions at HERA for values of photon virtuality 12 \\le Q^2 \\le 60 GeV^2 and of the Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002 \\le x \\le 0.005. The fractions of events containing charm and beauty quarks are determined using a method based on the impact parameter, in the transverse plane, of tracks to the primary vertex, as measured by the H1 vertex detector. Values for the structure functions F_2^{c\\bar{c}} and F_2^{b\\bar{b}} are obtained. This is the first measurement of F_2^{b\\bar{b}} in this kinematic range. The results are found to be compatible with the predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics and withprevious measurements of F_2^{c\\bar{c}}.

  19. 克孜尔水库F2断层除险加固防渗效果评价%Evaluation of risk removal reinforcement seepage control effect in Kizil Reservoir F2 fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2016-01-01

    克孜尔水库主副坝之间存在F2断层,且断层仍在活动,本文根据实测资料对F2断层除险加固防渗效果作了评价,认为防渗达到了一定效果,后期仍需加强监测。%There is F2 fault between main dam and auxiliary dam in Kizil Reservoir.The fault is still active.In the paper, risk removal reinforcement effect of F2 fault is evaluated according to measured data.It is believed that the seepage control reaches certain effect,and monitoring still should be strengthened consequently.

  20. Empirical regional models for the short-term forecast of M3000F2 during not quiet geomagnetic conditions over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pietrella

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Twelve empirical local models have been developed for the long-term prediction of the ionospheric characteristic M3000F2, and then used as starting point for the development of a short-term forecasting empirical regional model of M3000F2 under not quiet geomagnetic conditions. Under the assumption that the monthly median measurements of M3000F2 are linearly correlated to the solar activity, a set of regression coefficients were calculated over 12 months and 24 h for each of 12 ionospheric observatories located in the European area, and then used for the long-term prediction of M3000F2 at each station under consideration. Based on the 12 long-term prediction empirical local models of M3000F2, an empirical regional model for the prediction of the monthly median field of M3000F2 over Europe (indicated as RM_M3000F2 was developed. Thanks to the IFELM_foF2 models, which are able to provide short-term forecasts of the critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2STF up to three hours in advance, it was possible to considerer the Brudley–Dudeney algorithm as a function of foF2STF to correct RM_M3000F2 and thus obtain an empirical regional model for the short-term forecasting of M3000F2 (indicated as RM_M3000F2_BD up to three hours in advance under not quiet geomagnetic conditions. From the long-term predictions of M3000F2 provided by the IRI model, an empirical regional model for the forecast of the monthly median field of M3000F2 over Europe (indicated as IRI_RM_M3000F2 was derived. IRI_RM_M3000F2 predictions were modified with the Bradley–Dudeney correction factor, and another empirical regional model for the short-term forecasting of M3000F2 (indicated as IRI_RM_M3000F2_BD up to three hours ahead under not quiet geomagnetic conditions was obtained. The main results achieved comparing the performance of RM_M3000F2, RM_M3000F2_BD, IRI_RM_M3000F2, and IRI_RM_M3000F2_BD are (1 in the case of moderate geomagnetic activity, the Bradley–Dudeney correction

  1. Synthesis and characterization of new fluoride-containing manganese vanadates A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; McGuire, Michael A.; Smith Pellizzeri, Tiffany M.; McMillen, Colin D.; Ovidiu Garlea, V.; Willett, Daniel; Chumanov, George; Kolis, Joseph W.

    2016-09-01

    Large single crystals of A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F were grown using a high-temperature (~600 °C) hydrothermal technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize the structures, which both possess MnO4F2 building blocks. The A2Mn2V2O7F2 series crystallizes as a new structure type in space group Pbcn (No. 60), Z=4 (Rb2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.4389(17) Å, b=11.574(3) Å, c=10.914(2) Å; Cs2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.5615(15) Å, b=11.745(2) Å, c=11.127(2) Å). The structure is composed of zigzag chains of edge-sharing MnO4F2 units running along the a-axis, and interconnected through V2O7 pyrovanadate groups. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements on this interesting one-dimensional structural feature based on Mn2+ indicated that Cs2Mn2V2O7F2 is antiferromagnetic with a Neél temperature, TN=~3 K and a Weiss constant, θ, of -11.7(1) K. Raman and infrared spectra were also analyzed to identify the fundamental V-O vibrational modes in Cs2Mn2V2O7F2. Mn2(VO4)F crystalizes in the monoclinic space group of C2/c (no. 15), Z=8 with unit cell parameters of a=13.559(2) Å, b=6.8036(7) Å, c=10.1408(13) Å and β=116.16(3)°. The structure is associated with those of triplite and wagnerite. Dynamic fluorine disorder gives rise to complex alternating chains of five-and six-coordinate Mn2+. These interpenetrating chains are additionally connected through isolated VO4 tetrahedra to form the condensed structure.

  2. Application of Industrial Waste CaF2 for Vegetative Covering of Phosphogypsum Disposal Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leaković, S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum, i.e. calcium sulphate dihydrate is generated as a by-product in the phosphoric acid production during reaction between phosphate rock and sulphuric acid. It is stored as nonhazardous waste in a disposal site. Since 1983, when the phosphoric acid plant started operation, about 8 140 000 t of phosphogypsum have been disposed there. The disposal site consists of four separate ponds (compartments which are bounded by 6 meter high embankments of earth. According to a special design, it is possible to build layers upon the existing disposal site using phosphogypsum for making embankments. So far, the first 6-meter high level has been built with a 1:3 side slope of phosphogypsum embankments. Formation of the second level with 1:5 side slope is currently in progress. Another byproduct of phosphoric acid production is fluoride- and phosphorus-polluted wastewater. Before being discharged into the natural recipient, this wastewater is treated with calcium hydroxide. The product of neutralisation is calcium fluoride (CaF2 which is deposited in separate lagoons as nonhazardous waste. The application of calcium fluoride as a substrate for plants in the process of vegetative covering of the phosphogypsum disposal site is a new method of its usage. This way, a significant financial benefit is achieved because it is not necessary to build a new lagoon for calcium fluoride disposal. Regarding the environmental aspect, usage for vegetative covering is far better than the standard process of calcium fluoride disposal because residual phosphorus from CaF2 is utilised for enhanced growth of the plants. At the same time, the necessity for natural soil covering of the disposal site is reduced by 500 000 m3. Apart from the natural grass species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., grass mixtures with high content of red fescue (Festuca rubra L. and false indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L. displayed the best growth on the

  3. Identifying Rare FHB-resistant Segregants in Intransigent Backcross and F2 Winter Wheat Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony James Clark

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.. Infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON, a serious mycotoxin. The challenge in FHB resistance breeding is combining resistance with superior agronomic and quality characteristics. Exotic QTL are widely used to improve FHB resistance. Success depends on the genetic background into which the QTL are introgressed, whether through backcrossing or forward crossing; QTL expression is impossible to predict. In this study four high-yielding soft red winter wheat breeding lines with little or no scab resistance were each crossed to a donor parent (VA01W-476 with resistance alleles at two QTL: Fhb1 (chromosome 3BS and QFhs.nau-2DL (chromosome 2DL to generate backcross and F2 progeny. F2 individuals were genotyped and assigned to 4 groups according to presence/ absence of resistance alleles at one or both QTL. The effectiveness of these QTL in reducing FHB rating, incidence, index, severity, Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK and DON, in F2-derived lines was assessed over two years. Fhb1 showed an average reduction in DON of 17.5%, and conferred significant resistance in 3 of 4 populations. QFhs.nau-2DL reduced DON 6.7 % on average and conferred significant resistance in 2 of 4 populations. The combination of Fhb1 and QFhs.nau-2DL resistance reduced DON 25.5% across all populations. Double resistant lines had significantly reduced DON compared to double susceptible lines in 3 populations. Backcross derived progeny were planted in replicated yield trials (2011 and 2012 and in a scab nursery in 2012. Several top yielding lines performed well in the scab nursery, with acceptable DON concentrations, even though the average effect of either QTL in this population was not significant. Population selection is often viewed as an all

  4. Distribution of Phosphorus between CaO-CaF2 Slag and Fe-C-P Melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-xiang; ZHOU Jian-jian; DU Xiao-jian

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium distribution ratio of phosphorus between CaO-CaF2 molten slag and Fe-C-P melt at 1450 ℃ was measured. The phosphate capacity of slag and the activity coefficient of phosphorus oxide were calculated.

  5. Scintillation and storage luminescence properties of MgF2 transparent ceramics doped with Ce3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Fumiya; Kato, Takumi; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we report basic optical properties and scintillation and storage luminescence properties of MgF2:Ce transparent ceramics with different doping concentrations of Ce (0.01, 0.1 and 1%) synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS). In scintillation, thermally-stimulated luminescence (TSL) and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL), the dominant emissions were due to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+ which appeared in the near-UV region peaking around 320 and 360 nm. The scintillation was evaluated by X-ray irradiation while OSL was observed under 540 nm stimulation. In particular, the TSL sensitivity was high and showed a good linearity from 0.1 mGy to 1000 mGy.

  6. Optimization of dichromatic filters based on photonic heterostructures of Si/MgF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huihuan; Han, Peide; Li, Yuping; Zhou, Hongwei; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Ruizhen

    2012-05-01

    The current research work presents the theoretical results of demonstrating novel dichromatic filters, which consist of blue and yellow light. A one-dimensional photonic crystal or photonic heterostructure of Si/MgF2 is analyzed in detail by fully considering the effects of structural parameters using the transfer matrix method. The position and the number of defect modes are shown to have relationships with the repeat cycle counts of various photonic crystals. When the photonic heterostructures have the optimized structural parameters, defect modes can be obtained with high transmittances located in blue and yellow light. This photonic heterostructure is expected to be used in dichromatic filters with wide non-transmission range in a visible range.

  7. DSLR专用超广角镜Pentax 14mm F2.8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    主力发展 DSLR用镜头Pentax自去年推出首部DSLR后,对镜头开发(尤其是专供数码相机使用的镜头)比以前更积极。继早前推出smc P-DA J 16-45mmF4.0ED/AL广角变焦镜后,最近Pentax同样使用数码相机CCD较菲林面积细的特点,推出全新14ramF2.8数码相机专用超广角镜,使*lstD及其他DC用户,可在数码相机上轻易拍摄相等于21.5mm的超广角影像。

  8. B{sub K}-parameter from N{sub f}=2 twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinou, M. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Frezzotti, R. [Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (IT). Dipt. di Fisica] (and others)

    2011-01-07

    We present an unquenched N{sub f} = 2 lattice computation of the B{sub K} parameter which controls K{sup 0}- anti K{sup 0} oscillations. A partially quenched setup is employed with two maximally twisted dynamical (sea) light Wilson quarks, and valence quarks of both the maximally twisted and the Osterwalder-Seiler variety. Suitable combinations of these two kinds of valence quarks lead to a lattice definition of the B{sub K} parameter which is both multiplicatively renormalizable and O(a) improved. Employing the non-perturbative RI-MOM scheme, in the continuum limit and at the physical value of the pion mass we get B{sup RGI}{sub K}=0.729{+-}0.030, a number well in line with the existing quenched and unquenched determinations. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of the Microwave Lensing shift in NIST-F1 and NIST-F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Barlow, S. E.; Ashby, N.

    2016-06-01

    With several Primary Frequency Standards (PFS) across the world demonstrating systematic fractional frequency uncertainties on order of 1 x 10-16, it is crucial to accurately measure or model even small frequency shifts that could affect the ultimate PFS uncertainty, and thus ultimately impact the rate of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) which relies on precision PFS measurements. Recently there has been controversy about the physical causes and size of PFS frequency shifts due to microwave lensing effects. We present here the first measurements of microwave lensing frequency shifts in the PFS NIST-F1 and NIST-F2. The measured frequency shifts agree well with the recent theory of Ashby et al [1].

  10. Renormalization constants for $N_{\\rm f}=2+1+1$ twisted mass QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, Benoit; Guichon, Pierre; Morénas, Vincent; Pène, Olivier; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent non-perturbative results obtained for the renormalization constants computed in the RI'-MOM scheme for $N_{\\rm f}=2+1+1$ twisted mass QCD. Our implementation employs the Iwasaki gauge action and four dynamical degenerate twisted mass fermions. Renormalization constants for scalar, pseudo-scalar, vector and axial operators, as well as the quark propagator renormalization, are computed at three different values of the lattice spacing, two different volumes and several values of the twisted mass. Our method allows for a precise cross-check of the running, because of the particular proper treatment of the hypercubic artifacts. Preliminary results for twist-2 operators are also presented.

  11. Interaction of F =2 Spinor Bose Condensate with Driven External Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Zhi-Yong; TANG Lian; YU Zhao-Xian

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, we have studied the interaction of F=2 spinor Bose condensate with a combination of staticand sinusoidal magnetic field bl(t) = b0 + bcos(ωt). We find that the tunneling current among spin 0 and spin ±l,spin 0 and spin ±2, spin ±1 and spin ±2 may exhibit the incremental oscillation behavior, which depends on the fieldparameters of the reduced amplitudes of the transverse and the longitudinal magnetic fields respectively. This meansthat the dynamics spin localization can be adjusted experimentally by selecting the less values of the reduced amplitudesof the transverse magnetic field bx/ω and those of the longitudinal magnetic field b/ω.

  12. Interaction of F = 2 Spinor Bose Condensate with Driven External Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAOZhi-Yong; TANGLian; YUZhao-Xian

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, we have studied the interaction of F=2 spinor Bose condensate with a combination of static and sinusoidal magnetic field bt(t) = b0 + bcos(ωt). We find that the tunneling current among spin 0 and spin ±1, spin 0 and spin ±2, spin ±1 and spin ±2 may exhibit the incremental oscillation behavior, which depends on the field parameters of the reduced amplitudes of the transverse and the longitudinal magnetic fields respectively. This means that the dynamics spin localization can be adjusted experimentally by selecting the less values of the reduced amplitudes of the transverse magnetic field bx/ω and those of the longitudinal magnetic field b/ω.

  13. Measurement of D^(*+-) Meson Production and F_2^c in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2002-01-01

    The inclusive production of D^{*+-}(2010) mesons in deep-inelastic scattering is studied with the H1 detector at HERA. In the kinematic region 11.5 GeV and |\\eta_(D^*)|<1.5. Single and double differential inclusive D^(*+-) meson cross sections are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in two different evolution schemes. The charm contribution to the proton structure, F_2^c(x,Q^2), is determined by extrapolating the visible charm cross section to the full phase space. This contribution is found to rise from about 10% at Q^2 = 1.5 GeV^2 to more than 25% at Q^2 = 60 GeV^2 corresponding to x values ranging from 5*10^(-5) to 3*10^(-3)$.

  14. Chiral phase transition of $N_f$=2+1 QCD with the HISQ action

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, H -T; Karsch, F; Maezawa, Y; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P

    2013-01-01

    We present studies of universal properties of the chiral phase transition in $N_f$=2+1 QCD based on the simulations using Highly Improved Staggered fermions on lattices with temporal extent $N_\\tau$=6. We analyze the quark mass and volume dependence of the chiral condensates and chiral susceptibilities in QCD with two degenerate light quarks and a strange quark. The strange quark mass is chosen to be fixed to its physical value ($m^{phy}_s$) and five values of light quark masses ($m_l$) that are varied in the interval 1/20$\\gtrsim m_l/m^{phy}_s \\gtrsim$1/80. Here various quark masses correspond to pseudo Goldstone pion masses ranging from about 160 MeV to about 80 MeV. The O(N) scaling of chiral observables and the influence of universal scaling on physical observables in the region of physical quark mass values are also discussed.

  15. Light hadrons from N{sub f}=2+1+1 dynamical twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R. [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). IRFU/Service de Physique Nucleaire; Blossier, B.; Boucaud, P. [Paris 11 Univ., Orsay (FR). Lab. de Physique Theorique] (and others)

    2011-01-15

    We present results of lattice QCD simulations with mass-degenerate up and down and mass-split strange and charm (N{sub f}=2+1+1) dynamical quarks using Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist. The tuning of the strange and charm quark masses is performed at three values of the lattice spacing a{approx}0.06 fm, a{approx}0.08 fm and a{approx}0.09 fm with lattice sizes ranging from L{approx}1.9 fm to L{approx}3.9 fm. We perform a preliminary study of SU(2) chiral perturbation theory by combining our lattice data from these three values of the lattice spacing. (orig.)

  16. Transcriptional profiling of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (34F2 during iron starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Carlson

    Full Text Available Lack of available iron is one of many environmental challenges that a bacterium encounters during infection and adaptation to iron starvation is important for the pathogen to efficiently replicate within the host. Here we define the transcriptional response of B. anthracis Sterne (34F(2 to iron depleted conditions. Genome-wide transcript analysis showed that B. anthracis undergoes considerable changes in gene expression during growth in iron-depleted media, including the regulation of known and candidate virulence factors. Two genes encoding putative internalin proteins were chosen for further study. Deletion of either gene (GBAA0552 or GBAA1340 resulted in attenuation in a murine model of infection. This attenuation was amplified in a double mutant strain. These data define the transcriptional changes induced during growth in low iron conditions and illustrate the potential of this dataset in the identification of putative virulence determinants for future study.

  17. Delivery of F2-excimer laser light by aluminum hollow fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Y; Yamamoto, T; Miyagi, M

    2000-06-19

    A hollow fiber composed of a glass-tube substrate and an aluminum thin film coated upon the inside of the tube delivers F2-excimer laser light. A smooth, aluminum thin film was deposited by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using dimethylethylamine:alane (DMEAA) as the precursor. It was shown that the transmission loss of the fiber with a 1.0-mm inner diameter was as low as 0.5 dB/m for the fiber with 1.0-mm diameter when the bore of the fiber is pressurized with an inert gas to remove the absorption of air. When the fiber is bent at the radius of 30 cm, the additional loss was 1.6 dB.

  18. An analysis of type F2 software measurement standards for profile surface texture parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhunter, L. D.; Leach, R. K.; Lawes, S. D. A.; Blateyron, F.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of ISO 5436 part 2 type F2 reference software for the calculation of profile surface texture parameters that has been performed on the input, implementation and output results of the reference software developed by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Surface texture parameters have been calculated for a selection of 17 test data files obtained from the type F1 reference data sets on offer from NPL and NIST. The surface texture parameter calculation results show some disagreements between the software methods of the National Metrology Institutes. These disagreements have been investigated further, and some potential explanations are given.

  19. On the origin of the rise of $F_2$ at small $x$

    CERN Document Server

    Navelet, H; Royon, C; Schoeffel, L; Wallon, S; Royon, Ch.

    1996-01-01

    We show that, provided that the non-perturbative input is regular at the right of the $\\omega=0$ singularity of the dominant DGLAP anomalous dimension, the rise of $F_2$ at small $x,$ experimentally measured by the averaged observable $\\lambda = ,$ is input-independent in the perturbative $Q^2$ regime at small $x$. $(\\partial ln xF)/(\\partial ln Q^2)$ appears to be more input-dependent in the same range. The GRV-type parametrisations verify these properties. Other models, namely the BFKL kernel(QCD dipoles), DGLAP(hard pomeron singularity) give different predictions for $\\lambda$. At moderate $Q^2,$ there is a possibility of distinguishing these different perturbative QCD predictions in the near future.

  20. Proposal of Readout Electronics for CSNS-WNS BaF2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Deliang; Wang, Qi; He, Bing; Zhang, Yaxi; Qi, Xincheng; Yu, Tao; An, Qi

    2016-01-01

    BaF2 (Barium fluoride) detector is one of the experiment facilities at the under construction CSNS-WNS (White Neutron Source at China Spallation Neutron Source). It is designed for precisely measuring (n,gamma) cross section with total 92 crystal elements and completely 4 pi steradian coverage. In this proposal for readout electronics, waveform digitizing technique with 1GSps sampling rate and 12-bit resolution is adopted to precisely capture the detector signal. To solve the problem of massive data readout and processing, the readout electronics system is designed into a distributed architecture with 4 PXIe crates. The digitized detector's signal is concentrated to PXIe crate controller through PCIe bus on backplane and transmitted to data acquisition system over Gigabit Ethernet in parallel. Besides, clock and trigger can be fanned out synchronously to each electronic channel over a high-precision distributing network. Test results showed that the prototype of the readout electronics system achieved good pe...

  1. Phonons in mixed superionic fluorites (BaF2)1–(LaF3)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M M Sinha

    2002-11-01

    In recent years, the fluorite-structured solid solutions with the general formula, (MF2)1–(RF3) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb and R is a rare-earth element or Y), have been the subject of numerous experimental studies focussed on their superionic properties. The overall cubic crystal symmetry (space group 3) is conserved up to ≤ max, where max 0.4–0.5 depending on M and R. The zone centre phonons and phonon dispersion along three symmetry directions of the mixed superionic compound (BaF2)1–(LaF3) have been investigated by applying de Launey angular force model for ≤ max. The calculated results are compared and explained with available experimental results.

  2. Theoretical study of potential energy surface and vibrational spectra of ArF2 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明晖; 谢代前; 鄢国森

    2000-01-01

    An ab initio potential energy surface (PES) of ArF2 system has been obtained by using MP4 calculation with a large basis set including bond functions. There are two local minimums on the PES: one is T-shaped and the other is L-shaped. The L-shaped minimum is the global minimum with a well depth of -119.62 cm- 1 at R = 0.3883nm. The T-shaped minimum has a well depth of -85.93cm -1 at R = 0.3486 nm. A saddle point is found at R = 0.3486 and θ = 61° with the well depth of -61.53 cm-1. The vibrational energy levels have been calculated by using VSCF-CI method. The results show that this PES supports 27 vibrational bound states, and the ground states are two degenerate states assigned to the L-type vibration.

  3. Theoretical study of potential energy surface and vibrational spectra of ArF2 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An ab initio potential energy surface (PES) of ArF2 system has been obtained by using MP4 calculation with a large basis set including bond functions. There are two local minimums on the PES: one is T-shaped and the other is L-shaped. The L-shaped minimum is the global minimum with a well depth of -119.62 cm-1 at R = 0.3883nm. The T-shaped minimum has a well depth of -85.93cm-1 at R = 0.3486 nm. A saddle point is found at R = 0.3486 and q = 61° with the well depth of -61.53 cm-1. The vibrational energy levels have been calculated by using VSCF-CI method. The results show that this PES supports 27 vibrational bound states, and the ground states are two degenerate states assigned to the L-type vibration.

  4. Charmless chiral perturbation theory for N_f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bar, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The chiral Lagrangian describing the low-energy behavior of N_f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD is constructed through O(a^2). In contrast to existing results the effects of a heavy charm quark are consistently removed, leaving behind a charmless 3-flavor Lagrangian. This Lagrangian is used to compute the pion and kaon masses to one loop in a regime where the pion mass splitting is large and taken as a leading order effect. In comparison with continuum chiral perturbation theory additional chiral logarithms are present in the results. In particular, chiral logarithms involving the neutral pion mass appear. These predict rather large finite volume corrections in the kaon mass which roughly account for the finite volume effects observed in lattice data.

  5. F2C模式电子商务业务的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保红

    2011-01-01

    物流智联网物(Internet of Things IoT)(下称物联网)代表了未来计算与通信技术发展的方向,被认为是继计算机、Internet之后,信息产业领域的第三次发展浪潮.本文在分析物流智联网的发展和F2C电子商务的三种商业模式,提出物联网下电子商务业务模式的必然趋势,从而得出物流智联网对全球经济的意义.

  6. Electrochemical behavior of Ce(Ⅲ) in LiF-BaF2 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Rushan; YE Guoan; HE Hui; TANG Hongbin; OUYANG Yinggen

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Ce(Ⅲ) was investigated in the molten LiF-BaF2 (81 mo1.%-19 mol.%) on a molybdenum elec-trode in the temperature range of 1098-1188 K using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry.It was observed that CeF3 could be reduced into cerium metal in a reversible one-step process exchanging three electrons (Ce(Ⅲ)+3e-→,Ce(0)) at the operating temperatures on amolybdenum cathode.The electrochemical reduction process was controlled by the diffusion of Ce(Ⅲ) in the solution.The Ce(Ⅲ) diffusion coefficients were calculated at different temperatures and the values obeyed the Arrhenius law with an activation energy of 87.5 kJ/mol.

  7. Prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced response of the bovine ovary, oviduct (uterine tube), and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, L P; Sadiku, A; Verma, O P

    1979-12-01

    Tissue strips from the ovary, (uterine tube), and oviduct, and uterus of pregnant and nonpregnant cows were tested for their contractile response to prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). When 2.1 x 10(-6)M PGF2 alpha was added to the uterine strips, tension of tissues from pregnant cows increased sharply; however, tension in tissues from nonpregnant cows only increased moderately. Similar concentrations failed to elicit any response from oviductal tissues of either group. Unlike the uterus and the oviduct, the ovaries contracted slowly and irregularly. They responded with varying degrees of stimulation; ovaries from pregnant cows with brief and mild stimulation and ovaries from nonpregnant cows with slower and relatively stronger stimulation. Results indicate that the bovine ovary contracts rhythmically and that its sensitivity to PGF2 alpha decreases during pregnancy in contrast to the bovine uterus which becomes increasingly sensitive during pregnancy.

  8. Measurement of beauty production in DIS and F_2^bbbar extraction at ZEUS

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aggarwal, R; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Aushev, V; Aushev, Y; Bachynska, O; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behnke, O; Behr, J; Behrens, U; Bellagamba, L; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bindi, M; Blohm, C; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borodin, M; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Bot, D; Boutle, S K; Brock, I; Brownson, E; Brugnera, R; Bruemmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brzozowska, B; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; D'Agostini, G; Corso, F Dal; de Favereau, J; del Peso, J; Dementiev, R K; De Pasquale, S; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drugakov, V; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, A; Fang, S; Fazio, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Forrest, M; Foster, B; Fourletov, S; Gach, G; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gialas, I; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gogota, O; Golubkov, Yu A; Goettlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Grigorescu, G; Grzelak, G; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hamatsu, R; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hori, R; Horton, K; Huettmann, A; Iacobucci, G; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Ingbir, R; Ishitsuka, M; Jakob, H -P; Januschek, F; Jimenez, M; Jones, T W; Juengst, M; Kadenko, I; Kahle, B; Kamaluddin, B; Kananov, S; Kanno, T; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Katkov, I I; Kaur, M; Kaur, P; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Koffeman, E; Kollar, D; Kooijman, P; Korol, Ie; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Koetz, U; Kowalski, H; Kulinski, P; Kuprash, O; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Lee, A; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Libov, V; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Lohmann, W; Loehr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lontkovskyi, D; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Maeda, J; Magill, S; Makarenko, I; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsumoto, T; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I -A; Miglioranzi, S; Idris, F Mohamad; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Morris, J D; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nicholass, D; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Okazaki, N; Oliver, K; Olkiewicz, K; Onishchuk, Yu; Ota, O; Papageorgiu, K; Parenti, A; Paul, E; Pawlak, J M; Pawlik, B; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Perlanski, W; Perrey, H; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinski, P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Reisert, B; Ren, Z; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Robertson, A; Roloff, P; Ron, E; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salii, A; Samson, U; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schoenberg, V; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Schwartz, J; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Shehzadi, R; Shimizu, S; Singh, I; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Sola, V; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V; Spiridonov, A; Stadie, H; Stanco, L; Stern, A; Stewart, T P; Stifutkin, A; Stopa, P; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Theedt, T; Tiecke, H; Tokushuku, K; Tomalak, O; Tomaszewska, J; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Uribe-Estrada, C; Vazquez, M; Verbytskyi, A; Viazlo, V; Vlasov, N N; Volynets, O; Walczak, R; Abdullah, W A T Wan; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Wolfe, H; Wrona, K; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zenaiev, O; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhmak, N; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Zolko, M; Zotkin, D S; Zulkapli, Z

    2010-01-01

    Beauty production in deep inelastic scattering with events in which a muon and a jet are observed in the final state has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 114 pb^-1. The fraction of events with beauty quarks in the data was determined using the distribution of the transverse momentum of the muon relative to the jet. The cross section for beauty production was measured in the kinematic range of photon virtuality, Q^2 > 2 Gev^2, and inelasticity, 0.05 < y < 0.7, with the requirement of a muon and a jet. Total and differential cross sections are presented and compared to QCD predictions. The beauty contribution to the structure function F_2 was extracted and is compared to theoretical predictions.

