WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit eu z2-36

  1. Fiscal Year 2009 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-36 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-10

    The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to present fiscal year (FY) 2009 results of Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS) characterization activities for exposure unit (EU) Z2-36 in Zone 2 at the East Tennessee technology Park (ETTP). The ETTP is located in the northwest corner of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and encompasses approximately 5000 acres that have been subdivided into three zones--Zone 1 ({approx} 1400 acres), Zone 2 ({approx} 800 acres), and the Boundary Area ({approx} 2800 acres). Zone 2 comprises the highly industrial portion of ETTP and consists of all formerly secured areas of the facility, including the large processing buildings and direct support facilities; experimental laboratories and chemical and materials handling facilities; materials storage and waste disposal facilities; secure document records libraries; and shipping and receiving warehouses. The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2005) (Zone 2 ROD) specifies the future end use for Zone 2 acreage as uncontrolled industrial for the upper 10 ft of soils. Characterization activities in these areas were conducted in compliance with the Zone 2 ROD and the DVS and data quality objectives (DQOs) presented in the Main Plant Group DQO Scoping Package (July 2006) and the Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2007a) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP). The purpose of this PCCR is to address the following: (1) Document EU Z2-36 DVS characterization results; (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation and determine if the EU meets the Zone 2 ROD requirements for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs, and (3) Identify additional areas not defined in the Zone 2 ROD that require remediation based on the DVS

  2. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY REPORT FOR EXPOSURE UNITS Z2-24, Z2-31, Z2-32, AND Z2-36 IN ZONE 2 OF THE EAST TENNESSEE TECHNOLOGY PARK OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management selected Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to perform independent verification (IV) at Zone 2 of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ORAU has concluded IV surveys, per the project-specific plan (PSP) (ORAU 2013a) covering exposure units (EUs) Z2-24, -31, -32, and -36. The objective of this effort was to verify the following. • Target EUs comply with requirements in the Zone 2 Record of Decision (ROD) (DOE 2005), as implemented by using the dynamic verification strategy presented in the dynamic work plan (DWP) (BJC 2007) • Commitments in the DWP were adequately implemented, as verified via IV surveys and soil sampling The Zone 2 ROD establishes maximum remediation level (RLmax) values and average RL (RLavg) values for the primary contaminants of concern (COCs) U-234, U-235, U-238, Cs-137, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-232, arsenic, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Table 1.1 lists Zone 2 COCs with associated RLs. Additional radiological and chemical contaminants were also identified during past characterization and monitoring actions, though the ROD does not present RLs for these potential contaminants. IV activities focused on the identification and quantification of ROD-specific COCs in surface soils, but also generated data for other analytes to support future decisions. ORAU personnel also reviewed EU-specific phased construction completion reports (PCCRs) to focus IV activities and identify potential judgmental sample locations, if any.

  3. Molecular hydrogen in the damped Lyman α system towards GRB 120815A at z = 2.36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krühler, T.; Ledoux, C.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Schmidl, S.; Malesani, D.; Christensen, L.; De Cia, A.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Kann, D.A.; Kaper, L.; Vergani, S.D.; Afonso, P.M.J.; Covino, S.; de Ugarta Postigo, A.; D'Elia, V.; Filgas, R.; Goldoni, P.; Greiner, J.; Hartoog, O.E.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Nardini, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Rossi, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Schady, P.; Schulze, S.; Sudilovsky, V.; Tanvir, N.R.; Tagliaferri, G.; Watson, D.J.; Wiersema, K.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Xu, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present the discovery of molecular hydrogen (H2), including the presence of vibrationally-excited H2* in the optical spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 120815A at z = 2.36 obtained with X-shooter at the VLT. Simultaneous photometric broad-band data from GROND and X-ray observations by Swift/XRT pla

  4. Molecular Hydrogen in the Damped Lyman-alpha System towards GRB 120815A at z=2.36

    CERN Document Server

    Krühler, T; Fynbo, J P U; Vreeswijk, P M; Schmidl, S; Malesani, D; Christensen, L; De Cia, A; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Kann, D A; Kaper, L; Vergani, S D; Afonso, P M J; Covino, S; Postigo, A de Ugarte; D'Elia, V; Filgas, R; Goldoni, P; Greiner, J; Hartoog, O E; Milvang-Jensen, B; Nardini, M; Piranomonte, S; Rossi, A; Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Schady, P; Schulze, S; Sudilovsky, V; Tanvir, N R; Tagliaferri, G; Watson, D J; Wiersema, K; Wijers, R A M J; Xu, D

    2013-01-01

    [Abridged] Molecular hydrogen H_2 is a key requirement for star-formation, frequently observed along sightlines in the Galaxy and to the Magellanic Clouds, but notoriously hard to detect directly beyond z ~ 0. In the DLAs associated with long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are tightly linked to vigorous star-formation, H_2 has remained largely elusive, and has been unequivocally detected only towards GRB 080607 and possibly towards GRB 060206. Here, we present the discovery of H_2-rich gas, including the presence of vibrationally-excited H_2^* in the optical spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 120815A at z=2.36 obtained with X-shooter at the VLT. The galactic environment of GRB 120815A is characterized by a strong DLA with log(N(H)/cm^-2) = 21.95 +/- 0.10, prominent H_2 absorption in the Lyman-Werner bands (log(N(H_2)/cm^-2) = 20.53 +/- 0.04) and thus a molecular gas fraction log f(H_2)=-1.14 +/- 0.10. The distance d between the absorbing neutral gas and GRB 120815A is constrained via photo-excitation modeling o...

  5. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  6. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  7. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2 (ASRG EU2) Final Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently completed the assembly of a unique Stirling generator test article for laboratory experimentation. Under the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight development contract, NASA GRC initiated a task to design and fabricate a flight-like generator for in-house testing. This test article was given the name ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2) as it was effectively the second engineering unit to be built within the ASRG project. The intent of the test article was to duplicate Lockheed Martin's qualification unit ASRG design as much as possible to enable system-level tests not previously possible at GRC. After the cancellation of the ASRG flight development project, the decision was made to continue the EU2 build, and make use of a portion of the hardware from the flight development project. GRC and Lockheed Martin engineers collaborated to develop assembly procedures, leveraging the valuable knowledge gathered by Lockheed Martin during the ASRG development contract. The ASRG EU2 was then assembled per these procedures at GRC with Lockheed Martin engineers on site. The assembly was completed in August 2014. This paper details the components that were used for the assembly, and the assembly process itself.

  8. Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in the EU and the United States: Evidence on their Mutual Interactions (in English)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stavárek

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the causal relationships among stock prices and effective exchange rates in four old EU member countries (Austria, France, Germany, and the UK), four new EU member countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia), and in the United States. Both the long- and short-term causalities between these variables are explored using monthly data. The paper also endeavors to answer the question of whether the linkages between the analyzed economic variables...

  9. Linkages between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in the EU and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stavarek

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the causal relationship between stock prices and effective exchange rates in four old EU-member countries (Austria, France, Germany, and the UK), four new EU-member countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia) and in the USA. Both the long-run and short run causalities between these variables are explored using monthly data. The paper also tries to answer the question whether the linkages between analyzed economic variables are of the similar...

  10. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sukhoon [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chonghui [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude.

  11. EU Udbudsretten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sune Troels; Jakobsen, Peter Stig; Kalsmose-Hjelmborg, Simon Evers

    I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk.......I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk....

  12. The EU-project United4Health: User-Centred Design and Evaluation of a Collaborative Information System for a Norwegian Telehealth Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaradottir, Berglind; Gerdes, Martin; Martinez, Santiago; Fensli, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the user-centred design and evaluation process of a Collaborative Information System (CIS), developed for a new telehealth service for remote monitoring of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients after hospital discharge. The CIS was designed based on the information gathered in a workshop, where target end-users described the context of use, a telehealth workflow and their preferred ways of interaction with the solution. Evaluation of the iterative refinements were made through user tests, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire. A field trial reported results on the ease of use and user satisfaction during the interaction with the fully developed system. The implemented CIS was successfully deployed within the secured Norwegian Health Network. The research was a result of cooperation between international partners within the EU FP7 project United4Health.

  13. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we......We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...

  14. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  15. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  16. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-16

    the United States and the EU have established a high-level policy dialogue on border and transport security to discuss issues such as passenger data...level policy dialogue on these issues. Several agreements have also been concluded. In April 2004, the United States and EU signed a customs cooperation

  17. The Northern triangle: relations between the United States, the EU and Russia A flexible and complex complementariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Serra Massansalvador

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the structural implications of the cooperation between the United States, the European Union and Russia, as well as the shape this cooperation assumes according to the area dealt with. At the beginning of this new century, the structureof the international system presents symptoms of variable geometry, in which the country that appears to be the hegemonic power in the area of security needs solid supports in order to exercise this hegemony. These supports will have to be sought not only at thestrategic level, but, above all, in such aspects as trade, control of international organisations and even the ideological arena, all of which are areas in which it would be difficult to exert hegemony through a unilateral approach.

  18. The EU-project United4Health: User-centred design of an information system for a Norwegian telemedicine service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaradottir, Berglind; Gerdes, Martin; Martinez, Santiago; Fensli, Rune

    2016-10-01

    Organizational changes of health care services in Norway brought to light a need for new clinical pathways. This study presents the design and evaluation of an information system for a new telemedicine service for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients after hospital discharge. A user-centred design approach was employed composed of a workshop with end-users, two user tests and a field trial. For data collection, qualitative methods such as observations, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire were used. User workshop's outcome informed the implementation of the system initial prototype, evaluated by end-users in a usability laboratory. Several usability and functionality issues were identified and solved, such as the interface between the initial colour scheme and the triage colours. Iterative refinements were made and a second user evaluation showed that the main issues were solved. The responses to a questionnaire presented a high score of user satisfaction. In the final phase, a field trial showed satisfactory use of the system. This study showed how the target end-users groups were actively involved in identifying the needs, suggestions and preferences. These aspects were addressed in the development of an information system through a user-centred design process. The process efficiently enabled users to give feedback about design and functionality. Continuous refinement of the system was the key to full development and suitability for the telemedicine service. This research was a result of the international cooperation between partners within the project United4Health, a part of the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that economic modernisation leads to a set of predictable cultural changes, among them exactly the spread of democratic ideals. Modernisation is thereby a powerful ally of the European project. Further geographical expansion and an intensification of the cooperation are the most likely scenarios, and so...

  20. Transportforskning i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter.......Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter....

  1. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    organized crime, cybercrime, money laundering , and natural and man-made disasters. Despite the death of Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in Pakistan in...countries; the EP essentially expected that the EU PNR deal with the United States (as well as similar EU agreements on PNR data pending with Australia ...issued its “global external PNR strategy”46 and called for the renegotiation of the EU’s PNR agreements with the United States, Australia , and Canada

  2. Sensitisation of Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-based luminescence by Ir(III) units in Ir/lanthanide dyads: evidence for parallel energy-transfer and electron-transfer based mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Daniel; Cankut, Ahmet J; Ali, Noorshida Mohd; Stephenson, Andrew; Spall, Steven J P; Parker, Simon C; Weinstein, Julia A; Ward, Michael D

    2014-05-07

    A series of blue-luminescent Ir(III) complexes with a pendant binding site for lanthanide(III) ions has been synthesized and used to prepare Ir(III)/Ln(III) dyads (Ln = Eu, Tb, Gd). Photophysical studies were used to establish mechanisms of Ir→Ln (Ln = Tb, Eu) energy-transfer. In the Ir/Gd dyads, where direct Ir→Gd energy-transfer is not possible, significant quenching of Ir-based luminescence nonetheless occurred; this can be ascribed to photoinduced electron-transfer from the photo-excited Ir unit (*Ir, (3)MLCT/(3)LC excited state) to the pendant pyrazolyl-pyridine site which becomes a good electron-acceptor when coordinated to an electropositive Gd(III) centre. This electron transfer quenches the Ir-based luminescence, leading to formation of a charge-separated {Ir(4+)}˙-(pyrazolyl-pyridine)˙(-) state, which is short-lived possibly due to fast back electron-transfer (transfer pathway is again operative and leads to sensitisation of Eu-based and Tb-based emission using the energy liberated from the back electron-transfer process. In addition direct Dexter-type Ir→Ln (Ln = Tb, Eu) energy-transfer occurs on a similar timescale, meaning that there are two parallel mechanisms by which excitation energy can be transferred from *Ir to the Eu/Tb centre. Time-resolved luminescence measurements on the sensitised Eu-based emission showed both fast and slow rise-time components, associated with the PET-based and Dexter-based energy-transfer mechanisms respectively. In the Ir/Tb dyads, the Ir→Tb energy-transfer is only just thermodynamically favourable, leading to rapid Tb→Ir thermally-activated back energy-transfer and non-radiative deactivation to an extent that depends on the precise energy gap between the *Ir and Tb-based (5)D4 states. Thus, the sensitised Tb(iii)-based emission is weak and unusually short-lived due to back energy transfer, but nonetheless represents rare examples of Tb(III) sensitisation by a energy donor that could be excited using visible

  3. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  4. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    and change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...... pattern, but by a punctuated equilibrium dynamic....

  5. China-EU Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhongping; Zhang Yimeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ The China-EU relationship attracted global interest in 2006. On the one hand, cooperation between China and the EU was making good progress, but on the other, there were challenges facing both, leading some international policy analysts to conclude that the honeymoon period between China and the EU was over.

  6. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  7. EU's Plight, Changes and Their Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On the stages of international politics and economics, the European Union (EU) is a key player, and its development has great impact on the global political and economic setup. In 2005, the "constitutional crisis" occurred in the EU, the fruits of European economic integration, which once was thought irreversible, like the Single European Market and the united currency of euro, now also might fall apart.

  8. Hiring Policy in United States Spanish Departments Segmentación académica en departamentos de español en E.U.: Cuestiones de clase social, origen nacional, y etnicidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Hoeg

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on two inter-related factors specific to United States college and university Spanish Departments: the unique demographic profile of the entry-level faculty in terms of gender, ethnicity, national origin, and social class; the relation between these factors and hiring practices, especially regarding field of specialization, pay scale, and tenure-track opportunities. We believe these issues are important in that they underscore the value of considering questions of social class as well as ethnicity and gender when analyzing academic job segmentation. El presente estudio pretende enfocar dos factores específicos de los departamentos de español, a nivel universitario, en E.U.: el perfil demográfico de los recién doctorados en términos de sexo, etnicidad, origen nacional, y clase social; la relación entre estos factores demográficos y el nivel de éxito logrado--en términos de campo de especialización, salario, y la posibilidad de lograr permanencia (tenure--en el intento inicial por conseguir empleo como catedrático en E.U.

  9. EU Security Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) comprises an important part of the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The aim of ESDP is to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities for international conflict prevention and crisis management. In December 2003, the EU adopted its first European Security Strategy (ESS). Ever since then, the implementation of the ESS has been regarded as one of the biggest challenges for the EU in CFSP/ESDP matters. Although much progress has been made in its independent security and defence-building process, EU still faces serious problems and difficulties in this policy area. This paper tries to examine these recent developments, assess their impacts in regional-global security, and analyze existing problems and future trends. Finally, the author also examines EU-China engagements in recent years and explores possibilities for their future cooperation in the area of international security.

  10. EU Struggles to Integrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Its outlook for success is not optimistic because of several obstacles Germany is holding the European Union (EU) Council presidency during the first half of this year. There are two reasons that make the EU integration under a German presidency eye-catc

  11. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  12. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan...

  13. The Transfer of Sentenced Persons Held in a Penitentiary or Health Unit in Romania, in order to execute the Sentence in other EU Member State. Critical Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Minodora Rusu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have examined the institution of transferring sentenced persons held in a penitentiary or medical facility in Romania, in order to serve the sentence in the other Member States of the European Union, a new institution introduced in the Romanian law. The innovations that this paper brings regard actually the conducted examination and some critical opinions that aim at contributing to the improvement of the legislation in this very complex domain. The critical opinions aim the imperfections in terms of the institution of the judge appointed for execution, which is different, as in these three legislative acts this institution appears under different names, the questionable competence given that the judge and the absence of provisions governing the procedure for transferring minors executing a custodial educational measure. With a focus primarily on critical examination but also on the provisions of major importance in terms of judicial cooperation in criminal matters at EU level, the article continues further studies and research in the field, published in the recent years. The paper can be useful to academics, practitioners and equally to the legislator who intends to promote a series of changes and additions to the provisions of the framework law to which we referred.

  14. The trade with the EU was facing a grim situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to customs statistics, January-May2012, China’s textile and apparel exports valued at USD 93.523 billion. Compared with the same period in 2011 increased 2. 63%. Among them, The exports to European Union( the EU) valued at USD 16.756 billion, accounted for 17.92 % of total exports to the global in textile and apparel, down 11. 17% y/y. e EU is one of the main markets for China’s textile and apparel exports. e negative growth highlights the grim situation of the European Union market . Market share declined in the EU The EU, the United States, and Japan had

  15. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan nødve...... nødvendigøre statslige midler. Hertil er fonden trods alt for begrænset. ... Proceduren er, at ECB indstiller til SRM's bestyrelse, at en bank skal afvikles, hvorefter EU-kommissionen og nationale tilsynsmyndigheder involveres....

  16. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  17. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  18. TOURISM IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Levkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the contemporary state of travel and tourism in the EU. The basic components of the system of the European tourism statistics are characterized. Tourism sector is analyzed on two levels – national and regional.

  19. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    ” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...... is impressive.” To be sure, there were also points of frictions such as the European arms embargo (introduced after the Tianmen massacre in 1989), but Shambaugh saw it as highly likely that the relationship between EU and China would continue to grow and develop. “Over time it will become a new axis in world...

  20. EU Smart City Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carmela Gargiulo; Valentina Pinto; Floriana Zucaro

    2013-01-01

    .... The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City...

  1. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  2. Lobbyisme i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Lobbyisme i EU giver en generel teoretisk tilgang til lobbyisme og bruger EU som eksempel. Den europæiske drøm er at blive verdens stærkeste økonomi, men alligevel findes udbredt markedsbeskyttelse og statsstøtte. Det nye bidrag i denne bog er en tværfaglig tilgang, der fremhæver lobbyisme og ins...

  3. EU Power Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intense clashes of interests and collusion of ideas sprang up incessantly among nations over upward sovereignty transfer, interests distribution and maintenance of parity among partners in the course of economic integration. Disparities in size, territory, national strength and development level conceivably often led to tensions and even crises over power distribution. So EU history can be described as one of crises or crisis settlement through reaching a new equilibrium, a significant process for sustained EU stability.

  4. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  5. 78 FR 14840 - U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum-Stakeholder Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... BUDGET U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum--Stakeholder Session AGENCY: Office of Management...-0028-0001). The notice was part of a joint effort by the United States and the European Union (EU) to... will hold a public meeting of the U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum (the ``Forum'')...

  6. Sino-EU Security Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Liping

    2010-01-01

    @@ There are two levels of security relations between China and the EU.The first level is that of China and the EU as a whole.The second level is that between China and member states of the EU respectively.Because the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU is still in an initial phase,defense relations between China and the EU have mainly been at the second level.

  7. Legal-Ease EU Anti-Corruption Measures for European Businesses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Currently, the European Union (EU) has few provisions in place to deal with the risks to EU business, relating to corruption, in developing countries like China. In this respect, the EU lags well behind the United States. According to our recent research, plans to rectify this are in the pipeline. When these plans will emerge, however, is an open question. Existing provisions and policy In 1995, EU ministers adopted the Convention on the

  8. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  9. Performing the EU Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only in politi......This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only...

  10. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  11. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  12. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  13. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  14. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  15. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and prac

  16. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  17. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  18. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  19. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  20. Material Deprivation in Selected EU Countries According to EU-SILC Income Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stávková Jana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with issues of households at risk of poverty in relative conception. Income poverty means a situation when the threshold of 0.6 of median income is not achieved. The analysis of a broader definition of poverty is based on identification and assessment of material deprivation factors, including: financial stress, housing conditions, availability of consumer durables and basic needs. Data sources are based EU-SILC dataset. Presented analysis is focused on selected EU countries, namely Czech Republic, Finland, France, Spain and United Kingdom. The result identifies the problem areas that cause deprivation symptoms.

  1. Triangular Zn{sub 3} and Ga{sub 3} units in Sr{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}, Eu{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}, Sr{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Ga{sub 3}, and Eu{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Ga{sub 3}. Structure, magnetism, {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer and {sup 69;71}Ga solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Birgit; Niehaus, Oliver; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Korthaus, Alexander; Haarmann, Frank [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2016-08-01

    The gold-rich intermetallic compounds Sr{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}, Eu{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}, Sr{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Ga{sub 3}, and Eu{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Ga{sub 3} were synthesized from the elements in sealed tantalum ampoules in induction or muffle furnaces. The europium compounds are reported for the first time and their structures were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Sr{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} type, R anti 3c, a = 837.7(1), c = 2184.5(4) pm, wR2 = 0.0293, 572 F{sup 2} values for Eu{sub 2}Au{sub 6.04}Zn{sub 2.96} and a = 838.1(2), c = 2191.7(5) pm, wR2 = 0.0443, 513 F{sup 2} values for Eu{sub 2}Au{sub 6.07}Ga{sub 2.93} with 20 variables per refinement. The structures consist of a three-dimensional gold network with a 6R stacking sequence, similar to the respective diamond polytype. The cavities of the network are filled in a ratio of 2:1 by strontium (europium) atoms and Ga{sub 3} (Zn{sub 3}) triangles in an ordered manner. Sr{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} and Sr{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Ga{sub 3} are diamagnetic with room temperature susceptibilities of -3.5 x 10{sup -4} emu mol{sup -1}. Temperature dependent susceptibility and {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements show a stable divalent ground state for both europium compounds. Eu{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} and Eu{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Ga{sub 3} order antiferromagnetically below Neel temperatures of 16.3 and 12.1 K, respectively. Anisotropic electrical conductivity of Sr{sub 2}Au{sub 6}Ga{sub 3} is proven by an alignment of the crystallites in the magnetic field. Orientation-dependent {sup 69;71}Ga NMR experiments combined with quantum mechanical calculations (QM) give evidence for a highly anisotropic charge distribution of the Ga atoms.

  2. The EU Public Procurement Regime. Does It Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gottlieb; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    This article presents alternative theoretical approaches to analysing the EU liberalisation of the public procurement market and an empirical analysis based on the unit values, metric tons, and market shares of the intra-EU trade with 43 selected product groups in the combined nomenclature....... According to the analysis, it can not be ruled out that the liberalisation of the EU public procurement rules has manifested itself in parts of the market with the possibility that the effects will become increasingly evident in the longer term....

  3. The Fluctuating U.S.-EU Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the U.S.-EU relations have gone through twists and turns. From the beginning of 2003 when the United States launched the Iraq War to the spring of 2005 when President George W. Bush paid a visit to Europe, the allies across the Atlantic Ocean had uncompromising confrontations at first, and then showed apparent reconciliation and strengthened

  4. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...

  6. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    the assumption that consumers are capable of protecting their own health and well-being, provided they have access to a minimum amount of food information. The EU Treaty does not provide an explicit legal basis for establishing food health legislation, but there appears to be ample room for the adoption......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...

  7. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  8. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  9. IDEOLOGICAL AND STRATEGIC EUROSCEPTICISM IN EU POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Shibkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the 2014 European Parliament elections the voices of Eurosceptic forces have become increasingly louder, with their activity beginning to have direct infl uence on the EU politics, which can be proved by the results of the 23rd June UK’s EU referendum. Consequently, the interpretation of the term “Euroscepticism” and its typology is of a particular interest in the academic world. This article compares such varieties of Euroscepticism as “ideological” and “strategic”. Basing on the defi nitions, given by N. Sitter, P. Kopecky and C. Mudde, the author analyses the policies of the United Kingdom Independence Party and the Italian “Five Star Movement”. While both parties, calling for the withdrawal from the EU and the Eurozone respectively, and being members of the same European Parliament political group (Europe for Freedom and Direct Democracy are considered anti-EU forces, Euroscepticism is not playing the same role in their policies. This can be explained by different historic attitude of the British and the Italians towards the European integration as well as different problems which the countries have to face being the EU members. Through examining the process of the parties’ institutionalization, their structure, and analyzing their initial aims, election programs, party leaders’ speeches and voting tactics in the European Parliament the author consistently proves that while in case of UKIP Euroscepticism is ideological and completely defi nes the party policy, in case of M5S it is purely strategic and aimed at attracting the electorate.

  10. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental...... rights in the area of freedom, security and justice. The analysis of each is enriched through diverse research methods such as case-law analysis, citation network analysis, interviews, surveys and statistics. With its new legal and empirical assessment covering the newest member states of the EU......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  11. Commercializing genetically modified crops under EU regulations: objectives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Poppy, Guy M

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture faces serious problems in feeding 9 billion people by 2050: production must be increased and ecosystem services maintained under conditions for growing crops that are predicted to worsen in many parts of the world. A proposed solution is sustainable intensification of agriculture, whereby yields are increased on land that is currently cultivated, so sparing land to deliver other ecosystem services. Genetically modified (GM) crops are already contributing to sustainable intensification through higher yields and lower environmental impacts, and have potential to deliver further significant improvements. Despite their widespread successful use elsewhere, the European Union (EU) has been slow to introduce GM crops: decisions on applications to import GM commodities are lengthy, and decision-making on applications to cultivate GM crops has virtually ceased. Delayed import approvals result in economic losses, particularly in the EU itself as a result of higher commodity prices. Failure to grant cultivation approvals costs EU farmers opportunities to reduce inputs, and results in loss of agricultural research and development from the EU to countries such as the United States and China. Delayed decision-making in the EU ostensibly results from scientific uncertainty about the effects of using GM crops; however, scientific uncertainty may be a means to justify a political decision to restrict cultivation of GM crops in the EU. The problems associated with delayed decision-making will not improve until there is clarity about the EU's agricultural policy objectives, and whether the use of GM crops will be permitted to contribute to achieving those objectives.

  12. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...... towards Vietnam. However, it is likely that the antidumping measures used by the EU are not primarily directed at Vietnam, but rather at China. This means that Vietnam is affected by the re-polarization of the world economy through its proximity to and links with China, but that the relation is perhaps...

  13. The political-legal nexus in EU counter-terrorism: an assessment of the two-track influences between the EU and the UN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    In the construction of the European Union’s counter-terrorism legal system, United Nations instruments and principles enter in the EU law sphere and pave the way for further developments both due to its legal force and to its role as agents of socialisation of security norms. At the same time...... the EU and the UN in the field of counter-terrorism. Although the impact of UN norms on EU counter-terrorism policies is more significant than the opposite, this article argues that the EU has also revealed capacity to influence the UN in certain counter-terrorism procedures. Considering the sensitivity...

  14. Testing Informational Efficiency in the EU ETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Goers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of informational efficiency of the European emissions trading scheme (EU ETS with the goal of stating whether or not the system has been able to achieve its proclaimed cost-efficiency within the first two trading periods. The efficient market hypothesis suggests that profiting from predicting price behaviour is difficult as the market price should incorporate all available information at any time. I analyse the EU emission market to see if it shows evidence of the weak form of informational efficiency. In order to analyse the weak form of informational efficiency assessments I analyse random walk properties such as, the unit root, autocorrelation and variance ratio tests. The results reveal the existence of informational efficiency only in the second trading period.

  15. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  16. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  17. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator EU2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-watt radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA GRC recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's ASC-E3 Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included: measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency, quantification of control authority of the controller, disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude, and measurement of the effect of spacecraft DC bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  18. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  19. Improving EU biofuels policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinbank, Alan; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    in the WTO, as there would be a clearer link between policy measures and the objective of reductions in GHG emissions; and the combination of the revised RED and the FQD would lessen the commercial incentive to import biofuels with modest GHG emission savings, and thus reduce the risk of trade tension.......Both the EU's Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and Article 7a of its Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) seek to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport fuels. The RED mandates a 10% share of renewable energy in transport fuels by 2020, whilst the FQD requires a 6% reduction in GHG emissions...... (from a 2010 base) by the same date. In practice, it will mainly be biofuels that economic operators will use to meet these requirements, but the different approaches can lead to either the RED, or the FQD, acting as the binding constraint. A common set of environmental sustainability criteria apply...

  20. EU Cadzie project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaim, M.

    2009-04-01

    The CADZIE project received nearly € 700,000 funding under the energy, environment and sustainable development section of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5). Several scientists from France, Italy, Norway, Austria, Iceland and Switzerland were involved in this initiative, under the co-ordination of the Cemagref institute in Grenoble, France. The initiative was created in response to the extreme avalanche winter of 1999, during which 83 people were killed across Europe. Avalanche protection relies on two key processes: structural measures such as building defence structures to stop and / or contain the avalanche flow and non structural measures such as zoning the exposed areas. The consortium investigated these two areas in order to improve overall protection methods. This EU-funded collaboration has led to the development of more accurate methods for mapping and protection design.

  1. EU is Speeding Up Its Offensive Trade Policy. The New EU-Japan Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In March 2013, the EU and Japan launched negotiations for a comprehensive free trade agreement (FTA. The EU also announced starting of similar negotiations with the United States. Japan decided to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership under negotiation among 11 developed and developing nations in Asia-Pacific. FTAs are not new for the multilateral trading system. Striking is, however, the outstanding pace of the new trade deals among traditional trading powers. Our paper addresses the significance of the EU-Japan FTA. It first discusses the new FTA from a broader perspective, focusing on the difficulties and ongoing structural changes in the world economy. Second, it explores its importance through the lens of EU-Japan bilateral trade relations. It concludes that the recent push for FTAs by the big trading powers is a rapid means of mutual market opening in the context of reforming the very fundamentals of their economic and trade policies, as a response to the financial crisis and the shift in economic power from developed to developing countries.

  2. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  3. 77 FR 1778 - U.S.-EU High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE U.S.-EU High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth AGENCY: Office of the United... Working Group on Jobs and Growth, led by U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk and EU Trade Commissioner... and investment to support mutually beneficial job creation, economic growth, and...

  4. "Le Francais Des Affaires": At the Crossroads of US/EU Trade and Language Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finel-Honigman, Irene

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need to enhance United States/European Union (EU) commercial and educational cooperation. Differences between US and EU language and trade policies are explored and the importance of plurilingualism in the global economy is examined. The role of the French Language, especially "Le francais des affaires," in facilitating access to the…

  5. THE US-EU RELATION. COMPETITION OR COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The United States and the European Union are considered, by the analysts, to be the most strategic partners in the international system nowadays. Because of their common interests, these two world powers are in constant competition and cooperation. For this reason, this paper emphasizes the most important aspects of the US-EU competition and cooperation policy in a multipolar world. The study includes also the analyze of domestic and international sources of the US-EU cooperation. In order to find out and to explain the sources of the US-EU cooperation, it is necessary to focus on exploring the causes of the international cooperation. Another direction of the analysis is to explain the importance of cooperation in transatlantic competition policy by investigating the negotiations of the transatlantic partnership between the United States and the European Union.

  6. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  7. The Strategic Character of the Cooperation Relationship Between the EU and the BRIC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Şincai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, the Russian Federation, India and China (coined under the acronym BRIC at the end of 2001 are alongside the United States of America (USA, Canada, Japan, Mexico and South Africa the strategic partners of the European Union (EU. Although the relationships between the EU and each of the four largest emerging economies in the world have a common backbone – the bilateral trade and investment flows – each one bears its own particularities. In this article, our purpose is to explore the strategic partnerships between the EU and the BRIC countries with emphasis on the economic pillar of the EU-BRIC cooperation framework. In our investigation, we will start with the analysis of the “BRIC mechanism”, continue with a short presentation of the particularities of the individual relationships between the EU and each BRIC country, and conclude with emphasising the EU role in the process of modernization of these economies.

  8. Earnings and income inequality in the EU during the crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, P.

    2012-01-01

    The author examines the impact of the economic crisis on employment, earnings, inequality and poverty in the EU, focusing on Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, Spain and the United Kingdom during the period 2008-10. After reviewing the literature, he analyses recent trends, finding that during this stage o

  9. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  10. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  11. Biosimilar regulation in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Pekka; Ekman, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    In the EU, the EMA has been working with biosimilars since 1998. This experience is crystallized in the extensive set of guidelines, which range from basic principles to details of clinical trials. While the guidance may appear complicated, it has enabled the development of biosimilars, of which 21 have managed to get marketing authorization. Currently marketed biosimilars in the EU have a good track record in safety and traceability. No biosimilars have been withdrawn from the market because of safety concerns. The most controversial issues with biosimilars are immunogenicity and extrapolation of therapeutic indications. The available data for these topics do not raise concerns among EU regulators. Interchangeability and substitution are regulated by individual EU member states.

  12. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    reforms, carry out a comparative analysis between EU and U.S. competition policies, detect convergence or divergence, and account for the degree of convergence and for the relevant mechanisms triggering convergence. The main focus is on the analysis of anticartel enforcement policy, antimonopoly policy......In spite of the evidence of strong influence on the incorporation of policy provisions from the U.S. antitrust into the recent competition policy reforms in the European Union (EU), few considerable attempts have been made to analyze the influence of U.S. antitrust on EU competition policy...... in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy...

  13. Montreal exclusivity versus EU law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current air law is a showcase of multilevel regulation. The rights and obligations of airlines and their passengers are governed both by the Montreal Convention and by EU Regulation 261/2004. The EU placed itself in a difficult position by adopting Regulation 261/2004 shortly after it had signed the Montreal Convention. Both instruments provide for different standards for liability. The issue is whether or not the rules in the Convention is exclusive.

  14. STUDY OF HIGH-SPIN STATES IN EU-150 AND EU-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGMAN, [No Value; BACELAR, JCS; VANPOL, J; NYBERG, J; SLETTEN, G; DIONISIO, JS; VIEU, C; LAGRANGE, JM; PAUTRAT, M; Urban, W

    1995-01-01

    High-spin states in Eu-150,Eu-151 were populated by the Xe-136(F-19, xn)Eu-155-xn reaction. Extensive e gamma-, gamma gamma-measurements led to new level schemes of Eu-150,Eu-151. Most observed excitations are interpreted as quasi-rotational bands built on top of multi-p-h states. Enhanced E1 decays

  15. China-EU Over Ten Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 10th China-EU Meeting took place in Beijing on November 28, 2007. This was an important annual meeting held at a critical point in the history of China-EU relations. Since this regularly scheduled meeting was first established in 1998, leaders from both China and the EU have met continuously. Over the past decade, many fundamental changes have taken place between China and the EU, and the China-EU relationship has evolved into full strategic partnership.

  16. Potential Significance of the EU Water Framework Directive to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lars Skov Andersen; Martin Griffiths

    2009-01-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD) is a unique piece of legislation, which may be of great significance to on - going reforms of the water sector in China. First and foremost it unites 27 European mem- ber states behind a common goal, which is "to achieve good chemical and ecological status" of all water bodies across the EU. Other significant characteristics of the EU WFD are that (1) it sets a clear timeframe with a number of time - bound actions for member states to achieve the goal, hut leaves it to member states to achieve this goal in a decent- ralised process, which makes allowance for the different socio - economic conditions, (2) it defines the river basin as the management unit for water thus departing with the traditional fragmented management by administrative units and it appoints a single competent authority for water management within each fiver basin, thus facilitating resolution of sector conflicts, (3) it requires a financial and economic analysis of the costs of implementing the EU WFD to enable deci- sion makers to assess whether the required improvements are affordable to government and to the population within the fiver basin, and (4) it requires a structured process for information and consultation with stakeholders and the public throughout the planning and implementation process.

  17. XANES at Eu-L3 edge and valence of europium in SrB4O7: Eu and BaB8O13: Eu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG, Hong- Bin(梁宏斌); HU, Tian-Dou(胡天斗); WANG, Shu-Bin(王淑彬); ZENG, Qing-Hua(曾庆华); PEI, Zhi-Wu(裴治武); SU, Qiang(苏锵)

    2000-01-01

    The luminescent materials SrB4O7: Eu and BaB8O13: Eu were synthesized, and the valence states of europium in the materials were measured by means of XANES at Eu-L3 edge. It is found that the Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions are all present in the materials, and more Eu3+ ions can be reduced in SrB4O7:Eu than in BaB8O13:Eu. The excitation and emission spectra of Eu3+in SrB4O7:Eu and BaB8O13:Eu were determined.

  18. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  19. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    interesting to observe that it was interpreted as that we have to think about how we act in this area. Not that we had to rethink everything we do. You describe how Fair Trade concept of FLO (Fair Labor Organization) definition is officially recognized in the EU. Is not it strange that private or NGO...... Standards" from 1998, which basically was adopted by the EU after two years. And then you have a collision. To me this is extremely interesting, because you have to weave these two attitudes. You cannot have free trade alone, you will need to have an aspect of fair trade. And intellectually...... to say. The most interesting was the introduction of the words free and fair trade. I think that if you are truly neoliberal it would be crazy if you let someone put it into a constitutional treaty. But in my own research, which has focused on the promotion of fair trade in the EU, it has been...

