WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit development suggested

  1. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories.

  2. Known and suggested quaternary faulting in the midcontinent United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.; Crone, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The midcontinent United States between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains contains 40 known faults or other potentially tectonic features for which published geologic information shows or suggests Quaternary tectonic faulting. We report results of a systematic evaluation of published and other publicly available geologic evidence of Quaternary faulting. These results benefit seismic-hazard assessments by (1) providing some constraints on the recurrence intervals and magnitudes of large, prehistoric earthquakes, and (2) identifying features that warrant additional study. For some features, suggested Quaternary tectonic faulting has been disproved, whereas, for others, the suggested faulting remains questionable. Of the 40 features, nine have clear geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting associated with prehistoric earthquakes, and another six features have evidence of nontectonic origins. An additional 12 faults, uplifts, or historical seismic zones lack reported paleoseismological evidence of large. Quaternary earthquakes. The remaining 13 features require further paleoseismological study to determine if they have had Quaternary earthquakes that were larger than any known from local historical records; seven of these 13 features are in or near urbanized areas where their study could affect urban hazard estimates. These seven are: (1) the belt of normal faults that rings the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas. (2) the Northeast Ohio seismic zone, (3) the Valmont and (4) Goodpasture faults of Colorado. (5) the Champlain lowlands normal faults of New York State and Vermont, and (6) the Lexington and (7) Kentucky River fault systems of eastern Kentucky. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Suggestions on Leapfrogging Development in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ The realization of leapfrogging socio-economic development in the Tibet Autonomous Region remains a key issue in the current drive to develop Western China. In this connection, the CAS Academic Divisions have sponsored a task force of a dozen CAS members and nearly 30 other experts to conduct comprehensive studies on the subject, and presented a feasibility study report to the central government. Some of their main ideas are as follows:

  4. 78 FR 47046 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental Cooperation... the first United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department... Program for implementing the United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation Agreement, which...

  5. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  6. Suggestions on the development strategy of shale gas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the aspects of shale gas resource condition, main exploration and development progress, important breakthrough in key technologies and equipment, this paper systematically summarized and analyzed current situation of shale gas development in China and pointed out five big challenges such as misunderstandings, lower implementation degree and higher economic uncertainty of shale gas resource, and still no breakthrough in exploration and development core technologies and equipment for shale gas buried depth more than 3500 m, higher cost and other non-technical factors that restrict the development pace. Aiming at the above challenges, we put forward five suggestions to promote the shale gas development in China: (1 Make strategies and set goals according to our national conditions and exploration and development stages. That is, make sure to realize shale gas annual production of 20 × 109 m3, and strives to reach 30 × 109 m3. (2 Attach importance to the research of accumulation and enrichment geological theory and exploration & development key engineering technologies for lower production and lower pressure marine shale gas reservoir, and at the same time orderly promote the construction of non-marine shale gas exploration & development demonstration areas. (3 The government should introduce further policies and set special innovation funds to support the companies to carry out research and development of related technologies and equipment, especially to strengthen the research and development of technology, equipment and process for shale gas bellow 3500 m in order to achieve breakthrough in deep shale gas. (4 Continue to promote the geological theory, innovation in technology and management, and strengthen cost control on drilling, fracturing and the whole process in order to realize efficient, economic and scale development of China's shale gas. (5 Reform the mining rights management system, establish information platform of shale

  7. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  8. Unit Performance Assessment System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Overview of the enhanced UPAS ...... . 57 xiv UNIT PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Introduccion The networking of combat vehicle simulators...converting SIMNET terrain data from the UNIX format to a DOS format as part of their work on the development of Intelligent Semi-Automated Forces. The...and Social Sciences. (AD A226 956). LB&M Associates (1992). Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program for Simulation Networkinc Training

  9. Corruption in Education Sector Development: A Suggestion for Anticipatory Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinichiro

    2001-01-01

    Proposes an anticipatory strategy that will help protect education sector development from corruption. The strategy, which may exist as a "hidden agenda" within a project, focuses on diagnosing rather than redressing a system thought to be corrupt, adopting prevention rather than punishment, informal rather than formal approaches, and…

  10. Desert grassland responses to climate and soil moisture suggest divergent vulnerabilities across the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Bradford, John B; Munson, Seth M; Duniway, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Climate change predictions include warming and drying trends, which are expected to be particularly pronounced in the southwestern United States. In this region, grassland dynamics are tightly linked to available moisture, yet it has proven difficult to resolve what aspects of climate drive vegetation change. In part, this is because it is unclear how heterogeneity in soils affects plant responses to climate. Here, we combine climate and soil properties with a mechanistic soil water model to explain temporal fluctuations in perennial grass cover, quantify where and the degree to which incorporating soil water dynamics enhances our ability to understand temporal patterns, and explore the potential consequences of climate change by assessing future trajectories of important climate and soil water variables. Our analyses focused on long-term (20-56 years) perennial grass dynamics across the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert regions. Our results suggest that climate variability has negative effects on grass cover, and that precipitation subsidies that extend growing seasons are beneficial. Soil water metrics, including the number of dry days and availability of water from deeper (>30 cm) soil layers, explained additional grass cover variability. While individual climate variables were ranked as more important in explaining grass cover, collectively soil water accounted for 40-60% of the total explained variance. Soil water conditions were more useful for understanding the responses of C3 than C4 grass species. Projections of water balance variables under climate change indicate that conditions that currently support perennial grasses will be less common in the future, and these altered conditions will be more pronounced in the Chihuahuan Desert and Colorado Plateau. We conclude that incorporating multiple aspects of climate and accounting for soil variability can improve our ability to understand patterns, identify areas of vulnerability, and predict

  11. Does the history of food energy units suggest a solution to "Calorie confusion"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargrove James L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Calorie (kcal of present U.S. food labels is similar to the original French definition of 1825. The original published source (now available on the internet defined the Calorie as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 to 1°C. The Calorie originated in studies concerning fuel efficiency for the steam engine and had entered dictionaries by 1840. It was the only energy unit in English dictionaries available to W.O. Atwater in 1887 for his popular articles on food and tables of food composition. Therefore, the Calorie became the preferred unit of potential energy in nutrition science and dietetics, but was displaced when the joule, g-calorie and kcal were introduced. This article will explain the context in which Nicolas Clément-Desormes defined the original Calorie and the depth of his collaboration with Sadi Carnot. It will review the history of other energy units and show how the original Calorie was usurped during the period of international standardization. As a result, no form of the Calorie is recognized as an SI unit. It is untenable to continue to use the same word for different thermal units (g-calorie and kg-calorie and to use different words for the same unit (Calorie and kcal. The only valid use of the Calorie is in common speech and public nutrition education. To avoid ongoing confusion, scientists should complete the transition to the joule and cease using kcal in any context.

  12. 77 FR 39320 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Singapore Memorandum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... United States and Singapore negotiated the MOI in parallel with the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement... illegal trade in environmentally sensitive goods through bilateral and regional cooperative activities... the FTA. These documents are available at: http://www.state.gov/e/oes/env/trade/singapore/index.htm...

  13. A Suggested Approach To Simplify and Improve Cervical Screening in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevention strategies in the United States have become complicated and even controversial, despite advanced understanding of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the necessary causal agent. Twenty years ago, etiologic and methodologic studies had already yielded two powerful preventive approaches. There are excellent vaccines to prevent the most carcinogenic types of HPV infection; reduced HPV endemicity will ultimately prevent a large fraction of cervical prec...

  14. A Suggested Approach to Simplify and Improve Cervical Screening in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevention strategies in the United States have become complicated and even controversial, despite advanced understanding of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the necessary causal agent. Twenty years ago, etiologic and methodologic studies had already yielded 2 powerful preventive approaches. There are excellent vaccines to prevent the most carcinogenic types of HPV infection; reduced HPV endemicity will ultimately prevent a large fraction of cervical precancer and cancers. For prevention of cervical cancer in the interim, sensitive HPV tests that target women at risk of cancer, by detection of the DNA/RNA of approximately a dozen carcinogenic HPV types, permit early diagnosis and treatment of precancers.Although HPV vaccines and tests have continued to improve, implementation of these new HPV-based prevention methods has been relatively slow in the United States and in most places worldwide. Increasing vaccination rates is the clearest and most vital long-term priority. But, for decades to come, screening will also be important. To promote useful discussion, this commentary will raise some current critical issues in simplifying and speeding the rational introduction of HPV molecular methods into US cervical screening.

  15. 75 FR 57326 - Request for Comments and Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... U.S.- Oman Free Trade Agreement, and (4) the Environmental Review of the U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement. (Documents are available at: http://www.state.gov/g/oes/env/trade/oman/index.htm ). DATES: To be... environment while promoting sustainable development in concert with the expanded bilateral trade relationship...

  16. [Suggestion for the dilemma of executing DNR in the neonatal intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ching; Chang, Pi-Chen

    2009-08-01

    The DNR (do-not-resuscitate) order is being increasingly used in pediatric practice. However, all too frequently, the DNR is signed too near the time of death in actual clinical practice. However, even so, the usage of DNR is still deemed inadequate. This article aimed to discuss the dilemma of using DNR in neonatal care. A lack of clear instructions from terminal neonatal patients affects the decision making of physicians. There is also a lack of guidelines for DNR use, which could lead to its lack of completeness. Different cultural and religious backgrounds may affect communication and ethical considerations for neonatal patients. The paper provides some suggestions for the clinical practice of DNR based on a review of the literature. It is hoped that a joint effort between clinical institutions and schools can improve neonatal care quality.

  17. Measuring relative efficiency of applied science and technology universities in province of Semnan, Iran and providing suggestions for merging units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available University of applied science and technology has been designed to create a platform for multilateral activities such as industrial, military and academic in developing countries to promote science and scientific research applications. These universities are responsible to promote practical training in quantitative and qualitative indicators and they provide appropriate infrastructure to implement theoretical graduates to solve practical problems to build necessary infrastructure to transfer modern technology into developing countries. During the past few years, there have been tremendous development on these units but some of them have not been efficient. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the relative efficiencies of various units of applied science and technology universities using data envelopment analysis. The proposed model of this paper uses two inputs including human resources as well as total assets and two outputs including the number of graduate students as well as operating profit. The results of the study have indicated that some of the units are inefficient and need to be merged with other units to increase the relative efficiency of these universities.

  18. Social and Economic Indicators of Rural Development from a Sociological Viewpoint. A Suggested Empirical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Leslie D.; And Others

    An empirical approach to the development of a system of social indicators was suggested in this paper. The paper also suggested research developed around a more inductive approach to social indicator research with 3 methodological phases representing increasing levels of methodological sophistication. The first steps attempted to conceptualize…

  19. Studies of Environmental Data Management in Representative Developed Countries and Suggestions to Data Sharing and Usage in Environmental Unites of China%以他国为例兼论数据促进我国环境部门 资源整合与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙九林; 任博

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the work and responsibilities of environmental departments or agencies and their related units of representative developed countries are examined. Some of their work is frontier, supportive, comprehensive and beneficial to sustainable development. Though the difference in national conditions, some experiences or modes of data resources exploration and practice of developed countries would be beneficial for us, would help us to enhance collaboration between internal departments of government or beyond, for example the business and Non-profit organization. Opening and sharing data would reduce cost, promote data usage, help to protect environment, benefit economy and improve people’s day-to-day life. Data is a new resource for human. Data are from nature and human and its core role is to serve human and nature.%文章介绍并论述了欧美及俄罗斯、日本等国家环境及其相关部门的职责及其工作。其部分工作体现了其综合性、前端性、支撑性、服务性。国情不同,相关事务自然不能一概而论。但他国以环境为资源,用数据科学的思想、方法对环境资源进行统筹、分析、挖掘,其实践思路和实践也许有借鉴的可能。并指出,我国在借鉴之中,或可加强政府部门之间、社会盈利与非盈利组织之间、政府部门与社会组织之间、以及个人之间的合作,通过数据公开、数据共享,从而降低成本,进行数据挖掘、利用,协力解决环境与人和谐共生问题,同时激发新的经济增长点。真正体现数据来源于自然、来源于人;同时形成数据资源这一新资源,保护并服务于自然与人。

  20. Study and Development suggestions on Full Loaded Shuttle Traffic of Bulk Freight Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xianzhang; Xiao Rui; Zong Yan; Liu Dalei

    2009-01-01

    Full loaded shuttle traffic is a balanced transport concept,and an effective approach for railways to reduce turnround of trains and improve transport efficiency.It is based on the pith of system theory,aims at overall efficiency maximization of transport system,and makes united plan on the basis of giving comprehensive consideration to resource allocation and development planning of the whole sector.In this way,it reflects the ideas of lean management and innovates the concept of transport organization.

  1. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit...... - consisting of pressure part, burner and control system. The Technical University of Denmark, MEK - Energy Engineering Section [12] has participated in the modelling process. The project has included static and dynamic modelling of the boiler concept. For optimization of operation, verication of performance......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  2. Tree demography suggests multiple directions and drivers for species range shifts in mountains of Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Jay W; Dovciak, Martin

    2016-12-09

    Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine whether species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 m above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests. We modeled elevational distributions of tree species saplings and adults using logistic regression to test whether sapling distributions suggest ongoing species range expansion upslope (or contraction downslope) relative to adults, and we used linear mixed models to determine the extent to which climate, land use, and soil variables explain these distributions. Tree demography varied with elevation by species, suggesting a potential upslope shift only for American beech, downslope shifts for red spruce (more so in cool regions) and sugar maple, and no change with elevation for balsam fir. While soils had relatively minor effects, climate was the dominant predictor for most species and more so for saplings than adults of red spruce, sugar maple, yellow birch, cordate birch, and striped maple. On the other hand, logging legacies were positively associated with American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, and negatively with red spruce and balsam fir - generally more so for adults than saplings. All species exhibited individualistic rather than synchronous demographic responses to climate and land use, and the return of red spruce to lower elevations where past logging originally benefited northern hardwood species indicates

  3. Bank Units. Assessment and Development Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are new trends in development banking sector especially concerning branches. The e-banking has diminished impact the old fashion branches as main tool finance activity. Now we have units (departments localised at supermarkets and in other strange places. Due to some researches mortgages and insurance polices ought to be sold in traditional branches according to clients preferences. Lafferty Agency researched quality of banking service condition in the UK. Base on this methodology similar case studies were done in Poland.

  4. [Development of performance measure indicators in hospital nursing units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyeong-Hwa; Kim, In-Sook

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units based on a Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This study was a methodological study. The development process consisted of 3 stages. The first stage was setting up strategies for nursing units from a nursing department's mission and vision. The second stage was developing performance measure indicators after a validity check. The third stage was modifying developed performance measure indicators and classifying them. 7 strategies were set up according to 4 perspectives of a BSC. 15 performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units were developed, and the indicators were divided into 8 independent indicators and 7 shared indicators according to the degree of performance responsibility. In addition, they were classified into two groups, 7 leading indicators and lagging indicators. The result of this study suggests that performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units provide a framework and method for nursing organizations' performance management. Also, the developed indicators are expected to provide valuable information for successful organization management.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDRONIC ROOFTOP UNIT -- HYPAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Lee; Dick Bourne; Mark Berman

    2004-03-25

    The majority of US commercial floor space is cooled by rooftop HVAC units (RTU's). RTU popularity derives chiefly from their low initial cost and relative ease of service access without disturbing building occupants. Unfortunately, current RTU's are inherently inefficient due to a combination of characteristics that unnecessarily increase cooling loads and energy use. Existing RTU's in the U.S. consume an estimated 2.4 quads annually. Inefficient RTU's create an estimated 3.5% of U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions, thus contributing significantly to global warming. Also, RTU's often fail to maintain adequate ventilation air and air filtration. This project was developed to evaluate the feasibility of a radically new ''HyPak'' RTU design that significantly and cost-effectively increases RTU performance and delivered air quality. The objective of the HyPak Project was to design, develop and test a hydronic RTU that provides a quantum improvement over conventional RTU performance. Our proposal targeted 60% and 50% reduction in electrical energy use by the HyPak RTU for dry and humid climates, respectively, when compared with a conventional unit.

  6. Current Situation and Suggestions of Decorative Fishery Development in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi; ZHANG; Ning; YANG; Hai; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Decorative fishery is an important part of recreational fisheries,Hainan has the potential to develop decorative fishery.In this paper,on the basis of the deep-going survey on the current situation of decorative fishery development in Hainan,the main questions of decorative fish cultivation and market were discussed.At the same time,many suggestions were brought up,such as exploiting the biological resources of Hainan Island,strengthening scientific research efforts,introducing new varieties of ornamental species,strengthening industrial guidance and market management,etc.,which will benefit the rational utilization of tropical biological resources and increase the whole competitive advantage of decorative fishery in Hainan Province.

  7. Faculty development and medical education units in India: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkoli, B V; Sood, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Faculty development in medical education is gaining momentum in India. While planning a National Conference on Medical Education (NCME 2007), we did a survey of principals and faculty of medical colleges to understand the status of faculty development programmes and medical education units in medical colleges in India. Questionnaires were sent to principals of medical colleges by surface mail and to faculty through a web-based programme to elicit information on various aspects of faculty development programmes and medical education units. The responses of both groups were analysed. The number of medical education units has increased rapidly after regulations have been revised in 1997 by the Medical Council of India. The main activities of medical education units were to conduct workshops targeted at medical teachers. The frequently covered topics were teaching-learning, media and student assessment. Lectures dominated the methodology of imparting information. Evaluation was done mainly by feedback questionnaires and pre-test/post-test questionnaires. Projects and follow up were rarely used. The responses from both groups were strikingly similar. The major strengths of medical education units were perceived as availability of trained and motivated faculty, good infrastructure and supportive leadership. The shortcomings were lack of infrastructure, funding and full-time faculty, besides time constraints and resistance to change. The respondents suggested strengthening of infrastructure, appointment of full-time faculty and staff, incentives and recognition of contributions to faculty development, making participation a mandatory requirement, extending the scope of faculty development programmes to include research and networking at the national level. Conclusion. The study reveals the need for policy decisions that support functioning of medical education units in India besides active participation of the faculty.

  8. 77 FR 5867 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Jordan Joint Statement on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... enhance environmental performance, and job creation. The priority areas are: (1) Institutional and policy... request for comments and suggestions, and is not a request for applications. No granting of money is...

  9. Suggestions to authors of papers submitted for publication by the United States Geological Survey with directions to typewriters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, George McLane

    1909-01-01

    The first pamphlet containing suggestions to authors for the preparation of manuscript intended for publication by the Geological Survey was published in January, 1888.  This pamphlet was revised and reprinted in 1892.  In 1904 the Survey published suggestions for the preparation of geologic folios, and in 1906 suggestions for the preparation of reports on mining districts.  All matter of present value that was included in these publications, with much additional material, has been incorporated in the pamphlet here presented.  It is hoped that these suggestions will be of general service in improving the form of manuscripts submitted and, by diminishing the work of the editorial revision and correction, in expediting their publication.

  10. Unit Test Frameworks Tools for High-Quality Software Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hamill, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This is the only book to explore unit testing as a language-independent, standalone development methodology. It covers the theory and methodology of unit test frameworks, offers instruction in unit test development, provides useful code examples in both Java and C++, and details the most commonly used frameworks from the XUnit family, including JUnit for Java, CppUnit for C++, and NUnit for .NET. It also includes the complete source code for CppUnit for C++ and NUnit for .NET.

  11. Developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for 2006 – 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Compton J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO related climate anomalies have been shown to have an impact on infectious disease outbreaks. The Climate Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/CPC has recently issued an unscheduled El Niño advisory, indicating that warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the equatorial eastern Pacific may have pronounced impacts on global tropical precipitation patterns extending into the northern hemisphere particularly over North America. Building evidence of the links between ENSO driven climate anomalies and infectious diseases, particularly those transmitted by insects, can allow us to provide improved long range forecasts of an epidemic or epizootic. We describe developing climate anomalies that suggest potential disease risks using satellite generated data. Results Sea surface temperatures (SSTs in the equatorial east Pacific ocean have anomalously increased significantly during July – October 2006 indicating the typical development of El Niño conditions. The persistence of these conditions will lead to extremes in global-scale climate anomalies as has been observed during similar conditions in the past. Positive Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR anomalies, indicative of severe drought conditions, have been observed across all of Indonesia, Malaysia and most of the Philippines, which are usually the first areas to experience ENSO-related impacts. This dryness can be expected to continue, on average, for the remainder of 2006 continuing into the early part of 2007. During the period November 2006 – January 2007 climate forecasts indicate that there is a high probability for above normal rainfall in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Islands, the Korean Peninsula, the U.S. Gulf Coast and Florida, northern South America and equatorial east Africa. Taking into consideration current observations and climate forecast information, indications

  12. Developing global climate anomalies suggest potential disease risks for 2006 – 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Small, Jennifer; Tucker, Compton J; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    Background El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related climate anomalies have been shown to have an impact on infectious disease outbreaks. The Climate Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/CPC) has recently issued an unscheduled El Niño advisory, indicating that warmer than normal sea surface temperatures across the equatorial eastern Pacific may have pronounced impacts on global tropical precipitation patterns extending into the northern hemisphere particularly over North America. Building evidence of the links between ENSO driven climate anomalies and infectious diseases, particularly those transmitted by insects, can allow us to provide improved long range forecasts of an epidemic or epizootic. We describe developing climate anomalies that suggest potential disease risks using satellite generated data. Results Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the equatorial east Pacific ocean have anomalously increased significantly during July – October 2006 indicating the typical development of El Niño conditions. The persistence of these conditions will lead to extremes in global-scale climate anomalies as has been observed during similar conditions in the past. Positive Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) anomalies, indicative of severe drought conditions, have been observed across all of Indonesia, Malaysia and most of the Philippines, which are usually the first areas to experience ENSO-related impacts. This dryness can be expected to continue, on average, for the remainder of 2006 continuing into the early part of 2007. During the period November 2006 – January 2007 climate forecasts indicate that there is a high probability for above normal rainfall in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Islands, the Korean Peninsula, the U.S. Gulf Coast and Florida, northern South America and equatorial east Africa. Taking into consideration current observations and climate forecast information, indications are that the following

  13. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    One-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition, and over one-quarter of the bridges are either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. A 70-percent increase in annual aggregate production may be required to upgrade the transportation infrastructure. Natural aggregate is widespread throughout the conterminous United States, but the location of aggregate is determined by geology and is non-negotiable. Natural aggregate is in short supply in the Coastal Plain and Mississippi embayment, Colorado Plateau and Wyoming Basin, glaciated Midwest, High Plains, and the non-glaciated Northern Plains. A variety of techniques have been used to overcome local shortages, such as the use of substitute materials, recycling, and importing high-quality aggregates from more distant locations.