  9. Urinary F2?Isoprostanes in Cats with International Renal Interest Society Stage 1?4 Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehouse, W; Quimby, J.; Wan, S.; Monaghan, K.; Robbins, R; Trepanier, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background F2?isoprostanes, a biomarker of oxidant injury, increase with advancing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. In cats, the relationship between CKD and oxidative stress is poorly understood. Objectives To determine whether cats with advancing CKD have increasing urinary F2?isoprostanes. Animals Control cats without evidence of CKD (?6 years old; n = 11), and cats with IRIS stage 1 (n = 8), 2 (n = 38), 3 (n = 21), and 4 (n = 10) CKD. Methods This was a prospective observational st...

  10. Effect of surface orientation on dissolution rates and topography of CaF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, J. R. A.; Piazolo, S.; Evins, L. Z.

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports how during dissolution differences in surface chemistry affect the evolution of topography of CaF2 pellets with a microstructure similar to UO2 spent nuclear fuel. 3D confocal profilometry and atomic force microscopy were used to quantify retreat rates and analyze topography changes on surfaces with different orientations as dissolution proceeds up to 468 h. A NaClO4 (0.05 M) solution with pH 3.6 which was far from equilibrium relative to CaF2 was used. Measured dissolution rates depend directly on the orientation of the exposed planes. The {1 1 1} is the most stable plane with a dissolution rate of (1.2 ± 0.8) × 10-9 mol m-2 s-1, and {1 1 2} the least stable plane with a dissolution rate 33 times faster that {1 1 1}. Surfaces that expose both Ca and F atoms in the same plane dissolve faster. Dissolution rates were found to be correlated to surface orientation which is characterized by a specific surface chemistry and therefore related to surface energy. It is proposed that every surface is characterized by the relative proportions of the three reference planes {1 1 1}, {1 0 0} and {1 1 0}, and by the high energy sites at their interceptions. Based on the different dissolution rates observed we propose a dissolution model to explain changes of topography during dissolution. Surfaces with slower dissolution rate, and inferred lower surface energy, tend to form while dissolution proceeds leading to an increase of roughness and surface area. This adjustment of the surface suggests that dissolution rates during early stages of dissolution are different from the later stages. The time-dependency of this dynamic system needs to be taken into consideration when predicting long-term dissolution rates.

  11. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  12. High-Pressure Behavior of Difluorides: The Case of SrF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadba, K. E.; Stan, C. V.; Dutta, R.; Prakapenka, V.; Duffy, T. S.

    2016-12-01

    The high-pressure behavior of compounds in the AX2 family has attracted much attention due to their extensive polymorphism, highly coordinated structures, and diverse transformation pathways. The canonical transformation sequence for alkaline earth difluorides is from the fluorite-type structure (8 coordinated) to cotunnite (9 coordinated) to Ni2In (11 coordinated). Lead Fluoride, on the other hand, undergoes an unusual isosymmetric transition from cotunnite to a Co2Si-type structure (10 coordinated) at high pressures, during which it exhibits highly anisotropic lattice parameter trends (Haines et al, 1998; Stan et al 2016). Sr has a similar ionic radius as Pb, and is thus a good candidate for further exploring the compressional anisotropy in alkaline earth fluorides. In this study, we report a detailed examination of the compressional behavior of SrF2 to identify whether an intermediate phase occurs in this system prior to transformation to the Ni2In structure. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction experiments, performed at Princeton University and the Advanced Photon Source GSECARS beamline, respectively, were carried out on SrF2 up to 63 GPa using a diamond anvil cell. From Raman spectroscopy, we observed evidence for a high-pressure phase transition between 38.9 and 51.0 GPa. The x-ray diffraction data in this region show evidence for highly anisotropic compression, most notably a strong negative compressibility in the b direction, in the pressure region from 45.2 to 51.6 GPa. Comparison of our data with lattice parameter systematics for AX2 phases indicates that our results are consistent with the formation of the Co2Si phase in this region, along with a sluggish transformation to the Ni2In-type structure. Our findings contribute to a broader understanding of AX2 compounds and their phase transition pathways.

  13. Long-term trends in foF2: A comparison of various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laštovička, J.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Ulich, T.; Bremer, J.; Elias, A. G.; Ortiz de Adler, N.; Jara, V.; Abarca Del Rio, R.; Foppiano, A. J.; Ovalle, E.; Danilov, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    Results of various authors on long-term trends in foF2, which is equivalent to the maximum electron density in the ionosphere, and their interpretation do not reveal a consistent pattern. Therefore, a joint analysis of one carefully selected dataset was performed by six teams, which used different approaches to trend determination. High-quality data of station Juliusruh (54.6°N, 13.4°E) for noon (average from 10 to 14 UT) were used for the period of two solar cycles from minimum to minimum (1976 1996). Juliusruh is relatively sensitive to geomagnetic activity as an almost subauroral station, which might play some role in interpretation of trend results. Various methods provide results, which differ to some extent, even when one co-author applies different methods. Another source of differences is application of various ways of removal (or at least large suppression) of the effect of solar (and geomagnetic) activity. Nevertheless finally most teams obtained quite comparable results. Interpretation of the observed trends is not unique—co-authors consider either the long-term change in geomagnetic activity, or anthropogenic effects to be predominantly responsible for trends. There is some generally accepted output from the joint analysis. All trends are either negative or insignificant. Data corrections with sunspot number (R), F10.7 adjusted to the Sun Earth distance, observed F10.7, adjusted E10.7 and observed E10.7 result in somewhat different trends; the observed F10.7 and E10.7 appear to be the best correcting factor. The trends in foF2 are very small, of the order of -0.01 MHz/year, much smaller than the solar cycle effect and, therefore, sensitive to the solar activity correction. The Juliusruh dip angle increased very little over the period 1976 1996 and the possible impact of that increase on trends is negligibly small.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of SnF2 nanostructures in the internal channels of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, I. Yu.; Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Murin, I. V.; Petrov, A. V.; Romantsov, G. A.; Zakalyukin, R. M.

    2014-07-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of solid tin(II) fluoride nanostructures formed in internal channels of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been performed using two types of model potentials—without and with inclusion of the polarization of ions. For the potential taking into account the polarization of ions, an ordered SnF2@SWCNT structure is reproduced: in SWCNT(10, 10), it has the form of the SnF2 internal nanotube. At the same time, the SnF2@SWCNT(11,11) structure is substantially disordered (glass-like). It has been found that heating of the SnF2@SWCNT model system produces a superionic state characterized by a high mobility of fluorine ions without migration of tin ions. The model potentials disregard the covalent character of Sn-F bonds and the specific interactions of a lone electron pair of the Sn2+ ion. This makes it impossible to completely reproduce the properties of SnF2 at normal pressures. However, some characteristics of the SnF2 high-pressure modification can be reproduced if the polarization of ions is taken into account.

  15. The influenza virus protein PB1-F2 interacts with IKKβ and modulates NF-κB signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Reis

    Full Text Available PB1-F2, a protein encoded by a second open reading frame of the influenza virus RNA segment 2, has emerged as a modulator of lung inflammatory responses but the molecular mechanisms underlying this are only poorly understood. Here we show that PB1-F2 inhibits the activation of NF-κB dependent signalling pathways in luciferase reporter assays. PB1-F2 proteins from four different viruses interact with IKKβ in yeast two-hybrid assays and by co-immunoprecipitation. PB1-F2 expression did not inhibit IKKβ kinase activity or NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, but NF-κB binding to DNA was severely impaired in PB1-F2 transfected cells as assessed by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Neither the N-terminal 57 amino acid truncated forms nor the C-terminus of PB1-F2 were able to inhibit NF-κB dependent signalling, indicating that the full length protein is necessary for the inhibition.

  16. 2.7 μm emission in Er3+:CaF2 nanocrystals embedded oxyfluoride glass ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guobo; Fan, Shaohua; Zhang, Yuanhao; Chai, Guanqi; Ma, Zhijun; Peng, Mingying; Qiu, Jianrong; Dong, Guoping

    2013-08-15

    Using conventional melt-quenching and subsequent thermal treatment, Er(3+) doped CaF(2) transparent glass ceramic (GC) was prepared. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation and microstructure of CaF(2) nanocrystals in glass. An energy-dispersive spectrometer was used to investigate the distribution of Er(3+) ions and CaF(2) nanocrystals in glass. It was found that Er(3+) ions prefer to concentrate in the CaF(2) nanocrystals rather than in a glass matrix, and the amount of Er(3+) ions plays a key role in the formation of CaF(2) nanocrystals in a glass matrix with the Er(3+) ions as nucleating agent. An intense 2.7 μm emission due to Er(3+): I(11/2)4 → I(13/2)4 was achieved upon excitation at 980 nm with a laser diode, while the 2.7 μm emission can be neglected in the as-prepared glass counterpart, which confirmed the incorporation of Er(3+) ions into CaF(2) nanocrystals. An obvious enhancement of 2.7 μm emerged in the GC doped with 3% Er(3+) and heat-treated at 620 °C.

  17. Hydrodechlorination of Tetrachloromethane over Palladium Catalysts Supported on Mixed MgF2-MgO Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bonarowska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pd/MgO, Pd/MgF2 and Pd/MgO-MgF2 catalysts were investigated in the reaction of CCl4 hydrodechlorination. All the catalysts deactivated in time on stream, but the degree of deactivation varied from catalyst to catalyst. The MgF2-supported palladium with relatively large metal particles appeared the best catalyst, characterized by good activity and selectivity to C2-C5 hydrocarbons. Investigation of post-reaction catalyst samples allowed to find several details associated with the working state of hydrodechlorination catalysts. The role of support acidity was quite complex. On the one hand, a definite, although not very high Lewis acidity of MgF2 is beneficial for shaping high activity of palladium catalysts. The MgO-MgF2 support characterized by stronger Lewis acidity than MgF2 contributes to very good catalytic activity for a relatively long reaction period (~5 h but subsequent neutralization of stronger acid centers (by coking eliminates them from the catalyst. On the other hand, the role of acidity evolution, which takes place when basic supports (like MgO are chlorided during HdCl reactions, is difficult to assess because different events associated with distribution of chlorided support species, leading to partial or even full blocking of the surface of palladium, which plays the role of active component in HdCl reactions.

  18. Canted antiferromagnetism in KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 with a stair-case Kagomé lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Chen; Ren, Wei-Jian; Huang, Ya-Xi; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao

    2017-10-01

    A new nickel phosphate KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 has been synthesized using a modified hydrothermal method. Structural characterizations show that it adopts a 3D framework structure with 2D layers of Ni octahedra in a stair-case Kagomé lattice. The Ni2 octahedron at the inversion center shares two trans-faces with Ni1 octahedra to form a linear trimer (Ni3O8F6) as the basic structural unit. The Ni-trimers are linked between themselves by sharing F-corners and to [PO3(F,OH)] tetrahedral groups by sharing O-corners to form 2D stair-case Kagomé layers, which are parallel to the (100) plane and are stacked along the a-axis. Successive Kagomé layers are combined together by [PO2(OH)2] tetrahedral groups and interstice cations K+. Magnetic measurements reveal that KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 exhibits a canted antiferromagnetic ordering with a ferromagnetic component at low temperatures.

  19. CYP4F2基因多态性与华法林维持剂量关系的研究进展%Research progress in association between CYP4F2 gene polymorphism and warfarin maintenance dose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢爽; 李一石

    2011-01-01

    Currently, warfarin is the most widely used oral anticoagulant in clinic. Since warfarin has narrow therapeutic window and significant individual differences in dose, it easily leads to complications due to improper anticoagulate therapy. In recent 3 years, as the rapid development of pharmacogenomics, it has been found that CYP4F2 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 2) gene polymorphism ( rs2108622) relates to warfarin individual dosage requirement. We reviewed research progress in association between CYP4F2 gene polymorphism. Most studies found that CYP4F2 gene polymorphism relates to warfarin dose, and the mutant T allele was associated with higher warfarin dose requirement, CYP4F2 * 3 polymorphism can explain 1% ~ 10% warfarin individual dosage difference.%华法林是目前临床上应用最广泛的口服抗凝药,其治疗安全范围窄,剂量个体差异大,临床应用中容易出现抗凝不当所致的并发症.近3年来,随着药物基因组学的快速发展,发现细胞色素P450酶4F2(CYP4F2)基因多态性(rs2108622)与华法林个体剂量差异相关.本文综述了近3年来在不同人种中进行的有关CYP4F2*3(rs2108622)与华法林的维持剂量关系的研究.大多数研究发现CYP4F2基因多态性与华法林维持剂量存在相关性,其中突变的T等位基因与华法林高剂量相关;CYP4F2*3可以解释1%~10%华法林剂量个体差异.

  20. Dual functions of Lewis acid and base of Se in F2C=Se and their interplay in F 2CSe•••NH 3•••HX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Li, Qingzhong

    2015-06-01

    High-level quantum chemical calculations of the ternary systems F2CSe∙∙∙NH3∙∙∙HX (X=BeH, BH2, OH, CN, OCH3, Cl, and F) and the corresponding binary systems have been carried out in view of geometries, vibrational frequencies, interaction energies, orbital interactions, and electron densities. The molecular electrostatic potentials of F2CSe demonstrate that the Se atom could play a dual role of Lewis acid and base to form a chalcogen bond with NH3 and a hydrogen bond or a covalent interaction with HX, respectively. The chalcogen bond can compete with the hydrogen bond for the complexes involving F2CSe, but the covalent interaction is far stronger than the chalcogen bond. In the ternary complexes, both types of interactions are strengthened by each other, characterized by a shorter binding distance, a larger electron density, and a stronger orbital interaction. The covalent interaction has a greater enhancing effect on the chalcogen bond than the hydrogen bond does, resulting in a prominent shortening of ~0.23 Å distance for the Se∙∙∙N distance in F2CSe∙∙∙NH3∙∙∙BH3. The enhancement of both interactions in the ternary complexes has been understood with the electrostatic potentials and orbital interactions. Graphical Abstract The dual functions of Lewis acid and base of Se in F2CSe are enhanced each other in the ternary complexes.

  1. Room temperature fabrication of dielectric Bragg reflectors composed of a CaF2/ZnS multilayered coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muallem, Merav; Palatnik, Alex; Nessim, Gilbert D; Tischler, Yaakov R

    2015-01-14

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of mechanically stable, reproducible, and highly reflecting distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) composed of thermally evaporated thin films of calcium fluoride (CaF2) and zinc sulfide (ZnS). CaF2 and ZnS were chosen as the low and high refractive index components of the multilayer DBR structures, with n = 1.43 and n = 2.38 respectively, because neither material requires substrate heating during the deposition process in order to produce optical quality thin films. DBRs consisting of seven pairs of CaF2 and ZnS layers, were fabricated with thicknesses of 96 and 58 nm, respectively, as characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), and exhibited a center wavelength of λc = 550 nm and peak reflectance exceeding 99%. The layers showed good adhesion to each other and to the glass substrate, resulting in mechanically stable DBR coatings. Complete optical microcavities consisting of two such DBR coatings and a CaF2 spacer layer between them could be fabricated in a single deposition run. Optically, these structures exhibited a resonator quality factor of Q > 160. When a CaF2/ZnS DBR was grown, without heating the substrate during deposition, on top of a thin film containing the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 6G, the fluorescence intensity showed no degradation compared to an uncoated film, in contrast to a MgF2/ZnS DBR coating grown with substrate heating which showed a 92% reduction in signal. The ability to fabricate optical quality CaF2/ZnS DBRs without substrate heating, as introduced here, can therefore enable formation of low-loss high-reflectivity coatings on top of more delicate heat-sensitive materials such as organics and other nanostructured emitters, and hence facilitate the development of nanoemitter-based microcavity device applications.

  2. Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of…

  3. 二倍体鲫鲤F2产生不同倍性卵子的证据%Evidence of Different Ploidy Eggs Produced by Diploid F2 Hybrids of Carassius auratus (♀) × Cyprinus carpio (♂)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 孙远东; 罗凯坤; 刘筠

    2006-01-01

    在检测到鲫鲤F2产生3种不同大小(直径分别为0.13 cm,0.17cm和0.2 cm)类型的卵子基础上,进行了F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)及F2(♀)×四倍体鲫鲤(♂)的交配实验.通过染色体计数和流式细胞仪分析,在F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)后代中获得了四倍体、三倍体、二倍体鱼;在F2(♀)×四倍体鲫鲤(♂)后代中获得了四倍体和三倍体鱼.这两个交配组合后代中出现的不同倍性的鱼类为证明鲫鲤F2能产生三倍体、二倍体和单倍体卵子提供了进一步证据.F2(♀)×红鲫(♂)中雄性四倍体鱼的存在说明在四倍体后代中存在基因型为XXXY的个体.对上述两个交配组合后代的四倍体鱼和三倍体鱼的性腺结构观察表明:四倍体鱼是可育的,而三倍体鱼是不育的.作者认为鲫鲤F2能够产生二倍体和三倍体卵子与核内复制机制和生殖细胞的融合有关.%Based on the presence of three types of eggs with different diameters 0.13, 0.17 and 0.2 cm, we made two crosses: F2 (♀)by × diploid red crucian carp (♂), and F2 (♀) × F10 tetraploid (♂). The ploidy levels of the progeny of the two crosses were examined chromosome counting and DNA content measurement by flow cytometer. In the offspring of the former cross, tetraploids, triploids, and diploid were obtained. In the progeny of the latter cross, tetraploids and triploids were observed. The production of the different ploidy level fish in the progeny of the two crosses provided a further evidence that F2 might generate triploid, diploid and XXXY probably existed in the tetraploid progeny. The gonadal structures of the tetraploids and triploids indicated that both female and male tetraploids were fertile and the triploids were sterile. We concluded that the formations of different ploidy level eggs from F2 were contributed by endoreduplication and fusion of germ cells.

  4. $O(\\alpha_s^3 T_F^2 N_F)$ Contributions to the Heavy Flavor Wilson Coefficients of the Structure Function $F_2(x,Q^2)$ at $Q^2 \\gg m^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Wissbrock, Fabian

    2010-01-01

    The massive 3-loop fermion-loop corrections $\\propto C_A N_f T_F^2$ and $C_F N_f T_F^2$ to the massive operator matrix elements $A_{Qg}$, $A_{Qq}^{\\rm{PS}}$, $A_{qq,Q}^{\\rm{PS}}$, $A_{qq,Q}^{\\rm{NS}}$ and $A_{qq,Q}^{\\rm{NS,TR}} have been obtained for general values of $N$. Thereby the corresponding contributions to the asymptotic heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of the structure function $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and of transversity in the region $Q^2 \\geq 10 \\cdot m^2$ are known. Our method is based on direct integration, avoiding the integration-by-parts technique, which is advantageous due to the compactness of the intermediate and final results. We also obtain the corresponding contributions to the 3-loop anomalous dimensions and confirm results in the literature.

  5. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the large subunit of the human lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumadue, J.A.; Glick, A.B.; Ruddle, F.H.

    1987-12-01

    Among the earliest expressed antigens on the surface of activated human lymphocytes is the surface antigen 4F2. The authors have used DNA-mediated gene transfer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to obtain cell lines that contain the gene encoding the large subunit of the human 4F2 antigen in a mouse L-cell background. Human DNAs cloned from these cell lines were subsequently used as hybridization probes to isolate a full-length cDNA clone expressing 4F2. Sequence analysis of the coding region has revealed an amino acid sequence of 529 residues. Hydrophobicity plotting has predicted a probable structure for the protein that includes an external carboxyl terminus, an internal leader sequence, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and two possible membrane-associated domains. The 4F2 cDNA detects a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA in T-cell and B-cell lines. RNA gel blot analysis of RNA derived from quiescent and serum-stimulated Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts reveals a cell-cycle modulation of 4F2 gene expression: the mRNA is present in quiescent fibroblasts but increases 8-fold 24-36 hr after stimulation, at the time of maximal DNA synthesis.

  6. The 22-year cycle in the geomagnetic 27-day recurrences reflecting on the F2-layer ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Apostolov

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar cycle variations of the amplitudes of the 27-day solar rotation period reflected in the geomagnetic activity index Ap, solar radio flux F10.7cm and critical frequency foF2 for mid-latitude ionosonde station Moscow from the maximum of sunspot cycle 18 to the maximum of cycle 23 are examined. The analysis shows that there are distinct enhancements of the 27-day amplitudes for foF2 and Ap in the late declining phase of each solar cycle while the amplitudes for F10.7cm decrease gradually, and the foF2 and Ap amplitude peaks are much larger for even-numbered solar cycles than for the odd ones. Additionally, we found the same even-high and odd-low pattern of foF2 for other mid-latitude ionosonde stations in Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This property suggests that there exists a 22-year cycle in the F2-layer variability coupled with the 22-year cycle in the 27-day recurrence of geomagnetic activity.

    Key words. Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere; ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions – Magnetospheric physics (solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  7. Spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delomas, T A; Gomelsky, B; Anil, A; Schneider, K J; Warner, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n). Microsatellite genotyping showed that F2 diploids repeated either the complete maternal or the complete paternal genotype. Fish with the maternal genotype were female and fish with the paternal genotype were male. This demonstrates that F2 diploids were the result of spontaneous gynogenesis and spontaneous androgenesis. Analysis of microsatellite inheritance and the sex ratio in F2 crosses showed that spontaneous gynogenesis and androgenesis did not always occur in equal proportions. One cross was found to have an approximate equal number of androgenetic and gynogenetic offspring while in several other crosses spontaneous androgenesis was found to occur more frequently than spontaneous gynogenesis.

  8. [Studies on the ploymorphic of sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian Zhong; Liu, Shao Jun; Zhang, Xuan Jie; Feng, Hao; Liu, Yun

    2004-08-01

    AThe ultrastructures of the sperm of F2 hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp were studied by using scanning and transmission electron microscope. The sperm of the F2 hybrids consisted of head, mid-piece and tail. There was no acrosome at the anterior end of the nuclears, whereas there was a vesicle. The results revealed that there existed obviously ploymorphic in the sperm of F2 hybrids. In the water-like semen from males of F2 hybrids, different sizes of the head of the sperm including haploid, diploid, tetraploid, and aneuploid sperm were observed. The head diameter of the smallest sperm was only 1.32 microm, but that of the biggest one was about 18.39 microm, and most of them varied from 1.85 to 2.15 microm. The haploid sperm was normal, while the a-neuploid, diploid, tetraploid and multiploid sperm were abnormal. Among the abnormal sperm, there was a super sperm with about 20 tails, whose head volume was much bigger than that of any other sperm. From the results of the transmission electron microscope, 3 sperm with two nucleus and 1 sperm with two tails were found. This study provided an useful evidence for the mechanism that the formation of tetraploid in F3 hybrids was due to the fertilization of the diploid eggs and diploid sperm produced by F2 hybrids.

  9. Metals suitable for fluorine gas target bodies: first use of aluminum for the production of [18F]F2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A; Satyamurthy, N; Bida, G; Phelps, M; Barrio, J R

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of different metals (aluminum, silver, copper, nickel, and gold-plated copper) was undertaken for the fabrication of target bodies with straight and conical bore shapes for the production of [18F]F2 via the 20Ne(d,alpha)18F nuclear reaction. Of these metals, aluminum, silver and copper have never been used for the production of [18F]F2. All these target bodies were easily passivated using a mild beam-induced plasma technique in the presence of 1% F2 in neon or argon. The recovery of 18F activity was higher with electroformed nickel and silver bodies, probably due to favorable thermal conductivities. Aluminum proved to be a useful material for fluorine gas targets. The consistent recovery of 18F activities, ease and low cost of manufacturing and low nuclear activation properties all make aluminum an ideal choice for fluorine gas targetry. To our knowledge, this investigation is the first to highlight the use of aluminum as a target body material for the routine production of [18F]F2. A reasonable mechanism based on the Langmuir-Rideal surface atom recombination is also proposed for the behavior of [18F]F2 recovery from a nickel target body.

  10. Heterodimerization of y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc visualized by acceptor photobleaching FRET microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemola, Maaria; Toivonen, Minna; Mykkänen, Juha; Simell, Olli; Huoponen, Kirsi; Heiskanen, Kaisa M

    2007-10-01

    y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc are the subunits of a transporter complex for cationic amino acids, located mainly in the basolateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells in the small intestine and renal tubules. Mutations in y(+)LAT-1 impair the transport function of this complex and cause a selective aminoaciduria, lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI, OMIM #222700), associated with severe, complex clinical symptoms. The subunits of an active transporter co-localize in the plasma membrane, but the exact process of dimerization is unclear since direct evidence for the assembly of this transporter in intact human cells has not been available. In this study, we used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy to investigate the interactions of y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc in HEK293 cells expressing y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc fused with ECFP or EYFP. FRET was quantified by measuring fluorescence intensity changes in the donor fluorophore (ECFP) after the photobleaching of the acceptor (EYFP). Increased donor fluorescence could be detected throughout the cell, from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex to the plasma membrane. Therefore, our data prove the interaction of y(+)LAT-1 and 4F2hc prior to the plasma membrane and thus provide evidence for 4F2hc functioning as a chaperone in assisting the transport of y(+)LAT-1 to the plasma membrane.

  11. Simulation of X-ray transient absorption for following vibrations in coherently ionized F2 molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutoi, Anthony D.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond and attosecond X-ray transient absorption experiments are becoming increasingly sophisticated tools for probing nuclear dynamics. In this work, we explore and develop theoretical tools needed for interpretation of such spectra,in order to characterize the vibrational coherences that result from ionizing a molecule in a strong IR field. Ab initio data for F2 is combined with simulations of nuclear dynamics, in order to simulate time-resolved X-ray absorption spectra for vibrational wavepackets after coherent ionization at 0 K and at finite temperature. Dihalogens pose rather difficult electronic structure problems, and the issues encountered in this work will be reflective of those encountered with any core-valence excitation simulation when a bond is breaking. The simulations reveal a strong dependence of the X-ray absorption maximum on the locations of the vibrational wave packets. A Fourier transform of the simulated signal shows features at the overtone frequencies of both the neutral and the cation, which reflect spatial interferences of the vibrational eigenstates. This provides a direct path for implementing ultrafast X-ray spectroscopic methods to visualize coherent nuclear dynamics.

  12. Sulfide capacity of CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaki, Katsujiro; Maeda, Masafumi; Sano, Nobuo

    1990-02-01

    The sulfide capacity C S 2- = (pct S2-) · ( P O 2/ P S 2)1/2) of CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slags saturated with CaO, 3CaO · SiO2 or 2CaOSiO2 was determined at 1200 °C, 1250 °C, 1300 °C, and 1350 °C by equilibrating molten slag, molten silver, and CO-CO2 gas mixtures. Higher sulfide capacities were obtained for CaO-saturated slags. A drastic decrease was observed in those values when the ratio pct CaO/pct SiO2 is less than 2. The sulfur partition between carbon-saturated iron melts and presently investigated slags was calculated by using the sulfide capacities obtained and the activity coefficient of sulfur in carbon-saturated iron, which was also experimentally determined. For slags saturated with CaO, partitions of sulfur as high as 10,000 were obtained at 1300 °C and 1350 °C. Correlations between the sulfide capacity and other basicity indexes such as carbonate capacity and theoretical optical basicity were also discussed.

  13. Circadian variations of prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha release in the golden hamster retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zavalía, Nuria; Fernandez, Diego C; Sande, Pablo H; Keller Sarmiento, María I; Golombek, Diego A; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Silberman, Dafne M

    2010-02-01

    Circadian variations of prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha release were examined in the golden hamster retina. Both parameters showed significant diurnal variations with maximal values at midnight. When hamsters were placed under constant darkness for 48 h, the differences in prostaglandin release between subjective mid-day and subjective midnight persisted. Western blot analysis showed that cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 levels were significantly higher at midnight than at mid-day, and at subjective midnight than at subjective mid-day, whereas no changes in COX-2 levels were observed among these time points. Immunohistochemical studies indicated the presence of COX-1 and COX-2 in the inner (but not outer) retina. Circadian variations of retinal prostaglandin release were also assessed in suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)-lesioned animals. Significant differences in retinal prostaglandin release between subjective mid-day and subjective midnight were observed in SCN-lesioned animals. These results indicate that hamster retinal prostaglandin release is regulated by a retinal circadian clock independent from the SCN. Thus, the present results suggest that the prostaglandin/COX-1 system could be a retinal clock output or part of the retinal clock mechanism.