  20. THE VARIOUS POSSIBLE EU TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Andreea Mihalache

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the various possible EU taxes are compared with regard to each of the criteria: budgetary, equity and efficiency criteria. In principle, this problem of revenue insufficiency can be overcome by combining several resources, including contributions from the Member States, to make up for the needs of the EU budget Setting an equalisation mechanism to replace or complement the current GNI contribution could thus be a useful complement to tax autonomy in the context of a reform of the current own resource system.

  1. The emerging EU quality of care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    involvement in healthcare policy over the last twenty years. Based on interviews and document and literature analysis we show that the scope of EU involvement has widened from public health and access to care, to quality of care. In this paper we concentrate on the latter. Focusing on the recent EU......Despite the fact that Member States and many citizens of the EU like to keep healthcare a foremost national competence and the EU treaties state that Member States remain primarily responsible for the organization and delivery of health care services, the European Union (EU) has expanded its...... and desirability of the EU's involvement is clearly needed, also considering the differences in quality of care policies between and within EU Member States. Both arguments in favour and against further EU involvement are discussed in this paper...

  2. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  3. China vs.EU Protectionism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China files a complaint with the WTO for the first timeagainst the EU’s anti-dumping measures Recently,a trade row between the European Union(EU) and China-the world’s first and third biggesteconomies,respectively-hascaused concerns.

  4. EU ENLARGEMENT AT A CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cătălina Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to explore the general theme of the EU enlargement strategy in the new 2012 European context. Until now, the EU’s enlargement strategy has yielded impressive results. It succeeded in transforming ten central and eastern European countries from post-communism confusion into open-market, mature and effective systems of democratic governments, and even on the economic front, they have also made astonishing progress. It is no doubt that people in the new EU countries live better then before. In this context, the EU must continue the enlargement process to help stabilize the Balkan region that lie beyond its expanded eastern border. No one can deny that major issues concerning western Balkan countries’ accession are still on the table, and they even exert a geopolitical influence of sorts. This makes it all the more important to see stability and regional co-operation there are strategically vital. An all-out effort must now be made to complete the enlargement process and ensure there is no strategic vacuum. This article provides the framework of analyses for the EU problems and the challenges for the Balkans governments as for Brussels.

  5. Fundamentals of EU VAT law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doesum, A.; van Kesteren, H.W.M.; van Norden, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamentals of EU VAT Law aims at providing a deep insight into the systematics, the functioning and the principles of the European Value Added Tax (VAT) system. VAT is responsible for generating approximately EUR 903 billion per year in tax revenues across the European Union – revenues that play a

  6. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray;

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...

  7. Children's rights in EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.; de Graaf, J.H.; Mak, C.; Montanus, P.J.; van Wijk, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how EU rights of children should be interpreted and applied in the light of international children’s rights principles, in particular dignity. In other words, what normative framework should inform the enforcement of children’s rights in Europe? The analysis of

  8. EU Legitimacy and Social Affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of European governance usually put the member states in the foreground, placing the citizens in the background. This article brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method is suggested that combines explanations based on individual interests and a sociolo...

  9. Whither the EU-China Strategic Partnership?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley; Crossick

    2006-01-01

    EU and Chinese leaders met in Helsinki for their ninth bilateral summit on September 9 against a backdrop of growing tensions on trade issues. Only a few days after the summit, the EU requested the establishment of a WTO panel on Chinese auto parts tariffs. A "strategic partnership" between the EU and China was agreed as a joint aim at the EU-China summit in The Hague in December

  10. Balancing China-EU Economic & Trade Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Accompanied by the maturing of China-EU political relations beginning in the 1990s,China-EU economic and trade relations have developed significantly each year.Now,theEU has become China's largest trading partner, as well as China's largest technology provider and fourth largest investment source for four consecutive years.China-EU cooperation has been expanded to include more than forty sectors.

  11. Environmental Protection and the EU Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ježová, Zdeňka

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with a mutual relation between the competitiveness and environmental protection in the European Union. At the beginning, there is mentioned, why environmental protection has become an important priority. The main task of this bachelor thesis is to characterize a mutual interaction between environmental and economic objectives in the EU. There is described the EU environmental policy and its impact on the EU competitiveness. The EU strategy to strengthen its competit...

  12. Brexit, the EU and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Following the Brexit referendum the UK is leaving the EU and this means that the UK no longer stands together with the EU on the international scene. The British Prime Minister Theresa May has recently invoked the EU Treaty Article 50 initiating the Brexit process and obviously the UK leaders know...

  13. Mangfoldighed som ny EU-politik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Analyse. EU er stadig i krise. EU er endnu ikke kommet med i det globale opsving efter finanskrisen, og Sydeuropas strukturproblemer er uløste, men maskeret af statsstøtte via ECB. Vælgerne gav EU-politikerne en alvorlig advarsel ved valget til Europa-Parlamentet. Efter en bølge af ny regulering er...

  14. Determining Factors for EU Military Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    European Security Strategy,” http://ue.eu.int/ uedocs/cmsUpload /78367.pdf (accessed November 3, 2012). 45Kajsa Ji Noe Oest , “The EU as a Rectant...natolive/index.htm (accessed October 23, 2012). Oest , Kajsa Ji Noe. “The EU as a Reluctant Conflict Manager: The Case of Lebanon 2006.” Master’s thesis

  15. Explaining Variations in Implementation of EU Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Versluis

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Uneven implementation of Community law across the European Union is common practice. Differences in implementation of EU directives differences in degree of domestic adjustment are, according to variables identified in the Europeanization literature, to be explained by variations in the degree of fit and the availability of mediating factors. The analysis of the implementation of the Seveso II and Safety Data Sheets Directives in the Netherlands, Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain shows, however, that these identified factors alone do not suffice to explain the observed differences. This article pleas for a closer look at the role of 'issue salience' as a complementary factor that constraints or stimulates the existing mediating factors in the Europeanization literature.

  16. THE E.U. TEXTILE AND CLOTHING TRADE AND ITS IMPACT ON SILK WORM REARING DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the major trade flows in the E.U. textile and clothing industry in close connection with the future development of sericiculture using the data provided by EU Market Access Data Base for the period 2007-2011.The world market of textile and clothing is divided into two parts: raw material providers mainly situated in Asia, but also in South America and large processors situated in the E.U. such as Italy, France, United Kingdom and Spain, whose contribution to the EU production is 75 %. The main E.U. supplier of raw material for textile and clothing industry is China, followed by India, Bangladesh, Turkey and Brazil. About 33 % of the E.U.production of textile and garments is successfully exported as long as demand/offer ratio is unbalanced at world level. Import and export price have substantially increased. At present, the EU is the 2nd silk products exporter in the world. The new E.U. policy strategy regarding sericiculture is focused on the stimulation of silk worm rearing for producing cocoons mainly in Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Spain, France and Romania where climate conditions are favorable, it is a long tradition in the field and rural population needs jobs. At the same time, the E.U. is focused on technology improvement and silk product design in order to create more value added and increase export and sales.

  17. Structure and Evolution of EU Budget Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although small size, representing only 1% of EU wealth, its budget is an important tool for achieving the objectives of integration. Basically, in one form or another, every EU citizen benefits from the EU budget at the local, national and European level: food and safer toys, new roads and better quality of security at EU borders. These are just a few examples of areas where the EU budget plays a decisive role. To fulfil its objectives, the European Union has traditional own resources, the VAT - based own resources and the GNI- based resources.

  18. Viewing U.S.in Comparison with the EU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yuanlun

    2004-01-01

    @@ To make an assessment of the changes in the trend of U. S. status in international politics and world economy, beside development and evolvement of the United States history, rise and fall of other nations should also be brought into consideration. At present and in the years to come, among the external powers that have the ability to compete with America, it seems the European Union (EU) is in the first place.

  19. Targeting Peace: Understanding UN and EU Targeted Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the international community has increasingly come to abandon the use of comprehensive sanctions in favour of targeted sanctions. Unlike adopting a coercive strategy on entire states, actors like the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU) have come to resort to measures that are aimed at individuals, groups and government members. Targeted sanctions involve adopting measures such as asset freezes, travel bans, commodity sanctions, as well as arms embargoes. Eriksson a...

  20. Design and Fabrication of Eu-Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Venkat Sai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EU-Cycle is a self balancing electric unicycle. A regular unicycle is powered by pedal and is balanced by a rider, whilst the EU-Cycle runs by an electric motor and balance by control system in the roll direction. The simple thing to do by rider is to lean forward for acceleration, to lean backward for braking. EU-Cycle is designed as to be a fast and portable means of transport among crowded area, home and office. Therefore, The EU-Cycle gives tough challenge to the unicycle. EU-Cycle has attracted print media including future stories in radio, television. Thus in addition to successful development of EU-Cycle in urban use, the project has to implement the EU-cycle as an educative device.

  1. Mapping the course of the EU "Power Target Model"... on its own terms

    OpenAIRE

    Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The European Union took more than 20 years to start defining a common market design for its internal electricity market: a European Power Target Model. And, a further 10 years to fully implement it. Meanwhile, the reference generation set of that model has shifted from CCGT burning gas to RES units transforming intermittent natural resources. Could the existing EU target model continue to work well for the short- term operation and long-term investment? If not, can the existing EU institution...

  2. Energy law in Europe - national, EU and international law and institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggenkamp, Martha M. [Leiden Univ., International Inst. for Energy Law, Leiden (Netherlands); Roenne, Anita [Copenhagen Univ., Copenhagen (Denmark); Redgwell, Catherine [St. Peter' s Coll., Oxford (United Kingdom); Guayo, Inigo del [Almeria Univ., Almeria (ES)] (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    This work provides a comparative survey, analysis and synthesis of energy law and regulation under EU and international law and in eight key European energy producing jurisdictions (Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, United Kingdom). In addition to separate chapters focusing on the law and institutions of each jurisdiction in turn, there are also major chapters on the impact of international law, environmental law issues, the CEEC and Energy Charter Treaty and EU Energy Law. (Author)

  3. Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in the EU and the USA: Evidence of their Mutual Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Stavarek, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the causal relationships among stock prices and effective exchange rates in four old EU member countries (Austria, France, Germany, and the UK), four new EU member countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia), and in the United States. Both the long- and short-term causalities between these variables are explored using monthly data. The paper also endeavors to answer the question of whether the linkages between the analyzed economic variables...

  4. Limits of Evidence within EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of admissibility of evidence has been regulated only very scarcely in the EU. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters has been embracing the increasing number of instruments, covering plethora of aspects, however, the field of admissibility of evidence remains almost untouched. Can the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice be called the Common Evidence Area? From the national perspective, the issue of admissibility of evidence is still subject to divergent solutions in the Member States, concerning the common law and continental law systems, i.e. the right of access to a lawyer. Thus, the paper aims to take into account the tendencies of legal rule in matter of admissibility of evidence, the dynamic of evidence movement within EU area.

  5. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  6. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  7. EU Legitimacy and Social Affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Jan Sture Gunnar

    Analyses of European governance usually bring the member states into the fore placing the citizens in the background. By means of economic analysis, this paper brings explanations of EU legitimacy down to the level of individuals. A method will be suggested that combines explanations based......) and the research questions are elucidated by a small number of interviews with Danish engineers concerning their experience of policies and actions with technological knowledge...

  8. EuCo2P2 : A model molecular-field helical Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, N. S.; Cuervo-Reyes, Eduardo; Pandey, Abhishek; Johnston, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    The metallic compound EuCo2P2 with the body-centered tetragonal ThCr2Si2 structure containing Eu spins-7/2 was previously shown from single-crystal neutron diffraction measurements to exhibit a helical antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure below TN=66.5 K with the helix axis along the c axis and with the ordered moments aligned within the a b plane. Here we report crystallography, electrical resistivity, heat capacity, magnetization, and magnetic susceptibility measurements on single crystals of this compound. We demonstrate that EuCo2P2 is a model molecular-field helical Heisenberg antiferromagnet from comparisons of the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility χ , high-field magnetization, and magnetic heat capacity of EuCo2P2 single crystals at temperature T ≤TN with the predictions of our recent formulation of molecular-field theory. Values of the Heisenberg exchange interactions between the Eu spins are derived from the data. The low-T magnetic heat capacity ˜T3 arising from spin-wave excitations with no anisotropy gap is calculated and found to be comparable to the lattice heat capacity. The density of states at the Fermi energy of EuCo2P2 and the related compound BaCo2P2 are found from the heat capacity data to be large, 10 and 16 states/eV per formula unit for EuCo2P2 and BaCo2P2 , respectively. These values are enhanced by a factor of ˜2.5 above those found from DFT electronic structure calculations for the two compounds. The calculations also find ferromagnetic Eu-Eu exchange interactions within the a b plane and AFM interactions between Eu spins in nearest- and next-nearest planes, in agreement with the MFT analysis of χa b(T ≤TN) .

  9. Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind.

  10. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany); Fernandez, R. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2011. The official submission of 2011 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2013. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2011 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2012 submissions to UNFCCC (which relate to emissions in 2010). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2011. Finally, the EEA has also used the early estimates of 2011 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2011 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (LN)

  11. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A.; Busche, J.; Hermann, H.; Joerss, W.; Scheffler, M. (OEko-Institut, Freiburg (Germany))

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2010. The official submission of 2010 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2012. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2010 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2011 submissions to UNFCCC (which re-late to emissions in 2009). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2010. Finally, EEA has also used the early estimates of 2010 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2010 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (Author)

  12. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  13. Structure and physical properties of EuTa2O6 tungsten bronze polymorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiazhnyi, T.; Sakurai, H.; Vasylkiv, O.; Borodianska, H.; Forbes, S.; Mozharivskyj, Y.

    2014-08-01

    A tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) polymorph of EuTa2O6 was prepared and analyzed. EuTa2O6 crystallizes in the centrosymmetric Pnam space group (with unit cell: a = 12.3693, b = 12.4254, and c = 7.7228 Å) isomorphous with orthorhombic β-SrTa2O6. In contrast to early reports, we see no evidence of deviation from paramagnetic Curie-Weiss behavior among the Eu2+ 4f7spins in EuTa2O6 down to 2 K. Dielectric constant shows a broad peak at ca. 50 K with dielectric dispersion resembling diffuse phase transition. The relaxation time, however, follows a simple (non-freezing) thermally activated process with an activation energy of 92 meV and an attempt frequency of f0 = 5.79 × 1012 Hz. A thermal conductivity of EuTa2O6 shows a low-temperature (T ≈ 30 K) "plateau" region reminiscent of a glass-like behaviour in Nb-based TTB compounds. This behaviour can be attributed to the loosely bound Eu2+ ions occupying large tricapped trigonal prismatic sites in the EuTa2O6 structure.

  14. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  15. Issues Related to EU's Foreign Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The European Union (EU) is widely regarded as an important international actor, and usually referred to as a big power like the U. S. , Russia, China and Japan. So naturally the foreign policy of the EU has caught attention of both officials and scholars over the world. However, the EU is also a combination of sovereign states, its foreign policy is different from others, and perhaps this is often ignored. For instance, unlike a single nation state, the EU's influence and power are different in various policy fields due to its different ways of decision-making and implementation. Also, different from the common currency, the forming of the common foreign policy of the EU doesn't mean the disappearance of respective member state's foreign policy. Only seeing or emphasizing one respect will lead to a misunderstanding of the EU. Moreover, as a unique "supranational and intergovernmental" organization in the world, the EU has too many complex institutions, names and terms. Of course, the situation is not better in the field of foreign policy, and it easily leads to confusion and misunderstanding. It is also necessary to point out that the EU is still in the process of evolvement, and in particular, as one of the major reforms of the EU in recent years, the foreign policy-making mechanism has been in the center of change and adjustment. It is no doubt that this adds to the difficulties of studying and understanding the EU's foreign policy. In a word, the author thinks it is necessary to raise some major issues related to the EU's foreign policy and delve into it in connecting with the EU's current development.

  16. LaVo4: Eu Phosphor Films with Enhanced Eu Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Harold

    2011-08-11

    Eu doped rare-earth orthovanadates are known to be good red phosphor materials. In particular, LaVO{sub 4}:Eu is a promising candidate due to the low Eu-site point symmetry, and thus high dipole transition probability within Judd-Ofelt theory. However, the low solubility limit (< 3 mol %) of Eu in LaVO{sub 4} prevents its efficient use as a phosphor. We present optical evidence of enhanced Eu solubility as high as 10 mol % in LaVO{sub 4}:Eu thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and postannealing. The photoluminescent intensity exceeded that of YVO{sub 4}:Eu thin films when excited below the host bandgap, indicating stronger direct emission of Eu in LaVO{sub 4}.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of Li{sub 0.44}Eu{sub 3}[B{sub 3}N{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokal, I. [Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer, Istanbul 34450 (Turkey); Aydemir, U., E-mail: uaydemir@ku.edu.tr [Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer, Istanbul 34450 (Turkey); Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Nöthnitzer Str.40, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Prots, Yu.; Förster, T.; Sichelschmidt, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Nöthnitzer Str.40, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Yahyaoglu, M. [Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer, Istanbul 34450 (Turkey); Auffermann, G.; Schnelle, W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Nöthnitzer Str.40, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Schappacher, F.; Pöttgen, R. [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 30, Münster 48149 (Germany); Somer, M., E-mail: msomer@ku.edu.tr [Koç University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer, Istanbul 34450 (Turkey)

    2014-02-15

    Li{sub 0.44}Eu{sub 3}[B{sub 3}N{sub 6}] was synthesized from the metathesis reaction of Li{sub 3}[BN{sub 2}] and EuCl{sub 3} at 850 °C. Li{sub 0.44}Eu{sub 3}[B{sub 3}N{sub 6}] crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3{sup ¯}c (No. 167) with a=12.0225(2) Å, c=6.8556(2) Å and Z=6. In the crystal structure, isolated, planar cyclic [B{sub 3}N{sub 6}]{sup 9−} units are charge-balanced by the mixed-valence Eu{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 2+} and Li{sup +} cations. Li{sup +} occupies partially (44%) the Wyckoff site 6b and is sandwiched between the [B{sub 3}N{sub 6}]{sup 9−} anions. Mössbauer spectroscopy results show the resonance lines of Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+}, respectively, indicating the heterogeneous mixed valency of the Eu atoms. X-Band ESR investigations between 5 and 300 K reveal an intense signal over the whole temperature range originating from Eu{sup 2+}. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate a Curie–Weiss behavior with an experimental effective magnetic moment of μ{sub eff}=8.28 μ{sub B} per formula unit. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of Li{sub 0.44}Eu{sub 3}[B{sub 3}N{sub 6}] was obtained from the metathesis reaction of Li{sub 3}[BN{sub 2}] and EuCl{sub 3.}{sup 151}Eu Mössbauer, ESR and magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the heterogeneous mixed valency of the Eu atoms. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Single crystals of Li{sub 0.44}Eu{sub 3}[B{sub 3}N{sub 6}] was obtained from the metathesis reaction of Li{sub 3}[BN{sub 2}] and EuCl{sub 3} at 850 °C. • Crystal structure is built up by isolated, planar cyclic [B{sub 3}N{sub 6}]{sup 9−} units which are surrounded by mixed valence Eu{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 2+}. • Li{sup +} occupies partially (44%) the site 6b and is sandwiched between the [B{sub 3}N{sub 6}]{sup 9−} anions. • The {sup 151}Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the heterogeneous mixed valency of Eu.

  18. Eu(III) local coordination in white light emitters organic-inorganic hybrids; Coordenacao local do Eu(III) em hibridos organicos-inorganicos emissores de luz branca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, Luis D.; Ferreira, Rute A. Sa [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: lcarlos@ideiafix.fis.ua.pt; Bermudez, Veronica Zea de [Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica; Bueno, Luciano A.; Molina, Celso; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: sidney@iq.unesp.br

    2001-08-01

    Eu{sup 3+} luminescence and EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) results are presented for organic-inorganic hybrid gel hosts composed of a siliceous network to which small chains of oxy ethylene units are covalently grafted by means of urea bridges. Coordination numbers for Eu {sup 3+} ions range from 12.8 to 9.7 with increasing Eu {sup 3+} concentration while the Eu {sup 3=}-first neighbours mean distance is found to be constant at 2.48-2.49 angstrom in the same concentration range. Emission spectra display a broad band in the green/blue spectral region superposed to narrow lines appearing in the yellow/red region in such a way that for the eyes emission appears white. The broad band is assigned to intrinsic N H groups emission and also to electron-hole recombination in the nanosized siliceous domains. The narrow lines are assigned to intra-4f{sup 6}, {sup 5} D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7} F{sub 0-4} Eu {sup 3+} transitions and from the energy position of the {sup 7} F{sub 0-4} levels a mean distance could be calculated for the Eu {sup 3+}-first neighbours. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained from EXAFS analysis. (author)

  19. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  20. Why use experiments in EU Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    two things. First, by summarising the use of experiments in EU research, it provides an overview of the evolution of the use of experiments within EU studies. This includes a content exploration of the pioneering sub-areas within EU studies where experimentation is frequently used. Particular focus...... is paid on election, framing and deliberation studies. Second, the article argues for the promising potentials experimentation provides for EU studies, overcoming problems of causal estimation as well as endogeneity concerns. The article concludes by addressing some of the critiques often made against...... experimentation, arguing for a renewed view on validity....

  1. Den brede, folkelige debat om EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2005-01-01

    I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet.......I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet....

  2. Management by objectives in EU rural development policy : lessons from the EU cohesion and water policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roza, P.; Terluin, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study it is explored which ideas the EU cohesion policy and the EU water policy provide for the introduction of management by objectives in the EU rural development policy. Such an introduction may give rise to both flexibilities and inflexibilities. On the one hand management by objectives

  3. Tuning Mixed-Valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in Strontium Formate Frameworks for Multichannel Photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Lijia; Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Lanhua; McLeod, John A; Yang, Linju; Zhao, Jia; Liu, Zhiyong; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Liu, Guokui; Wang, Shuao

    2016-08-01

    Cooperative performance of mixed-valent Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) in single-compound phosphors offers significant advantages in color rendering and luminescence efficiency, but their synthesis is challenging because of Eu(2+) oxidation. Using the tunable nature of the metal-ion nodes in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we present an in situ reduction and crystallization route for preparing MOFs and doping Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) with a controlled ratio. These materials exhibit rich photoluminescence, including intrinsic- and sensitized-emissions of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) , and long-lived luminescence from charge transfer. Color rendering can be easily achieved by fine-tuning the valence states of Eu. A linear relation between temperature and the intensity ratio of Eu(2+) /Eu(3+) emissions provides outstanding properties for applications as self-calibrated luminescent thermometers with a wide working temperature range. Further incorporation of Tb(3+) into the MOFs results in white light, utilizing all Eu(2+) ,Tb(3+) , and Eu(3+) emissions in a single crystalline lattice.

  4. EU-China Partenariat 2006:Tailor-made Opportunities for SMEs of EU and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franz Jessen

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 EU-China Partenariat 2006, the large-scale business-to-business event which will link almost one thousand European and Chinese companies is indeed a highly appropriate way to further enhance the already excellent relations between the EU and China moreover as this is the very year that we are celebrating 30 years of EU-China diplomatic ties.

  5. Education of EU Migrant Children in EU Member States. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Emma; Herrera, Facundo; Stepanek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief looks at the education of EU migrant children in the context of intra-EU mobility. It examines some of the literature and data on the topic in order to identify key differences between EU migrant children and non-migrant children. There are disparities in educational performance between migrants and non-migrants. The brief…

  6. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  7. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  8. Gender differences in health of EU10 and EU15 populations: the double burden of EU10 men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); H. van Oyen (Herman); J-M. Robine (Jean-Marie); C. Jagger (Carol)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study compares gender differences in Healthy Life Years (HLY) and unhealthy life years (ULY) between the original (EU15) and new member states (EU10). Based on the number of deaths, population and prevalence of activity limitations from the Statistics of Living and Income Conditions

  9. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  10. Wide disparity of clinical genetics services and EU rare disease research funding across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sally Ann; Borg, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    The origins of clinical genetics services vary throughout Europe with some emerging from paediatric medicine and others from an academic laboratory setting. In 2011, the cross-border patients' rights directive recommended the creation of European Research Networks (ERNs) to improve patient care throughout EU. In 2013, the EU recommendation on the care for rare diseases came into place. The process of designating EU centres of expertise in rare diseases is being implemented to allow centres to enter ERNs. Hence, this is an opportune time to reflect on the current status of genetic services and research funding throughout Europe as 80 % of rare diseases have a genetic origin. Our aims were to determine (a) whether EU countries are prepared in terms of appropriate clinical genetic staffing to fulfil the European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases (EUCERD) criteria that will allow national centres to be designated as centres of expertise, (b) which EU countries are successful in grant submissions to EU rare disease research funding and (c) country of origin of researchers from the EU presenting their research work as a spoken presentation at the European Society of Human Genetics annual conference. Our results show there is wide disparity of staffing levels per head of population in clinical genetics units throughout Europe. EU rare disease research funding is not being distributed equitably and the opportunity to present research is skewed with many countries not achieving spoken presentations despite abstract submissions. Inequity in the care of patients with rare diseases exists in Europe. Many countries will struggle to designate centres of expertise as their staffing mix and levels will not meet the EUCERD criteria which may prevent them from entering ERNs. The establishment of a small number of centres of expertise centrally, which is welcome, should not occur at the expense of an overall improvement in EU rare disease patient care. Caution should be

  11. EU-Komissionens Rom II-udkast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2002-01-01

    Der redegøres for EU-Kommissionens udkast til forordning om, hvilket lands regler der skal gælde ved erstatning uden for kontrakt, hvor EU-Kommissionen har valgt en utraditionel fremgangsmåde. Udkastet fremtræder forholdsvist velstruktureret, selv om der kan rejses enkelte alvorlige indvendinger ...

  12. EU Experimentalist Governance in Times of Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the evolution of EU governance since the financial and eurozone crisis from an experimentalist perspective. It argues that EU governance in many key policy domains continues to take the form of an experimentalist decision-making architecture, based on a recursive process of frame

  13. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  14. Evolution of EU retail payments law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of EU payments law for retail payments, identifying four phases of its development. In spite of the EU’s founding principle of free movement of payments, the first two phases of EU payments law were characterized by negative integration and soft law measures with

  15. Evolution of EU Retail Payments Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of EU payments law for retail payments, identifying four phases of its development. In spite of the EU’s founding principle of free movement of payments, the first two phases of EU payments law were characterized by negative integration and soft law measures with

  16. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricu

  17. Separated and unaccompanied children in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O’Donnell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of EU law, policy and practical measures address the situation of separated and unaccompanied children who arrive in the EU. However, in the current sensitive political climate, there is a risk of attention and resources being diverted from building on progress.

  18. Intra-EU Direct Investment and Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festa Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of the intra-EU direct investment (IDI into the New Member States (NMS using a panel dataset of bilateral capital flows for the period 1993-2013. It is found out by using a simple gravity model that EU membership is the most important determinant. Unlike previous studies including non-EU countries, the distance is insignificant, which is caused by proximity of these countries to one another. A separate analysis focused on subgroups of accession countries gives some evidence that even when size of their economy, distance, institutional quality and EU accession are taken into account, Central European countries receive more IDI than the Baltic and the Balkan states. On the contrary to that, the analysis restricted to the Balkan countries which have joined the EU shows the inexistence of a negative Balkans effect in attracting foreign investment. This finding is relevant because previous studies demonstrate a persistent negative Balkans effect for non-EU Balkan countries and suggests a crucial impact of the EU accession in determining the intra-EU capital flows.

  19. Mobile TV: An assessment of EU policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    The aim of the paper is to discuss EU policies in the area of mobile TV. The European Commission has strongly promoted an EU-wide common policy on mobile TV including the choice of DVB-H as the standard to be used. The paper aims at discussing this policy in view of the technological and market...

  20. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstå...

  1. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding a...

  2. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis of le...

  3. Inside the China-EU FDI Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeremy Clegg; Hinrich Voss

    2011-01-01

    For some 20 years, the rate of investment by EU enterprises into China has been rising, reaching an annual average of some US$5bn over the 10 years to 2009. Conversely, the EU has not been a focus for Chinese investments, nor has Chinese investment been i

  4. News and campaign dynamics in EU 27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.; Schuck, A.; Maier, M.; Stengel, K.; Haubold, V.; Süß, K.; Tenscher, J.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation provides an introduction to the media content analysis of the European election campaign conducted in the 27 EU member states in the 3 weeks leading up to the June 2009 elections. The analysis is an integral part of the PIREDEU project (www.piredeu.eu): Providing an Infrastructure f

  5. The EU and the Syrian Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    discusses the EU sanctions and to what degree they have influenced the situation in Syria. Furthermore, the article sheds light on regional and international dimensions of EU policies towards Syria and demonstrates how the policies are met with the Syrian regime's ability to adapt to conditions related...

  6. The border population effects of EU integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; Oumer, Abdella

    2012-01-01

    Border cities or regions are in theory more affected by the EU integration process than more central locations as it more drastically influences their transaction costs and market potential. We find a positive empirical effect of EU enlargement as measured by the growth in population share along the

  7. Respecting Constitutional Identity in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Leonard F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses the Sayn-Wittgenstein judgment of the ECJ, in which for the first time an appeal to the constitutional identity of a member state in order to limit a right under EU law, under Article 4(2) TEU, i.e. the duty for the EU to respect the national identities of the Member States, was

  8. Respecting Constitutional Identity in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Leonard F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses the Sayn-Wittgenstein judgment of the ECJ, in which for the first time an appeal to the constitutional identity of a member state in order to limit a right under EU law, under Article 4(2) TEU, i.e. the duty for the EU to respect the national identities of the Member States, was

  9. Principles and Practices of EU External Representation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    With this working paper, CLEER aims to offer a better insight into selected legal aspects concerning the European Union’s redefined diplomatic persona. In particular, the working paper will address issues pertaining to the Lisbon Treaty’s organising principles of EU external action, both under EU

  10. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  11. Ambtshalve toepassing van EU-recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ancery, Alain Gaston Francois

    2012-01-01

    Private law is increasingly influenced by international law, in particular by EU law. EU law prohibits, for example, the use of a cartel and awards consumers a special form of protection, for example against the use of unfair terms in consumer contracts or against door-to-door selling. It is in prin

  12. EU enlargement: towards an uncertain future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekestijn, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Never before has the EU been expanded with so many countries at the same time (10), never before was the economic gap between the existing and acceding countries so large, and never before have the existing countries (EU Fifteen) been playing the role of mister Scrooge so convincingly, and never be

  13. The Development of EU-Russian Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2008-01-01

    The EU's strategy for Russia since the end of the cold war has to a large extent failed, and the direct consequences are the currently deadlocked EU-Russia relationship. There are three reasons for this: the EU and Russia's respective strength and status relative to each other have been changing since the beginning of this century; the EU's strategy towards Russia has been more fragmenting in recently years; and the American factor. The EU-Russia relations could continue to be in poor shape in the years to come, and it is very likely sometimes even further worsening. But the two sides would refrain from extreme measures and prevent their relations from sliding into real cold war.

  14. The Social Dimension of EU Trade Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This special issue on the social dimension of European Union (EU) external trade relations analyses the commitment, capacity, and consequences of the EU as a global social power. In other words, is the EU committed to social principles? Does it have the capacity to engage in persuasive actions......? And what are the consequences of its socialising impact in promoting the social dimension of globalisation through trade? These are all difficult questions to ask of any actor in global politics, let alone a hybrid polity such as the EU. The special issue also addressed two tensions at the heart of the EU......'s social dimension in trade relations - human rights versus welfare concerns and exclusive competence versus lack of competence. These questions and tensions are rendered more methodologically problematic by the existence and activities of other actors and trading powers, such as the International Labour...

  15. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    '. The second movement is a response to the WTO's success, if you can call it that. It emphasizes freedoms and not social rights. This is where the UN's International Labour Organisation (ILO) comes into play. In fact, the organization had been forgotten for about a hundred years, but suddenly became a focal...... policy agenda, where other devices worked on a more social agenda. So it meant a lot, who was commissioner. The relationship between trade and human rights have a tendency to go up and down depending on who the commissioner. The Charter of Fundamental Rights was drafted in 2000, and has now been written...... interesting to observe that it was interpreted as that we have to think about how we act in this area. Not that we had to rethink everything we do. You describe how Fair Trade concept of FLO (Fair Labor Organization) definition is officially recognized in the EU. Is not it strange that private or NGO...

  16. Humanitarian Issues: the EU Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Navarro

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO and the 15 membercountries of the EU provide more than 50% of the humanitarian aid worldwide: ECHO assigns more than 90% of its budget (only 0.9% of the Community’s total to victims of man-made conflicts. For the author, the experience of ECHO shows the "limits of what is humanitarian": that is, the lack of security for humanitarian workers, the still-to-beoperational Permanent Tribunal for Crimes Against Humanity, the difficult access to refugees, and the fact that humanitarian efforts are not a substitute for policy and, therefore, that humanitarian efforts can not resolve a crisis that has a political origin and solution. The challenges to be faced in the coming years include denouncing the violations of humanitarian values, transferring these values into a future CFSP, organizing humanitarian aid efficiently, combating “donor fatigue” and supporting conflict prevention.

  17. Further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme in Germany and the European Union under consideration of experiences in other EU Member States; Weiterentwicklung des Emissionshandels - national und auf EU-Ebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartmann, S.; Klaus, S.; Scharte, M.; Harnisch, J. [Ecofys GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany); Heilmann, S.; Bertenrath, R. [FiFo Koeln (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    The study analyses options for further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) after 2012. The first analysis focuses on the effects of the EU-ETS on companies, power prices, competitiveness and employment. It is followed by an analysis of overlaps or lacking coverage regarding the climate policies EU-ETS, Eco-Tax (Oekosteuer) resp. Energy Tax, the Renewable Energy Sources Act and the Combined Heat and Powert Act. These instruments are analysed with regards to their coherence. As a next step, the national allocation plans of France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Poland are evaluated and recommendations are developed. Best practice recommendations for further developing the EU-ETS after 2012 both at the European and the national level are developed from the comparison of these European national allocation plans. Finally, design features of certificate systems relevant for international linking of such systems are addressed. In the analysis such design features are identified and approaches for problems potentially arising when certificate systems are linked, are developed. (orig.)

  18. Study of Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu prepared in different gas atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Marcos V. dos S., E-mail: mvsrezende@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário, 49100-000 Itabaiana-SE (Brazil); Valerio, Mário E.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário, 49100-000 São Cristovão-SE (Brazil); Jackson, Robert A. [School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The effect of different gas atmospheres on the Eu reduction process was studied. • The Eu reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. • Hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization. • Only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. • A model of Eu reduction process is proposed. - Abstract: The effect of different gas atmospheres such as H{sub 2}(g), synthetic air, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) on the Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction process during the synthesis of Eu-doped BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied using synchrotron radiation. The Eu{sup 3+} → Eu{sup 2+} reduction was monitored analyzing XANES region when the sample are excited at the Eu L{sub III}-edge. The results show that the hydrogen reducing agent are the most appropriate gas for Eu{sup 2+} stabilization in BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and that only a part of the Eu ions can be stabilized in the divalent state. A model of Eu reduction process, based on the incorporation of charge compensation defects, is proposed.

  19. Eu(III) Complexes of Octadentate 1-Hydroxy-2-pyridinones: Stability and Improved Photophysical Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Evan G.; D' Aleo, Anthony; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-05-29

    The luminescence properties of lanthanoid ions can be dramatically enhanced by coupling them to antenna ligands that absorb light in the UV-visible and then efficiently transfer the energy to the lanthanoid centre. The synthesis and the complexation of Ln{sup III} cations (Ln = Eu, Gd) for a ligand based on four 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelators appended to a ligand backbone derived by linking two L-lysine units (3LI-bis-LYS) is described. This octadentate Eu{sup III} complex ([Eu(3LI-bis-LYS-1,2-HOPO)]{sup -}) has been evaluated in terms of its thermodynamic stability, UV-visible absorption and luminescence properties. For this complex, the conditional stability constant (pM) is 19.9, which is an order of magnitude higher than diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid at pH = 7.4. This Eu{sup III} complex also shows an almost two-fold increase in its luminescence quantum yield in aqueous solution (pH = 7.4) when compared with other octadentate ligands. Hence, despite a slight decrease of the molar absorption coefficient, a much higher brightness is obtained for [Eu(3LI-bis-LYS-1,2-HOPO)]{sup -}. This overall improvement was achieved by saturating the coordination sphere of the Eu{sup III} cation, yielding an increased metal-centred efficiency by excluding solvent water molecules from the metal's inner sphere.