  14. Vent development during the Minoan eruption (1640 BC) of Santorini, Greece, as suggested by ballistic blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, T.

    2001-05-01

    The Minoan eruption on Santorini, Greece, was a major Plinian caldera-forming event that occurred at ca. 1640 BC. The eruption is generally divided into four distinct phases: (1) Plinian phase; (2) phreatomagmatic base-surge; (3) ash-flow phase; and (4) non-welded ignimbrite. Many ballistic blocks, mostly consisting of older lava-fragments with diameters up to several meters, were ejected during phases 2 and 3. As caldera collapse followed the eruption, the precise vent location is unknown, but its position during phase 1 has been inferred from the pumice isopachs of the Plinian deposits. The location of the vent during the following phases has been estimated by measuring thickness variations, flow directions within the pyroclastic flows and impact directions of ballistic blocks. In this study, the vent location has been estimated by analysis of the size distribution of the ballistic blocks. Phase 2 blocks show no clear size-dependant distribution pattern. Blocks ranging between 0.15 and 1.60 m in diameter are found throughout almost the entire deposit, but are concentrated in the southeastern parts and within a circle of 14 km diameter, thus suggesting a maximum range of at least 6-7 km. The center of that circle is regarded as the most probable ejection region. It is proposed that the subaerial vent of phase 1 developed into an fracture opening to the SW along the general tectonic trend. Very large blocks, up to 3 m in diameter (or possibly more) were also ejected during phase 3, with the largest ones being found only in the northern half of the island group near the caldera rim. It therefore appears that at least one other vent opened in the northern half of the caldera, possibly as a new SW-NE-trending fracture.

  15. Temporal similarity between Candida albicans genotypes in a Tunisian neonatal intensive care unit suggests several nosocomial cross-contamination episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdeljelil, Jihene; Saghrouni, Fatma; Cabaret, Odile; Boukadida, Jalel; Bretagne, Stéphane; Ben Saïd, Moncef

    2012-07-01

    The nosocomial transmission of Candida albicans in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is an increasing concern and understanding the route of this transmission is critical for adequate infection control measures. The aim of our study was to assess the likeliness of nosocomial acquisition of C. albicans in the NICU of Farhat Hached hospital in Sousse (Tunisia). We genotyped 82 isolates from 40 neonates and 7 isolates from 5 health care workers (HCWs) with onychomycosis, by using CDC3 microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) and the high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Combined MLP and HRM CD3 analysis led to the delineation of 12 genotypes. Five temporal clustering caused by five genotypes occurred during the study period. Three of these genotypes were isolated in both neonates and HCWs. The first clustering included 28 isolates obtained between January 2003 and May 2004 from 16 neonates and 2 HCWs. The second clustering included three isolates collected in 2004 from three neonates and two HCWs. The third clustering included 11 isolates obtained from 6 neonates and 1 HCW in 2006. The two remaining clustering could not be associated with any HCW's contamination. These results argue for the nosocomial transmission of C. albicans in our NICU. The combined MLP and HRM analysis is a rapid first approach for tracking cross-contamination.

  16. Unit Pricing and Alternatives: Developing an Individualized Shopping Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cude, Brenda; Walker, Rosemary

    1985-01-01

    This article offers a new perspective on the teaching of unit pricing in consumer economics classes by identifying ways to teach the costs as well as the benefits of unit pricing and realistic guidelines for suggesting situations in which it is most appropriate. Alternatives to unit pricing will also be explored. (CT)

  17. ON DEVELOPING CLEANER ORGANIC UNIT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic waste products, potentially harmful to the human health and the environment, are primarily produced in the synthesis stage of manufacturing processes. Many such synthetic unit processes, such as halogenation, oxidation, alkylation, nitration, and sulfonation are common to...

  18. Guidelines and Suggestions for Developing a Vocational Agribusiness Program in Secondary Educational Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutshall, Dan

    This booklet contains guidelines and suggestions for starting or expanding an existing agricultural production/ mechanics program to include an agribusiness program in secondary schools. The ideas and recommendations were prepared and field tested in an agribusiness program started and currently in progress in Tonganoxie High School (Kansas). The…

  19. Historical Development of Newton's Laws of Motion and Suggestions for Teaching Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wheijen; Bell, Beverley; Jones, Allister

    2014-01-01

    A review of the history of Newton's Laws of Motion illustrates that the historical development gradually shifted away from intuitive experiences and daily life conventions towards a scientific regulated perspective. Three stages of the historical development are discussed, i.e. prior to the Principia, the 3rd (last) edition of the Principia,…

  20. Social class, leaders and leadership: a critical review and suggestions for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sean R; Innis, Benjamin D; Ward, Ray G

    2017-08-07

    The consideration of social class in leadership research presents many exciting directions for research. In this review, we describe and summarize how social class research has been applied to the study of leaders and the leadership process, noting that while evidence suggests those from higher social classes are more likely to occupy formal leader roles in organizations, there is little evidence suggesting that they are more effective in these roles than those from lower social classes. We conclude with a discussion of important, unanswered theoretical questions about how social class relates to the process of leadership-most notably, whether those from different classes internalize different beliefs and expectations about how people in leader and follower roles should act, and how matches or mismatches in those beliefs and expectations shape leader-follower interactions and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dradjat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focussed on the export development of cocoa bean with respect to its export growth, values and competitiveness. Based on this deve-lopment, the aim of this research is to propose alternative development strategies of export business for cocoa bean in the future. The Analysis Hierarchie Process (AHP framework of export business of cocoa bean was arranged consecutively from formulation of focuss or goals, identification of affecting factors and actors, deter mination of actor objectives, and recognition of alternative strategies needed. Each component of goals, factors, actors, objectives, and alternative strategies were valued on the basis of their importance using Saaty scales. Results of interviews with experts were analyzed using AHP technique. The development of cocoa bean export from 2000 to 2006 showed the competitiveness position of Indonesia in the world market was fairly good. In order to increase the growth and values of cocoa bean export, the experts consider the role of government as regulators and facilitators is very important. The government became the main actor for the export development through de/regulation related to the cocoa bean commodity. The objectives of actors could be achieved by combining strategies (i provision of fund in national and regional budget, as well as other sources (ii implementation of recomended technologies of cocoa, (iii acceleration of replanting program, (iv improvement of research productivity in producing high yielding plant materials, (v development of transportation facilities from farms to harbours, (vi development of farmers’ organization and partnerships as well as strategic alliance, and (viii pests and diseases control. Key words: Cocoa bean, expor, role of government, objectives and strategies.

  2. Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) revisited: Suggestions for the development of an enhanced general food motivation typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Christos; Krystallis, Athanasios; Vassallo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Recognising the need for a more statistically robust instrument to investigate general food selection determinants, the research validates and confirms Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ's) factorial design, develops ad hoc a more robust FCQ version and tests its ability to discriminate between...... at the subpopulation level based on the enhanced FCQ version bring about an optimistic message for the FCQ's ability to predict food selection behaviour. The paper concludes that some of the basic components of the original FCQ can be used as a basis for a new general food motivation typology. The development...

  3. Quality of experience in real and virtual environments: some suggestions for the development of positive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    What does one feel when one uses virtual reality? How does this experience differ from the experience associated with "real life" activities and situations? To answer these questions, we used the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), a procedure that allows researchers to investigate the daily fluctuations in the quality of experience through on-line self reports that participants fill out during daily life. The investigation consisted in one-week ESM observation (N = 42). During this week, participants underwent two virtual reality sessions: Immediately after the exposure to virtual environments, they were asked to complete a ESM report. For data analysis, experiential variables were aggregated into four dimensions: Mood, Engagement, Confidence, and Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation. Findings showed that virtual experience is characterized by a specific configuration, which comprises significantly positive values for affective and cognitive components. In particular, positive scores of Mood suggest that participants perceived VR as an intrinsically pleasurable activity, while positive values of Engagement indicate that the use of VR and the experimental task provided valid opportunities for action and high skill investment. Furthermore, results showed that virtual experience is associated with Flow, a state of consciousness characterized by narrowed focus of attention, deep concentration, positive affect and intrinsic reward. Implications for VR research and practice are discussed.

  4. A literature review of professionalism in surgical education: suggested components for development of a curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptula, Peter; Chun, Maria B J

    2013-01-01

    While it is evident that a surgeon must master medical knowledge and technical skill, there are other "soft skills" that are essential to a successful surgeon. One of these skills is professionalism. The challenge in surgical education lies in developing an effective professionalism curriculum and a related method of evaluation. Our review updates the literature and provides recommendations for improving instruction and evaluation of professionalism. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge. We restricted our search to documents published from 2009 to 2012 that address methods of teaching and tools for assessing professionalism in surgical education. Sixty-three documents were reviewed, with 14 fitting our search criteria for professionalism in surgical education completely. Other articles focused on the topics of professionalism in surgery, medical professionalism, and professionalism education in medical specialties other than surgery. Development of a professionalism curriculum for surgical residents might begin with defining professionalism in terms of tangible behaviors. The program might also include a precurriculum preparatory course and simulation-based training. Residency programs must also maintain professionalism among its faculty. Assessment in the form of multisource feedback that is consistent with observable behavioral definitions of professionalism should also be considered in evaluating resident professionalism. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) revisited. Suggestions for the development of an enhanced general food motivation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, Christos; Krystallis, Athanasios; Vassallo, Marco; Pagiaslis, Anastasios

    2009-02-01

    Recognising the need for a more statistically robust instrument to investigate general food selection determinants, the research validates and confirms Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ's) factorial design, develops ad hoc a more robust FCQ version and tests its ability to discriminate between consumer segments in terms of the importance they assign to the FCQ motivational factors. The original FCQ appears to represent a comprehensive and reliable research instrument. However, the empirical data do not support the robustness of its 9-factorial design. On the other hand, segmentation results at the subpopulation level based on the enhanced FCQ version bring about an optimistic message for the FCQ's ability to predict food selection behaviour. The paper concludes that some of the basic components of the original FCQ can be used as a basis for a new general food motivation typology. The development of such a new instrument, with fewer, of higher abstraction FCQ-based dimensions and fewer items per dimension, is a right step forward; yet such a step should be theory-driven, while a rigorous statistical testing across and within population would be necessary.

  6. Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) revisited: Suggestions for the development of an enhanced general food motivation typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Christos; Krystallis, Athanasios; Vassallo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    consumer segments in terms of the importance they assign to the FCQ motivational factors. The original FCQ appears to represent a comprehensive and reliable research instrument. However, the empirical data do not support the robustness of its 9-factorial design. On the other hand, segmentation results...... at the subpopulation level based on the enhanced FCQ version bring about an optimistic message for the FCQ's ability to predict food selection behaviour. The paper concludes that some of the basic components of the original FCQ can be used as a basis for a new general food motivation typology. The development...... of such a new instrument, with fewer, of higher abstraction FCQ-based dimensions and fewer items per dimension, is a right step forward; yet such a step should be theory-driven, while a rigorous statistical testing across and within population would be necessary....

  7. Analysis on Protection of GI Product Hanyuan Chinese Prickly Ash and Suggestions of its Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Hanyuan Prickly Ash is a type of GI products with very deep cultural essence.From such humanistic factors as name origin,historical origin,fame,cultivation technology,and management measure,and such natural factors as climatic environment and soil conditions,this paper analysis key factors for protection of GI product Hanyuan Prickly Ash.Then it discusses about industrial development of Hanyuan Prickly Ash from suitable planting areas and climate.It proposes that we should gradually raise safety and hygienic indexes,revise and implement local standards,strengthen popularization of harmless production technologies and quality control of product,promote "enterprise + base" industrial model,and implement government marketing of brand and industry.

  8. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dradjat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Black pod rot disease (BPRD which is caused by Phytophthora palmivora is one of the main diseases of cocoa cultivations particularly in plantations with wet climate. Black pod rot can develop rapidly under high humidity environments, particularly during rainy seasons. This disease can cause loss of harvest of up to 46.63% in East Java. The various control efforts attempted so far have not resulted in significant improvements. Urea, in addition to functioning as fertilizer, can also produce the ammonia gas which is believed to be able to suppress black pod rot. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of black pod rot control using the combination of lime and urea. This research was conducted from June to September 2013. The materials used in test included sterile soil, black pod rot infected cocoa, urea, and agricultural lime. Observation results showed that ammonia could form from urea. Lime can increase the speed of the formation. The ammonia gas forming from 0.06% urea and 0.3% lime can control the P. palmivora fungus inside the soil. Key words: Pod rot, P. palmivora, urea, lime, ammonia

  9. Neurotransmitter alterations in embryonic succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH deficiency suggest a heightened excitatory state during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snead O Carter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSADH (aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (Aldh5a1; γ-hydroxybutyric (GHB aciduria deficiency is a defect of GABA degradation in which the neuromodulators GABA and GHB accumulate. The human phenotype is that of nonprogressive encephalopathy with prominent bilateral discoloration of the globi pallidi and variable seizures, the latter displayed prominently in Aldh5a1-/- mice with lethal convulsions. Metabolic studies in murine neural tissue have revealed elevated GABA [and its derivatives succinate semialdehyde (SSA, homocarnosine (HC, 4,5-dihydroxyhexanoic acid (DHHA and guanidinobutyrate (GB] and GHB [and its analogue D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG] at birth. Because of early onset seizures and the neurostructural anomalies observed in patients, we examined metabolite features during Aldh5a1-/- embryo development. Methods Embryos were obtained from pregnant dams sacrificed at E (embryo day of life 10–13, 14–15, 16–17, 18–19 and newborn mice. Intact embryos were extracted and metabolites quantified by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (n = 5–15 subjects, Aldh5a1+/+ and Aldh5a1-/- for each gestational age group. Data was evaluated using the t test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis. Significance was set at the 95th centile. Results GABA and DHHA were significantly elevated at all gestational ages in Aldh5a1-/- mice, while GB was increased only late in gestation; SSA was not elevated at any time point. GHB and D-2-HG increased in an approximately linear fashion with gestational age. Correlative studies in human amniotic fluid from SSADH-deficient pregnancies (n = 5 also revealed significantly increased GABA. Conclusion Our findings indicate early GABAergic alterations in Aldh5a1-/- mice, possibly exacerbated by other metabolites, which likely induce a heightened excitatory state that may predispose neural networks to epilepsy in these animals.

  10. Developing a successful alternative maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C

    1987-07-01

    The users of maternity services are becoming increasingly interested in alternative delivery options, as a result hospitals are developing customer oriented, competitive maternity services. In this article, the author describes one hospital's efforts at developing a customer oriented family birthing center: the rationale, the benefits, the marketing and the satisfying results.

  11. Best Practices in Teachers’ Professional Development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Desimone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses best practices in teachers’ professional development (PD in the United States (U.S.. We begin by presenting a conceptual framework for effective professional development, which suggests five key features that make professional development effective—content focus, active learning, coherence, sustained duration, and collective participation. We then describe the findings from recent U.S. research that has tested the five features, with an emphasis on the results of rigorous randomized control trials. We discuss several insights gained from this work and that have helped refine the framework. They are that (a changing procedural classroom behavior is easier than improving content knowledge or inquiry-oriented instruction techniques; (b teachers vary in response to the same PD; (c PD is more successful when it is explicitly linked to classroom lessons; (d PD research and implementation must allow for urban contexts (e.g., student and teacher mobility; and (e leadership plays a key role in supporting and encouraging teachers to implement in the classroom the ideas and strategies they learned in the PD. We then examine three major trends in how professional development for teachers is evolving in the U.S.—a move away from short workshops, linking teacher PD to evaluations, and the use of video technology to improve and monitor the effects of PD. Finally, we discuss the challenges faced by districts and schools in implementing effective professional development.

  12. Scenario Development for the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, M.; Gupta, H.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Hartmann, H.; Wagener, T.

    2006-12-01

    The primary goal of employing a scenario development approach for the U.S. southwest is to inform regional policy by examining future possibilities related to regional vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration. This approach is necessary due to a lack of existing explicit water resources application of scenarios to the entire southwest region. A formal approach for scenario development is adopted and applied towards water resources issues within the arid and semi-arid regions of the U.S. southwest following five progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. In the scenario definition phase, the inputs of scientists, modelers, and stakeholders were collected in order to define and construct relevant scenarios to the southwest and its water sustainability needs. From stakeholder-driven scenario workshops and breakout sessions, the three main axes of principal change were identified to be climate change, population development patterns, and quality of information monitoring technology. Based on the extreme and varying conditions of these three main axes, eight scenario narratives were drafted to describe the state of each scenario's respective future and the events which led to it. Events and situations are described within each scenario narrative with respect to key variables; variables that are both important to regional water resources (as distinguished by scientists and modelers), and are good tracking and monitoring indicators of change. The current phase consists of scenario construction, where the drafted scenarios are re-presented to regional scientists and modelers to verify that proper key variables are included (or excluded) from the eight narratives. The next step is to construct the data sets necessary to implement the eight scenarios on the respective computational models of modelers investigating vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian

  13. Development of biovigilance in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. I. Whitaker

    2010-01-01

    @@ Abstract Background Hemovigilance systems have been in existence for over 10 years, a consequence of the transmission of HIV through the blood supply and the recognition of the im-pact of other serious adverse events associated with transfusion on the safety of blood transfusion. Hemo-vigilance systems now have been implemented globally in most developed countries, with a few exceptions, to monitor the adverse events and incidents associated with blood donation and transfusion. ' Biovigilance'broadens the scope beyond blood to incorporate monito-ring of adverse events associated with tissue, organs and cellular components.

  14. Electronic Unit Pump Test Bench Development and Pump Properties Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo-lan; HUANG Ying; ZHANG Fu-jun; ZHAO Chang-lu

    2006-01-01

    A unit pump test bench is developed on an in-line pump test platform. The bench is composed of pump adapting assembly, fuel supply subsystem, lubricating subsystem and a control unit. A crank angle domain injection control method is given out and the control accuracy can be 0.1° crank degree. The bench can test bot h mechanical unit pump and electronic unit pump. A test model-PLD12 electronic unit pump is tested. Full pump delivery map and some influence factors test is d one. Experimental results show that the injection quantity is linear with the de livery angle. The quantity change rate is 15% when fuel temperature increases 30℃. The delivery quantity per cycle increases 30mg at 28V drive voltage. T he average delivery difference for two same type pumps is 5%. Test results show that the bench can be used for unit pump verification.

  15. Current Developments in Communications Law in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadl, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Article reviews some of the major developments in communications law in the United States in the past year (1972). Significant events are covered in the areas of cable television, television programming and domestic satelites. (Author)

  16. Measured Test-Driven Development: Using Measures to Monitor and Control the Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dubinsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze Test Driven Development (TDD from cognitive and social perspectives. Based on our analysis, we suggest a technique for controlling and monitoring the TDD process by examining measures that relate to the size and complexity of both code and tests. We call this approach Measured TDD. The motivation for TDD arose from practitioners' tendency to rush into code production, skipping the required testing needed to manufacture quality products. The motivation for Measured TDD is based on difficulties encountered by practitioners in applying TDD. Specifically, with the need to frequently refactor the unit, after every few test and code steps have been performed. We found that the suggested technique enables developers to gain better control over the development process.

  17. Neurology in the United Kingdom. I: Historical development.

    OpenAIRE

    Langton Hewer, R; Wood, V A

    1992-01-01

    International comparisons suggest that British neurological services are underdeveloped. Historical factors which have contributed to the current state of neurological services in the United Kingdom are described. Key issues include the dominance of London and the concept of specialised hospitals in the early history of neurology; the subsequent recognition of the needs of other parts of the United Kingdom, of district general hospitals, and of patients with chronic neurological disabilities ...

  18. Suggestions toward some discourse-analytic approaches to text difficulty: with special reference to ‘T-unit configuration’ in the textual unfolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Lotfipour-Saedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents some suggestions towards discourse-analytic approaches for ESL/EFL education, with the focus on identifying the textual forms which can contribute to the textual difficulty. Textual difficulty / comprehensibility, rather than being purely text-based or reader-dependent, is certainly a matter of interaction between text and reader. The paper will look at some of the textual factors which can be argued to make a text more or less readable for the same reader. The main focus here will be on academic texts. The high cognitive load and low readability of the expository texts in various academic disciplines will be argued to belong to certain textual strategies as well as variations in the configurations of the T-units as the prime scaffolding for the textualization process. Different categories of these variations to be discussed here will be exemplified from a few academic and expository registers. More extensive textual analyses will, of course, be necessary in order to be able to make evidential suggestions for possible correlations between certain types and clusters of T-unit configurations on the one hand, and cognitive load and readability indices on the other, across various academic registers, genres and disciplines.

  19. The chairside developer and the making of an inexpensive unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, R B; Lobprise, H B

    1993-06-01

    A chairside developer using rapid developer/fixer solutions is an indispensible aid for the veterinary dental practitioner. These units can be expensive. This "light-hearted cowboy" article describes how to construct a chairside dental film developer using inexpensive materials.

  20. The use of performance improvement methods to enhance emergency department patient satisfaction in the United States: a critical review of the literature and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Cruz, Brian L; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2006-07-01

    The authors reviewed the evidence on performance improvement methods for increasing emergency department (ED) patient satisfaction to provide evidence-based suggestions for clinical practice. Data sources consisted of searches through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, Cochrane Library, and Emergency Medicine Abstracts and a manual search of references. Articles were included if they reported a performance improvement intervention targeting patient satisfaction in the ED setting. Articles on studies not conducted in the United States or that failed to provide enough details to allow critical evaluation of the study were excluded. Two authors used structured evaluation criteria to independently review each retained study. Nineteen articles met all selection criteria. Three studies found varying levels of support for multicomponent interventions, predominantly focused on implementation of clinical practice guidelines for specific presenting complaints and process redesign. Sixteen studies evaluated single-component interventions, with the following having at least one supportive study: using alternating patient assignment to provider teams rather than "zone"-based assignment, enhancing provider communication and customer service skills, incorporating information delivery interventions (e.g., pamphlets, video) that target patient expectations, using preformatted charts, and establishing ED-based observation units for specific conditions such as asthma and chest pain. There is modest evidence supporting a range of performance improvement interventions for improving ED patient satisfaction. Further work is needed before specific, evidence-based recommendations can be made regarding which process changes are most effective. Recommendations are made for improving the quality of performance improvement efforts in the ED setting.

  1. Development of Key Technologies of Large Hydro Unit in HEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Weizhang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction to HEC Harbin Electric Machinery Company Limited (HEC) is a pivotal company that produces large electric machinery and accessorial control equipment in China.The hydro units made by HEC have accounted for about half of the large-and medium-size hydropower units installed in China,while the thermal generator units occupy about one-third of the total thermal capacity of China.HEC has the ability to develop,design and manufacture products independently,and its typical products include hydro turbine,hydro generator,turbo generator and control equipment.