  14. Mellin moments of heavy flavor contributions to F_2(x,Q^2) at NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the calculation of fixed moments of the O(a_s^3) heavy flavor contributions to the Wilson coefficients of the structure function F_2(x,Q^2) in the limit Q^2 >> m^2, neglecting power corrections. The massive Wilson coefficients in the asymptotic region are given as convolutions of massive operator matrix elements (OMEs) and the known light flavor Wilson coefficients. The former derive from the twist--2 operators emerging in the light--cone--expansion and are calculated at the 3--loop level for fixed moments. We also compute the massive OMEs which are needed to evaluate heavy flavor parton distributions in the variable flavor number scheme to the same order. All contributions to the Wilson coefficients and OMEs but the genuine constant terms at O(a_s^3) of the OMEs are derived in terms of quantities, which are known for general values in the Mellin variable N. For the OMEs A_{Qg}^(3), A_{qg,Q}^(3) and A_{gg,Q}^(3) the moments N = 2 to 10, for A_{Qq}^{(3), PS} to N = 12, and for A_{...

  15. Synchronization of ovulation in goats using prostaglandin F2α based protocols during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45 ° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropinreleasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, these PGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.

  16. QTL mapping for test weight by using F2:3 population in maize

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun-Qiang Ding; Jin-Liang Ma; Chun-Rong Zhang; Hua-Fang Dong; Zhang-Ying Xi; Zong-Liang Xia; Jian-Yu Wu

    2011-04-01

    Test weight is an important trait in maize breeding. Understanding the genetic mechanism of test weight is important for effective selection of maize test weight improvement. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for maize test weight were identified. In the years 2007 and 2008, a F2:3 population along with the parents Chang7-2 and Zheng58 were planted in Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China. Significant genotypic variation for maize test weight was observed in both years. Based on the genetic map containing 180 polymorphic SSR markers with an average linkage distance of 11.0 cM, QTL for maize test weight were analysed by mixed-model composite interval mapping. Five QTL, including four QTL with only additive effects, were identified on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, and together explained 25.2% of the phenotypic variation. Seven pairs of epistatic interactions were also detected, involving 11 loci distributed on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7, respectively, which totally contributed 18.2% of the phenotypic variation. However, no significant QTL × environment (Q×E) interaction and epistasis × environment interaction effects were detected. The results showed that besides the additive QTL, epistatic interactions also formed an important genetic basis for test weight in maize.

  17. The identification of prostaglandins E2, F2α and A2 from rabbit kidney medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. B.; Crowshaw, K.; Takman, B. H.; Attrep, Katherine A.; Gougoutas, J. Z.

    1967-01-01

    Rabbit kidney medulla (10kg.) was homogenized in 5mm-disodium hydrogen phosphate and deproteinized with ethanol, and the concentrated supernatant solution was extracted at pH8 with light petroleum and at pH2 with chloroform. The acidic lipids present in the chloroform phase were separated on silicic acid columns into three biologically active fractions. The first fraction contained only vasodepressor activity; the second fraction contained both vasodepressor and non-vascular-smooth-muscle-stimulating activity; the third fraction contained both vasopressor and non-vascular-smooth-muscle-stimulating activity. Purification of each fraction by reversed-phase partition and thick-layer chromatography yielded three pure acids. Thin-layer chromatographic, spectroscopic and mass-spectral analysis of the acids and their methyl esters established their structures as prostaglandins E2, F2α and A2. Evidence is presented demonstrating that part or all of the prostaglandin A2 is formed during the isolation procedures from endogenous prostaglandin E2. PMID:16742553

  18. Plasma oxytocin but not prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite levels at cerclage may predict preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, O; Böhmer, S; Goeschen, K; Fuchs, A R

    1991-06-01

    Plasma oxytocin and prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite (PGFM) concentrations were measured in 45 patients admitted for cerclage during the second trimester. Samples were collected before, 3 hours after, and 3 days after the Shirodkar procedure. Uterine activity was recorded by external tocography twice daily for 30 minutes. Twenty-eight women with uncomplicated pregnancy and commensurate gestational age served as controls. Cervical length, measured by ultrasonography, was significantly shorter before cerclage (36 +/- 2 mm) than after cerclage (43 +/- 2 mm) or compared with controls (48 +/- 1 mm). Bishop scores ranged from 3-6 (median 4) in the cerclage group and 0-1 (median 0) in controls. Fifteen cerclage patients and one control delivered preterm 5-22 weeks after the procedure. Initial plasma PGFM levels were significantly higher in cerclage patients than in controls. The cerclage procedure caused an immediate rise in plasma PGFM and a subsequent fall below initial levels to control values. Neither the initial levels of PGFM nor the increments 3 hours after cerclage correlated with the outcome of pregnancy. By contrast, plasma oxytocin levels before cerclage were significantly higher in patients who subsequently delivered preterm than in those who delivered at term. Cerclage resulted in a significant fall in plasma oxytocin at 3 hours in patients with preterm delivery, but after 3 days the oxytocin levels had returned to the precerclage values. Patients who had increased uterine contractions had significantly higher plasma oxytocin levels but lower PGFM levels than those without contractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α, a possible prognostic marker in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, De-Sheng; Yan, Min; Hassan, Muhammad; Fang, Ze-Bin; Chen, Man-Tao

    2017-06-01

    8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is a potential biomarker of oxidative stress. This study clarified whether plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were affected and its underlying relevance to prognosis in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). In this prospective, observational study, a total of 170 controls and 170 aSAH patients were enrolled. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were detected using an ELISA. Severity was assessed by World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale and modified Fisher grading scale. Clinical outcomes included 6-month mortality and poor outcome referred to as Glasgow outcome scale score of 1-3. As compared to controls, admission plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations were significantly enhanced. Increased concentrations of plasma 8-iso-PGF2α correlated with WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores. 8-iso-PGF2α in plasma was an independent predictor for clinical outcomes. Under ROC curve, the predictive values of 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations resembled those of WFNS scores and modified Fisher scores for clinical outcomes. An elevation in plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations is associated with the severity and poor outcome after aSAH, substantializing 8-iso-PGF2α as a potential prognostic biomarker of aSAH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Investigation of rare nuclear decays with BaF$_2$ crystal scintillator contaminated by radium

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Di Marco, A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Tretyak, V I

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of a BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 101 hours in the low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was measured as $T_{1/2}(^{212}$Po) = 298.8$\\pm$0.8(stat.)$\\pm$1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events' pulse profiles. The $^{222}$Rn nuclide is known as 100% decaying via emission of $\\alpha$ particle with $T_{1/2}$ = 3.82 d; however, its $\\beta$ decay is also energetically allowed with $Q_\\beta = 24\\pm21$ keV. Search for decay chains of events with specific pulse shapes characteristic for $\\alpha$ or for $\\beta/\\gamma$ signals and with known energies and time differences allowed us to set, for the first time, the limit on the branching ratio of $^{222}$Rn relatively to $\\beta$ decay as $B_\\beta 8.0$ y). Half-life limits of $^{212}$Pb, $^{222}$Rn and $^{226}$Ra rel...

  1. Synchronization of ovulation in goats using prostaglandin F2α based protocols during the breeding season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    João Simões

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart)PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropin-releasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch)-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, thesePGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.

  2. Measurement of the Charm structure Function $F_{2}^{\\gamma},c$ of the Photon at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Busser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Cohen, I.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; Von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2002-01-01

    The production of charm quarks is studied in deep-inelastic electron-photon scattering using data recorded by the OPAL detector at LEP at normal e+e- centre-of-mass energies from 183 to 209 GeV. The charm quarks have been identified by full reconstruction of charged D* mesons using their decays into D0pi with the D0 observed in two decay modes with charged particle final states, Kpi and K3pi. The cross-section sigma(D*) for production of charged D* in the reaction e+e- -> e+e-D*X is measured in a restricted kinematical region using two bins in Bjorken x, 0.0014 e+e- ccbar X) and the charm structure function of the photon F 2,c are determined in the region 0.0014 0.1 the perturbative QCD calculation at next-to-leading order agrees perfectly with the measured cross-section. For x < 0.1 the measured cross-section is 43.8 +- 14.3 +- 6.3 +- 2.8 pb with a next-to-leading order prediction of 17.0+2.9-2.3 p.b.

  3. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra. PMID:16722306

  4. The Neutron Electric Dipole Moment using $N_f{=}2{+}1{+}1$ twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Constantinou, M; Hadjiyiannakou, K; Jansen, K; Koutsou, G; Ottnad, K; Petschlies, M

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the neutron electric dipole moment $\\vert\\vec{d}_N\\vert$ using lattice QCD techniques. The gauge configurations analysed are produced by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration using $N_f{=}2{+}1{+}1$ twisted mass fermions at one value of the lattice spacing of $a \\simeq 0.082 \\ {\\rm fm}$ and a light quark mass corresponding to $m_{\\pi} \\simeq 373 \\ {\\rm MeV}$. Our approach to extract the neutron electric dipole moment is based on the calculation of the $CP$-odd electromagnetic form factor $F_3(Q^2)$ for small values of the vacuum angle $\\theta$ in the limit of zero Euclidean momentum transfer $Q^2$. The limit $Q^2 \\to 0$ is realised either by adopting a parameterization of the momentum dependence of $F_3(Q^2)$ and performing a fit, or by employing new position space methods, which involve the elimination of the kinematical momentum factor in front of $F_3(Q^2)$. The computation in the presence of a $CP$-violating term requires the evaluation of the topological charge ${\\cal Q}$. This is computed ...

  5. The bottomonium spectrum at finite temperature from $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Gert; Harris, Tim; Kim, Seyong; Lombardo, Maria Paola; Ryan, Sinéad M; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar

    2014-01-01

    We present results on the bottomonium spectrum at temperatures above and below the deconfinement crossover temperature, $T_c$, from dynamical lattice QCD simulations. The heavy quark is treated with a non-relativistic effective field theory on the lattice and serves as a probe of the hot medium. Ensembles with a finer spatial lattice spacing and a greater range of temperatures below $T_c$ than those previously employed by this collaboration are used. In addition, there are $N_f=2+1$ flavours of Wilson clover quark in the sea with $M_\\pi\\approx400$ MeV and we perform a more careful tuning of the bottom quark mass in this work. We calculate the spectral functions of S and P wave bottomonium states using the maximum entropy method and confirm earlier findings on the survival of the ground state S wave states up to at least $2T_c$ and the immediate dissociation of the P wave states above $T_c$.

  6. Parameters of heavy quark effective theory from N{sub f}=2 lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blossier, Benoit [CNRS, Orsay (France). LPT; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Della Morte, Michele [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Fritzsch, Patrick [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Garron, Nicolas [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Heitger, Jochen [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Simma, Hubert; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Tantalo, Nazario [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Roma (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We report on a non-perturbative determination of the parameters of the lattice Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) Lagrangian and of the time component of the heavy-light axial-vector current with N{sub f} = 2 flavors of massless dynamical quarks. The effective theory is considered at the 1/m{sub h} order, and the heavy mass m{sub h} covers a range from slightly above the charm to beyond the beauty region. These HQET parameters are needed to compute, for example, the b-quark mass, the heavy-light spectrum and decay constants in the static approximation and to order 1/m{sub h} in HQET. The determination of the parameters is done non-perturbatively. The computation reported in this paper uses the plaquette gauge action and two different static actions for the heavy quark described by HQET. For the light-quark action we choose non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions.

  7. Delta F=2 Observables and Fine-Tuning in a Warped Extra Dimension with Custodial Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Monika; Duling, Bjoern; Gori, Stefania; Weiler, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete study of Delta S = 2 and Delta B = 2 processes in warped extra dimensional models with a custodial protection of Z b_L anti-b_L, including epsilon_K, Delta M_K, Delta M_s, Delta M_d, A_SL^q, Delta Gamma_q, A_CP(B_d -> psi K_S) and A_CP(B_s -> psi phi). These processes are affected by tree level contributions from Kaluza-Klein gluons and new heavy electroweak gauge bosons Z_H and Z', with the latter implied by the custodial protection mechanism. We confirm recent findings that the fully anarchic approach where all the hierarchies in quark masses and weak mixing angles are geometrically explained seems implausible and we confirm that the KK mass scale M_KK generically has to be at least ~ 20TeV to satisfy the epsilon_K constraint. We point out, however, that there exist regions in parameter space with only modest fine-tuning in the 5D Yukawa couplings which satisfy all existing Delta F = 2 and electroweak precision constraints for scales M_KK ~ 3TeV in reach of the LHC. Simultaneously we f...

  8. Prostaglandin F2α upregulates Slit/Robo expression in mouse corpus luteum during luteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejing; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Jiali; Luo, Haoshu; Gou, Kemian; Cui, Sheng

    2013-09-01

    Prostaglandin F2 α (PGF2 α) is a key factor in the triggering of the regression of the corpus luteum (CL). Furthermore, it has been reported that Slit/Robo signaling is involved in the regulation of luteolysis. However, the interactions between PGF2 α and Slit/Robo in the progression of luteolysis remain to be established. This study was designed to determine whether luteolysis is regulated by the interactions of PGF2 α and Slit/Robo in the mouse CL. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry results showed that Slit2 and its receptor Robo1 are highly and specifically co-expressed in the mouse CL. Functional studies showed that Slit/Robo participates in mouse luteolysis by enhancing cell apoptosis and upregulating caspase3 expression. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that PGF2 α significantly increases the expression of Slit2 and Robo1 during luteolysis through protein kinase C-dependent ERK1/2 and P38 MAPK signaling pathways, whereas an inhibitor of Slit/Robo signaling significantly decreases the stimulating effect of PGF2 α on luteolysis. These findings indicate that Slit/Robo signaling plays important roles in PGF2 α-induced luteolysis by mediating the PGF2 α signaling pathway in the CL.

  9. Thermoluminescence studies on γ-irradiated CaF2:Dy:Pb:Na single crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Masilla Moses Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) glow, thermoluminescence emission (TLE) and thermal decay (TD) of optical absorption (OA) bands were studied on γ-irradiated CaF2:Dy (0.010at.%):Pb (0.188at.%):Na (0.026at.%) single crystals (hereafter called crystal-I). The TL glow ex-hibited four glow peaks in the temperature region 300-600 K. The TL response with dose was studied up to ~7.5 kGy. The total glow showed linear, supra linear and exponential growth with dose. The TLE showed bands characteristic of Dy3+ ions (around 1.65, 1.87, 2.18 and 2.63 eV) and sodium associated (SA) colour centres (CCs) such as MNa (around 1.67 eV) and XNa (a new SA CC, with an emission band around 2.63 eV). The OA bands of MNa CC around 3.23 and 2.07 eV were found to decrease with temperature almost in accordance with the TL glow. The R+A centre absorption around 2.48 eV was found to grow with temperature initially and then decayed. The formation/growth of the CCs R+A and XNa might be from the conversion of the irradiation produced CC MNa- An attempt was made to explain the TL mechanism in the present system.

  10. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  11. Acute ozone exposure increases plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha in ozone-sensitive human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelegle, E.S.; Adams, W.C.; Giri, S.N.; Siefkin, A.D.

    1989-07-01

    Twenty O/sub 3/-sensitive and /sup 2/O O/sub 3/-nonsensitive subjects participated in a study to investigate the effects of disparate O/sub 3/ sensitivity on plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha responses consequent to exposure to ambient O3 concentrations. Subjects were selected from a pool of 75 normal healthy college-aged males who had been previously exposed to 0.35 ppm O3 for 1 h at an exercising VE of 60 L/min. The selection criterion used was the observed decrement in FEV1 after the O/sub 3/ exposure: O/sub 3/-sensitive, FEV1 decrement greater than 24%; O/sub 3/-nonsensitive, FEV1 decrement less than 11%. Each subject was exposed to filtered air and to 0.20 and 0.35 ppm O/sub 3/ for 80 min while exercising at a VE of 50 L/min. These experimental protocols were divided into two 40-min sessions separated by a period of 4 to 10 min. PGF2 alpha, FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 were evaluated before, during, and after each protocol. SGaw and Vtg were measured before and after each protocol. Plasma PGF2 alpha was significantly increased in the O/sub 3/-sensitive group during and after the 0.35-ppm O/sub 3/ exposure.

  12. Placental Origin of Prostaglandin F2α in the Domestic Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Siemieniuch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the question was addressed whether the feline placenta can synthesize prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α. The PGFS protein was elevated, particularly at 2.5–3 weeks of pregnancy compared to 7-8 (P<0.05 and 8.5–9 weeks (P<0.001. Transcripts for PGFS were significantly upregulated at 2.5–3 weeks of pregnancy and then gradually declined towards the end of gestation (P<0.001. Transcripts for PTGS2 were only upregulated in placentas from queens close to term (P<0.001 compared with earlier phases. Staining of PTGS2 showed distinct positive signals in placentas obtained during the last week before labor, particularly in the strongly invading trophoblast surrounding blood vessels, and also in decidual cells. Shortly after implantation, signals for PGFS were localized in the trophoblast cells. Near term, PGFS staining was seen mainly in decidual cells. Both placental PGF2α and plasma PGFM were elevated towards the end of pregnancy (P<0.001 compared with earlier weeks of pregnancy. The content of PGF2α in extracted placenta mirrored the PGFM level in plasma of pregnant females. During late gestation there is a significant increase in PGFM levels in maternal blood and of PGF2α levels in placental tissue concomitant with an upregulation of placental PTGS2.

  13. The effect of syllabification and gemination on F2 onsets in Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwuele, Augustine

    2003-04-01

    The quest to explain the continuousness of speech on the physical level has been dominated by the co-production theory [Hman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 41 (1966)]. According to this view, the production of a VCV sequence involves a diphthongal movement from V1-to-V2, with a superimposed consonantal gesture. However, data from recent studies are at variance with this position-Modaressi [Ph.D. dissertation, UT Austin, 2002], Perkell [Coarticulation Strategies Speech Commun. 5, 47-68 (1986)]. These studies document a trough-phenomena, which suggests a discontinuity in muscular activity during the production of the consonant. This paper provides additional acoustic evidence in support of sequential programming of consonant-vowel events as advocated by Joos [Acoustic Phonetics Lang. 24 (1948)]. It examines symmetrical VCV sequences in Swedish natural speech with syllable boundaries and duration of consonant gemination altered to produce different types of temporal interval between V1 and V2; i.e., V#CV, VCC#V, VC#CV, VCC#CV. F2 of V1mid, V1offset, V2onset, and V2mid were measured. Locus equations were plotted for all VC contacts. Statistical analysis of these data show: (1) de-activation of tongue movement at the CV boundary, (2) a reduction of the influence of V1 on V2 as a function of increasing consonant duration, and (3) a weak degree of CV coarticulation.

  14. 白腐真菌F2的生长及产木质素降解酶特性的研究%Characterization of growth and ligninolytic enzymes production of a white rot fungus F2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠珍; 文湘华

    2005-01-01

    考察了从我国生物资源中筛分出的白腐真菌F2的生长特性,采用多因素试验法研究了F2菌产木质素降解酶的特性;用统计学方法对试验数据进行了误差分析,并分析了多种影响因素对F2菌产木质素降解酶的影响.实验结果表明:F2菌在PDA培养基平板上和Tien&Kirk培养基中都生长良好且生长速率较高;在自由悬浮振荡培养(不通氧气)条件下,F2菌产LiP的最高酶活可达60.5 U·L-1,MnP的最高酶活可达263.4 U·L-1,其产酶能力超过了黄孢原毛平革菌在自由悬浮振荡培养(不另外通入氧气)条件下的产酶能力.本研究还发现向培养基中添加的Cu2+浓度超过1μmol稬-1时会抑制F2菌产LiP,以往的文献未报道过Cu2+的这种抑制作用.

  15. Effect of CaF2 on the Performance of Alite-strontium Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement%CaF2对阿利特-硫铝酸锶钙水泥性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋英; 芦令超; 王守德

    2011-01-01

    Alite-strontium calcium sulphoaluminate cement, a new type of cementitious material is synthesized by combining strontium calcium sulphoaluminate with minerals of Portland cement. The influence of CaF2 on the synthesis and performance of the cement is studied by XRD, SEM-EDS, and lithofacies. The results show that suitable amount of CaF2 can benefit f-CaO combination and promote the formation of alite and strontium calcium sulphoaluminate at low temperature. The optimal mass fraction of CaF2 is 0. 6%. The compressive strength of the cement prepared under these conditions reaches to 32.8 MPa, 67.7 MPa and 120.4 MPa at 1 d,3 d and 28 d.%将硫铝酸锶钙矿物引入到硅酸盐熟料矿物体系中,合成阿利特-硫铝酸锶钙水泥.利用XRD,SEM-EDS和岩相等测试手段研究了CaF2对阿利特-硫铝酸锶钙水泥熟料矿物组成和水泥性能的影响.结果表明,CaF2能够促进固相反应使得阿利特在较低温度下形成,有利于阿利特和硫铝酸锶钙矿物的共存.当CaF2在熟料中的掺入量为0.6%时,阿利特-硫铝酸锶钙水泥的1 d、3 d和28 d抗压强度分别达到32.8 MPa、67.7 MPa和120.4 MPa,表现出良好的力学性能.

  16. The INGV software for the automatic scaling of foF2 and MUF(3000)F2 from ionograms: A performance comparison with ARTIST 4.01 from Rome data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzopane, Michael; Scotto, Carlo

    2005-08-01

    The performance of a computer program, called Autoscala, for the automatic scaling of foF2 and MUF(3000)F2 from ionograms has been extensively tested. Results of comparisons between automatically and manually scaled data are shown both for Autoscala and for ARTIST (release 4.01). Particular attention has been paid to the cases in which the ionograms have a truncated trace. The problem of the rejection of bad quality ionograms has been also considered. The analysis of data shows that the reliability of values automatically given as output by Autoscala is good. For the data set considered Autoscala seems to operate better than ARTIST.

  17. Shock Wave and Theoretical Modeling Study of the Dissociation of CH2F2. I. Primary Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, C J; Hintzer, K; Sölter, L; Tellbach, E; Thaler, A; Troe, J

    2017-10-09

    The unimolecular dissociation of CH2F2 leading to CF2 + H2, CHF + HF, or CHF2 + H is investigated by quantum-chemical calculations and unimolecular rate theory. Modeling of the rate constants is accompanied by shock wave experiments over the range of 1400-1800 K, monitoring the formation of CF2. It is shown that the energetically most favorable dissociation channel leading to CF2 + H2 has a higher threshold energy than the energetically less favorable one leading to CHF + HF. Falloff curves of the dissociations are modeled. Under the conditions of the described experiments, the primary dissociation CH2F2 → CHF + HF is followed by the reaction CHF + HF → CF2 + H2. The experimental value of the rate constant for the latter reaction indicates that it does not proceed by an addition-elimination process involving CH2F2* intermediates, as assumed before.

  18. Estimation Model for Electrical Conductivity of CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guan-yong; Zhang, Ting-an; Dou, Zhi-he; Niu, Li-ping

    2016-09-01

    Electrical conductivity is one of the most important properties of molten slags. It has an important influence on process parameter selection of the electroslag remelting process. In the present work, a new model for estimating electrical conductivity of high-temperature slags has been proposed via calculating the conductivity by electrical conductivity of pure substances and interaction parameters between the different components in the slag has been proposed. In this model, the Arrhenius law is used to describe the relationship between electrical conductivity and temperature of slags. This model has been successfully applied to the CaF2-Al2O3, CaF2-CaO, and CaO-Al2O3, as well as CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 systems, and the calculated results are in good agreement with the measured values.

  19. The effects of Tb3+ doping concentration on luminescence properties and crystal structure of BaF2 phosphor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhenxing Du; Quansheng Liu; Tianjiang Hou; Yue Song; Xiyan Zhang; Yanyu Cui

    2015-06-01

    This paper is aimed at explaining the effects of Tb3+ concentration on structure and luminescence properties and clarifying the concentration quenching mechanism of Tb3+. The lattice of BaF2 decreases with the increase of Tb3+ ions concentration. The emission spectrum of BaF2:Tb3+ consists of blue emission band and green emission band and corresponds to the transition of 5D3 $\\to$ 7F ( =0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) and 5D4 $\\to$ 7F ( =2, 3, 4, 5, 6) of Tb3+. The optimum concentration of Tb3+ is 4 mol%, and the concentration quenching mechanism of Tb3+ can be interpreted by the dipole–quadrupole (d–q) interaction.

  20. The Versatile Behavior of Platinum Alkyne Complexes towards XeF2 : Formation of Fluorovinyl and Fluorido Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Josefine; Braun, Thomas; Ahrens, Theresia; Kläring, Paul; Laubenstein, Reik; Braun-Cula, Beatrice

    2017-07-03

    Reactions of platinum(0) tolane complexes, bearing a chelating ligand with P and N donor atoms, with the electrophilic fluorinating agent XeF2 give facile access to platinum(II) β-fluorovinyl fluorido complexes. A series of new platinum(II) β-fluorovinyl complexes have been synthesized and were structurally characterized. Further oxidation with XeF2 led to ortho-metalated platinum(IV) fluorido compounds. Additional reactions of platinum(0) tolane complexes, bearing a chelating P,P donor ligand, with XeF2 led to a variety of fluorido and fluorovinyl complexes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Topological susceptibility and chiral condensate with $N_f=2+1+1$ dynamical flavors of maximally twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Cichy, K; Garcia-Ramos, E; Jansen, K

    2011-01-01

    We study the 'spectral projector' method for the computation of the chiral condensate and the topological susceptibility, using $N_f=2+1+1$ dynamical flavors of maximally twisted mass Wilson fermions. In particular, we perform a study of the quark mass dependence of the chiral condensate $\\Sigma$ and topological susceptibility $\\chi_{top}$ in the range $270 MeV < m_{\\pi} < 500 MeV$ and compare our data with analytical predictions. In addition, we compute $\\chi_{top} in the quenched approximation where we match the lattice spacing to the $N_f=2+1+1$ dynamical simulations. Using the Kaon, $\\eta$ and $\\eta^{\\prime}$ meson masses computed on the $N_f=2+1+1$ ensembles, we then perform a preliminary test of the Witten-Veneziano relation.

  2. High-Q MgF$_2$ whispering gallery mode resonators for refractometric sensing in aqueous environment

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlmeir, Florian; Leuchs, Gerd; Schwefel, Harald G L

    2014-01-01

    We present our experiments on refractometric sensing with ultrahigh-Q, crystalline, birefringent magnesium fluoride (MgF$_2$) whispering gallery mode resonators. The difference to fused silica which is most commonly used for sensing experiments is the small refractive index of MgF$_2$ which is very close to that of water. Compared to fused silica this leads to more than 50% longer evanescent fields and a 4.25 times larger sensitivity. Moreover the birefringence amplifies the sensitivity difference between TM and TE type modes which will enhance sensing experiments based on difference frequency measurements. We estimate the performance of our resonators and compare them with fused silica theoretically and present experimental data showing the interferometrically measured evanescent decay and the sensitivity of mm-sized MgF$_2$ whispering gallery mode resonators immersed in water. They show reasonable agreement with the developed theory. Furthermore, we observe stable Q factors in water well above $1 \\times 10^...

  3. A 4F2-cross-point phase change memory using nano-crystalline doped GeSbTe material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaura, Norikatsu; Kinoshita, Masaharu; Tai, Mitsuharu; Ohyanagi, Takasumi; Akita, Kenichi; Morikawa, Takahiro

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports on the use of nano-crystalline doped GeSbTe, or nano-GST, to fabricate a cross-point phase change memory with 4F2 cell size and test results obtained for it. We show the characteristics of a poly-Si diode select device with a high on-off ratio and data writing in a 4F2 memory cell array. The advantages of nano-GST over conventional GeSbTe are presented in terms of neighboring disturbance and 4F2 cross-point array formation. The memory cells’ high drivability, low power, and selective write and read performances are demonstrated. The scalability of the diode current density is also presented.

  4. EVALUASI KERAGAMAN GENETIK INDUK IKAN KERAPU SUNU (Plectropomus leopardus F-1 DAN TURUNANNYA (F-2 DENGAN PENANDA mt-DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Budi Moria Sembiring

    2012-12-01

    pada turunannya (F-2. Hal ini dimungkinkan bahwa yuwana yang dianalisis tersebut berasal dari populasi 3 komposit haplotip induk F-1. Hasil analisis dengan program Tools for Population Genetic Analysis (TFPGA menunjukkan bahwa nilai keragaman genetik induk F-1 mengalami penurunan sebesar 20,46% terhadap turunannya (F-2, hal ini diduga karena sedikitnya jumlah induk efektif yang memijah. Dengan demikian penambahan induk efektif perlu dilakukan untuk menghindari laju penurunan keragaman genetik.