  20. Eu(III) Complexes of Octadentate 1-Hydroxy-2-pyridinones: Stability and Improved Photophysical Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Evan G.; D' Aleo, Anthony; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-05-29

    The luminescence properties of lanthanoid ions can be dramatically enhanced by coupling them to antenna ligands that absorb light in the UV-visible and then efficiently transfer the energy to the lanthanoid centre. The synthesis and the complexation of Ln{sup III} cations (Ln = Eu, Gd) for a ligand based on four 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelators appended to a ligand backbone derived by linking two L-lysine units (3LI-bis-LYS) is described. This octadentate Eu{sup III} complex ([Eu(3LI-bis-LYS-1,2-HOPO)]{sup -}) has been evaluated in terms of its thermodynamic stability, UV-visible absorption and luminescence properties. For this complex, the conditional stability constant (pM) is 19.9, which is an order of magnitude higher than diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid at pH = 7.4. This Eu{sup III} complex also shows an almost two-fold increase in its luminescence quantum yield in aqueous solution (pH = 7.4) when compared with other octadentate ligands. Hence, despite a slight decrease of the molar absorption coefficient, a much higher brightness is obtained for [Eu(3LI-bis-LYS-1,2-HOPO)]{sup -}. This overall improvement was achieved by saturating the coordination sphere of the Eu{sup III} cation, yielding an increased metal-centred efficiency by excluding solvent water molecules from the metal's inner sphere.

  1. Why Does Bureaucratic Corruption Occur in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...

  2. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...... position of countries in the special case of EU anti-dumping policy....

  4. Public investment and the EU fiscal framework

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    It is often claimed that the introduction of the EU rules-based fiscal framework of the Maastricht Treaty and the Stability and Growth Pact was responsible for a decline in public investment shares in EU countries. Proposals have also been made in recent times in favour of a revision of the EU fiscal framework in such a way to grant special treatment to public capital expenditures (e.g., by amending it with a ‘golden rule'). This paper analyses empirically the relation between the introduct...

  5. EU attitudes in Catalonia and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Mark Friis

    2016-01-01

    of the Republican Left of Catalonia and the Scottish National Party respectively, I examine the nature of minority nationalist parties’ supposed Europhilia. I argue that there are two principal, ideal ways in which these two parties relate to the EU. 1) Instrumentally, where the focus is on how the EU benefits...... the party and movement politically and economically and 2) identitarian, where the EU and ‘Europe’ figures more as a facet of national identity and focus is on shared values and history. Although both aspects are present in the Scottish and Catalan independence movements, the former is more prevalent...

  6. Total neutron cross-sections of /sup 151/Eu, /sup 153/Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) (/sup 151/Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) (/sup 153/Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula.

  7. to the Scientific Opinion on a quantitative pathway analysis of the likelihood of Tilletia indica M. introduction into EU with importation of US wheat of EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    The EFSA Plant Health Unit asked the Assessment Methodology Unit to recalculate and update the Quantitative Pathway Analysis of the exposure of the EU wheat production area with Tilletia indica M. teliospores provided by USDA APHIS. Simulations were computed, for importations of US wheat into EU ...... Panel on Plant Health (PLH) (EFSA 2010...

  8. Boon or burden: what has the EU ever done for science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Alison; Butler, Declan; Gibney, Elizabeth; Schiermeier, Quirin; van Noorden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    More than 500 million people and 28 nations make up the European Union. It will lose one of its richest, most populous members, if the United Kingdom votes to leave on 23 June. Ahead of a possible ‘Brexit’, Nature examines five core ways that the EU shapes the course of research.

  9. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, we turn...

  10. EU-China Partenariat 2006:Tailor-made Opportunities for SMEs of EU and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franz; Jessen

    2006-01-01

      2006 EU-China Partenariat 2006, the large-scale business-to-business event which will link almost one thousand European and Chinese companies is indeed a highly appropriate way to further enhance the already excellent relations between the EU and China moreover as this is the very year that we are celebrating 30 years of EU-China diplomatic ties.……

  11. JAPAN RISKS MISSING EU DEADLINE ON ACCOUNTSJ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Japanese companies face being shut out of European Union capital markets owing to difficulties in harmonizing Japan's accounting standards with EU rules in time to meet a Brussels deadline,the Japanese regulator has warned.

  12. The EU and its trickster practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    If one looks at the European Union (EU)’s southern neighbourhood and considers its response to the Israeli Palestinian conflict, one can only wonder how the EU can have any apologists left at all. While the tortured history of the conflict dates back more than a century, its roots lie in decades ....... Few international disputes have generated as much emotion, passion, anguish, and diplomatic gridlock as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.......If one looks at the European Union (EU)’s southern neighbourhood and considers its response to the Israeli Palestinian conflict, one can only wonder how the EU can have any apologists left at all. While the tortured history of the conflict dates back more than a century, its roots lie in decades...

  13. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The engagement of JRC IPTS in the GTAP contributing team to the EU domestic support has opened up the opportunity to use the CATS database when compiling EU domestic support payments by member state, which are subsequently calibrated into the GTAP database. To maintain consistency, the GTAP version...... 9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...... domestic support amounts to 66,530 million euros in 2011 (i.e. pillar 1 expenditures from CATS, pillar 2 and national expenditures from Producer Support Estimate (PSE) by OECD). In addition, minor improvements to the allocation of payments have been proposed for the version 9 release. On the other hand...

  14. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  15. EuCARD final project report

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2014-01-01

    After four years of activity, EuCARD has most of its objectives fulfilled, with some new objectives added and a few others on excellent tracks while requiring additional time. The management has been active in reinforcing the collaborative links between partners and projects, contributing to the preparation of FP7-EuCARD2, initiating FP7-HiLumi-LHC Design Study, to favour sustained collaborations beyond EuCARD. An out-of-contract network has been successfully launched on laser plasma acceleration, to combine forces between accelerator, laser and plasma communities. Communication and dissemination activities have led to two highlights: Accelerating News, an accelerator R&D newsletter initiated by EuCARD and now common to all FP7 accelerator projects (over 1000 subscribers) and a series of monographs on accelerator sciences that is progressively finding its public. The scientific networks have more than fulfilled their initial objectives: roadmaps are defined for neutrino facilities, submitted to the Europe...

  16. EU and Tourism Development: Bark or Bite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation...... or intervention can be equally important, and the paper examines key aspects of the EU's role in tourism development in order to discuss to what extent the traditional interpretation of a passive actor of little consequence should be modified or even discarded. Drawing upon European and Nordic documentary sources...... as well as existing specialist literature, the text first examines the development of an EU policy statement on tourism, and then two areas of EU policy - competition policy and regional development - are analysed with a view to establishing side-effects in European and Nordic destinations...

  17. Liminality in EU-Hamas relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    , Eurocentric categories that dominate International Relations (IR). By analysing Hamas and the EU as liminals this article demonstrates how far certain collective discourses and non-state identities can go in challenging pre-existing categories on which the social order of international relations relies. Hamas...... does not ‘fit’ into pre-existing social categories of the social order in world politics. The EU does not fit into the system of states in international relations, although it attempts, in part, to behave like one at a supranational level. Empirically, both the EU and Hamas are able to exercise power...... their relations of Self. In exploring the procedural relations of the EU and Hamas it argues for the necessity of recognising liminal categories in IR theory and practice while at the same time highlighting the limits of such in-between categories in a world order still structured around the state....

  18. When Liminals Interact: EU-Hamas Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    , Eurocentric categories that dominate International Relations (IR). By analysing Hamas and the EU as liminals this article demonstrates how far certain collective discourses and non-state identities can go in challenging pre-existing categories on which the social order of international relations relies. Hamas...... does not ‘fit’ into pre-existing social categories of the social order in world politics. The EU does not fit into the system of states in international relations, although it attempts, in part, to behave like one at a supranational level. Empirically, both the EU and Hamas are able to exercise power...... their relations of Self. In exploring the procedural relations of the EU and Hamas it argues for the necessity of recognising liminal categories in IR theory and practice while at the same time highlighting the limits of such in-between categories in a world order still structured around the state....

  19. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (I" where we have been presented statistics on Romania's trade with major trading partners to whom, before, or after EU accession, the legal status has changed. In this paper we try to identify the benefits and costs of accession to the EU in terms of trade. In the first part we analyze the dynamics of trade with new partners, resulting from the accession. The last part is devoted to conclusions. The main idea that emerges from this work is that, unfortunately, Romania governors, did not know to take advantage of the opening to the biggest economic market although the financial and institutional support offered by the EU.

  20. Intrinsic Ferromagnetism in Eu doped ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    Assadi, M. H. N.; Zhang,Y.B.; Ionescu, M.; Photongkam, P.; Li, S.

    2010-01-01

    We report room temperature ferromagnetism in as-implanted Eu doped ZnO (ZnO:Eu). To address the origin of ferromagnetism ab initio calculations of ZnO:Eu system are performed. Results show that the ferromagnetism is induced by ZnO point defects as Eu ions in perfect ZnO tend to align antiferromagnetically.

  1. Om afstanden mellem EU-systemet og dets borgere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Heyn

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer EU's demokratiske opbygning i forlængelse af debatten om EU-skepsis, der senest opstod som følge af Brexit-afstemningen.......Artiklen diskuterer EU's demokratiske opbygning i forlængelse af debatten om EU-skepsis, der senest opstod som følge af Brexit-afstemningen....

  2. EU-Turkey Relations: Changing Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Szigetvári

    2014-01-01

    The enlargement policy is important for the EU not only to extend its zone of peace, stability and prosperity, but also to increase its global competitiveness. Among the potential EU candidates, Turkey has a special place. As the only candidate that belongs to the group of newly emerging economic powers, Turkey may contribute significantly to the economic prosperity of Europe. Since its creation in 1923, Turkey showed an eager wish to belong to the European nations. Turkey adopted deep reform...

  3. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available EU accession has brought, as expected, many changes in economic, social and cultural domains. An important chapter is the trade dynamics and how this dynamic has been modified over time by changes in the legal status of Romania's relations with certain trading partners. In this paper we present data on trade with countries with which Romania has concluded trade agreements before accession. Data presentation and analysis continues in "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (II".

  4. EU State Fundamentalism in Relation to Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Zapata-Barrero

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the European Union Treaty (1992, there have been two contrasting conceptions of how one should approach EU political union. From the EU standpoint, this process is a gain, but from the States’ point of view a loss. There is, however a third logic thatmakes up the EU: that of third country immigrants residing in the Member States (Euroimmigrants. In contrast with the two previously cited logics, for this population the same process is neither a gain nor a loss, but simply something that is being discussed and carried out without taking them into consideration. This lack of attention shows that at present the treatment of Euroimmigrants is following a state fundamentalist logic and not a multicultural logic as would be historically appropriate for the EU. In the interests of allowing a discussion of this argument, this paper presents relevant considerations in four steps: the first section presents the theoretical framework that will be followed on focusing the discussion; the second section sets out what is called state fundamentalism with a brief historical review of how the European States have treated immigrants politically; the third section sums up how the EU dealt with immigration from the Trevi Group of 1975 until the Amsterdam Treaty (1997; and the fourth and final section, contains closing comments that, with reference to the Tampere Summit (1999, highlight the normative dilemmas and institutional challenges that are the product of the relationship between the EU and the presence of Euroimmigrants.

  5. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing pro

  6. Harmonization of welfare standards for the protection of pigs with the EU-rules: the case of Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellbrock, W.; Oosting, S.J.; Bock, B.B.; Antunovic, B.; Kralik, G.

    2009-01-01

    Three quarters of Croatian pigs are produced in small production units (1-5 sows) and on family farms with mixed farming activities. Only few farms have specialized production units with up-to-date technologies and comply with EU standards. The future competitiveness of Croatian pig production is th

  7. Eu(2+) luminescence in strontium aluminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutczak, D; Jüstel, T; Ronda, C; Meijerink, A

    2015-06-21

    The luminescence properties of Eu(2+) doped strontium aluminates are reported and reviewed for a variety of aluminates, viz. SrAl12O19, SrAl4O7, Sr4Al14O25, SrAl2O4 and Sr3Al2O6. The aim of the research is to investigate the role of local coordination and covalency of the aluminate host lattice, related to the Sr/Al ratio, on the optical properties of the Eu(2+) ion. The UV and VUV excited luminescence spectra as well as luminescence decay curves were recorded to characterize the luminescence properties of the investigated aluminates. The emission of Eu(2+) ions varies over a wide spectral range, from ultraviolet (UV) to red, for the series of aluminates. The variation in emission color can be related to the crystal-field splitting of the 5d levels and the covalent interaction with the surrounding oxygen anions. In the least covalent material, viz. SrAl12O19:Eu(2+), narrow line emission due to the (6)P7/2-(8)S7/2 transition occurs at 4 K, indicating that the 4f(6)5d excited state is situated above the (6)P7/2(4f(7)) excited state around 360 nm. The most alkaline material, viz. Sr3Al2O6:Eu(2+) is the most covalent host and exhibits several d-f emission bands in the yellow to red spectral range due to the Eu(2+) ions located on different crystallographic Sr(2+) sites. The Eu(2+) emission spectra in the other aluminates confirm the trend that with increasing Sr/Al ratio the Eu(2+) emission shifts to longer wavelengths. Interesting differences are observed for the Eu(2+) from different crystallographic sites which cannot always be related with apparent differences in the first oxygen coordination sphere. The discussion gives insight into how in a similar class of materials, strontium aluminates, the emission color of Eu(2+) can be tuned over a wide spectral region.

  8. Succession of States in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini Mario

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of separatism. Scotland, Catalonia, Flanders, South Tyrol – all these regions have separatist movements pursuing independence from their current National State. The breakup of an EU Member State no longer seems impossible. To date, it is unclear what impact this would have on the EU membership of the new entities (with consequences for the character of citizenship, voting rights in the council, number of MEPs etc. that emerge from the old States. The common rules of Public International Law governing the succession of States are insufficient in the case of a succession of States in the EU. Although the Treaties do not provide for such a situation and the past 60 years of European history offer only a few and not really persuasive precedents, the nature of the EU as a joint association of sovereign States (“Staatenverbund” demands a special approach: A separated State will neither be automatically excluded from the EU nor will it automatically become a new Member State. Drawing on the ideas of Articles 49 and 50 TEU this essay develops a procedure for balancing the interests of the EU, its Member States, and the people living in the seceding State, who are likely to be pro-EU. If a Member State breaks up, both the remaining State and the new entity will continue to represent the former Member State in the European institutions. The former Member State will provisionally continue to exist for both the EU and its Member States with respect to European matters. A process of negotiation between the two “new” States themselves and with the other Member States will lead to a new balance within the EU and the adaption of the Treaties – the solution has to be a political one. If the negotiations are successful, the former Member State can finally be dissolved at the EU level. In this case either both new States will become new Members or the remaining State will continue the membership (with

  9. Neutron Scattering from Heisenberg Ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetic ordering process in the isotropic exchange coupled ferromagnets EuO and EuS. Quantities investigated include the critical coefficients B and F+ and the critical exponents β, ν, and γ describing respectively the temperature dependence of the r...

  10. Critical neutron scattering from the Heisenberg ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.

    1972-01-01

    The magnetic neutron scattering from isotopically enriched powders of EuO and EuS near their Curie temperatures has been studied. Results of the critical exponents for the static properties in standard notation were * Thumbnail image of Spin wave scattering at T...

  11. Do supranational EU institutions make a difference? EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll Servent, Ariadna; Trauner, Florian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article examines whether the empowerment of the European Union's (EU) supranational institutions has had an impact on the development of EU asylum. By systematically investigating EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’, it argues that its ‘policy core’ has maintained a high degree of continuity. An advocacy coalition under the leadership of the interior ministers managed to co-opt pivotal actors in the newly empowered European Commission and European Parliament. By contenting themselves with changes of secondary order, these EU institutions accepted and institutionalized the restrictive and weakly integrated core of EU asylum set by the Council in the first negotiation round. Their role and decisions were driven not only by the negotiation dynamics and political expediency, but also by new inter- and intra-institutional norms fostering consensual practices. PMID:26924934

  12. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  13. Quadrupole splitting and Eu partial lattice dynamics in europium orthophosphate EuPO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobes, B.; Arinicheva, Y.; Neumeier, S.; Simon, R. E.; Jafari, A.; Bosbach, D.; Hermann, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Hyperfine interactions in europium orthophosphate EuPO4 were investigated using 151Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy from 6 to 300 K. The value of the quadrupole splitting and the asymmetry parameter were refined and further substantiated by nuclear forward scattering data obtained at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the relative absorption was modeled with an Eu specific Debye temperature of 221(1) K. Eu partial lattice dynamics were probed by means of nuclear inelastic scattering and the mean force constant, the Lamb-Mössbauer factor, the internal energy, the vibrational entropy, the average phonon group velocity were calculated using the extracted density of phonon states. In general, Eu specific vibrations are characterized by rather small phonon energies and contribute strongly to the total entropy of the system. Although there is no classical Debye like behavior at low vibrational energies, the average phonon group velocity can be reasonably approximated using a linear fit.

  14. Do supranational EU institutions make a difference? EU asylum law before and after 'communitarization'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll Servent, Ariadna; Trauner, Florian

    2014-09-14

    This article examines whether the empowerment of the European Union's (EU) supranational institutions has had an impact on the development of EU asylum. By systematically investigating EU asylum law before and after 'communitarization', it argues that its 'policy core' has maintained a high degree of continuity. An advocacy coalition under the leadership of the interior ministers managed to co-opt pivotal actors in the newly empowered European Commission and European Parliament. By contenting themselves with changes of secondary order, these EU institutions accepted and institutionalized the restrictive and weakly integrated core of EU asylum set by the Council in the first negotiation round. Their role and decisions were driven not only by the negotiation dynamics and political expediency, but also by new inter- and intra-institutional norms fostering consensual practices.

  15. Photoexcited Eu2+ spin dynamics in EuFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebna, A.; Mertelj, T.; Cao, G.; Xu, Z. A.; Mihailovic, D.

    2014-06-01

    Employing temperature dependent time-resolved optical femtosecond spectroscopy, we investigated the quasiparticle and Eu2+ spin relaxation dynamics in EuFe2As2 (EFA). As previously reported in other undoped iron-based pnictides, we observe the quasiparticle relaxation bottleneck due to the charge gap opening in the spin density wave (SDW) state below T SDW = 189 K. Below the Eu2+ antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin ordering temperature, T AFM = 19 K, we observe another slower relaxation component, which we attribute to the Eu2+ AFM order dynamics. The slow dynamics of this component suggests a weak coupling between the Eu2+ spins and the carriers in the Fe- d derived bands.

  16. The transformative power of EU: An Assessment of EU impact in the judicial system of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrie Besimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the process of EU integration, the aspiring and potential candidate countries have undergone a major process of reforms. The question that is aroused in this sense is to what extent the EU has had transformative power and impacted the internal judicial structures of Kosovo and under which conditions the EU is more effective. This article analyzes the findings of the Progress reports for a ten-year period (2005 – 2015 and the extent of the EU impact. It uses the conceptual and rational framework of external incentives model and argues that the EU impact in the judiciary system of Kosovo is crucial considering the starting low phase of reforms in Kosovo.

  17. Climate for Collaboration: Analysis of US and EU Lessons and Opportunities in Energy and Climate Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vita, A.; de Connick, H.; McLaren, J.; Cochran, J.

    2009-11-01

    A deepening of cooperation between the United States and the European Union requires mutual trust, and understanding of current policies, challenges and successes. Through providing such understanding among policymakers, industry and other stakeholders in both economies, opportunities for transatlantic cooperation on climate change and energy policy emerge. This paper sets out by discussing the environmental, legislative, and economic contexts of the EU and US as related to climate. This context is essential to understanding how cap-and-trade, renewable energy and sustainable transportation policies have taken shape in the EU and the US, as described in Chapter 3.1. For each of these policies, a barrier analysis and discussion is provided. Chapter 4 builds off this improved understanding to listobservations and possible lessons learned. The paper concludes with recommendations on topics where EU and US interests align, and where further cooperation could prove beneficial.

  18. EU NO "Plan B" Beyond Copenhagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The EU wams to speed up the negotiations and will take firm actions to reduce its emissions by 20 percent regardless of what other countries do.Because the EU had no‘plan B'beyond Copenhagen",Sweden's Environment Minister Andreas Carlgren stressed the goal during his visit to Beijing in July.He led the European Union delegation and accompanied by EU Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas and environment minister from Spain that will hold the EU presidency during the next term,to visit China.This is the first visit made by the EU Troika for bilateral climate negotiations during the Swedish Presidency.The purpose of the visit is to reach an agreement on climate change for the preparation of Copenhagen Conference to be held this December,in which,it is supposed to agree on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol,and to reinforce the message that emerging economies were also expected to reduce emissions by 15-30%from current levels by 2020.Carlgren called his visit was"laying the right foundation for a successful Copenhagen conference".

  19. Optical properties of Eu2+-doped strontium borate glasses containing F- and Li+ ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yanlin; JANG Kiwan; WANG Xigang; JIANG Chuanfang

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, strontium borate glasses were prepared using the conventional quenching method in air atmosphere. Optical absorption, photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra, X-ray excited luminescence (XEL), and luminescence decay curve of the as-prepared glasses were investigated at room temperature. The as-prepared glasses had two kinds of Eu ions, i.e., Eu2+ and Eu3+. Compared with the reported results of strontium borate glasses, Eu2+ luminescence was enhanced in the studied strontium borate glasses coprepared with F- and Li+ ions. The coexisting of Li+ or F- in the borate glasses could create more negative defect VSr″ and stabilize Eu2+ ions, which might act as donor of electrons;For the F- doping, the new center of B(O, F)4 (or BO3F) and BO2F2 units could be considered to be the distorted (BO4), which were needed as a rigid framework to stabilize the divalent rare earth ions.

  20. Implications of the Eu Enlargement on the Foreign Trade Activity of the Eastern and Central European Countries which Recently Joined the Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Aurelia Chitiba

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU-27 is by far the largest exporter of goods worldwide: in 2007, goods worth EUR 1 240 billionwere exported, against EUR 848 billion by the United States and EUR 889 billion by China. The United States importedslightly more than the EU-27 (EUR 1 472 billion and EUR 1 426billion respectively, more than double the value of totalimports registered by China (EUR 698 billion.Under the influence of a lot of general and specific factors, the foreign trade of Central and Eastern European(CEE countries which recently joined the European Union has been constantly growing till the second part of 2008 year,registering higher yearly growth rates than the total of EU-27.In the last years, for the foreign trade of all the ten new EU members CEE states it appears like a common tracethe deeply process of growing the importance of the intra EU commercial relationship within the total internationaleconomic relationship of these countries. Between the new EU members, the most important weight of the intra EUcommerce in their total foreign trade is registered by the Check Republic (83%, Slovakia (80%, Latvia (76%, Poland(75%, and Estonia (75%.In business environment, institutional, and logistics performance, the EU accession countries stand out as the bestperformers. Most new EU member states are in fact catching up to OECD countries on some measures of logisticsperformance, and all rank in the top 50 with the exception of Lithuania (ranked 58th.

  1. Recent Trends of the EU – 27 Foreign Trade Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa - Aurelia Chiţiba,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In line with the world economy trend, the collapse in world trade in goods and services observed in the last quarter of 2008 intensified inthe first quarter of 2009, but the trough in growth rates has likely been reached; positive quarterly growth rates are expected by the end of 2009. UE-27 registered the slowest export growth of any region last year, with an expansion of just 0.0per cent, down from 3.5 per cent in 2007. Import growthturned negative in 2008, falling by 1 per cent (+3.5 per cent in 2007. If the 27 members of the European Union are considered collectively(excluding internal EU trade, the five leading exporters were the European Union (15.9 per cent of world exports, China (8.9%, the United States(8.1%, Japan (4.9% and Netherlands (3.9 per cent. Exports from the EU were worth US$ 1.93 trillion in 2008. Signs of recovery are not yet soclearly visible in the EU-27 like in USA, in the last part of 2009. Each country has its own specific combination of weaknesses such as burstinghousing bubbles, declining exports and damaged financial sectors. The eventual recovery is likely to be slow as rising unemployment will hitconsumer spending. In the above mentioned conditions, GDP in the euro area is expected to contract 4.8% in 2009 and to show 0% growth in 2010.The previous projections were for a 4.1% fall in 2009 and a 0.3% fall in 2010. The main factors with a positive influence, taken into consideration forrevising up the projections for 2010 in euro area are: the strengthening growth in world trade which will help support a turnaround in exports, thegovernmental policy support and an easing of financial conditions adopted in some countries.

  2. EU-Asia Free Trade Areas? Economic and Policy Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Plummer, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed key aspects of the changing economic relationship between the European Union (EU) and Asia, and explored the potential economic ramifications of deeper EU-Asian economic cooperation. We also investigated the possible costs to the EU of remaining “disengaged†from the Asian integration process and the likely impact of multi-nested EU-Asian trade agreements. Our empirical review of CGE models revealed trivial effects of several possible EU-Asian accords (e.g., EU-I...

  3. The Contradictions in the EU's Policy towards Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian

    2005-01-01

    @@ On December 17, 2004, after hard negotiations, the European summit finally reached an agreement to launch the negotiations with Turkey on its accession to the EU in October 2005. This is a very important change in the EU's policy towards Turkey. Under the background of so-called "war on terror" and "conflict of civilizations," the EU's above-mentioned decision is especially arresting. Through analyzing the dominant factors in the EU's policy towards Turkey, this paper tries to make a judgment on the future development of Turkish- EU relationship, the prospect of Turkey's accession to the EU and the influences over the development of European integration.

  4. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  5. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) out......-of sample forecasts and to the assumption of invariance of migration behavior across a space that previous studies had to hold. Results of the econometric analyses reveal the importance of controlling for pairs of countries unobserved heterogeneity. Preliminary results regarding the predictions of future...... gross and net migration flows show that the magnitude of the estimated gross and net migration flows is relatively high and lower, respectively, compared to forecasts from previous studies. Such a development in gross and net migration flows indicates that migration from the new EU member countries...

  6. A Smart EU Energy Policy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, J. [Clingendael International Energy Programme CIEP, Den Haag (Netherlands); Glachant, J.M. [The Loyola de Palacio Programme, Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, San Domenico di Fiesole (Italy); Hafner, M. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy); Grant, R. (ed.) [Wilton Park, Wiston House, Steyning, West Sussex (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    A four-tier project has been organized to discuss the potential for a smart EU Energy Policy. The project consisted of three workshops where academics discussed the various interactions between the three core objectives of EU energy policy with stakeholders from governments, regulators, and industry. Following the three workshops a conference took place to examine the workshop reports and to formulate overall project conclusions and recommendations. The objective of the project was to come out with a set of 'smart' conclusions and recommendations for the 2010 EU energy policy review. The deliberations at the four project meetings greatly informed the views expressed in this document, but those views belong to the authors only and do not necessarily represent those of individual participants at the meetings or of the four supporting organisations.

  7. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    actors involved. The seven case-study chapters, written from a variety of perspectives, focus on such topics as the impact of formal and informal institutional factors on policy innovation, the potential influence of new members on EU environmental policy-making, the role of cross-national networks......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...... waste, energy taxaton, and freight transport (from EC Poncelet, Books of note, Environment Jun 1998; 40:5)....

  8. Training the Trainers - from an EU Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bodil

    Training the Trainers - from an EU Perspective  Quality in legal interpreting is not just the responsibility of the interpreters but a responsibility that is shared by many parties, including the training providers. To help interpreters professionalize, good training programmes run by competent...... trainers have to be made available to them. The aim of this paper is to present the EU project, AGIS II, Making things happen: Training the trainers of legal interpreters and translators throughout the EU, coordinated by Kirsten W. RAsmussen and Bodil Martinsen, associate professors at the Department...... the implementation process of the recommendations put forward by developing concrete guidelines and materials for training and assessment of not only legal interpreters and translators but also of those working with interpreters and translators within the legal services and sharing the responsibility for the quality...

  9. The Danish Folketing and EU Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskjær Christensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    significant policy areas of EU cooperation. Denmark has a small, open economy. It became a member of the European Community in 1973, mainly motivated by the economic benefits that could be achieved through free trade in the common market. The Danes, however, have often only reluctantly endorsed the more...... crisis of democratic legitimacy, as a shift from the permissive consensus of EU public opinion became apparent. Danish conditions for accession to the Treaty were renegotiated in 1993, resulting in the Edinburgh Compromise in which Denmark obtained four opt-outs. All four opt-outs remain in place today......: (1) from the third phase of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), that is, the euro; (2) from supranational cooperation on Justice and Home Affairs (JHA); (3) from defence cooperation within the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); and (4) from EU citizenship, which no longer has any practical...

  10. The EU as an international security provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wolff, Stefan; Whitman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This contribution develops a framework of analysis that covers the actors involved in the policy making process of international security provision, the dynamics of this process itself, its outcomes (concrete strategies and policies) and their impact. Our efforts to establish such a framework...... of analysis, which could serve as the foundation for a mid-range theory of the EU as an international security provider, will examine the relevance of, and apply, existing theories of international relations/international security and foreign policy analysis to the specific case of the EU. The framework...... that will emerge from this analysis will then be tested and applied empirically in the following contributions that focus on how particular policies are formulated and implemented, and that analyse, in single and comparative case studies, the impact and effectiveness of the EU as an international security provider....

  11. Present developmental conditions petroleum substituting energies in the EU; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report outlines the policy of development and introduction of petroleum substituting energies, and its diffusion situation in the EU. On the policy, development, introduction and diffusion of petroleum substituting energies in the EU, based on the new EU energy white paper issued in fiscal 1996, the policy of energy and environment in every EU country is first outlined. The policy of and practical approach to petroleum substituting energies in every EU country are next described. In particular, since ALTENER which has been continuously promoted by the EU for 3 years as main control measures against CO2 is newly moving toward the second plan, the trend of ALTENER and the new SAVE2 plan are presented. The content of JOULE-THERMIE is also precisely presented which is the new energy program of the 4th framework R & D program. In relation to the developmental trend of alternative energies to oil in the EU until 2020, its prediction result is presented on the basis of the latest study promoted by EC committee in the ALTENER plan. 10 tabs.

  12. The Impact of the Explosion of EU News on Voter Choice in the 2014 EU Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kleinnijenhuis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The European elections in 2014 were the first to be held after a long period in which EU-related news was prominent in the media. They were held after years of daily news about the euro crisis and after months of news about the popular uprising in the Ukraine against president Yanukovych, who had refused to sign the association agreement with the EU. This could have invited political parties to overcome the usual problem of low salience of EU issues by strongly profiling themselves on EU issues. Turnout at the 2014 EU elections, however, remained low, hinting that parties were unable to convert the attention for European issues into enthusiasm for their party at the European elections. This paper asks how vote choice was influenced by party campaigning on EU related issues. A news effects analysis based on a content analysis of Dutch newspapers and television, and on a panel survey among Dutch voters revealed that EU issues functioned as wedge issues: the more strongly parties were associated in the news with the euro crisis and the Ukraine, the less they succeeded in mobilizing voters.

  13. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and alliances, the shifting balance between leader and laggard members, and the ongoing problem integrating the environment into other policy fields. The book also draws on theoretical approaches ranging from institutional to policy network analyses and examines such pertinent contemporary issues as packaging......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...

  14. Eu2+ luminescence in strontium aluminates

    OpenAIRE

    Dutczak, D.; Juestel, T.; Ronda, C.; Meijerink, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075044986

    2015-01-01

    The luminescence properties of Eu2+ doped strontium aluminates are reported and reviewed for a variety of aluminates, viz. SrAl12O19, SrAl4O7, Sr4Al14O25, SrAl2O4 and Sr3Al2O6. The aim of the research is to investigate the role of local coordination and covalency of the aluminate host lattice, related to the Sr/Al ratio, on the optical properties of the Eu2+ ion. The UV and VUV excited luminescence spectra as well as luminescence decay curves were recorded to characterize the luminescence pro...

  15. EU-China cooperation on regional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Minarčíková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the European Union and China are different in terms of area, population, economic, social, political and cultural development, both of them have to face similar challenge – the significant regional disparities and unbalanced regional development. Based on this the EU-China cooperation on regional policy has been launched and there is huge potential to develop mutual learning initiatives to allow their regions developed. The main aim of this paper is to outline the trends in evolution and perspectives of EU-China cooperation on regional policy.

  16. Relocating a Company within the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses how a public or private limited company can be relocated in another EU country via establishment of a subsidiary in the second country, followed by a reverse vertical merger (the parent ceases to exist and the subsidiary is the continuing company). The consideration for the ......This article analyses how a public or private limited company can be relocated in another EU country via establishment of a subsidiary in the second country, followed by a reverse vertical merger (the parent ceases to exist and the subsidiary is the continuing company). The consideration...

  17. Transport properties of a quasi-two-dimensional electron system formed in LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, G. M.; Di Capua, R.; Di Gennaro, E.; Granozio, F. Miletto; Stornaiuolo, D.; Salluzzo, M.; Gadaleta, A.; Pallecchi, I.; Marrè, D.; Piamonteze, C.; Radovic, M.; Ristic, Z.; Rusponi, S.

    2014-06-01

    We study the structural, magnetic, and transport properties of LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures grown by pulsed laser deposition. The samples are characterized in situ by electron diffraction and scanning probe microscopy and ex situ by transport measurements and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 films show a ferromagnetic transition at T ≤7.5 K, related to the ordering of Eu2+ spins, even in samples characterized by just two EuTiO3 unit cells. A finite metallic conductivity is observed only in the case of samples composed by one or two EuTiO3 unit cells and, simultaneously, by a LaAlO3 thickness greater than or equal to four unit cells. The effect of ferromagnetic EuTiO3 on the transport properties of δ-doped LaAlO3/EuTiO3/SrTiO3 is critically discussed.

  18. The EU-NATO Syndrome: Spotlight on Transatlantic Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Vincze

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relations between the European Union (EU and NATO in light of both of the current, deeply unhealthy, state of the transatlantic relationship, and of its ongoing evolution. The first part is devoted to a retrospective outline of the links between European defence and the Atlantic system, which highlights the major constant features of these last sixty years, as well as the rupture points. Then, various issues, from the problem of the division of labour and the definition of the chain of command to coordination on the ground and arms procurement, are evoked as concrete examples where the same fundamental question marks emerge, again and again; all of them revolving around the concept of sovereignty – that of the Europeans vis-à-vis America. It is suggested in the article that current European dependence does not allow but superficial and/or temporary ‘progress’ in EU-NATO relations, just as is the case in the broader Euro-American relationship. As long as Europeans will not assume fully the objective of autonomy (i.e. freedom of decision and action, with all the commitments it would imply, their subjection will continue to generate increasing tensions, since this inherent imbalance is not only detrimental to Europe’s own interests, but it also excludes any reciprocity and prohibits any genuine partnership with the United States.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of EuB6 by borothermic reduction of Eu2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon free high pure europium hexaboride is an urgent need for the fast breeder nuclear reactor program. The properties of EuB6 are highly influenced by the presence of one or more substitutional impurities, particularly, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. In the present investigation carbon and nitrogen free high pure europium hexaboride was synthesized by borothermic reduction of europium oxide Eu2O3 (using boron as a reducing agent at relatively low temperature ( 90 % of theoretical density was studied at 850°C and revealed that an adherent thin surface of Eu2O3 was formed which prevent further oxidation.

  20. Effect of Li and Mg substitution on the crystal structure and magnetism of the REGa{sub 2} (RE = Ce and Eu) and EuGa{sub 4} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Abishek K.; Balisetty, Lahari; Sarkar, Sumanta; Peter, Sebastian C., E-mail: sebastiancp@jncasr.ac.in

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The structure and properties of Ce{sub x}Mg{sub y}Ga{sub 2−x−y}, Eu(Li/Mg){sub x}Ga{sub 2−x} and Eu(Li/Mg){sub x}Ga{sub 4−x}. • EuMg{sub x}Ga{sub 2−x} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.73) and Ce{sub 0.82}Mg{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 1.68} are new compounds. • The substitution of Li/Mg affects the magnetic properties of the compounds. -- Abstract: The compounds CeGa{sub 2}, Ce{sub 0.82}Mg{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 1.68}, Eu(Mg/Li){sub x}Ga{sub 2−x} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.4) and Eu(Mg/Li){sub x}Ga{sub 4−x} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.73) were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. CeGa{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.82}Mg{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 1.68} crystallize in the AlB{sub 2} structure type with P6/mmm space group. The structure is composed of infinite arrays of planar hexagonal Ga atoms stacked along the [0 0 1] direction and the Ce atoms are sandwiched between them. Eu(Mg/Li){sub x}Ga{sub 2−x} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.4) crystallize in the KHg{sub 2} structure type with Imma space group and consists of the hexagonal rings of M (Li/Mg + Ga) atoms connected along the [1 0 0] plane forming a puckered network with voids occupied by two Eu atoms. The Eu(Mg/Li){sub x}Ga{sub 4−x} (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.73) compounds crystallize in the BaAl{sub 4} structure type having I4/mmm space group. In Eu(Mg/Li){sub x}Ga{sub 4−x}, the Eu atom occupies the edge and the body centered position of the unit cell while the Ga and M (Li/Mg + Ga) atoms forms a 3D polyanionic framework. Magnetic susceptibility of CeGa{sub 2}, EuGa{sub 2}, EuGa{sub 4} and their corresponding Li/Mg analogs are discussed.