  2. An Update on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Della Anne

    2017-03-08

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals initiative, designed to meet the needs of the world's poorest, ended in 2015. The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made through the Millennium Development Goals and the additional work needed to address vulnerable populations worldwide, especially women and children. A description of the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals, enacted to address the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development for all people, is provided.

  3. The vacuum system for technological unit development and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukeshov, A. M.; Gabdullina, A. T.; Amrenova, A. U.; Giniyatova, Sh G.; Kaibar, A.; Sundetov, A.; Fermakhan, K.

    2015-11-01

    The paper shows results of development of plasma technological unit on the basis of accelerator of vacuum arc and automated system. During the previous years, the authors investigated the operation of pulsed plasma accelerator and developed unique technologies for hardening of materials. Principles of plasma formation in pulsed plasma accelerator were put into basis of the developed unit. Operation of the pulsed arc accelerator was investigated at different parameters of the charge. The developed vacuum system is designed for production of hi-tech plasma units in high technologies in fields of nanomaterials, mechanical and power engineering and production with high added value. Unlike integrated solutions, the system is a module one to allow its low cost, high reliability and simple maintenance. The problems of use of robots are discussed to modernize the technological process.

  4. The United Nations University and Sustainable Mountain Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Itaru Yasui

    2005-01-01

    @@ The United Nations University (UNU) is an international community of scholars engaged in research, postgraduate training and knowledge dissemination on the pressing global problems of human survival, development and welfare that are concerns of the United Nations, its peoples and member states. UNU works through a global network of its own research and training centers and programmes, and of associated and collaborating institutions and scholars.

  5. Methodological approaches to developing a plan of land and economic unit of the settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with problematic of legislation, the legal relations regulated by which are associated with the use of land in the settlements of Ukraine. Methodological approaches on the development of the plan on land-economic settlements unit have been suggested. It is proved that the land management documentation provides an effective planning of the territorial development of urban and rural settlements.

  6. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  7. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  8. Development of a Mobile Sensing Unit and Its Prototype Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusuke Mizuno; Yozo Fujino; Keita Kataoka; Yoshihiro Matsumoto

    2008-01-01

    This paper represents a design and development of a mobile sensing unit as well as its prototype implementation for railway track monitoring. The unit consists of an ultra-small personal computer (PC), a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, an accelerometer and an ADC (Analog/Digital Converter) so that the unit can trace the route while capturing an acceleration response of a passenger vehicle. The unit en-ables more frequent and qualitative data acquisition compared with traditional and the state of the practice railway track inspection equipments. Locating disorder is the key of our unit, which has a reasonable accu-racy of positioning with GPS data, existing facilities landmarks, and car acceleration responses. The pro-posed unit is a promising device for efficient properties management of railway agencies. The prototype im-plementation shows a result that car acceleration responses are related with the track displacements in low frequencies. The results also imply that sensor settlement on a vehicle floor, not axes or bogies, is effective for capturing track vertical displacements.

  9. Plant breeding and rural development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KE Woeste; SB Blanche; KA Moldenhauer; CD Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Plant breeders contributed enormously to the agricultural and economic development of the United States. By improving the profitability of farming, plant breeders improved the economic condition of farmers and contributed to the growth and structure of rural communities. In the years since World War II, agriculture and the quality of rural life have been driven by...

  10. Comparison of staff and family perceptions of causes of noise pollution in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and suggested intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsheen Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise and excessive, unwanted sound in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU is common and has a major impact on patients′ sleep and recovery. Previous research has focused mostly on absolute noise levels or included only staff as respondents to acknowledge the causes of noise and to plan for its reduction. Thus far, the suggested interventions have not ameliorated noise, and it continues to serve as a barrier to recovery. In addition to surveying PICU providers through internet-based software, patients′ families were evaluated through in-person interviews utilizing a pretested instrument over 3 months. Families of patients admitted for more than 24 h were considered eligible for evaluation. Participants were asked to rank causes of noise from 1 to 8, with eight being highest, and identified potential interventions as effective or ineffective. In total, 50 families from 251 admissions and 65 staff completed the survey. Medical alarms were rated highest (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 4.9 ± 2.1 [2.8-7.0], followed by noise from medical equipment (mean ± SD, 4.7 ± 2.1 [2.5-6.8]. This response was consistent among PICU providers and families. Suggested interventions to reduce noise included keeping a patient′s room door closed, considered effective by 93% of respondents (98% of staff; 88% of families, and designated quiet times, considered effective by 82% (80% of staff; 84% of families. Keeping the patient′s door closed was the most effective strategy among survey respondents. Most families and staff considered medical alarms an important contributor to noise level. Because decreasing the volume of alarms such that it cannot be heard is inappropriate, alternative strategies to alert staff of changes in vital signs should be explored.

  11. 甲醇燃料发展形势及建议%Development situation and suggestion of methanol fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗海; 李雪梅; 李序城

    2011-01-01

    As a new alternative energy,methanol fuel is paid increasing attention in recent years. The significance of methanol fuel is introduced. Its technical feasibility, safety and environmental protection are analyzed. The objective conditions of the development of methanol fuel in China are pointed out. The suggestions for its development are put forward as well.%主要介绍了甲醇燃料作为替代能源的重大意义,深入分析了甲醇燃料的技术可行性、安全性和环保性,概述了我国发展甲醇燃料的客观条件,并对甲醇燃料的发展提出了建议.

  12. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  13. The career aspirations of adolescents with eating disorders: an exploratory study and suggested links to adolescent self-concept development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsika, Artemis K; Tzavela, Eleni C; Apostolidou, Eftychia; Antonogeorgos, George; Sakou, Irine-Ikbale; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The health effects of eating disorders (EDs) in adolescence have been widely studied, but their impact on present adolescent psychosocial adjustment and development have been overseen. This study aimed to investigate the association between EDs and career aspirations in middle adolescence. The participants were 147 adolescents diagnosed with EDs. Participants reported on their future career aspirations, and these were coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education of 1997. Of the participants, 83 adolescents were followed up longitudinally, and their aspirations were reassessed and compared for stability across the two assessments. Moreover, participants' career aspirations were compared to those of healthy (non-ED) best-friend controls. Health-related and social-behavioral science careers were chosen significantly more by adolescents with an ED as compared to their non-ED counterparts. For adolescents with an ED, career choices were consistent across reassessments. These findings suggest that adolescents with an ED gravitate toward careers associated with their pathology, namely, both facets of their mind-body pathology. This finding may indicate restricted identity development for adolescents with an ED. Suggestions for treatments protocols to include identity exploration are discussed.

  14. What would a theory of interprofessional education look like? Some suggestions for developing a theoretical framework for teamwork training 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2006-12-01

    Much of the literature on interprofessional education (IPE) is descriptive, anecdotal, and atheoretical. To advance both practice and research in this field, IPE needs to develop theoretical frameworks that: (i) identify major concepts to guide the development of course and program structures and processes, (ii) specify learning objectives and effective methods for their achievement, (iii) suggest appropriate roles for faculty and students in the educational process, and (iv) aid in research and assessment of program impacts and outcomes. Following an exploration of what theory should mean and the role it might play in advancing IPE, this discussion surveys five different theoretical approaches for guidance in developing an IPE framework: (i) cooperative, collaborative, or social learning; (ii) experiential learning; (iii) epistemology and ontology of interdisciplinary inquiry; (iv) cognitive and ethical student development; and (v) education of the reflective practitioner. Common themes are discussed and their implications for IPE are explored. These include: (i) social context of collaborative and experiential learning, (ii) epistemology and ontology, facts and values, (iii) importance of reflection, and (iv) implications for student and faculty roles. Overall, this discussion aims to foster continued dialogue, discussion, and debate on the need for, and the role of, theory in IPE.

  15. Power developed by motor units of the peroneus tertius muscle of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Julien; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnes; Gioux, Maxime

    2003-11-01

    relation could be obtained if slow, fast resistant, and fast fatigable motor units were activated at different frequencies. These results suggest that during a movement, the frequency of activation of motor units is mainly adjusted to the movement velocity and that the power developed by a muscle is mainly adjusted by the number of recruited motor units.

  16. Development and operation of 1 MW wind power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seleznev, I.; Lavrov, V. [Machine-building Design Bureau, (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Development of wind power units (WPUs), which operate on renewable wind power, as well as combined power sources including WPUs, have an important national economic significance in the Russian Federation, particularly in the areas of construction and operation of nuclear power plants, hydro-electric stations and other traditional power plants. Development of WPUs of high power level is a complicated task, and the solution requires investigations in the areas of experimental design, technology, and the organization of industrial production. Initially, the problem of the development of large diameter propellers, power electric equipment, reducers and drive mechanisms, automatic control devices, and control and diagnostic system need to be solved. This report covers the basic results and directions of the work of the Machine-building Design Bureau `Raduga` in the field of wind power engineering as well as the basic performance of the units. (author). 7 figs.

  17. Different expression patterns of duplicated PHANTASTICA-like genes in Lotus japonicus suggest their divergent functions during compound leaf development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hong LUO; Jun YAN; Lin WENG; Jun YANG; Zhong ZHAO; Jiang Hua CHEN; Xiao He HU; Da LUO

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies on leaf development demonstrate that the mechanism on the adaxial-abaxial polarity pattern formation could be well conserved among the far-related species, in which PHANTASTICA (PAHN)-like genes play important roles. In this study, we explored the conservation and diversity on functions of PHAN-like genes during the compound leaf development in Lotusjaponicus, a papilionoid legume. Two PHAN-like genes in L. japonicus, LjPHANa and LjPHANb,were found to originate from a gene duplication event and displayed different expression patterns during compound leaf development. Two mutants, reduced leaflets1 (rel1) and reduced leaflets3 (rel3), which exhibited decreased adaxial identity of leaflets and reduced leaflet initiation, were identified and investigated. The expression patterns of both LjPHANs in rel mutants were altered and correlated with abnormalities of compound leaves. Our data suggest that LjPHANa and LjPHANb play important but divergent roles in regulating adaxial-abaxial polarity of compound leaves in L. japonicus.

  18. Nursing students' perspectives and suggestions on patient safety--implications for developing the nursing education curriculum in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Bondas, Terese; Jasper, Melanie; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-02-01

    Nursing students' close involvement in knowledge development about patient safety will enhance the integrity of the current content of nursing education and pave the way towards developing a nursing curriculum that facilitates achieving a safer health-care system. This study explores nursing students' perspectives and suggestions on developing patient safety aspects of the nursing curriculum in the context of Iranian culture. A qualitative methodology involving three focus groups with a purposive sample of 18 nursing students from a large Iranian nursing school, utilising directed semi-structured interviews generated data, which was analysed using the content analysis process. Two main themes emerged from content analysis: (1) "involving students fully in patient care" with subthemes 'building a trusting relationship between education and practice', and 'promoting inter-dependence between health-care providers', and (2) "structuring patient safety education" with subthemes 'transforming nursing routines to evidence-based care', and 'connecting care to patient safety issues'. The extent of students' involvement in clinical practice and clinical nurses' roles in student education in practice requires clarification. The curriculum needs to incorporate patient safety aspects throughout, and include interdisciplinary education to ensure compliance with patient safety policies. Moreover, successful implementation of such a curriculum necessitates cooperation from nursing practice and instructors to meet nursing students' expectations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How and Why to Implement HACCP in Food Businesses in Developing Countries? Suggestions to Afghan Government and Private Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Naim Khalid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Afghanistan food safety is managed by several ministries including Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Commerce and municipalities. There is no food law but multiple ministerial decrees which ensure if GMP is implemented well. There is no legal requirement to get food safety certification. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP is recognized as a key part of food safety management practice in the global food industry and can be applied at any stage of the food supply chain. This article discusses accepted approaches to the application of HACCP principles for the development, implementation, and maintenance of HACCP plan. It is intended as an introduction to food safety system in Afghanistan, giving propositions to government on how to apply the principles in a stepwise approach, and showing how HACCP benefit public and private sector and also suggesting ways how to adapt this approach in the food businesses.

  20. Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest Mechanisms Involving Early B-Cell Development in Canine IgA Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowiack, Marcel; Kierczak, Marcin; Bergvall, Kerstin; Axelsson, Erik; Tintle, Linda; Marti, Eliane; Roosje, Petra; Leeb, Tosso; Hedhammar, Åke; Hammarström, Lennart; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immune deficiency disorder in both humans and dogs, characterized by recurrent mucosal tract infections and a predisposition for allergic and other immune mediated diseases. In several dog breeds, low IgA levels have been observed at a high frequency and with a clinical resemblance to human IgAD. In this study, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genomic regions associated with low IgA levels in dogs as a comparative model for human IgAD. We used a novel percentile groups-approach to establish breed-specific cut-offs and to perform analyses in a close to continuous manner. GWAS performed in four breeds prone to low IgA levels (German shepherd, Golden retriever, Labrador retriever and Shar-Pei) identified 35 genomic loci suggestively associated (p IgA levels. In German shepherd, three genomic regions (candidate genes include KIRREL3 and SERPINA9) were genome-wide significantly associated (p IgA levels. A ~20kb long haplotype on CFA28, significantly associated (p = 0.0005) to IgA levels in Shar-Pei, was positioned within the first intron of the gene SLIT1. Both KIRREL3 and SLIT1 are highly expressed in the central nervous system and in bone marrow and are potentially important during B-cell development. SERPINA9 expression is restricted to B-cells and peaks at the time-point when B-cells proliferate into antibody-producing plasma cells. The suggestively associated regions were enriched for genes in Gene Ontology gene sets involving inflammation and early immune cell development. PMID:26225558

  1. Strategic Development of the Manchester United Football Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad ROSCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The entry in an informational society which is developing day by day has increased the importance of economics on the professional sports market. The ways of economy and sport have aways met, but they were never so interdependent as in our days. In order to resist on the market, but especially in order to be competitive and to obtain sporting succes, a modern football club must consider managerial practices which to permit a good economic development. Manchester United is one of the most diversified football clubs in the world, earning income from various markets, such as the gambling, clothing, hospitality and alimentation or entertainment markets. The research presents some of the diversification forms Manchester United has used in order to grow its financial incomes.

  2. Ongoing Space Nuclear Systems Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Werner; S. Johnson; Michael G. Houts; Donald T. Palac; Lee S. Mason; David I. Poston; A. Lou Qualls

    2011-10-01

    Reliable, long-life power systems are required for ambitious space exploration missions. Nuclear power and propulsion options can enable a bold, new set of missions and introduce propulsion capabilities to achieve access to science destinations that are not possible with more conventional systems. Space nuclear power options can be divided into three main categories: radioisotope power for heating or low power applications; fission power systems for non-terrestrial surface application or for spacecraft power; and fission power systems for electric propulsion or direct thermal propulsion. Each of these areas has been investigated in the United States since the 1950s, achieving various stages of development. While some nuclear systems have achieved flight deployment, others continue to be researched today. This paper will provide a brief overview of historical space nuclear programs in the U.S. and will provide a summary of the ongoing space nuclear systems research, development, and deployment in the United States.

  3. Development of Wolsong Unit 2 Containment Analysis Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoon, Choi [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Ko Bong; Chan, Park Young [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To be prepared for the full scope safety analysis of Wolsong unit 2 with modified fuel, input decks for the various objectives, which can be read by GOTHIC 7.2b(QA), are developed and tested for the steady state simulation. A detailed nodalization of 39 control volumes and 92 flow paths is constructed to determine the differential pressure across internal walls or hydrogen concentration and distribution inside containment. A lumped model with 15 control volumes and 74 flow paths has also been developed to reduce the computer run time for the assessments in which the analysis results are not sensitive to detailed thermal hydraulic distribution inside containment such as peak pressure, pressure dependent signal and radionuclide release. The input data files provide simplified representations of the geometric layout of the containment building (volumes, dimensions, flow paths, doors, panels, etc.) and the performance characteristics of the various containment subsystems. The parameter values are based on best estimate or design values for that parameter. The analysis values are determined by conservatism depending on the analysis objective and may be different for various analysis objectives. Basic input decks of Wolsong unit 2 were developed for the various analysis purposes with GOTHIC 7.2b(QA). Depend on the analysis objective, two types of models are prepared. Detailed model models each confined room in the containment as a separate node. All of the geometric data are based on the drawings of Wolsong unit 2. Developed containment models are simulating the steady state well to the designated initial condition. These base models will be used for Wolsong unit 2 in case of safety analysis of full scope is needed.

  4. Expression of the KNOTTED HOMEOBOX Genes in the Cactaceae Cambial Zone Suggests Their Involvement in Wood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Rodríguez-Alonso, Gustavo; Petrone, Emilio; Vasco, Alejandra; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Shishkova, Svetlana; Terrazas, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem that produces secondary xylem (i.e., wood) and phloem. Different Cactaceae species develop different types of secondary xylem; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying wood formation in the Cactaceae. The KNOTTED HOMEOBOX (KNOX) gene family encodes transcription factors that regulate plant development. The role of class I KNOX genes in the regulation of the shoot apical meristem, inflorescence architecture, and secondary growth is established in a few model species, while the functions of class II KNOX genes are less well understood, although the Arabidopsis thaliana class II KNOX protein KNAT7 is known to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis. To explore the involvement of the KNOX genes in the enormous variability of wood in Cactaceae, we identified orthologous genes expressed in species with fibrous (Pereskia lychnidiflora and Pilosocereus alensis), non-fibrous (Ariocarpus retusus), and dimorphic (Ferocactus pilosus) wood. Both class I and class II KNOX genes were expressed in the cactus cambial zone, including one or two class I paralogs of KNAT1, as well as one or two class II paralogs of KNAT3-KNAT4-KNAT5. While the KNOX gene SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) and its ortholog ARK1 are expressed during secondary growth in the Arabidopsis and Populus stem, respectively, we did not find STM orthologs in the Cactaceae cambial zone, which suggests possible differences in the vascular cambium genetic regulatory network in these species. Importantly, while two class II KNOX paralogs from the KNAT7 clade were expressed in the cambial zone of A. retusus and F. pilosus, we did not detect KNAT7 ortholog expression in the cambial zone of P. lychnidiflora. Differences in the transcriptional repressor activity of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by the KNAT7 orthologs could therefore explain the differences in wood development in the cactus species.

  5. Development of Protection and Control Unit for Distribution Substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Fumiaki; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Motohiro; Kido, Mitsuyasu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yanaoka, Atsushi

    The Recently, electronics and IT technologies have been rapidly innovated and have been introduced to power system protection & control system to achieve high reliability, maintainability and more functionality. Concerning the distribution substation application, digital relays have been applied for more than 10 years. Because of a number of electronic devices used for it, product cost becomes higher. Also, products installed during the past high-growth period will be at the end of lifetime and will be replaced. Therefore, replacing market is expected to grow and the reduction of cost is demanded. Considering above mentioned background, second generation digital protection and control unit as a successor is designed to have following concepts. Functional integration based on advanced digital technologies, Ethernet LAN based indoor communication network, cost reduction and downsizing. Pondering above concepts, integration of protection and control function is adopted in contrary to the functional segregation applied to the previous system in order to achieve one-unit concept. Also the adoption of Ethernet LAN for inter-unit communication is objective. This report shows the development of second-generation digital relay for distribution substation, which is equipped with control function and Ethernet LAN by reducing the size of auxiliary transformer unit and the same size as previous product is realized.

  6. Differential representation of liver proteins in obese human subjects suggests novel biomarkers and promising targets for drug development in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Simonetta; Iannelli, Antonio; Sciarrillo, Rosaria; Picariello, Gianluca; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Addeo, Pietro

    2017-12-01

    The proteome of liver biopsies from human obese (O) subjects has been compared to those of nonobese (NO) subjects using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially represented proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)-based peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and nanoflow-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). Overall, 61 gene products common to all of the liver biopsies were identified within 65 spots, among which 25 ones were differently represented between O and NO subjects. In particular, over-representation of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, Δ(3,5)-Δ(2,4)dienoyl-CoA isomerase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase, fructose-biphosphate aldolase B, peroxiredoxin I, protein DJ-1, catalase, α- and β-hemoglobin subunits, 3-mercaptopyruvate S-transferase, calreticulin, aminoacylase 1, phenazine biosynthesis-like domain-containing protein and a form of fatty acid-binding protein, together with downrepresentation of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase A1, S-adenosylmethionine synthase 1A and a form of apolipoprotein A-I, was associated with the obesity condition. Some of these metabolic enzymes and antioxidant proteins have already been identified as putative diagnostic markers of liver dysfunction in animal models of steatosis or obesity, suggesting additional investigations on their role in these syndromes. Their differential representation in human liver was suggestive of their consideration as obesity human biomarkers and for the development of novel antiobesity drugs.

  7. Development of a questionnaire for assessing work unit performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Spangenberrg

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a generic work unit performance measure that can be utilised in private, public and non-profit work units. Development of such a questionnaire, called the Performance Index (PI comprised three steps, namely deciding on a baseline structure for the model; verifying the model and dimensions through subject expert feedback; and consolidating the model and refining the questionnaire. The sample consisted of 60 units rated on a 360 basis by 257 respondents. Item and dimensionality analysis, followed by confirmatory factor analysis utilising LISREL produced acceptable model fit. Overall, results provided reasonable psychometric support for the Performance Index. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om ’n generiese werkeenheid- prestasiemeting te ontwikkel wat in privaat, openbare en nie-winsgerigte organisasies gebruik kan word. Die ontwikkeling van die vraelys, die Prestasie-Indeks (PI het drie stappe behels, naamlik om te besluit op ’n onderliggende struktuur vir die model; om die model en dimensies deur middel van ekspert-beoordeling te verifieer; en om die model te konsolideer en die vraelys af te rond. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 60 eenhede wat op ’n 360-basis deur 257 respondente beoordeel is. Item- en dimensionaliteitsontledings, gevolg deur Lisrel-gedrewe bevestigende faktorontleding het gedui op aanvaarbare modelpassing. In geheel beslou het resultate redelike psigometriese ondersteuning aan die Prestasie-Indeks verleen.