  5. Unlocking the allergenic structure of the major house dust mite allergen der f 2 by elimination of key intramolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, T; Ichikawa, S; Yokota, T; Hatanaka, H; Inagaki, F; Okumura, Y

    2000-11-03

    We report on the structural background of the remarkable reduction of allergenicity in engineering of the major house dust mite allergen Der f 2. Disruption of intramolecular disulfide bonds in Der f 2 caused extensive conformational change that was monitored by circular dichroism and gel-filtration analysis. The degree of conformational change correlated well with the degree of reductions in the capacity to bind IgE and to induce histamine release from basophils in mite-allergic patients. Loosening the rigid tertiary structure by elimination of key intramolecular interactions is an effective strategy to reduce the number of high affinity IgE epitopes of allergen vaccine.

  6. Investigation of MgF2 optical thin films with ultralow refractive indices prepared from autoclaved sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tsuyoshi; Ishizawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Akira

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully developed a process to form high quality MgF(2) thin films with ultralow refractive indices from autoclaved sols prepared from magnesium acetate and hydrofluoric acid. And we have confirmed that our porous MgF(2) coatings have not only high transmittance in the UV region but also high uniformity of film thickness. They can be uniformly formed on phiv 300 mm substrates as a single coating and as a hybrid coating with sublayers formed by physical vapor deposition. They are expected to be applied to various optics that need high transmittance in the UV region.

  7. Prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr expression on porcine corpus luteum microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forni Monica

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The corpus luteum (CL is a transient endocrine gland and prostaglandin F2-alpha is considered to be the principal luteolysin in pigs. In this species, the in vivo administration of prostaglandin F2-alpha induces apoptosis in large vessels as early as 6 hours after administration. The presence of the prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr on the microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs of the porcine corpus luteum has not yet been defined. The aim of the study was to assess FPr expression in pCL-MVECs in the early and mid-luteal phases (EL-p, ML-p, and during pregnancy (P-p. Moreover, the effectiveness of prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment in inducing pCL-MVEC apoptosis was tested. Methods Porcine CLs were collected in the EL and ML phases and during P-p. All CLs from each animal were minced together and the homogenates underwent enzymatic digestion. The pCL-MVECs were then positively selected by an immunomagnetic separation protocol using Dynabeads coated with anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody and seeded in flasks in the presence of EGM 2-MV (Microvascular Endothelial Cell Medium-2. After 4 days of culture, the cells underwent additional immunomagnetic selection and were seeded in flasks until the confluent stage. PCR Real time, western blot and immunodetection assays were utilized to assess the presence of FPr on pCL-MVEC primary cultures. Furthermore, the influence of culture time (freshly isolated, cultured overnight and at confluence and hormonal treatment (P4 and E2 on FPr expression in pCL-MVECs was also investigated. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay of pCL-MVECs exposed to prostaglandin F2-alpha. Results We obtained primary cultures of pCL-MVECs from all animals. FPr mRNA and protein levels showed the highest value (ANOVA in CL-MVECs derived from the early-luteal phase. Moreover, freshly isolated MVECs showed a higher FPr mRNA value than those cultured overnight and confluent cells (ANOVA. prostaglandin F2-alpha

  8. Electrical properties and scaling behaviour of Sm3+ doped CaF2-bismuth borate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Ali; M H Shaaban

    2011-06-01

    The electrical properties for 20Bi2O3–60B2O3 (20−)–CaF2–Sm2O3 glasses (0 ≤ ≤ 2) were measured in the temperature range 297 K up to 629 K and in the frequency range 0.1–100 kHz. The d.c. and a.c. conductivity values and the dielectric loss (tan ) values were found to increase with increasing Sm2O3 content, whereas the activation energy of conductivities and the dielectric constant decreased. These results were attributed to the introduction of the rare earth ions; promote the formation of a high number of non-bridging oxygen atoms, which facilitate the mobility of charge carriers. The frequency dependence of the a.c. conductivity follows the power law ac() =As . The frequency exponent () values (0.64 < < 0.8) decrease with increasing temperature. This suggested that the a.c. conduction mechanism follows the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH). The dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss (tan values) were found to increase with increasing temperature and increasing Sm2O3 concentration in the glass. The a.c. conductivities as a function of frequency at different temperatures of a given glass superimposed onto a master curve (Roling scaling model). Furthermore, we have performed to scale the data as a function of composition. Two master curves were obtained, which suggested that there are differences in dominant charge carriers between glasses having Sm2O3 concentration ≥1 and glass of Sm2O3 concentration <1.

  9. Role of (18F) 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in upper gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth C Smyth; Manish A Shah

    2011-01-01

    The role of whole-body FDG [(18F) 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose] positron emission tomography (PET) scanning as an imaging modality in the management of patients with malignancy has evolved enormously over the past two decades. FDG-PET has demonstrated significant efficacy in the staging, prognostication and detection of occult metastatic disease in malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, in addition to assessment of the response to cytotoxic chemotherapy in a more timely manner than has traditionally been possible by more conventional imaging tools. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for the detection and staging of malignancy depend not only on the site and size of the primary tumor and metastases, but also on histological cell type, reflecting underlying disparities in glucose metabolism. The metabolic response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy or to chemo-radiotherapy in cancers of the gastro-esophageal junction or stomach has been demonstrated in several prospective studies to correlate significantly with both the histological tumor response to treatment and with consequent improvements in overall survival. This may offer a future paradigm of personalized treatment based on the PET response to chemotherapy. FDG-PET has been less successful in efforts to screen for and detect recurrent upper gastrointestinal malignancies, and in the detection of low volume metastatic peritoneal disease. Efforts to improve the accuracy of PET include the use of novel radiotracers such as (18F) FLT (3-deoxy-3-fluorothymidine) or 11C-choline, or fusion PET-CT with concurrent high-resolution computed tomography. This review focuses on the role of FDG-PET scanning in staging and response assessment in malignancies of the upper gastrointestinal tract, specifically gastric, esophageal and pancreas carcinoma.

  10. Low-energy electron attachment to the dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2) molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, K; Haughey, S A; Field, T A; Mayhew, C A; Hoffmann, T H; May, O; Fedor, J; Allan, M; Fabrikant, I I; Illenberger, E; Braun, M; Ruf, M-W; Hotop, H

    2010-01-28

    Results from a joint experimental study of electron attachment to dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl(2)F(2)) molecules in the gas phase are reported. In a high resolution electron beam experiment involving two versions of the laser photoelectron attachment method, the relative cross section for formation of the dominant anion Cl(-) was measured over the energy range 0.001-1.8 eV at the gas temperature T(G) = 300 K. It exhibits cusp structure at thresholds for vibrational excitation of the nu(3)(a(1)) mode due to interaction with the attachment channels. With reference to the thermal attachment rate coefficient k(T = 300 K) = 2.2(8) x 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1) (fitted average from several data), a new highly resolved absolute attachment cross section for T(G) = 300 K was determined. Partial cross sections for formation of the anions Cl(-), Cl(2)(-), F(-), ClF(-), and CCl(2)F(-) were measured over the range 0-12 eV, using three different electron beam experiments of medium energy resolution. The dependence of the attachment rate coefficient k(T(e);T(G) = 300 K) on electron temperature T(e) was calculated over the range 50-15 000 K, based on a newly constructed total cross section for anion formation at T(G) = 300 K. R-matrix calculations for Cl(-) production have been carried out for comparison with the experimental data. The R-matrix results are in line with the main experimental observations and predict the dependence of the DEA cross section on the initial vibrational level nu(3)() and on the vibrational temperature. Furthermore, the cross section for vibrational excitation of the nu(3) mode has been computed.

  11. Neutron electric dipole moment using N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, C.; Athenodorou, A.; Constantinou, M.; Hadjiyiannakou, K. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Koutsou, G. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Ottnad, K. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Petschlies, M. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics

    2016-03-15

    We evaluate the neutron electric dipole moment vertical stroke vector d{sub N} vertical stroke using lattice QCD techniques. The gauge configurations analyzed are produced by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration using N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass fermions at one value of the lattice spacing of a ≅0.082 fm and a light quark mass corresponding to m{sub π}≅373 MeV. Our approach to extract the neutron electric dipole moment is based on the calculation of the CP-odd electromagnetic form factor F{sub 3}(Q{sup 2}) for small values of the vacuum angle θ in the limit of zero Euclidean momentum transfer Q{sup 2}. The limit Q{sup 2}→0 is realized either by adopting a parameterization of the momentum dependence of F{sub 3}(Q{sup 2}) and performing a fit, or by employing new position space methods, which involve the elimination of the kinematical momentum factor in front of F{sub 3}(Q{sup 2}). The computation in the presence of a CP-violating term requires the evaluation of the topological charge Q. This is computed by applying the cooling technique and the gradient flow with three different actions, namely the Wilson, the Symanzik tree-level improved and the Iwasaki action. We demonstrate that cooling and gradient flow give equivalent results for the neutron electric dipole moment. Our analysis yields a value of vertical stroke vector d{sub N} vertical stroke =0.045(6)(1) anti θ e.fm for the ensemble with m{sub π}=373 MeV considered.

  12. Blood F2-isoprostanes are significantly associated with abnormalities of lipid status in rats with steatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man-Sie Zhu; Li-Juan Sun; Yue-Qin Uu; Yan-Ling Feng; Hai-Tao Tong; Ying-He Hu; Zheng Zhao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate oxidative stress and lipid peroxi-dation in hepatic steatosis and the underlying implica-tions in pathological mechanisms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).METHODS: F2-isoprostanes (iPF2α-Ⅲ) in blood and liver samples from steatotic (n = 9) and control (n = 7)rats were measured as in vivo marker of lipid peroxida-tion by a mass spectrometric approach. The lipid pro-file and endogenous antioxidant status (SOD and CAT)in the rats were also analyzed.RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of iPF2α-Ⅲ (mean3.47 vs 2.40 pmol/mg tissue, P = 0.004) and lower activities of SOD (mean 1.26 U vs 1.40 U, P < 0.001) and CAT (mean 1026.36 U/mg vs 1149.68 U/mg pro-tein, without significance) were observed in the livers of steatotic rats. Plasma total iPF2α-Ⅲ was significantly correlated with the abnormalities of blood lipids as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in the rats with simple steatosis, whereas no similar tendencies were observed in the control rats.CONCLUSION: Enhancement of hepatic oxidative imbalance occurring at the steatotic stage of NAFLD suggests a possibility that manifestation of the local oxidative damage precedes that of systemic oxidativeimbalance. Predominant metabolic features of the in-creased lipid peroxidation further suggest a close asso-ciation of the oxidative imbalance and the dyslipidemia with functional deterioration of the steatotic liver. The findings need to be further evaluated, especially in hu-man studies.

  13. Effects of prostaglandin F2α on small intestinal interstitial cells of Cajal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan Guk Park; Young Dae Kim; Man Yoo Kim; Jae Woong Koh; Jae Yeoul Jun; Cheol Ho Yeum; Insuk So; Seok Choi

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)? on pacemaker activity in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) from mouse small intestine.METHODS: In this study, effects of PGF2α in the cul-tured ICC cells were investigated with patch clamp tech-nology combined with Ca2+ image analysis.RESULTS: Externally applied PGF2α (10 μmol/L) pro-duced membrane depolarization in current-clamp mode and increased tonic inward pacemaker currents in volt-age-clamp mode. The application of flufenamic acid (a non-selective cation channel inhibitor) or niflumic acid (a Cl- channel inhibitor) abolished the generation of pace-maker currents but only flufenamic acid inhibited the PGF2α-induced tonic inward currents. In addition, the tonic inward currents induced by PGF2α were not inhib-ited by intracellular application of 5’-[-thio]diphosphate trilithium salt. Pretreatment with Ca2+ free solution, U-73122, an active phospholipase C inhibitor, and thapsigargin, a Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor in endoplasmic reticulum, abolished the generation of pacemaker cur-rents and suppressed the PGF2α-induced tonic inward currents. However, chelerythrine or calphostin C, protein kinase C inhibitors, did not block the PGF2α-induced ef-fects on pacemaker currents. When recording intracel-lular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) concentration using fluo-3/AM, PGF2α broadly increased the spontaneous [Ca2+]i oscillations.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PGF2α can modulate pacemaker activity of ICC by acting non-selec-tive action channels through phospholipase C-dependent pathway via [Ca2+]i regulation

  14. Modulation of JB6 Mouse Epidermal Cell Transformation Response by the Prostaglandin F2 Alpha Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Thomas J.; Markillie, Lye MENG.; Chrisler, William B.; Vielhauer, George A.; Regan, John W.

    2002-12-01

    Prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) has been associated with the modulation of clonal selection processes in the mouse skin model of carcinogenesis. We have investigated whether JB6 mouse epidermal cells express a functional PGF2a receptor (FP) coupled to the regulation of anchorage-dependent and -independent growth. Treatment of JB6 cells with a FP receptor ligand (fluprostenol) potently (pM-nM) increased anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, as determined by a battery of in vitro assays. Treatment of JB6 cells with PGF2a and fluprostenol increased inositol phospholipid accumulation and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activity, consistent with FP receptor-related signaling. FP receptor mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and a radiolabel binding assay determined the average specific [3H]PGF2a binding to be 8.25 + 0.95 fmol/mg protein. Treatment of cells with fluprostenol as a single exposure resulted in a significant increase in anchorage-dependent and -independent growth in media containing low (0.1-0.5%), but not high (5%) concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS). In contrast, treatment of cells with fluprostenol at two day intervals resulted in a more robust growth response under anchorage-dependent conditions only in media containing low FBS concentrations; and under anchorage-independent conditions only in media containing high FBS concentrations. ERK activation and colony size were increased by cotreatment of JB6 cells with EGF and fluprostenol to a greater extent than either treatment alone, while the cotreatment effect on colony number appeared to be simply additive. In summary, FBS concentration and signal oscillation exert pronounced effects on the biological response to a FP receptor agonist. The data raise the possibility that the FP receptor may independently contribute to clonal selection processes, but may play a more important role as a response modifier.

  15. 陆地棉永久 F2群体产量、杂种优势及相关关系分析%Analysis of yield, heterosis and their correlation of cotton immortalized F2 population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保勤; 李宾; 李俊文; 刘书梅; 贾新合

    2016-01-01

    利用重组自交系RIL群体两两随机组配构建1套含98个组合的永久F2群体。通过对永久群体7个性状的杂种优势表现及其性状之间的相关性进行分析,探讨永久F2群体经济性状关系。结果表明,永久F2群体的7个性状在2年3点3个不同环境下均具有明显的杂种优势,中亲优势和优势组合率较大;产量构成因子的相关系数中铃重最大,其次是单株结铃数和衣分;永久群体的竞争优势为负向,理论上此永久F2群体不能在生产上直接利用来作为杂交亲本,但可以作为遗传群体的研究材料。%In order to analyse the heterosis of yield and traits of cotton , a set of recombinant inbred line ( RIL) de-rived from a hybrid combination ( sGK9708 × 0-153 ) was used to constructed an immortalized F 2 ( IF2 ) popula-tion.This IF2 population included 98 single crosses.The heterosis analysis of seven yield traits and their correlation of immortalized F2 population was studied .The results showed that this seven traits had obvious heterosis in different environments , middle parents advantage and advantage combination rate were both larger .In the correlation factors of production , boll weight was the greatest , followed by the boll number per plant and lint percentage .Permanent group competitive advantage was negative , so this immortalized F2 population could not be directly used theoretically in pro-duction, but it could be used as genetic group research materials .

  16. Synthesis, Structures, Fluorescence and Magnetism of Two Lanthanide Metal-organic Frameworks with CaF2 Topology Based on Silicon-centered Tetrahedral Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang-xue; XUE Ming; HUANG Lin; CHEN Si-ru; QIU Shi-lun

    2013-01-01

    Two 3D multifunctional lanthanide metal-organic frameworks(MOFs),Pr(HTCPS)(H2O)·2DMF·C2H5OH·5H2O(JUC-93) and Pr3(TCPS)2(NO3)(H2O)4(DMA)2·2DMA·C2H5OH·3H2(JUC-94)[H4TCPS=tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)-silane,DMF=N,N'-dimethylformamide,DMA=N,N'-dimethylacetamide and JUC=Jilin University China] were synthesized by the self-assembly of a rigid silicon-centered tetrahedral carboxylate ligand H4TCPS and Pr(Ⅲ) ions in different solvothermal reactions.X-Ray crystallography revealed that they exhibited a rare CaF2 topology framework,constructed from the 4-connected tetrahedral TCPS unit with the 8-connected dinuclear praseodymium cluster unit and trinuclear praseodymium cluster unit,respectively.In addition,the luminescent and magnetic properties of the two compounds were investigated.

  17. Ca3Na4LiBe4B10O24F: a new beryllium borate with a unique beryl borate ∞(2)[Be8B16O40F2] layer intrabridged by [B12O24] groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyang; Yao, Wenjiao; Gong, Pifu; Yao, Jiyong; Lin, Zheshuai; Chen, Chuangtian

    2014-08-18

    A novel beryllium borate, Ca3Na4LiBe4B10O24F, has been discovered. It possesses a unique ∞(2)[Be8B16O40F2] layer composed of two opposite parallel [Be4B4O12F]∞ layers bridged with [B12O24] polyborates. The linkage of [B12O24] to other structural units is first found in anhydrous borates. In the ∞(2)[Be8B16O40F2] layer, multiple tunnels are arranged along different directions resided by the alkali and alkaline-earth cations. The compound remains stable in an ambient atmosphere from room temperature to the melting point at 830 °C and melts incongruently.

  18. Colour centre LiF:F{2/s-} passive Q-switch for cw pumped Nd:Yag laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A. A.; Kubeček, V.; Sochor, V.; Kubelka, J.

    1987-06-01

    Operation of a cw pumped Nd:YAG laser Q-switched by a LiF crystal containing F{2/s-} centres is reported. Pulses of duration of 230 ns with a repetition rate of 1 3 kHz were generated. The colour centre Q-switch was used for the period of three months without any observable deterioration.

  19. Increased levels of the oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in wastewater associated with tobacco use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bade, Richard

    2016-01-01

    oxidative stress at a community level. In this work, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) was analysed in raw 24 h-composite wastewater samples collected from 4 Norwegian and 7 other European cities in 2014 and 2015. Using the same samples, biomarkers of alcohol (ethyl sulfate) and tobacco (trans-3...

  20. Structure and transport properties of LiF-BeF2 mixtures: Comparison of rigid and polarizable ion potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Shadrack Jabes; Manish Agarwal; Charusita Chakravarty

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structure and dynamics of the LiF-BeF2 system over a range of compositions using the transferable rigid-ion model (TRIM). The densities obtained with the TRIM potential are approximately 17-20% lower than the experimental values while polarizable ion models (PIM) give densities within 5% of the experimental value. The TRIM and PIM potentials give essentially identical radial distribution functions (RDFs) for Li-F and Be-F ion pairs though the Be-Be pair correlations differ significantly and reflect the corresponding density differences. The variation in the radial distribution functions with concentration, particularly the anion-anion pair correlation function, reflects the reorganization of the fluoride ions as the addition of BeF2 in the mixture promotes the formation of the tetrahedral fluoroberyllate network. Along the 67 mol% LiF isopleth, diffusivities and Nernst-Einstein ionic conductivities from simulations using the PIM and TRIM potentials are in good agreement for temperatures up to 925 K. The viscosity data using the PIM model is also found to be in good agreement with the TRIM results presented here along the 873K isotherm for compositions ranging from 0 to 50 mol% BeF2. The main conclusion from this study is that the non-polarizable, TRIM provides reasonable results for the structural correlations and transport properties of the LiF-BeF2 system in comparison with first-principles-based, PIM.

  1. Influencia del CaF2 sobre la capacidad de reacción de crudos de cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, Ángel

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a small quantity of CaF2 on the capacity of reaction of raw mixes has been studied in this paper; and for this purpose the thermal behaviours of a commercial raw mix without the addition of CaF2 were compared at different ages of clinkerization. The times required to complete the reactions at different temperatures are estimated. The mineralizer effect of fluorspar has a maximun at temperatures of clinkerization of about 1.200ºC and ages of cinkerization of about 10 minutes.En este trabajo se estudia el efecto de una pequeña cantidad de CaF2 sobre la capacidad de reacción de crudos de cemento, para lo cual se comparan los comportamientos térmicos en función del tiempo de clinkerización de un crudo comercial con y sin adición de CaF2. Se da una estimación de los tiempos necesarios para completar las reacciones a diferentes temperaturas. El efecto mineralizador del espato-fluor pasa por un máximo a temperaturas de clinkerización del orden de 1.200ºC y tiempos de clinkerización del orden de 10 minutos.

  2. Zinc tolerance and hyperaccumulation in F1 and F2 offspring from intra and interecotype crosses of Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frérot, H; Lefèbvre, C; Petit, C; Collin, C; Dos Santos, A; Escarré, J

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between zinc (Zn) tolerance and hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi caerulescens was investigated from F1 and F2 crosses within and among metallicolous and nonmetallicolous Mediterranean populations. F1 offspring were grown on increasingly Zn-enriched soils to test Zn enrichment effects, and many families of F2 offspring were grown on a Zn-rich soil. Tolerance of F1 offspring depended on stress intensity. Tolerance of interecotype crosses was intermediate between that of the intraecotype crosses. No difference in Zn accumulation appeared among the F1 offspring from the three crosses involving metallicolous parents. Otherwise, none of these offspring exceeded the Zn hyperaccumulation threshold (10,000 mg kg(-1)), unlike the nonmetallicolous ones. The latter also showed the highest mortality. In some F2 families from interecotype crosses, hyperaccumulation values exceeded 15,000 mg kg(-1) in nontolerant offspring, whereas tolerant offspring displayed lower values (c. 10,000 mg kg(-1)). There was no difference between tolerant and nontolerant offspring when they showed low hyperaccumulation. Therefore, the relationship between tolerance and hyperaccumulation in F1 and F2 crosses depended on the hyperaccumulation level of plants.

  3. Synthesis and photoluminescence of violet-blue phosphor Ba10(PO4)6F2: Eu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Xinguo; Pan, Jialiang

    2017-01-01

    A violet-blue phosphor of Ba10(PO4)6F2: Eu2+ was prepared by high-temperature solid state reaction. Luminescence, concentration quenching and thermal stability of Ba10(PO4)6F2: Eu2+ are systematically investigated. The phosphor exhibits a broadband UV absorption and a violet-blue emission peaking at 420 nm with corresponding CIE coordinates of (0.163, 0.024). It is found that Eu2+ ions occupy 9-coordinated Ba(1) and 7-coordinated Ba(2) site in Ba10(PO4)6F2, and therefore generate two emission sub-bands at 415 and 433 nm. The optimal concentration of Eu2+ is 5 mol% according to emission intensity and the quenching mechanism is verified to be a dipole-dipole interaction. Ba10(PO4)6F2: 0.05Eu2+ phosphor shows good thermal stability with 81% of room temperature intensity at 180 °C.

  4. Interethnic variability of CYP4F2 (V433M) in admixed population of Roma and Hungarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipeky, Csilla; Weber, Agnes; Melegh, Bela I; Matyas, Petra; Janicsek, Ingrid; Szalai, Renata; Szabo, Istvan; Varnai, Reka; Tarlos, Greta; Ganczer, Alma; Melegh, Bela

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacogenetic based dosing recommendations are provided in FDA-approved warfarin label for Caucasians. Evidence of notable difference in dosing algorithms of under-represented populations forced us to explore the genetic variability of CYP4F2 gene in Roma and Hungarian populations. 484 Roma, 493 Hungarian untreated subjects were genotyped for the CYP4F2*3 (rs2108622) variant by PCR-RFLP assay. We firstly report, that frequencies of the CYP4F2 rs2108622 GG, GA, AA genotypes and A allele in the Roma population were 46.5%, 42.6%, 10.9% and 32.2%; in Hungarians 50.1%, 42.2%, 7.7% and 22.8%, respectively. Bearing of two minor alleles of CYP4F2 missense variant (AA genotype) modestly explains inter-ethnic differences of studied populations (pRoma (0.32) was in higher range, and of Hungarians (0.23) in lower range, as compared with other world populations. Roma have an elevated chance for higher mean warfarin dose, besides a decreased risk of major bleeding events in long-term warfarin use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation of Ferritin and Transferrin Serum with hsCRP and F2-Isoprostane in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waode Nurfina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The low inflammatory state that accompanies the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS associates with the overexpression of oxidative stress. Ferritin and Transferrin serum are often used to measure iron status and their concentrations are altered in several metabolic conditions. We hypothesized that concentration of Ferritin and Transferrin serum increase in Metabolic Syndrome (MetS and correlate with the inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: We studied 65 male MetS patients, aged 43.26±7.16 years. Iron metabolism was measured by concentration of Ferritin and Transferrin serums, while inflammatory and oxidative stress by high sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hsCRP and F2-Isoprostane. RESULTS: Concentration of Ferritin 315.70±188.63 ng/L and Transferrin 2.36±0.31 g/L increased along with increasing components of MetS. Concentration of Ferritin serum had a positive correlation with hsCRP (r=0.220 and F2-Isoprostane (r=0.023. CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentration of Ferritin increased in the MetS and correlates with hsCRP and F2-Isoprostane. KEYWORDS: metabolic syndrome, ferritin, transferrin, hsCRP, F2-isoprostane.

  6. Regional optimization of the IRI-2012 output (TEC, foF2) by using derived GPS-TEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssessanga, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Accurate measurement and determination of the state of the ionosphere has become a key point as ground-based communication systems become more space dependent. However, due to limited infrastructure, a number of global models have been developed with extensive interpolation techniques to comprehensively describe ionospheric dynamics. As a result, most global models do not perform adequately in regions with a paucity of ionospheric measurements. In this paper, the most recent International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model output, Total Electron Content (TEC) and F2 layer critical frequency (foF2), are optimized (over a range of 120 ° E-150 ° E and 20 ° N-50 ° N in longitude and latitude, respectively). To obtain the optimal solution, we adjust two input parameters, the 12-month running mean sun spot number (R12) and the ionospheric index (IG12), in relation to the derived Global Positioning System (GPS) vertical TEC (VTEC). The results are compared to the measured TEC and foF2 from GPS receivers and ionosondes, respectively. The analysis shows that the modified IRI-2012 model is more accurate at estimating both the TEC and the foF2 values than the original model during days of geomagnetic quiet and disturbance.

  7. Improved Performance of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with MgF2 as the Anode Buffer Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jing; ZHANG De-Qiang; WANG Li-Duo; DUAN Lian; QIAO Juan; QIU Yong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) and tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) are improved by using a thin MgF2 buffer layer sandwiched between the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and hole transporting layer (HTL) of NPB.

  8. Computing K and D meson masses with N-f=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, Remi; Boucaud, Philippe; Carbonell, Jaume; Drach, Vincent; Farchioni, Federico; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Montvay, Istvan; Pallante, Elisabetta; Pene, Olivier; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten; Wagner, Marc; Wenger, Urs

    We discuss the computation of the mass of the K and D mesons within the framework of N-f = 2 + 1 + 1 twisted mass lattice QCD from a technical point of view. These quantities are essential, already at the level of generating gauge configurations, being obvious candidates to tune the strange and

  9. Effect of graphene on far-infrared transmission and absorption of FeF2 photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Zhou, Sheng; Fu, Shufang

    2017-10-01

    The influence of graphene (Gr) on the far-infrared transmission and absorption of FeF2 photonic crystals (PCs) is investigated by the forth-order transfer matrix since Gr is anisotropic when the external field is perpendicular to the surface of PCs. The numerical results show that the transmission and absorption spectra largely depend on the structural symmetry of Gr/FeF2 PCs and the position of Gr layer. The optimal structure and number of dielectric bi-layers (N) are discussed. In addition, the introduction of Gr leads to the disappearance of the defect modes in the band gap. Meanwhile, the line width of absorption around of the resonant frequencies of FeF2 has been extremely broadened, which is compared with the one of FeF2 PCs. Once N is beyond a critical value, the absorber will become the reflector. The effect of Fermi energy and external field on the absorption is also investigated.

  10. In situ X-ray observation of phase transitions in ZnF2 under high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, Keiji; Kikegawa, Takumi

    2008-02-01

    High-pressure and high-temperature behavior of ZnF 2 with the rutile-type structure was investigated using an energy-dispersive-type X-ray diffraction method. Two high-pressure phases were found in the range up to 15 GPa and 400 ∘C. The CaCl 2-type phase with an orthorhombic cell (space group: Pnnm) was clearly observed at 5.4 GPa and 400 ∘C. Further phase transition was induced above 10 GPa at room temperature. The single phase of the high-pressure phase was obtained at 15.3 GPa and 350 ∘C. The high-pressure phase was found to have the PdF 2-type structure with a cubic cell (space group: Pa-3). The single phase was observed above 4 GPa in a pressure-release process at room temperature, and completely reverted to a mixture of the rutile-type phase and the α- PbO 2-type phase at ambient condition. The high-pressure behavior of ZnF 2 was similar to that of MgF 2.