  1. EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. Epitaxial growth and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutarto, Ronny

    2009-07-06

    Europium oxide (EuO) based materials exhibit a wealth of spectacular phenomena, including half-metallic ferromagnetism, metal-insulator transition, colossal magneto-resistance, large magneto-optical Kerr effect, tunable ferromagnetic ordering temperatures, and large and long-lived photo-induced conductivity. These extraordinary properties make EuO an ideal candidate for implementation in device applications, in particular, for spintronics. Most of the work in the past has been carried out on bulk EuO, but for device applications it is preferred to have the EuO in thin lm form. A urry of studies have therefore emerged in the last decade in order to explore a wide variety of preparation routes and to investigate the properties of the resulting EuO thin films. A recent highlight is the demonstration that doped EuO films can be fabricated on Si and GaN, thereby exhibiting the expected spin-polarized transport effects. Nevertheless, it is still far from a trivial task to prepare EuO thin films with well de ned properties. For bulk EuO, it is already known that stoichiometry is the key issue, and that the presence of small amounts of defects or impurities quickly lead to very large deviations of the material properties. In fact, to make bulk EuO to be stoichiometric one needs temperatures as high as 1800 C. It is obvious that such high temperatures are not compatible with device engineering processes. The preparation of thin films must therefore involve much lower temperatures, preferably not higher than 400-500 C. The consequences are very dear. It turned out that many of the recent studies on EuO thin films are suffering from sample quality problems, due to the presence of, e.g., trivalent Eu species (Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}), oxygen vacancies, or even Eu metal clusters. Controlled doping of the EuO with trivalent rare-earth ions is also not trivial, since most often even the actual doping concentrations were not known. In fact, one could also question in

  2. EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2014-01-01

    EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014.......EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014....

  3. EU Commissioner Delivers a Speech at CAS Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ European Union (EU) Environment Commissioner Margot Wallstrom gave a talk on cooperation between the EU and China on environmental issues during her trip to the CAS Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR) on Nov. 13.

  4. EU-China Partenariat 2006,A Mighty "European Hong Niang"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Matchmaking is not only a profession, but also art.On April 26, a group of matchmakers from 24 EU member countries gathered into Chengdu city, the capital of Sichuan province, where 2006 EU-China Partenariat will be held.

  5. What does Brexit mean for nursing and our EU staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Hannah; Kendall-Raynor, Petra; Longhurst, Chris

    2016-06-29

    Currently there is free movement of labour and mutual recognition of nurse training and qualifications between EU member states. This means UK hospitals can actively recruit nurses from across the EU to cover staff shortfalls. So what now?

  6. India-EU relations in health services: prospects and challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanda, Rupa

    2011-01-01

    .... This paper examines the opportunities for and constraints to India-EU relations in health services in the context of this agreement, focusing on the EU as a market for India's health services exports and collaboration...

  7. Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of the fullerene-based ferromagnets Eu3C70 and Eu9C70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenobu, Taishi; Chi, Dam H; Margadonna, Serena; Prassides, Kosmas; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Fitch, Andrew N; Kato, Ken-Ichi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2003-02-19

    Intercalation of C(70) with europium affords two kinds of magnetic compounds, a canted antiferromagnet Eu(x)C(70) (x approximately 3) and a ferromagnet Eu(x)C(70) (x approximately 9) with transition temperatures (T(C)) of 5 and 38 K, respectively. The Curie constants in the paramagnetic phase and the saturation moment in the ferromagnetic phase are both understood by the full moment of Eu(2+) for both systems. The structure of Eu(3)(-)(delta)C(70) (delta approximately 0.27) is pseudo-monoclinic, derived by a simple deformation of the parent face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Eu(9)(-)(delta)C(70) (delta approximately 0.2) forms an fcc structure, in which cuboctahedral clustering of Eu(2+) ions is observed in the enhanced size octahedral holes. The observed T(C) of the Eu(9)(-)(delta)C(70) ferromagnet is comparable to or larger than those of simple binary Eu-based ferromagnets, such as Eu chalcogenides or carbides, despite the low atomic ratio of Eu in the chemical formulas. This can be understood by the short Eu(2+)-Eu(2+) distances and high coordination numbers permitted by the multiple occupation by Eu(2+) ions of the expanded octahedral interstitial sites in higher fullerene-based solids.

  8. Negotiations in the EU Council of Ministers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Sandrino

    Insiders and outsiders agree; there is something particular about negotiating in Brussels. This book analyses ten years of continuous negotiations about EU enlargement to the Western Balkans, answering questions such as When and how are decisions typically reached in the European Union? What is t...

  9. Mapping smart cities in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manville, C.; Cochrane, G.; Cave, J.; Millard, J.; Pederson, J.K.; Thaarup, R.K.; Liebe, A.; Wissner, M.; Massink, R.A.; Kotterink, B.

    2014-01-01

    This report was commissioned to provide background information and advice on Smart Cities in the European Union (EU) and to explain how existing mechanisms perform. In exploring this, a working definition of a Smart City is established and the cities fitting this definition across the Member States

  10. The principle of transparency in EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, A.W.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    ‘The principle of transparency in EU law’ explores a variety of transparency obligations in European law, and offers a comprehensive framework to classify and understand those obligations. The principle of transparency is ubiquitous and multifaceted. The obligations derived from it range from a duty

  11. The Danish Folketing and EU Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskjær Christensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    : (1) from the third phase of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), that is, the euro; (2) from supranational cooperation on Justice and Home Affairs (JHA); (3) from defence cooperation within the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); and (4) from EU citizenship, which no longer has any practical...

  12. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in the context of Egyptian-European relations. The article argues that the EU policies, which earlier have been dominated by a pragmatic approach towards the Mubarak regime, now have to be rethought considering an Egyptian polity, where the contours of a new constitutionalism are developing....

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Farber, Daniel A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    The major regulatory experiment with greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU enables legal scholars to learn lessons regarding its design options and implementation problems. Some fundamental concerns are: (1) the issue of how to develop a fair allocation method, also in view of carbon leakage; (

  14. Developing Multilateral Surveillance Tools in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de Rik

    2008-01-01

    The development of the infrastructure of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) is an unaddressed topic in scholarly debates. On the basis of secondary literature on the European Employment Strategy, it is hypothesised that a conflict between an incentive and reluctance to act on the EU level on the

  15. HIGH-SPIN STATES IN EU-148

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGMAN, [No Value; BACELAR, JCS; BALANDA, A; NOORMAN, RF; STEENBERGEN, T; DEVOIGT, MJA; NYBERG, J; SLETTEN, G; DIONISIO, J; VIEU, C; LAGRANGE, JM; PAUTRAT, M; Urban, W

    1995-01-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus Eu-148, populated by a carbon-13 induced reaction on a lanthanum target, were investigated with several different tools of in-beam nuclear spectroscopy. The low-energy levels show collective excitations, interpreted as 3- octupole-phonon couplings to multi-par

  16. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  17. How EU sanctions work : a new narrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This study, the first of a new, restyled series of Chaillot Papers, focuses on how EU sanctions - or restrictive measures - work by providing an analytical framework to evaluate their success. In addition, it presents recommendations on how to improve the sanctioning process and elaborates on the

  18. Mapping smart cities in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manville, C.; Cochrane, G.; Cave, J.; Millard, J.; Pederson, J.K.; Thaarup, R.K.; Liebe, A.; Wissner, M.; Massink, R.A.; Kotterink, B.

    2014-01-01

    This report was commissioned to provide background information and advice on Smart Cities in the European Union (EU) and to explain how existing mechanisms perform. In exploring this, a working definition of a Smart City is established and the cities fitting this definition across the Member States

  19. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...

  20. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear wheth...

  1. Eu2+ activated persistent luminescent materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutczak, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with luminescence and persistent luminescence of Eu2+ activated materials and aims at unraveling the mechanism behind the persistent luminescence, in particular the role of Dy3+ in the physical process leading to persistent luminescence. The second aim of this thesis is the

  2. Tax policy at the outskirts of EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterø Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    on consumption, labour income and capital income, and compare these to similarmeasures for EU countries. In addition, we outline how Greenland's economic policy in other areasinterferes with tax policy. Especially fishery regulation, management of government-owned companies,and housing policy have major...... implications for the tax system.Key words: international benchmarking, effective tax rates, GreenlandJEL: H20, H25...

  3. The EU fusion programme and roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pero, H., E-mail: Herve.Pero@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, DG-RTD, CDMA 05/146, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Paidassi, S. [European Commission, DG-RTD, CDMA 05/146, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The EU fusion programme has to evolve from today's research to a strong goal-oriented programme driven by an ambitious roadmap. ► The programme shall focus on ITER and reactor-relevant technologies development. ► A new structure based on joint programming will be developed to implement the programme during Horizon 2020. -- Abstract: To meet ITER and fusion energy challenges, a gradual transition of the EU fusion programme priorities from today's fusion research to a strongly goal-oriented programme with clear milestones is required. This transition and the programme priorities should be driven by an ambitious, yet realistic roadmap to be agreed by EU fusion stakeholders. The programme must primarily focus on: ensuring the success of ITER; and research and development of reactor-relevant technologies. Industry must be involved early in the implementation and international collaboration should be conducted as part of a strategic approach. Joint programming should be a cornerstone of the EU fusion programme in Horizon 2020. Options for the new structure and current actions required to implement the roadmap during Horizon 2020 will be presented.

  4. Creating Coherence in EU Internet Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The internet presents regulators with an amorphous web of technical and legal issues with no simple solution. Andrej Savin, Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, says that the EU needs to develop a fluidity of process in order to tackle the big issues and cultivate the right legal...

  5. Developing Multilateral Surveillance Tools in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, R.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the infrastructure of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) is an unaddressed topic in scholarly debates. On the basis of secondary literature on the European Employment Strategy, it is hypothesised that a conflict between an incentive and reluctance to act on the EU level on the

  6. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  7. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...

  8. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    -oriented, anthropological and micro-sociological studies of the EU and European integration and shows how their findings challenge more traditional understandings of the dynamics of European integration. Moving beyond a stock-taking, the article distinguishes between ‘order- ing’ and ‘disordering’ practices and explores...

  9. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  10. THE CRUCIAL THEMES OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of the “terms” of the ongoing EU enlargement, in the light of the European public interest. The European public interest ought to include the prospective (Central European members, within a perspective of an enlarged Union in 2010, or so. The following forms a personalised summary of a major report published (in Dutch in September 2001 by the WRR in The Hague (a think-tank, formally under the Dutch Prime Minister, but by statute fully independent. The author was one of the lead-writers of this report. The present article merely focuses on the policy recommendations of the report. It is hoped that these kinds of critical analyses will help to stimulate solid policy debate on the EU in Romania, on the road to EU membership. The article discusses why the notion of a “core-acquis” would improve the enlargement strategy; the application of the core acquis to the internal market, environment and justice and home affairs; judicial and administrative capacity; accession to “euro-land”; the rapid reform of the CAP; a reform of “cohesion” approaches; and a note on the EU budgetary implications.

  11. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examin...

  12. Suikerbeleid: vergelijking oxfam en EU-voorstellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de C.J.A.M.; Jager, J.H.; Koole, B.; Leeuwen, van M.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport vergelijkt de mogelijke gevolgen van voorstellen met betrekking tot de hervorming van de EU-suikermarktordening. Het betreft de voorstellen van de Europese Commissie, gepresenteerd in juli 2004, en van Oxfam. Ingegaan wordt op de gevolgen voor de werkgelegenheid en de economie in Nederla

  13. Kaliningrad - One Common Space for the EU and Russia

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The thesis explores the possibilities and barriers of making the Russian Baltic exclave, Kaliningrad, a “pilot region” for cooperation between the EU and Russia. By analysing Kaliningrad’s political-geographic status as both Russian exclave and EU enclave, it is argued that Kaliningrad is influenced by the territoriality of the EU as well as the territoriality of Russia, and that development in Kaliningrad is depending on alignment of the EU and Russia’s territorial strategies in general and ...

  14. Antidumping duties, undertakings, and foreign direct investment in the EU.

    OpenAIRE

    Belderbos, René

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of EU antidumping policy when foreign firms can ‘jump’ antidumping duties through foreign direct investment (FDI) in the EU. We show that duty jumping or duty pre-empting FDI occurs if the EU administration has broader objectives than protecting EU industry's profitability and if cost advantages of foreign firms are transferable abroad. The (expectation of) price undertakings reduces the incentives to engage in FDI and may even discourage FDI as long as products are not t...

  15. Doorkeepers and Gatecrashers: EU Enlargement and Negotiation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the eastward enlargement process of the EU in the framework of a simple war of attrition bargaining game. Both players -- the existing EU members and the applicants -- benefit from enlargement, yet for the applicants, reform to the acquis is costly, while the EU prefers subst...... the benefits for new members are all effective negotiation strategies for the EU that have been applied in the process....

  16. Sustainable development in the EU : Redefining and operationalizing the concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, Sander R W

    Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good

  17. The EU Dimension to Soil Science in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The EU as a context for science lessons may be given scant attention but EU decision-making is a vital factor in everyday life. Lessons on the emergence of soil science with Charles Darwin's simple scientific experiments can be linked with competence through action, inclusion and argumentations in science lessons. Decisions about an EU Soil…

  18. Sustainable development in the EU : Redefining and operationalizing the concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, Sander R W

    2014-01-01

    Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good

  19. EU-LISA, the new model of operational management of the various EU databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Illamola Dausà

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a new agency, EU-LISA, was created in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ to manage largescale IT systems. From then onwards, the agency has been responsible for the communication infrastructure of SIS II, VIS and Eurodac, without merging those databases. Due to its short time in operation, it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of EU-LISA, but this paper aims to give an overview of the agency to facilitate knowledge about it.

  20. Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) co-activated LaAlO3 phosphor: synthesis and tuned luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-28

    Sr(2+) and Si(4+) ion doped LaAlO3:Eu phosphors were synthesized through a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. Their phase component and photoluminescence properties were investigated. Under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation, the phosphors show simultaneously blue emission of the Eu(2+) ion and orange-red emission of the Eu(3+) ion. The relative emission intensity of both Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) ions can be tuned by changing the doping concentration of the Sr(2+), Si(4+) and Eu(3+) ions. In contrast to the Sr(2+) ion, the incorporation of Si(4+) ion can effectively enhance the emission of Eu(2+). The optimal doping concentration of the Eu(3+) and Si(4+) ions are about 0.02 and 0.03, respectively. The results indicate that the phosphor may be a potential candidate for white LED lighting applications.

  1. Coordenação local do Eu(III em híbridos orgânicos/inorgânicos emissores de luz branca Eu(III local coordination in white light emitters organic-inorganic hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís D. Carlos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Eu3+ luminescence and EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure results are presented for organic-inorganic hybrid gel hosts composed of a siliceous network to which small chains of oxyethylene units are covalently grafted by means of urea bridges. Coordination numbers for Eu3+ ions range from 12.8 to 9.7 with increasing Eu3+ concentration while the Eu3+-first neighbours mean distance is found to be constant at 2.48-2.49 Å in the same concentration range. Emission spectra display a broad band in the green/blue spectral region superposed to narrow lines appearing in the yellow/red region in such a way that for the eyes emission appears white. The broad band is assigned to intrinsic NH groups emission and also to electron-hole recombination in the nanosised siliceous domains. The narrow lines are assigned to intra-4f6, 5D0->7F0-4 Eu3+ transitions and from the energy position of the 7F0-4 levels a mean distance could be calculated for the Eu3+-first neighbours. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained from EXAFS analysis.

  2. EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Investments in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, M.D.; Stefanoni, S.

    2007-07-01

    How environmental regulation affects electricity players' investment decisions? Should policy makers look beyond for alternative mechanisms - such as energy efficiency, capture and storage of carbon dioxide, and incentives for renewables - to fulfill the environmental objectives set by Kyoto Protocol? This paper suggests - through a Real Option approach - how the efficacy of the EU Emission Trading Scheme on technological innovation, emissions reduction and energy price dynamics, is strongly affected by the 'hysteresis' emerging from the capital budgeting process of main utilities. As a matter of fact, long-term substitutions between coal-fired units and Combined Cycle Gas Turbine plants production only take place under quite restrictive conditions. (auth)

  3. EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Investments in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, M.D.; Stefanoni, S.

    2007-07-01

    How environmental regulation affects electricity players' investment decisions? Should policy makers look beyond for alternative mechanisms - such as energy efficiency, capture and storage of carbon dioxide, and incentives for renewables - to fulfill the environmental objectives set by Kyoto Protocol? This paper suggests - through a Real Option approach - how the efficacy of the EU Emission Trading Scheme on technological innovation, emissions reduction and energy price dynamics, is strongly affected by the 'hysteresis' emerging from the capital budgeting process of main utilities. As a matter of fact, long-term substitutions between coal-fired units and Combined Cycle Gas Turbine plants production only take place under quite restrictive conditions. (auth)

  4. Neutron Scattering from the Heisenberg Ferromagnets EuO and EuS. I. The Exchange Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passell, L.; Dietrich, O. W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1976-01-01

    Inelastic-neutron-scattering methods have been used to measure the spin-wave spectrum in EuO and EuS over the entire Brillouin zone. The samples were polycrystalline powders enriched in 153Eu. Defining the interaction between pairs of spins to be -2JnmS⃗n·S⃗m, we obtained for EuO, J1/kB=0.606±0.0...

  5. Photosensized Controlling Benzyl Methacrylate-Based Matrix Enhanced Eu3+ Narrow-Band Emission for Fluorescence Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsiang Lin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study synthesized a europium (Eu3+ complex Eu(DBM3Cl-MIP (DBM = dibenzoyl methane; Cl-MIP = 2-(2-chlorophenyl-1-methyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline dispersed in a benzyl methacrylate (BMA monomer and treated with ultraviolet (UV light for polymerization. Spectral results showed that the europium complex containing an antenna, Cl-MIP, which had higher triplet energy into the Eu3+ energy level, was an energetically enhanced europium emission. Typical stacking behaviors of π–π interactions between the ligands and the Eu3+-ion were analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Regarding the luminescence performance of this europium composite, the ligand/defect emission was suppressed by dispersion in a poly-BMA (PBMA matrix. The underlying mechanism of the effective enhancement of the pure Eu3+ emission was attributed to the combined effects of structural modifications, defect emissions, and carrier charge transfer. Fluorescence spectra were compared to the composite of optimized Eu3+ emission where they were subsequently chelated to four metal ions via carboxylate groups on the BMA unit. The optical enhanced europium composite clearly demonstrated highly efficient optical responses and is, therefore a promising application as an optical detection material.

  6. Flying from the EU to the US: necessary extraterritorial legal diffusion in the US-EU Passenger Name Record agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, M.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    The US-EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) agreement provides guidance on processing and transferring EU citizens’ airline passenger data to the US Department of Homeland Security for counterterrorism and security purposes. The US and the EU have struggled to conclude an agreement that satisfies all thei

  7. EU Climate Policy Tracker 2011. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Geurts, F.; Teckenburg, E.; Blok, K.; Becker, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Limiting the rise in the average global temperature to 2C has been the EU goal since 1996, and in December 2010 the UN recognised the need to consider a 1.5C limit. Avoiding overshooting these levels will require massive emissions reductions - in the order of 80-95% for industrialised countries, like those in the EU. The next ten years are crucial in establishing whether society will be able to make this transition, or whether temperature increase limits will be irreversibly missed. Last year, the European Union Climate Policy Tracker (EU CPT) investigated each member state's implementation of policy and legislation, and rated their progress towards a 2050 vision of deep decarbonisation using renewable energy. The uniquely developed rating scheme, modelled on appliance efficiency labels (A-G), gave an indication of how member states were doing compared to a 'low-carbon policy package'. The average score was an 'E', indicating that the level of effort needed to treble, to be on a pace to reach the 2050 vision. However, aggregating best practices across sectors and countries doubled the score - meaning that the tools are already at hand for major improvements across Europe. This report builds on last year's EU CPT by giving an update on action in member states, and an indicative trend in the rating, as well as adding a new section on EU policy. The addition of an EU section is appropriate, with the Commission having produced a roadmap on a low-carbon economy by 2050, a transport white paper, and with another roadmap for 2050 focused on energy anticipated by the end of 2011. This report seeks to answer the question of whether these and other related initiatives are sufficient to help Europe reach its low-carbon goals. When interpreting the results of this report, it is important to understand that the goal underlying the vision here is not the same as the one in the European Commission's 'low-carbon economy' roadmap

  8. Luminescent characteristic of the CsBr phosphor activated with Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Téllez-Flores, E., E-mail: bluedays8i@hotmail.com [Programa de Posgrado en Ciencias (Física), Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Blvd. Transversal S/N, 83000 Hermosillo, Son., México (Mexico); Aceves, R., E-mail: raceves@cifus.uson.mx [Centro de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son., México (Mexico); Pérez-Salas, R., E-mail: rperez@cifus.uson.mx [Centro de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son., México (Mexico); Camarillo, I., E-mail: as99@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Delegación Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Caldiño, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Delegación Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Spectra of excitation and emission were measured at RT and 15 K in crystals quenched (Q) of CsBr:Eu{sup 2+}, CsBr:Mn{sup 2+} and CsBr:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+}. Emission bands at 444, 480, 520 and 570 nm with different relative intensities are generated in the samples after UV excitation. The blue band at 444 nm was ascribed with unknown clusters or aggregated centers (AC) of dipoles type Eu{sup 2+}–V{sub C}{sup −} and insulated dipole centers (IDC) like Eu{sup 2+}–O{sup 2−}. The bands at 480, 520 and 570 nm were assigned to Cs{sub 4}EuBr{sub 6} nanocrystals; AC containing MnBr{sub 4}{sup 2−} units in tetrahedral symmetry and another yet unidentified AC defect, respectively. In crystals of CsBr:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+} the excitation and emission spectra taken at 15 K show no clear evidence of an energy transfer mechanism. Instead, the results suggest that the emission is produced by direct excitation of the ions of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+}. Accordingly, single- or double-doped CsBr crystals may contain the same type of defects, either AC and/or IDC. -- Highlights: • The PL consists of several overlapping bands in the entire visible region. • The emission bands were ascribed to dipoles, aggregated and nanocrystals of different nature. • No clear evidence of energy transfer, meaning Eu and Mn pairs are not formed. • The material shows potential characteristics for its use as LED to white emission.

  9. Coordination of EU Policy Positions in Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Jopp, Mathias; Nedergaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -plied to examine EU coordination in Eastern and Central Europe. The results demonstrate that the approach travels well to EU member states in Western Europe. More precisely, they show that the power of the individual ministers, as well as the type of government (minority vs. majority), are im-portant factors...... in explaining differences in the way the two member states handle EU coordination. This strengthens the argument that the traits of the EU coordination mechanisms in EU member states are a function of power relations between domestic actors....

  10. Pyrolytic synthesis and luminescence of porous lanthanide Eu-MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guangya; Liu, Zhijian; Sun, Hongfa; Tian, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    A lanthanide metal coordination polymer [Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)] was synthesized by the reaction of europium oxide with benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) in a mixed solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure of Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermo-gravimetric analysis of Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) indicated that coordinated DMSO and H2O molecules could be removed to create Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)-py with permanent microporosity, which was also verified by powder XRD (PXRD) and elemental analysis. Both Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O) and Eu2(BDC)3(DMSO)(H2O)-py showed mainly Eu-based luminescence and had characteristic emissions in the range 550-700 nm.

  11. Rethinking EU Citizenship: Towards the Postmodern Ethics of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja IVIC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of EU citizenship reflects EU politics of (fixed identity, which guarantees rights only to the homogenous groups (and individuals as representatives of these groups. Hence, it leaves room for marginalizing, othering, excluding and other forms of discrimination, by creating binary oppositions: we/they, citizen/alien, EU/non-EU and so forth. EU citizenship is based on the modernist ethics of priority of right over the good. It is created to promote European idea, so it has only instrumental value. On the other hand, the politics of affinity leads to the substantive EU citizenship founded on multiple identities. The politics of affinity requires a new ethics which will lead to transformation of the main concepts of EU legal discourse.

  12. Electronic transport through EuO spin filter tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jutong, Nuttachai; Eckern, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Schwingenschloegl, Udo [KAUST, PSE Division, Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-07-01

    Spin filter tunnel junctions based on europium monoxide (EuO), a ferromagnetic semiconductor, are investigated by means of density functional theory. In particular, the spin transport of Cu/EuO/Cu junctions is investigated by using the self-consistent ab-initio electron transport code SMEAGOL. The dependence of the transmission coefficient on the interface spacing and on the EuO thickness is studied, and explained in terms of the density of states and the complex band structure of EuO. Our calculation indicates that EuO epitaxially grown on Cu can act as a perfect spin filter, with polarization close to 100%, which is related mainly to the Eu-4f states. The transmission coefficient is sensitive to the interface spacing, since this spacing determines the charge transfer between EuO and the Cu leads.

  13. Eu{sup 3+} luminescence properties of Eu- and Mg-codoped AlGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, Masayoshi [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroto, E-mail: sekiguchi@ee.tut.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Yamane, Keisuke [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Okada, Hiroshi [Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Wakahara, Akihiro [Department of Electrical and Electronics Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan); Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Aichi (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the effect of Mg codoping on luminescence properties of AlGaN:Eu to improve emission through synergy effect between an increase in bandgap by AlGaN and the Mg codoping technique. The luminescence properties of AlGaN:(Eu, Mg) are strongly influenced by the Mg concentration and Al composition. Mg codoping in AlGaN was observed to contribute to increasing photoluminescence (PL) integrated intensity and to improve thermal quenching from 7.3% to 60% while the dominant optical site remained site B (622.3-nm peak) with low excitation cross section. The total concentration of optically activated Eu at 25 K was a constant at for either optical site, indicating that Mg codoping did not affect the formation of optical sites. The PL decay times at room temperature (RT) increased with Mg concentration because of suppression of the back-transfer process. For optimized Mg concentration, an increase in the Al composition contributed to the total activated Eu concentration and changed the dominant optical site from A (620.3-nm peak) to B. The activation energy E{sub a}, which is the difference in energy between the {sup 5}D{sub 0} energy level and the trap level in the host material, was estimated from temperature dependence of PL decay time. The E{sub a} for site A was larger than that for site B, suggesting that the back-transfer rate for site A was less than that for site B. - Highlights: • Eu and Mg codoped AlGaN was grown on GaN template by NH{sub 3}-MBE. • The effect of Mg codoping on optical properties of Eu doped AlGaN was investigated. • Mg codoping contributed to increase PL intensity at RT and improve thermal quenching. • An increase in the Al content affected total activated N{sub Eu} and dominant optical site.

  14. Are there any top FDI performers among EU-15 and CEE countries? A comparative panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mateev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the major determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI inflows in 26 European Union (EU countries using panel data. Our empirical study takes a different approach by separating European countries into two groups: Western (EU-15 countries and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. The results from the panel data analysis of FDI inflows to 26 EU countries for the period 1994-2012 show that: (1 traditional location variables such as market size, trade openness, unemployment, infrastructure, tax rate and unit labour costs are able, to a large extent, to explain FDI flows to both groups of countries; (2 there are country-specific factors such as economic growth, unit labour costs and credit risk that contribute to the differences in FDI patterns across EU-15 and CEECs; and (3 policy and institutional quality factors are found to play an important role for both groups of countries. When analyzing host countries based on their relative level of performance, we find that the top ten FDI performers are able to attract a significant amount of FDI because of their macroeconomic stability and high level of institutional development, while for EU countries with low FDI dominance, policy and institutional risk factors play a more important role.

  15. Economic integration in NAFTA and the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Sven

    respects: not only are the "side effects" on labour markets, social and environmental conditions considered inadequately addressed. Without offering adequate replacements, the book claims, the economic integration projects are actually undermining some of the core institutions that serve the needs......This te×t critically analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established in both Europe and America are seen as deficient in several...... of the market economies institutions upon the integration process itself depends. This te×t analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established...

  16. New EU project supports LHC theorists

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    LHCPhenonet, a new EU-funded research network aimed at improving the theoretical predictions that guide the LHC experiments, has begun its 4-year run as a Marie Curie Initial Training Network. CERN joins the network as an associate partner, along with almost 30 multinational institutions and computing companies.   Theorists from around the world gathered in Valencia to attend LHCPhenonet's kick-off meeting. LHCPhenonet will create research opportunities for young, talented European theorists, providing funding for both doctoral and post-doctoral positions across the various participating institutions – including the University of Durham, DESY, and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). LHCPhenoNet aims to improve the Quantum Field Theory calculations that set the parameters of the LHC experiments, focusing on the LHC phenomenology that gave it its name. The 4.5 million euro project is funded by the EU's 7th Research Framework Programme and will be coordinated through the Span...

  17. EU Design Law and 3D Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholders who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  18. Regulating Corporate Governance in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    In the context of the financial and economic crisis, corporate governance and regulatory supervision failures are at the centre of public debates. Who controls the modern corporation, and why, has become one of the defining social power relations in contemporary capitalism. Regulation Corporate...... Governance in the EU fills a gap in the extensive literature on corporate governance and highlights the political nature of EU corporate governance regulation. Laura Horn advances a critical political economy perspective focusing in particular on political struggles and processes of the neoliberal...... transformation of company law and corporate governance regulation. Her findings about the marketization of corporate control are at the core to a better understanding of the broader context of capitalist restructuring in the European Union....

  19. Excitation Induced Tunable Emission in Ce3+/Eu3+ Codoped BiPO4 Nanophosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce3+, Eu3+ ions singly doped, and Ce3+/Eu3+ codoped bismuth phosphate (BiPO4 nanophosphors were synthesized by a simple precipitation method and their structural, morphological, and photoluminescence properties were investigated. The structural and morphological analysis confirms the pure hexagonal crystal structure of the synthesized nanophosphors. From the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra various absorption bands respective to functional groups such as PO4 and phonon vibrations including the bending modes of the PO4 units are identified. The Ce3+ doped nanophosphors show spectrally broad luminescence in the blue (centred at 459 nm wavelength region under the direct optical excitation of Ce3+ at 417 nm. For Eu3+ doped nanophosphors, five emission bands have been observed with 394 nm excitation wavelength. Among them, 595 nm has shown bright yellowish-orange emission. These results demonstrate that by appropriately tuning the excitation wavelength of these codoped nanophosphors the emission color in the visible region (blue and orange can be flexibly controlled in a single sample without varying its chemical composition and size. The mechanism for this excitation energy dependent tunable emission is explained on the basis of nonenergy transfer (ET occurring among Ce3+/Eu3+ dopant ions.

  20. Indivisible Partners or Enduring Combatants? Divisions and Triumphs in the EU-Australian Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Raffin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Casting the spotlight over a complex and dynamic relationship, this article seeks to diagnose the state of relations between the European Union and Australia by contrasting the sources of tension with the forces of unity in the relationship. After illuminating the substantial differences between the EU and Australia in the political, military and economic spheres, the article asserts that the Common Agricultural Policy (‘CAP’ has disproportionately influenced the EU-Australia dialogue and — like the Howard Government’s propensity to bilateralism — needlessly impeded the advancement of relations. The impact of bilateral relations with the United States and the increasingly contentious challenges posed by global climate change have threatened to destabilise the bond between Brussels and Canberra. However, the article insists that the destructive potential of CAP-related disagreement is dissipating. Rather, debates over agriculture in the EU-Australia dialogue have been emasculated by rapidly intensifying social, political and cultural integration. Moreover, the development of Australia’s relationships with its Asian neighbours promises to optimise Australian engagement with Europe. After carefully weighing these competing factors, the article concludes that — despite the transitory phases of discord — the future for the EU-Australia relationship is bright.

  1. Structural Control of Magnetic Anisotropy in a Multiferroic EuTiO3 Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, J. W.; Ke, X.; Ryan, P. J.; Kim, J. W.; Lee, J.-H.; Misra, R.; Schiffer, P.; Birol, T.; Fennie, C. J.; Schlom, D. G.

    2012-02-01

    Strain control of EuTiO3 has been shown under tensile strain the system converts to a multiferroic groundstate with ferromagnetic and ferroelectric order[1]. Here we present a study of the magnetic order in thin films of EuTiO3 grown on DyScO3(110) substrates by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Neutron scattering and magnetic measurements show the magnetic moment orders with an easy axis along only one of the (110) pseudocubic axis of the unit cell. Such an easy axis is connected to the uniaxial crystal structure that evolves from cubic to tetragonal with octahedral tilting, which agrees well with the strain dependent structure predicted under biaxial tensile strain. The magnetic anisotropy for Eu is attributed to an asymmetric crystal field due to the uniaxial symmetry of the Eu-O coordination. Work at Argonne, including the Advanced Photon, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, and Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. [1] J.-H. Lee et al. Nature 466, 954 (2010).

  2. THE BALKANS BETWEEN THE EU AND NATO: FOCUSING ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Sadakata

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The fragmentation of Yugoslavia has wrought extensive political and social changes in the Balkans and Europe more generally. After the collapse of communism and the breakup of Yugoslavia, many Balkan countries have transformed their political system and have begun to forge new foreign and security policy. Some of them have already joined the EU and NATO, and some are about to access these organizations. But the Western Balkan states seem to be farther in the future. In regard to the former Yugoslavia, the United States, European states and international organizations, such as the EU, NATO and UN, have attempted to engage and manage this breakup on an individual and collective basis. They have greatly influenced the process of the post-conflict nation building of this region. From this viewpoint, the paper discusses the political and social transformation of the Balkans after the breakup of the Yugoslav conflict, and the role of the EU and NATO in the process of the democratization and nation building in the former Yugoslavia. Moreover, attention is paid to the features of the involvement of the EU and NATO in the former Yugoslav conflict. In the process of Yugoslav fragmentation one can see the ‘Eastern Question’ revisited and the ‘Powder keg of Europe’ once again rising to its brim.

  3. EU and Tourism Development: Bark or Bite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation or i...... and budget airlines, but also by supporting development of new services and experiences in parts of Europe where tourism has until now been a socio-economic activity of relatively limited importance....

  4. Eu2+ luminescence in strontium aluminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutczak, D.; Juestel, T.; Ronda, C.; Meijerink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The luminescence properties of Eu2+ doped strontium aluminates are reported and reviewed for a variety of aluminates, viz. SrAl12O19, SrAl4O7, Sr4Al14O25, SrAl2O4 and Sr3Al2O6. The aim of the research is to investigate the role of local coordination and covalency of the aluminate host lattice,

  5. Eu2+ activated persistent luminescent materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dutczak, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with luminescence and persistent luminescence of Eu2+ activated materials and aims at unraveling the mechanism behind the persistent luminescence, in particular the role of Dy3+ in the physical process leading to persistent luminescence. The second aim of this thesis is the preparation and characterization of persistent luminescence phosphors emitting at different colors, especially yellow and red, where there is a need for better afterglow materials. A range of aluminates, ...

  6. EU Film Policy: between Art and Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Herold

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the European internal market has involved the cinematographic sector as a result of its economic nature. However, film, as a cultural medium, does not lend itself easily to the trends towards uniformity, inherent in the process of economic integration. This becomes visible in the relationship between national cinematographic legislation, reflecting cultural values, and the free market philosophy pursued within the European integration process. There seems to be a contradiction between national measures, which seek to correct the workings of the market, and the efforts to establish a European common market for audiovisual goods and services. This situation has been further complicated by the introduction of Article 151 into the EU legal order by the Maastricht Treaty, which recognised protection of cultural values as one of the EU constitutional tasks. However, it happened without calling into question the acquis communautaire on cultural matters. As a result, the audiovisual policy at the EU level is characterised by a contradiction between the economic logic of market integration and the goal of preservation of cultural diversity. The inherent conflict between these two objectives becomes very clear when looking at the development of the European film policy. This policy agenda creates an amalgam of two not easily reconcilable aims: promotion of cultural diversity and establishment of an internal film market. This horizontal tension is exacerbated by the clash between the European competition policy measures affecting the film sector and the national cultural policy considerations, which demonstrates how controversial remains the vertical power sharing within the EU. The aim of this paper is to investigate, on the basis of the European Commission policy documents and practice, these two-level tensions within the framework of the European film policy and draw conclusions for its future sustainability.

  7. Eu2+ luminescence in strontium aluminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutczak, D.; Juestel, T.; Ronda, C.; Meijerink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The luminescence properties of Eu2+ doped strontium aluminates are reported and reviewed for a variety of aluminates, viz. SrAl12O19, SrAl4O7, Sr4Al14O25, SrAl2O4 and Sr3Al2O6. The aim of the research is to investigate the role of local coordination and covalency of the aluminate host lattice, relat

  8. Performance indicators for SMEs accessing EU funds

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Being the best supporters of national economies Small and Medium Sized Enterprises are actively searching alternative sources of finance for sustaining their goals and their performances. European Union is sustaining the SMEs access to finance by direct funding: grants from the European Commission and indirect funding: financial intermediaries in the SMEs origin country. Considering the importance of SMEs for national and European economy we will analyze the relationship between the EU fundin...