  8. Isotopic signatures suggest important contributions from recycled gasoline, road dust and non-exhaust traffic sources for copper, zinc and lead in PM10 in London, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuofei; Ochoa Gonzalez, Raquel; Harrison, Roy M.; Green, David; North, Robin; Fowler, Geoff; Weiss, Dominik

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of what controls the isotope composition of Cu, Zn and Pb in particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment and to develop these isotope systems as possible source tracers. To this end, isotope ratios (Cu, Zn and Pb) and trace element concentrations (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba, Pb, Cr, Ni and V) were determined in PM10 collected at two road sites with contrasting traffic densities in central London, UK, during two weeks in summer 2010, and in potential sources, including non-combustion traffic emissions (tires and brakes), road furniture (road paint, manhole cover and road tarmac surface) and road dust. Iron, Ba and Sb were used as proxies for emissions derived from brake pads, and Ni, and V for emissions derived from fossil fuel oil. The isotopic composition of Pb (expressed using 206Pb/207Pb) ranged between 1.1137 and 1.1364. The isotope ratios of Cu and Zn expressed as δ65CuNIST976 and δ66ZnLyon ranged between -0.01‰ and +0.51‰ and between -0.21‰ and +0.33‰, respectively. We did not find significant differences in the isotope signatures in PM10 over the two weeks sampling period and between the two sites, suggesting similar sources for each metal at both sites despite their different traffic densities. The stable isotope composition of Pb suggests significant contribution from road dust resuspension and from recycled leaded gasoline. The Cu and Zn isotope signatures of tires, brakes and road dust overlap with those of PM10. The correlation between the enrichments of Sb, Cu, Ba and Fe in PM10 support the previously established hypothesis that Cu isotope ratios are controlled by non-exhaust traffic emission sources in urban environments (Ochoa Gonzalez et al., 2016). Analysis of the Zn isotope signatures in PM10 and possible sources at the two sites suggests significant contribution from tire wear. However, temporary additional sources, likely high temperature industrial emissions, need to be invoked

  9. Developing Student’s Notion of Measurement Unit For Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Rahmi Yuberta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers found that students have difficulties in understanding area measurement. Students mostly focus on applying formula to find the area of certain shapes without knowing what the area is and why the formula works. It is important for the students to know what attribute being measured and to construct the unit for area measurement. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop activities that support students to know the attribute of area and the notion of measurement unit in learning area measurement. For this purpose, design research is chosen for achieving the research goal. Realistic Mathematics Education (RME underlies the design of context and activities. A teacher and students in grade 3 in elementary school (SDN 21 in Palembang Indonesia will be involved in this research.

  10. Subcellular Localizations of AS1 and AS2 Suggest Their Common and Distinct Roles in Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhu; Ziyu Li; Ben Xu; Hongda Li; Lingjian Wang; Aiwu Dong; Hai Huang

    2008-01-01

    During leaf organogenesis, a critical step for normal leaf primordium initiation is the repression of the class 1 KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) genes. After leaf primordia are formed, they must establish polarity for normal leaf morphogenesis.Recent studies have led to the identification of a number of genes that participate in the class 1 KNOX gene repression and/or the leaf polarity establishment. ASTMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 (AS1 and AS2) are two of these genes, which are critical for both of these two processes. As a first step towards understanding the molecular genetic basis of the AS1-AS2 action, we determined the subcellular Iocalizations of the two proteins in both tobacco BY2 cells and Arabidopsis plants,by fusing them to yellow/cyan fluorescent protein (YFPICFP). Our data showed that AS1 and AS2 alone were predominantly localized in the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm, respectively. The presence of both AS1 and AS2 proteins in the same interphase cell demonstrated their co-localization in both nucleolus and nucleoplasm. In addition, AS1 alone was able to associate with the condensed chromosome in the metaphase cell. Our data suggest that AS1, AS2 and the AS1-AS2 protein complex may have distinct functions, which are all required for normal plant development.

  11. Leadership development: an essential ingredient in supporting nursing unit managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valerie Wilson,1,2 Sheree Paterson,3 Kelly Kornman1 1Nursing Research and Practice Development Unit, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Nursing Midwifery Health, The University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, NSW, Australia; 3Formerly of the Nursing Research and Practice Development Unit, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW, Australia Purpose: The aim of the leadership development program was to enhance participants’ understanding of person-centered leadership in the context of their nursing unit manager (NUM roles. Materials and methods: This article details the results of the NUM leadership development program (LDP. Twenty-one NUMs from an Australian pediatric hospital participated in the 8-month program. The evaluation encompassed a group claims/concerns/issues session, one-on-one interviews, and written feedback. Data were themed using a four-step sequential process. Results: The NUM LDP had a positive impact on the leadership practices of the participants. Six key themes were identified from the evaluation: “forming the group”; “being in the group”; “translating into practice”; “how we see ourselves; how do we want to be seen?”; “positive outcomes for me”; and “positive outcomes for others”. Conclusion: This study showed improvements in the leadership understanding and practice of NUMs who participated in the program. Further research, particularly into the transferability of skills and active participatory aspects of these types of evaluation studies, is required. Keywords: nurse, evaluation, person-centered care, experiential learning

  12. Comparative analysis of Edwardsiella tarda isolates from fish in the eastern United States suggests the existence of two genetically distinct species, Edwardsiella tarda and Edwardsiella pseudotarda sp. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwardsiella tarda, a Gram-negative member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, is often implicated in significant losses in aquaculture facilities worldwide. Here, we assessed the intra-specific variability of a collection of E. tarda isolates from 4 different fish species in the eastern United State...

  13. Science and Technology Teachers' Opinions about Problems Faced While Teaching 8th Grade Science Unit "Force and Motion" and Suggestions for Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Uzoglu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the problems encountered while teaching force and motion unit in 8th grade science and technology course from teachers' perspectives and offer solutions to eliminate these problems. The study was conducted with 248 science and technology teachers working in 7 regions in Turkey in 2012-2013 academic year.…

  14. Riflessioni e Proposte sulle Unita' di Analisi per l'Analisi del Discorso (Didattico) (Reflections and Suggestions Concerning the Units of Analysis for Discourse Analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Liliana

    1995-01-01

    After reviewing units of discourse analysis generally used by sociolinguists, this article reports on a study conducted in university English-as-a-Second-Language classes in Los Angeles to show differences between interactions in and outside of class and proposes a broader frame of analysis to include both the turn and the exchange systems. (CFM)

  15. Comprehensive expression analysis suggests overlapping and specific roles of rice glutathione S-transferase genes during development and stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Annapurna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs are the ubiquitous enzymes that play a key role in cellular detoxification. Although several GSTs have been identified and characterized in various plant species, the knowledge about their role in developmental processes and response to various stimuli is still very limited. In this study, we report genome-wide identification, characterization and comprehensive expression analysis of members of GST gene family in crop plant rice, to reveal their function(s. Results A systematic analysis revealed the presence of at least 79 GST genes in the rice genome. Phylogenetic analysis grouped GST proteins into seven classes. Sequence analysis together with the organization of putative motifs indicated the potential diverse functions of GST gene family members in rice. The tandem gene duplications have contributed a major role in expansion of this gene family. Microarray data analysis revealed tissue-/organ- and developmental stage-specific expression patterns of several rice GST genes. At least 31 GST genes showed response to plant hormones auxin and cytokinin. Furthermore, expression analysis showed the differential expression of quite a large number of GST genes during various abiotic stress (20, arsenate stress (32 and biotic stress (48 conditions. Many of the GST genes were commonly regulated by developmental processes, hormones, abiotic and biotic stresses. Conclusion The transcript profiling suggests overlapping and specific role(s of GSTs during various stages of development in rice. Further, the study provides evidence for the role of GSTs in mediating crosstalk between various stress and hormone response pathways and represents a very useful resource for functional analysis of selected members of this family in rice.

  16. Development of a Hydronic Rooftop Unit-HyPak-MA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eric; Berman, Mark

    2009-11-14

    The majority of U.S. commercial floor space is cooled by rooftop HVAC units (RTUs). RTU popularity derives chiefly from their low initial cost and relative ease of service access without disturbing building occupants. Unfortunately, current RTUs are inherently inefficient due to a combination of characteristics that unnecessarily increase cooling loads and energy use. 36% percent of annual U.S. energy, and two-thirds of electricity, is consumed in and by buildings. Commercial buildings consume approximately 4.2 quads of energy each year at a cost of $230 billion per year, with HVAC equipment consuming 1.2 quads of electricity. More than half of all U.S. commercial floor space is cooled by packaged HVAC units, most of which are rooftop units (RTUs). Inefficient RTUs create an estimated 3.5% of U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions, thus contributing significantly to global warming5. Also, RTUs often fail to maintain adequate ventilation air and air filtration, reducing indoor air quality. This is the second HyPak project to be supported by DOE through NETL. The prior project, referred to as HyPak-1 in this report, had two rounds of prototype fabrication and testing as well as computer modeling and market research. The HyPak-1 prototypes demonstrated the high performance capabilities of the HyPak concept, but made it clear that further development was required to reduce heat exchanger cost and improve system reliability before HyPak commercialization can commence. The HyPak-1 prototypes were limited to about 25% ventilation air fraction, limiting performance and marketability. The current project is intended to develop a 'mixed-air' product that is capable of full 0-100% modulation in ventilation air fraction, hence it was referred to as HyPak-MA in the proposal. (For simplicity, the -MA has been dropped when referencing the current project.) The objective of the HyPak Project is to design, develop and test a hydronic RTU that provides a quantum improvement over

  17. Assessment of National Practice for Palliative Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastases Suggests Marked Underutilization of Single-Fraction Regimens in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutter, Charles E., E-mail: charles.rutter@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Park, Henry S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To characterize temporal trends in the application of various bone metastasis fractionations within the United States during the past decade, using the National Cancer Data Base; the primary aim was to determine whether clinical practice in the United States has changed over time to reflect the published randomized evidence and the growing movement for value-based treatment decisions. Patients and Methods: The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify patients treated to osseous metastases from breast, prostate, and lung cancer. Utilization of single-fraction versus multiple-fraction radiation therapy was compared according to demographic, disease-related, and health care system details. Results: We included 24,992 patients treated during the period 2005-2011 for bone metastases. Among patients treated to non-spinal/vertebral sites (n=9011), 4.7% received 8 Gy in 1 fraction, whereas 95.3% received multiple-fraction treatment. Over time the proportion of patients receiving a single fraction of 8 Gy increased (from 3.4% in 2005 to 7.5% in 2011). Numerous independent predictors of single-fraction treatment were identified, including older age, farther travel distance for treatment, academic treatment facility, and non-private health insurance (P<.05). Conclusions: Single-fraction palliative radiation therapy regimens are significantly underutilized in current practice in the United States. Further efforts are needed to address this issue, such that evidence-based and cost-conscious care becomes more commonplace.

  18. Aeroelastic code development activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, Colorado (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Designing wind turbines to be fatigue resistant and to have long lifetimes at minimal cost is a major goal of the federal wind program and the wind industry in the United States. To achieve this goal, we must be able to predict critical loads for a wide variety of different wind turbines operating under extreme conditions. The codes used for wind turbine dynamic analysis must be able to analyze a wide range of different wind turbine configurations as well as rapidly predict the loads due to turbulent wind inflow with a minimal set of degrees of freedom. Code development activities in the US have taken a two-pronged approach in order to satisfy both of these criteria: (1) development of a multi-purpose code which can be used to analyze a wide variety of wind turbine configurations without having to develop new equations of motion with each configuration change, and (2) development of specialized codes with minimal sets of specific degrees of freedom for analysis of two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines and calculation of machine loads due to turbulent inflow. In the first method we have adapted a commercial multi-body dynamics simulation package for wind turbine analysis. In the second approach we are developing specialized codes with limited degrees of freedom, usually specified in the modal domain. This paper will summarize progress to date in the development, validation, and application of these codes. (au) 13 refs.

  19. Impact of Prebirth Parent Personality and Marital Functioning on Family Development: A Framework and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Christoph M.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a framework delineating four influences on infant and family development: personality, social interaction, role, and ecology. Documents stable characteristics of parents' personality and marriage that affect family development and infant soothability. (Author/CB)

  20. Development Status of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Pearson, Jon Boise; Godfoy, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress that has been made in the development of the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The reactor simulator core and Annular Linear Induction Pump have been fabricated and assembled into a test loop at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A 12 kWe Power Conversion Unit (PCU) is being developed consisting of two 6 kWe free-piston Stirling engines. The two 6 kWe engines have been fabricated by Sunpower Inc. and are currently being tested separately prior to integration into the PCU. The Facility Cooling System (FCS) used to reject convertor waste heat has been assembled and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The structural elements, including a Buildup Assembly Platform (BAP) and Upper Truss Structure (UTS) have been fabricated, and will be used to test cold-end components in thermal vacuum prior to TDU testing. Once all components have been fully tested at the subsystem level, they will be assembled into an end-to-end system and tested in thermal vacuum at GRC.

  1. Development disparities in the administrative-territorial units in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Ionuţ PETRIŞOR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes methods, data and information used for theresearch project “OpenGIS system informational for monitoring the impact of spatial planning policies – GISTEREG”. The problems proposed for resolution refer to the current planning issues of the national territory, involving:(a developing advanced techniques and instruments for the spatial planning of national, urban and rural areas in order to strengthen the administrative capacity of accessing structural and cohesion funds(b utilize information technology for monitoring the level of development in Romanian spatial planning according to the development guidelines of the European Union, established through Lisbon and Gothenburg strategies. Consequently, a set of proposed indices specific to regional development accounted for the administrative units and regions were transposed in a geographic information system. Using mathematical evaluation and prognosis models (ELECTRE ranking method “hierarchies” were established for groups of territorial indicators, displayed in charts and maps underlining the socioeconomic development disparities among different regions of Romania.

  2. Developing Student’s Notion of Measurement Unit For Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Rahmi Yuberta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers found that students have difficulties in understandingarea measurement. Students mostly focus on applying formula to find the area of certain shapes without knowing what the area is and why theformula works. It is important for the students to know what attribute being measured and to construct the unit for area measurement. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop activities that support students to know the attribute of area and  the notion of measurementunit in learning area measurement. For this purpose, design research is chosen for achieving the research goal. Realistic Mathematics Education (RME underlies the design of context and activities. A teacher and students in grade 3 in elementary school (SDN 21 in Palembang Indonesia will be involved in this research.Keywords: Area measurement, unit, design research, RME DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.775.173-184

  3. Building Human Rights, Peace and Development within the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available War and peace have perpetually alternated in history. Consequently, peace has always been seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be in brotherhood realized by everyone across the earth. Since the XVII century the elimination of war and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of all nations in the world. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were conceived with the spirit of eliminating the risk of war through the promotion of peace, cooperation and solidarity among Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent human rights instruments were drafted with a sincere aspiration of promoting the value of peace and human rights worldwide. International practice shows the close linkage between the disregard of human rights and the existence of war and armed conflict. It follows that the role of human rights in the prevention of war and armed conflict is very important. Since 2008 the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace.’ Pursuant resolutions 20/15 and 23/16 the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG aimed at progressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed in its second session (July 2014 the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is basically based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  4. Countermeasure Suggestions on State-owned Geological Exploration Unit Human Resource Management%对国有地勘单位人力资源管理的对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段芳

    2011-01-01

    近年来,国有地勘单位在改革发展中,人力资源管理方面普遍存在职工观念滞后、冗员较多、员工积极性不高、人才流失等问题.以总局管理下的某地勘单位为例,对国有地勘单位人力资源现状及存在的主要问题进行了梳理,总结提出了在当前环境下加强人力资源管理的对策及建议:强化人力资源管理意识,营造适宜人才发展的良好氛围;完善用人机制,加大人力资本投入;实施人力资源综合发展战略,设计合理的人才培训计划;深入体制改革,激发员工创新的积极性.%In recent years, the reform and development of state-owned geological exploration units are underway. In human resource management, issues of musty ideas of workers and staff, redundant personnel, less motivation and outflow of talents are commonly existed. Taking a geological exploration unit under the administration as an example, sorting out human resource present situation and main problems existed, summed up and put forward tountermeasures and suggestions on human resource management strengthening under present circumstance: intensify human resource management consciousness, construct good atmosphere adapted to talent development; perfect staffing mechanism, increase human capital input; carry into execution of human resource comprehensive development strategy, design rational talent training programs; penetrate into structural reform, bring into play the innovation initiatives of workers and staff.

  5. Development of Electric Power Units Driven by Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Takao; Kaneko, Atsushi; Uchimura, Tomoyuki; Irie, Kiichi; Watanabe, Hiroyoshi

    For the development of a simple and compact power generator driven by waste heat, working fluids and an expander were studied, then a practical electric power unit was put to test. Many working fluids were calculated with the low temperature power cycle (evaporated at 77°C, condensed at 42°C),and TFE,R123,R245fa were selected to be suitable for the cycle. TFE(Trifluoroethanol CF3CH2OH) was adopted to the actual power generator which was tested. A radial turbine was adopted as an expander, and was newly designed and manufactured for working fluid TFE. The equipment was driven by hot water as heat source and cooling water as cooling source, and generated power was connected with electric utility. Characteristics of the power generating cycle and characteristics of the turbine were obtained experimentally.

  6. Reconstruction of Orion Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Parachute Inflation Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    The process of reconstructing inflation loads of Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has been updated as the program transitioned to testing Engineering Development Unit (EDU) hardware. The equations used to reduce the test data have been re-derived based on the same physical assumptions made by simulations. Due to instrumentation challenges, individual parachute loads are determined from complementary accelerometer and load cell measurements. Cluster inflations are now simulated by modeling each parachute individually to better represent different inflation times and non-synchronous disreefing. The reconstruction procedure is tailored to either infinite mass or finite mass events based on measurable characteristics from the test data. Inflation parameters are determined from an automated optimization routine to reduce subjectivity. Infinite mass inflation parameters have been re-defined to avoid unrealistic interactions in Monte Carlo simulations. Sample cases demonstrate how best-fit inflation parameters are used to generate simulated drag areas and loads which favorably agree with test data.

  7. Auxin-responsive DR5 promoter coupled with transport assays suggest separate but linked routes of auxin transport during woody stem development in Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Rachel; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy; Talavera, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) is a major determinant of plant morphology and internal anatomy with important roles in vascular patterning, tropic growth responses, apical dominance and phyllotactic arrangement. Woody plants present a highly complex system of vascular development in which isolated bundles of xylem and phloem gradually unite to form concentric rings of conductive tissue. We generated several transgenic lines of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x alba) with the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter driving GUS expression in order to visualize an auxin response during the establishment of secondary growth. Distinct GUS expression in the cambial zone and developing xylem-side derivatives supports the current view of this tissue as a major stream of basipetal PAT. However, we also found novel sites of GUS expression in the primary xylem parenchyma lining the outer perimeter of the pith. Strands of primary xylem parenchyma depart the stem as a leaf trace, and showed GUS expression as long as the leaves to which they were connected remained attached (i.e., until just prior to leaf abscission). Tissue composed of primary xylem parenchyma strands contained measurable levels of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and showed basipetal transport of radiolabeled auxin ((3)H-IAA) that was both significantly faster than diffusion and highly sensitive to the PAT inhibitor NPA. Radiolabeled auxin was also able to move between the primary xylem parenchyma in the interior of the stem and the basipetal stream in the cambial zone, an exchange that was likely mediated by ray parenchyma cells. Our results suggest that (a) channeling of leaf-derived IAA first delineates isolated strands of pre-procambial tissue but then later shifts to include basipetal transport through the rapidly expanding xylem elements, and (b) the transition from primary to secondary vascular development is gradual, with an auxin response preceding the appearance of a unified and radially-organized vascular cambium.

  8. Development of High Intensity Beam Emittance Measurement Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Three sets of High Intensity Beam Emittance Measurement Units (HIBEMUs) are being developed at Peking University. They are HIBEMU-2 (slit-wire type, one direction), HIBEMU-3 (Allison scanner type, one direction) and HIBEMU-4 (slit-wire type, two directions). For HIBEMU-2 and HIBEMU-3, more recent work has been done on software redesign in order to measure beam emittance and to draw phase diagram more efficiently and precisely. Software for control and data processing of them were developed in Labveiw environment, trying to improve calculation rationality and to offer user-friendly interface. Mechanical modification was also done for HIBEMU-3, mainly concentrating on the protection of Faraday cups from being overheated by the high intensity beam and also from interference of secondary electrons. This paper will also cover the mechanical structure as well as the software development of HIBEMU-4, which is a two-direction emittance scanner newly designed and manufactured for the high energy beam transport (HEBT) of Peking University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY (PKUNIFTY). At the end of this paper, comparison and analysis of the three HIBEMUs are given to draw forth better design of the future emittance measurement facility.

  9. Modeling low impact development potential with hydrological response units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric, Marija; Fan, Celia; Joksimovic, Darko; Li, James Y

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of benefits of implementing low impact development (LID) stormwater management techniques can extend up to a watershed scale. This presents a challenge for representing them in watershed models, since they are typically orders of magnitude smaller in size. This paper presents an approach that is focused on trying to evaluate the benefits of implementing LIDs on a lot level. The methodology uses the concept of urban hydrological response Unit and results in developing and applying performance curves that are a function of lot properties to estimate the potential benefit of large-scale LID implementation. Lot properties are determined using a municipal geographic information system database and processed to determine groups of lots with similar properties. A representative lot from each group is modeled over a typical rainfall year using USEPA Stormwater Management Model to develop performance functions that relate the lot properties and the change in annual runoff volume and corresponding phosphorus loading with different LIDs implemented. The results of applying performance functions on all urban areas provide the potential locations, benefit and cost of implementation of all LID techniques, guiding future decisions for LID implementation by watershed area municipalities.

  10. Near Earth Asteroid Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 30x20x10cm (6U) cubesat reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m2 solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA will launch to date. NEA Scout is a secondary payload currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis furthered understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system and matured an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. This paper will address design, fabrication, and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. From optical properties of the sail material to folding and spooling the single 86m2 sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  11. Scaffolding and Mediating for Creativity: Suggestions from Reflecting on Practice in Order to Develop the Teaching and Learning of Gymnastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Gerald; McGregor, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a reflective stance on the development of practice in scaffolding and mediating for creativity and potentially better performance in gymnastics. The pedagogical approach outlined illustrates how an experienced practitioner can adopt mediational (rather than meddling) and scaffolding techniques to focus on supporting the…

  12. Scaffolding and Mediating for Creativity: Suggestions from Reflecting on Practice in Order to Develop the Teaching and Learning of Gymnastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Gerald; McGregor, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a reflective stance on the development of practice in scaffolding and mediating for creativity and potentially better performance in gymnastics. The pedagogical approach outlined illustrates how an experienced practitioner can adopt mediational (rather than meddling) and scaffolding techniques to focus on supporting the…

  13. Using Computers in Early Years Education: What Are the Effects on Children's Development? Some Suggestions Concerning Beneficial Computer Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children's development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the…

  14. Development of a method to evaluate shared alternate AC power source effects in multi-unit nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Yang, Joon Eun

    2003-07-01

    In order to evaluate accurately a Station BlackOut (SBO) event frequency of a multi-unit nuclear power plant that has a shared Alternate AC (AAC) power source, an approach has been developed which accommodates the complex inter-unit behavior of the shared AAC power source under multi-unit Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP) conditions. The approach is illustrated for two cases, 2 units and 4 units at a single site, and generalized for a multi-unit site. Furthermore, the SBO frequency of the first unit of the 2-unit site is quantified. The SBO frequency at a target unit of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) could be underestimated if the inter-unit dependency of the shared AAC power source is not properly modeled. The effect of the inter-unit behavior of the shared AAC power source on the SBO frequency is not negligible depending on the Common Cause Failure (CCF) characteristics among AC power sources. The methodology suggested in the present report is believed to be very useful in evaluating the SBO frequency and the core damage frequency resulting from the SBO event. This approach is also applicable to the probabilistic evaluation of the other shared systems in a multi-unit nuclear power plant.