  11. Kaon and D meson masses with N_f = 2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, Remi; Carbonell, Jaume; Drach, Vincent; Farchioni, Federico; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Montvay, Istvan; Pallante, Elisabetta; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten; Wagner, Marc; Wenger, Urs

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the computation of the kaon and D meson masses in the N_f = 2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD setup, where explicit heavy flavor and parity breaking occurs at finite lattice spacing. We present three methods suitable in this context and verify their consistency.

  12. Combining two Meishan F2 crosses improves the detection of QTL on pig chromosomes 2, 4 and 6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tortereau, F.; Gilbert, H.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Bidanel, J-P.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Riquet, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genet Sel Evol. 2010 Nov 25;42(1):42. [Epub ahead of print] Combining two Meishan F2 crosses improves the detection of QTL on pig chromosomes 2, 4 and 6. Tortereau F, Gilbert H, Heuven HC, Bidanel JP, Groenen MA, Riquet J. Abstract ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In pig, a number of experiments have been set

  13. Scaling and low energy constants in lattice QCD with N_f=2 maximally twisted Wilson quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, P; Herdoiza, G; Urbach, C; Wenger, U

    2007-01-01

    We report on the scaling of basic hadronic observables in lattice QCD with N_f=2 maximally twisted Wilson dynamical quarks. We give preliminary results for some of the Gasser-Leutwyler low energy constants, the chiral condensate and the average mass of u and d quarks.

  14. Correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP4F2 and warfarin dosing in chinese valve replacement patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie-Hui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with implanted mechanical valve prostheses require lifelong anticoagulation therapy with warfarin. The narrow therapeutic index of warfarin makes it difficult to dose and maintain proper anticoagulation. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs affecting vitamin K or warfarin metabolism have been shown to affect warfarin dosing. Our aim was to study the effect of the CYP4F2 rs2108622-1347 (C > T variant on warfarin dosing in Chinese patients. Methods We studied 352 patients after heart valve replacement surgery. Warfarin dosing for patients was adjusted to achieve 1.8 ≤ INR ≤ 2.5. We determined the presence of SNPs in CYP4F2 in these patients and investigated their association with warfarin dosing. Results We found the frequency of the CYP4F2 rs2108622 C allele was 79.5% and T-allele frequency was 20.5%. The warfarin dose requirement for CC individuals was significantly lower than that for CT or TT individuals (P  Conclusions This study demonstrates that CYP4F2 rs2108622 significantly affects the warfarin dose requirement to achieve adequate anticoagulant activity in Chinese individuals. Genotyping of this SNP may allow clinicians to determine the initiation dose for patients following valve-replacement surgery in China.

  15. Neutron diffraction and TSDC on Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouwerkerk, M.; Andersen, N. H.; Veldkamp, F. F.

    1986-01-01

    The defect structure of fluorite-type Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid solutions, which exhibit fast fluoride ion conductivity, has been investigated by quasi-elastic diffuse neutron scattering (QDNS) experiments, and thermally stimulated depolarisation current (TSDC) measurements. A comparison with model...

  16. The Statistical Power of Inclusive Composite Interval Mapping in Detecting Digenic Epistasis Showing Common F2 Segregation Ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luyan Zhang; Huihui Li; Jiankang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Epistasis is a commonly observed genetic phenomenon and an important source of variation of complex traits,which could maintain additive variance and therefore assure the long-term genetic gain in breeding.Inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) is able to identify epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTLs) no matter whether the two interacting QTLs have any additive effects.In this article,we conducted a simulation study to evaluate detection power and false discovery rate (FDR) of ICIM epistatic mapping,by considering F2 and doubled haploid (DH) populations,different F2 segregation ratios and population sizes.Results indicated that estimations of QTL locations and effects were unbiased,and the detection power of epistatic mapping was largely affected by population size,heritability of epistasis,and the amount and distribution of genetic effects.When the same likelihood of odd (LOD) threshold was used,detection power of QTL was higher in F2 population than power in DH population; meanwhile FDR in F2 was also higher than that in DH.The increase of marker density from 10 cM to 5 cM led to similar detection power but higher FDR.In simulated populations,ICIM achieved better mapping results than multiple interval mapping (MIM) in estimation of QTL positions and effect.At the end,we gave epistatic mapping results of ICIM in one actual population in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

  17. The global distribution of the dusk-to-nighttime enhancement of summer NmF2 at solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiding; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Wan, Weixing; Zhang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the dusk-to-nighttime enhancement (DNE) of summer NmF2 was investigated based on Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate radio occultation observations at solar minimum. The global distributions of the magnitude and the peak time of the DNE as well as the role of the DNE in NmF2 diurnal cycle were presented. The DNE mainly exists in three regions (one in the Southern Hemisphere and two in the Northern Hemisphere), and its distribution is related to geomagnetic configuration, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. For most DNEs, their peaks correspond to the maxima of NmF2 diurnal cycle. The DNEs are much more prominent in the southern than in the northern summer hemisphere; they last to later nighttime hours, have larger magnitudes, and play more important roles in NmF2 diurnal cycle in the southern than in the northern summer hemisphere. The distribution of the DNE was analyzed in terms of photoionization and the vertical plasma drift induced by neutral winds. The positive geomagnetic declinations and the smaller geomagnetic inclinations at higher geographic latitudes over the South Pacific are crucial for the prominent DNEs in the southern summer hemisphere; they result in larger upward plasma drift at higher latitudes where photoionization is still significant at sunset and evening hours.

  18. Cervical dilatation related to uterine electromyographic activity and endocrinological changes during prostaglandin F(2alpha)-induced parturition in cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld-Dwarkasingh, V.N.; Struijk, P.C.; Lotgering, F.K.; Eijskoot, F.; Kindahl, H.; Weijden, G.C. van der; Taverne, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The temporal relationship between changes in cervical dilatation, uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity, and maternal plasma concentrations of estradiol 17beta (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin-F(2alpha) (PGFM), was investigated in six parturient cows. Calving

  19. QTL analysis of Kernel-related traits in maize using an immortalized F2 population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanhui; Liu, Zonghua; Hu, Yanmin; Li, Weihua; Fu, Zhiyuan; Ding, Dong; Li, Haochuan; Qiao, Mengmeng; Tang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Kernel size and weight are important determinants of grain yield in maize. In this study, multivariate conditional and unconditional quantitative trait loci (QTL), and digenic epistatic analyses were utilized in order to elucidate the genetic basis for these kernel-related traits. Five kernel-related traits, including kernel weight (KW), volume (KV), length (KL), thickness (KT), and width (KWI), were collected from an immortalized F2 (IF2) maize population comprising of 243 crosses performed at two separate locations over a span of two years. A total of 54 unconditional main QTL for these five kernel-related traits were identified, many of which were clustered in chromosomal bins 6.04-6.06, 7.02-7.03, and 10.06-10.07. In addition, qKL3, qKWI6, qKV10a, qKV10b, qKW10a, and qKW7a were detected across multiple environments. Sixteen main QTL were identified for KW conditioned on the other four kernel traits (KL, KWI, KT, and KV). Thirteen main QTL were identified for KV conditioned on three kernel-shape traits. Conditional mapping analysis revealed that KWI and KV had the strongest influence on KW at the individual QTL level, followed by KT, and then KL; KV was mostly strongly influenced by KT, followed by KWI, and was least impacted by KL. Digenic epistatic analysis identified 18 digenic interactions involving 34 loci over the entire genome. However, only a small proportion of them were identical to the main QTL we detected. Additionally, conditional digenic epistatic analysis revealed that the digenic epistasis for KW and KV were entirely determined by their constituent traits. The main QTL identified in this study for determining kernel-related traits with high broad-sense heritability may play important roles during kernel development. Furthermore, digenic interactions were shown to exert relatively large effects on KL (the highest AA and DD effects were 4.6% and 6.7%, respectively) and KT (the highest AA effects were 4.3%).

  20. Increased plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α concentration in severe human traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Feng; Jie, Yuan-Qing; Wu, An; Huang, Qiang; Dai, Wei-Min; Fan, Xiao-Feng

    2013-06-05

    8-Iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is considered as a gold standard for measuring oxidative stress in vivo. The present study was undertaken to investigate plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in severe human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to analyze its correlation with disease outcome. One hundred six healthy subjects and 106 severe TBI patients were recruited. The correlations of plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentration with 1-year mortality and unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) were analyzed. Thirty-one patients (29.2%) died and 48 patients (45.3%) had an unfavorable outcome at 1 year after TBI. Patients had significantly higher plasma 8-iso-PGF2α levels compared to healthy controls (572.1±157.5 pg/ml vs. 84.3±18.9 pg/ml, Piso-PGF2α level as an independent predictor for 1-year unfavorable outcome [odds ratio (OR) 1.401, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.107-2.371, P=0.005] and mortality (OR 1.609, 95% CI 1.113-3.142, P=0.003). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed plasma 8-iso-PGF2α level predicted 1-year unfavorable outcome [area under curve (AUC), 0.871; 95% CI, 0.792-0.928] and mortality (AUC, 0.881; 95% CI, 0.804-0.936) as statistically significantly. The prognostic value of 8-iso-PGF2α was similar to that of Glasgow Coma Scale score for 1-year clinical outcomes (both P>0.05). However, 8-iso-PGF2α did not improve the prognostic value of Glasgow Coma Scale score for 1-year clinical outcomes (both P>0.05). Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α level is highly associated with 1-year clinical outcomes of TBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. F2DPR: a fast and robust cross-correlation technique for volumetric PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Thomas; Jeon, Young Jin; Lecordier, Bertrand; David, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    The current state-of-the-art in cross-correlation based time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are the fluid trajectory correlation, FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013) and the fluid trajectory evaluation based on an ensemble-averaged cross-correlation, FTEE (Jeon et al 2014a). These techniques compute the velocity vector as a polynomial trajectory Γ in space and time, enabling the extraction of beneficial quantities such as material acceleration whilst significantly increasing the accuracy of the particle displacement prediction achieved by standard two-frame PIV. In the context of time-resolved volumetric PIV, the drawback of trajectory computation is the computational expense of the three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation, exacerbated by the requirement to perform N  -  1 cross-correlations, where N (for typically 5≤slant N≤slant 9 ) is the number of sequential particle volumes, for each velocity field. Therefore, the acceleration of this calculation is highly desirable. This paper re-examines the application of two-dimensional (2D) cross-correlation methods to three-dimensional (3D) datasets by Bilsky et al (2011) and the binning techniques of Discetti and Astarita (2012). A new and robust version of the 2D methods is proposed and described, called fast 2D projection—re-projection (f2dpr). Performance tests based on computational time and accuracy for both two-frame and multi-frame PIV are carried out on synthetically generated data. The cases presented herein include uniaxial uniform linear displacements and shear, and simulated turbulence data. The proposed algorithm is shown to be in the order of 10 times faster than a standard 3D FFT without loss of precision for a wide range of synthetic test cases, while combining with the binning technique can yield 50 times faster computation. The algorithm is also applied to reconstructed synthetic turbulent particle fields to investigate reconstruction noise on its performance and no

  2. [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in predicting radiation pneumonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hao; YU Jin-ming; Feng-ming Kong; LU Jie; BAI Tong; MA Li; FU Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Background Prevention is presently the only available method to limit radiation-induced lung morbidity. A good predictor is the key point of prevention. This study aimed to investigate if [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake changes in the lung after radiotherapy could be used as a new predictor for acute radiation pneumonitis (RP). Methods Forty-one patients with lung cancer underwent FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging before and after radiotherapy. The mean standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured for the isodose regions of 0-9 Gy, 10-19 Gy, 20-29 Gy, 30-39 Gy, 40-49 Gy. The mean SUV of these regions after radiotherapy was compared with baseline. The mean SUV in patients who developed RP was also compared with that in those who did not. The statistical difference was determined by matched pair t test. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)criteria were used for diagnosis and grading of RP.Results With a median follow-up of 12 months, 11 (26.8%) of the 41 patients developed grade 2 and above acute RP.The mean SUV of regions (10-19 Gy, 20-29 Gy, 30-39 Gy, 40-49 Gy) increased after radiation therapy in all 41 patients.The mean SUVs after radiation therapy were 0.54, 0.68, 1.31, 1.74 and 2.27 for 0-9 Gy, 10-19 Gy, 20-29 Gy, 30-39 Gy and 40-49 Gy, respectively. Before the radiation therapy, the mean SUV in each region was 0.53, 0.52, 0.52, 0.53 and 0.54, respectively. These patients had significantly higher FDG activities in regions receiving 10 Gy or more (P <0.001).Compared with their counterparts, the elevation of SUV was significantly greater in those patients who developed acute RP subsequently.Conclusion The mean SUV of the lung tissue may be a useful predictor for the acute RR FDG-PET/CT may play a new role in the study of the radiation damage of the lung.

  3. Clinical relevance of plasma prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentrations in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Aihara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating lung disease of unknown etiology with few current treatment options. Recently, we determined an important role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in pulmonary fibrosis by using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model and found an abundance of PGF2α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IPF patients. We investigated the role of PGF2α in human IPF by assessing plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α, a stable metabolite of PGF2α. METHODS: We measured plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α in 91 IPF patients and compared these values with those of controls (n = 25. We further investigated the relationships of plasma 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α concentrations with disease severity and mortality. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α were significantly higher in IPF patients than controls (p<0.001. Plasma concentrations of this metabolite were significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (Rs [correlation coefficient] = -0.34, p = 0.004, forced vital capacity (Rs = -0.33, p = 0.005, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (Rs = -0.36, p = 0.003, the composite physiologic index (Rs = 0.40, p = 0.001, 6-minute walk distance (Rs = -0.24, p = 0.04 and end-exercise oxygen saturation (Rs = -0.25, p = 0.04 when patients with emphysema were excluded. Multivariate analysis using stepwise Cox proportional hazards model showed that a higher composite physiologic index (relative risk = 1.049, p = 0.002 and plasma 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α concentrations (relative risk = 1.005, p = 0.002 were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated significant associations of plasma concentrations of PGF2α metabolites with disease severity and prognosis, which support a potential pathogenic role for PGF2α in human IPF.

  4. Induction of parturition in swine with prostaglandin F(2)alpha, estradiol benzoate and oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, M A; Day, B N

    1987-03-01

    Pregnant sows and gilts were administered either 0, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg prostaglandin F(2)alpha (PGF(2)alpha) intramuscularly on Day 112 or 113 of gestation at 0800 h in an effort to induce parturition. The average interval from PGF(2)alpha injection to farrowing was 55.1 +/- 5.7, 29.4 +/- 3.1, 32.1 +/- 4.6, 27.8 +/- 1.8 and 26.9 +/- 1.1 h for 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively. All PGF(2)alpha treatments increased (P gestation length was significantly shorter in treated gilts; however, no detrimental effect on pig performance or pig survivability was observed. A second trial evaluated the effect of a 10-mg dose of PGF(2)alpha on the induction of parturition in sows in order to obtain a majority of sows farrowing within normal working hours (0700 to 1700 h). The interval from injection to farrowing was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGF(2)alpha treatment (66.2 +/- 5.3 vs 28.1 +/- 2.2 h). Fifty-seven percent (P < 0.05) of PGF(2)alpha-treated sows farrowed between 0700 and 1700 h as compared to 13.6% for control sows. A third trial was conducted to examine a sequential treatment of PGF(2)alpha and oxytocin to control the time of parturition more precisely. Sows receiving only 10 mg of PGF(2)alpha farrowed on an average 31.1 +/- 1.4 h after injection. The injection of 40 IU oxytocin 24 to 28 h after PGF(2)alpha decreased (P < 0.05) the interval from PGF(2)alpha to farrowing (28.1 +/- 0.9 h). The addition of oxytocin increased (P < 0.05) the number of sows farrowing within 3 h of injection (33 vs 86% for PGF(2)alpha and PGF(2)alpha + oxytocin treatments, respectively). A fourth trial was designed to determine if the addition of exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB) to a sequential treatment of PGF(2)alpha and oxytocin would improve the predictability and synchronization of the induced parturition. Sows were assigned to receive either saline, 10 mg PGF(2)alpha + 40 IU oxytocin or 10 mg PGF(2)alpha + 5 mg EB + 40 IU oxytocin. The addition of EB reduced (P < 0.01) the variance in

  5. MgF2/Se薄膜封装层对OLED性能及寿命的影响%Influence of MgF2/Se film encapsulation layer on performance and lifetime of OLED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淑雅; 吕磊; 孔祥朝; 陈维铅; 张方辉

    2013-01-01

    有机电致发光器件(OLEDs)在使用过程中,易受到空气中水汽、氧气及其它污染物的影响从而导致其工作寿命降低.本文将具有良好光透过率和热稳定性的MgF2薄膜与在水汽和氧气中具有良好稳定性的Se薄膜通过真空蒸镀制成复合薄膜作为OLEDs的封装层,以达到提高器件使用寿命的目的.器件各功能层蒸镀完成后,保持真空度(3×10-4 Pa)不变,在阴极表面蒸镀MgF2/Se薄膜封装层.比较了绿光OLED器件(器件结构为ITO/CuPc/NPB/Alq3:C-545T/Alq3/LiF/A1)封装前后的亮度-电压-电流密度特性、电致发光光谱及寿命.研究发现,经过MgF2/Se封装后,器件的电流密度-电压特性、亮度和发光光谱几乎没有受到影响,二者的光谱峰都在528 nm处,色坐标(CIE)分别为(0.355 5,0.6131)和(0.3560,0.6104),只是起亮电压由3V变为4 V;器件的寿命由原来的175 h变为300 h,提高了1.7倍.因此,MgF2/Se薄膜是一种有效的OLEDs无机薄膜封装层.%Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are easy to be influenced by water vapor,oxygen of air and other pollutants,which leads to the reducing of their working life. In the paper,the MgF2 thin film with a good optical transmission and thermal stability and the Se thin film with a good stability in water vapor and oxygen were made in to composite thin film by vacuum evaporation as OLED encapsulation layer,and the lifetime of the device would be improved in expectation. The MgF2/Se thin film was vaporized on the cathode surface in the same conditon of vacuum (3?0-4 Pa) after the deposition of functional layers in OLEDs was completed. The luminance-voltage-current densities and electroluminesce spectra of green OLEDs (the device structure is ITO/CuPc/NPB/Alq3 :C-545T/Alq3/LiF/Al. )before and after encapsulation are compared. The research shows that the current density-voltage and electroluminesce spectrum of OLEDs are scarcely influenced by MgF2/Se encapsulation layer and both of their

  6. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset: E2F2 as a New Potential Modifier Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Valcárcel-Ocete

    Full Text Available Age of onset (AO of Huntington disease (HD is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the contribution of candidate genetic factors to HD AO in order to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disorder. For that purpose, two AO definitions were used: the earliest age with unequivocal signs of HD (earliest AO or eAO, and the first motor symptoms age (motor AO or mAO. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed between genetic variation within 20 candidate genes and eAO or mAO, using DNA and clinical information of 253 HD patients from REGISTRY project. Gene expression analyses were carried out by RT-qPCR with an independent sample of 35 HD patients from Basque Country Hospitals. We found suggestive association signals between HD eAO and/or mAO and genetic variation within the E2F2, ATF7IP, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, LINC01559, HIP1 and GRIK2 genes. Among them, the most significant was the association between eAO and rs2742976, mapping to the promoter region of E2F2 transcription factor. Furthermore, rs2742976 T allele patient carriers exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte E2F2 gene expression, suggesting a possible implication of E2F2-dependent transcriptional activity in HD pathogenesis. Thus, E2F2 emerges as a new potential HD AO modifier factor.

  7. [Pb2F2](SeO4): a heavier analogue of grandreefite, the first layered fluoride selenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkin, Dmitri O.; Plokhikh, Igor V.; Zadoya, Anastasiya I.; Kazakov, Sergey M.; Zaloga, Alexander N.; Kozin, Michael S.; Depmeier, Wulf; Siidra, Oleg I.

    2017-06-01

    Co-precipitation of PbF2 and PbSeO4 in weakly acidic media results in the formation of [Pb2F2](SeO4), the selenate analogue of the naturally occurring mineral grandreefite, [Pb2F2](SO4). The new compound is monoclinic, C2/c, a = 14.0784(2) Å, b = 4.6267(1) Å, c = 8.8628(1) Å, β = 108.98(1)°, V = 545.93(1) Å3. Its structure has been refined from powder data to R B = 1.55%. From thermal studies, it is established that the compound is stable in air up to about 300 °C, after which it gradually converts into a single phase with composition [Pb2O](SeO4), space group C2/m, and lattice parameters a = 14.0332(1) Å, b = 5.7532(1) Å, c = 7.2113(1) Å, β = 115.07(1)°, V = 527.37(1) Å3. It is the selenate analogue of lanarkite, [Pb2O](SO4), and phoenicochroite, [Pb2O](CrO4), and its crystal structure was refined to R B = 1.21%. The formation of a single decomposition product upon heating in air suggests that this happens by a thermal hydrolysis mechanism, i.e., Pb2F2SeO4 + H2O (vapor) → Pb2OSeO4 + 2HF↑. This relatively low-temperature process involves complete rearrangement of the crystal structure—from a 2D architecture featuring slabs [Pb2F2]2+ formed by fluorine-centered tetrahedra into a structure characterized by 1D motifs based on [OPb2]2+ chains of oxocentered tetrahedra. The comparative crystal chemistry of the obtained anion-centered structural architectures is discussed.

  8. Physical mechanism of strong negative storm effects in the daytime ionospheric F2 region observed with EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mikhailov

    Full Text Available A self-consistent method for daytime F-region modelling was applied to EISCAT observations during two periods comprising the very disturbed days 3 April 1992 and 10 April 1990. The observed strong Ne decrease at F2-layer heights originated from different physical mechanisms in the two cases. The negative F2-layer storm effect with an NmF2 decrease by a factor of 6.4 on 3 April 1992 was produced by enhanced electric fields (E≈85 mV/m and strong downward plasma drifts, but without any noticeable changes in thermospheric parameters. The increase of the O+ + N2 reaction rate resulted in a strong enrichment of the ionosphere with molecular ions even at F2-layer heights. The enhanced electric field produced a wide mid-latitude daytime trough on 03 April 1992 not usually observed during similar polarization jet events. The other strong negative storm effect on 10 April 1990 with a complete disappearance of the F2-layer maximum at the usual heights was attributed mainly to changes in neutral composition and temperature. A small value for the shape parameter S in the neutral temperature profile and a low neutral temperature at 120 km indicate strong cooling of the lower thermosphere. We propose that this cooling is due to increased nitric oxide concentration usually observed at these heights during geomagnetic storms.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure · Thermosphere · Ionosphere · Ion chemistry and composition · Atmosphere interactions

  9. Prostaglandin E and F2 alpha receptors in human myometrium during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy and labor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannopoulos, G.; Jackson, K.; Kredentser, J.; Tulchinsky, D.

    1985-12-15

    The binding of prostaglandins E1 and F2 alpha has been studied in the human myometrium and cervix during the menstrual cycle and in the myometrium of pregnant patients at term before and during labor. Tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 and F2 alpha binding was saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding was linear, which suggests a single class of high-affinity binding sites with an estimated apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of 2.5 to 5.4 nmol/L and inhibitor affinities of 0.9, 273, 273, and 217 nmol/L for prostaglandins E2, A1, B1, and F2 alpha, respectively. Scatchard analysis of tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha, binding was also linear, but the affinity of these binding sites was much lower, with an average dissociation constant of 50 nmol/L and inhibitor affinities of 1.6, 2.2, and 11.2 nmol/L for prostaglandins E1, E2, and A1, respectively. In nonpregnant patients, the concentrations and affinities of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites were similar in the myometrium during the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle, but the concentration of these sites was much lower in the cervix. The concentration of the tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites was significantly lower in the myometrium of pregnant patients at term than in the myometrium of nonpregnant patients. The concentrations and affinities of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites were not significantly different in the upper and lower myometrium of pregnant patients at term or in the myometrium of such patients before and during labor. The concentrations of the tritium-labeled prostaglandin F2 alpha binding sites during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy at term were similar to those of tritium-labeled prostaglandin E1 binding sites.

  10. Research Pilot Milt Thompson in M2-F2 Aircraft Attached to B-52 Mothership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson sits in the M2-F2 'heavyweight' lifting body research vehicle before a 1966 test flight. The M2-F2 and the other lifting-body designs were all attached to a wing pylon on NASA's B-52 mothership and carried aloft. The vehicles were then drop-launched and, at the end of their flights, glided back to wheeled landings on the dry lake or runway at Edwards AFB. The lifting body designs influenced the design of the Space Shuttle and were also reincarnated in the design of the X-38 in the 1990s. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft

  11. Ovulatory Follicular Dynamics After Estrus Synchronization using Prostaglandin F2a in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabowo Purwono Putro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to follow development of ovulatory follicular dynamics as well as plasma progesterone profile after estrus synchronization using PGF2 and GnRH.   A total of 15 non-pregnant dairy cows, 4-5 years of age, healthy and reproductively sound were used in the present study.     Treatment 1, given intramuscular injection of PGF2 25 mg (PGF2, treatment 2 PGF2 25 mg and GnRH 250 g 2 days later (PGF2-GnRH, and treatment 3 with GnRH 250 g (7 days prior to injection of PGF2, PGF2 25 mg and GnRH 250 g (2 days after injection of PGF2  (GnRH-PGF2a-GnRH (the Ovsynch method.   Transrectal ultrasonographic examination using real time, B-mode, with 7.5 MHz tranducer was performed everyday for 12 days to follow ovulatory follicular and luteal dynamics.   Blood plasma was taken every day for progesterone determination using EIA technique.   Data of follicular, luteal development and progesterone levels were tested using analysis of variance and correlation analysis.   The animals showed estrus within 70.70 + 01.90 hours following PGF2 injection.   Prostaglandin F2 induced corpus luteum regression, decreased  in progesterone plasma levels, followed by ovulatory follicular development and eventually underwent ovulation.   Administration of first GnRH increased corpus luteum size, enhanced its regression and decreased plasma progesterone levels, while  the second administration induce  better ovulatory follicular development.   Rate of the corpus luteum regression, progesterone decrease and ovulatory follicular development following PGF2 injection for respective treatments 1, 2 and 3 were 2.53 + 0.24a, 2.73 + 0.36a and 3.53 + 0.28b mm/day; 1.39 + 0.14a,  1.35 + 0.18a dan 1.57 + 0.12b ng/ml/day; and 1.33 + 0.15a,  1.63 + 0.19b and 1.67 + 0.23b mm/day, respectively (P < 0.05.   It can be concluded that PGF2 induced corpus luteum regression, decreased in  progesterone plasma

  12. Analysis of CaF2 、P、S、SiO2 in Fluorite by XRF Method%XRF法分析萤石中CaF2、P、S和SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 齐郁; 陈印; 王宁

    2005-01-01

    将萤石试样制成玻璃样片,选用偏硼酸锂和四硼酸锂做为萤石试样熔剂用XRF法测定其CaF2、P、S和SiO2.分析准确,且时间短、重复性好,适用于冶金企业萤石入厂检验.

  13. Effects of the recombinant allergen rDer f 2 on neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong-Qian; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Ji, You-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Severe and life-threatening side effects can occur in patients receiving allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), and recombinant allergens made from cDNA have been used in clinical trials for ten years and appear promising for SIT. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of the recombinant allergen Der f 2 (the group 2 allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae) on the neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice. Twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups - A, B, C and D. To induce asthma, a crude extract of D. farinae was injected intraperitoneally into the mice in groups B, C and D. Later, the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 was given to groups C and D, respectively. Normal saline was given to groups A and B. Serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were detected by immunoassay and the pathological change of lung tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Serum CRH, ACTH, CORT, and IFN-γ were highest in healthy group A but lowest in asthma group B. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). Serum IL-4 was elevated in asthma group B but lowest in healthy group A. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no significant difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). However, lung pathology as measured histologically (Underwood Score) showed that rDer f 2-treatment was significantly better than crude extract treatment (p < 0.05). In brief, recombinant allergen Der f 2 can strengthen the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect the balance of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and reduce pulmonary inflammation in asthmatic mice.