  9. Physical dispersion state and fluorescent property of Eu-complex in the Eu-complex/silicon rubber composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Shipeng; HU Shui; ZHANG Xiaoping; ZHANG Liqun; LIU Li

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescent complex Eu(TTA)2(Phen)(MA) (HTTA=2-Thenoyltdfluoroacetone, Phen=l,10-phenanthroline, MA=Maleic an-hydrider) was synthesized and characterized with elemental analysis, infrared spectrum (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction(XRD), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), and fluorescent measurement. To explore the effect of different physical disper-sion state of Eu-complex on the fluorescent property of the Eu-complex/silicon rubber composites, various quantities of Eu(TTA)2(phen) (MA) were mixed with silicon rubber (SIR) and peroxide to form uncured composites. These composites were vulcanized to obtain cured Eu-complex/SiR composites at 250 ℃, which was higher than the melting-point of Eu-complex. The SEM, XRD, DSC, and the fluorescent measurement of these composites showed that both the complex molecules dispersed in the silicon rubber during the melting process and the parent Eu-complex particles had positive effects on fluorescent property, whereas the re-crystallized Eu-complex particles and the ggregating complexes formed during the melting-process had negative effects on fluorescent property. For the uncured composites, their fluorescent intensities almost did not change with the increasing amount of Eu-complex. Furthermore, for the composites with small content of Eu-complex, their fluorescent intensities decreased significantly after curing, and this difference in fluorescent intensity became smaller as the content of Eu-complex increases.

  10. EU POLICY REGARDING THE COMPETITIVENESS ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bârsan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with one of the most important, but also challenging economic issues nowadays, which is economic competitiveness. The literature is not unanimous in recognizing the importance of competitiveness, especially where it concerns the state level. However, the relevance of international competitiveness is increasingly brought into light by theory, specific policy measures and by periodical evaluations made by international organizations. Against this background, the EU is one of the main players whose position is still lagging behind the USA, and, according to recent evaluations, behind the other OECD countries. The European Council in March 2000, held in Lisbon, had launched a very inciting challenge – that of transforming the EU economy into the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, by 2010. Such an ambitious target requires an evaluation of the competitiveness level and also new measures to be taken in order to accomplish this objective.The article presents opinions on the EU competitiveness issue, and on the main weak and strong points, concluding that even the target and especially the schedule seem to be unrealistic, the new direction of action, i.e. towards better business conditions for enterprises being correct.

  11. CERN-EU relationship provides various opportunities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony-Kittelsen

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the EU and CERN continues to grow stronger, as the Director-General and the President of Council recently visited Brussels to discuss the progress made since the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in July 2009. With financial cuts and budget reductions plaguing research programmes across the world, the MoU is a solid basis for enhancing existing or developing new synergies between the two parties.    Rolf Heuer, Michel Spiro and other members of the CERN delegation photographed with Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, EU Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science, during the 2010 Annual CERN-EC meeting. Credits: © European Union, 2010 In recent times, due to the global economic downturn and reductions in national research budgets, the competition for funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7, 2007-2013) has become extremely tough. However, given the large number of CERN proposals accepted by the EC since the start of FP7...

  12. Additive Technology for EU Ecolabel Formulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Nehls; Tassilo Habereder; Edward Ng

    2009-01-01

    Currently, Bio -lubricants are still regarded as niche products. Within the global lubricant market, however, the ar-ea of environmentally acceptable fluids represents one of the fast growing markets with an estimated annual growth of more than 6% per year. This growth is supported by various market drivers such as legal regulations, public subsidies and the im-plementation of national or international labeling schemes.With the implementation of the European Ecolabel for lubricants in 2005, a common standard specifying ecological and performance requirements for Bio - lubricants was defined. Applying for the EU Ecolabel requires a comprehensive assess-ment, not only of the final formulation, but also of the additives used. Additives are required to meet specifications for oxi-dation and thermal stability, as well as to impart metal protection (of both steel and yellow metals), thus improving corro-sion protection and wear performance of the formulation. Therefore, it is challenging in terms of formulation technology to develop the right formulation that meets the technical specifications as well as the stringent requirements of the EU - Ecola-bel.The paper describes how, by using ester base fluids and additives currently available in the market, lubricants can be developed to meet the technical and eco - toxicological requirements of the EU - Ecolabel, approaching the performance lev-els of lubricants formulated with traditional base fluids.

  13. The EU's Antidumping Actions Against Chinese Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yinan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the importance of tariffs in international trade has declined with the reduction of tariff rates under the GATT/WTO programs of multilateral trade liberalization, most governments prefer to protect domestic industries from foreign competitors through a variety of non-tariff barriers. Antidumping actions have recently become the world's biggest trade impediment due to their specific features and the antidumping activity of new users. Since China has become the major engine of world trade growth in recent years, it also has become the largest anti-dumping target in the world. However, the present world competition situation implies that world trade liberalization might arouse regional trade friction. The objective of this research is to identify whether China's WTO accession changed China's situation with regard to EU antidumping actions. The research analysis empirically proved that trade liberalization could partly affect the EU's antidumping actions against Chinese exports and the higher degree of industrial concentricity becomes a motive to increase the EU's antidumping activities against China.

  14. Economic disparities between EU states and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CIUREA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has 27 Member States representing a community and a market of 493million citizens, which creates further economic and social disparities between thestates and their 271 regions. In a region in four, the GDP (gross domestic product percapita is 75% below the average for the EU-27. Based on the concepts of solidarity andcohesion, regional policy of the European Union favors reducing structural disparitiesbetween EU regions, the balanced development of the community and promoting aneffective equality of opportunity between people. Over the past 50 years, Europeancooperation has helped build highways, sewage plants, bridges, laboratories forbiotechnology. She helped to revive urban areas and neglected activities, throughcountless projects in the poorest regions of the Union.. Two key values: solidarity andcohesion, underlying these projects and the regional policy of the European Union. Theeconomic, social and territorial cohesion will always be at the heart of Europe Strategy2020, a key mechanism for achieving the priorities for a smart growth, sustainable andinclusive in the Member States and regions.

  15. EU Think Tank Fora as Transaction Cost Reducers: A Study of Informal Interest Intermediation in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybel Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By examining the organisational structure of EU think tank fora (seminars, workshops and conferences, this article proposes that fora can play the role of transaction cost reducers in EU policymaking. I argue that certain aspects of EU policymaking, including i controlled processes of consultation, ii diminishing costs of management, and iii the risk of state capture, incentivise EU institutions to outsource part of the consultation activity to policy actors that can help EU institutions fulfil their informational and legitimacy needs. I argue that think tanks are able to play this role because they i reduce information asymmetries by connecting a wide variety of policy actors and ii act as intermediaries that mitigate opportunistic behaviour. The empirical assessment reveals that the dimensions characterising transactions are present in EU think tank fora. It shows that policy actors that do not usually participate in formal consultation processes frequently attend fora where they meet representatives of EU institutions, particularly Parliament and Commission representatives.

  16. Framing the EU as Common Project vs. Common Heritage: Effects on Attitudes Towards the EU Deepening and Widening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of framing the European Union (EU) as a common project vs. a common heritage on participants' attitude towards EU integration (Experiment 1) and EU enlargement (Experiment 2). An additional aim was exploring whether the different frames affected the strength of identification with the EU, and if the framing effect on attitudes was mediated by participants' identification with the EU and/or by their message evaluation (Experiment 3). Results showed that a common project-based frame was more effective than a common heritage-based frame in promoting positive attitude toward EU integration and enlargement, as well as participants' identification with the EU, which mediated the framing effect on both attitudes; the mediation of participants' message evaluation was not significant. The procedure of the last experiment was replicated on a British sample (Experiment 4), showing a similar pattern of results.

  17. Composition dependence of luminescence of Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses for LED applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C.F.; Chaussedent, S.; Liu, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses are good candidates for light emitting diode (LED) applications. But the optical performance of these glasses is sensitive to variations in chemical composition. In this paper we report our recent findings about the effect of addition of minor components....... The results show that the asymmetry factor and luminescence lifetimes of as-prepared materials are dependent on composition. White fluorescence is achieved in Eu/Tb co-doped glasses, which can be attributed to the simultaneous generation of red, green and blue wavelengths from Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions...... such as B2O3, Al2O3 and CaF2 on the luminescent properties of the above-mentioned glasses. We explore the role of Eu3+ ions as a structural probe of the glasses by determining the asymmetry factor, i.e., the ratio of the emission intensity of the 5D0→7F2 transition to that of the 5D0 →7F1 transition...

  18. Composition dependence of luminescence of Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses for LED applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C.F.; Chaussedent, S.; Liu, S.

    2013-01-01

    such as B2O3, Al2O3 and CaF2 on the luminescent properties of the above-mentioned glasses. We explore the role of Eu3+ ions as a structural probe of the glasses by determining the asymmetry factor, i.e., the ratio of the emission intensity of the 5D0→7F2 transition to that of the 5D0 →7F1 transition......The Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses are good candidates for light emitting diode (LED) applications. But the optical performance of these glasses is sensitive to variations in chemical composition. In this paper we report our recent findings about the effect of addition of minor components....... The results show that the asymmetry factor and luminescence lifetimes of as-prepared materials are dependent on composition. White fluorescence is achieved in Eu/Tb co-doped glasses, which can be attributed to the simultaneous generation of red, green and blue wavelengths from Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions...

  19. Europium gallium garnet (Eu3Ga5O12) and Eu3GaO6: Synthesis and material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kenji; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-10-01

    Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were synthesized from a mixture of cubic (c-) Eu2O3 and monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-Ga2O3) raw powders using the solid-state reaction method by calcination at Tc = 1200 °C. The structural and optical properties of the Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and Raman scattering measurements. Stoichiometric compounds such as cubic Eu3Ga5O12 (EGG) and orthorhombic Eu3GaO6 were synthesized using molar ratios of x = 0.375 and 0.75 [x≡Eu2O3/(Eu2O3 + Ga2O3)], respectively, together with the end-point binary compounds β-Ga2O3 (x = 0) and monoclinic (m-) Eu2O3 (x = 1.0). The structural change from "cubic" to "monoclinic" in Eu2O3 is due to the structural phase transition occurring at Tc ≥ 1050 °C. In principle, the perovskite-type EuGaO3 and monoclinic Eu4Ga2O9 can also be synthesized at x = 0.5 and 0.667, respectively; however, such stoichiometric compounds could not be synthesized in this study. The PL and PLE properties of EGG and Eu3GaO6 were studied in detail. The temperature dependence of the PL spectra was observed through measurements carried out between T = 20 and 300 K and explained using a newly developed model. Raman scattering measurements were also performed on the Eu-Ga-O ternary systems over the entire composition range from x = 0 (β-Ga2O3) to 1.0 (m-Eu2O3).

  20. Should the EU climate policy framework be reformed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ELLISON

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Though to-date the European Union (EU has played the most significant leadership role in international negotiations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, the emission-reducing performance of individual EU Member states has for many been less than stellar. Several EU15 Member states continue to raise rather than lower emissions. Analysing the most successful policy instruments, this paper argues EU policy efforts could benefit from three important innovations. The following strategies – the adoption of an EU-wide FIT (feed-in tariff, an EU-wide carbon tax and more flexibility in the trading of carbon credits – could significantly improve emission reductions, their relative cost-efficiency and spread burden-sharing more evenly across technologies and Member states. This raises important questions, both about the effectiveness of EU and Kyoto-style commitments, as well as the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS. The commitment strategy, and in particular the EU ETS mechanism, have had the smallest impact on emission reductions. The proposed set of strategies could make a far greater contribution to future EU efforts and potentially lock in the impressive progress already made. Such a policy shift, if successful, would also greatly enhance the EU’s already significant credibility and bargaining power in international climate negotiations.

  1. Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. EU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, G.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, much controversy has surrounded the usage of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in commercial agriculture. More specifically, it is feared that GMOs may introduce new allergens into the food chain or contribute to antibiotic resistance. At the current time, the European Union (EU) adopts a zero tolerance policy toward non-approved GMO imports, whilst the approval process has not kept pace with the proliferation of new GMO varieties. In the EU livestock sectors, this apparent mis-match threatens to interrupt supplies of high protein feed inputs (e.g., soy meal) from countries with more relaxed regulations regarding GMOs. Employing a well known multi-region computable general equilibrium framework, this study quantitatively assesses the impact of a hypothetical EU import ban on unapproved GMO varieties of soybean and maize imports on livestock, meat and dairy sectors. The model code is heavily modified to improve the characterisation of the agricultural sectors and land usage, whilst a realistic baseline is employed to update the global database to 2008, the year the hypothetical ban is implemented. In the worst case scenario, there are significant competitive losses in EU livestock, meat and dairy sectors. In Spain, the negative impacts are particularly pronounced given the importance of pig production in agriculture. In contrast, all non-EU regions trade balances improve, with notable trade gains in the USA and Brazil. To conclude, the EU must urgently find a long term strategy for GMOs if it is to reconcile political expediency with pragmatic economic concerns. (Author) 21 refs.

  3. Critical behavior of the Heisenberg ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.; Kunnmann, W.;

    1971-01-01

    Neutron-scattering measurements have been made of the critical parameters of the simple Heisenberg ferromagnets EuO and EuS. Values of the critical exponents β and ν and the amplitudes of B and F describing, respectively, the reduced magnetization and the inverse correlation range (above Tc......) are in good accord with theory. The measured values of the exponent γ, describing the static susceptibility, support the recent prediction that γ≈1.40 in a simple nearest-neighbor Heisenberg ferromagnet. The scaling relation between β, ν, and γ is fulfilled...

  4. Coexistence phenomenon of Ce(3+)-Ce(4+) and Eu(2+)-Eu(3+) in Ce/Eu co-doped LiBaB9O15 phosphor: luminescence and energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Panlai; Wang, Zhijun; Xu, Shuchao; Bai, Qiongyu; Yang, Zhiping

    2017-02-01

    Ce/Eu-doped LiBaB9O15 (LBB) samples were prepared via conventional high temperature solid state reactions. The XRD patterns, crystal structures, luminescence properties, and decay times were investigated systematically. Ce(3+) ions exist in LBB:xCe(3+) that were synthesized in a reducing atmosphere and in an air atmosphere. However, we observed Eu(2+) ions in LBB:yEu(2+) in a reducing atmosphere and Eu(3+) ions in LBB:zEu(3+) in an air atmosphere. LBB:0.05Ce(3+),yEu(2+) phosphors synthesized in a reducing atmosphere only possess Ce(3+) and Eu(2+) and exhibit a broad excitation band ranging from 350 to 425 nm. A reduction phenomenon of Eu(3+) → Eu(2+) and coexistence of Ce(4+), Ce(3+), Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) were observed when LBB:0.05Ce,wEu phosphors were synthesized in an air atmosphere. There are three processes in LBB:0.05Ce,wEu, i.e., energy transfers from Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) and from Eu(2+) to Eu(3+), and metal-metal charge transfer (MMCT) between Ce(3+) and Eu(3+). Moreover, the MMCT process is dominant in LBB:0.05Ce,wEu due to less efficient energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Eu(2+). Moreover, the CIE coordinates of LBB:0.05Ce,wEu vary systematically from light blue (0.313, 0.129) to red (0.589, 0.315) for LBB:0.05Ce(3+),wEu synthesized in air with the changes in Eu ion concentration. Thus, we can control the color by controlling the synthesis atmospheres.

  5. Evidence of Eu2+ 4f electrons in the valence band spectra of EuTiO3 and EuZrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiazhnyi, T.; Valant, M.; Williams, J. R.; Bugnet, M.; Botton, G. A.; Ohashi, N.; Sakka, Y.

    2012-10-01

    We report on optical band gap and valence electronic structure of two Eu2+-based perovskites, EuTiO3 and EuZrO3 as revealed by diffuse optical scattering, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and valence-band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The data show good agreement with the first-principles studies in which the top of the valence band structure is formed by the narrow Eu 4f7 electron band. The O 2p band shows the features similar to those of the Ba(Sr)TiO3 perovskites except that it is shifted to higher binding energies. Appearance of the Eu2+ 4f7 band is a reason for narrowing of the optical band gap in the title compounds as compared to their Sr-based analogues.

  6. Thermally stimulated luminescence and photoluminescence investigations of Eu3+ and Eu2+ doped SrBPO5

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mithlesh Kumar; T K Seshagiri; S V Godbole

    2013-10-01

    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) investigations of SrBPO5:Eu3+ and SrBPO5:Eu2+ phosphors were carried out in the temperature range of 300–650 K. In order to characterize the phosphors, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) techniques were used. The emission spectrum of air heated SrBPO5:Eu3+ phosphor exhibited emission bands at 590, 614, 651 and 702 nm under 248 nm excitation, assigned to transitions of Eu3+ ion. In phosphor prepared in reducing (Ar + 8% H2) atmosphere, a broad emission band due to Eu2+ ranging from 350 to 400 nm was observed with 340 nm excitation. EPR studies have confirmed the presence of Eu2+ ions in the samples prepared in reducing atmosphere. TSL glow curve of SrBPO5:Eu3+ had shown intense peaks around 397, 510, 547 K and a weak peak around 440 K whereas in case of SrBPO5:Eu2+ system, glow peaks at 414, 478 and weak peak at 516 nm were observed. The shift in TSL glow pattern can be attributed to stabilization of different oxidation states of the dopant ion in the host lattice. Apart from this, TSL trap parameters such as trap depth and frequency factor were determined. Spectral characteristics of TSL emission have shown that Eu3+/Eu2+ ion acts as the luminescent centre in the respective phosphors.

  7. Controlled synthesis of Eu2+ and Eu3+ doped ZnS quantum dots and their photovoltaic and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoz, Sabit; Yakami, Baichhabi; Poudyal, Uma; Pikal, Jon M.; Wang, Wenyong; Tang, Jinke

    2016-04-01

    Eu-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by wet-chemical method and found to form in zinc blende (cubic) structure. Both Eu2+ and Eu3+ doped ZnS can be controllably synthesized. The Eu2+ doped ZnS QDs show broad photoluminescence emission peak around 512 nm, which is from the Eu2+ intra-ion transition of 4f6d1 - 4f7, while the Eu3+ doped samples exhibit narrow emission lines characteristic of transitions between the 4f levels. The investigation of the magnetic properties shows that the Eu3+ doped samples exhibit signs of ferromagnetism, on the other hand, Eu2+ doped samples are paramagnetic of Curie-Weiss type. The incident photon to electron conversion efficiency is increased with the Eu doping, which suggests the QD solar cell efficiency can be enhanced by Eu doping due to widened absorption windows. This is an attractive approach to utilize benign and environmentally friendly wide band gap ZnS QDs in solar cell technology.

  8. Ecosystem classification for EU habitat distribution assessment in sandy coastal environments: an application in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Maria Laura; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela; Pirone, Gianfranco; Ciaschetti, Giampiero

    2008-05-01

    Many recent developments in coastal science have gone against the demands of European Union legislation. Coastal dune systems which cover small areas of the earth can host a high level of biodiversity. However, human pressure on coastal zones around the world has increased dramatically in the last 50 years. In addition to direct habitat loss, the rapid extinction of many species that are unique to these systems can be attributed to landscape deterioration through the lack of appropriate management. In this paper, we propose to use of an ecosystem classification technique that integrates potential natural vegetation distribution as a reference framework for coastal dune EU Habitats (92/43) distribution analysis and assessment. As an example, the present study analyses the EU Habitats distribution within a hierarchical ecosystem classification of the coastal dune systems of central Italy. In total, 24 land elements belonging to 8 land units, 5 land facets, 2 land systems and 2 land regions were identified for the coastal dunes of central Italy, based on diagnostic land attributes. In central Italy, coastal dune environments including all the beach area, mobile dunes and all the fixed-dune land elements contain or could potentially hold at least one EU habitat of interest. Almost all dune slack transitions present the potentiality for the spontaneous development of EU woodlands of interest. The precise information concerning these ecosystems distribution and ecological relationships that this method produces, makes it very effective in Natura 2000 European network assessment. This hierarchical ecosystem classification method facilitates the identification of areas to be surveyed and eventually bound, under the implementation of EU Habitat directive (92/43) including areas with highly disturbed coastal dune ecosystems.

  9. EU TYPE OF AUSTERITY: BRIEF ANALYSIS AND CRITICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA BALTATESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it has become a common place to blame austerity policies for lengthening the economic downturn of EU economies, the figures reveal that public spending increased in most of the EU countries between 2007 and 2013. Although budget deficits from EU countries were indeed reduced in the last 4 years, the cutbacks were more the result of increasing government revenues and hiking taxes than of decreasing public expenditures. The article will feature: (1 a brief analysis of the evolution of public spending compared to government revenues in EU countries and also, (2 a concise literature review on austerity, highlighting some of the most important theoretical controversies on this topic. The main thesis defended in the article is that – although EU type of austerity, narrowly focusing on fiscal consolidation, drove indeed to unfavorable economic consequences – the criticism formulated by pro stimulus economists is rather flimsy, given the fact that public expenditures actually increased in most of the EU countries.

  10. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead......This chapter sets out what role the European Union (EU) could and should play in changing world politics, with an emphasis on the concept of 'normative power'. To do this, the chapter addresses five interrelated questions regarding the normative power and external politics of the EU in any new...... to a more just global order?...

  11. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interests and global climate negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    ? We suggest that the EU has a rational economic interest in forcing the technological development of renewable energy sources to get a first-mover advantage, which will only pay if a sufficient number of countries implement sufficiently stringent GHG reductions. The Kyoto Protocol, which imposes...... binding reductions on 38 OECD countries, implies that, as a first-mover, the EU will be to sell the necessary new renewable technologies, most prominently wind mills, to other countries, when they ratify and implement the Kyoto target levels. In the latest EU proposal made in Johannesburg, the EU pushed...... for setting a target of 15% of all energy to come from sources such as windmills, solar panels and waves by 2015. Such a target would further the EU's interests globally, and could explain, in economic terms, why the EU eagerly promotes GHG trade at a global level whereas the US has left the Kyoto agreement...

  12. Study on Fluorescence Properties of Eu(Ⅲ) Cryptates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋云; 刘青山; 郑和根

    2003-01-01

    The mononuclear cryptate [Eu(H3LF)(NO3)(H2O)](NO3)2 and the heterodinuclear cryptate [EuZnLF(DMF)](ClO4)2 were synthesized and characterized. The triplet-state energy of the cryptand (H3LF) was studied by phosphorescence spectrum. The fluorescent properties of Eu(Ⅲ) cryptates in MeOH solution show that the cryptand (H3LF) can sensitize the Eu(Ⅲ) ion to luminescence and the introduction of the Zn(Ⅱ) ion into the mononuclear Eu(Ⅲ) cryptate resulted in blue-shift of three ligand-centered bands, increase of molar absorption coefficient and increase of the luminescence intensity of Eu(Ⅲ).

  13. Sino-EU Relations in 2009 Will Be Warmer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 2009, the Czech Republic officially took over the six-month EU presidency from France. Following Slovenia, the Czech Republic is the second new EU member to hold the EU presidency. The Czech Republic is currently faced with the challenge of coping with the global financial crisis and promoting EU political reform, as well as handling its own internal issues. On January 15, H.E. Mr. Vitezslav GREPL,the ambassador of the Czech Republic in China, held a press conference to address the Sino-EU relationship in 2009. H.E.Mr. Serge Abou, the EU ambassador to China and H.E. Mr. Mikael Lindstrom,the ambassador of Sweden to China also attended this conference.

  14. Large magnetocaloric effect in sintered ferromagnetic EuS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Li, Liang; Hirai, Shinji; Nakamura, Eiji; Murayama, Daiki; Ura, Yutaro; Abe, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    We present magnetocaloric effect measurements of the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuS in the vicinity of its ordering temperature. Single phase EuS powder was synthesized by CS2 gas sulfurization of Eu2O3. A sintered compact with relative density over 95% was prepared by pulsed electric current sintering of the powder. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of the magnetization and specific heat were characteristic of a paramagnetic to ferromagnetic second order phase transition. The entropy change induced by an external magnetic field and the specific heat were both close to those of a single crystal. We obtained an entropy-temperature (S-T) diagram of the EuS sintered compact. Carnot cycle liquefaction of hydrogen using EuS was compared with several other materials, with results indicating that sintered EuS is an excellent magnetic refrigerant for hydrogen liquefaction.

  15. An Update on the Consequences of EU Sugar Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso Moyo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since its formation the European Union (EU has employed a rather complicated policy to ensure high prices to domestic sugar growers and trade preferences to certain sugar exporting countries, e.g. the African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP group. One result of this policy is that the EU has been both the second largest importer and second largest exporter in the world market. Under pressure from the World Trade Organization (WTO, the EU agreed to reform its policies toward sugar in 2001, with the full effect of the reforms being fully implemented in 2006. In this paper, the impact of the sugar reform on EU production, consumption, imports, and exports is examined especially with regard to how it all affects the ACP countries who receive preferential treatment regarding access to EU sugar markets. Preliminary analysis indicates that lowering domestic EU prices, while quotas requirements for ACP countries remain intact might have negative revenue implications for poor sugar producers.

  16. Aryl Bridged 1-Hydroxypyridin-2-one: Effect of the Bridge on the Eu(III) Sensitization Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aleo, Anthony; Moore, Evan G.; Szigethy, Geza; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-06-17

    The efficiency of Eu3+ luminescence by energy transfer from an antenna ligand can be strongly dependent on the metal ion coordination geometry. The geometric component of the Eu(III) sensitization has been probed using series of tetradentate 1,2-HOPO derivatives that are connected by bridges of varying length and geometry. The ligands are N,N'-(1,2-phenylene)bis(1-hydroxy-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carboxamide) for the ligand (L{sup 1}), 1-hydroxy-N-(2-(1-hydroxy-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carboxamido)benzyl)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carboxamide (L{sup 2}) and N,N'-(1,2-phenylenebis(methylene))bis(1-hydroxy-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carboxamide) (L{sup 3}). Spectroscopic characterization of both the Gd(III) and Eu(III) metal complexes, TD-DFT analysis of model compounds and evaluation of the kinetic parameters for the europium emission were completed. Some striking differences were observed in the luminescence quantum yield by altering the bridging unit. The [Eu(L{sup 2}){sub 2}]{sup -} derivative shows efficient sensitization coupled with good metal centered emission. For [Eu(L{sup 3}){sub 2}]{sup -}, the large quenching of the luminescence quantum yield compared to [Eu(L{sup 2}){sub 2}]{sup -} is primarily a result of one inner sphere water molecule bound to the europium cation while for [Eu(L{sup 1}){sub 2}]{sup -}, the low luminescence quantum yield can be attributed to inefficient sensitization of the europium ion.

  17. Structure and physical properties of EuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} tungsten bronze polymorph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodiazhnyi, T., E-mail: kolodiazhnyi.taras@nims.go.jp; Sakurai, H.; Vasylkiv, O.; Borodianska, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Forbes, S.; Mozharivskyj, Y. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4M1 (Canada)

    2014-08-11

    A tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) polymorph of EuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} was prepared and analyzed. EuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} crystallizes in the centrosymmetric Pnam space group (with unit cell: a = 12.3693, b = 12.4254, and c = 7.7228 Å) isomorphous with orthorhombic β-SrTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}. In contrast to early reports, we see no evidence of deviation from paramagnetic Curie-Weiss behavior among the Eu{sup 2+} 4f{sup 7}spins in EuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} down to 2 K. Dielectric constant shows a broad peak at ca. 50 K with dielectric dispersion resembling diffuse phase transition. The relaxation time, however, follows a simple (non-freezing) thermally activated process with an activation energy of 92 meV and an attempt frequency of f{sub 0} = 5.79 × 10{sup 12 }Hz. A thermal conductivity of EuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} shows a low-temperature (T ≈ 30 K) “plateau” region reminiscent of a glass-like behaviour in Nb-based TTB compounds. This behaviour can be attributed to the loosely bound Eu{sup 2+} ions occupying large tricapped trigonal prismatic sites in the EuTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} structure.

  18. Between "Pragmatism" and "Constitutionalism": EU-Russian Dynamics and Differences During the Kosovo Status Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ker-Lindsay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence in 2008 has been widely regarded as a failure for international diplomacy in general, and for the European Union (EU in particular. The narrative that has emerged suggests that, rather than taking charge of the situation, the EU was instead a “victim” of external machinations led by Washington and Moscow. This article challenges this view. It argues that, during the status process, it became clear that in the case of Kosovo there was a tension between the constraints imposed by international law on acts of secession and the requirements for stability on the ground. While Russia insisted on the former, albeit for a range of reasons that went beyond upholding international law, the United States placed emphasis on the latter. For their part, the key members of the EU eventually decided that, after having tried to win Moscow over to their position, they too had to ensure regional security; even if this meant circumventing the United Nations and the Security Council and challenging long-standing legal norms and principles concerning the territorial integrity of states.

  19. MULTILATERALISM AND THE EMERGENCE OF ‘MINILATERALISM’ IN EU PEACE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Attinà

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the multilateral practice of peacekeeping and peace support operations has been growing as legitimate instrument to interrupt violence, strengthen security, and protect against gross human rights violations. Invented by the United Nations, peace operations have passed through a process of change that has given new features to multilateral security. Since the late 1980s, the number of UN-authorized peace operations has been growing. Also regional organisations have engaged themselves in an unprecedented number of peace support operations. Recently, the European Union has entered into the practice of peacekeeping, and put multilateralism at the centre of its presence in the world political system. This paper reviews political science knowledge on peace operations (especially, the legitimacy and efficacy issues, and examines the hypothesis of the appearance of minilateralism as the consequence of the engagement of regional organisations and actors, like the EU, in peace operations. The hypothesis is tested by comparing the data of the peace missions of three European organisations (EU, OSCE, and NATO with those of the United Nations. The paper conclusion is that the European states are developing a preference for selective engagement (i.e. minilateralism in peace operations, and the EU is capable of playing both as multilateral and minilateral security provider.

  20. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND EU ENERGY DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Smirnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the content, forms, methods, means energy diplomacy of Russia and the EU. The author focuses on the increasing role of energy diplomacy in the implementation of energy plans and the foreign policy interests of the Russian Federation and the EU. The article outlines structural variables, which create substantial preconditions for further strengthening of links between the two sides. Hence, it estimates potential for the increased Russia_EU cooperation in energy sphere as significant. 

  1. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND EU ENERGY DIPLOMACY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Smirnov

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the content, forms, methods, means energy diplomacy of Russia and the EU. The author focuses on the increasing role of energy diplomacy in the implementation of energy plans and the foreign policy interests of the Russian Federation and the EU. The article outlines structural variables, which create substantial preconditions for further strengthening of links between the two sides. Hence, it estimates potential for the increased Russia_EU cooperation in energy sphere as s...

  2. Luminescent nitridophosphates CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucher, Florian J; Marchuk, Alexey; Schmidt, Peter J; Wiechert, Detlef; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2015-04-20

    Nitridophosphates MP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) have been synthesized at elevated pressures and 1100-1300 °C starting from the corresponding azides and P3 N5 with EuCl2 as dopant. Addition of NH4 Cl as mineralizer allowed for the growth of single crystals. This led to the successful structure elucidation of a highly condensed nitridophosphate from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (P63 , no. 173), a=16.847(2), c=7.8592(16) Å, V=1931.7(6) Å(3) , Z=24, 2033 observed reflections, 176 refined parameters, wR2 =0.096). Upon excitation by UV light, luminescence due to parity-allowed 4f(6) ((7) F)5d(1) →4f(7) ((8) S7/2 ) transition was observed in the orange (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =575 nm), green (SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =529 nm), and blue regions of the visible spectrum (BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) and BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =450 and 460 nm, respectively). Thus, the emission wavelength decreases with increasing ionic radius of the alkaline-earth ions. The corresponding full width at half maximum values (2240-2460 cm(-1) ) are comparable to those of other known Eu(2+) -doped (oxo)nitrides emitting in the same region of the visible spectrum. Following recently described quaternary Ba3 P5 N10 Br:Eu(2+) , this investigation represents the first report on the luminescence of Eu(2+) -doped ternary nitridophosphates. Similarly to nitridosilicates and related oxonitrides, Eu(2+) -doped nitridophosphates may have the potential to be further developed into efficient light-emitting diode phosphors.

  3. Lattice instabilities in bulk EuTiO3

    OpenAIRE

    Bessas, D.; Rushchanskii, K. Z.; Hermann, R. P.; Kachlik, M.; Disch, S; Gourdon, O.; Bednarcik, J.; Maca, K.; Sergueev, I.; Kamba, S.; Ležaić, M.

    2013-01-01

    The phase purity and the lattice dynamics in bulk EuTiO3 were investigated both microscopically, using X-ray and neutron diffraction, 151-Eu-M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, and 151-Eu nuclear inelastic scattering, and macroscopically using calorimetry, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, and magnetometry. Furthermore, our investigations were corroborated by ab initio theoretical studies. The perovskite symmetry, Pm-3m, is unstable at the M- and R- points of the Brillouin zone. The lattice instabiliti...

  4. Convergence in the EU related to the Maastricht criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Magdaléna DRASTICHOVÁ

    2013-01-01

    Regarding the entry into the euro area, the convergence of the EU economies can be monitored in several dimensions. One of them is the convergence represented by the Maastricht criteria, which are the only official conditions of joining the euro area for the EU countries. The aim of this paper is to detect the development of convergence related to these criteria in the EU and to draw mutual relations between the convergence criteria and the impact of compliance with these criteria...

  5. Sanctions in EU competition law: principles and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Frese, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first decades of European integration, the enforcement of EU competition law was highly centralised. Virtually all enforcement actions under Articles 101 and 102 TFEU were initiated by the European Commission. Meanwhile, the enforcement of EU competition law has become less centralised, many would say even decentralised. In 2004, essentially in an effort to increase enforcement capacity in the wake of EU enlargement, the involvement of the competition authorities of the Member States h...

  6. Quantification of pesticides used in agriculture in the EU-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Susanne; Fantke, Peter; Theloke, Jochen; Friedrich, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    Pesticides have become relatively ubiquitous pollutants. They may affect non-targeted organisms and can be found as contaminants in agricultural soils, groundwater, rivers, lakes and in the food chain (Margni et al., 2002; Hamilton & Crossley, 2004; Arias-Estévez et al., 2008). As "it has been common knowledge that many pesticides cause harm to the environment and to human health" (Pretty & Waibel, 2005), it is essential to account for a quantitative assessment of impacts of current agricultural practice at the European scale. Therefore, inventory data sets of applications and related emissions of the most relevant active substances are necessary. A review of publicly available data sets evidenced that data on consumption of active substances and releases into the environment for EU member states are of low quality or lacking entirely. Either only few substances are covered (e.g. EPER, E-PRTR) or data are highly aggregated in terms of total amount of active substances. Sales or consumption data are differentiated by target organisms and crop types (Eurostat) or by chemical classes (FAOSTAT, OECD.StatExtracts). In Germany, sales data categorised into target organisms and chemical classes are available. To our knowledge, Denmark and the United Kingdom are the only European countries providing application rates for specific active substances and crops. As a basis for analysing the relation between source, environmental fate and sink of pesticides and for considering the importance of crop-specific properties on the fate of pesticides (Trapp and Kulhanek, 2006), crop-specific emission inventories for individual active substances are required. Thus, the aim of our work was to develop a crop-specific inventory for active substances currently used in agriculture in the EU-27. Based on Eurostat (2007), the five most important active substances applied to the crop categories of cereals, maize, oilseeds, potatoes, sugar-beets, grapes and vine, fruit trees and vegetables

  7. Quasiparticle band structure of antiferromagnetic Eu Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathi Jaya, S.; Nolting, W. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Lehrstuhl Festkoerpertheorie, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    1997-11-24

    The temperature-dependent electronic quasiparticle spectrum of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor Eu Te is derived by use of a combination of a many-body model procedure with a tight-binding-'linear muffin tin orbital' (TB - LMTO) band structure calculation. The central part is the d-f model for a single band electron ('test electron') being exchange coupled to the anti ferromagnetically ordered localized moments of the Eu ions. The single-electron Bloch energies of the d-f model are taken from a TB-LMTO calculation for paramagnetic Eu Te. The d-f model is evaluated by a recently proposed moment conserving Green function technique to get the temperature-dependent sublattice-quasiparticle band structure (S-QBS) and sublattice-quasiparticle density of states (S-QDOS) of the unoccupied 5 d-6 s energy bands. Unconventional correlation effects and the appearance of characteristic quasiparticles ('magnetic polarons') are worked out in detail. The temperature dependence of the S-QDOS and S-QBS is mainly provoked by the spectral weights of the energy dispersions. Minority- and majority-spin spectra coincide for all temperatures but with different densities of states. Upon cooling from T{sub N} to T = 0 K the lower conduction band edge exhibits a small blue shift of -0.025 eV in accordance with the experiment. Quasiparticle damping manifesting itself in a temperature-dependent broadening of the spectral density peaks arises from spin exchange processes between (5 d-6 s) conduction band electrons and localized 4 f moments. (author)

  8. Quasiparticle bandstructure of antiferromagnetic EuTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathi Jaya, S.; Nolting, W.