  15. Analysis of educational research at a medical faculty in Germany and suggestions for strategic development - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Sarah; Harendza, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based medical education is playing an increasingly important role in the choice of didactic methods and the development of medical curricula and assessments. In Germany, a growing number of educational research projects has accompanied an ongoing change in the medical education process. The aim of this project was to assess medical education research activities at one medical faculty to develop procedural recommendations for the support and development of best evidence medical education. Methods: Using a newly developed online questionnaire, the 65 institutes and departments of the medical faculty of Hamburg University at Hamburg University Medical-Center (UKE) were asked to report their medical education research and service projects, medical education publications, medical education theses, financial support for educational projects, and supportive structures that they would consider helpful in the future. The data were grouped, and a SWOT analysis was performed. Results: In total, 60 scientists who were involved in 112 medical education research publications between 1998 and 2014 were identified at the UKE. Twenty-five of them had published at least one manuscript as first or last author. Thirty-three UKE institutions were involved in educational service or research projects at the time of the study, and 75.8% of them received internal or external funding. Regular educational research meetings and the acquisition of co-operation partners were mentioned most frequently as beneficial supportive structures for the future. Conclusion: An analysis to define the status quo of medical education research at a medical faculty seems to be a helpful first step for the development of a strategy and structure to further support researchers in medical education.

  16. BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 interaction with ZmPIN1a suggests a role in auxin transport during maize inflorescence development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirpan, Andrea; Culler, Angela Hendrickson; Gallavotti, Andrea; Jackson, David; Cohen, Jerry D; McSteen, Paula

    2009-03-01

    Polar auxin transport, mediated by the PIN-FORMED (PIN) class of auxin efflux carriers, controls organ initiation in plants. In maize, BARREN INFLORESCENCE2 (BIF2) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase co-orthologous to PINOID (PID), which regulates the subcellular localization of AtPIN1 in Arabidopsis. We show that BIF2 phosphorylates ZmPIN1a, a maize homolog of AtPIN1, in vitro and regulates ZmPIN1a subcellular localization in vivo, similar to the role of PID in Arabidopsis. In addition, bif2 mutant inflorescences have lower auxin levels later in development. We propose that BIF2 regulates auxin transport through direct regulation of ZmPIN1a during maize inflorescence development.

  17. Development of smoke-free chemical dependency units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, R J; Hurt, R D; Slade, J

    1991-01-01

    Until recently, the country's chemical dependency units (CDUs) have not addressed nicotine dependence in a meaningful way for their patients. Most CDUs have accepted exemptions to the smoke-free hospital requirements enacted around the country. Twenty-nine CDU's have been identified which have developed progressive smoke-free policies and begun to treat nicotine dependence in the substance abuser. These CDUs cite three factors--concern for the smoker's health, concern for the health effects of involuntary smoking, and the strong opinion of a key leader--as motivations to implement these policies. Because of the significant resistance to these policies, the strong opinion of a key leader was considered one of the most important factors. Once the policy was in place, these CDUs were surprised that the programs ran so smoothly, including normal census counts. The CDUs used a variety of interventions to help smokers quit. There is considerable need to develop effective interventions suitable for CDUs in the treatment of nicotine dependence.

  18. [Health in the post-2015 United Nations Development Agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Gallo, Edmundo; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2014-12-01

    This paper evaluates health as a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) in the context of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, between 2012 and 2014. Health was part of the debate since the Millennium Summit and the MDGs (2000), and it also appears in the documents discussing the Post-2015 Agenda, from the Rio+20 to the Open Working Group (OWG), whose report was submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations (UNGA) 2014-2015, and in the Global Consultation on Health and the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons reports. The Authors concluded that the treatment of health in all these documents is uniform. They point out that the scope of the health-related SDG is very comprehensive, but its targets are conceptually fragmented and reduced. They advocate their change as to include not only the idea of social determinants of health, but also targets in the field of public health, which were not included in the proposal of the OWG. They also warn that the global and national governance systems need to be reformed and advocate more participation of the civil society, which can influence diplomacy, which, in turn, will be responsible for the agreement signed at the UNGA in 2015.

  19. Geothermal direct use developments in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1988-08-01

    Direct heat use of geothermal energy in the United States is recognized as one of the alternative energy resources that has proven itself technically and economically, and is commercially available. Developments include space conditioning of buildings, district heating, groundwater heat pumps, greenhouse heating, industrial processing, aquaculture, and swimming pool heating. Forty-four states have experienced significant geothermal direct use development in the last ten years. The total installed capacity is 5.7 billion Btu/hr (1700 MW/sub t/), with an annual energy use of nearly 17,000 billion Btu/yr (4.5 million barrels of oil energy equivalent). In this report we provide an overview of how and where geothermal energy is used, the extent of that use, the economics and growth trends. The data is based on an extensive site data gathering effort by the Geo-Heat Center in the spring of 1988, under contract to the US Department of Energy. 100 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Development of the Internet addiction scale based on the Internet Gaming Disorder criteria suggested in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Jung Seok; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to develop and validate a standardized self-diagnostic Internet addiction (IA) scale based on the diagnosis criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 5th edition (DSM-5). Items based on the IGD diagnosis criteria were developed using items of the previous Internet addiction scales. Data were collected from a community sample. The data were divided into two sets, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed repeatedly. The model was modified after discussion with professionals based on the first CFA results, after which the second CFA was performed. The internal consistency reliability was generally good. The items that showed significantly low correlation values based on the item-total correlation of each factor were excluded. After the first CFA was performed, some factors and items were excluded. Seven factors and 26 items were prepared for the final model. The second CFA results showed good general factor loading, Squared Multiple Correlation (SMC) and model fit. The model fit of the final model was good, but some factors were very highly correlated. It is recommended that some of the factors be refined through further studies.

  1. Transcriptome-wide mining suggests conglomerate of genes associated with tuberous root growth and development in Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Nikhil; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-12-01

    Tuberous roots of Aconitum heterophyllum constitute storage organ for secondary metabolites, however, molecular components contributing to their formation are not known. The transcriptomes of A. heterophyllum were analyzed to identify possible genes associated with tuberous root development by taking clues from genes implicated in other plant species. Out of 18 genes, eight genes encoding GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase), SHAGGY, Expansin, RING-box protein 1 (RBX1), SRF receptor kinase (SRF), β-amylase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and Auxin responsive factor 2 (ARF2) showed higher transcript abundance in roots (13-171 folds) compared to shoots. Comparative expression analysis of those genes between tuberous root developmental stages showed 11-97 folds increase in transcripts in fully developed roots compared to young rootlets, thereby implying their association in biosynthesis, accumulation and storage of primary metabolites towards root biomass. Cluster analysis revealed a positive correlation with the gene expression data for different stages of tuberous root formation in A. heterophyllum. The outcome of this study can be useful in genetic improvement of A. heterophyllum for root biomass yield.

  2. Expression analyses of human cleft palate tissue suggest a role for osteopontin and immune related factors in palatal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L.P.; Borup, R.; Vestergaard, J.;

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, selected differentially expressed genes were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, and by immunohistochemical staining of craniofacial tissue from human embryos. Osteopontin (SPP1) and other immune related genes were significantly higher expressed in palate tissue from patients with CLP compared to CP...... and palate (CLP). In order to understand the biological basis in these cleft lip and palate subgroups better we studied the expression profiles in human tissue from patients with CL/P. In each of the CL/P subgroups, samples were obtained from three patients and gene expression analysis was performed...... and immunostaining in palatal shelves against SPP1, chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and serglycin (PRG1) in human embryonic craniofacial tissue were positive, supporting a role for these genes in palatal development. However, gene expression profiles are subject to variations during growth and therefore we recommend...

  3. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a &apos

  4. amoA Gene abundances and nitrification potential rates suggest that benthic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and not Archaea dominate N cycling in the Colne Estuary, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialin; Nedwell, David B; Beddow, Jessica; Dumbrell, Alex J; McKew, Boyd A; Thorpe, Emma L; Whitby, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification, mediated by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), is important in global nitrogen cycling. In estuaries where gradients of salinity and ammonia concentrations occur, there may be differential selections for ammonia-oxidizer populations. The aim of this study was to examine the activity, abundance, and diversity of AOA and AOB in surface oxic sediments of a highly nutrified estuary that exhibits gradients of salinity and ammonium. AOB and AOA communities were investigated by measuring ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene abundance and nitrification potentials both spatially and temporally. Nitrification potentials differed along the estuary and over time, with the greatest nitrification potentials occurring mid-estuary (8.2 μmol N grams dry weight [gdw](-1) day(-1) in June, increasing to 37.4 μmol N gdw(-1) day(-1) in January). At the estuary head, the nitrification potential was 4.3 μmol N gdw(-1) day(-1) in June, increasing to 11.7 μmol N gdw(-1) day(-1) in January. At the estuary head and mouth, nitrification potentials fluctuated throughout the year. AOB amoA gene abundances were significantly greater (by 100-fold) than those of AOA both spatially and temporally. Nitrosomonas spp. were detected along the estuary by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band sequence analysis. In conclusion, AOB dominated over AOA in the estuarine sediments, with the ratio of AOB/AOA amoA gene abundance increasing from the upper (freshwater) to lower (marine) regions of the Colne estuary. These findings suggest that in this nutrified estuary, AOB (possibly Nitrosomonas spp.) were of major significance in nitrification. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. An overview of herb and dietary supplement efficacy, safety and government regulations in the United States with suggested improvements. Part 1 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2016-11-03

    This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (20%; herbs), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs, and zero deaths due to DS. Less than 1 percent of Americans experience adverse events related to DS, and the majority was classified as minor, with many of these related to caffeine, yohimbe, or other stimulant ingredients. The number one adulterant in DS is drugs, followed by New Dietary Ingredients (NDI) not submitted to the FDA - both are illegal and not DS, but rather "tainted products marketed as dietary supplements." The three main categories of DS prone to medical problems are those for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and sports performance/body building. DS are regulated in the U.S. by several federal agencies with overlapping jurisdiction - the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC); enforced by the State Attorneys General Offices (AGO) and Department of Justice (DOJ); and monitored (not regulated) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The FDA can remove a DS from the market for phase IV post-marketing surveillance adverse event reports, adulteration (drugs, NDI, synthetic substances), contamination, misidentification, mislabeling or false claims, and not meeting good manufacturing practices (GMP). The FTC and state AGO can also enforce laws against deceptive marketing practices. Suggested improvements to current regulatory requirements are included along with online DS Toxic Tables in the

  6. Astronomy in the United States: Workforce Development and Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris

    2012-08-01

    Astronomy workforce development and public engagement in the United States are described. The number of professional astronomers has grown by about a third in the past 25 years, to about 4000. Only one in four are faculty in an academic setting; the rest work in a wide range of public and private research institutes. PhD production has remained steady at about 200 per year. Women account for roughly half of BSc degrees and a third of PhD degrees, but their participation declines to about 10% at the level of full professor. Minorities are underrepresented by a substantial factor at all levels of the profession. In terms of public engagement, astronomy has unique advantages associated with its visual appeal and the large and active amateur astronomy community. The are 1400 public planetaria in the US, with another 110 in schools and universities. Astronomers have made good use of new media such as blogs and podcasts and social networks, but the biggest impact has been in the area of citizen science, where people with no technical background contribute directly to a research project by, for example, classifying galaxies. The International Year of Astronomy and the remarkable success of the Galileoscope have inspired large numbers of people to appreciate astronomy, contributing indirectly to the professional vitality of the field.

  7. Improved CPAS Photogrammetric Capabilities for Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.; Bretz, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on two key improvements to the photogrammetric analysis capabilities of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the Orion vehicle. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) system deploys Drogue and Pilot parachutes via mortar, where an important metric is the muzzle velocity. This can be estimated using a high speed camera pointed along the mortar trajectory. The distance to the camera is computed from the apparent size of features of known dimension. This method was validated with a ground test and compares favorably with simulations. The second major photogrammetric product is measuring the geometry of the Main parachute cluster during steady-state descent using onboard cameras. This is challenging as the current test vehicles are suspended by a single-point attachment unlike earlier stable platforms suspended under a confluence fitting. The mathematical modeling of fly-out angles and projected areas has undergone significant revision. As the test program continues, several lessons were learned about optimizing the camera usage, installation, and settings to obtain the highest quality imagery possible.

  8. Development of the HIFI band 3 and 4 mixer units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, G.; Jackson, B.D.; Eggens, M.; Golstein, H.; Jochemsen, M.; Laauwen, W.M.; De Jong, L.; Kikken, S.; Kroug, M.; Zijlstra, T.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the current status of the HIFI mixer units for Band 3 and Band 4. The mixer units cover the 800-960 GHz and 960-1120 GHz frequency range and have a 4-8 GHz IF frequency band. The major requirements and the design strategy are described. Functional tests of the magnet, the de-flux heater,

  9. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  10. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  11. Development of Key Technologies of Large Hydro Unit in HEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to HEC Harbin Electric Machinery Company Limited (HEC) is a pivotal company that produces large electric machinery and accessorial control equipment in China. The hydro units made by HEC have accounted

  12. Nuclear liability coverage developments in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown II, Omer F.

    1995-12-31

    The availability of such nuclear liability coverage has been a concern of nuclear power plant vendors, suppliers and operators, and public officials in the United States or many years. This paper addresses implications of the Federal Price-Anderson Act (42 U.S.C. 2014, 2020; Sections 11 and 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended); on the financial liability of persons accountable for an accident in the United States. (author).

  13. Parenting Behavior, Health, and Cognitive Development among Children in Black Immigrant Families: Comparing the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in child development in the United States are significant, with a particularly pronounced disadvantage among Black children. This report focuses on the development of children of Black immigrants, comparing against the outcomes for their peers in native-born and other immigrant families. The report also compares children in the…

  14. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  15. Planning, Development, and Change in Bristol Bay: A High School Curriculum. Teacher Guide and Student Text. Unit V: Oil and Gas Development. Unit VI: Minerals and Mining. Unit VII: State Land Disposal. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Jerry; Willer, Cristy

    Written with the broad goal of involving high school students in Bristol Bay, Alaska, in the planning and design of their region's future, this combined teacher guide and student text contains the final three units of a seven-unit curriculum. Unit V looks at oil development in the Bering Sea, covering topics such as Alaska's dependence on oil,…

  16. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  17. Developing an Appropriate Goalball Unit for Secondary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Michael K.; Happel, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Goalball, a sport designed for those with visual impairments, is a competitive and recreational sport enjoyed by athletes around the world. Students with and without visual impairments can experience positive outcomes when teachers appropriately include a goalball unit as part of their inclusive secondary physical education curriculum. This…

  18. Developing Student's Notion of Measurement Unit for Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuberta, Kurnia Rahmi; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf; van Galen, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers found that students have difficulties in understanding area measurement. Students mostly focus on applying formula to find the area of certain shapes without knowing what the area is and why the formula works. It is important for the students to know what attribute being measured and to construct the unit for area measurement.…

  19. Professional Competence of the Head of External Relations Unit and its Development in the Study Process

    OpenAIRE

    Turuševa, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    Dissertation Annotation Larisa Turuševa’s promotion paper „Professional Competence of the Head of External Relations Unit and its Development in the Study Process” is a fulfilled research on the development of Professional competence of the heads of external relations units, conditions for the study programme development. A model of professional competence of the head of external relations unit is worked out, its indicators and levels are described. A study process model for th...

  20. 7 CFR 1924.8 - Development work for modular/panelized housing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development work for modular/panelized housing units..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing Construction and Other Development § 1924.8 Development work for modular/panelized housing units. (a) Exhibit B...

  1. Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass.

  2. Fast Pyrolysis Process Development Unit for Validating Bench Scale Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Biorenewables Research Lab.. Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies. Bioeconomy Inst.; Jones, Samuel T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Biorenewables Research Lab.. Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies. Bioeconomy Inst.

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to prepare and operate a fast pyrolysis process development unit (PDU) that can validate experimental data generated at the bench scale. In order to do this, a biomass preparation system, a modular fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor, modular gas clean-up systems, and modular bio-oil recovery systems were designed and constructed. Instrumentation for centralized data collection and process control were integrated. The bio-oil analysis laboratory was upgraded with the addition of analytical equipment needed to measure C, H, O, N, S, P, K, and Cl. To provide a consistent material for processing through the fluidized bed fast pyrolysis reactor, the existing biomass preparation capabilities of the ISU facility needed to be upgraded. A stationary grinder was installed to reduce biomass from bale form to 5-10 cm lengths. A 25 kg/hr rotary kiln drier was installed. It has the ability to lower moisture content to the desired level of less than 20% wt. An existing forage chopper was upgraded with new screens. It is used to reduce biomass to the desired particle size of 2-25 mm fiber length. To complete the material handling between these pieces of equipment, a bucket elevator and two belt conveyors must be installed. The bucket elevator has been installed. The conveyors are being procured using other funding sources. Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, char and non-condensable gases were produced from an 8 kg/hr fluidized bed reactor. The bio-oil was collected in a fractionating bio-oil collection system that produced multiple fractions of bio-oil. This bio-oil was fractionated through two separate, but equally important, mechanisms within the collection system. The aerosols and vapors were selectively collected by utilizing laminar flow conditions to prevent aerosol collection and electrostatic precipitators to collect the aerosols. The vapors were successfully collected through a selective condensation process. The combination of these two mechanisms

  3. United Nations Development Program solicits funds from corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, J; Srivastava, A; Bruno, K

    1999-01-01

    The Global Sustainable Development Facility (GSDF) project, a collaboration between the U.N. Development Program and a variety of global corporate sponsors, some with poor human rights, labor, and environmental records, has come under criticism from prestigious nongovernmental organizations around the world. A letter to James Gustave Speth, Administrator of the U.N. Development Program, expresses concern about the threat posed by the GSDF project to the independence and credibility of the U.N. Development Program.

  4. Career Development Trends and Issues in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L. Sunny

    1993-01-01

    Discusses global economic, political, and social trends affecting the workplace, families, education, and gender roles. Depicts current career development programs and practices with children and young, midlife, and older adults. Presents current issues in schools, adult education, and business/industry for career development. (SK)

  5. Insights on the Child Development Movement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Milton J. E.

    1975-01-01

    This monograph presents an oral history of selected aspects of the child development movement, based on interviews with prominent researchers since the 1920's. Topics include reactions to major figures and influences, the relationship of child development to pediatrics and child psychiatry, and the relevance of research to child care practices.…

  6. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  7. Oil shale in the United States: prospects for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabenstott, M.; Duncan, M.; Borowski, M.

    1984-05-01

    The development of an oil shale industry has had its ups and downs throughout this century. Despite vast reserves of recoverable shale oil, energy prices usually have been high enough to make extraction of that oil commercially viable. The tripling and then tripling again of world oil prices in the 1970s gave initial promise that development had become economically feasible. After only a few years of rapid development activity, however, the effort was brought to a near-halt by falling world oil prices. The results were a substantial reduction in economic activity for northwestern Colorado and, maybe more importantly, sharply lower expectations for the region's future economic growth. In both the upturn and the downturn, the local public sector was essentially shielded from financial stress because the energy companies helped fund public spending on infrastructure and services. The future for oil shale remains uncertain. A few energy companies continue to pursue their development plans. To spur development of commercial scale plants, Synthetic Fuels Corporation has made loan and price guarantees to energy firms. Some projects may soon be extracting oil, providing needed technological and financial information on various techniques of oil extraction. But the future for oil shale remains clouded by uncertainties regarding the cost of producing syncrude and future oil prices. Environmental issues could also hamper oil shale development. Therefore, oil shale remains, as it has for more than a century, a technical and economic enigma that has only begun to be understood and developed. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  8. 绿色建筑的特点研究与发展建议%Characteristic research and development suggestions of green buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建楠; 赵怀明

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces contemporary environmental and resource conditions,analyzes characteristics of green buildings,puts forward suggestions of developing green building,and points out the significance of carefully studying conditions of realizing green buildings for achieving sustainable development.%介绍了当前面临的环境和资源的形势,分析了绿色建筑的特点,并提出发展绿色建筑的建议,指出认真研究实现绿色建筑的条件与实践,实现可持续发展,具有重要意义。

  9. Using computers in early years education: What are the effects on children’s development? Some suggestions concerning beneficial computer practice

    OpenAIRE

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children’s development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the advantages and the potential problems of computer practice to children’s learning and behaviour in the early years settings and also suggests teaching ...

  10. Using computers in early years education: What are the effects on children’s development? Some suggestions concerning beneficial computer practice

    OpenAIRE

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Technology in education is considered in empirical and theoretical literature as both beneficial and harmful to children’s development. In the field of the early years settings there is a dilemma whether or not early childhood teachers should use technology as a teaching and learning resource. This paper has a pedagogical focus, discussing the advantages and the potential problems of computer practice to children’s learning and behaviour in the early years settings and also suggests teaching ...

  11. Suggested guidelines for the provision and assessment of orthodontic education in Europe. A report from the Professional Development Group of the EURO-QUAL BIOMED II Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, K A; Adamidis, J P; McDonald, J P; Seeholzer, H; Sieminska-Piekarczyk, B

    2000-12-01

    The suggested guidelines for the provision and assessment of Orthodontic education in Europe, which are introduced, set out, and discussed in this paper, resulted from the work of the Professional Development Group (PDG) of the EURO-QUAL BIOMED II project. They were published in the final report of the project, after comments had been received from a range of national and European bodies and societies, including the British and the European Orthodontic Societies, Royal Colleges, and the General Dental Council.

  12. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  13. Book review: Understanding human development in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2008-01-01

    Isn't that development new?" is perhaps the phrase most frequently uttered by people who live in the western US. The West, it seems, is sucking Americans into its precious places at a rate that is unparalleled in recent US history. As humans continue to diffuse into the western landscape, they bring their corresponding demands for energy, transportation,...