  14. Post-Cotunnite Phases in the AX2 System: Compression of PbF2 to 80 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, C. V.; Prakapenka, V.; Duffy, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    The AX2 family of compounds includes compositions that are important in geophysics, materials science, metallurgy and instrumental design. AX2 compounds, which include dioxides, dihalides, dihydrides and diborides, are characterized by extensive polymorphism at high pressures. As one example, SiO2 is a geologically important mineral a that undergoes a sequence of phase transitions from 4-coordinated silicon at lower pressures all the way up to 9-fold coordination or possibly higher coordination at ultra high pressures. Specifically, SiO2 has been theoretically predicted to undergo a transition to a 9-coordinated cotunnite-type structure at pressures of ~750 GPa. Such static high pressures, which are relevant to the deep interiors of extrasolar planets, are not experimentally achievable, however other AX2 family members can be used as high-pressure SiO2 analogues. Alkaline earth difluorides such as CaF2 and SrF2 undergo a fluorite-type to cotunnite-type phase transition and further display a cotunnite to Ni2In-type phase transition at high pressure and temperature, with transition pressure dependent on ionic size (Dorfman et al., 2010). Lead fluoride,PbF2, also displays a fluorite to cotunnite transition, however its transition pressure is much lower than that of the alkaline earth fluorides despite its larger ionic size, making it a good candidate for studies of post-cotunnite phases. We have conducted synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments in the diamond anvil cell using PbF2 mixed with Pt as a pressure calibrant and laser absorber. NaCl or Ne was used as the quasi-hydrostatic pressure medium. Experiments were conducted at the GSECARS sector of the Advanced Photon Source. Room temperature compression data yielded a previously observed isosymmetric (Pnam-Pnam) phase transition at 15-20 GPa, which Haines et al. (1998) identifies as a cotunnite to Co2Si-type structure. We also observed a second, previously unknown phase transition at 30-35 GPa. Laser

  15. Preparation of CaF2 Powder Coated with Ni-B by Ultrasonic Electroless Plating%超声波化学镀法制备Ni-B包覆CaF2粉体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐龙华; 许崇海; 吴光永; 肖光春; 衣明东

    2016-01-01

    采用粒度为1~ 20μm的CaF2,通过超声波法进行化学镀Ni-B,获得合金Ni-B包覆CaF2复合粉体.分析了工艺条件对镀速以及增重率的影响,并采用环境扫描电子显微镜对粉体的微观形貌进行观察,利用能谱仪对镀后的粉末表层成分进行分析.结果表明,包覆后的CaF2复合粉体外观致密,无尖角,不含其他杂质元素.实验对各参数进行优化,优化后的硫酸镍、硼氢化钠、乙二胺与稳定剂的浓度分别为18 g/L、1.3 g/L、60 mL/L与1 mg/L,pH为14,搅拌速率取45 r/min,温度在65~75℃之间.

  16. Difluoro-lambda(5)-phosphinonitrile F(2)P[triple bond]N: matrix isolation and photoisomerization into FP=NF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoqing; Beckers, Helmut; Willner, Helge

    2009-01-01

    Splendid isolation: Monomeric phosphazene F(2)PN ((1)A(1)) was prepared for the first time through irradiation of F(2)PN(3) in an argon matrix with an ArF excimer laser (lambda=193 nm). Upon subsequent irradiation with a high-pressure mercury arc lamp (lambda=255 nm), F(2)PN undergoes a 1,2-fluorine shift to give iminophosphane cis-FP=NF.

  17. 40 CFR Table F-2 to Subpart F of... - Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particle Sizes and Wind Speeds for Full Wind Tunnel Test, Wind Tunnel Inlet Aspiration Test, and Static Chamber Test F Table F-2 to Subpart F... Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-2 Table F-2 to Subpart F of...

  18. PB1-F2 Influenza A Virus Protein Adopts a β-Sheet Conformation and Forms Amyloid Fibers in Membrane Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an α-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display β-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a β-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of β-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation. PMID:20172856

  19. PB1-F2 influenza A virus protein adopts a beta-sheet conformation and forms amyloid fibers in membrane environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-04-23

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an alpha-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display beta-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a beta-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of beta-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation.

  20. A 4p BaF2 detector for (n,g) cross section measurements at a spallation neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Heil, M; Fowler, M M; Haight, R C; Käppeler, F; Rundberg, R S; Seabury, E H; Ullmann, J L; Wilhelmy, J B; Wisshak, K

    2013-01-01

    The quest for improved neutron capture cross sections for advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes as well as for astrophysical scenarios of neutron capture nucleosynthesis has motivated new experimental efforts based on modern techniques. Recent measurements in the keV region have shown that a 4p BaF2 detector represents an accurate and versatile instrument for such studies. The present work deals with the potential of such a 4p BaF2 detector in combination with spallation neutron sources, which offer large neutron fluxes over a wide energy range. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations with the GEANT package have been performed to investigate the critical backgrounds at a spallation facility, to optimize the detector design, and to discuss alternative solutions.

  1. Parameters in the estimation of the most suitable F2 population size in conventional maize (Zea mays L. breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delić Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to observe differences among four sizes of the F2 populations (100, 200, 300 and 500 plants on the basis of test-crosses for grain yield according to the average values of the populations, genetic and phenotypic variances, genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations and broad-sense heritability. The values of genetic variance did not significantly differ over population sizes according to all possible comparisons, including the comparison of values obtained for the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, the values of broadsense heritability (67.8%-69% did not significantly vary over different F2 population sizes. Genetic variability of the observed progenies, as a principal prerequisite of successful selection, was at the satisfactory level in all population sizes.

  2. Structural plasticity of calmodulin on the surface of CaF2 nanoparticles preserves its biological function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astegno, Alessandra; Maresi, Elena; Marino, Valerio; Dominici, Paola; Pedroni, Marco; Piccinelli, Fabio; Dell'Orco, Daniele

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used in biomedical applications and are especially attractive as biocompatible and biodegradable protein delivery systems. Herein, the interaction between biocompatible 25 nm CaF2 nanoparticles and the ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin has been investigated in order to assess the potential of these particles to serve as suitable surface protein carriers. Calmodulin is a multifunctional messenger protein that activates a wide variety of signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells by changing its conformation in a calcium-dependent manner. Isothermal titration calorimetry and circular dichroism studies have shown that the interaction between calmodulin and CaF2 nanoparticles occurs with physiologically relevant affinity and that the binding process is fully reversible, occurring without significant alterations in protein secondary and tertiary structures. Experiments performed with a mutant form of calmodulin having an impaired Ca2+-binding ability in the C-terminal lobe suggest that the EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs are directly involved in the binding of calmodulin to the CaF2 matrix. The residual capability of nanoparticle-bound calmodulin to function as a calcium sensor protein, binding to and altering the activity of a target protein, was successfully probed by biochemical assays. Even if efficiently carried by CaF2 nanoparticles, calmodulin may dissociate, thus retaining the ability to bind the peptide encompassing the putative C-terminal calmodulin-binding domain of glutamate decarboxylase and activate the enzyme. We conclude that the high flexibility and structural plasticity of calmodulin are responsible for the preservation of its function when bound in high amounts to a nanoparticle surface.Nanoparticles are increasingly used in biomedical applications and are especially attractive as biocompatible and biodegradable protein delivery systems. Herein, the interaction between biocompatible 25 nm CaF2 nanoparticles and the ubiquitous

  3. Theoretical calculations of high-pressure phases of NiF2: An ab initio constant-pressure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürkçü, Cihan; Merdan, Ziya; Öztürk, Hülya

    2016-12-01

    We have studied the structural properties of the antiferromagnetic NiF2 tetragonal structure with P42/ mnm symmetry using density functional theory (DFT) under rapid hydrostatic pressure up to 400 GPa. For the exchange correlation energy we used the local density approximation (LDA) of Ceperley and Alder (CA). Two phase transformations are successfully observed through the simulations. The structures of XF2-type compounds crystallize in rutile-type structure. NiF2 undergoes phase transformations from the tetragonal rutile-type structure with space group P42/ mnm to orthorhombic CaCl2-type structure with space group Pnnm and from this orthorhombic phase to monoclinic structure with space group C2/ m at 152 GPa and 360 GPa, respectively. These phase changes are also studied by total energy and enthalpy calculations. According to these calculations, we perdict these phase transformations at about 1.85 and 30 GPa.

  4. Co:MgF2 laser ablation of tissue: effect of wavelength on ablation threshold and thermal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacker, K T; Domankevitz, Y; Flotte, T J; Deutsch, T F

    1991-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of the ablation threshold of a variety of tissues has been studied by using a tunable pulsed Co:MgF2 laser to determine how closely it tracks the optical absorption length of water. The Co:MgF2 laser was tuned between 1.81 and 2.14 microns, a wavelength region in which the absorption length varies by a decade. For soft tissues the ablation threshold tracks the optical absorption length; for bone there is little wavelength dependence, consistent with the low water content of bone. Thermal damage vs. wavelength was also studied for cornea and bone. Thermal damage to cornea has a weak wavelength dependence, while that to bone shows little wavelength dependence. Framing-camera pictures of the ablation of both cornea and liver show explosive removal of material, but differ as to the nature of the explosion.

  5. {lambda}{sub MS} from the static potential for QCD with n{sub f}=2 dynamical quark flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Roma Univ. ' ' Tor Vergata' ' (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (Italy); Karbstein, Felix [Helmholtz-Institut Jena (Germany); Jena Univ. (Germany). Theoretisch-Physikalisches Inst.; Nagy, Attila [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany); Wagner, Marc [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-12-15

    We determine {lambda}{sub MS} for QCD with n{sub f}=2 dynamical quark flavors by fitting the Q anti Q static potential known analytically in the perturbative regime up to terms of O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 4}) and {proportional_to}{alpha}{sub s}{sup 4} ln{alpha}{sub s} to corresponding results obtained from lattice simulations. This has become possible, due to recent advances in both perturbative calculations, namely the determination and publication of the last missing contribution to the Q anti Q static potential at O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 4}), and lattice simulations with n{sub f}=2 dynamical quark flavors performed at the rather fine lattice spacing of a{approx}0.042 fm. Imposing conservative error estimates we obtain {lambda}{sub MS}=315(30) MeV. (orig.)

  6. Inclusive production of $\\rho^{0}(770), f_0(980)$ and $f_2(1270)$ mesons in $\

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, P.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, Barry J.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, Antonella; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, Malcolm; Fazio, T.; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gangler, E.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Gosset, J.; Gossling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuznetsov, V.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Meyer, J.P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rathouit, P.; Rico, J.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Yabsley, Bruce D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2001-01-01

    The inclusive production of the meson resonances $\\rho^{0}(770)$, $f_0(980)$ and $f_2(1270)$ in neutrino-nucleus charged current interactions has been studied with the NOMAD detector exposed to the wide band neutrino beam generated by 450 GeV protons at the CERN SPS. For the first time the $f_{0}(980)$ meson is observed in neutrino interactions. The statistical significance of its observation is 6 standard deviations. The presence of $f_{2}(1270)$ in neutrino interactions is reliably established. The average multiplicity of these three resonances is measured as a function of several kinematic variables. The experimental results are compared to the multiplicities obtained from a simulation based on the Lund model. In addition, the average multiplicity of $\\rho^{0}(770)$ in antineutrino - nucleus interactions is measured.

  7. Pressure-induced phase transitions and structural properties of CoF2: An ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürkçü, Cihan; Merdan, Ziya; Öztürk, Hülya

    2016-04-01

    The crystal structure of CoF2 was studied theoretically using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) methods within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA) under rapid hydrostatic pressure up to 144 GPa. CoF2 undergoes a structural phase transformation from the rutile-type tetragonal parent phase with space group P42/mnm to the CaCl2-type orthorhombic parent phase with space group Pnnm at 64 GPa with GGA and at 96 GPa with LDA methods. Another phase transformation occurs from the CaCl2-type structure to monoclinic parent phase with space group P21/c at 96 GPa with a GGA method. These phase transitions are also studied by enthalpy and total energy calculations. According to these calculations, we obtained the first phase transformation at about 6.5 GPa both GGA and LDA methods and the later phase transformation at about 45 GPa with the GGA method.

  8. Thermodynamic Study on BaO-CaO-CaF2 Slags for Dephosphorization of Molten Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhi-hong; CAI Kai-ke; WANG Xin-hua; ZHU Li-xin; WANG Tao; SHI Hong-zhi; YIN Xiao-dong

    2005-01-01

    The molten steel was dephosphorized by high basic BaO-based slags (BaO-CaO-CaF2) to achieve ultra low phosphorus level. The dephosphorization ability of the BaO-CaO-CaF2 slags was tested. The phosphate capacity of this slag system at 1 620 C varied from 1018.03 to 1019.11 with an activity coefficient of P2O5 ranging from 10-19.47 to 10-18.09. The effect of BaO content, initial phosphorus content and oxygen potential of molten steel on dephosphorization was discussed. The phosphorus pick-up by the BaO-based slags was studied.

  9. The use of Cloprostenol and prostaglandin F2alpha to induce luteolysis in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ropstad

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 126 reindeer of about 7 months of age, were isolated from a flock at the end of the breeding season. The animals were treated either with 12.5 mg prostaglandin F2alpha (n = 41 or 0.25 mg cloprostenol (n = 50. Thirty-five animals were left untreated. Blood samples were collected before treatment and 2 Vi days later and the plasma progesterone concentrations were determined. A significant fall in progesterone concentration was seen in both treatment groups. A large proportion of animals responded to treatment with cloprostenol than with prostaglandin F2alpha. It was concluded that prostaglandins can be used to induce luteolysis in reindeer.

  10. Function of the corpus luteum, the endometrium and the trophoblast after treatment of tubal pregnancy by prostaglandin F2 alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejtorp, M; Sørensen, Steen; Ruge, S

    1993-01-01

    (HCG) before and after treatment by injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha into the site of the gestation and into the corpus luteum. There was no significant difference in the pre-treatment serum progesterone and serum PP14 concentrations of 26 women who were treated successfully and of five women, who...... be used for selection of patients for treatment by prostaglandin F2 alpha or for monitoring the effect of the treatment. The injection of prostaglandin into the ovary has either no effect on the activity of the corpus luteum or induces only a partial luteolysis....... were operated on after failure of the treatment. After the prostaglandin treatment the serum progesterone and PP14 concentrations decreased simultaneously with the serum HCG concentration or remained at a low, constant concentration. We conclude that measurement of serum progesterone and PP14 cannot...

  11. 浅述F2级公斤组砝码检定结果的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁瑞琪

    2014-01-01

    The article discussed the major sources of uncertainty in verification of F2 kilograms weight group, and proposed the method of evaluating uncertainty in verification of F2 kilograms weight group.%本文分析了F2级公斤组砝码检定结果不确定度的主要来源,并提出了F2级公斤组砝码检定结果不确定度的评定方法。

  12. Comparative Slaughter Tests on Bullock of F2 Crossbreeding from Simmental and Mongolia and Mongolian Bullock%西×蒙F2代犍牛与蒙古犍牛屠宰对比试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯琴朝克图; 斯琴巴特尔; 阿拉坦莎; 包毅; 毕力格巴特尔; 辛满喜; 白韬; 朱江; 阿荣; 刚普日布; 乌兰其其格; 任进义; 巴达玛莲花; 娜布其; 萨仁高娃

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]In this paper, the meat production performance effect of crossbreeding Simmen tal and Mongolian cattle was analyzed. [Method]Comparative slau an sire and F2 hybrids from Simmental and Mongolian cattle with weight, carcass weight and net meat weight of the F2 Mongolian cattle were 511.67 kg. 291.21 kg and 233.5 g 1 average live weight, carcass weight and net meat weight ghter test was 18 months old. carried between Mongoli- eneration with 18 months [Result]The average live age from Simmental and k9. Compared with the same age Mongolian sire, increased 131.67 kg. 80.28 kg and 64.32 kg,which were improved by 34.65%,38.06%,and 38.01% ; The average dressing percentage and net meat rate were improved 1.40~ and 1.12%, and the differences ment result of meat production performance was cattle. were significant ( P 〈0.01). [Conclusion]The improve- obvious for crossbreeding of Simmental and Mongolian cattle.%[目的]为探讨西门塔尔牛杂交改良蒙古牛的产肉性能及效果。[方法]对18月龄西×蒙F2代犍牛和蒙古犍牛进行屠宰对比试验。[结果]18月龄西×蒙F2代犍牛的平均活重、屠体重和净肉重分别达到511.67kg、291.21kg和233.51kg,较同月龄蒙古犍牛高出131.67kg、80.28kg和64.32kg;提高了34.65%、38.06%、和38.01%;差异均极显著(P〈0.01);18月龄西×蒙F2代犍牛的平均屠宰率和净肉率分别提高了1.40%和1.129/6,差异显著(P〈0.05)。[结论]利用西门塔尔牛杂交改良蒙古牛效果显著,可以明显提高蒙古牛产肉性能。

  13. Composition dependence of electrical properties of ZnF2–MO–TeO2 glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Durga; N Veeraiah

    2001-08-01

    Dielectric constant ('), loss (tan ), a.c. conductivity () of ZnF2–MO–TeO2 glasses with varying concentrations of MO (P2O5, As2O3 and Bi2O3) were measured as a function of frequency and temperature over moderately wide ranges. From the analysis of these studies along with IR spectra and DTA results of these glasses, the structural changes in the systems with the concentration of metal oxides are discussed.

  14. Urinary F2 -Isoprostanes in Cats with International Renal Interest Society Stage 1-4 Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, W; Quimby, J; Wan, S; Monaghan, K; Robbins, R; Trepanier, L A

    2017-03-01

    F2 -isoprostanes, a biomarker of oxidant injury, increase with advancing chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. In cats, the relationship between CKD and oxidative stress is poorly understood. To determine whether cats with advancing CKD have increasing urinary F2 -isoprostanes. Control cats without evidence of CKD (≥6 years old; n = 11), and cats with IRIS stage 1 (n = 8), 2 (n = 38), 3 (n = 21), and 4 (n = 10) CKD. This was a prospective observational study. Urinary F2 -isoprostanes (specifically free 15-F2t -isoprostanes) normalized to urine creatinine (IsoPs) were compared among groups and tested for correlations with blood pressure, proteinuria, serum creatinine concentration, and urine specific gravity. The IsoPs also were compared between cats with and without hypertension or proteinuria, and in cats fed predominantly standard versus renal diets. Urinary IsoPs were increased, but not significantly, in cats with stage 1 CKD (median 263 pg/mg creatinine; range, 211-380) compared to controls (182 pg/mg; range, 80-348) and decreased significantly from stage 1 through advancing CKD (stage 2, 144 pg/mg; range, 49-608; stage 3, 102 pg/mg; range, 25-158; stage 4, 67 pg/mg; range, 26-117; P cats with more advanced CKD. Additional studies are warranted to characterize oxidative stress in cats with stage 1 CKD and determine whether early antioxidant treatments have a protective effect on CKD progression. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Application of alternative models to identify QTL for growth traits in an F2 Duroc x Pietrain pig resource population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumph Janice M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of analysis approaches have been applied to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL in experimental populations. The initial genome scan of our Duroc x Pietrain F2 resource population included 510 F2 animals genotyped with 124 microsatellite markers and analyzed using a line-cross model. For the second scan, 20 additional markers on 9 chromosomes were genotyped for 954 F2 animals and 20 markers used in the first scan were genotyped for 444 additional F2 animals. Three least-squares Mendelian models for QTL analysis were applied for the second scan: a line-cross model, a half-sib model, and a combined line-cross and half-sib model. Results In total, 26 QTL using the line-cross model, 12 QTL using the half-sib model and 3 additional QTL using the combined line-cross and half-sib model were detected for growth traits with a 5% false discovery rate (FDR significance level. In the line-cross analysis, highly significant QTL for fat deposition at 10-, 13-, 16-, 19-, and 22-wk of age were detected on SSC6. In the half-sib analysis, a QTL for loin muscle area at 19-wk of age was detected on SSC7 and QTL for 10th-rib backfat at 19- and 22-wk of age were detected on SSC15. Conclusions Additional markers and animals contributed to reduce the confidence intervals and increase the test statistics for QTL detection. Different models allowed detection of new QTL which indicated differing frequencies for alternative alleles in parental breeds.

  16. High repetition rate Yb:CaF2 multipass amplifiers operating in the 100 mJ range

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios PAPADOPOULOS; Friebel, Florence; Pellegrina, Alain; Hanna, Marc; Camy, Patrice; Doualan, Jean-Louis; Moncorgé, Richard; Georges, Patrick; Druon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    International audience; — We present the research advances on the development of 50-200 mJ energy range diode-pumped Yb:CaF 2-based multipass amplifiers operating at relatively high repetition rates. These laser amplifiers are based on diverse innovative geometries. All these innovations aim to design compact, stable and reliable amplifiers adapted to our application that consists in pumping ultrashort-pulse OPCPA (optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier) systems in the frame of the Apollo...

  17. Absorption Coefficients of SF{6}, SF{4}, SOF{2} and SO{2}F{2} in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradayrol, C.; Casanovas, A. M.; Deharo, I.; Guelfucci, J. P.; Casanovas, J.

    1996-05-01

    Absorption coefficients k0(m^{-1} 100 kPa^{-1}) of SF{6} and of its main gaseous by-products SF{4}, SOF{2} and SO{2}F{2} were measured in the VUV region. The experiments were carried out at a temperature of 298 K and a spectral resolution of 0.1 nm over the wavelength range 115 - 180 nm for SF{6}, 115 - 220 nm for SF{4}, 120 - 195 nm for SOF{2} and 120 - 210 nm for SO{2}F{2}. The highest absorption coefficient values were obtained for SF{4} and the lowest for SF{6}. Les coefficients d'absorption k0(m^{-1} 100 kPa^{-1}) du SF{6} et de ses principaux produits de décomposition gazeux, SF{4}, SOF{2} et SO{2}F{2} ont été mesurés dans le domaine de l'ultraviolet sous vide. Les expériences ont été réalisées à la température de 298 K avec une résolution de 0,1 nm dans la gamme 115 180 nm pour le SF{6}, 115 220 nm pour le SF{4}, 120 195 nm pour le SOF{2} et 120 210 nm pour le SO{2}F{2}. Les coefficients d'absorption les plus élevés ont été mesurés pour le SF{4} et les plus faibles pour le SF{6}.

  18. Cerebral glucose metabolism in neurofibromatosis type 1 assessed with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and PET.

    OpenAIRE

    Balestri, P; Lucignani, G; Fois, A.; Magliani, L; Calistri, L; Grana, C.; Di Bartolo, R M; Perani, D; Fazio, F.

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral PET with [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose has been performed in four patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) to assess the relation between cerebral metabolic activity, MRI, and the presence of neurological symptoms, including seizures, as well as mental and language retardation. Widespread hypometabolism occurred in three of the patients. The lesions on MRI, which were localised in the subcortical white matter and grey structures, had normal rates of glucose metabolism. This fi...

  19. Variabilitas dan Heritabilitas Berbagai Karakter Tanaman Jagung ( Zea mays L.) Hasil Persilangan Sendiri (Selfing) Pada Generasi F2

    OpenAIRE

    Abdillah

    2011-01-01

    ABDILLAH: Variability and Heritability some character a corn (Zea mays L) result selfing of second generation. Supervised by JENIMAR AND LUTHFI A.M SIREGAR. The objective of the research was to valuate variabilities of several characters affected by the genotype (σ2g), the interraction between genotype and environment (σ2p), studied heritability and also to see the effect resiprocal breeding of F2 with it’s parents of corn (Zea mays L.). The experiment was conduced at exprimental fi...

  20. Structural and optical study of CaF2 nanoparticles produced by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Claudiane dos S.; Valerio, Mário E. G.

    2016-11-01

    CaF2 nanoparticles were synthesized by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. With the addition of the ethylenediamine (EDA) as chelating agent, the size of the particles was reduced. The CaF2 exhibit single phase identified for X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by Rietveld refinement. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed nanoparticles with non-uniform morphology and statistical analysis of collections of particles reviewed that the EDA decreases both the average particle size and average aspect ratio of the particles. The chemical composition of the surface of the particles was investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and the results indicated the presence of reasonable amounts of hydroxyl groups and oxygen ions in the samples produced with EDA. Radioluminescence (RL) measurements showed that both types of nanoparticles presented intrinsic scintillation emission formed by two main bands and that the CaF2 samples produced without EDA presented higher emission intensity. The broad RL band centered at approximately 293 nm is related to self-trapped exciton (STE) emission of calcium fluoride, while the band at 428 nm can be due to the presence of F centers. The STE excitation and optical band gap were measured through photoluminescent excitation spectra in the VUV range.

  1. Linear Recurrent Double Sequences with Constant Border in M2(F2 are Classified According to Their Geometric Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Prunescu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The author used the automatic proof procedure introduced in [1] and verified that the 4096 homomorphic recurrent double sequences with constant borders defined over Klein’s Vierergruppe K and the 4096 linear recurrent double sequences with constant border defined over the matrix ring M2(F2 can be also produced by systems of substitutions with finitely many rules. This permits the definition of a sound notion of geometric content for most of these sequences, more exactly for those which are not primitive. We group the 4096 many linear recurrent double sequences with constant border I over the ring M2(F2 in 90 geometric types. The classification over Klein’s Vierergruppe Kis not explicitly displayed and consists of the same geometric types like for M2(F2, but contains more exceptions. There are a lot of cases of unsymmetric double sequences converging to symmetric geometric contents. We display also geometric types occurring both in a monochromatic and in a dichromatic version.

  2. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) F2 population segregation for improving shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendra, K N; Ramanjini Gowda, P H

    2013-02-27

    Breeding for better quality fruits is a major focus for tomatoes, which are continuously subjected to post-harvest losses. Several methods have been used to improve the fruit shelf life of tomatoes, including the use of ripening gene mutants of Solanum lycopersicum. We developed extended shelf-life tomato hybrids with better quality fruits using ripening mutants. Nine tomato crosses were developed using 3 fruit ripening gene mutants of S. lycopersicum [alcobaca (alc), non-ripening, and ripening inhibitor] and 3 agronomically superior Indian cultivars ('Sankranti', 'Vaibhav', and 'Pusaruby') with short shelf life. The hybrid progenies developed from alc x 'Vaibhav' had the highest extended shelf life (up to 40 days) compared with that of other varieties and hybrids. Further, the F(2) progenies of alc x 'Vaibhav' were evaluated for fruit quality traits and yield parameters. A wide range of genetic variability was observed in shelf life (5-106 days) and fruit firmness (0.55-10.65 lbs/cm(2)). The potential polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers underlying shelf life traits were identified in an F(2) mapping population. The marker association with fruit quality traits and yield was confirmed with single-marker analysis and composite interval mapping. The genetic parameters analyzed in the parents and F(1) and F(2) populations indicated that the cross between the cultivar 'Vaibhav' and ripening gene mutant alc yielded fruit with long shelf life and good quality.

  3. Introduction of new data into the South African Ionospheric Map to improve the estimation of F2 layer parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Ssessanga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the South African Ionospheric Map (SAIM is upgraded with the usage of recent International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012 model and South African Bottomside Model (SABIM version 5 and validated for the critical frequency (foF2 of the F2 layer by comparing the model’s output with the measured ionosonde data. The SABIM model is also validated before use in the SAIM. The ionosonde stations used in the analysis include; Grahamstown (33.2°S, 26.3°E, Hermanus (34.4°S, 19.2°E, Louisvale (28.5°S, 21.2°E and Madimbo (22.4°S, 30.9°E. The analysis of the results showed that the updates improved the performance of SAIM by 75% over the first version. The foF2 estimates from the SABIM version 5 model also gave a better estimate to the ionosonde measurements compared to the IRI-2012 model. The SABIM model performed 27% better than the IRI-2012 model during solar maximum and 14.7% better during solar minimum.

  4. F2AC: A Lightweight, Fine-Grained, and Flexible Access Control Scheme for File Storage in Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current file storage service models for cloud servers assume that users either belong to single layer with different privileges or cannot authorize privileges iteratively. Thus, the access control is not fine-grained and flexible. Besides, most access control methods at cloud servers mainly rely on computationally intensive cryptographic algorithms and, especially, may not be able to support highly dynamic ad hoc groups with addition and removal of group members. In this paper, we propose a scheme called F2AC, which is a lightweight, fine-grained, and flexible access control scheme for file storage in mobile cloud computing. F2AC can not only achieve iterative authorization, authentication with tailored policies, and access control for dynamically changing accessing groups, but also provide access privilege transition and revocation. A new access control model called directed tree with linked leaf model is proposed for further implementations in data structures and algorithms. The extensive analysis is given for justifying the soundness and completeness of F2AC.