    1997-11-01

    The temperature-dependent electronic quasiparticle spectrum of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor EuTe is derived by use of a combination of a many-body model procedure with a tight-binding - `linear muffin tin orbital' (TB - LMTO) band structure calculation. The central part is the d - f model for a single band electron (`test electron') being exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetically ordered localized moments of the Eu ions. The single-electron Bloch energies of the d - f model are taken from a TB - LMTO calculation for paramagnetic EuTe. The d - f model is evaluated by a recently proposed moment conserving Green function technique to get the temperature-dependent sublattice - quasiparticle bandstructure (S - QBS) and sublattice - quasiparticle density of states (S - QDOS) of the unoccupied 5d - 6s energy bands. Unconventional correlation effects and the appearance of characteristic quasiparticles (`magnetic polarons') are worked out in detail. The temperature dependence of the S - QDOS and S - QBS is mainly provoked by the spectral weights of the energy dispersions. Minority- and majority-spin spectra coincide for all temperatures but with different densities of states. Upon cooling from 0953-8984/9/47/012/img1 to T = 0 K the lower conduction band edge exhibits a small blue shift of -0.025 eV in accordance with the experiment. Quasiparticle damping manifesting itself in a temperature-dependent broadening of the spectral density peaks arises from spin exchange processes between (5d - 6s) conduction band electrons and localized 4f moments.

  9. The structure of the EU mediasphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Flaounas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed "data-driven inquiry" in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content

  10. The Structure of the EU Mediasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaounas, Ilias; Turchi, Marco; Ali, Omar; Fyson, Nick; De Bie, Tijl; Mosdell, Nick; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2010-01-01

    Background A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed “data-driven inquiry” in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. Conclusions/Significance While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content analysis. PMID

  11. Mobility of health professionals pre and post 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements: evidence from the EU project PROMeTHEUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognyanova, Diana; Maier, Claudia B; Wismar, Matthias; Girasek, Edmond; Busse, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    EU enlargement has facilitated the mobility of EU citizens, including health professionals, from the 2004 and 2007 EU accession states. Fears have been raised about a mass exodus of health professionals and the consequences for the operation of health systems. However, to date a systematic analysis of the EU enlargement's effects on the mobility of health professionals has been lacking. The aim of this article is to shed light on the changes in the scale of movement, trends and directions of flows pre and post 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements. The study follows a pan-European secondary data analysis to (i) quantitatively and (ii) qualitatively analyse mobility before and after the EU enlargement. (i) The secondary data analysis covers 34 countries (including all EU Member States). (ii) Data were triangulated with the findings of 17 country case studies to qualitatively assess the effects of enlargement on health workforce mobility. The stock of health professionals from the new (EU-12) into the old EU Member States (EU-15) have increased following EU accession. The stock of medical doctors from the EU-12 in the EU-15 countries has more than doubled between 2003 and 2007. The available data suggest the same trend for dentists. The extremely limited data for nurses show that the stock of nurses has, in contrast, only slightly increased. However, while no reliable data is available evidence suggests that the number of undocumented or self-employed migrant nurses in the home-care sector has significantly increased. Health professionals trained in the EU-12 are becoming increasingly important in providing sufficient health care in some destination countries and regions facing staff shortages. A mass exodus of health professionals has not taken place after the 2004 and 2007 EU enlargements. The estimated annual outflows from the EU-12 countries have rarely exceeded 3% of the domestic workforce. This is partly due to labour market restrictions in the destination countries

  12. EU Energy Policies Targeting the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL CALANTER

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Activities in the energy sector provide the greatest contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG, which are assigned primary responsibility for producing climate change. The European Union puts great emphasis on the mitigation of the environmental impact of the energy sector, in particular concerning the combat against climate change, this fact being demonstrated by the implementation of policies by the EU in this field. This paper aims to analyse the most important Community energy policies with environmental effects, such as setting of climate and energy targets for 2030, policies on nuclear and renewable energy or measures to increase energy efficiency.

  13. The New EU Public Procurement Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , transparency requirements, competitive dialogue, framework agreements, use of social and environmental criteria, Partnering and Public Private Partnerships and concessions. This book contains contributions based on presentations given by a number of the international and Danish speakers at the conference........ On 4-5 November 2004 the Copenhagen Business School organised a European research conference on the new directives. The conference focused on a number of topics which are of particular interest within the field of procurement law in EU these years, including ECJ case law, utilities, electronic auctions...

  14. Jurisdiction Over Cybertorts in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses EU jurisdiction rules for civil and commercial tort cases involving the use of the Internet (cybertorts). Since cybertorts have multiplied globally, determination of the appropriate forum in which to recover damages is of paramount importance. Brussels I Regulation (Recast......) contains rules on general jurisdiction, which have largely been unproblematic and rules on special jurisdiction, which have been subject to intense interpretation in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The CJEU case law on special jurisdiction in cybertorts is divided into two groups: cases...

  15. Migration from the new EU member countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller; Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    and working conditions in their home countries as well as being of another cultural background than their Danish colleagues brings with it many challenges. This article examines the consequences of low-skilled labour migration to Denmark from the new EU member countries in Eastern Europe. The article...... investigates the potentials, limitations and conflicts of interests that are connected with temporary employment of Eastern European migrant workers within the unskilled labour sectors seen from the perspective of Danish labour market actors; politicians, labour marked unions, Danish employers, Danish...

  16. Limiting emissions trading. The EU proposal on supplementarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerdman, E.

    2001-06-01

    The issue of supplementarity is one of the main reasons for the failure of the sixth Conference of Parties (CoP6). This research memorandum contains both theoretical and empirical analyses to answer the question why the European Union (EU) has proposed to elaborate supplementarity by limiting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms. Sixteen hypotheses have been formulated and tested by analyzing (a) the content of twelve EU documents, (b) the opinions of fifteen key EU civil servants (who prepare decision-making), including an official from the European Commission, and (c) the behaviour of the EU at CoP6. Firstly, the most surprising result of this study is that the EU environmental bureaucracy is internally divided on the supplementarity issue, because 40% of the approached key officials from different Member States declares - in a personal capacity - to disagree with the official EU proposal to restrict trade by means of a quantitative ceiling (as decided upon by the Ministers). Secondly, the EU documents principally mention hot air to explain the EU position on supplementarity, whereas Peter Vis reflecting the views of the European Commission sees compliance (with a view to strengthening the targets of a second commitment period) as the major reason to restrict emissions trading. Remarkably, the vast majority of the interviewed EU officials do not so much refer to hot air or compliance, but rather to equity as the primary motivation behind the EU proposal to prevent that industrialized countries 'buy their way out'. These and other differences found in the empirical analysis are not only signs of the absence of a coherently composed EU view on the social, economic and environmental effects of a trade restriction, but they are also indications of the presence of internal political divisions within the EU on the issue of emissions trading. This does not strengthen the bargaining position of the EU, although the EU Ministers will try to close their ranks (in

  17. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiryol Tolga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  18. Normative Power and the Future of EU Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Whitman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    to the future of EU public diplomacy (section VI). The chapter concludes, in line with Margot Wallström, that the fundamental shift of how power, influence, and decision-making has spread and become complex demands the reconsideration of normative power and EU public diplomacy....... diplomacy is ‘“going public’” (section III); and how EU public diplomacy needs to consider ‘“sharing minds’” (section IV); how the normative power of public diplomacy can ensure the EU is ‘“remaining distinctive’” in global politics (section V); and before concluding on the normative power approach...

  19. Doorkeepers and Gatecrashers: EU Enlargement and Negotiation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the eastward enlargement process of the EU in the framework of a simple war of attrition bargaining game. Both players -- the existing EU members and the applicants -- benefit from enlargement, yet for the applicants, reform to the acquis is costly, while the EU prefers...... substantially reformed candidates. A waiting game unfolds. Within this framework the present enlargement round is analysed and policy results are deduced. For example, it is shown that delegating the evaluation of applicants to a third party, compensating applicants for their reform efforts or increasing...... the benefits for new members are all effective negotiation strategies for the EU that have been applied in the process....

  20. Adsorption of Eu(III) onto roots of water hyacinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, C.; Mielke, R.E.; Dimaquibo, D.; Curtis, A.J. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dewitt, J.G. [San Francisco State Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has drawn attention as a plant capable of removing pollutants, including toxic metals, from water. The authors are interested in the capacity of the water hyacinth to remediate aquatic environments that have been contaminated with the lanthanide metal, europium Eu(III). Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) they have been able to determine that Eu(III) is adsorbed onto the surface of the roots from water and that the highest concentration of Eu(III) is on the root hairs. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniques were used to speciate the Eu(III) adsorbed onto the surface of the roots. The XAS data for Eu-contaminated water hyacinth roots provides evidence of a Eu-oxygen environment and establishes that Eu(III) is coordinated to 10--11 oxygen atoms at a distance of 2.44 {angstrom}. This likely involves binding of Eu(III) to the root via carboxylate groups and hydration of Eu(III) at the root surface.

  1. The Economics of EU Carbon Capture and Storage Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaassen, Ger; Brockett, Scott (European Commission (Belgium)); Mantzos, Leonidas; Papandreou, V.; Capros, Pantelis (National Techncal University of Athens, Athens (Greece))

    2008-07-01

    This paper assesses policy options to stimulate the use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the EU. It examines the impacts of enabling CCS under the EU emission trading scheme, making CCS mandatory and subsidies to accompany climate mitigation efforts of the EU. The analysis uses a partial equilibrium energy model and external data. The results suggest that enabling CCS as part of the EU CO{sub 2} trading scheme could save 60 billion - with small impacts on employment. The additional costs of making CCS mandatory or using subsidies are not warranted by the additional cost savings and benefits

  2. A europium-151 Mössbauer spectral study of Eu(14)MnP(11), Eu(14)MnAs(11), and Eu(14)MnSb(11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Raphaël P; Grandjean, Fernande; Kauzlarich, Susan M; Jiang, Jiong; Brown, Shawna; Long, Gary J

    2004-11-01

    The europium-151 Mossbauer spectra of the Eu(14)MnP(11), Eu(14)MnAs(11), and Eu(14)MnSb(11) Zintl compounds, measured between 4.2 and 100 K, reveal europium(II) for all four crystallographically inequivalent europium sites in Eu(14)MnAs(11) and Eu(14)MnSb(11) and europium(II) and europium(III) for the three 32g and the 16f europium sites in Eu(14)MnP(11), respectively. Below the ordering temperatures of 52, 74, and 92 K, only very small hyperfine fields of 2-4 T are observed at the europium sites as a result of the polarization by the manganese magnetic moments. At 4.2 K, the europium(II) magnetic moments are ordered, and hyperfine fields of 24.4, 24.8, and 19.3 T are observed in Eu(14)MnP(11), Eu(14)MnAs(11), and Eu(14)MnSb(11), respectively, fields that are typical for magnetically ordered europium(II) ions. At 4.2 K the 16f europium(III) sites in Eu(14)MnP(11) experience a transferred hyperfine field of 33 T from the neighboring ordered europium(II) moments. Between its Curie temperature and 4.2 K, the europium-151 Mossbauer spectra of Eu(14)MnSb(11) reveal that the europium(II) moments order below ca. 13 K, i.e., below the second magnetic transition observed in magnetic measurements. Between their Curie temperatures and 4.2 K, the europium-151 Mossbauer spectra of Eu(14)MnP(11) and Eu(14)MnAs(11) are complex and have been analyzed with two models, models that give equivalently good fits. However, the second model in which the spectra are fit with a three-dimensional relaxation of the europium(II) and europium(III) hyperfine fields is preferred for its physical meaning and its reduced number of fitted parameters.

  3. Dependence of photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity on Eu3+ and ZnO concentrations in Y2O3:Eu3+ and ZnO·Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Y2O3:Eu3+ and ZnO·Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphor powders with different concentrations of Eu3+ ions were synthesized by a sol–gel method and their luminescence properties were investigated. The red photoluminescence (PL) from Eu3+ ions with the main...

  4. The JRC-EU-TIMES model. Bioenergy potentials for EU and neighbouring countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Pablo; Sgobbi, Alessandra; Nijs, Wouter; Thiel, Christian; Longa, Dalla Francesco; Kober, Tom; Elbersen, Berien; Hengeveld, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The JRC-EU-TIMES is a partial equilibrium energy system model maintained by the Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) to analyse the role of energy technologies development and their potential contribution to decarbonisation pathways of the energy system. The te

  5. Ex-ante evaluation of EU ETS during 2013-2030 : EU-internal abatement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Jing; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Lam, Long; Gilbert, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates CO2 emission reduction within the EU resulting from the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) up to 2030. This is performed by constructing a baseline scenario without the ETS and assessing the impacts of the ETS, as currently designed. The results indicate that the ETS will start

  6. The Impact of EU Financial Crisis and the EU Member States Measures taken to Leave Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Moagăr-Poladian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focussed on the financial packages and fiscal stimuli measures taken by EU as a group and by each EU country for supporting hard-hit sectors like automotive industry, tourism and construction. The economic crisis from 2008-2009 has led to a sharp decrease of investment climate and a massive contraction of economic activity. This means a sharp decrease of capacity utilisation that had led in time to an excessive unemployment especially in the most hit sectors. The financial rescue measures of EU are comprised in European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP. Measures approved are different from country to country, depending by the political support and the strategy chosen by the government. The EU's response to support the real economy during the economic crisis has been taken very fast and well-organized in certain countries and industries. By contrary, some Member States' recovery measures has been approved late and the rescue strategy wasn’t enough achieved. This has led to a deepening of financial instability and unemployment.

  7. Neutron Scattering from the Heisenberg Ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O. W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Passell, L.

    1976-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate the spin dynamics of the isotropic Heisenberg ferromagnet EuO over a wide range of wave vectors and over a temperature range extending from 0.14 to 1.9TC. Below the ordering temperature spin-wave renormalization is found to agree well...

  8. 2006 EU-China Partenariat:A Flagship Activity of EU-China Trade Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.E.Mr.Serge; Abou

    2006-01-01

      2006 EU-China Partenariat is to be held in Chengdu city, Sichuan Province in November. It is the second one in China after 2002 EUChina Partenariat in Beijing. "It is featured as a flagship activity."H.E. Mr. Serge Abou gives his comments in his answers to the questions of China's Foreign Trade.……

  9. 2006 EU-China Partenariat:A Flagship Activity of EU-China Trade Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.E.Mr.Serge Abou

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 EU-China Partenariat is to be held in Chengdu city, Sichuan Province in November. It is the second one in China after 2002 EUChina Partenariat in Beijing. "It is featured as a flagship activity."H.E. Mr. Serge Abou gives his comments in his answers to the questions of China's Foreign Trade.

  10. The EU adventures of 'Herculex' : Report on the EU authorization of the genetically modified maize 1507

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.; Pisani, G.

    2014-01-01

    The EU authorization process of the insect-resistant maize 1507, branded by its developer company Pioneer-DuPont as ‘Herculex’, is perhaps the most interesting and emblematic example of the current regulatory crisis of GMO regulation in Europe.1 The case is particularly controversial, because it

  11. Effect of Eu{sup 2+} concentration on afterglow suppression in CsI:Tl, Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappers, L.A. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States)], E-mail: lawrence.kappers@uconn.edu; Bartram, R.H.; Hamilton, D.S. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Brecher, C.; Lempicki, A. [ALEM Associates, 303A Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Gaysinskiy, V.; Ovechkina, E.E.; Nagarkar, V.V. [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., 44 Hunt str., Watertown, MA 02472 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Combined radioluminescence and thermoluminescence experiments on the co-doped scintillator material CsI:Tl, Eu were extended in the present investigation to a sample with diminished europium concentration. Simulations based on postulated rate equations with empirically adjusted parameters are consistent with observed insensitivity of afterglow suppression to europium concentration for sufficiently short radiation times.

  12. Turkey and the European Union (EU): Kemalism’s Effects on the Road to the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    exploit its stretegic position as a “bridge between the West and the East, between Europe and the East” to gain full membership in the E.U. and...that a resurrection of purist Kemalist teaching is the best way to help Turkey exploit its stretegic position as a “bridge between the West and the

  13. Risk formulation for the sonic effects of offshore wind farms on fish in the EU region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke

    2010-02-01

    In 2007, European leaders agreed to source 20% of their energy needs from renewable energy; since that time, offshore wind farms have been receiving attention in the European Union (EU). In 2008, the European Community submitted a proposal to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in order to combat marine noise pollution. In consideration of these facts, the present paper aims to deduce a preliminary hypothesis and its formulation for the effect of offshore wind farm noise on fish. The following general picture is drawn: the short-term potential impact during pre-construction; the short-term intensive impact during construction; and the physiological and/or masking effects that may occur over a long period while the wind farm is in operation. The EU's proposal to UNEP includes noise databases that list the origins of man-made sounds; it is advisable that offshore wind farms should be listed in the noise databases in order to promote rational environment management.

  14. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-07-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, wc turn to the empirical evidence which suggests that a reasonable number of sources of C02 emissions in the power sector exists for bollers larger than 25MW. Overall, together with the contestable single market for electricity, the risk of significant strategis behaviour seems negligible. Thus, the electric utility sector seems a suitable testing ground for an EU-scheme of emissions trading. In the longer run, it will be important to broaden the scope of the trading scheme as the inclusion of other sectors will further limit the risk of market power. (au)

  15. Monetary Integration – Factor of Economic Cohesion and Solidarity among EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Adina Coman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of the EU is based on the convergence of the monetary policies of the Member States, and a genuine Single Market includesthe monetary union. The monetary integration represents a factor of the economic cohesion and of the solidarity among the Member States. In orderto have a united Europe, this is an advantage in the relationships with other states of the world. The major objectives of the monetary union are: aThe finalization of the Single Market through the elimination of uncertainty and of the inherent costs of the exchange system, but also of the costs forthe protection against the risks of the currency fluctuations, and through the insurance of the total comparability of costs and prices inside the EU.The Single Market will stimulate the intra-communitarian trade by helping the citizens and by supporting the business environment; b Economicgrowth; c Europe’s monetary stability and the increase of its financial power.

  16. Effects of Li+ co-doping on properties of Eu3+ activated TiO2 anatase nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Bojana; Đorđević, Vesna; Vuković, Katarina; Dražić, Goran; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.

    2017-10-01

    Sol-gel technique for the synthesis of anatase TiO2 at 420 °C produces nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size with Ti4+ in crystal volume and Ti3+ at terminal planes of the crystal. The study of Li+ co-doping effects on the structure, morphology, absorption, and luminescence of Eu3+ activated TiO2 anatase nanocrystals is presented. Pure anatase structure is achieved up to 9 at.% Li, with significant improvement in crystallinity of europium doped anatase TiO2. The Li+ co-doping reduces the unit cell volume of the crystal, induces the blue shift of the absorption edge, lengthens the lifetime of Eu3+5D0 excited state, and improves the Eu3+ emission intensity up to 37.5%. Judd-Ofelt analysis of Eu3+ emission showed enhancement of quantum efficiency from 66.4% to 98.7% when TiO2:Eu3+ was co-doped with 9 at.% of Li.

  17. Clinical trial designs to obtain marketing authorization of drugs for haematological malignancy in Japan, the EU and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Sumimasa; Ozawa, Keiya

    2016-07-01

    Differences in regulatory actions between Japan, the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) regarding the approval date and primary endpoints of pivotal trials have never been analysed comprehensively. This study aimed to examine such differences in haematological malignancy indications not only in applications for new molecular entity agents but also in supplemental applications for additional indications. A total of 101 haematological malignancy indications were examined for 58 drugs. Only 30 indications were approved by the regulatory agencies of all three regions with 25, 9 and 67 indications being first approved in Japan, the EU and the US, respectively. Regarding the 18 indications approved only in the US, 13 were approved based on results of single-arm trials. The approval of all nine indications approved first in the EU was based on results of comparative trials. The primary endpoints were different between the EU and the US in 4 of 49 indications approved by both regulatory agencies, all of which were approved earlier in the US than in the EU. This analysis shows that the US Food and Drug Administration has taken the most active attitude to acceptance of surrogate endpoints in single-arm trials. Therefore, not only shorter review time but also this attitude may lead to earlier approval in US. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Structure, magnetism, specific heat, and dielectric properties of Eu{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodiazhnyi, T., E-mail: kolodiazhnyi.taras@nims.go.jp; Sakurai, H.; Matsushita, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-11-17

    Polycrystalline Eu{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} containing layered perovskite slabs was prepared and analyzed. Eu{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallizes in the orthorhombic centrosymmetric Cmcm space group (with unit cell: a = 3.95156(9), b = 27.0775(6), and c = 5.68279(13) Å) isomorphous with high-temperature Sr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Dielectric measurements reveal that, in contrast to Sr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} which is ferroelectric below 166 K, Eu{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} remains paraelectric down to at least 0.45 K and shows no magneto-dielectric coupling. Magnetic data in the 2–400 K range indicate an antiferromagnetic phase transition with a sharp susceptibility peak at 2.71(5) K. Further analysis using specific heat measurements reveals that the second magnetic phase transition occurs at 1.10(5) K and dominates the spin entropy of the Eu{sup 2+} 4f{sup 7} ions. The possible origin of the two successive magnetic phase transitions in Eu{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} requires further studies.

  19. Dynamic visualisation of municipal waste management performance in the EU using Ternary Diagram method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomberger, R; Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2017-03-01

    This contribution describes the dynamic visualisation of European (EU 28) municipal waste management performance, using the Ternary Diagram Method. Municipal waste management performance depends primarily on three treatment categories: recycling & composting, incineration and landfilling. The framework of current municipal waste management including recycling targets, etc. is given by the Waste Framework Directive - 2008/98/EC. The proposed Circular Economy Package should stimulate Europe's transition towards more sustainable resources and energy oriented waste management. The Package also includes a revised legislative proposal on waste that sets ambitious recycling rates for municipal waste for 2025 (60%) and 2030 (65%). Additionally, the new calculation method for monitoring the attainment of the targets should be applied. In 2014, ca. 240 million tonnes of municipal waste were generated in the EU. While in 1995, 17% were recycled and composted, 14% incinerated and 64% landfilled, in 2014 ca. 71% were recovered but 28% landfilled only. Considering the treatment performance of the individual EU member states, the EU 28 can be divided into three groups, namely: "Recovery Countries", "Transition Countries" and "Landfilling Countries". Using Ternary Diagram Method, three types of visualization for the municipal waste management performance have been investigated and extensively described. Therefore, for better understanding of municipal waste management performance in the last 20years, dynamic visualisation of the Eurostat table-form data on all 28 member states of the EU has been carried out in three different ways: 1. "Performance Positioning" of waste management unit(s) at a specific date; 2. "Performance dynamics" over a certain time period and; 3. "Performance development" expressed as a track(s). Results obtained show that the Ternary Diagram Method is very well suited to be used for better understanding of past developments and coherences, for monitoring of

  20. Effects of migration flows on the host country labour market following the 2004 EU enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peković Drinka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of migration flows on unemployment, employment probabilities and native wages. The analysis contains the evaluation of migration effects of labour from Central and Eastern European countries which became European Union member states in 2004, on old member's labour market. Particular emphasis was placed on evidence of the migration flows impact from the new EU member states on the labour market performances in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the countries which did not restrict the access of new member immigrants to their labour markets. The analysis was realized for the period of 2004 to 2008 when the migration inflow was the largest. The empirical literature suggests that the migration effects on unemployment and employment probabilities of natives are very small. The young and low skilled native workers are more affected by migration flows than other groups of workers. Also, most empirical studies show small negative wage effects of immigration. Although the results of public researches and econometric studies have shown the modest potential labour migration flows from new member states and the small potential effects on EU-15 labour market, twelve out of fifteen old member states decided to apply transitional arrangements. The evidence presented in the report of the European Commission pointed out positive EU labour market impact of modest inflow of immigrants from new member states. Sectoral and skill composition of immigrants from new member states suggests their complementary role on EU labour market. The majority of immigrants from new member states are men, aged between 18 and 34, mediumlevel of education. Most immigrants have been employed in service sector, manufacturing and construction. The high employment rate of immigrants from new member states (78% and low unemployment rate (6% in the post-enlargement period have confirmed positive migration impact on EU labour market performances. The unemployment

  1. Eu-concentration dependence of optical and scintillation properties for Eu-doped SrF{sub 2} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yokota, Yuui [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Aoba 6-6-10, Aramaki, 980-8579 Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Aoba 6-6-10, Aramaki, 980-8579 Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Some Eu-doped scintillators, such as Eu:SrI{sub 2}, emit around 400-nm wavelength that originates from 5d-4f transition of Eu{sup 2+}, while some Eu-doped crystals have emissions from Eu{sup 3+} (f-f emission). In this report, effect of Eu-doping on optical and scintillation properties of SrF{sub 2} crystals with Core-valence luminescence is discussed. The samples had 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mol% of Eu and were grown by an annealing method. As a result, {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub i} (i =1, 2) transition (Eu{sup 3+}) was detected in the SrF{sub 2}, containing over 0.5 mol% of Eu, while emission from 0.1 and 0.2-mol% Eu:SrF{sub 2} originated from 5d-4f transition of Eu{sup 2+} and Core-valence luminescence. The light output of SrF{sub 2} doped with 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol% Eu was estimated to be 13,000 {+-} 1,000, 12,000 {+-} 1,000, 13,000 {+-} 2,000, 8,000 {+-} 1,000 and 7,000 {+-} 1,000 photons/MeV, respectively. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Quantifying the influence of tobacco industry on EU governance: automated content analysis of the EU Tobacco Products Directive.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, H.(Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRFU, Saclay, France); Gilmore, AB; Peeters, S; McKee, M; Stuckler, D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The tobacco industry spends large sums lobbying the European Union (EU) institutions, yet whether such lobbying significantly affects tobacco policy is not well understood. We used novel quantitative text mining techniques to evaluate the impact of industry pressure on the contested EU Tobacco Products Directive revision. DESIGN: Policy positions of 18 stakeholders including the tobacco industry, health NGOs and tobacco retailers were evaluated using their text submissions to EU co...

  3. Technology Transfer in the EU: Exporting Strategically Important ICT Solutions to Other EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Säär Anni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of ICTs pose new challenges to the European Union and its Member States. Every EU country has its own policies regarding technology transfer, ownership of state e-services, and the possibilities how the state-owned or licensed e-service could be exported. Taking into account the free movement of goods, the EU has created a platform to cooperate and export IT solutions. However, the lack of preparedness of infrastructures, legislation and stakeholders for cross-border exchanges poses a threat to IT transfer and should be taken into consideration in the EU as well. In the coming decades the number of outsourced ICT solutions, strategically important ICT solutions, public services and critically important information exchange platforms developed on behalf of the states, will grow exponentially. Still, digital development is uneven across the EU, they grow at different speeds and the performance is quite splintered. There are legal provisions which are outdated and therefore impede technological cooperation and export of IT solutions. A Member State may restrict the ICT licensing based on national security and policy reasons and the ownership of intellectual property might pose a threat to technology transfer or further development of the IT solution. There are examples of strategically important export of ICT solutions, the experience at which can be expanded to cover other EU Member States. Strong collaboration would enable mutual learning from past experiences along with the opportunities for better use of technology. Parallels can be drawn with military technology transfers, as the policies and legal framework was first developed and mostly used with them.

  4. Luminescence properties of dual valence Eu doped nano-crystalline BaF2 embedded glass-ceramics and observation of Eu2+ → Eu3+ energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Sontakke, Atul D; Sen, R; Annapurna, K

    2012-03-01

    Europium doped glass-ceramics containing BaF(2) nano-crystals have been prepared by using the controlled crystallization of melt-quenched glasses. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy have confirmed the presence of cubic BaF(2) nano-crystalline phase in glass matrix in the ceramized samples. Incorporation of rare earth ions into the formed crystalline phase having low phonon energy of 346 cm(-1) has been demonstrated from the emission spectra of Eu(3+) ions showing the transitions from upper excitation states (5)D(J) (J = 1, 2, and 3) to ground states for the glass-ceramics samples. The presence of divalent europium ions in glass and glass-ceramics samples is confirmed from the dominant blue emission corresponding to its 5d-4f transition under an excitation of 300 nm. Increase in the reduction of trivalent europium (Eu(3+)) ions to divalent (Eu(2+)) with the extent of ceramization is explained by charge compensation model based on substitution defect mechanisms. Further, the phenomenon of energy transfer from Eu(2+) to Eu(3+) ion by radiative trapping or re-absorption is evidenced which increases with the degree of ceramization. For the first time, the reduction of Eu(3+) to Eu(2+) under normal air atmospheric condition has been observed in a BaF(2) containing oxyfluoride glass-ceramics system.

  5. Eu2+/Eu3+-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics with LaF3 for white LED color conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Bae, Suk-Rok; Choi, Yong Gyu; Chung, Woon Jin

    2015-03-01

    SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-LaF3 glasses doped with Eu2+ and Eu3+ were synthesized to realize an inorganic color converter for white LED using 400 nm UV LED. Among various rare earth ions, Eu2+ and Eu3+ showed prominent emission under 400 nm LED excitation. Carbon and EuF3 content were varied to control the ratio of Eu2+ and Eu3+ during the melting process. When the ratio of Eu2+ and Eu3+ within the glass matrix was properly controlled, color coordinates of the photoluminescence spectra could be adjusted to make white colors under 400 nm LED excitation. The emission intensity was increased with subsequent heat treatment which led to the formation of LaF3 nano-crystals. However, almost no conversion was observed when the glasses were actually mounted on UV-LED to make a white LED. Heavy crystallization of the oxyfluoride glasses was thus investigated to improve its scattering of the light source and color conversion efficiency, and its practical feasibility as an inorganic UV-LED color converter was demonstrated.

  6. CsEuBr3: Crystal structure and its role in the photostimulation of CsBr :Eu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S.; Zimmermann, J.; von Seggern, H.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.

    2006-10-01

    CsBr :Eu2+ has recently been investigated as a photostimulable x-ray storage phosphor with great potential for application in high-resolution image plates. In a recent paper Hackenschmied et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 93, 5109 (2003)] suggested that segregations of CsEuBr3 or Cs4EuBr6 formed within CsBr :Eu2+ during annealing are responsible for an increase in the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) yield. In this work single crystals of CsEuBr3 were prepared by a one step synthesis and identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as single phase perovskites. It was concluded that, after preparation, CsEuBr3 degrades in normal atmosphere into at least two phases, one of which is the orthorhombic structure of Cs2EuBr5•10H2O. The XRD powder diffraction pattern of this compound is very similar to that of the segregations observed within CsBr :Eu2+ and reported by Hackenschmied et al. However, the increased PSL yield in CsBr :Eu2+ after annealing cannot be due to the segregations, because the trivalent nature of the europium in the segregations renders them PSL inactive.

  7. New opportunities for EU projects at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    In July 2009 the European Commission (EC) finalised how it will spend research funding for 2010, within its Framework Programme 7 (FP7). On 31 July the EC is expected to publish new calls for European project proposals, many of which are relevant to CERN. In the first two and a half years of Framework Programme 7 (2007-2013), CERN has been very successful – the Organization is participating in around 30 EU projects, with total EC contribution of nearly 35 million Euros. The now finalised 2010 Work Programmes for FP7 outline how the EC will allocate budgets within each research field. From these Work Programmes, a series of calls for proposals are published so researchers can apply for targeted funding within given deadlines. The first calls are expected to be launched on 31 July and closed later in the year. The web-site of the CERN EU Projects Office contains a list of all new calls of potential interest to CERN, as well as the relevant Work Programmes and Guide for A...

  8. REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londo, M.; Deurwarder, E.; Lensink, S. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits, outlines the technological, legislative and other developments that should take place, and evaluate different policy strategies for realisation. Some preliminary conclusions of the project are discussed here. There is a significant domestic land potential for energy crops in the EU, which could supply between one quarter and one third of gasoline and diesel demand by 2030 if converted into advanced biofuels. A biomass supply of 8 to 10 EJ of primary energy could be available at costs around or below 3 EURO/GJ. However, the introduction of advanced biofuel options may meet a considerable introductory cost barrier, which will not be overcome when EU policy is oriented to the introduction of biofuels at least cost. Therefore, conventional biodiesel and ethanol may dominate the market for decades to come, unless biofuels incentives are differentiated, e.g. on the basis of the differences in greenhouse gas performance among biofuels.The introduction of advanced biofuels may also be enhanced by creating stepping stones or searching introduction synergies. A stepping stone can be the short-term development of lignocellulosic biomass supply chains for power generation by co-firing; synergies can be found between advanced FT-diesel production and hydrogen production for the fuel cell. (au)

  9. PUBLIC DEBT IN THE EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARALAMBIE GEORGE ALIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article made a detailed study on the debt situation of the countries from EU and Romania default. The economic crisis which began in 2007, with major repercussions in social life, led to the inability of governments to implement their goals before the snap. Countries in Europe there were also deadlocked facing substantial budget deficits and public debt increased by default. To cover them, in a first phase, governments have opted for borrowing on domestic and foreign capital, at the expense of adopting austerity measures that aim to reduce spending and increase tax revenues in order to increase the budget purchased, which had aroused discontent among their countries citizens. Populist measures taken had the effect of economies entering a downward spiral, which eventually led to their inability to meet its obligations arising from loans, which resulted in drastic reduction in spending and increase tax burden. In this context, particulary volatile, budgets of EU countries were built by adopting austerity measures which aimed at reducing budgetary allocations. The sovereign debt crisis has led to rethinking strategies to reduce fiscal deficits and reduce arrears.

  10. Financial and trade integration in the EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kučerová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the creation and enlargement of the Eurozone, the importance of monetary integration is increasing and is the subject of a number of theoretical and empirical studies. The adoption of a common currency has to be accompanied by financial market integration. The aim of the paper is to assess the relationship between financial and trade integration in the EU member countries (divided into three subsamples: EU27, EU10, and EU17 over the period 1993–2012 (and two subperiods 1993–2007 and 2008–2012. We use quantity-based measures of financial integration derived from the countries’ international investment positions with a view to the foreign trade and the method of correlation analysis (including the moving correlation method. We conclude that the progress in financial integration was smaller in the EU10 countries compared to the EU16 countries, i.e. the pace of financial integration was higher in the EU16 countries than in the EU10 countries. The process of trade integration in all EU countries was not as fast as the process of financial integration. We also conclude that there is a linear association between financial and trade integration in the pre-crisis period (1993–2007, especially in the EU10 countries (compared to the EU16 countries. However, this relationship was seriously weakened by the financial crisis. Financial and trade integration are interconnected processes and should not be assessed separately. However, world trade (and thus financial integration can be undermined by limiting trade finance as a result of tightening financial regulation and supervision after a decade of loose regulation and supervision (e.g. by the implementation of the Basel III capital framework.

  11. The vigilance of individuals : how, when and why the EU legislates to facilitate the private enforcement of EU law before national courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilman, Folkert Geert

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis is concerned with EU legislation facilitating the private enforcement of EU law, i.e. the enforcement of that law by private parties in legal proceedings before the courts of the Member States. The relevant EU-level legislative developments in four fields of EU law are assessed in

  12. Approval of antineoplastic agents in India: comparison with the US and EU regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaven C. Kataria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antineoplastic drugs are prescribed for the treatment of cancer, which is an important cause of mortality in India; therefore, a drug lag in the availability of antineoplastic drugs is a direct threat to life. The present study was undertaken to assess the drug lag for new antineoplastic agents in India compared with that in the United States (US or European Union (EU. Methods: The new antineoplastic agents approved in the United States, European Union and India between 1999 and 2011 were identified and information was gathered primarily from the websites of regulatory agencies of the three regions. We assessed absolute and relative drug lag for new antineoplastic agents approved in the three regions. Results: Of the 70 new antineoplastic agents, 64 (91.42% were approved in the United States, 54 (77.14% in the European Union and 44 (62.85% in India. The US was the first to approve 59 (84.28% out of the 70 new antineoplastic agents, the EU was the first to approve 9 (12.85% and India was the first to approve 2 (2.85%. The median approval lag for India (26.35 months was higher as compared to the United States (0 month and European Union (7.3 months. Conclusions: This study confirms that India's drug lag in the case of new antineoplastic agents is higher as compared to the US and EU. Further detailed analyses are necessary to find the reasons and impacts of drug lag for antineoplastic agents in India. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 13-21

  13. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  14. Venue Shifts and Policy Change in EU Fisheries Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, S.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades profound changes have taken place in the European Union's (EU) fisheries policy. Partly these changes have occurred within the EU's Common Fisheries Policy itself, but partly policy change has been effected by the application of environmental legislation and policy instrume

  15. Enforcement of the EU ETS in the member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan; Fleurke, Floor

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness and reliability of the EU ETS depends for a substantial part on the level of compliance in each of the 31 participating states. A lack of compliance in even one or just a few participating countries may harm the functioning of the ETS in the entire EU. So far, attention for

  16. Study on serious road traffic injuries in the EU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. Commandeur, J.J.F. Welsh, R. Niesen, S. Lerner, M. Thomas, P. Bos, N. & Davidse, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    It is the ambition of the EU to reduce the number of killed and seriously injured on the roads over time. It has turned out that, especially in relation to serious injuries, there is still a significant knowledge gap on how to reduce these numbers in the EU. The Commission is therefore committed to

  17. EU nurse figures in decline long before Brexit vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckew, Matthew

    2017-03-08

    The falling number of European Union (EU) nurses applying to work in the UK has been widely blamed on Brexit. But figures obtained by Nursing Standard reveal interest from EU nurses was waning months before the June 2016 referendum, a trend experts say could be due to tougher language requirements introduced by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC).