  14. Development of a Portable Unit for Metabolic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Piltch, N. D.; Juergens, J. R.; Lewis, M. E.; Lichter, M. J.; Struk, P. M.; Pettegrew, R. D.; Valentine, R. W.; Cabrera, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop, test and calibrate a prototype portable device that will measure human metabolic activity; namely time resolved measurements of gas temperature, pressure and flow-rate, and oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressure during inhalation and exhalation.

  15. Commander’s Handbook for Unit Leader Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-02

    Prochaska , Norcross and Di Clemente six-stage change process (1995). The steps of the process are:  Becoming aware: developing within oneself...137-166). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Prochaska , J.O., Norcross, J.C., and DiClemente, C.C. Changing for Good. New York: Avon, 1995

  16. Mexican Industrial Development Plans: Implications for United States Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    strategy and developed serious problems. Is Mexico avoiding the errors of its predecessors and, if so, will it continue to do so? Abel Beltran del...menting the exchange controls necessary to administer periodic exchange rate adjustments efficiently.* * See: Ortiz, G. and Solis, L., " Tipos de Cambio

  17. Automation of microbial enumeration: development of a disposable hydrophobic grid-membrane filter unit.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, K.; Bussey, D M

    1986-01-01

    A disposable filter unit containing a hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) was developed. The unit is liquid tight to serve as a specimen transport container and, by removal of the funnel extender (175- or 300-ml capacity), the unit becomes less than the height of two stacked petri plates to save space during in situ incubation. The polyethylene mesh which supports the HGMF facilitates rinse removal of any substance(s) that would interfere with microbial growth. The correlations between a ...

  18. [Two cases of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that developed in cryptogenic cirrhosis suggestive of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as background liver disease after clinical courses of 26 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Nakayama, Haruo; Sakai, Yoshitaka; Kojima, Yasuhiro; Dairaku, Naohiro; Ojima, Toshiaki; Kusano, Masao; Ikeya, Shinichi; Sugai, Yoshiki; Hiwatashi, Nobuo

    2007-05-01

    We report two cases of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that developed in cryptogenic cirrhosis suggestive of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as background liver disease. Case 1 was a 68-year-old woman, and case 2 was a 46-year-old man. They were admitted to our department for evaluation and treatment of HCC. The causes of the underlying liver disease were not determined from blood tests. However, histological analysis of non-tumor tissues of the liver revealed cirrhosis with few fat droplets. Both patients had undergone liver biopsy 26 years before the treatment of HCC. Histological review of the biopsy specimens revealed NASH (case 1) and fatty liver (case 2), respectively. It was suggested that these cases progressed from NASH and fatty liver, respectively, to NASH-related cirrhosis (so called burned-out NASH), eventually, developing HCC. These findings suggest that substantial number of burned-out NASH cases may be included in those with cryptogenic cirrhosis. These two patients are indicative cases that may reveal the long-term natural course of fatty liver and NASH.

  19. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

    1995-12-31

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  20. Professional Development of Continuing Higher Education Unit Leaders: A Need for a Competency-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacheler, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of professional development experiences on the career competencies of continuing higher education unit leaders (CHEULs). In the American system of higher education, a CHEUL manages an administrative unit that offers educational programs to adult learners (Cranton, 1996). To face the challenges…

  1. Developing conjugated polymers with high electron affinity by replacing a C-C unit with a B←N unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chuandong; Ding, Zicheng; Zhang, Zijian; Xie, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lixiang

    2015-03-16

    The key parameters of conjugated polymers are lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels. Few approaches can simultaneously lower LUMO and HOMO energy levels of conjugated polymers to a large extent (>0.5 eV). Disclosed herein is a novel strategy to decrease both LUMO and HOMO energy levels of conjugated polymers by about 0.6 eV through replacement of a C-C unit by a B←N unit. The replacement makes the resulting polymer transform from an electron donor into an electron acceptor, and is proven by fluorescence quenching experiments and the photovoltaic response. This work not only provides an effective approach to tune the LUMO/HOMO energy levels of conjugated polymers, but also uses organic boron chemistry as a new toolbox to develop conjugated polymers with high electron affinity for polymer optoelectronic devices.

  2. 辽宁省发展第三方物流对策及建议%The development countermeasures and suggestions of third party logistics in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李镜

    2014-01-01

    In the past two years,the Ministry of Transport has issued many guidance,and third party logistics industry encountered unprecedented opportunity of historical development. Effective third party logistics countermeasures and suggestions ensure health and rapid development of third party logistics;constantly develop the potential of logistics market. Expanding the scope of business is the vitality of third party logistics enterprise. Through the investigation on the national and Liaoning logistics industry and in-depth analysis,this paper puts forward the countermeasures and sug-gestions of developing of the third party logistics in Liaoning combining with the current situation of the development of logistics industry in Liaoning Province.%近两年,交通运输部先后颁布了关于交通运输推进第三方物流业健康发展的多项指导意见,第三方物流业遇到了前所未有的历史发展机遇。实施切实可行的第三方物流对策及建议,确保第三方物流的健康快速发展,不断开发潜在的物流市场,扩大业务范围是第三方物流企业的生命力所在。通过对国家及辽宁地区的物流发展政策的深入分析,结合辽宁省物流业的发展现况,有针对性地提出了辽宁发展第三方物流的对策及建议。

  3. 中国通用航空租赁发展政策建议研究%Study on policy suggestions of general aviation leasing development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桐水; 罗先飞

    2013-01-01

    通用航空租赁的发展将满足通用航空发展中的融资需求,改善中国通用航空制造业的市场环境,带动通用航空及其关联产业的发展.根据通用航空租赁业务流程,从内、外部原因来分析中国通用航空租赁主要存在的问题.研究提出了促进中国通用航空租赁发展的相关政策建议,从而推进中国通用航空租赁的发展.%The development of general aviation leasing will meet the financing needs in the development of general aviation, improve the market environment of China's general aviation manufacturing industry, and spur the development of general aviation and its related industries. In this paper, analyze the main problems of China's general aviation leasing from internal and external reasons according to the business processes of general aviation leasing. The study propose the policy suggestions of the general aviation leasing development in order to improve the development of China's general aviation leasing.

  4. The Application Prospect and Developing Suggestion of Functional Oligosaccharides%功能性低聚糖的应用前景及发展建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎玮

    2012-01-01

    The biological value, supplemental effects, biological characteristics, physiological function and application status of functional oligosaccharides were introduced in this article, the suggestions for oligoscacchauide industry development were proposed.%本文就功能性低聚糖的生物学意义、应用价值、生物特征、生理功能及发展状况进行了概述。提出了低聚糖产业发肢的建议。

  5. Robotics technology developments in the United States space telerobotics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, David

    1994-01-01

    In the same way that the launch of Yuri Gagarin in April 1961 announced the beginning of human space flight, last year's flight of the German ROTEX robot flight experiment is heralding the start of a new era of space robotics. After a gap of twelve years since the introduction of a new capability in space remote manipulation, ROTEX is the first of at least ten new robotic systems and experiments which will fly before the year 2000. As a result of redefining the development approach for space robotic systems, and capitalizing on opportunities associated with the assembly and maintenance of the space station, the space robotics community is preparing a whole new generation of operational robotic capabilities. Expanding on the capabilities of earlier manipulation systems such as the Viking and Surveyor soil scoops, the Russian Lunakhods, and the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS), these new space robots will augment astronaut on-orbit capabilities and extend virtual human presence to lunar and planetary surfaces.

  6. Population-resources-environment-development interrelationships in the United Nations: in search of an approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosovic, B

    1984-08-01

    The relationships among population, resources, the environment, and development are reviewed, with the focus on how such questions are dealt with in the United Nations system. Emphasis is on the complexities of the issues raised rather than on their resolution.

  7. Developing advanced units of learning using IMS Learning Design level B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob; Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Please cite the original publication: Koper, R., Burgos, D. (2005). Developing advanced units of learning using IMS Learning Design level B. International Journal on Advanced Technology for Learning, 2 (4), 252-259.

  8. Custom Unit Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Little, Frank; Oinuma, Ryoji; Larsen, Ben; Goldman, Jeff; Reinis, Filip; Trevino, Luis

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, seal-less, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion, and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated at 40 to 240 lbm/hr flow rate, 35 to 100 oF pump temperature, and 5 to 10 psid pressure rise. Power consumption of the pump controller at the nominal operating point in both ambient and vacuum conditions was 9.5 W, which was less than the 12 W predicted. Gas ingestion capabilities were tested by injecting 100 cc of air into the fluid line; the pump operated normally throughout this test.

  9. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K

    2015-11-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study's qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants' narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention.

  10. Adaptive and Maladaptive Means of Using Facebook: A Qualitative Pilot Study to Inform Suggestions for Development of a Future Intervention for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tanya B.; Uebelacker, Lisa; Wenze, Susan J.; Collins, Caitlin; Broughton, Monica K.

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature examining the relation between social networking sites and mental health is primarily based on correlational methods and presents mixed findings. Many researchers neglect to examine the cognitive and behavioral processes used while online. This study’s qualitative approach strives to understand how individuals with elevated depressive symptoms may use Facebook following an interpersonal stressor. Participants’ narration of their Facebook use was coded. Common adaptive uses included using Facebook to seek social support, actively communicate, distract, recall positive memories, and reappraise negative thoughts. Maladaptive uses included engaging in social comparison, ruminating, and recalling negative memories. Feedback regarding development of a future intervention was also elicited. Suggestions included using Facebook to view positive, interesting, or meaningful information, distract, garner social support, and engage in social activities. Findings indicate that how one engages with Facebook after an interpersonal stressor may affect adjustment and may help to inform the development of a novel, Facebook-based intervention. PMID:26554330

  11. Development,Countermeasures and Suggestions of Building Energy Saving Glass%我国建筑节能玻璃发展前景及对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建梅

    2014-01-01

    该文从节能玻璃的概念、特性、分类入手,从而引出对建筑节能玻璃的前景及展望。进而在此基础上提出发展建筑节能玻璃的对策及建议。%From the aspects of the concept,characteristics,and classification of energy-saving glass,this article shows the preliminary idea of energy-saving glass to the readers.Thus,it gives rise to the analysis of the momentum of the building energy saving glass development.Based on the analysis,it puts forward the countermeasures and sug-gestions of the development of building energy saving glass.

  12. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  13. Development and testing of INSPIRE themes Addresses (AD and Administrative Units (AU managed by COSMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Med

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Main content of this article is to describe implementing INSPIRE themes Addresses and Administrative Units in Czech Republic. Themes were implemented by Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre. Implementation contains developing GML files with data and designing its structure, developing and testing of INSPIRE services and preparing metadata for data and services. Besides harmonised INSPIRE themes COSMC manages also non-harmonised themes Cadastral map (KM and Units eXtended (UX.

  14. An Analysis of Personal and Professional Development in the United States Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY by Caner Filiz Markelly Jean-Pierre March 2012 Thesis Advisor: Stephen L...States Navy 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Caner Filiz, Markelly Jean-Pierre 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate...DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY Caner Filiz Lieutenant, Turkish Navy B.S., Turkish Naval Academy, 2002 Markelly Jean-Pierre Lieutenant

  15. Telephone Workers. Grade One. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Coleen; And Others

    Focusing on occupational clusters of transportation and communications, this unit entitled "Telephone Workers" is one of four grade one units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered…

  16. The Food Store. Grade 1. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Coleen; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of business and sales, this unit entitled "The Food Store" is one of four grade one units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered curriculum (CDCC)…

  17. Baking Industry. Grade 2. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Jennifer; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of natural resources and manufacturing, this unit entitled "Baking Industry" is one of four grade 2 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies one career development-centered…

  18. Maternal obesity induced by a high fat diet causes altered cellular development in fetal brains suggestive of a predisposition of offspring to neurological disorders in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Ewa K; Srinivasan, Malathi; Stachowiak, Michal K; Patel, Mulchand S

    2013-12-01

    Fetal development in an obese maternal intrauterine environment has been shown to predispose the offspring for a number of metabolic disorders in later life. The observation that a large percentage of women of child-bearing age in the US are overweight/obese during pregnancy is therefore a source of concern. A high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in female rats has been used as a model for maternal obesity. The objective of this study was to determine cellular development in brains of term fetuses of obese rats fed a HF diet from the time of weaning. Fetal brains were dissected out on gestational day 21 and processed for immunohistochemical analysis in the hypothalamic as well as extra-hypothalamic regions. The major observation of this study is that fetal development in the obese HF female rat induced several alterations in the HF fetal brain. Marked increases were observed in orexigenic signaling and a significant decrease was observed for anorexigenic signaling in the vicinity of the 3rd ventricle in HF brains. Additionally, our results indicated diminished migration and maturation of stem-like cells in the 3rd ventricular region as well as in the brain cortex. The results from the present study indicate developmental alterations in the hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions in the HF fetal brain suggestive of a predisposition for the development of obesity and possibly neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the offspring.

  19. [Assessment system for watershed ecological health in the United States: development and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2013-07-01

    To meet the water quality goals of the Clean Water Act, the environmental agencies in the United States (U.S.) have developed a comprehensive ecological assessment system of watershed health in the last two decades. The system employs a watershed approach, and includes a large set of hydrological, chemical, and biological indices, having become an essential part of the watershed water quality management system in the U.S. and provided strong support for the protection of water environment and the restoration of aquatic system. In this paper, the development and application of the ecological assessment system of watershed health by the U.S. environmental regulators, especially the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), were overviewed from the aspects of related laws and regulations, ecosystem function analysis, ecological health indicators, comprehensive assessment system, and monitoring and data management systems, and the health assessment systems for the rivers, lakes, estuaries, coasts, and wetlands adopted by the National$t1-1-1 Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) were introduced. Some suggestions for the future development of the scientific ecological assessment system of watershed health in China were put forward based on the understanding of the protection and remediation practices of our water environment.

  20. 我国钍燃料循环发展研究%Study and suggestions on development of the thorium fuel cycle in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秀安; 胡永明

    2011-01-01

    调研分析了钍燃料循环的优缺点和国内外研究现状.通过详细分析研究各种堆型的钍资源利用潜力,从核能可持续发展的角度出发,提出了我国钍燃料循环发展的有关结论和建议:(1)当前的核电堆型除高温堆外都不适合进行钍利用;(2)建议采用快堆/热中子堆联合钍燃料循环的方式进行钍资源利用;(3)先进反应堆研究应集中于其堆型本身的研发;(4)当前应该加强钍资源核能利用的基础研究工作.%The features of thorium fuel cycle are analyzed and an overview of development of the thorium fuel cycle is carried out. On the basis of detailed analyses on potentials of utilizing thorium resources in all kinds of reactors, suggestions on development of the thorium fuel cycle in our country are put forward following the outlook of sustainable development of nuclear energy: (1) current reactors can't make full use of thorium resources from industrial viewpoints other than HTRs;(2) an advanced synergic fuel cycle of fast reactors and thermal reactors is suggested to utilize thorium resources; (3) more R&D efforts should be devoted on advanced and immature reactor technologies instead of the thorium utilization of these reactors; (4) currently much fundamental research work on the thorium utilization should be done.

  1. Analysis of problems during molybdenum resources development in China and suggestions%中国钼矿资源开发问题分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫兴虎

    2013-01-01

    针对中国钼矿资源开发所存在的地质勘查过度投入、产能盲目扩涨、采选产品附加值低、产品市场恶性竞争、企业抗风险能力较弱、矿山安全环境问题突出等问题,提出坚持中国钼采选业的可持续发展政策的建议,包括:健全钼矿资源可供性分析,实行钼矿资源勘查差别化政策;提高钼行业准入条件,严格生产配额管理;出台兼并重组政策,提高行业集中度;鼓励技术创新,提高产品附加值;坚持开发与环境保护协调发展。%Aiming at the problems during molybdenum resources development ,such as excessive investment in geological exploration ,blind expansion of production capacity ,mining products with low added value ,vicious competition in product markets ,enterprise weak anti-risk capability ,mine safety and environment problems etc .,corresponding suggestions were put out ,which promote sustainable development policy of molybdenum mining industry in China .The suggestions include improve the analysis of availability of molybdenum resources ,implement differentiated policies in molybdenum exploration ,increase access conditions and implement quota management in molybdenum industry ,increase the industry concentration , encourage technological innovation to increase additional products value ,and geological exploration and environment protection develop coordinately .

  2. Wind Development in the United States: A Comprehensive Policy Framework for Effective Wind Development as Framed by PJM Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Courtney A.

    Wind energy has been lauded as a resource for the United States to lessen its dependency on foreign fuels, reduce carbon output, and potentially create millions of jobs. Accordingly, wind energy is in the forefront of many government officials' minds throughout the United States; however, there are several barriers to wind farm development. This research reviews the social and political barriers to wind farm development and examines the successful renewable energy policies that have been used throughout Europe and the United States. This research consists of interviews with various stakeholders in the PJM region who compare and contrast renewable energy policies in Europe from those in the United States. The resulting information from the interviews creates a comprehensive policy framework that policy makers at all levels of government can utilize and refer to when discussing and drafting wind energy legislation.

  3. 苏宁云商商业模式分析及发展建议%Analysis of Commercial Model and Developing Suggestions about Suning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喆薇

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of online shopping and the rise of electronic commerce, more and more enterprises into the internet. At the same time, with the rapid development of e-commerce, the online retail industry has also brought impact onto the traditional retail industry, promoting the innovation of the business model. Suning was produced under such a background. Firstly, analyzing Suning model, found the innovation and mode of operation, and then discusses the existing cloud business model, and finally development suggestions are put forward.%随着网购的兴起和电子商务的蓬勃发展,越来越多的企业涌上互联网。在电子商务快速发展的同时,网上零售业也给传统零售业带来了冲击,促使其创新商业模式。苏宁云商就是在这样一种背景下产生的。文章首先对苏宁云商的商业模式进行分析,发现其创新点和运作方式,然后探讨云商模式存在的问题,最后对苏宁云商的未来提出发展建议。

  4. Countermeasures and Suggestions for the Development of Papaya Industry in Guangdong Province%广东番木瓜产业发展的对策与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建良

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of an overall evaluation and a thorough study on papaya industry in Guang-dong Province and market at home and abroad, the advantages of papaya industry and its position, func-tion and influence were pointed out in the paper. The favorable conditions and unfavorable factors for its development were discussed and its developing trends looked forward. The necessity and urgency for es-tablishing injury early warning system papaya industry in Guangdong Province was pointed out. Corre-sponding ideas and countermeasures for its development were suggested.%评估和研究了广东省番木瓜产业及市场发展的状况,通过纵横对比和分析,阐明了番木瓜产业的优势及在广东省市场的方位、作用和影响,论述了广东省番木瓜产业发展所面临的有利条件与不利因素,预测了番木瓜产业发展的趋势,指出建立应对番木瓜产业损害与预警机制的必要性与紧迫性,提出了相应的发展思路与对策。

  5. Students’ Socio-cultural Competence Development, Using English and Russian Phraseological Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit I. Kopzhasarova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of socio-cultural competence development on the basis of using English and Russian phraseological units. The authors specify the essence of the socio-cultural competence, define socio-cultural component of foreign language teaching. The authors justify their viewpoint that phraseological units, being the most valuable source of cultural information, exposing background knowledge and culture specific vocabulary, are the effective means of socio-cultural competence development. The set of exercises on socio-cultural competence development on the material of English and Russian phraseological units, developed by authors, include language and speech tasks; tasks based on project and creative research activity methods, which are the basis of development of the main socio-cultural skills that are necessary in intercultural communication

  6. 中国天然橡胶产业现状及其发展建议%Current Situation of Chinese Natural Rubber Industry and Development Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁栋灵; 王秀全; 张志扬; 黄月球

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes general situation of development in Chinese natural rubber industry, the industrial status and role of Chinese natural rubber industry, as well as establish production impetus of Chinese rubber science & technology to rubber production, and putting forward some suggestions on how to improve Chinese natural rubber industry.%从我国天然橡胶产业发展概况、产业的地位和作用,以及我国橡胶科技对植胶生产的推动作用等方面对中国天然橡胶产业发展现状进行了综述,并提出了促进我国天然橡胶产业发展提升的建议.

  7. Dilemmas of the Development of Self-Study Students and Suggestions%自考生在夹缝中生存的现状及其出路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静姝

    2011-01-01

    随着高等教育自学考试日益受到广大考生青睐,自考所引发的一系列问题和思考也开始备受关注。这里主要通过分析自考生的特点及其面临的进退维谷的夹缝中的生存状态,来对自考进行进一步改进,对提升自考文凭的含金量提出建议。%Self-study in higher education is prevalent and wellreceived by most examinees.This paper offers some suggestions through analyzing the examinee's characteristics and the situation confronting with the dilemmas of the development,as to improve the value of the self-study degree.

  8. Countermeasures and Suggestions for China to Develop Internet of Things%我国发展物联网的对策和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊三炉

    2011-01-01

    Now internet of things is popular to public.The article traces back to the origin of internet of things, introduces general domestic and foreign situations, and points out several bottleneck factors for China to develop internet of things.Finally the paper puts forward several countermeasures and suggestions.%目前物联网概念的风行引起大众的广泛关注,文章追溯物联网的起源,介绍物联网国内外的情况.指出我国发展物联网的瓶颈和制约因素,并提出相应的对策和建议.

  9. 我国政府网站发展现状及其标准化建议%Our Government Websites Development Status and Standardization Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗发明

    2011-01-01

    文章阐述了政府网站发展历程,指出了我国政府网站建设的现状和问题,分析了国内外政府网站建设标准化情况,结合典型案例,提出了我国政府网站建设的标准化建议.%This paper expounds the development of our government websites, and points out the status and problems of our government websites construction, analyzes the status of standardization in domestic and foreign government websites construction, and with typical cases, puts forward the standardization suggestions for our government websites construction.

  10. Syllabus Development Studies in Turkey and in the World for Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language - Some Suggestion for Teaching Arabic in Primary Schools in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZCAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Arabic in Turkey and in the world is rising in the last years because of some developments in Middle East. Beside this, Arabic is the language o f Holy Quran and hadiths. As it is known the non - Arab, Muslims need to learn this language in order to understand their religion. After all, of these needs, some countries opened some courses for teaching Arabic. In addition , people started to write some new materials for teaching Arabic in these courses as a foreign language. In Turkey, there are Arabic lessons in intermediate, middle and high school periods. The Education Ministry is publishing syllabus for these lessons. A s Turkey, some countries are teaching Arabic as a foreign language in their schools. In this paper, we tried to analyze the similarities and differences between the syllabuses of these countries and Turkey for teaching Arabic as a foreign language. At the end of the analyze we suggested some suggestions for teaching Arabic in primary schools in Turkey.