  5. Numerical modeling of radiative heat transfer in Bridgman solidification of semi-transparent BaF 2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelian, C.

    2007-08-01

    The radiative heat transfer during Bridgman solidification of semi-transparent barium fluoride (BaF 2) crystals is numerically investigated by using the commercial software FIDAP. This code uses the P-1 approximation for the participating media modeling. The thermal field and the solid-liquid interface shape are computed for an opaque melt-crystal sample, a semi-transparent grey sample and a semi-transparent non-grey sample. The transient numerical analysis of the latent heat influence on the interface deflection shows a significant effect on the interface shape. In the case of an opaque sample, this effect is huge because of the small thermal conductivity of the BaF 2 melt. The interface curvature is drastically reduced when the latent heat is taken into account, and the growth front, which has a convex shape, becomes flat when the growth rate increases. The latent heat effect is reduced in the case of the participating BaF 2 sample because the effective thermal conductivity of the melt is augmented by the internal radiative heat transfer. The internal radiative effect is small at low solidified fractions but becomes significant when the crystal length increases, leading to a more curved interface. When the growth rates are greater than a critical value, the interface becomes concave and a destabilization of the growth process can occur. These results are in agreement with previous experimental measurements of the interface curvature and analytical investigations of the factors affecting the interface deflection.

  6. Swift heavy ion irradiation of CaF2 - from grooves to hillocks in a single ion track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Elisabeth; Salou, Pierre; Bergen, Lorenz; El Kharrazi, Mourad; Lattouf, Elie; Grygiel, Clara; Wang, Yuyu; Benyagoub, Abdenacer; Levavasseur, Delphine; Rangama, Jimmy; Lebius, Henning; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Schleberger, Marika; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-10-01

    A novel form of ion-tracks, namely nanogrooves and hillocks, are observed on CaF2 after irradiation with xenon and lead ions of about 100 MeV kinetic energy. The irradiation is performed under grazing incidence (0.3°-3°) which forces the track to a region in close vicinity to the surface. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the impact sites with high spatial resolution reveals that the surface track consists in fact of three distinct parts: each swift heavy ion impacting on the CaF2 surface first opens a several 100 nm long groove bordered by a series of nanohillocks on both sides. The end of the groove is marked by a huge single hillock and the further penetration of the swift projectile into deeper layers of the target is accompanied by a single protrusion of several 100 nm in length slowly fading until the track vanishes. By comparing experimental data for various impact angles with results of a simulation, based on a three-dimensional version of the two-temperature-model (TTM), we are able to link the crater and hillock formation to sublimation and melting processes of CaF2 due to the local energy deposition by swift heavy ions.

  7. Effect of preionization, fluorine concentration, and current density on the discharge uniformity in F2 excimer laser gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, D.; Bastiaens, H. M. J.; Boller, K. J.; Peters, P. J. M.

    2007-08-01

    The discharge homogeneity in F2-based excimer laser gas mixtures and its dependence on various key parameters, such as the degree of preionization, preionization delay time, F2 concentration and current density, is investigated in a small x-ray preionized discharge chamber. The spatial and temporal evolution of the discharges is monitored by taking photographs of the discharge fluorescence with a fast intensified CCD camera. It is found that a preionization electron density of about 107 cm-3 bar-1 is sufficient to initiate a streamer-free homogeneous discharge in gas mixtures of helium and fluorine with multiatmospheric gas pressure. The accompanying optimum time delay between the application of the x-ray pulse and voltage across the discharge electrodes is determined to be about 20 ns. It is shown that in spite of these optimum initial conditions, a homogeneous glow discharge eventually transforms into an inhomogeneous discharge containing numerous filaments. Our experiments show that the higher the initial F2 concentration, the initial current density or the pump power density, the shorter the time interval over which the discharge stays homogeneous. By a quantitative characterization and defining a detailed measure of the observed discharge inhomogeneity we find that halogen depletion, as suggested from the theory, is responsible for the temporal instability of discharges in such laser gas mixtures, as the experimental results are in good agreement with the theory on the halogen depletion instability mechanism.

  8. Estrus synchronization in sheep and goats using combinations of GnRH, progestagen and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titi, H H; Kridli, R T; Alnimer, M A

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of GnRH, progestagen and prostaglandin F(2alpha) on estrus synchronization in sheep and goats. Sixty Awassi ewes and 53 Damascus does were used in the study. The experiment started at the beginning of the breeding season (June/July). The same treatments were applied to sheep and goats as follows: no treatment (CON), 14-day progestagen sponges and 600 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (S), gonadotropin releasing hormone followed 5 days later by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (GP) and gonadotropin releasing hormone, progestagen sponges for 5 days and prostaglandin F(2alpha) on the day of sponge removal (GSP). None of the ewes in the S group lambed from mating during the induced cycle. A greater lambing rate (p synchronizing estrus and improving fecundity in sheep and goats. Although the use of GnRH-PGF(2alpha) was effective, the addition of progestagen sponges at the time of GnRH administration appeared to improve reproductive parameters.

  9. Measurement of the Deuteron Structure Function F2 in the Resonance Region and Evaluation of Its Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Osipenko, M; Taylor, S; Morand, L; Mutchler, G S; Schumacher, R A; Todor, L; Adams, G; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Berman, Barry L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cetina, C; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D C; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gaff, S J; Gai, M; Gavalian, G; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Gordon, C I O; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M R; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Heimberg, P; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Lawrence, D; Ji Li; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McCarthy, J; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R C; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Müller, J; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Brien, J T; O'Rielly, G V; Park, K; Pasyuk, E A; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Quinn, B; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatie, F; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabyan, Yu G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A V; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weisberg, A; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B; Zhao, J; Zhou, Z

    2006-01-01

    Inclusive electron scattering off the deuteron has been measured to extract the deuteron structure function F2 with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The measurement covers the entire resonance region from the quasi-elastic peak up to the invariant mass of the final-state hadronic system W~2.7 GeV with four-momentum transfers Q2 from 0.4 to 6 (GeV/c)^2. These data are complementary to previous measurements of the proton structure function F2 and cover a similar two-dimensional region of Q2 and Bjorken variable x. Determination of the deuteron F2 over a large x interval including the quasi-elastic peak as a function of Q2, together with the other world data, permit a direct evaluation of the structure function moments for the first time. By fitting the Q2 evolution of these moments with an OPE-based twist expansion we have obtained a separation of the leading twist and higher twist terms. The observed Q2 behaviour of the higher twist contribut...

  10. Chiral behaviour of the pion decay constant in N{sub f}=2 QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottini, Stefano [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    As increased statistics and new ensembles with light pions have become available within the CLS effort, we complete previous work by inspecting the chiral behaviour of the pion decay constant. We discuss the validity of Chiral Perturbation Theory ({chi}PT) and examine the results concerning the pion decay constant and the ensuing scale setting, the pion mass squared in units of the quark mass, and the ratio of decay constants f{sub K}=f{sub {pi}}; along the way, the relevant low-energy constants of SU(2) {chi}PT are estimated. All simulations were performed with two dynamical flavours of nonperturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions, on volumes with m{sub {pi}}L{>=}4, pion masses{>=}192 MeV and lattice spacings down to 0.048 fm. Our error analysis takes into account the effect of slow modes on the autocorrelations.

  11. Thiazyl Trifluoride (NSF3) Adducts and Imidodifluorosulfate (F2OSN-) Derivatives of Hg(OTeF5)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBackere, John R; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2015-10-19

    Reactions of Hg(OTeF5)2 with excess amounts of NSF3 at 0 °C result in the formation of NSF3 adducts having the compositions [Hg(OTeF5)2·N≡SF3]∞ (1), [Hg(OTeF5)2·2N≡SF3]2 (2), and Hg3(OTeF5)6·4N≡SF3 (3). When the reactions are carried out at room temperature, oxygen/fluorine metatheses occur yielding the F2OSN- derivatives [Hg(OTeF5)(N═SOF2)·N≡SF3]∞ (4) and [Hg3(OTeF5)5(N═SOF2)·2N≡SF3]2 (5). The proposed reaction pathway leading to F2OSN- group formation occurs by nucleophilic attack by a F5TeO- group at the sulfur(VI) atom of NSF3, followed by TeF6 elimination. Tellurium hexafluoride formation was confirmed by (19)F NMR spectroscopy. The NSF3 molecules are terminally N-coordinated to mercury, whereas the F2OSN- ligands are N-bridged to two mercury atoms. The compound series was characterized by low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction and low-temperature Raman spectroscopy. Several structural motifs are observed within this structurally diverse series. These include the infinite chain structures of the related compounds, 1 and 4; 2, a dimeric structure which possesses an (HgO(μ))2 ring at its core; 3, a structure based on a cage comprised of a (HgO(μ))3 ring that is capped on each face by μ(3)-oxygen bridged F5TeO- groups; and 5, a dimeric structure possessing two distorted (Hg3O2N) rings that are formally derived from 3 by replacement of a F5TeO- group by a F2OSN- group in each ring. Quantum-chemical calculations were carried out to gain insight into the bonding of the μ(3)-oxygen bridged teflate groups observed in structure 3. Compounds 1-5 represent a novel class of neutral transition metal complexes with NSF3, providing the first examples of NSF3 coordination to mercury. Compounds 4 and 5 also provide the only examples of F2OSN- derivatives of mercury that have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  12. Statistical characteristics of the polar ionospheric scale height around the peak height of F2 layer with observations of the ESR radar: Disturbed days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zheng; Yuan, Zhigang; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, based on observations of the European Incoherent Scatter Svalbard Radar (ESR) between 1997 and 2008, we analyzed variations of HmF2, the ionospheric scale height around the peak height of F2 layer (hmF2) at high latitude with geomagnetic activities, as well as variations of the HmF2 with the local time (LT), season and solar activity under disturbed conditions (2 < Kp ≤ 5). We found that the HmF2 shows a significant increment with enhancements of geomagnetic activities. In addition, based on a linear regression, the correlation and fitting coefficients are shown, which quantitatively describe the correlations between polar HmF2 and geomagnetic activity index Kp. The HmF2 shows a diurnal variation with a maximum early in the morning and a minimum around noon in disturbed days (2 < Kp ≤ 5), which is more complex in comparison with that in quiet days. However, in summer and autumn, the HmF2 in disturbed days shows a bulge during 06:00-11:00 LT instead of the continuous decline under quiet condition. We consider that the ESR was under the cusp region during the period so that the bulge might be related to the high-energy particles precipitating into the ionosphere resulting in changes of the electron density profile. The HmF2 has the highest seasonal magnitude in summer and the lowest seasonal magnitude in winter generally. The seasonal magnitude of the HmF2 in autumn is lower than that in spring and larger than that in winter under low solar activity, while the HmF2 shows the same seasonal variations in spring and autumn under moderate and high solar activities.

  13. PROSTAGLANDIN F2α SUPPLEMENTED SEMEN IMPROVES LANDRACE BOARS SPERM MOTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA IONESCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether the sperm motility from Landrace boars improveswhen PGF2α (Dinolytic®; 5 mg PGF2α /ml was added to diluted semen. Boars fromone large production unit, were manually collected; semen was either enriched withPGF2α (group 1, n=38, either untreated (group 2, n=32. Total volume of semencollected, percent of motility and number of obtained doses were recorded. Thehighest sperm volume collected from the two groups is corresponding to ejaculatesfrom Landrace boars with PGF2α supplemented semen (267.6 ml. Regardingmotility, the sperm collected from Landrace boars with PGF2α supplemented semenwas higher from the one collected from Landrace boars with untreated semen(81.37% and very significant differences were statistically determined. Theejaculates with highest number of obtained doses is corresponding to the onescollected from boars with PGF2α supplemented semen (25.21. Only boars from thefirst group (with PGF2α supplemented semen showed motility over 70% and even100%. The untreated semen showed motility values around 65-70%.

  14. Renormalisation of quark propagators from twisted-mass lattice QCD at $N_f$=2

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, B; Brinet, M; De Soto, F; Liu, Z; Morenas, V; Pène, O; Petrov, K; Rodríguez-Quintero, J

    2010-01-01

    We present results concerning the non-perturbative evaluation of the renormalisation constant for the quark field, $Z_q$, from lattice simulations with twisted mass quarks and three values of the lattice spacing. We use the RI'-MOM scheme. $Z_q$ has very large lattice spacing artefacts; it is considered here as a test bed to elaborate accurate methods which will be used for other renormalisation constants. We recall and develop the non-perturbative correction methods and propose tools to test the quality of the correction. These tests are also applied to the perturbative correction method. We check that the lattice spacing artefacts scale indeed as $a^2p^2$. We then study the running of $Z_q$ with particular attention to the non-perturbative effects, presumably dominated by the dimension-two gluon condensate $\\VEV{A^2}$ in Landau gauge. We show indeed that this effect is present, and not small. We check its scaling in physical units confirming that it is a continuum effect. It gives a $\\sim 4%$ contribution a...

  15. PROSTAGLANDIN F2α SUPPLEMENTED SEMEN IMPROVES LANDRACE BOARS SPERM MOTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA SGURĂ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether the sperm motility from Landrace boars improves when PGF2α (Dinolytic®; 5 mg PGF2α /ml was added to diluted semen. Boars from one large production unit, were manually collected; semen was either enriched with PGF2α (group 1, n=38, either untreated (group 2, n=32. Total volume of semen collected, percent of motility and number of obtained doses were recorded. The highest sperm volume collected from the two groups is corresponding to ejaculates from Landrace boars with PGF2α supplemented semen (267.6 ml. Regarding motility, the sperm collected from Landrace boars with PGF2α supplemented semen was higher from the one collected from Landrace boars with untreated semen (81.37% and very significant differences were statistically determined. The ejaculates with highest number of obtained doses is corresponding to the ones collected from boars with PGF2α supplemented semen (25.21. Only boars from the first group (with PGF2α supplemented semen showed motility over 70% and even 100%. The untreated semen showed motility values around 65-70%.

  16. PERTUMBUHAN DAN SIGOSITAS IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK F-2 YANG MEMBAWA GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2015-06-01

    ikan lele transgenik F-2. Ikan lele transgenik F-2 dihasilkan dari persilangan antar ikan lele transgenik F-1. Sigositas ikan F-2 dievaluasi menggunakan uji progeni dengan menyilangkan antara ikan transgenik F-2 dan non-transgenik. Parameter digunakan untuk mengevaluasi performa ikan lele transgenik F-2 meliputi:derajat pembuahan, derajat penetasan, sintasan larva, pertumbuhan, dan efisiensi pakan. Analisis sigositas ikan lele transgenik F-2 dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji progeni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa transgen (PhGH yang ada pada ikan transgenik tidak memengaruhi derajat pembuahan dan derajat penetasan embrio, serta sintasan larva. Populasi ikan lele transgenik F-2 memiliki laju pertumbuhan 75,3% lebih tinggi dibandingkan populasi ikan non-transgenik (P<0,05. Efisiensi pakan ikan transgenik adalah 51,95% lebih tinggi dari ikan non-transgenik (P<0,05. Hasil analisis sigositas ikan lele transgenik F-2 dari 56 ekor yang diuji, hanya 16 ekor ikan lele membawa gen PhGH, emuanya heterozigot.

  17. The Impact of Online or F2F Lecture Choice on Student Achievement and Engagement in a Large Lecture-Based Science Course: Closing the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cheryl A.; Stewart, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning options vary and universities are exploring an assortment of instructional combinations, some involving video lectures as a replacement for face-to-face (f2f) lectures. This methodological study investigates the impact of the provision of lecture choice (online or f2f) on overall student achievement and course engagement. This…

  18. 17 CFR 270.18f-2 - Fair and equitable treatment for holders of each class or series of stock of series investment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair and equitable treatment for holders of each class or series of stock of series investment companies. 270.18f-2 Section 270.18f-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 §...

  19. 理论研究F2BN3多聚体的结构特色和热力学稳定性%Theoretical studies on structural feature and thermodynamic stability of F2BN3 oligomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马登学; 夏其英; 张弛

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to study on (F2BN3)n (n=1~4) clusters at the B3LYP/6-311+G* level. A set of the structural and thermodynamic properties have been obtained. Trends in structural parameters with oligomerization degree n are discussed. The optimized clusters (F2BN3)2-4 all possess cyclic structure formed by B atoms bridged by the α-nitrogen of the azide groups. The boat-twisting conformation lies 10.54 kJ*mol-1 lower in binding energies than the chair isomer for the trimers. The four tetramers newly gained show greatly binding energy differences in range of 3.1~45.65 kJ*mol-1. The dimerization is thermodynamically unfavorable by the enthalpy. However, the formations of trimers and tetramers are very favorable thermodynamically even at high (1200 K) temperatures. Comparisons of the thermodynamic parameters of subsequent oligomerization are also given.%在密度泛函理论(DFT)B3LYP/6-311+G*水平上计算研究了叠氮二氟硼多聚体(F2BN3)n (n=1~4),获得了它们的结构和热力学性质,讨论了几何参数随聚合度的变化趋势.多聚体(F2BN3)2-4的优化构型均为由不同子体系的叠氮基α-N和B原子相连形成的环状结构.三聚体的船扭式构象比椅式构象的结合能低10.54 kJ*mol-1;四个新获得的四聚体的结合能差异较大,大小为3.1~45.65 kJ*mol-1.由焓变可知,单体形成二聚体在热力学上是不利的,而形成三聚体和四聚体在高达1200 K的温度下是有利的,同时分析比较了后续反应的热力学参数.

  20. 尘螨变应原Der f 2基因克隆及序列分析%Clone and sequence analysis of a major allergen Der f 2 from house dust mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉宝; 周鹏; 彭明; 周鹰; 彭江龙

    2008-01-01

    目的:获得尘螨变应原Der f 2基因及其生物信息学资料.方法:提取粉尘螨总RNA,RT-PCR合成Der f 2的cDNA片段,回收PCR产物并连接至pMD19-T simple,经测序验证后亚克隆入表达载体pET-28a(+),转化大肠杆菌感受态细胞后提取质粒,双酶切鉴定.用ExPaSy,EBI,NCBI网站的在线软件对测序结果进行分析.结果:RT-PCR扩增获得了Der f 2 cDNA片段,酶切、电泳结果表明克隆和亚克隆获得成功.与参考序列相比,测序结果多了87 bp(77~163),但Blastn发现中国广州和德国Reinbek报道的序列中也含此87bp.同源性、相似性、序列比对及分子进化分析提示,该序列与中国广州和德国Reinbek报道的序列亲缘关系较近.推测该变应原由176个氨基酸组成,与附睾分泌蛋白E1具有同源性,信号肽位于1~17aa处,在6~24aa处有一跨膜螺旋.二级结构由a-螺旋(16.57%),延伸链(32.57%)和随机卷曲(50.86%)组成.结论:获得了粉尘螨变应原Der f 2编码基因及其分子特征,为进一步生产基因工程变应原用于临床诊治变态反应性疾病奠定了基础.

  1. The influenza virus protein PB1-F2 inhibits the induction of type I interferon at the level of the MAVS adaptor protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna T Varga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PB1-F2 is a 90 amino acid protein that is expressed from the +1 open reading frame in the PB1 gene of some influenza A viruses and has been shown to contribute to viral pathogenicity. Notably, a serine at position 66 (66S in PB1-F2 is known to increase virulence compared to an isogenic virus with an asparagine (66N at this position. Recently, we found that an influenza virus expressing PB1-F2 N66S suppresses interferon (IFN-stimulated genes in mice. To characterize this phenomenon, we employed several in vitro assays. Overexpression of the A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8 PB1-F2 protein in 293T cells decreased RIG-I mediated activation of an IFN-β reporter and secretion of IFN as determined by bioassay. Of note, the PB1-F2 N66S protein showed enhanced IFN antagonism activity compared to PB1-F2 wildtype. Similar observations were found in the context of viral infection with a PR8 PB1-F2 N66S virus. To understand the relationship between NS1, a previously described influenza virus protein involved in suppression of IFN synthesis, and PB1-F2, we investigated the induction of IFN when NS1 and PB1-F2 were co-expressed in an in vitro transfection system. In this assay we found that PB1-F2 N66S further reduced IFN induction in the presence of NS1. By inducing the IFN-β reporter at different levels in the signaling cascade, we found that PB1-F2 inhibited IFN production at the level of the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies revealed that PB1-F2 co-localizes with MAVS. In summary, we have characterized the anti-interferon function of PB1-F2 and we suggest that this activity contributes to the enhanced pathogenicity seen with PB1-F2 N66S- expressing influenza viruses.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of salts containing the BrO(3)F(2)(-) anion; a rare example of a bromine(VII) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, John F; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2005-07-06

    The BrO(3)F(2)(-) anion has been prepared by reaction of BrO(3)F with the fluoride ion donors KF, RbF, CsF, [N(CH(3))(4)][F], and NOF. The BrO(3)F(2)(-) anion is only the fourth Br(VII) species to have been isolated in macroscopic quantities, and it is one of only three oxide fluorides that possess D(3)(h)() symmetry, the others being XeO(3)F(2) and OsO(3)F(2). The fluoride ion acceptor properties of BrO(3)F contrast with those of ClO(3)F, which does not react with the strong fluoride ion donor [N(CH(3))(4)][F] to form the analogous ClO(3)F(2)(-) salt. The single-crystal X-ray structures of [NO](2)[BrO(3)F(2)][F] and [N(CH(3))(4)][BrO(3)F(2)] confirm the D(3)(h)() symmetry of the BrO(3)F(2)(-) anion and provide accurate Br-O (1.593(3)-1.610(6) A) and Br-F (1.849(5)-1.827(4) A) bond lengths. The salt, [NO](2)[BrO(3)F(2)][F], is fully ordered, crystallizing in the monoclinic space group, C2/c, with a = 9.892(3) A, b = 12.862(4) A, c = 10.141(4) A, beta = 90.75(2) degrees , V = 12460(7) A(3), Z = 4, and R(1) = 0.0671 at -173 degrees C, whereas [N(CH(3))(4))][BrO(3)F(2)] exhibits a 2-fold disorder of the anion, crystallizing in the tetragonal space group, P4/nmm, with a = 8.5718(7) A, c = 5.8117(6) A, V = 427.02(7) A(3), Z = 2, and R(1) = 0.0314 at -173 degrees C. The (19)F chemical shift of [N(CH(3))(4))][BrO(3)F(2)] in CH(3)CN is 237.0 ppm and is more deshielded than those of the previously investigated Br(VII) species, BrO(3)F and BrF(6)(+). The vibrational frequencies of the BrO(3)F(2)(-) anion were determined by use of Raman and infrared spectroscopy and were assigned with the aid of electronic structure calculations and by analogy with the vibrational assignments reported for XeO(3)F(2) and OsO(3)F(2). The internal and symmetry force constants of BrO(3)F(2)(-) were determined by use of general valence force field and B-matrix methods, respectively, and are compared with those of XeO(3)F(2), OsO(3)F(2), and the unknown ClO(3)F(2)(-) anion. The instability of ClO(3

  3. Comparison of f2/f1 ratio functions in rabbit and gerbil: Ear-canal DPOAEs vs noninvasively inferred intracochlear DPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Glen K.; Stagner, Barden B.; Dong, Wei; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L.

    2015-12-01

    The properties of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), i.e., distortion products (DPs) measured in the ear canal, have been thoroughly described. However, considerably less is known about the behavior of intracochlear DPs (iDPs). Detailed comparisons of DPOAEs to iDPs would provide valuable insights on the extent to which ear-canal DPOAEs mirror iDPs. Prior studies described a technique whereby the behavior of iDPs could be inferred by interacting a probe tone (f3) with the iDP of interest to produce a `secondary' DPOAE (DPOAÉ). The behavior of DPOAÉ was then used to deduce the characteristics of the iDP. In the present study, this method was used in rabbits and gerbils to simultaneously compare DPOAE f2/f1-ratio functions to their iDP counterparts. The 2f1-f2 and 2f2-f1 DPOAEs were collected with f1 and f2 primary-tone levels varied from 35-75 dB SPL, and with a 50-dB SPL f3 placed at a DP/f3 ratio of 1.25 to evoke a DPOAÉ at 2f3-(2f1-f2) or 2f3-(2f2-f1). Control experiments demonstrated little effect of the f3-probe tone on DPOAE-ratio functions. Substitution experiments were performed to determine any suppressive effects of the f1 and f2 primaries on the generation of DPOAÉ, as well as to infer the intracochlear level of the iDP once the DPOAÉ was corrected for suppression. Results showed that at low primary-tone levels, 2f1-f2 DPOAE f2/f1-ratio functions peaked around f2/f1=1.25, and exhibited an inverted U-shaped function. In contrast, simultaneously measured 2f1-f2 iDP-ratio functions peaked at f2/f1≈1. Similar growth of the inferred iDP was obtained for higher-level primaries when the ratio functions were corrected for suppressive effects. At these higher levels, DPOAE-ratio functions leveled off and no longer showed the steep reduction at narrow f2/f1 ratios. Overall, noninvasive estimates of 2f1-f2 iDP-ratio functions agreed with reports of similar functions directly measured for 2f1-f2 DPs on the basilar membrane (BM) or in

  4. Wear Behavior of Cold Pressed and Sintered Al2O3/TiC/CaF2Al2O3/TiC Laminated Ceramic Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng YANG; Jian CHENG; Peilong SONG; Shouren WANG; Liying YANG; Yanjun WANG; Ken MAO

    2013-01-01

    A novel laminated Al2O3/TiC/CaF2-Al2O3/TiC sandwich ceramic composite was fabricated through cold pressing and sintering to achieve better anti-wear performance,such as low friction coefficient and low wear rate.Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 and Al2O3/TiC composites were alternatively built layer-by-layer to obtain a sandwich structure.Solid lubricant CaF2 was added evenly into the Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 layer to reduce the friction and wear.Al2O3/TiC ceramic was also cold pressed and sintered for comparison.Friction analysis of the two ceramics was then conducted via a wear-and-tear machine.Worn surface and surface compositions were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrum,respectively.Results showed that the laminated Al2O3/TiC/CaF2-Al2O3/TiC sandwich ceramic composite has lower friction coefficient and lower wear rate than those of Al2O3/TiC ceramic alone because of the addition of CaF2 into the laminated Al2O3/TiC/CaF2-Al2O3/TiC sandwich ceramic composite.Under the friction load,the tiny CaF2 particles were scraped from the Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 layer and spread on friction pairs before falling off into micropits.This process formed a smooth,self-lubricating film,which led to better anti-wear properties.Adhesive wear is the main wear mechanism of Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 layer and abrasive wear is the main wear mechanism of Al2O3/TiC layer.

  5. Erosion protection comparison of stabilised SnF2 , mixed fluoride active and SMFP/arginine-containing dentifrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversole, Sandra L; Saunders-Burkhardt, Kymberly; Faller, Robert V

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the relative erosion protection potential of marketed dentifrices formulated with either stabilised stannous fluoride (SnF2 ), sodium fluoride (NaF) and/or sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP) using an established laboratory erosion cycling model. Sound enamel cores from extracted, human enamel were cleaned, ground and polished, soaked in pooled saliva (pellicle formation) and treated with a 1:3 slurry of dentifrice and saliva. Specimens were subjected to daily challenges with 1% citric acid, a potentially damaging acid found in common food and drinks. Marketed dentifrices compared were: (1) a stabilised stannous fluoride product formulated with 1,100 ppm F as SnF2 ; (2) a cavity protection product containing 1,100 ppm F as NaF; (3) a cavity protection product comprising a mixed active fluoride system with 1,000 ppm F as SMFP + 450 ppm F as NaF; and (4) a sensitivity product containing 1,450 ppm F as SMFP + 8% arginine bicarbonate. Specimens from Group 1 demonstrated an average loss of 5.5 (±1.2) μm of tooth surface enamel; Groups 2, 3 and 4 lost an average of 18.3 (±0.9) μm, 16.0 (±2.0) μm and 17.1 (±1.1) μm, respectively, of tooth surface enamel. Group 1 provided a statistically significant difference in protection compared with the other products. These results suggest that the marketed dentifrice formulated with stabilised SnF2 may provide enhanced protection of exposed tooth surfaces against dietary acid attack compared with the other products tested. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  6. Room temperature CW and QCW operation of Ho:CaF2 laser pumped by Tm:fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Michal; Cvrček, Jan; Kubeček, Václav; Zhao, Beibei; Ma, Weiwei; Jiang, Dapeng; Su, Liangbi

    2017-05-01

    Laser radiation in the wavelength range around 2 μm is required for its specific properties - it is very suitable for medical applications, remote sensing, or pumping of optical parametric oscillators to generate ultrafast pulses in the mid-IR region further exploited in nonlinear optics. Crystals as YLF, YAG, LLF, and GdVO4 doped by holmium were already investigated and found suitable for the tunable laser generation around 2.1 mμ. Only a few works are devoted to the laser operation of holmium-doped fluorides as CaF2. In this work, pulsed and continuous-wave laser operation of a modified- Bridgman-grown Ho:CaF2 active crystal at room temperature is reported. A commercial 50 W 1940 nm Tm-fiber laser was used to pump a laser oscillator based on a novel 10 mm long 0.5 at.% Ho:CaF2 active crystal placed in the Peltiercooled holder. In the pulsed regime (10 ms, 10 Hz), the laser slope efficiency of 53 % with respect to the absorbed pump power was achieved. The laser generated at the central wavelength of 2085 nm with the maximum mean output power of 365 mW corresponding to the power amplitude of 3.65 W. In the continuous wave regime, the maximum output power was 1.11 W with the slope efficiency of 41 % with respect to the absorbed pump power. To our best knowledge this is the first demonstration of this laser active material operating in the CW regime at room temperature. The tuning range over 60 nm from 2034 to 2094 nm was achieved using a birefringent filter showing the possibility to develop a mode-locked laser system generating pulses in the sub-picosecond range.