  18. Implementation of integrated homecare in EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

      Implementation of Integrated Home Care in EU Objective WHO put the fragmented delivery of health and social services for large groups of chronic conditions on the research agenda in 2002 as implemented in the call EU-FP7-HEALTH-2007-3.1.6. This granted project ( http://www.integratedhomecare.eu......  Implementation of Integrated Home Care in EU Objective WHO put the fragmented delivery of health and social services for large groups of chronic conditions on the research agenda in 2002 as implemented in the call EU-FP7-HEALTH-2007-3.1.6. This granted project ( http......://www.integratedhomecare.eu/ ) aims to develop a strategy for better clinical continuity in EU. Data and Method A systematic literature review on integrated care forms the base for design of an HTA of integrated home care (IHC) for chronic conditions in such a state of disablement that patient schools are not enough. The EUnet......HTA Core Model for interventions focusing 9 domains is applied. Further, a SWOT-analysis of IHC determines a strategy for implementation of IHC in EU. Preliminary results 1. The efficacy of IHC for rehabilitation of frequent chronic conditions as stroke, COPD and heart failure (HF) has a common...

  19. Legal Obstacles to Comprehensive EU External Security Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Spernbauer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the unification of the EU legal order, the merger of external action objectives and the creation of hybrid coordination structures, the dichotomy between the CFSP and non-CFSP categories of EU external action has been maintained in the Lisbon Treaty. This article considers the legal implicat

  20. EU Law Autonomy Versus European Fundamental Rights Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    rights protection. It argues that the concerns for EU law autonomy expressed in the Opinion for the most part are unwarranted and that the Court, through the use of classic constitutionalist language, seeks to position EU law as the superior European fundamental rights regime. The article furthermore...

  1. Study on serious road traffic injuries in the EU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. Commandeur, J.J.F. Welsh, R. Niesen, S. Lerner, M. Thomas, P. Bos, N. & Davidse, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    It is the ambition of the EU to reduce the number of killed and seriously injured on the roads over time. It has turned out that, especially in relation to serious injuries, there is still a significant knowledge gap on how to reduce these numbers in the EU. The Commission is therefore committed to

  2. The water footprint of the EU for different diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Mekonnen, M.M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the EU28 (EU27 and Croatia) water footprint of consumption (WFcons) for different diets is analysed: the current diet (REF, period 1996–2005), a healthy diet (DGE), a vegetarian (VEG) and combined (COM) diet. By far the largest fraction of the total WFcons (4815 lcd) relates to the co

  3. Solar Energy: Incentives to Promote PV in EU27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del P. Pablo-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth in the use of renewable energies in the EU has been remarkable. Among these energies is PV. The average annual growth rate for the EU-27 countries in installed PV capacity in the period 2005-2012 was 41.2%. While the installed capacity of PV has reached almost 82 % of National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP targets for the EU-27 countries for 2020, it is still far from being used at its full potential. Over recent years, several measures have been adopted in the EU to enhance and promote PV. This paper undertakes a complete review of the state of PV power in Europe and the measures taken to date to promote it in EU-27. 25 countries have adopted measures to promote PV. The most widespread measure to promote PV use is Feed- in Tariffs. Tariffs are normally adjusted, in a decreasing manner, annually. Nevertheless, currently, seven countries have decided to accelerate this decrease rate in view of cost reduction of the installations and of higher efficiencies. The second instrument used to promote PV in the EU-27 countries is the concession of subsidies. Nevertheless, subsidies have the disadvantage of being closely linked to budgetary resources and therefore to budgetary constraints. In most EU countries, subsidies for renewable energy for PV are being lowered. Twelve EU-27 countries adopted tax measures. Low-interest loans and green certificate systems were only sparingly used.

  4. Normative Power and the Future of EU Public Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Whitman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emphasis in this chapter is on the future of EU public diplomacy in a more globalised, mulitipolar, multilateral world. The chapter does not seek to explore the role of EU member states within this future shift but clearly, as Mai’a Davis Cross discusses in her chapter, if the EU and its member...... states are to have a future role at all, they must develop synergies not antergies in external actions and public diplomacy. As the next five sections set out, this fundamental shift in the role of the EU in global politics requires a recognition of how the EU has ‘“gone global’” (section II); how EU...... diplomacy is ‘“going public’” (section III); and how EU public diplomacy needs to consider ‘“sharing minds’” (section IV); how the normative power of public diplomacy can ensure the EU is ‘“remaining distinctive’” in global politics (section V); and before concluding on the normative power approach...

  5. EU Internet Law in the Era of Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Søren Sandfeld

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the demarcation and interplay between EU's Internet, Telecoms and Media regulation in light of the growing convergence......An analysis of the demarcation and interplay between EU's Internet, Telecoms and Media regulation in light of the growing convergence...

  6. EU-Korea Conference on Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jehyun

    2011-01-01

    Current research fields in science and technology were presented and discussed at the EKC2009, informing about the interests and directions of the scientists and engineers in EU countries and Korea. The Conference has emerged from the idea of bringing together EU and Korea to get to know each other better, especially in fields of science and technology.

  7. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interests and global climate negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    for setting a target of 15% of all energy to come from sources such as windmills, solar panels and waves by 2015. Such a target would further the EU's interests globally, and could explain, in economic terms, why the EU eagerly promotes GHG trade at a global level whereas the US has left the Kyoto agreement...

  8. The Role of Ethics and Morality in EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Rowlandson, Malene

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the role of ethics and morality in EU law. Two specific biolegal fields of study constitute the primary object in this regard; funding of research into human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and the patentability hereof. The reason why the choice has fallen upon...... and morality in EU law are to be seen....

  9. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  10. EU-China Partenariat 2006,A Mighty "European Hong Niang"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Matchmaking is not only a profession, but also art.On April 26, a group of matchmakers from 24 EU member countries gathered into Chengdu city, the capital of Sichuan province, where 2006 EU-China Partenariat will be held.……

  11. Why and how the EU should act on armed drones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Backhaus, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    This article systematizes the reasons that demand EU action on the issue of armed drones. It argues that a clear positioning of Brussels is required due to consistency with former practices in similar events and fundamental vectors of EU foreign and security policy, as well as legal and strategic...... position itself in the international debate on the regulation of armed drones....

  12. Does EU law resolve or create conflicts between shareholders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The contribution discuss how the harmonisation in the EU has been directed at either preventing or solving conflicts between shareholders.......The contribution discuss how the harmonisation in the EU has been directed at either preventing or solving conflicts between shareholders....

  13. EU Strategic Culture and the 2011 Libyan War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlke Hansen, Lea; Nielsen, Kristian L.

    in Libya in many ways seemed an ideal opportunity for the EU to manifest itself as an important security actor, and to fullfill its strategic ambitions as they are described in the 2003 European Security Strategy. Instead, due to internal disagreements on the use of force, the EU was unable to forge...

  14. (How) do norms guide Presidency behaviour in EU negotiations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, A.; Mak, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes stock of the growing body of research on the European Union (EU) Presidency, a vital player in EU negotiations. The paper also suggests new avenues of research, among which we prioritize one issue cluster: we ask under what conditions and in what way (following which social logic) n

  15. Citizens and EU administration: direct and indirect links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.; Mendes, J.

    2011-01-01

    This briefing note focuses on the legal and non-legal avenues by which transparency and participation have been ensured in EU law and practice. Transparency and participation have produced the main recent changes in the way the EU administration relates to its citizens. We provide an overview of the

  16. Better understanding of the EU regulatory frameworks for cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Mech, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    This letter to the editor corrects some misunderstandings regarding the EU regulations covering cosmetic products stated in a recent publication by A. Sobek et al. "In the shadow of the cosmetics directive - Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters" published in Science of the Total Environment 461-462 (2013) 706-711.

  17. Sanctions in EU competition law: principles and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frese, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first decades of European integration, the enforcement of EU competition law was highly centralised. Virtually all enforcement actions under Articles 101 and 102 TFEU were initiated by the European Commission. Meanwhile, the enforcement of EU competition law has become less centralised, many

  18. Functional foods: regulation and innovations in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide consumers are becoming more interested in the relation between food and health. In order to harmonize regulation on foods throughout the EU, the Regulation EC1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force, as a first specific set of EU legal rules dealing with nutrition and

  19. Large coupled magnetoresponses in EuNbO2N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge, A. Belen; Oro-Sole, Judith; Bea, Ana M.; Mufti, Nandang; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Rodgers, Jennifer A.; Attfield, J. Paul; Fuertes, Amparo

    2008-01-01

    We have explored a new strategy to discover materials with large resistive or capacitive responses to magnetic fields by synthesizing EuMO2N (M = Nb, Ta) perovskites that combine ferromagnetic order of S = 7/2 Eu2+ spins with possible offcenter distortions of the d(0) M5+ cations enhanced by covalen

  20. Er adgang til internettet en grundrettighed i EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Søren Sandfeld

    2013-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i EU-teledirektivpakken behandles spørgsmålet, om adgang til internettet er en grundrettighed efter EU-retten, således at der er væsentlige begrænsninger i medlemsstaternes mulighed for at indføre restriktioner i denne adgang, fx i tilfælde, hvor borgeren misbruger internetadgang...

  1. Lobbyism and CO2 Trade in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    Has the EU Directive Proposal on CO2 trade been influenced by lobbyism and can it be improved? After hypothesizing how the EU may be vulnerable to lobbyism and why industrial groups have a strong incentive to lobby for favourable environmental regulation, we turn to empirical evidence concerning ...

  2. (How) do norms guide Presidency behaviour in EU negotiations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, A.; Mak, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes stock of the growing body of research on the European Union (EU) Presidency, a vital player in EU negotiations. The paper also suggests new avenues of research, among which we prioritize one issue cluster: we ask under what conditions and in what way (following which social logic) n

  3. EU and OECD benchmarking and peer review compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    2009-01-01

    Benchmarking and peer review are essential elements of the so-called EU open method of coordination (OMC) which has been contested in the literature for lack of effectiveness. In this paper we compare benchmarking and peer review procedures as used by the EU with those used by the OECD. Different ty

  4. Economic benefits of the EU Ecodesign Directive. Improving European economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenbroek, E.; Cuijpers, M.; Blok, K.

    2012-04-15

    The EU Ecodesign Directive aims at reducing the environmental impact of a number of products sold in the EU, with emphasis on their energy consumption. Ecofys investigated economic benefits related to the Directive. A correct implementation of the EU Ecodesign Directive would yield yearly savings of up to 600 TWh of electricity and 600 TWh of heat in 2020. In addition to these environmental benefits, this study identified important economic advantages like: Net savings for European consumers and businesses of 90 billion euro per year (1% of EU's current GDP) in the year 2020; Reinvesting these savings in other sectors of the economy would result in the creation of one million jobs; Dependency on imports of energy would be reduced by 23% and 37% for natural gas and coal, respectively. This means the EU could slash natural gas imports from Russia by more than half and imports of coal from Russia could be stopped altogether.

  5. Involving the citizens. Radioactive waste management and the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Gianluca [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    The European Union (EU) has been often criticized for its democratic deficit, which has been studied in the academic literature at multiple levels: in the polity (macro-level), the institutions (meso-level) and the policies (micro-level) of the EU. The paper presents counterarguments in favour of the democratic nature of the EU and focuses on the micro-level, particularly the process of implementation of EU policies. Policy implementation and the democratic involvement of citizens are discussed with regard to radioactive waste management and the Directive 2011/70/EURATOM. The Directive's clause on transparency and the recent development of a centre of knowledge for public participation in energy policy implementation by the European Commission (EC) are expression of the democratic nature of the EU and provide further counterarguments to the claim of democratic deficit.

  6. Search for linking transitions in {sup 143}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerma, F.; LaFosse, D.R.; Devlin, M. [Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Six SD bands were populated in {sup 143}Eu and {sup 144}Eu, two of which had not been previously observed. Sum spectra were generated to search for two step links from the yrast SD band in {sup 143}Eu. However, no two step links were found. A single link from the SD band in {sup 143}Eu was found at 3364 keV. The level where it feeds into has not been identified. Alpha-particle energy (E{sub {alpha}}) spectra leading to the SD band and to normal states in {sup 143}Eu were measured and a correlation was found between E{sub {alpha}} and the level spin of the residual nucleus.

  7. Preparation and luminescence characteristics of Eu2+ activated silicate phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan-Lai; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Guo, Qing-Lin

    2008-03-01

    This paper synthesizes the Sr2SiO4 : Eu2+ phosphor by high temperature solid-state reaction. The emission spectrum of Sr2SiO4 : Eu2+ shows two bands centred at 480 and 547 nm, which agree well with the calculation values of emission spectrum, and the location of yellow emission of Sr2SiO4 : Eu2+ is influenced by the Eu2+ concentration. The excitation spectrum for 547nm emission has two bands at 363 and 402 nm. The emission spectrum of white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs) based on Sr2SiO4 :Eu2+ phosphor + InGaN LED was investigated.

  8. Preparation and luminescence characteristics of Eu2+ activated silicate phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Pan-Lai; Yang Zhi-Ping; Wang Zhi-Jun; Guo Qing-Lin

    2008-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphor by high temperature solid-state reaction.The emission spectrum of Sr2SiO4 :Eu2+ shows two bands centred at 480 and 547 nm, which agree well with the calculation values of emission spectrum, and the location of yellow emission of Sr2SiO4 : Eu2+ is influenced by the Eu2+ concentration.The excitation spectrum for 547 nm emission has two bands at 363 and 402 nm. The emission spectrum of white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs) based on Sr2SiO4 : Eu2+ phosphor + InGaN LED was investigated.

  9. Sustainable Development in the EU: Redefining and Operationalizing the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R.W. van Hees

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good policy-making, for effectively holding the EU accountable, and for the design of CSR programmes. To that end, this article will first explain the guidance which EU law and policy already offer on sustainable development. Subsequently, this article will propose (I a more workable definition of sustainable development than the one (the Brundtland definition which is currently used, and (II a framework of application for sustainable development. This framework of application (which will have the form of a sustainability impact assessment provides practical guidance for policy-makers, politicians, NGOs and businesses when dealing with sustainable development in their day-to-day work.

  10. The Impact of EU Funds on Romanian Finances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian Lungu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU budget negotiations for the 2014-2020 period are of great importance as they set political priorities for future years. As a net beneficiary of EU funds, Romania favours an increase in the size of the EU budget. Adopting such a position, however, would make little sense unless the absorption rate, which in 2012 was by far the lowest in the EU, increased at an impressive pace over the coming years. A higher EU budget would lead to an increase in Romania's financial commitments, with annual domestic budgetary costs raising between 0.1- 0.2% of GDP. This would pose additional challenges in maintaining the Fiscal Pact' budget ceiling.

  11. Sustainable Development in the EU: Redefining and Operationalizing the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R.W. van Hees

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good policy-making, for effectively holding the EU accountable, and for the design of CSR programmes. To that end, this article will first explain the guidance which EU law and policy already offer on sustainable development. Subsequently, this article will propose (I a more workable definition of sustainable development than the one (the Brundtland definition which is currently used, and (II a framework of application for sustainable development. This framework of application (which will have the form of a sustainability impact assessment provides practical guidance for policy-makers, politicians, NGOs and businesses when dealing with sustainable development in their day-to-day work.

  12. IMPACT OF THE EU TIMBER REGULATION ON RUSSIAN COMPANIES EXPORTING WOOD AND WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    NESHATAEVA ELENA V.; KARJALAINEN TIMO

    2015-01-01

    The problem of illegal logging forced EU, which is one of the major consumers of wood in the world, to develop legislation aimed at termination of supplies of illegally harvested wood and wood-based products into EU. EU Timber Regulation №995 is applicable for any company placing wood or wood-based products on the EU market. Russia ranks first in illegally harvested timber export into EU markets, therefore EU Timber Regulation should influence substantially on Russian companies. Possible infl...

  13. A Strategy to enhance Eu3+ emission from LiYF4:Eu nanophosphors and green-to-orange multicolor tunable, transparent nanophosphor-polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Won, Yu-Ho; Jang, Ho Seong

    2015-01-19

    LiYF4:Eu nanophosphors with a single tetragonal phase are synthesized, and various strategies to enhance the Eu(3+) emission from the nanophosphors are investigated. The optimized Eu(3+) concentration is 35 mol%, and the red emission peaks due to the (5)D0 →(7)FJ (J = 1 and 2) transitions of Eu(3+) ions are further enhanced by energy transfer from a sensitizer pair of Ce(3+) and Tb(3+). The triple doping of Ce, Tb, and Eu into the LiYF4 host more effectively enhances the Eu(3+) emission than the core/shell strategies of LiYF4:Eu(35%)/LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%) and LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%)/LiYF4:Eu(35%) architectures. Efficient energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Eu(3+) through Tb(3+) results in three times higher Eu(3+) emission intensity from LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%), Eu(1%) nanophosphors compared with LiYF4:Eu(35%), which contains the optimized Eu(3+) concentration. Owing to the energy transfer of Ce(3+) → Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) → Tb(3+) → Eu(3+), intense green and red emission peaks are observed from LiYF4:Ce(13%), Tb(14%), Eu(1-5%) (LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu) nanophosphors, and the intensity ratio of green to red emission is controlled by adjusting the Eu(3+) concentration. With increasing Eu(3+) concentration, the LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu nanophosphors exhibit multicolor emission from green to orange. In addition, the successful incorporation of LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu nanophosphors into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) facilitates the preparation of highly transparent nanophosphor-PDMS composites that present excellent multicolor tunability.

  14. Albanian Accounting Trends in Accordance With EU Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Kaduku

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A lot of work has gone to standardize the financial accounts of insurance and requirements of reimbursement ability. These projects are made by various international organizations. This will alter the way the insurance companies keep their accounts and how they design strategies. All this work in accounting is being done to increase transparency and provide the most realistic accounts of insurance. This is an indirect form to protect the policyholders. Even the regulation on repayment ability is a method of protecting policyholders.Accounting is the process of collecting and reporting financial information about entity or about a group of units. Accounting practices are developed over time and they reflect the traditional national accounts. With the development of EU and increased activity of insurance companies or other companies outside the national borders, finding of a common way to present financial data of companies is becoming more critical. In connection with commercial enterprises, accounting information users include managers, investors, potential investors, lenders, investment analysts, regulators and consumers.The accounting changes outlined here, will be mandatory for insurance companies listed on stock exchange. However it is expected that other companies will adopt these rules as they aim to clearly present the true situation of the company, critical for managing a company.

  15. Climate impact of potential shale gas production in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, D.; Perks, J. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Existing estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas production and available abatement options were used to obtain improved estimates of emissions from possible shale gas exploitation in the EU. GHG emissions per unit of electricity generated from shale gas were estimated to be around 4 to 8% higher than for electricity generated by conventional pipeline gas from within Europe. These additional emissions arise in the pre-combustion stage, predominantly in the well completion phase when the fracturing fluid is brought back to the surface together with released methane. If emissions from well completion are mitigated, through flaring or capture, and utilised, then this difference is reduced to 1 to 5%. The analysis suggests that the emissions from shale gas-based power generation (base case) are 2 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from sources of conventional pipeline gas located outside of Europe (in Russia and Algeria), and 7 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from LNG imported into Europe. However, under our 'worst case' shale gas scenario, where all flow back gases at well completion are vented, emissions from electricity generated from shale gas would be similar to the upper emissions level for electricity generated from imported LNG and for gas imported from Russia.

  16. EU-policy and smart materials; EU-beleid en smart materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, D.; Van der Beek, M.

    2012-09-15

    Netherlands will focus on large-scale production of smart materials. Several examples from Dutch universities show that the Netherlands is very active in this sector. Nanotechnology and the development of advanced materials are considered as 'key technologies'. To realize these applications EU funding will be made available both for research projects and to support market introduction [Dutch] Nederland zet in de toekomst in op grootschalige productie van smart materials. Verschillende voorbeelden van Nederlandse universiteiten laten zien dat Nederland tot op heden zeer actief is in deze veelzijdige sector. Nanotechnologie en de ontwikkeling van geavanceerde materialen worden in dit licht beschouwd als zogenoemde 'sleuteltechnologieen'. Om deze toepassingen te realiseren komt zowel EU-geld beschikbaar voor onderzoeksprojecten als ter ondersteuning van marktintroductie.

  17. How will the EU climate adaptation strategy affect EU agricultural policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Karali, Eleni; Castellari, Sergio;

    A key objective in the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM (2013) 216 final) is to ensure mainstreaming, i.e. integration, of adaptation measures into European sectoral policies. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one such sectoral policy which is prioritised in the strategy...... to adaptation in agricultural production and analyses to what extent the reformed CAP as currently proposed will provide the tools to deal with the key vulnerabilities and adaptation needs. Specifically, the paper analyses the policy instruments available in the CAPs 1st and 2nd pillars and assesses......, the paper will also analyze the institutional mechanisms available in the adaptation strategy in order to assess their strength with regards to mainstreaming adaptation into agricultural policy. The paper is based on analysis of key EU policy documents and compares the policy instruments...

  18. The effect of surface modification on Eu{sup 3+} luminescence in EuF{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronikhin, Anatoly, E-mail: safronikhin@yandex.ru; Ehrlich, Heinrich; Kuzmina, Natalia; Lisichkin, Georgy

    2014-07-01

    Reaction between Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and NH{sub 4}F in aqueous media was applied to produce EuF{sub 3} doughnut-like aggregates with a diameter of 200–500 nm and thickness of 50–150 nm composed of nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 16 nm. The impregnation, sorption and mechanochemical treatment were used for surface modification of EuF{sub 3} doughnut-like particles with 1,10-phenanthroline and sodium dibenzoylmethanate which are sensitizing ligands for Eu{sup 3+} luminescence. The data of transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and luminescence spectroscopy have proved that the organic ligands are coordinated to surface Eu{sup 3+} ions, forming surface complexes. The surface modification of the EuF{sub 3} nanoparticles with sodium dibenzoylmethanate and 1,10-phenanthroline leads to increase in the luminescence intensity at 612 nm ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} transition) in comparison with the luminescence intensity of the unmodified EuF{sub 3} nanoparticles. Energy transfer from the ligand to Eu{sup 3+} ion in the surface complexes makes a main contribution to this effect.

  19. The EU's dependency on soya bean import for the animal feed industry and potential for EU produced alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Schreuder, R.; Stoddard, F.

    2014-01-01

    The European Innovation Partnership Agri has set up a consultation process involving 20 experts from 11 EU countries to discuss the potential of a substantial increase in protein crop production in the EU. The dependency of Europe on soya bean meal imports and the associated drivers are described an

  20. EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

  1. The EU's dependency on soya bean import for the animal feed industry and potential for EU produced alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Schreuder, R.; Stoddard, F.

    2014-01-01

    The European Innovation Partnership Agri has set up a consultation process involving 20 experts from 11 EU countries to discuss the potential of a substantial increase in protein crop production in the EU. The dependency of Europe on soya bean meal imports and the associated drivers are described an

  2. Fighting Hate Speech through EU Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uladzislau Belavusau

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This article explores the rise of the European ‘First Amendment’ beyond national and Strasbourg law, offering a fresh look into the previously under-theorised issue of hate speech in EU law. Building its argument on (1 the scrutiny of fundamental rights protection, (2 the distinction between commercial and non-commercial speech, and, finally, (3 the looking glass of critical race theory, the paper demonstrates how the judgment of the ECJ in the Feryn case implicitly consolidated legal narratives on hate speech in Europe. In this way, the paper reconstructs the dominant European theory of freedom of expression via rhetorical and victim-centered constitutional analysis, bearing important ethical implications for European integration.

     

  3. Lifetimes of Rydberg states of Eu atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hua; Ye, Shi-Wei; Dai, Chang-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The radiative lifetimes of the Eu 4f76snp (8PJ or 10PJ) Rydberg states with J = 5/2 and 11/2 are investigated with a combination of multi-step laser excitation and pulsed electric field ionization, from which their dependence on the effective principal quantum number is observed. The lifetimes of 21 states are reported along with an evaluation of their experimental uncertainty. The influence of blackbody radiation, due to the oven temperature, on the lifetime of the higher-n states is detected. The non-hydrogen behavior of the investigated states is also observed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174218).

  4. PSI contribution to the EU project ECOMONT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portmann, W.; Siegwolf, R.T.; Saurer, M.; Scheidegger, Y.; Geissbuehler, P.; Furger, M.; Poggio, L.; Erne, R.; Richter, R.; Buerki, D.; Graber, W.K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Land-use changes (intensification, extensification and abandonment) in agriculture and forestry are considered to be the major driving forces for changes in ecosystem function and dynamics, and in landscape patterns in Europe. The aim of the EU project ECOMONT is to investigate the potential risks due to land-use change in the mountainous ecosystem. Fluxes of sensible and latent heat, water vapour, CO{sub 2} and pollutants between the vegetation and the atmosphere are sensitive and critical factors characterising landscape function. The Atmospheric Pollution Section of the PSI contributes to this project with the measurements of these fluxes. The measuring techniques, the experimental setup and first results are presented. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  5. The EU Comprehensive Approach on Somali Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Caramerli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Aden represents a strategic issue for the international community, as its geographical position is fundamental as the major trade maritime route. About 50 percent of the world container ships pass through the Gulf of Aden each year, 80 percent of those cargos coming from Europe. For this reason, the piracy issue affecting Somalia is a problem affecting EU member states’ security and economy. This paper is focused on the comprehensive approach acted by the European Union, with a special attention on proposing the implementation of programs against illegal fishing and waste dumping in order to fight Somali piracy. The evaluation of the military mission offers an overview on a solution for the near future, while the training missions and the development funds sustain the build-up of national tools and focus on the solving of the roots of the issue.

  6. Competitiveness of Romanian Agriculture after EU Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NECULITA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine whether after joining European Union, Romanian agriculture became more competitiveness on Unique Market. Romania need significant financial help to solve various structural problems, one of the main problems being the low competitiveness in attracting European funds. Taking all the aspects into consideration, this paper trying to develop an objective analysis of the current state of Romanian agriculture competitiveness, by means of pertinent data and statistics. Competitiveness increase, not only in agriculture, has become a primordial framework of the economic development strategies of most world countries. Agriculture can be an important asset for Romania, in the battle to become more competitive to the European level. Romania should win the market share and increase its exports to the EU market. According to European officials, Romania should find gaps on an already competitive market or to become competitive on new markets.

  7. Glass composition and excitation wavelength dependence of the luminescence of Eu3+ doped lead borate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hongli; Duan, Chang-Kui; Jia, Guohua; Tanner, Peter A.; Brik, Mikhail G.

    2011-08-01

    This work explores the relationship between the bandwidth of luminescence spectral features and their relative intensities, using glasses doped with europium, Eu3+, over a wide composition range. Glasses of composition (B2O3)70(PbO)29(0.5Eu2O3)1 and (B2O3)z(PbO)99.6-z(0.5Eu2O3)0.4, (z = 20, 30, 40, 60, 70), were prepared by the melting-quenching technique. Variable-wavelength measurements by the prism-coupling method enabled interpolation of refractive index at selected wavelengths. Diffuse reflectance spectra confirmed the incorporation of Eu3+ into the glass, and scanning electron microscopy displayed that this was in a homogeneous manner. Vibrational spectra showed a change in boron coordination from BO3 to BO4 units with increase of PbO content in the glass. Multi-wavelength excited luminescence spectra were recorded for the glasses at temperatures down to 10 K and qualitative interpretations of spectral differences with change of B2O3 content are given. The quantitative analysis of 5D0 luminescence intensity-bandwidth relations showed that although samples with higher boron content closely exhibit a simple proportional relationship with band intensity ratios, as expected from theory, the expression needs to be slightly modified for those with low boron content. The Judd-Ofelt intensity analysis of the 5D0 emission spectra under laser excitations at low temperature gives Ω2 values within the range from (3.9-6.5) × 10-20 cm2, and Ω4 in the range from (4.1-7.0) × 10-20 cm2, for different values of z. However, no clear monotonic relation was found between the parameter values and composition. The Judd-Ofelt parameters are compared with those from other systems doped with Eu3+ and are found to lie in the normal ranges for Eu3+-doped glasses. The comparison of parameter values derived from the 10 K spectra with those from room temperature spectra for our glasses, which are fairly constant for different compositions, shows that site selection occurs at low

  8. PUBLIC DEBT SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS: EU CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoc Claudiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The global crisis has caused a serious fiscal deterioration that leaves the world economy with serious challenges. In many developed markets as well as in a few emerging markets (Emerging markets public finances have already become, or are at least at risk of becoming, unsustainable. Commonly, public debt sustainability is defined as a sovereign's ability to service debt without large adjustments to public revenue and/or expenditure and without ever-increasing public-debt-to-GDP ratios. Hence, this definition refers to both a country's ability and willingness to repay its debt. We also have to add the fact that there isn`t an universal accepted definition of fiscal or debt sustainability. In light of the growing public debt, the issue of debt sustainability has increasingly attracted attention. In this paper we analyse public debt sustainability scenario in EU economies. At least half of the EU countries will have to implement stringent fiscal consolidation programmes over the next few years in order to prevent already high public-debt-to-GDP ratios from a further significant rise, also the case of Romania. However, drastic fiscal policy adjustment may be not feasible in the short term and hence public debt is likely to grow further. In some scenarios the public-debt-to-GDP ratio is predicted to soar to 133% in 2020, from just over 100% in 2010. By contrast, nearly all EM countries, including major economies, appear to be well positioned to stabilise or even outgrow their current debt ratios without drastic fiscal adjustment. Institutional improvements may help European countries to maintain fiscal credibility. In light of the future fiscal challenges, many European governments may introduce new or more effective national debt limits, similar to those put in place in the past with good results by some Emerging markets. Such institutional reforms could help to insulate fiscal policies from political pressure and to anchor financial market

  9. Mapping the carbon footprint of EU regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Diana; Vita, Gibran; Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Stadler, Konstantin; Melo, Patricia C.; Wood, Richard; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2017-05-01

    While the EU Commission has encouraged Member States to combine national and international climate change mitigation measures with subnational environmental policies, there has been little harmonized effort towards the quantification of embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household consumption across European regions. This study develops an inventory of carbon footprints associated with household consumption for 177 regions in 27 EU countries, thus, making a key contribution for the incorporation of consumption-based accounting into local decision-making. Footprint calculations are based on consumer expenditure surveys and environmental and trade detail from the EXIOBASE 2.3 multiregional input-output database describing the world economy in 2007 at the detail of 43 countries, 5 rest-of-the-world regions and 200 product sectors. Our analysis highlights the spatial heterogeneity of embodied GHG emissions within multiregional countries with subnational ranges varying widely between 0.6 and 6.5 tCO2e/cap. The significant differences in regional contribution in terms of total and per capita emissions suggest notable differences with regards to climate change responsibility. The study further provides a breakdown of regional emissions by consumption categories (e.g. housing, mobility, food). In addition, our region-level study evaluates driving forces of carbon footprints through a set of socio-economic, geographic and technical factors. Income is singled out as the most important driver for a region’s carbon footprint, although its explanatory power varies significantly across consumption domains. Additional factors that stand out as important on the regional level include household size, urban-rural typology, level of education, expenditure patterns, temperature, resource availability and carbon intensity of the electricity mix. The lack of cross-national region-level studies has so far prevented analysts from drawing broader policy conclusions that hold

  10. Eu2+ Luminescence in BaZnAl10O17∶ Eu Phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾冬铭; 胡爱平; 舒万艮

    2002-01-01

    Eu2+-doped BaZnAl10O17 phosphor was successfully obtained by coprecipitation method, in which oxalic acid and ammonia were used as precipitants, and precipitates were calcined at 1400 ℃ for 3 h. Its luminescent intensity was much stronger than the one obtained by solid-state reaction at high temperature. According to XRD, the crystal was identified as BaZnAl10O17 with β-Al2O3 structure.

  11. Equation of state for Eu-doped SrSi₂O₂N₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Olga; Paszkowicz, Wojciech; Kaminska, Agata; Barzowska, Justyna; Szczodrowski, Karol; Grinberg, Marek; Minikayev, Roman; Nowakowska, Małgorzata; Carlson, Stefan; Li, Guogang; Liu, Ru-Shi; Suchocki, Andrzej

    2014-07-07

    α-SrSi2O2N2 is one of the recently studied oxonitridosilicates applicable in optoelectronics, in particular in white LEDs. Its elastic properties remain unknown. A survey of literature shows that, up to now, nine oxonitridosilicate materials have been identified. For most of these compounds, doped with rare earths and manganese, a luminescence has been reported at a wavelength characteristic for the given material; all together cover a broad spectral range. The present study focuses on the elastic properties of one of these oxonitridosilicates, the Eu-doped triclinic α-SrSi2O2N2. High-pressure powder diffraction experiments are used in order to experimentally determine, for the first time, the equation of state of this compound. The in situ experiment was performed for pressures ranging up to 9.65 GPa, for Eu-doped α-SrSi2O2N2 sample mounted in a diamond anvil cell ascertaining the hydrostatic compression conditions. The obtained experimental variation of volume of the triclinic unit cell of α-SrSi2O2N2:Eu with rising pressure served for determination of the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The determined above quoted bulk modulus is 103(5) GPa, its first derivative is 4.5(1.1). The above quoted bulk modulus value is found to be comparable to that of earlier reported oxynitrides of different composition.

  12. Sources of conflicts in climate policy within the EU. An economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, H. Asbjoern; Bretteville, Camilla

    1999-09-01

    This report is a part of a study of the potential for the EU to take on leadership in the climate negotiations. The aim is to sort out factors that may explain the different economic interests in cutting CO{sub 2}-emissions within the EU. It is based on the idea that interests occur as a result of different perception of the cost of emission cuts among stakeholders. Sector-based comparisons of France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom indicate that the conflicts resulting from an announcement of emission cuts are likely to be moderate in Germany, the Netherlands and UK, while the possibilities for conflicts in France, Italy and Spain are significantly higher. The explanation can to a large extent be found by the possibilities for reducing emissions in the electricity sector. The differences facing the different countries when it comes to emission cuts might explain why the EU has not succeeded in implementing common measures across the member countries. To prepare for a common policy, a co-ordination of the electricity market should be given priority. Meanwhile, the differentiation of targets agreed upon after Kyoto clearly contributes to mitigate conflicts. However, new conflicts may occur as a result. The present analysis points out that Italy has got very strict targets compared with the other countries, while the targets for the Netherlands and Spain are moderate. 21 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Support for international trade law: The US and the EU compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Elsig, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In this article we compare United States and European Union support for bilateral and multilateral international trade law. We assess the support for international law of both trading blocs by focusing on the following four dimensions: leadership, consent, compliance and internalization. Although we find strong support for international trade law from both the US and the EU in general, we also witness some variation, most notably in relation to the design of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and compliance with World Trade Organization (WTO) law. Turning to explaining these (moderate) differences, we argue that outcomes in US trade policy can best be explained by a domestic political factor, namely the direct influence of interest groups. Although the involvement of societal interests also goes a long way in explaining EU behavior, it does not tell the entire story. We posit that, in EU trade policy, institutions are a particular conditioning factor that needs to be stressed. Moreover, we suggest that foreign policy considerations in managing trade relations have characterized EU’s support for international trade law. PMID:27867316

  14. Structural and optical studies of Eu{sup 3+}/nanocrystallites doped titania–zirconia hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthika, S.; Sajna, M.S.; Thomas, Sunil; Revathy, K.P.; Biju, P.R.; Unnikrishnan, N.V., E-mail: nvu100@yahoo.com

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • PSB of Eu{sup 3+}/CdS/CdSe:TiO{sub 2}–ZrO{sub 2} imply vibrational and electronic transition coupling. • Asymmetric ratio and non radiative multi-phonon decay rate are analysed. • Correlation between the Raman spectrum and PSB analysis is examined. - Abstract: Titania–zirconia matrices co-doped with europium ions and CdS/CdSe nanocrystallites were prepared through the sol–gel route. The phonon sideband (PSB) analysis of the excitation spectrum provides information about the coupling between vibrational modes and electronic transitions. The vibrational state energy and the local site symmetry in the titania–zirconia matrix around Eu{sup 3+} ions were investigated in detail. The emission spectrum intensities of electric dipole transitions, with respect to magnetic dipole transition, gives a measure of the distortion from the inversion symmetry around the Eu{sup 3+} site. The vibrational state bands along with Raman measurements give information on the structural units in the vicinity of the dopant ion. A correlation between the Raman spectral data and phonon sideband analysis yields an average structure of the bulk glass and a near estimate of the maximum vibrational state energy.