  11. Developing policies for green buildings: what can the United States learn from the Netherlands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Retzlaff

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Political jurisdictions in the United States have begun to develop plans that address green buildings, a topic on which the Netherlands has extensive experience. This article analyzes the literature on Dutch green buildings to look for lessons that might be relevant for the development of polices in the United States. Through a metasynthesis of seventeen studies on green building policies in the Netherlands, the study identifies patterns in the literature and creates a holistic interpretation. These data are compared with the literature on green building policies in the United States. The article concludes that guidance from the federal government?including a stronger research agenda for green building policy issues?could help spur innovation. Reliance on voluntary green building certification has very limited potential and stronger regulations are needed in the United States to minimize the environmental impacts of buildings. A flexible, broad policy system is also required.

  12. Cellulosic Ethanol Commercialization Status and Development Suggestions%纤维素乙醇商业化现状及发展建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the technical progress in pretreatment of raw materials, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation is reviewed. Cellulosic ethanol commercialization status is emphatically discussed and the problems existing in the industrialization of cellulosic ethanol are analyzed. Suggestions on the development of fuel ethanol industry in China are proposed, cellulosic ethanol industry development should come from strengthening supply chain, breaking through the key technology, accelerating demonstration in comprehensive utilization of cellulose resources.%综述了纤维素乙醇的原料预处理、酶解和发酵工艺技术进展;重点介绍了纤维素乙醇商业化现状,并对纤维素乙醇产业化存在的问题进行了分析;针对我国燃料乙醇产业发展提出了建议:我国应构建原料供应体系,突破关键技术,加快综合利用纤维素资源示范,促进纤维素乙醇产业快速发展。

  13. 江西省农村水电发展现状及建议%Development situation and suggestion of rural hydropower in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧; 王法磊; 胡强

    2015-01-01

    农村水电作为清洁能源,在开发上具有一定优势,但江西省农村水电事业在发展过程中遇到了一些问题,本文从对生态环境破坏、缺乏流域统筹管理、水电站自身安全隐患、法制不健全、电价低及效益差等方面对存在的问题进行了分析,并通过管理机制及技术创新机制等方面中的相关措施对所遇到的问题提出了相关的建议及对策。%Rural hydropower has certain advantages in the development as a clean energy.However,some problems are encountered in Jiangxi rural hydropower career during development.In the paper,problems in the aspects of the damage to ecological environmental,watershed integrated management insufficient,self security hidden danger of hydropower station, imperfect legal system,low electricity price,poor benefit,etc.are analyzed.Related suggestions and countermeasures are proposed on encountered problems through related measures in the aspects of management mechanism, technology innovation mechanism,etc.

  14. The online potential for the development of eco-certified accommodation units in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and electronic communication have generated significant changes in the marketing strategies of accommodation units. On the other hand, sustainable development is a goal which requires concrete actions and changed mentalities. In Romania operates a number of eco-certified accommodation units. The online tools allow them to communicate the advantages and benefits of the sustainable services, and also to obtain a quick feedback from the consumers. This paper highlights the extent to which eco-certified accommodation units in our country offer relevant information to potential consumers and analyzes the online reviews regarding the eco-certified accommodation services

  15. High Power Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Robert J.; Santiago, Walter; Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested a technology-push power processing unit for electric propulsion applications that utilizes high voltage silicon carbide (SiC) technology. The development specifically addresses the need for high power electronics to enable electric propulsion systems in the 100s of kilowatts. This unit demonstrated how high voltage combined with superior semiconductor components resulted in exceptional converter performance.

  16. Production Situation and Development Suggestion of Chinese Combed Yarn%我国精梳纱生产现状及开发建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅恩福

    2011-01-01

    分析我国精梳纱的生产现状并提出开发建议.通过调查不同精梳工艺产品、不同原料精梳纱、不同纺纱形式精梳纱的生产现状,分析了产品存在的问题.指出:应加大特细号、色纺、多组分混纺及特殊捻度精梳纱的开发力度,充分利用新型纺纱设备开发品质好、结构特殊的精梳纱产品.同时加大新纤维应用力度,加强纺纱工艺技术创新,充分发挥高效能精梳机的技术优势,强化精梳质量控制,促进高质量、高档次、高附加值精梳纱线的生产.%The current production situation of Chinese combed yarn was analyzed, and the development suggestion was proposed. Product existent problems were analyzed through researching combed yarn with different processing, different material and different spinning form. It is pointed out that the development of super fine yarn, colored spinning,multicomponent blending and special twist combed yarn can be increased, the new spinning equipment can be used to develop combed yarn with good quality and special form. At the same times, application of new fiber and innovation of spinning processing technology can be increased, the technical advantages of high-effect combing machine can be used,and the combed yarn quality can be controlled exactly. Then, the production of combed yarn with high quality, high level and high value-added can be ensured.

  17. Suggestion of optimal radiation fields in rectal cancer patients after surgical resection for the development of the patterns of care study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Dae Yong [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2003-06-01

    To suggest the optimal radiation fields after a surgical resection based on a nationwide survey on the principles of radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Korean Patterns of Care Study. A consensus committee, composed of radiation oncologists from 18 hospitals in Seoul Metropolitan area, developed a survey format to analyze radiation oncologist's treatment principles for rectal cancer after a surgical resection. The survey format included 19 questions on the principles of defining field margins, and was sent to the radiation oncologists in charge of gastrointestinal malignancies in all Korean hospitals (48 hospitals). Thirty three (69%) oncologists replied. On the basis of the replies and literature review, the committee developed guidelines for the optimal radiation fields for rectal cancer. The following guidelines were developed: superior border between the lower tip of the L5 vertebral body and upper sacroiliac joint; inferior border 2-3 cm distal to the anastomosis in patient whose sphincter was saved, and 2-3 cm distal to the perineal scar in patients whose anal sphincter was sacrificed; anterior margin at the posterior tip of the symphysis pubis or 2-3 cm anterior to the vertebral body, to include the internal iliac lymph node and posterior margin 1.5-2 cm posterior to the anterior surface of the sacrum, to include the presacral space with enough margin. Comparison with the guidelines, the replies on the superior margin coincided in 23 cases (70%), the inferior margin after sphincter saving surgery in 13 (39%), the inferior margin after abdominoperineal resection in 32 (97%), the lateral margin in 32 (97%), the posterior margins in 32 (97%) and the anterior margin in 16 (45%). These recommendations should be tailored to each patient according to the clinical characteristics such as tumor location, pathological and operative findings, for the optimal treatment. The adequacy of these guidelines should be proved by following the Korean Patterns of Care

  18. Developing Leaders of Character at the United States Military Academy: A Relational Developmental Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callina, Kristina Schmid; Ryan, Diane; Murray, Elise D.; Colby, Anne; Damon, William; Matthews, Michael; Lerner, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on the processes of character development within diverse contexts. In this article, the authors use the United States Military Academy at West Point (USMA) as a sample case for understanding character development processes within an institution of higher education. The authors present a discussion of relational…

  19. Leadership Development in Governments of the United Arab Emirates: Re-Framing a Wicked Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Developing the next generation of leaders in government is seen as a strategic challenge of national importance in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This article examines the wicked nature of the UAE's leadership development challenge, identifying patterns of complexity, uncertainty, and divergence in the strategic intentions underlying current…

  20. Windows to the Future: Can the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Provide Opportunities for Nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David C; Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2016-01-01

    Windows of opportunity are wide open for the nursing profession to actively participate and engage in the policy implementation, evaluation, and achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Nurses bring valuable perspectives as members of diverse governance structures and offer a range of solutions that can help governments pursue and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and targets by 2030.

  1. Ileus development in the trauma/surgical intensive care unit: a process improvement evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Marcy; Bush, Jeffrey A; Buhrow, Dianne; Tittle, Mary B; Singh, Deepak; Harcombe, Julianne; Riddle, Evanthia

    2011-01-01

    Ileus development has been associated with a wide range of complications among hospitalized patients, ranging from increased patient pain and discomfort to malnutrition, aspiration, delayed rehabilitation, and sepsis. This article examines factors that appeared to correlate with an increase in ileus development among patients in a trauma/surgical intensive care unit, with the goal of preventing the condition through nursing practice changes.

  2. Development and validation of an eye care educational programme for intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ok-Hee; Yoo, Yang-Sook; Yun, Sun-Hee; Hwang, Kyung-Hye

    2017-07-01

    To develop and validate an eye care educational programme for intensive care unit nurses. Eye care guidelines and protocols have been developed for increasing eye care implementation in intensive care units. However, the guidelines lack consistency in assessment or intervention methodology. This was a one-sample pre/postprogramme evaluation study design for testing the effects of the eye care educational programme, developed for and applied to intensive care unit nurses, on their levels of knowledge and awareness. The eye care educational programme was developed based on literature review and survey of educational needs. Thirty intensive care unit nurses served as subjects for the study. The levels of eye care-related knowledge, awareness and practice were enhanced following the implementation of the educational programme. Moreover, satisfaction with the educational programme was high. It is necessary to intensify eye care education aimed at new nurses who are inexperienced in intensive care unit nursing and provide continuing education on the latest eye care methods and information to experienced nurses. The eye care educational programme developed in this study can be used as a strategy to periodically assess the eye status of patients and facilitate the appropriate eye care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Restaurant Industry. Grade Three. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Third Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Gail; And Others

    Focusing on the occupational clusters of health, hospitality and recreation, this unit entitled "Restaurant Industry" is one of four grade 3 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections. Section 1 identifies two career…

  4. Adult mouse motor units develop almost all of their force in the subprimary range: a new all-or-none strategy for force recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Marin; Heckman, C J

    2011-10-19

    Classical studies of the mammalian neuromuscular system have shown an impressive adaptation match between the intrinsic properties of motoneurons and the contractile properties of their motor units. In these studies, the rate at which motoneurons start to fire repetitively corresponds to the rate at which individual twitches start to sum, and the firing rate increases linearly with the amount of excitation ("primary range") up to the point where the motor unit develops its maximal force. This allows for the gradation of the force produced by a motor unit by rate modulation. In adult mouse motoneurons, however, we recently described a regime of firing ("subprimary range") that appears at lower excitation than what is required for the primary range, a finding that might challenge the classical conception. To investigate the force production of mouse motor units, we simultaneously recorded, for the first time, the motoneuron discharge elicited by intracellular ramps of current and the force developed by its motor unit. We showed that the motor unit developed nearly its maximal force during the subprimary range. This was found to be the case regardless of the input resistance of the motoneuron, the contraction speed, or the tetanic force of the motor unit. Our work suggests that force modulation in small mammals mainly relies on the number of motor units that are recruited rather than on rate modulation of individual motor units.

  5. Conservation development practices, extent, and land-use effects in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Clark, Story

    2011-08-01

    Conservation development projects combine real-estate development with conservation of land and other natural resources. Thousands of such projects have been conducted in the United States and other countries through the involvement of private developers, landowners, land trusts, and government agencies. Previous research has demonstrated the potential value of conservation development for conserving species, ecological functions, and other resource values on private lands, especially when traditional sources of conservation funding are not available. Nevertheless, the aggregate extent and effects of conservation development were previously unknown. To address this gap, we estimated the extent and trends of conservation development in the United States and characterized its key attributes to understand its aggregate contribution to land-conservation and growth-management objectives. We interviewed representatives from land trusts, planning agencies, and development companies, searched the Internet for conservation development projects and programs, and compiled existing databases of conservation development projects. We collected data on 3884 projects encompassing 1.38 million ha. About 43% of the projects targeted the conservation of specific plant or animal species or ecological communities of conservation concern; 84% targeted the protection of native ecosystems representative of the project area; and 42% provided buffers to existing protected areas. The percentage of protected land in conservation development projects ranged from 99%, and the effects of these projects on natural resources differed widely. We estimate that conservation development projects have protected roughly 4 million ha of land in the United States and account for about 25% of private-land conservation activity nationwide.

  6. 海南省观赏水族行业的发展前景及对策%Current Situation of Decorative Fishery in Hainan and Development Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张希; 杨宁; 黄海

    2012-01-01

    An important part of recreational fisheries is decorative fishery,which will become a trend in China.Decorative fishery is also an important direction of development in the building process of Hainan international tourism Island.On the base of the deep-going analysis about the current situation of decorative fishery development in Hainan,the main questions of decorative fish cultivation and market were found.At the same time many suggestions were brought up,such as exploiting the biological resources of Hainan Island;Strengthening the efforts of research institutes aquaculture R & D;introducing new varieties of ornamental species;Strengthening market management etc,which will benefit the rational utilization of tropical biological resources and increase a whole competitive advantage of Hainan decorative fishery industry.%观赏水族业是休闲渔业的重要组成部分,海南具有大力发展热带观赏水族行业的潜力。对海南省观赏水族市场进行深入调查,分析和总结海南省观赏水族行业的发展现状和存在的问题,提出发挥海南区位优势、挖掘本地热带生物资源、加强科研力量、引进国外观赏水族新品种、加强产业引导和市场管理等建议,促进热带生物资源的合理利用和观赏水族业结构的多元化,增加海南省观赏水族业的整体竞争优势。

  7. 湘莲产业的发展对策与建议%Developing Strategies and Suggestions for Xianglian Lotus Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海清

    2013-01-01

    Xianglian lotus is a traditional speciality of Xiangtan city, and it has obvious processing advantages. In recent years, the industrial base construction is stable increase; the market net is gradually perfecting; the total trading amount is continuously increasing;the leading enterprises grew fast;and the ability of scientific research and development enhanced. But there were also some problems, such as low yield, serious damage of disease and insect pests, high processing cost, less deep-processing products, low intensive degree, etc.. Therefore, some suggestions were proposed for promoting development of Xianglian lotus industry, including making a scientific plan, enhancing technical level of products, establishing stable planting base for Xianglian lotus, strengthening control of disease and insect pests for Xianglian lotus, constructing a modern trading market for lotus seed, practically enhancing supervision for quality safety, and promoting publicization of Xianglian culture.%湘莲是湘潭市传统特产,加工优势明显,近年产业基地建设稳中有升,市场网络日趋完善,贸易总量不断增加,龙头企业迅速成长,科研开发能力增强。但也存在产量低,病虫危害重,加工成本高,深加工产品少,集约化程度低等问题,基于此,提出湘莲产业发展应科学制定规划,提高产品科技含量,建立稳固的湘莲种植基地,加强湘莲病虫害防治,建设现代化莲子交易市场,切实加强质量安全监管,并弘扬湘莲文化。

  8. Design, development, fabrication and delivery of register and multiplexer units. [CMOS monolithic chip development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, A.; Lombardi, T.

    1978-01-01

    Several approaches for implementing the register and multiplexer unit into two CMOS monolithic chip types were evaluated. The CMOS standard cell array technique was selected and implemented. Using this design automation technology, two LSI CMOS arrays were designed, fabricated, packaged, and tested for proper static, functional, and dynamic operation. One of the chip types, multiplexer register type 1, is fabricated on a 0.143 x 0.123 inch chip. It uses nine standard cell types for a total of 54 standard cells. This involves more than 350 transistors and has the functional equivalent of 111 gates. The second chip, multiplexer register type 2, is housed on a 0.12 x 0.12 inch die. It uses 13 standard cell types, for a total of 42 standard cells. It contains more than 300 transistors, the functional equivalent of 112 gates. All of the hermetically sealed units were initially screened for proper functional operation. The static leakage and the dynamic leakage were measured. Dynamic measurements were made and recorded. At 10 V, 14 megabit shifting rates were measured on multiplexer register type 1. At 5 V these units shifted data at a 6.6 MHz rate. The units were designed to operate over the 3 to 15 V operating range and over a temperature range of -55 to 125 C.

  9. Suggested safeguards an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    ... COORDINATION. (FACILITATION OR CASE MANAGEMENT) IN SOUTH AFRICA ... SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE AND .... professional practice.27 They have to assess the situation; educate the parents.

  10. The development of close relationships in Japan and the United States: paths of symbiotic harmony and generative tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, F; Pott, M; Azuma, H; Miyake, K; Weisz, J

    2000-01-01

    Findings from research on parent-child and adult mate relationships suggest that there are different paths of development in Japan and the United States. In Japan, the path is one of symbiotic harmony, as seen in the emphasis on union in infancy, others' expectations in childhood, the stability of relationships with parents and peers in adolescence, and assurance about the mate relationship in adulthood. In the United States, the path is one of generative tension, as seen in the tug between separation and reunion in infancy, the emphasis on personal preferences in childhood, the transfer of closeness from parents to peers in adolescence, and the emphasis on trust-a faith and hope in new relationships-in adulthood. The notion that there are different paths of development challenges Western investigators' presumption that certain processes-separation-individuation, use of the relational partner as a secure base for exploration, and conflict between partners-are central in all relationships. The notion of different paths also challenges the assumption of many cross-cultural investigators that relationships in the United States are less valued or weaker than those in Japan; this article highlights cultural differences in the meaning and dynamics, as opposed to the importance and strength, of relationships. The model suggests a need to investigate the processes underlying, and the adaptive consequences of, these two alternative paths.

  11. Suggestions on Blood Collection and Supply Station for Sustainable Development%促进采供血机构持续发展的相关建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆福; 温涛

    2012-01-01

    Analysis on the existing problem of blood collection and supply station in Henan Province and combine with work practices to put forward five suggestions;to adopt government to push forward mode, to urge volunteer giving blood to keep on a development;to increase personnel and fund, raise to collect blood service quality;to reasonable program the concentration examine laboratory;to aggressive adopt forerunner examines means and ensure clinical use blood safety;to improve quality manages system,etc.%对河南省采供血机构存在问题进行了分析.结合工作实践提出了5点建议:采取政府推进模式,促无偿献血持续发展;增加人员编制和投入,提高采血服务质量;合理规划集中检测实验室;积极采用先进检测手段,确保临床用血安全;完善质量管理体系等.

  12. 我国苹果产业的格局和发展建议%Pattern and Suggestions for the Development of Apple Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杰

    2015-01-01

    苹果生产在我国水果产业中占有重要地位,本文简要叙述了苹果的产量分布、出口状况以及苹果的价格变化,从生产模式和经营模式两个方面分析了苹果产业发展的新态势。最后针对苹果发展的新格局,笔者提出了苹果产业发展的建议,即加强信息交流,健全市场预警机制;强化品牌战略,拓展市场领域,搭建网络交易平台,拓宽果品营销渠道。%Apple production occupies the most important position in the fruit industry of our country. In this paper, the production and distribution of apple export, and the price changes of apple were briefly described, and the new development trend of apple industry was analysed from both production and operation mode. Finally, the author put forward some new suggestions which based on the new pattern of apple industry:strengthening information exchange, perfecting the market early warning mechanism; strengthening the brand strategy, expanding the market area and building the network trading platform, broadening the fruit marketing channel.

  13. 发展国际医疗旅游的意义、经验及建议%Significance, experiences and suggestions for developing international medical tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀峰

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of drawing on recently published literature on international medical tourism, this paper comprehensively summarizes the effects thereof on driving economic growth, expanding employment and improving in-ternational competitive power, analyzes the main driving forces for the international medical tourism development and the experiences from Thailand, India, Malaysia, Japan, South Korea, etc. According to China’s advantages and dis-advantages and learning from the international experience, this paper proposes suggestions to develop China’s interna-tional medical tourism, including an improvement to the management system, formulating international medical tourism development strategies, building brand characteristics with traditional Chinese medicine, constructing ‘Ex-perimental and Leading Area’ , and promoting international certification for the medical institutions and services.%本文归纳整理了近年来有关国际医疗旅游的中文文献,总结了发展国际医疗旅游对于拉动经济增长、扩大就业、提升国际竞争力等的重要意义,梳理了全球国际医疗旅游发展的主要驱动力和泰国、印度、马来西亚、日本、韩国等国家(地区)发展国际医疗旅游的主要经验,根据我国医疗旅游发展现状及优劣势,借鉴国际经验,提出了促进我国国际医疗旅游业发展的主要建议,包括完善医疗旅游管理体制和管理制度、尽快研究制定国际医疗旅游发展战略规划、打造以中医药为特色的医疗旅游品牌、建设国际医疗旅游先行区和示范区、推进医疗机构和服务的国际化认证等建议。

  14. Automation of microbial enumeration: development of a disposable hydrophobic grid-membrane filter unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, K; Bussey, D M

    1986-10-01

    A disposable filter unit containing a hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) was developed. The unit is liquid tight to serve as a specimen transport container and, by removal of the funnel extender (175- or 300-ml capacity), the unit becomes less than the height of two stacked petri plates to save space during in situ incubation. The polyethylene mesh which supports the HGMF facilitates rinse removal of any substance(s) that would interfere with microbial growth. The correlations between a pour plate, a conventional square HGMF, and a disposable filter unit on microbial enumeration were examined. Characteristics (e.g., clumping, spreading, etc.) of some microorganisms limit the linear counting range to less than 1,000 CFU per filter.

  15. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  16. Liquid phase fluid dynamic (methanol) run in the LaPorte alternative fuels development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharat L. Bhatt

    1997-05-01

    A fluid dynamic study was successfully completed in a bubble column at DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Significant fluid dynamic information was gathered at pilot scale during three weeks of Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOJP) operations in June 1995. In addition to the usual nuclear density and temperature measurements, unique differential pressure data were collected using Sandia's high-speed data acquisition system to gain insight on flow regime characteristics and bubble size distribution. Statistical analysis of the fluctuations in the pressure data suggests that the column was being operated in the churn turbulent regime at most of the velocities considered. Dynamic gas disengagement experiments showed a different behavior than seen in low-pressure, cold-flow work. Operation with a superficial gas velocity of 1.2 ft/sec was achieved during this run, with stable fluid dynamics and catalyst performance. Improvements included for catalyst activation in the design of the Clean Coal III LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, were also confirmed. In addition, an alternate catalyst was demonstrated for LPMEOH{trademark}.

  17. Effectiveness and Utility of a Case-Based Model for Delivering Engineering Ethics Professional Development Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Ann Hahn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an action research project conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL to resolve a problem with the ability of licensed and/or certified engineers to obtain the ethics-related professional development units or hours (PDUs or PDHs needed to maintain their credentials. Because of the recurring requirement and the static nature of the information, an initial, in-depth training followed by annually updated refresher training was proposed. A case model approach, with online delivery, was selected as the optimal pedagogical model for the refresher training. In the first two years, the only data that was collected was throughput and information retention. Response rates indicated that the approach was effective in helping licensed professional engineers obtain the needed PDUs. The rates of correct responses suggested that knowledge transfer regarding ethical reasoning had occurred in the initial training and had been retained in the refresher. In FY13, after completing the refresher, learners received a survey asking their opinion of the effectiveness and utility of the course, as well as their impressions of the case study format vs. the typical presentation format. Results indicate that the courses have been favorably received and that the case study method supports most of the pedagogical needs of adult learners as well as, if not better than, presentation-based instruction. Future plans for improvement are focused on identifying and evaluating methods for enriching online delivery of the engineering ethics cases.