  7. Two Tightly Linked Genes at the hsa1 Locus Cause Both F1 and F2 Hybrid Sterility in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Takashi, Tomonori; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2016-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms of hybrid breakdown associated with sterility (F2 sterility) are poorly understood as compared with those of F1 hybrid sterility. Previously, we characterized three unlinked epistatic loci, hybrid sterility-a1 (hsa1), hsa2, and hsa3, responsible for the F2 sterility in a cross between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. In this study, we identified that the hsa1 locus contains two interacting genes, HSA1a and HSA1b, within a 30-kb region. HSA1a-j (japonica allele) encodes a highly conserved plant-specific domain of unknown function protein (DUF1618), whereas the indica allele (HSA1a-i(s)) has two deletion mutations that cause disruption of domain structure. The second gene, HSA1b-i(s), encodes an uncharacterized protein with some similarity to a nucleotide-binding protein. Homozygous introgression of indica HSA1a-i(s)-HSA1b-i(s) alleles into japonica showed female gamete abortion at an early mitotic stage. The fact that the recombinant haplotype HSA1a-j-HSA1b-i(s) caused semi-sterility in the heterozygous state with the HSA1a-i(s)-HSA1b-i(s) haplotype suggests that variation in the hsa1 locus is a possible cause of the wide-spectrum sterility barriers seen in F1 hybrids and successive generations in rice. We propose a simple genetic model to explain how a single causal mechanism can drive both F1 and F2 hybrid sterility.

  8. Synthesis of full length PB1-F2 influenza A virus proteins from 'Spanish flu' and 'bird flu'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, René; Bruns, Karsten; Sharma, Alok; Eissmann, André; Hahn, Friedrich; Studtrucker, Nicole; Fossen, Torgils; Wray, Victor; Henklein, Peter; Schubert, Ulrich

    2008-08-01

    The proapoptotic influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein contributes to viral pathogenicity and is present in most human and avian isolates. Previous synthetic protocols have been improved to provide a synthetic full length H1N1 type PB1-F2 protein that is encoded by the 'Spanish flu' isolate and an equivalent protein from an avian host that is representative of a highly pathogenic H5N1 'bird flu' isolate, termed SF2 and BF2, respectively. Full length SF2, different mutants of BF2 and a number of fragments of these peptides have been synthesized by either the standard solid-phase peptide synthesis method or by native chemical ligation of unprotected N- and C-terminal peptide fragments. For SF2 chemical ligation made use of the histidine and the cysteine residues located in positions 41 and 42 of the native sequence, respectively, to afford a highly efficient synthesis of SF2 compared to the standard SPPS elongation method. By-product formation at the aspartic acid residue in position 23 was prevented by specific modifications of the SPPS protocol. As the native sequence of BF2 does not contain a cysteine residue two different mutants of BF2 (Y42C) and BF2 (S47C) with appropriate cysteine exchanges were produced. In addition to the full length molecules, fragments of the native sequences were synthesized for comparison of their physical characteristics with those from the H1N1 human isolate A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). All peptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and SDS-PAGE. The protocols allow the synthesis of significant amounts of PB1-F2 and its related peptides. Copyright (c) 2008 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype Inherited by the F2 Generation of a Gestational Disruption Model of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Stephanie M; Aguilar, David D; Neary, Jennifer L; Carless, Melanie A; Giuffrida, Andrea; Lodge, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to schizophrenia; however, the exact etiology of this disorder is not known. Animal models are utilized to better understand the mechanisms associated with neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. One of these involves gestational administration of methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) to induce a developmental disruption, which in turn produces a schizophrenia-like phenotype in post-pubertal rats. The mechanisms by which MAM produces this phenotype are not clear; however, we now demonstrate that MAM induces differential DNA methylation, which may be heritable. Here we demonstrate that a subset of both second (F2) and third (F3) filial generations of MAM-treated rats displays a schizophrenia-like phenotype and hypermethylation of the transcription factor, Sp5. Specifically, ventral tegmental area of dopamine neuron activity was examined using electrophysiology as a correlate for the dopamine hyperfunction thought to underlie psychosis in patients. Interestingly, only a subset of F2 and F3 MAM rats exhibited increases in dopamine neuron population activity, indicating that this may be a unique model with a susceptibility to develop a schizophrenia-like phenotype. An increase in dopamine system function in rodent models has been previously associated with decreases in hippocampal GABAergic transmission. In line with these observations, we found a significant correlation between hippocampal parvalbumin expression and dopamine neuron activity in F2 rats. These data therefore provide evidence that offspring born from MAM-treated rats possess a susceptibility to develop aspects of a schizophrenia-like phenotype and may provide a useful tool to investigate gene-environment interactions.

  10. Mechanical behavior of ProTaper universal F2 finishing file under various curvature conditions: a finite element analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Cheung, Gary S P; Shen, Ya; Zhou, Xuedong

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualize the stresses and strain distribution patterns in ProTaper Universal F2 files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and to establish the stress- and strain-curvature relationship for this instrument under various conditions by using a dynamic, three-dimensional finite-element model. An accurate geometric model of a ProTaper Universal F2 instrument was created. Two short, straight tubes were also modeled to represent the parts of root canal apical and coronal to the curvature. Then, the file was constrained to a curve of varying degree, curve length, and position. The maximum von Mises stress and strain on the tension side of the instrument was measured at 5-degree intervals in a numerical simulation package (LS-DYNA; Livermore Software Technology, Livermore, CA). The mechanical performance of the ProTaper F2 file under various conditions was simulated. A long curvature length produced lower values of stress and strain under the same angle of curvature. An increase in the curvature angle generally induces higher stress and strain. For the same degree and curve length, the stress and strain increased if the curved portion was situated further up the shaft of the instrument (ie, with a larger diameter). The dynamic, numerical model may be used to evaluate and compare the effect of various root canal curvatures on the behavior of different designs of root canal instrument. The magnitude of stress and strain imposed on the instrument is influenced by the abruptness and degree of curvature as well as the location of the curved portion. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 澳大利亚湿加松F2代在广东早期生长表现%The Early Growth of Slash Pine×Honduras Caribbean Pine F2 Hybrid from Australia in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天颐; 薛晓峰; 刘纯鑫; 黄少伟

    2008-01-01

    对广东省西江林场、银盏林场、通门林场、浸潭大树墩和龙坪林场等利用澳大利亚昆士兰F2代种子营造的湿加松幼林的生长状况和立地条件进行调查,分析幼林树高、地径或胸径生长与立地条件的关系.结果表明:在高温多雨的广东地区,F2代湿加松具有广泛的适应性.3年生时的树高及胸径分别比同年龄的湿地松大20.26%和27.27%.坡位、坡向、表土层厚度等因素对湿加松幼林的生长起着重要的作用.广东省的地理环境和气候状况适宜湿加松的生长.澳大利亚引进的F:代湿加松在广东省种植后生长情况较好,有着良好的发展前景.

  12. Charmonium spectroscopy and mixing with light quark and open charm states from nF=2 lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, Gunnar S; Ehmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We study the charmonium spectrum including higher spin and gluonic excitations. We determine an upper limit on the mixing of the eta_c ground state with light pseudoscalar flavour-singlet mesons and investigate the mixing of charmonia near open charm thresholds with pairs of (excited) D and anti-D mesons. For charm and light valence quarks and nF=2 sea quarks, we employ the non-perturbatively improved Sheikholeslami-Wohlert (clover) action. Excited states are accessed using the variational technique, starting from a basis of suitably optimised operators. For some aspects of this study, the use of improved stochastic all-to-all propagators was essential.

  13. Lattice simulations with $N_f=2+1$ improved Wilson fermions at a fixed strange quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, Gunnar S; Simeth, Jakob; Söldner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The explicit breaking of chiral symmetry of the Wilson fermion action results in additive quark mass renormalization. Moreover, flavour singlet and non-singlet scalar currents acquire different renormalization constants with respect to continuum regularization schemes. This complicates keeping the renormalized strange quark mass fixed when varying the light quark mass in simulations with $N_f=2+1$ sea quark flavours. Here we present and validate our strategy within the CLS (Coordinated Lattice Simulations) effort to achieve this in simulations with non-perturbatively order-$a$ improved Wilson fermions. We also determine various combinations of renormalization constants and improvement coefficients.

  14. Response of BaF 2 detectors to photons of 3-50 MeV energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulewicz, T.; Grosse, E.; Emling, H.; Freifelder, R.; Grein, H.; Henning, W.; Herrmann, N.; Holzmann, R.; Kulessa, R.; Simon, R. S.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Schoch, B.; Vogt, J.; Wilhelm, M.; Kratz, J. V.; Schmidt, R.; Janssens, R. V. F.

    1990-04-01

    BaF 2 detectors of 20 cm length (10 radiation lengths) and hexagonal cross section (diameter 5.2 cm) were tested using monochromatic photons from the tagged-photon facility at the electron accelerator MAMIA at Mainz. The experimental spectra the deposited energy for a single detector and for an array of seven modules compare very well with the predictions of Monte Carlo shower simulations using the code GEANT3. At high photon energies a significant improvement (more than a factor 2) of the energy resolution is observed for the summed energy spectra as compared to the resolution of one single module.

  15. Kaon semileptonic decays with $N_f=2+1+1$ HISQ fermions and physical light-quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gámiz, E. [Granada U., Theor. Phys. Astrophys.; Bazavov, A. [Brookhaven; Bernard, C. [Washington U., St. Louis; DeTar, C. [Utah U.; Du, D. [Syracuse U.; El-Khadra, A. X. [Illinois U., Urbana; Freeland, E. D. [Art Inst. of Chicago; Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana U.; Heller, U. M. [APS, New York; Komijani, J. [TUM-IAS, Munich; Kronfeld, A. S. [Fermilab; Laiho, J. [Syracuse U.; Mackenzie, P. B. [Fermilab; Neil, E. T. [Colorado U.; Primer, T. [Arizona U.; Simone, J. N. [Fermilab; Sugar, R. [UC, Santa Barbara; Toussaint, D. [Arizona U.; Van de Water, R. S. [Fermilab; Zhou, Ran [Fermilab

    2016-11-13

    We discuss the reduction of errors in the calculation of the form factor $f_+^{K \\pi}(0)$ with HISQ fermions on the $N_f=2+1+1$ MILC configurations from increased statistics on some key ensembles, new data on ensembles with lattice spacings down to 0.042 fm and the study of finite-volume effects within staggered ChPT. We also study the implications for the unitarity of the CKM matrix in the first row and for current tensions with leptonic determinations of $\\vert V_{us}\\vert$.

  16. Electron attachment in F2 - Conclusive demonstration of nonresonant, s-wave coupling in the limit of zero electron energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to F2 has been observed in the energy range 0-140 meV, at a resolution of 6 meV (full width at half maximum). Results show conclusively a sharp, resolution-limited threshold behavior consistent with an s-wave cross section varying as sq rt of epsilon. Two accurate theoretical calculations predict only p-wave behavior varying as the sq rt of epsilon. Several nonadiabatic coupling effects leading to s-wave behavior are outlined.

  17. Kaon semileptonic decays with $N_f=2+1+1$ HISQ fermions and physical light-quark masses

    CERN Document Server

    Gamiz, E; Bernard, C; DeTar, C; Du, D; El-Khadra, A X; Freeland, E D; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Komijani, J; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Mackenzie, P B; Neil, E T; Primer, T; Simone, J N; Sugar, R; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, Ran

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the reduction of errors in the calculation of the form factor $f_+^{K \\pi}(0)$ with HISQ fermions on the $N_f=2+1+1$ MILC configurations from increased statistics on some key ensembles, new data on ensembles with lattice spacings down to 0.042 fm and the study of finite-volume effects within staggered ChPT. We also study the implications for the unitarity of the CKM matrix in the first row and for current tensions with leptonic determinations of $\\vert V_{us}\\vert$.

  18. Genetic and Environmental Variance Among F2 Families in a Commercial Breeding Program for Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fé, Dario; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian Sig

    2013-01-01

    In the joint project “FORAGESELECT”, we aim to implement Genome Wide Selection (GWS) in breeding of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), in order to increase genetic response in important agronomic traits such as yield, seed production, stress tolerance and disease resistance, while decreasing...... of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental variance in the training set composed of F2 families selected from a ten year breeding period. Variance components were estimated on 1193 of those families, sown in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in five locations around Europe. Families were tested together...

  19. Neutron diffraction and TSDC on Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouwerkerk, M.; Andersen, N. H.; Veldkamp, F. F.

    1986-01-01

    The defect structure of fluorite-type Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid solutions, which exhibit fast fluoride ion conductivity, has been investigated by quasi-elastic diffuse neutron scattering (QDNS) experiments, and thermally stimulated depolarisation current (TSDC) measurements. A comparison with model...... obtained from a.c. ionic conductivity studies. The low-temperature relaxation at 29.5 K is ascribed to depolarisation steps of (212) clusters. Evidence for the relaxation of a minor amount of (UBaFi)x dipoles is found. A direct indication of the freedom of orientation of a (212) cluster is obtained from...

  20. Computing K and D meson masses with N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, Remi [CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). IRFU/Service de Physique Nucleaire; Blossier, Benoit; Boucaud, Philippe [Paris XI Univ., 91 - Orsay (FR). Lab. de Physique Theorique] (and others)

    2010-05-15

    We discuss the computation of the mass of the K and D mesons within the framework of N{sub f}=2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD from a technical point of view. These quantities are essential, already at the level of generating gauge configurations, being obvious candidates to tune the strange and charm quark masses to their physical values. In particular, we address the problems related to the twisted mass flavor and parity symmetry breaking, which arise when considering a non-degenerate (c,s) doublet. We propose and verify the consistency of three methods to extract the K and D meson masses in this framework. (orig.)

  1. 宾得发布D FA645 MACRO 90mm F2.8ED AW SR镜头

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    宾得发布D FA645 MACRO 90mm F2.8 ED AW SR中画幅镜头。该镜头装在645D机身上等效35mm焦距为71mm,采用9组11片结构,最近对焦距离0.41m。9片光圈叶片,外观尺寸91mm×117mm,重1040g。

  2. Function of the corpus luteum, the endometrium and the trophoblast after treatment of tubal pregnancy by prostaglandin F2 alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejtorp, M; Sørensen, Steen; Ruge, S

    1993-01-01

    (HCG) before and after treatment by injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha into the site of the gestation and into the corpus luteum. There was no significant difference in the pre-treatment serum progesterone and serum PP14 concentrations of 26 women who were treated successfully and of five women, who...... were operated on after failure of the treatment. After the prostaglandin treatment the serum progesterone and PP14 concentrations decreased simultaneously with the serum HCG concentration or remained at a low, constant concentration. We conclude that measurement of serum progesterone and PP14 cannot...

  3. TRANSMISI, EKSPRESI, DAN DISTRIBUSI GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN PATIN SIAM PADA IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK F-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu keberhasilan pembentukan ikan transgenik ditandai dengan kemampuan dari individu transgenik tersebut untuk mewariskan transgen pada keturunannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi transmisi dan ekspresi transgen (PhGh dari generasi F-1 ke F-2 serta mengetahui distribusi transgen pada berbagai organ. Deteksi transgen dilakukan pada larva, benih, dan berbagai organ ikan lele generasi F-2 (pituitari, otak, timus, jantung, limfa, hati, ginjal, lambung, usus, gonad, otot, kulit insang, dan sirip ekor menggunakan metode PCR. Ekspresi transgen pada larva dan organ ikan lele transgenik F-2 dideteksi menggunakan metode reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Level ekspresi pada organ dianalisis menggunakan metode qPCR, gen β-aktin digunakan sebagai kontrol internal. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebanyak 65 ekor induk betina transgenik F-1 positif membawa transgen di sirip ekor, hanya 18 ekor (27,69% induk betina yang positif membawa transgen di telur. Sedangkan pada induk jantan hanya 19 ekor (46,34% yang positif membawa transgen di sperma, dari 41 ekor yang positif membawa transgen di sirip. Transgen dapat terdeteksi pada larva dan sirip ekor ikan lele transgenik F-2 dengan persentase transmisinya adalah 8,11%-50% dengan rata-rata transmisi transgen sebesar 18,85%. Deteksi dan distribusi transgen ditemukan pada larva dan organ pituitari, hati, ginjal, gonad, otot, otak, timus, jantung, limfa, lambung, usus, insang, dan sirip ekor, tetapi transgen tidak ditemukan pada kulit ikan. Level ekspresi transgen tertinggi ditemukan pada hati sebesar 7,3±2,2 pg/μg cDNA – 9,2±2,7 pg/μg cDNA; sedangkan ekspresi terendah ditemukan pada ginjal berkisar 0,19±0,01 pg/μg cDNA – 0,2±0,03 pg/μg cDNA; dan insang sebesar 0,2±0,01 pg/μg cDNA.

  4. Measurement of the proton structure function F2 at low Q2 in QED Compton scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, A. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Anthonis, T. [Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Brussels, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen (Belgium)] (and others)

    2004-09-30

    The proton structure function F2(x,Q2) is measured in inelastic QED Compton scattering using data collected with the H1 detector at HERA. QED Compton events are used to access the kinematic range of very low virtualities of the exchanged photon, Q2, down to 0.5 GeV{sup 2}, and Bjorken x up to {approx}0.06, a region which has not been covered previously by inclusive measurements at HERA. The results are in agreement with the measurements from fixed target lepton-nucleon scattering experiments.

  5. Measurement of the proton structure function F2 at low Q2 in QED Compton scattering at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J. C.; Böhme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Bröker, H.-B.; Brown, D. P.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J. G.; Coppens, Y. R.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flucke, G.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Höting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kückens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Lüke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, I.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Ossoskov, G.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Pöschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Ratiani, Z.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration

    2004-09-01

    The proton structure function F2 (x,Q2) is measured in inelastic QED Compton scattering using data collected with the H1 detector at HERA. QED Compton events are used to access the kinematic range of very low virtualities of the exchanged photon, Q2, down to 0.5 GeV2, and Bjorken x up to ∼0.06, a region which has not been covered previously by inclusive measurements at HERA. The results are in agreement with the measurements from fixed target lepton-nucleon scattering experiments.

  6. Diode-pumped Er:CaF2 ceramic 2.7 μm tunable laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Svejkar, Richard; Jelínková, Helena; Doroshenko, Maxim E; Fedorov, Pavel P; Osiko, Vyacheslav V

    2013-09-01

    Spectroscopic and laser properties of a newly developed high optical quality Er:CaF2 hot-formed ceramic were investigated. Under pulsed 968 nm laser diode pumping, the mid-infrared (2.7 μm) radiation was obtained with a slope efficiency of 3%. Laser tunability was reached using a birefringent filter and the laser tuning range of 118 nm, from 2687 up to 2805 nm, was demonstrated. The maximal output energy reached was 0.48 mJ at 2730 nm for the absorbed pumping energy 34 mJ.

  7. Computing K and D meson masses with N_f = 2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, Remi; Carbonell, Jaume; Drach, Vincent; Farchioni, Federico; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Montvay, Istvan; Pallante, Elisabetta; Pene, Olivier; Reker, Siebren; Urbach, Carsten; Wagner, Marc; Wenger, Urs

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the computation of the mass of the K and D mesons within the framework of N_f = 2+1+1 twisted mass lattice QCD from a technical point of view. These quantities are essential, already at the level of generating gauge configurations, being obvious candidates to tune the strange and charm quark masses to their physical values. In particular, we address the problems related to the twisted mass flavor and parity symmetry breaking, which arise when considering a non-degenerate (c,s) doublet. We propose and verify the consistency of three methods to extract the K and D meson masses in this framework.

  8. Scintillation light simulation in big-sized BaF$_{2}$ and pure CsI crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Usubov, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated scintillation light distribution in BaF$_{2}$ and pure CsI crystals with dimensions 3x3x20 cm$^{3}$ using the Geant4 toolkit. The diffuse wrapping material is selected as coating for the crystals. The simulated cosmic muons and 105 MeV electrons are used as beam particles. The optical attenuation along the crystals is explored with the simulation data. We have demonstrated the impact of the crystal surface finish on the light distribution at the crystal end, optical photon arrival time, incidence angle distributions, and optical attenuation for the studied crystals.

  9. A time-variant analysis of the 1/f^(2) phase noise in CMOS parallel LC-Tank quadrature oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreani, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of 1/f2 phase noise in quadrature oscillators built by connecting two differential LC-tank oscillators in a parallel fashion. The analysis clearly demonstrates the necessity of adopting a time-variant theory of phase noise, where a more simplistic, time......-invariant approach fails to explain numerical simulation results even at the qualitative level. Two topologies of 5-GHz parallel quadrature oscillators are considered, and compact but nevertheless highly general, closed-form formulas are derived for the phase noise caused by the losses in the LC...

  10. Performance of a quantum defect minimized disk laser based on cryogenically cooled Yb:CaF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Martin; Körner, Jörg; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C.

    2017-07-01

    A low quantum defect is the fundamental key to a high efficiency of any laser. To study the anticipated performance boost for a 980 nm-diode pumped cryogenically cooled Yb:CaF2 disk laser we compared its operation at output wavelengths of 991 nm, 996 nm, and 1032 nm. Despite the higher quantum defect a maximum efficiency of 74% (output versus incident power) with an output power of 15.8 W was achieved at the 1032 nm output wavelength. This observation led to a detailed analysis of remaining loss mechanisms we are reporting on in this paper.

  11. N=2 supersymmetric QCD and integrable spin chains rational case N$_{f}<$2N$_{c}$

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsky, A S; Mironov, A E; Morozov, A

    1996-01-01

    The form of the spectral curve for 4d N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with matter fields in the fundamental representation of the gauge group suggests that its 1d integrable counterpart should be looked for among (inhomogeneous) sl(2) spin chains with the length of the chain being equal to the number of colours N_c. For N_f < 2N_c the relevant spin chain is the simplest XXX-model, and this identification is in agreement with the known results in Seiberg-Witten theory.

  12. Latitudinal Responses of F2 Peak Parameters to High-intensity Long-duration Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAA) Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggs, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The ionospheric responses to geomagnetic storms form an important part of the space weather study. The ionospheric perturbations may be described as enhancements and depletions compared to the quiet time variations, known as positive and negative phases of the ionospheric storms, respectively. In spite of a significant volume of studies on the ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic storms, understanding of ionospheric storm has not reached a level where it is possible to predict it. Geomagnetic activity may be divided into three categories: substorms, storms of different intensity, and high-intensity long-duration continuous AE activity (HILDCAA) events. This work presents specifically the latitudinal responses of the noontime F region peak parameters (hmF2 and foF2) to HILDCAA events. For this, digisonde data from 51 stations around the world was selected from the Digital Ionogram Data Base (DIDbase) from 2004 to 2012. For the same period 19 HILDCAA events were detected. Preliminary results show a positive effect in the peak parameters of the southern hemisphere and a negative effect in those of the northern hemisphere, suggesting that there is a predominantly northward component of the meridional winds. Additionally, it seems that the events occurring around the summer solstice have meridional wind components that are exclusively northward, while two of the six winter time events have southward components. Wintertime events are also the only ones with a very prominent eastward component of the zonal winds.

  13. Tris(dimethylamino)oxosulfonium difluorotrimethylsilicate, (Me(2)N)(3)SO(+)Me(3)SiF(2)(-) (TAOS Fluoride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jens; Behrens, Ulrich; Lork, Enno; Borrmann, Tobias; Stohrer, Wolf-Dieter; Mews, Rüdiger

    2002-09-01

    In the OSF(4)/Me(2)NSiMe(3) system besides the long known Me(2)NS(O)F(3) only the trisubstituted derivative is isolated as (Me(2)N)(3)SO(+)Me(3)SiF(2)(-) (3). Similar to (Me(2)N)(3)S(+)Me(3)SiF(2)(-) compound 3 is an excellent fluoride ion donor. With AsF(5) and HF the corresponding hexafluoroarsenate (Me(2)N)(3)SO(+)AsF(6)(-) (4) and the hydrogen bifluoride (Me(2)N)(3)SO(+)HF(2)(-) (5) are formed in almost quantitative yield. X-ray structure determinations of 3-5 surprisingly showed two different types of structures for the cation. In 3 and 5 this cation has C(3) symmetry, while in the hexafluoroarsenate 4 a (Me(2)N)(3)S(+)-like structure with C(s)() symmetry is determined. The experimental results for (Me(2)N)(3)SO(+) and (Me(2)N)(3)S(+) are compared with theoretical calculations for these cations and their isoelectronic neutral counterparts, the phosphorus amides (Me(2)N)(3)PO and (Me(2)N)(3)P, respectively.

  14. Lifetime determination of the 5d$^{2}$~$^{3}$F$_{2}$ state in barium using trapped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    De, S; Willmann, L

    2015-01-01

    Magneto-optically trapped atoms enable the determination of lifetimes of metastable states and higher lying excited states like the $\\rm{5d^{2}~^{3}F_{2}}$ state in barium. The state is efficiently populated by driving strong transitions from metastable states within the cooling cycle of the barium MOT. The lifetime is inferred from the increase of MOT fluorescence after the transfer of up to $30\\,\\%$ of the trapped atoms to this state. The radiative decay of the $\\rm{5d^{2}~^{3}F_{2}}$ state cascades to the cooling cycle of the MOT with a probability of $96.0(7)\\,\\%$ corresponding to a trap loss of $4.0(7)\\,\\%$ and its lifetime is determined to $\\rm{160(10)~\\mu s}$. This is in good agreement with the theoretically calculated lifetime of $\\rm{190~\\mu s}$ [J. Phys. B, {\\bf 40}, 227 (2007)]. The determined loss of $4.0(7)\\,\\%$ from the cooling cycle is compared with the theoretically calculated branching ratios. This measurement extends the efficacy of trapped atoms to measure lifetimes of higher, long-lived st...

  15. Chiral phase transition of $N_f$=2+1 and 3 QCD at vanishing baryon chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Heng-Tong

    2015-01-01

    We present updated results on chiral phase structure in (2+1)-flavor ($N_f$=2+1) and 3-flavor ($N_f=3$) QCD based on the simulations using Highly Improved Staggered Quarks on lattices with temporal extent $N_\\tau$ =6 at vanishing baryon chemical potential. In $N_f$=2+1 QCD we have performed simulations with a strange quark fixed to its physical value and two degenerate light quarks whose values are adjusted to have 5 values of Goldstone pion masses in the region of 160 - 80 MeV in the continuum limit. The universal scaling behavior of chiral condensates as well as chiral susceptibilities is discussed and the tri-critical point is suggested to be located below the physical point, i.e. at smaller than physical strange quark mass. In $N_f$=3 QCD simulations with 6 different masses of 3 degenerate quarks corresponding to the Goldstone pion masses in the region of 230 - 80 MeV have also been performed. Our results suggest that the QCD transition with these values of quark masses is of crossover type and an upper b...

  16. Ipsilateral distortion product otoacoustic emission (2f1-f2) suppression in children with sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Carolina; Fitzgerald, Tracy S

    2003-08-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) ipsilateral suppression has been applied to study cochlear function and maturation in laboratory animals and humans. Although DPOAE suppression appears to be sensitive to regions of specialized cochlear function and to cochlear immaturity, it is not known whether it reflects permanent cochlear damage, i.e., sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), in a reliable and systematic manner in humans. Eight school-aged children with mild-moderate SNHL and 20 normal-hearing children served as subjects in this study. DPOAE (2f