  15. Hormones in meat: different approaches in the EU and in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, R W

    2001-01-01

    The use of hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in farm animals can increase the production of veal and beef significantly up to 15%. However, in the different parts of the world the regulation regarding the use of such hormones differs sharply. In the European Union there exists a total ban on such use in contrast to the United States of American where the use of some hormones is authorized under strict conditions. An overview is given of the different opposing aspects and their consequences are discussed. It has to be concluded that in some EU Member States an extended black market exists. For the USA no experimental evidence is available for such a black market. In the EU the number of ascertained different illegal "hormones" ranges between about 35 and 55. In the USA the number of legal hormones in total is six. The levels of hormone residues found in beef originating from the USA are in the fast majority of cases below the Maximum Residue Limit as recommended by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee of Food Additives. No comparable experimental data are available for the EU. Finally other food commodities have to be taken into account to assess potential risks of the dietary intake of "hormones". Eggs, example given, contribute more to the dietary intake of estradiol than beef, whether the animal is legally treated with hormones or not.

  16. Containment Performance Analysis with Large Break LOCA for EU-APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Do Hyun; Lee, Keun Sung; Kim, Yong Soo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper for containment performance analysis, the containment pressurization analysis is performed and thermo-hydraulic response analysis of containment structure is carried out to provide basic understanding of containment transient states under a severe accident sequence. Especially, in EU-APR1400 design, to reduce containment pressure and temperature, Severe Accident Containment Spray System (SACSS) is designed to be actuated automatically when Core Exit Temperature (CET) reaches 922 K (649 .deg. C). The containment performance analysis was carried on LBLOCA sequence for EU-APR1400 with SACSS through MAAP code. If SACSS is actuated when CET reaches 922 K (649 .deg. C) , the containment pressure and temperature decrease to a sufficient low level. The predicted atmospheric pressure of containment will not exceed the ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) and have a sufficient margin to it even though the UPC of the reference plant (Shin-Kori Units 3 and 4) is used instead because the UPC calculation for EU-APR1400 has not been completed. The largest load on the containment by LBLOCA is estimated at 306.1 kPa. Thus the margin to UPC is estimated to be 330 % in comparison with 1.329 MPa as UPC for the reference plant.

  17. Anti-tumor activity of self-charged (Eu,Ca):WO3 and Eu:CaWO4 nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cao Lin; Cao Jiexin; Wang Cong; Che Ping; Pan De’an; Alex A Volinsky

    2012-10-01

    Non-stoichiometric (Eu,Ca):WO3 and Eu:CaWO4 nanoparticles with anti-tumor activity are synthesized in a sol–gel method by adding excessive Eu3+ and Ca2+ ions to tungsten oxide crystal structure. Colorimetric assay shows that 10 nm (Eu,Ca):WO3 and Eu:CaWO4 nanoparticles can effectively inhibit growth of mammary cancer cells without any harm to normal cells. Nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence optical spectrometry. Nanomaterials, insoluble in synthesized water, have complicated self-charging surfaces that trap mammary cancer cells. Surface self-charging effect is suggested as the inhibition mechanism.

  18. Green taxes in EU and Denmark; Groenne skatter og afgifter i EU og Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck-Madsen, S.

    2000-12-01

    One of the most essential means to reach an increased sustainability in the world is to increase the use of economical means and hereby extend the polluter-pay-principle. The EU-commission, OECD and other governments in the EU-countries recommend an increased use of green taxes. This book takes as its starting point the implementation of a green tax reform, where the taxation is moved from tax on manpower to tax on resource consumption and pollution. Hereby both the environmental effort and the economic development are strengthened. The book briefly examines the different definitions of sustainability and outlines the principles for a green tax reform. The elaboration of green taxes, the reversing entry to environmental aims or to the Exchequer, the relation to the social distribution, the financing of the welfare state, the development of the green taxes in the EU countries, removal of environmentally damaging subsidies and the positive effect of the existing green taxes are subjects treated in the book. Finally the book presents a proposal for some Danish possibilities to increase existing green taxes or to introduce new Danish green taxes. (EHS)

  19. EU Engagement in the Arctic: Do the Policy Responses from the Arctic States Recognise the EU as a Legitimate Stakeholder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Hossain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic states are bound in an institutional relationship by means of their actions through the Arctic Council (AC—an organisation created by the eight Arctic states. Although a number of its European Union (EU states are both members and observers in the AC, the EU is not, despite its clear stake in the Arctic, for of a number of reasons. The AC twice postponed the application of the EU in 2013; however, it granted the EU the right to observe the AC meetings as an “observer in principle.” In addition to the significant resource and commercial interests of the EU in the Arctic, it assumes a stewardship role in the Arctic. As the leader in combating global climate change, for example, the EU is committed to assuming responsibility for protecting the Arctic environment given that climate change does have a devastating impact in the Arctic. Moreover, the EU is also concerned about its and continental Europe's only indigenous people, the Sámi, a significant proportion of whom live in its Arctic member states of Finland and Sweden. Thus, in recent years, the EU has endorsed a series of policy documents concerning the Arctic. Against the background of this development, this article examines whether the policy responses of the Arctic states with regard to the EU's increased ambition to engage in Arctic matters make it a legitimate actor or stakeholder. The article concludes that even though the Arctic states, as the primary actors, determine the region's governance approach, they see also a general partnership role for the EU with regard to the common goals of knowledge-based responsible governance and sustainable development of the Arctic.

  20. THE COMMON EU AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORUMBACEAN CLAUDIU

    2010-09-01

    structure and the coordination of this sector to the milk production farms and theRevista de Administraţie Publică şi Politici Sociale stimulation of the processing animals per exploitation. Every month, the farmers’meetings are to be held in order to follow the adjustment of the production and processing units to EU standards.Currently, since the enlargement date, producers must follow the community criteria concerning the milk share per each exploitation, milk ton and per year. It is extremely important to know that the subsidy is only allowed if quantity levels are followed, the individual share being set up depending on the country and the number of the producers.

  1. Synthesis of three-dimensional flower-like BiOCl:RE3+ (RE3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+) globular microarchitectures and their luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Zhu, Gang-Qiang; Yang, Woochul

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional flower-like Eu3+ and Sm3+-activated BiOCl globular microarchitectures were synthesized by the solvothermal method employing urea as a dispersing agent for the first time. The crystal structure, morphologies and luminescence properties of Eu3+ and Sm3+ doped BiOCl have been systematically investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy, respectively. The unit cell volumes show a nearly linear decrease by about 0.18 and 0.15% with increasing Eu3+ and Sm3+ concentration up to 9 mol%, respectively. All of the prepared samples show flower-like globular microarchitectures with an average diameter about 3-5 μm with different Eu3+ and Sm3+ concentrations. Possible formation mechanism for the flower-like microarchitectures is proposed on the basis of time-dependent experiment. Both BiOCl:Eu3+ and BiOCl:Sm3+ samples show a strong red emission corresponding to the 5D0 → 7F4 transition (700 nm) of Eu3+ and 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 transition (600 nm) of Sm3+, respectively. This work sheds some light on the design and preparation of red-emitting phosphors with novel microstructures.

  2. China-EU Trade and Economic Relations (2003-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN XIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the development of the China-EU trade and investment relations in the past ten years since the announcement of the China-EU Comprehensive Strategic Partnership, analyzes the driving forces for China's trade surplus with the EU, the situation of the bilateral trade disputes, as well as the issue of the "Market Economy Status" in the bilateral trade relations. The author concludes that great changes have taken place regarding the economic strength and international positions of the two sides, as well as in the international environment in the past ten years since the establishment of China-EU Comprehensive Strategic Partnership. The author also notes that despite the high growth rate of the trade volume between China and the EU, neither side has made adequate preparations for the dynamics of the bilateral trade and no efficient mechanism has been set up to lead the trends. In the future next ten years, China should try to transform the approach led by the EU, shift the passive status in the bilateral trade agenda, more focus on substance instead of forms, and construct a new way of thinking on China-EU economic and trade relations.

  3. Legal aspects of the EU policy on irregular immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov Vadim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issues pertaining to the adoption and development of legislation on irregular migration in the context of uncontrolled growth in the number of immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East to the EU. The article attempts at studying the EU legislation on irregular migration, classifying it, and analysing the prospects of EU migration legislation in the light of an increase in irregular immigration into the EU. The author systematises, classifies the current EU legislation on irregular immigration, and analyses the conditions, in which this legislation was developed. Using the legislation analysis method, the author proposes the following system of EU legislation on irregular immigration: rules preventing assistance to irregular immigration, rules preventing employment of irregular immigrants, rules on the return of irregular migrants and readmission, rules on border control, and rules on collaboration with third countries. The author pays special attention to analysing the current state of irregular immigration to the EU, which was dubbed the ‘greatest migration crisis in Europe’. The conclusion is that the European Union succeeded in the development of pioneering legislation on irregular immigration, which can serve as the basis for reception by other states. However, changes in the political and economic situation in the EU’s southern borderlands made the current legal mechanisms incapable of withstanding new threats. It necessitates a radical reform of the legislation on irregular immigration.

  4. Lattice dynamic studies from {sup 151}Eu-Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katada, Motomi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1997-03-01

    New complexes {l_brace}(Eu(napy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3})(Fe(CN){sub 6})4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub x}, bpy({l_brace}(Eu(bpy)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4})(Fe(CN){sub 6})1.5bpy4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub x}) and ({l_brace}(Eu(phen){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2})(Fe(CN){sub 6})2phen{r_brace}{sub x}) etc were synthesized using phenanthroline and bipyridine. Lattice dynamic behaviors of Eu and Fe atom in the complexes were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. By {sup 151}Eu-Moessbauer spectrum and parameters of new complexes, bpy complex showed the largest quadrupole splitting value, indicating bad symmetry of Eu ligand in the environment. Molecular structure of napy, bpy and phen complex were shown. These complexes are consisted of Eu atom coordinated with ligand and water molecule, of which (Fe(CN){sub 6}){sup 3-} ion formed one dimentional polymer chain and naphthyridines formed stacking structure. New complexes were observed by {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, too. The quadrupole splitting values were very different each other, indicating change of symmetry of Fe atom in the environment and three valence low spin state of Fe in the complex. (S.Y.)

  5. EU accession: A policy window opportunity for nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raeve, Paul; Rafferty, Anne-Marie; Bariball, Louise; Young, Ruth; Boiko, Olga

    2017-03-01

    European enlargement has been studied in a wide range of policy areas within and beyond health. Yet the impact of EU enlargement upon one of the largest health professions, nursing, has been largely neglected. This paper aims to explore nurse leadership using a comparative case study method in two former Communist countries, Romania and Croatia. Specifically, it considers the extent to which engagement in the EU accession policy-making process provided a policy window for the leaders to formulate and implement a professional agenda while negotiating EU accession. Findings of qualitative interviews and documentary analysis indicate that the mechanisms used to facilitate the accession process were not successful in achieving compliance with the education standards in the Community Acquis, as highlighted in the criteria on the mutual recognition of professional qualifications set out in Directive 2005/36/EC. EU accession capacity building and accession funds were not deployed efficiently to upgrade Romanian and Croatian nursing education towards meeting EU standards. Conflicting views on accession held by the various nursing stakeholders (nursing regulator, nursing union, governmental chief nurse and the professional association) inhibited the setting of a common policy agenda to achieve compliance with EU standards. The study findings suggest a need to critically review EU accession mechanisms and better align leadership at all governance levels.

  6. Holding the borders, holding the centre: the EU and the refugee crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gloannec, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    What has come to be called the ‘refugee crisis’ is the latest in a series of crises bedevilling the European Union – the four-fold monetary, budgetary, economic and financial ‘Euro-crisis’; a geopolitical security challenge posed by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the war in Syria and incursions into NATO airspace, and a looming Brexit, combined with the possible fragmentation of old EU member states like the United Kingdom and Spain. The ‘refugee crisis’ is the most serious of all. It encapsul...

  7. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of... (IFLE): Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting applications for new awards for...

  8. Statistical Evaluation of the EU Countries using Economic Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Stanila, M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the EU development area for the year 2012, using main statistical indicators. The cluster analysis and the Principal Component Analysis are the methods used to compare the 28 EU countries, the EU members, with each other and to determine the resemblances and the differences between them. The results show that the optimal solution is to create three clusters, allowing a suitable differentiation between the countries, while keeping the homogeneity among the countries it comprises.

  9. EU SINGLE FINANCIAL MARKET – PROSPECTS FOR CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mikita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has revealed the weaknesses of the European financial market, which triggered the European Union (EU work on further integration of this market. The aim of this article is to present the direction of changes concerning the integration of the EU financial market. These changes are mainly related to the issue of supervising the EU financial market, regulating the institutions operating in this market, protecting customers, improving the effectiveness of the market, its transparency and liquidity, as well as improving management in crisis situations.

  10. Photoluminescence of Eu2+ Doped ZnS Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Man; GUO Hai-Qing; ZHANG Zhi-Hua; LIU Feng-Qi; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2000-01-01

    Eu2+ doped ZnS nanocrystals exhibit new luminescence properties because of the enlarged energy gap of nanocrys talline ZnS host due to quantum confinement effects. Photoluminescence emission at about 520nm from Eu2+ doped ZnS nanocrystals at room temperature is investigated by using photoluminescence emission and excitation spectroscopy. Such green emission with long lifetime (ms) is proposed to be a result of excitation, ionization, carriers recapture and recombination via Eu2+ centers in nanocrystalline ZnS host.

  11. Local structure of Eu3+ ions in fluorophosphate laser glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Babu; R Vijaya; Kyoung Hyuk Jang; Hyo Jin Seo; V Lavin; C K Jayasankar

    2010-11-01

    A fluorophosphate laser glass doped with 1.0 mol% of Eu3+ ions has been prepared and studied by site-selective spectroscopy to explore the local structure of Eu3+ ions. Site-selective 50 → 71,2 emission spectra have been measured under resonant excitation to the 50 level at different wavelengths within the 70 → 50 band at 16 K. Using the Stark level positions of the 71 and 72 levels, crystal-field analysis has been carried out. The results suggest the existence of a unique kind of site for all the environments of Eu3+ ions in this glass.

  12. Characterization of Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ Long-Lasting Phosphor Synthesized by Flux Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Long-lasting phosphor Y2O2S∶Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ was synthesized by a flux method and their luminescence properties were investigated. The result indicates that the unit cell parameter c is linearly increased with the increase of Eu2O3 content in Y2O2S∶Eu3+x(0.01≤x≤0.10). On the other hand, the change of unit cell parameter a is not linear dependence. In the Y2O2S∶ Eu3+ crystal structure, Eu3+ ions only replaced Y3+ ions′ places in which it posited center position of c axis. With the increase of Eu2O3 content, the position of the strongest emission peak changed from 540 nm (5D1→7F2 transition) to 626 nm (5D0→7F2 transition), and the maximum intensity was obtained when x=0.09 in Y2O2S∶Eu3+x(0.01≤x≤0.10). This is due to the environment of trivalent europium in the crystal structure of Y2O2S. Doping with Mg2+ or Ti4+ ions alone cannot get the good long-lasting afterglow effect, whereas co-doping with Mg2+ and Ti4+ ions and excited with 365 nm ultraviolet light, a strong thermoluminesence peak appeared, red and orange long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) was also observed and the phosphorescence lasted nearly 3 h in the light perception of the dark-adapted human eye (0.32 mcd*m-2). Thus the LLP mechanism was analyzed.

  13. Eu{sup 3+} ions co-doped CLPO: Dy{sup 3+} single phase white-light emitting phosphors for near UV-based white LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yong Il; Bharat, L. Krishna; Yu, Jae Su, E-mail: jsyu@khu.ac.kr

    2015-11-15

    CaLaP{sub 3}O{sub 10}: Dy{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} phosphor powders were prepared by a facile sol–gel method. These samples were thermally treated at 900 °C for 6 h to get monazite type structure with monoclinic unit cell. The phase, morphology and optical properties of phosphor samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning/transmission electron microscope images, and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. The Dy{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} ions co-doped samples showed warm white-light emissions with lower correlated color temperature values at higher Eu{sup 3+} ion concentrations. The near-ultraviolet (NUV) excitation and the effective energy transfer form Dy{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} ions can make these phosphors as potential candidates for NUV excitation based white light-emitting diodes. - Highlights: • Single crystalline CLPO phosphors were successfully prepared by a sol–gel process. • CLPO has monazite type structure with monoclinic unit cells. • Eu{sup 3+} co-doped CLPO: Dy{sup 3+} samples give warm white-light emission with low CCT values. • The NUV excitation (392 nm) allows the use of this material for WLED applications.

  14. Probing of surface Eu{sup 3+} ions present in ZnO:Eu nanoparticles by covering ZnO:Eu core with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell: Luminescence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, L. Robindro [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India)], E-mail: robindro001@yahoo.co.in; Ningthoujam, R.S. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: rsn@barc.gov.in; Sudarsan, V. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, S. Dorendrajit [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Kulshreshtha, S.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO nanoparticles are known to have significance extent of surface Eu{sup 3+} ions due to a large difference in ionic radii. Effect of such Eu{sup 3+} ions on the luminescence properties of ZnO:Eu nanoparticles has been understood from the luminescence studies of ZnO:Eu nanoparticles covered with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell. Based on the asymmetric ratio of luminescence and extent of energy transfer, it is established that when ZnO:Eu nanoparticles are covered with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell, a part of Eu{sup 3+} ions present with ZnO:Eu core migrate to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell and occupy Y{sup 3+} lattice positions.

  15. High-Precision Measurement of Eu/Eu* in Geological Glasses via LA-ICP-MS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; McDonough, William F.; Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elemental fractionation during laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis has been historically documented between refractory and volatile elements. In this work, however, we observed fractionation between light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) when using ablation strategies involving large spot sizes (greater than 100 millimeters) and line scanning mode. In addition: (1) ion yields decrease when using spot sizes above 100 millimeters; (2) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) (i.e. Europium anomaly) positively correlates with carrier gas (He) flow rate, which provides control over the particle size distribution of the aerosol reaching the ICP; (3) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) shows a positive correlation with spot size, and (4) the changes in REE signal intensity, induced by the He flow rate change, roughly correlate with REE condensation temperatures. The REE fractionation is likely driven by the slight but significant difference in their condensation temperatures. Large particles may not be completely dissociated in the ICP and result in preferential evaporation of the less refractory LREEs and thus non-stoichiometric particle-ion conversion. This mechanism may also be responsible for Sm-Eu-Gd fractionation as Eu is less refractory than Sm and Gd. The extent of fractionation depends upon the particle size distribution of the aerosol, which in turn is influenced by the laser parameters and matrix. Ablation pits and lines defined by low aspect ratios produce a higher proportion of large particles than high aspect ratio ablation, as confirmed by measurements of particle size distribution in the laser induced aerosol. Therefore, low aspect ratio ablation introduces particles that cannot be decomposed and/or atomized by the ICP and thus results in exacerbated elemental fractionation. Accurate quantification of REE concentrations and Eu/Eu* requires reduction of large particle production during laser ablation. For the reference

  16. Spin-Wave Analysis of Specific Heat and Magnetization in EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O. W.; Henderson, A. J.; Meyer, H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent neutron scattering measurements of the spin-wave spectrum have shown that the second-nearest-neighbor exchange constant in EuO is ferromagnetic, in disagreement with previously published results from both specific-heat and magnetization measurements. We undertook a thorough study of the bulk...... data on both EuO and its isomorph EuS, including some previously unpublished specific-heat data. The new analysis resolved the controversy regarding the specific heat, which is actually in good agreement with the neutron scattering results. However, the NMR data are more sensitive to effects other than...

  17. High-Precision Measurement of Eu/Eu* in Geological Glasses via LA-ICP-MS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; McDonough, William F.; Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Elemental fractionation during laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis has been historically documented between refractory and volatile elements. In this work, however, we observed fractionation between light rare earth elements (LREEs) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) when using ablation strategies involving large spot sizes (greater than 100 millimeters) and line scanning mode. In addition: (1) ion yields decrease when using spot sizes above 100 millimeters; (2) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) (i.e. Europium anomaly) positively correlates with carrier gas (He) flow rate, which provides control over the particle size distribution of the aerosol reaching the ICP; (3) (Eu/Eu*)(sub raw) shows a positive correlation with spot size, and (4) the changes in REE signal intensity, induced by the He flow rate change, roughly correlate with REE condensation temperatures. The REE fractionation is likely driven by the slight but significant difference in their condensation temperatures. Large particles may not be completely dissociated in the ICP and result in preferential evaporation of the less refractory LREEs and thus non-stoichiometric particle-ion conversion. This mechanism may also be responsible for Sm-Eu-Gd fractionation as Eu is less refractory than Sm and Gd. The extent of fractionation depends upon the particle size distribution of the aerosol, which in turn is influenced by the laser parameters and matrix. Ablation pits and lines defined by low aspect ratios produce a higher proportion of large particles than high aspect ratio ablation, as confirmed by measurements of particle size distribution in the laser induced aerosol. Therefore, low aspect ratio ablation introduces particles that cannot be decomposed and/or atomized by the ICP and thus results in exacerbated elemental fractionation. Accurate quantification of REE concentrations and Eu/Eu* requires reduction of large particle production during laser ablation. For the reference

  18. Synthesis of CaWO4:Eu3+ phosphor powders via ethylene glycol route and its optical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Gayatri Sharma; N. Rajmuhon Singh

    2012-01-01

    Eu3+ doped CaWO4 with tetragonal system were prepared at comparatively low temperature (125 ℃) in ethylene glycol medium.The phosphor was further investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD),photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL),Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).XRD analysis indicated a decrease in the unit ce11 volune of CaWO4with increasing Eu3+ ion concentration.It indicated the homogeneous substitution of Ca2+ ions in CaWO4 by the Eu3+ ions.TEM images showed that the particle size ranged from 20 to 200 nm and it could extend the application of the nanoparticles.The photoluminescence study showed that the intensity of electric dipole transition (5D0→7F2) at 614 nm dominated over the magnetic dipole transition (5D0→7F1) at 592nm.The optimum concentration of Eu3+ for the highest luminescence was found to be 20 at.%.The as prepared samples were found to be dispersible in water and methanol.

  19. Methodology proposal for territorial distribution of greenhouse gas reduction percentages in the EU according to the strategic energy policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolon-Becerra, A. [University of Almeria, Area of Engineering Projects, Almeria, Ctra Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano 04120 (Spain); Lastra-Bravo, X. [University of Almeria, Area of Engineering Projects, Junta de Andalucia Scolarship, Ctra Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano 04120 (Spain); Bienvenido-Barcena, F. [University of Almeria, Dept. of Computer Science, Almeria, Ctra Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano 04120 (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    A 20% reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2020 is one of the main objectives of the European Union (EU) energy policy. However, this overall objective does not specify how it should be distributed among the Member States, according to each one's particular characteristics. Consequently, in this article a non-linear distribution methodology with dynamic objective targets for reducing GHG emissions is proposed. The goal of this methodology is to promote debate over the weighting of these overall objectives, according to the context and characteristics of each member state. First, an analysis is conducted of the situation of greenhouse gas emissions in the reference year (1990) used by the EU for reaching its goal of reducing them by 20% by 2020, and its progress from 1990 to 2007. Then, the methodology proposed was applied for the year 2020 on two territorial aggregation levels following the EUROSTAT Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), in the EU-15 and EU-27 member countries and on a regional level in 19 Spanish Autonomous Communities and Cities (NUTS-2). Weighting is done based on CO{sub 2} intensity, GHG emissions per capita and GHG emissions per GDP. Finally, several recommendations are provided for the formulation of energy policies. (author)

  20. On the peculiar properties of triangular-chain EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondek, Ł., E-mail: lgondek@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Szytuła, A. [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Przewoźnik, J.; Żukrowski, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Prokhorov, A.; Chernush, L.; Zubov, E. [A.A. Galkin Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute, NANU, 83114 Donetsk, R. Luxembourg str. 72 (Ukraine); Dyakonov, V. [A.A. Galkin Donetsk Physico-Technical Institute, NANU, 83114 Donetsk, R. Luxembourg str. 72 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics, PAS, 02-668 Warsaw, Al. Lotników 32/46 (Poland); Duraj, R. [Institute of Physics Technical University of Cracow, Podchorazych 1, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Tyvanchuk, Yu. [Analytical Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla and Mephodiya 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we report studies on EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} compound, that is a member of newly discovered family of huntite-related specimens for non-linear optics. For the first time, the uncommon temperature dependence of the EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} lattice parameters is reported. Additionally, the magnetism of this compound is extremely interesting. Namely, a possible interplay in between potentially magnetic rare-earth ions and 3d metal stacked within quasi-1D chain that can lead to a great variety of magnetic behaviour. Indeed, in our studies we have found 3D-long range ordering with metamagnetic behaviour, while at higher temperature the magnetic chains become uncoupled. - Graphical abstract: Torsion-like vibrations are the key to understand negative thermal expansion along the a-axis. Display Omitted - Highlights: • EuCr{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} is a peculiar triangular-chain antiferromagnet. • Rare earth sublattice is non-magnetic with Eu{sup 3+} configuration. • Cr{sup 3+} magnetic moments show 1-D behaviour along with spin fluctuations. • Torsion vibrations of Cr triangular tubes lead to anomalous expansion of unit cell.

  1. Statement about UK referendum on the EU

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Many people have expressed their concerns about the consequences of the 23 June vote in the UK for CERN, and for the UK’s relationship with CERN. CERN is an intergovernmental organisation subject to its own treaty. We are not part of the European Union, and several of our Member States, including Switzerland, in which we are headquartered, are not EU Members. Britain’s membership of CERN is not affected by the UK electorate’s vote to leave the European Union. We look forward to continuing the very constructive relationship we have shared with the UK, one of our founding members, long into the future. CERN was founded on the principle of international collaboration, and our success over the years is built on that. We will continue to work proactively to encourage ever-greater international collaboration in particle physics, and to help ensure that the UK continues to play a very active role. UK nationals remain eligible for all categories of employment at CERN, a...

  2. ECVAM, ECETOC and the EU chemicals policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botham, Philip A

    2002-12-01

    ECVAM's initiatives in validation have received significant support from the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), especially through the provision of reference chemical data banks, which contain peer-reviewed, high-quality in vivo data on commercially available chemical substances. Chemicals have been selected from these ECETOC data banks for validation studies on alternative methods for skin corrosion and irritation and for eye irritation and, in addition, an ECETOC task force peer-reviewed the selection and classification, on the basis of in vivo data, of chemicals used in the validation of three alternative methods for developmental toxicity. More recently, ECVAM and ECETOC have been pursuing parallel initiatives on the proposed new EU chemicals policy, with the common goals of ensuring that industry and European Commission resources are used to investigate only those chemicals that pose a significant risk to human health and the environment, and that the Policy requires that any testing which is required follows the Three Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement.

  3. EU Enlargement and Latvian Citizenship Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Morris

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines whether its desire to join the European Union exerted any influence upon Latvian nationality policy. The author concludes that external pressure upon Latvian policymakers during the accession process led to a significantly more liberal and inclusive citizenship law than might have otherwise been adopted. The analysis includes an assessment of current concerns in nationality and minority policy in Latvia including the large number and status of non-citizens, the application of language legislation, and the reform of the education system. EU membership is expected to make Latvian citizenship more attractive for non-citizens and the country will continue to be required to meet its international obligations regarding treatment of the non-citizen population and minorities. However, there is a risk that the completion of accession negotiations and accompanying reduction in European Commission influence coupled with intense pressure on limited economic and administrative resources in the new member states will sideline respect for and protection of minority rights.

  4. Strategies on biomass energies in EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xenakis, E. [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-08-01

    The main EU programmes, supporting the renewable deployment, are the research and development programmes JOULE, THERMIE and FAIR, included in the 4th framework programme, the ALTENER programme and the `Community Support Framework` programme. Research and development (R and E) activity within the JOULE and THERMIE programmes are divided into five areas, of which the third concerns the renewable energies. The support could range from 40 to 100 % of the cost. JOULE programme is research oriented, while the THERMIE programme is demonstration oriented. The FAIR programme is also a specific research and development programme for agriculture and agrifood industry. It could cover, among others, projects in connection with the biogas exploitation. The ALTENER programme provides support for the so called `software` actions, promoting renewables, mainly training and information actions, including events like the present one. Furthermode, it provides support for technical specifications, creation of infrastructure for the promotion of renewables and so on. ALTENER does not support investments. Finally the `Community Support Framework` programme promoting the regional development, could, in some cases, support traditional technology investments in relation to renewables. (au)

  5. Tools for EU cleaner coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque Cabal, V. [European Commission, Directorate C - Conventional Energies, Unit C3 - Coal and Oil, Brussels (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    27% of the European electricity demand are generated through the conversion of domestic primary energy sources. Therefore the Commission is of the opinion to guarantee a minimum production for coal. However, the challenge is the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from coal combustion by taking into account the safety of energy supply. Within the scope of the 'European Programme to Climate Change' the increase of energy efficiency in conversion processes of solid fossil fuels was identified as one measure not resulting too high cost that might be able to contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by 2010. (orig.) [German] 27% der in Europa benoetigten Elektrizitaet werden durch heimische oder importierte feste Brennstoffe erzeugt. Daher haelt die EU-Kommission es fuer angebracht, der Kohle einen Mindestproduktionsanteil zu sichern. Dabei liegt die aktuelle Herausforderung in der Reduzierung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen aus kohlebefeuerten Kraftwerken. Allerdings sollte dabei auch die Sicherheit der Energieversorgung beruecksichtigt werden. Der Anstieg der Energieeffizienz bei der Umwandlung fester Brennstoffe in Elektrizitaet wurde im Rahmen des 'Europaeischen Programms zur Klimaaenderung' (ECCP) als eine der Massnahmen benannt, die bis zum Jahre 2010 zur Verringerung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen beitragen koennten und die nicht mit uebermaessigen Kosten verbunden waeren. (orig.)

  6. New EU Governance Modes in Professional Sport: Enhancing Throughput Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnout Geeraert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the limits and opportunities for enhancing the democratic legitimacy of EU actions in the field of professional sport using new modes of governance. It presents a conceptual toolkit by which the ‘throughput legitimacy’ of an EU policy can be analysed. Analysing the throughput legitimacy of the European social dialogue, we establish that, by improving the latter, both input and output legitimacy can be increased. The EU could borrow some of the positive elements of the social dialogue approach and incorporate them in the steering of other issues in professional sport. For instance, it may be interesting to pre-establish certain conditions on representativeness and relevance for participation in the policy process. Crucially, working on a clear theme-per-theme-basis instead of organising outsized gatherings such as the EU sport forum would definitely benefit throughput legitimacy.

  7. Measuring commercialization success of innovations in the EU

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. Lipkova; D. Braga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider approaches and indicators for evaluating commercialization potential, and evaluate performance of the EU countries by the multi-dimensioned indicators of innovations...

  8. Sexual orientation and gender identity: developments in EU law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia (Lilian Tsourdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The amended version of the EU Qualification Directive, adopted in2011, marks further progress in ensuring LGBTI applicants’ rightsby explicitly adding gender identity alongside sexual orientation as acause of persecution.

  9. Governance and Civil Society at the EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Tomšič

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In their article, the authors deal with the role of civil society as a factor of European democratic governance. Democratic governance is perceived as an ‘extended polyarchy’ that refers both to the electoral dimension of accountability and to the mechanisms of permanent control over power-holders through institutional balance of power. The authors examine specifics of governance and civil society at the EU level, claiming that participatory democracy is unrealistic at the EU level, which holds also for citizens’ engagement in civil society organized at EU level. They argue that civil society organized at the EU level can contribute to higher accountability of the Union’s institutions, but in a specific way, less through enhancing political engagement of citizens and linking them to political institutions but more through mutual control of different societal actors that would foster greater transparency of political process.

  10. Social Appropriateness in EU Counter-Terrorism Law and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    institutions such as the European Parliament or the Court of Justice of the EU. In this chapter it is argued that the constitutional foundations of the EU play a decisive role in granting legitimacy to EU counter-terrorism law and policy and to ensuring its social acceptability. Combining sociological...... institutionalist theory with insights from the New Haven school, namely its societal and process-oriented conceptions of law, it crosses legal and political science traditions to explore the ways in which EU counter-terrorism law and policy acquire and maintain social appropriateness....... versus justice equation, on the issues of privacy and data protection, and on the broader respect for fundamental rights more generally. In this process, the legitimacy and the social appropriateness of some of these measures have been questioned, both at the societal level and before or by European...

  11. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHADOW ECONOMY IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Mihaela Tudose

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the dimension of the underground economy in the EU states between 2003 and 2015. In order to achieve this goal, we use qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first two sections of the study we resort to conceptualisation and bring up to date scientific contributions in the field of the shadow economy both in terms of its definition and the methods of quantifying the phenomenon. In the third section, based on the results of the latest research, we identify the dynamics of the underground economy on three levels: the EU-15 (before and after 2005; the EU-10 (before and after the accession of 10 countries in 2005 and the EU-3 (before and after 2007. The main conclusion is that regardless of the reporting level (national, European, world, the real size of the underground economy remains unknown.

  12. New Legal Platform for Intellectual Property in the EU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ With improving the importance on the intellectual property in China,China and EU have made effort together for helping users find and access legal resources on the current legislative framework of intellectual property(IP)protection and enforcement.

  13. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2001-07-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  14. The rise of emerging economies in the EU15 trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemoine, Françoise

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU15 manufacturing trade with developing and emerging economies has now overtaken its trade with high-income countries. This trade has strengthened the European specialization in high-end products and medium-high technological sectors. The EU15 exports have been increasingly concentrated on its neighbours, while its imports from Asia were the most dynamic. The regional integration has favoured the technological and quality upgrading of the EU15 imports from its neighbours, while its imports from Asia were characterised by the surge of high-technology goods at low prices. The EU has increasingly concentrated its trade on the large emerging economies and especially on Russia and China.

  15. China-EU Economic Relation:Fluctuating in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yong; Chen Chulian

    2009-01-01

    @@ The economic relation between China and EU has the great significance to each party as well as to the world.As the great political and economic powers in the today's world,China and EU have the urgent motivations to promote the eco-nomic cooperation between them at the global times.The economic relation be-tween China and Europe,including the trade and economic cooperation and investment between China and Europe,has been developing greatly since 1975.The bilateral trade volume has increased rapidly,almost being doubled in 3 years since 2000.The bilateral trade volume arrived at US$356.2 billion in 2007.In 2007,China's import from EU was US$111 billion,which increases by 22% comparing with that in 2006,and exportation to EU is US$245 billion,which increases by 29%.

  16. Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources (EuPathDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — EuPathDB Bioinformatics Resource Center for Biodefense and Emerging/Re-emerging Infectious Diseases is a portal for accessing genomic-scale datasets associated with...

  17. Luminescence studies of Eu-doped YBO3 host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramya G.; Nigam, Sandeep; Sudarsan, V.; Dhabekar, B. S.; Vatsa, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Highly crystalline phase of YBO3:Eu3+ phosphors were prepared by solid state reaction. The phosphor shows characteristic 5D0→7F1 (J = 1, 2, 3, 4) transition for Eu3+. Phase purity, and emission intensity increases with increase in the annealing temperature and corresponding Eu-O charge transfer band shows blue shift in excitation spectrum. Color purity, determined in terms of R/O ratio, was found to be 1.42 (CIE color coordinates x = 0.62, y = 0.36). According to the luminescence decay analysis the 5D0 level of Eu3+ lifetime is around 5ms and quantum efficiency is 72%. Thermo-luminescence (TL) spectra of the sample reveal three broad peaks between 80 and 240°C.

  18. The Evolution of EU Administrative Law and the Contributions of Nordic Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The briefing note focuses first and foremost on the duty to inform citizens of their EU rights as a future development in EU law on a Nordic backdrop......The briefing note focuses first and foremost on the duty to inform citizens of their EU rights as a future development in EU law on a Nordic backdrop...

  19. Arbeitskräftemobilität in der EU im Angesicht der Krise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Galgóczi, Béla

    2015-01-01

    . On the basis of the European Labour Force Survey we analyze developments in employment of EU8 and EU2 migrants in selected EU15 countries and compare unemployment rates between EU10 migrants and domestic workers in an attempt to identify winners and losers. At least in parts, short-term migrant labour has...

  20. Eliminating national borders as labour market barriers in the EU : a socio-legal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, H.A.M. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses one important mechanism through which the EU tries to improve the operation of its labour markets: the opening up of national borders for free worker movement within the EU. Free worker movement is a fundamental EU right; but EU enlargement begged the question of how and when to