  18. Salamander chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) in the United States—Developing research, monitoring, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieka; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2016-01-20

    The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins Science Center, and Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, was held at the USGS Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado, United States from June 23 to June 25, 2015, to identify crucial Bsal research and monitoring needs that could inform conservation and management strategies for salamanders in the United States. Key findings of the workshop included the following: (1) the introduction of Bsal into the United States is highly probable, if not inevitable, thus requiring development of immediate short-term and long-term intervention strategies to prevent Bsal establishment and biodiversity decline; (2) management actions targeted towards pathogen containment may be ineffective in reducing the long-term spread of Bsal throughout the United States; and (3) early detection of Bsal through surveillance at key amphibian import locations, among high-risk wild populations, and through analysis of archived samples is necessary for developing management responses. Top research priorities during the preinvasion stage included the following: (1) deployment of qualified diagnostic methods for Bsal and establishment of standardized laboratory practices, (2) assessment of susceptibility for amphibian hosts (including anurans), and (3) development and evaluation of short- and long-term pathogen intervention and management strategies. Several outcomes were achieved during the workshop, including development

  19. Aquifer thermal-energy storage for a Medford, Oregon, planned unit development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    A large (950 unit) Planned Unit Development (PUD) is designed for passive solar heating, including a designed roof overhang to allow incoming winter sunlight, and block the sun's summer rays. Additionally, the developers wanted to maximize the use of renewable energy, and they had begun to explore various alternatives, including the use of the available heat in groundwater. Water-to-air heat pumps can utilize ground water as low in temperature as 50/sup 0/F (10/sup 0/C); however, the lower the temperature, the greater the flow of water must be. It was found that an adequate supply of water for this use was not available.

  20. 《加强美国法庭科学之路》的反响和启示%Feedbacks and Suggestions of ′Strengthening Forensic Science In The United States:A Path Forward′

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢学毅

    2011-01-01

    "Strengthening Forensic Science In The United States: A Path Forward",published by National Research Council of NAS in February 2009,pointed that there were serious deficiencies in the current United States forensic science system and many subjects actually were not reliable in Forensic practice.By deliberately analyzing the background of its publication and the debates and feedbacks after its publication,this thesis shows that major arguments still exist in whether to build a whole new National Forensic Science Institute,and whether to keep the criminal labs independent from the law enforcement departments.This report could be a good reference to China′s forensic science system reform.All of the transparent decision procedure,multilevel policies and comprehensive approaches could be a good example to China′s forensic science development.%美国科学院国家研究顾问委员会2009年2月发布的《加强美国法庭科学之路》明确指出目前美国法庭科学领域的很多学科存在严重缺陷,不能很好地为司法审判服务。本文通过对该报告出台背景和一年多来的争论和反响进行分析,对其披露的问题和提出的建议进行了详细解读。目前其主要争议存在于设立独立的国家法庭科学研究院和隔离法庭科学机构与执法机构的行政关系等问题。该报告对我国的法庭科学体制改革具有一定的借鉴意义,我们需要结合我国的国情,借鉴该报告提供的决策程序、改革途径和策略,对我国法庭科学现状开展客观深入地分析调查,发现根本问题所在,对法庭科学开展广泛的基础研究,进行有效的质量控制,提供更多的教育培训项目,促进法庭科学健康发展。

  1. Gulf of California Sediment and Proxy SST Records Suggest a Post 6 ka Development of the Arizona Monsoon and Solar Forcing of Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, J. A.; Bukry, D.

    2007-12-01

    Summer monsoonal rains in Arizona and adjacent areas are mainly due to pulses of moisture traveling northward up the Gulf of California (GOC). Modern studies reveal that northern GOC SSTs must exceed 26 deg. C before monsoonal rainfall develops in Arizona and western New Mexico, and over 80 percent of the rainfall in this region occurs after northern GOC SSTs exceed 28.5 deg. C. Warming of GOC occurs progressively from south to north in the late spring, as northwest winds, which dominate in the late fall to early spring, decrease in strength, and tropical waters penetrate northward along the western coast of the GOC. Sediment (CaCO3 and opal) and microfossil (diatom and silicoflagellate) proxies spanning the past 15,000 years from cores in the central GOC suggest that waters of the northern GOC were too cold between ca. 11 and 6 ka to allow development of monsoonal rains in Arizona. Evidence for a post 6 ka intensification of monsoonal rains in Arizona and adjacent areas includes: 1) increased frequency of arroyo cutting in Arizona after ca. 5 ka, 2) increased evidence of paleofloods in Arizona and SW Utah after ca. 6 ka, and 3) the renewal of aggradation of alluvial fans in the Mojave Dessert at ca. 6 ka after a lull in their formation between ca. 11 and 6 ka. Supportive pollen evidence includes : 1) the late Holocene appearance of summer flowering annuals and C-{4} grasses in SE Arizona, and 2) the post 6 ka appearance of a warm, mixed biome in the highlands of northwest Mexico. Other pollen evidence and the scarcity of early and middle Holocene packrat middens in the American southwest, however, have been cited as evidence of increased monsoonal rains during the early and middle parts of the Holocene It is likely that the Gulf of Mexico was the main source of monsoonal moisture in the American southwest prior to ca. 6 ka, especially in the regions east of Arizona. A northward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the Caribbean prior to ca. 5.4 ka

  2. Sequence and expression analyses of KIX domain proteins suggest their importance in seed development and determination of seed size in rice, and genome stability in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jitendra Kumar; Agarwal, Pinky; Parida, Swarup; Bajaj, Deepak; Pasrija, Richa

    2013-08-01

    The KIX domain, which mediates protein-protein interactions, was first discovered as a motif in the large multidomain transcriptional activator histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP. Later, the domain was also found in Mediator subunit MED15, where it interacts with many transcription factors. In both proteins, the KIX domain is a target of activation domains of diverse transcription activators. It was found to be an essential component of several specific gene-activation pathways in fungi and metazoans. Not much is known about KIX domain proteins in plants. This study aims to characterize all the KIX domain proteins encoded by the genomes of Arabidopsis and rice. All identified KIX domain proteins are presented, together with their chromosomal locations, phylogenetic analysis, expression and SNP analyses. KIX domains were found not only in p300/CBP- and MED15-like plant proteins, but also in F-box proteins in rice and DNA helicase in Arabidopsis, suggesting roles of KIX domains in ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation and genome stability. Expression analysis revealed overlapping expression of OsKIX_3, OsKIX_5 and OsKIX_7 in different stages of rice seeds development. Moreover, an association analysis of 136 in silico mined SNP loci in 23 different rice genotypes with grain-length information identified three non-synonymous SNP loci in these three rice genes showing strong association with long- and short-grain differentiation. Interestingly, these SNPs were located within KIX domain encoding sequences. Overall, this study lays a foundation for functional analysis of KIX domain proteins in plants.

  3. Research Suggestions for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  4. Open To Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  5. Process and structure: resource management and the development of sub-unit organisational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packwood, T; Keen, J; Buxton, M

    1992-03-01

    Resource Management (RM) requires hospital units to manage their work in new ways, and the new management processes affect, and are affected by, organisation structure. This paper is concerned with these effects, reporting on the basis of a three-year evaluation of the national RM experiment that was commissioned by the DH. After briefly indicating some of the major characteristics of the RM process, the two main types of unit structures existing in the pilot sites at the beginning of the experiment, unit disciplinary structure and clinical directorates, are analysed. At the end of the experiment, while clinical directorates had become more popular, another variant, clinical grouping, had replaced the unit disciplinary structure. Both types of structure represent a movement towards sub-unit organisation, bringing the work and interests of the service providers and unit managers closer together. Their properties are likewise analysed and their implications, particularly in terms of training and organisational development (OD), are then considered. The paper concludes by considering the causes for these structural changes, which, in the immediate time-scale, appear to owe as much to the NHS Review as to RM.

  6. Development and application of a quality control procedure for short-wave diathermy units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, N; O'Hare, N; Boyle, G; Gormley, J

    2003-01-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD) is a form of radiofrequency (RF) radiation, operating at 27.12 MHz, that is used therapeutically by physiotherapists. Although this form of therapy is widely available, the management of the equipment is not often addressed by either physiotherapists or by medical physics/clinical engineering. A quality control protocol for SWD units, examining power output and electrical and mechanical condition, was developed and applied to 20 units used in clinical practice. In addition, an environmental assessment of where the units were used was also included. Results showed that the power output was generally stable (coefficient of variation range 0-8.8%) and reproducible (coefficient of variation range 0-6.8%). When the outputs from 12 similar units were compared, it was found that the relationship between the units' intensity settings and power output measurements was non-linear. Two units with mechanical timers were found to have inaccuracies that could contribute, under a 'worst-case' scenario, to a dosage error of up to 45%. Environmental analysis found that all treatment plinths in use contained metal parts, which could constitute a fire hazard, and no department examined was equipped with an RF screened room, a facility that would ensure that other persons in the vicinity were not exposed to excessive stray radiation.

  7. The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilken, Jean Pierre; Slagmaat, Carla van; Gijzel, Sascha van

    2013-01-01

    The Best Practice Unit (BPU) model constitutes a unique form of practice-based research. A variant of the Community of Practice model developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002), the BPU has the specific aim of improving professional practice by combining innovation and research. The model is u

  8. Identity Development of Chinese Graduate Students in the United States: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigated the lived experiences of identity development of Chinese graduate students in the United States. Through in-depth interviews with 15 participants at a Midwestern research university, the study found that the majority of Chinese graduate students came with a strong student identity that conflated with…

  9. National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maurer, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feinberg, Luke [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duerr, Alana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Phillipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Golladay, Jennifer [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Stromberg, Jessica [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Johnson, Isis [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Boren, Doug [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Moore, Annette [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Wind Energy Technologies Office, and U.S. Department of the Interior, through its Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, have jointly produced this updated national strategy to facilitate the responsible development of offshore wind energy in the United States.

  10. Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase 3: Biomass Process Development Unit (PDU) construction and initial operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, J. J.; Hooverman, R. H.

    1981-12-01

    The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. Siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor, the ash dump system, the PDU support equipment, control and information management, and shakedown runs are described.

  11. Managing Training of Military Units: Development of a Management Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Nancy K.; Hiller, Jack H.

    An automated management information system was developed for planning and scheduling unit training in a U.S. Army infantry division. The primary goal of the project was to test the feasibility of the concept for a computer-based management information system. Specific objectives were to integrate information on personnel, training, and logistics…

  12. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-02

    This report consists of Detailed Data Acquisition Sheets for Runs E-6 and E-7 for Task 2.2 of the Modification, Operation, and Support Studies of the Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit. (Task 2.2: Alternate Catalyst Run E-6 and Catalyst Activity Maintenance Run E-7).

  13. Development of a biorefinery optimized biofuel supply curve for the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan Parker; Peter Tittmann; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson; Ken Skog; Anneliese Schmidt; Edward Gray; Bryan Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    A resource assessment and biorefinery siting optimization model was developed and implemented to assess potential biofuel supply across the Western United States from agricultural, forest, urban, and energy crop biomass. Spatial information including feedstock resources, existing and potential refinery locations and a transportation network model is provided to a mixed...

  14. The Role of an Academic Development Unit in Supporting Institutional VET Learning and Teaching Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotinatos, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role and impact of a central academic development unit (ADU) within an institutional strategic and operational change management project. The primary goal of this project was to improve vocational education and training (VET) learning and teaching practice in an Australian dual-sector regional university.…

  15. Investigating Knowledge Acquisition and Developing Misconceptions of High School Students Enrolled in an Invasion Games Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Molly K.; Graber, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded within constructivist theory, the purpose of this investigation was to investigate knowledge acquisition and developing conceptions of high school-aged students during a unit of instruction in badminton. Six different qualitative methods were utilized: (a) observations, (b) formal interviews, (c) informal interviews, (d) think aloud…

  16. The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Jean Pierre Wilken; Carla van Slagmaat; Msc Sascha van Gijzel

    2013-01-01

    The Best Practice Unit (BPU) model constitutes a unique form of practice-based research. A variant of the Community of Practice model developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002), the BPU has the specific aim of improving professional practice by combining innovation and research. The model is

  17. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  18. Contemporary Development of Academic Reference Librarianship in the United States: A 44-Year Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanrong; Tang, Yingqi; Knight, Carley

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes job advertisements to identify the contemporary development of academic reference librarianship in the United States. Results show that more job openings, higher educational backgrounds, more duties & responsibilities, and variety of titles were assigned to academic reference librarian positions from 1966 through 2009.…

  19. The Development and Evaluation of the Multi-Unit Elementary School. Maxi II Practicum Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Joe D.

    The purpose of this practicum was to show the development and evaluation of a multi-unit elementary school (MUS-E) using Individually Guided Education. As an organizational structure capable of permitting planned change. MUS-E provides for the growth of its students on an individual basis, provides in-service for its teachers, involves the public…

  20. Orff Schulwerk: The Development of Teacher Training in the United States, 1958-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Joani Somppi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines teacher training in Orff Schulwerk in the United States and how the training system currently in practice was initially developed. Since the first Orff Schulwerk teacher training, conducted by Gunild Keetman at the Mozarteum in Salzburg, Austria in 1953, teachers have been seeking ways to adapt the Schulwerk approach to…

  1. United Stirling's solar engine development: The background for the Vanguard engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, S.

    1984-03-01

    The development and testing resulting in the Vanguard engine and some of the characteristics of the Stirling engine based power conversion unit are described. The major part of the solar engine development is concentrated to the three different areas, the receiver, the lubrication system and the control system. Five engines are on test within the solar project. The function of the components are validated in actual solar tests.

  2. Land development in the United Kingdom: private property rights and public policy objectives

    OpenAIRE

    J Corkindale

    1999-01-01

    The system of land-use planning in the United Kingdom has remained essentially unchanged since the introduction of the 1947 Town and Country Planning Acts. There has been rather little progress since then in the economic evaluation of this system or in the development of more market-based approaches to land-use planning. The author discusses some of the reasons for the lack of economic evaluation, develops decision criteria for conducting such economic evaluation, and goes on to indicate the ...

  3. Organizational suggestion system in the era of holding by developing an innovative model : the case of bonyade ta avon holding in Iran(an applied model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the popular ways of taking advantage of personnel creativity is through suggestionsystems. Our main question is how to implement suggestion system in holding with conglomeratestructure. The paper presents an innovative model that were named ITFSK Model with accordanceof Bonayade Taavone (a holding that has many companies and institutions with conglomeratestructure. ITFSK is a model that explains how participation management and suggestion system isimplemented effectively in huge Enterprises (holding and this approach brings continuousimprovement (kaizen and it impacts the productivity of these enterprises.The paper is based on field research and the research in Bonyade Tavan that has 22 companies and2 institutions that activity fields of the subholdings is very varied.Our model consists of five main parts such as ideas bank, think-tank, feedback, sharing ofknowledge and kaizen that was named ITFSK.Implementation of “Suggestion system” rules has immediate and significant effects on theproductivity of activities in the jobs, thus influencing the performance of processes in the analyzedorganization. Suggestion system can result in kaizen and innovation in environment oforganization.The model was used to implement and evaluate a suggestion system of holding with conglomeratedstructure. The application of the model to evaluate the suggestion system provided some goodinsights and highlighted some areas of improvement.

  4. Development of a compact wearable pneumatic drive unit for a ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Akihiko; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Akagawa, Eiki; Lee, Hwansung; Nishinaka, Tomohiro; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Toshihide; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Kakuta, Yukihide; Katagiri, Nobumasa; Shimosaki, Isao; Hamada, Shigeru; Mukaibayashi, Hiroshi; Iwaoka, Wataru

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a compact wearable pneumatic drive unit for a ventricular assist device (VAD). This newly developed drive unit, 20 x 8.5 x 20 cm in size and weighing approximately 1.8 kg, consists of a brushless DC motor, noncircular gears, a crankshaft, a cylinder-piston, and air pressure regulation valves. The driving air pressure is generated by the reciprocating motion of the piston and is controlled by the air pressure regulation valves. The systolic ratio is determined by the noncircular gears, and so is fixed for a given configuration. As a result of an overflow-type mock circulation test, a drive unit with a 44% systolic ratio connected to a Toyobo VAD blood pump with a 70-ml stroke volume achieved a pump output of more than 7 l/min at 100 bpm against a 120 mmHg afterload. Long-term animal tests were also performed using drive units with systolic ratios of 45% and 53% in two Holstein calves weighing 62 kg and 74 kg; the tests were terminated on days 30 and 39, respectively, without any malfunction. The mean aortic pressure, bypass flow, and power consumption for the first calf were maintained at 90 x 13 mmHg, 3.9 x 0.9 l/min, and 12 x 1 W, and those for the second calf were maintained at 88 x 13 mmHg, 5.0 x 0.5 l/min, and 16 x 2 W, respectively. These results indicate that the newly developed drive unit may be used as a wearable pneumatic drive unit for the Toyobo VAD blood pump.

  5. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  6. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bøttger Pernille

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inorganic (Pi phosphate transporter (PiT family comprises known and putative Na+- or H+-dependent Pi-transporting proteins with representatives from all kingdoms. The mammalian members are placed in the outer cell membranes and suggested to supply cells with Pi to maintain house-keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian PiT family members. Besides being Na+-dependent Pi (NaPi transporters, the mammalian PiT paralogs, PiT1 and PiT2, also are receptors for gamma-retroviruses. We have here exploited the dual-function of PiT1 and PiT2 to study the structure-function relationship of PiT proteins. Results We show that the human PiT2 histidine, H502, and the human PiT1 glutamate, E70, - both conserved in eukaryotic PiT family members - are critical for Pi transport function. Noticeably, human PiT2 H502 is located in the C-terminal PiT family signature sequence, and human PiT1 E70 is located in ProDom domains characteristic for all PiT family members. A human PiT2 truncation mutant, which consists of the predicted 10 transmembrane (TM domain backbone without a large intracellular domain (human PiT2ΔR254-V483, was found to be a fully functional Pi transporter. Further truncation of the human PiT2 protein by additional removal of two predicted TM domains together with the large intracellular domain created a mutant that resembles a bacterial phosphate permease and an archaeal putative phosphate permease. This human PiT2 truncation mutant (human PiT2ΔL183-V483 did also support Pi transport albeit at very low levels. Conclusions The results suggest that the overall structure of the Pi-transporting unit of the PiT family proteins has remained unchanged during evolution

  7. 中国智能电网发展述评、展望与建议%Review,development and suggestion of Chinese smart grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄训诚; 和萍; 崔光照; 史峰; 耿斯涵

    2016-01-01

    differences in service needs,elec-tricity reform is not yet perfect and so on.Focusing on those problems,the specific suggestions as improving the investment decision-making and planning of power grid was put forward,fault treatment and asset manage-ment and maintenance management,strengthening the demand side management and the standard system con-struction.Furthermore,in the future development of smart grid in China,hardware upgrade as network plan-ning,construction,reconstruction and technical upgrading should be in consideration,the requirement of op-erational control,asset management and user management also should be met,the integration of the power flow,integrated business flow and information flow,and the realization of flexible access of diversified power supply should be achieved to provide convenience to each step of power users to accelerate the realization of the entire intelligent network on the management and maintenance of control and operation,and finally build a national smart grid ahead of the international level with Chinese characteristics.

  8. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Contributors offer teaching ideas, including: using Sherlock Holmes mysteries to teach character and plot development, using materials supplied by the athletic coaches in the reading laboratory, and using individualized reading in the content areas. (AEA)

  9. Moral development of first-year pharmacy students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Becket, Gordon; Wilson, Sarah Ellen

    2014-03-12

    To investigate the moral development of pharmacy students over their first academic year of study at a university in the United Kingdom. Pharmacy students completed Defining Issues Test (DIT) at the start of their first year (phase 1) and again at the end of their first year (phase 2) of the program. Pharmacy students (N=116) had significantly higher moral reasoning at the beginning of their first year than by the end of it. Scores differed by students' gender and age; however, these findings differed between phase 1 and phase 2. First-year pharmacy students in the United Kingdom scored lower on moral reasoning than did pharmacy students in the United States and Canada.

  10. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in-situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform it is possible to compartmentalize...... different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit......-automatically characterize ω-transaminases in a scaled-down packed-bed reactor (PBR) module, showing MPPA as a strong inhibitor. To overcome the inhibition, a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) ISPR concept was tested using scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner. Through the tested ISPR concept...

  11. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  12. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry: Development and Progress Toward National Collaboration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Donna S.; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Msall, Michael E.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Dewald, Julius P.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common neurodevelopmental motor disability in children. The condition requires medical, educational, social, and rehabilitative resources throughout the life span. Several countries have developed population-based registries that serve the purpose of prospective longitudinal collection of etiologic, demographic, and functional severity. The United States has not created a comprehensive program to develop such a registry. Barriers have been large population size, poor interinstitution collaboration, and decentralized medical and social systems. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry was created to fill the gap between population and clinical-based cerebral palsy registries and promote research in the field. This is accomplished by connecting persons with cerebral palsy, as well as their families, to a network of regional researchers. This article describes the development of an expandable cerebral palsy research registry, its current status, and the potential it has to affect families and persons with cerebral palsy in the United States and abroad. PMID:21677201

  13. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McLean

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the work of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and describes its interest in the application of distance learning strategies pertinent to the challenges of food security and rural development around the world. The article briefly reviews pertinent examples of distance learning, both from the experience of FAO and elsewhere, and summarises a complex debate about the potential of distance learning in developing countries. The paper elaborates five practical suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development. The purpose of publishing this article is both to disseminate our ideas about distance learning to interested professional and scholarly audiences around the world, and to seek feedback from those audiences.

  14. Performance and Environmental Test Results of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Mathers, Alex

    2012-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.5 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the high voltage Hall accelerator engineering development unit have been performed. Performance test results indicated that at 3.9 kW the thruster achieved a total thrust efficiency and specific impulse of 58%, and 2,700 sec, respectively. Thermal characterization tests indicated that the thruster component temperatures were within the prescribed material maximum operating temperature limits during full power thruster operation. Finally, thruster vibration tests indicated that the thruster survived the 3-axes qualification full-level random vibration test series. Pre and post-vibration test performance mappings indicated almost identical thruster performance. Finally, an update on the development progress of a power processing unit and a xenon feed system is provided.

  15. Development of an In-Flight Refill Unit for Replenishing Research Animal Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. I.; Barnes, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission became NASA's longest duration Shuttle mission, lasting fourteen days, when Columbia landed on 1 Nov. 1993. Located within the Spacelab were a total of 48 laboratory rats which were housed in two Research Animal Holding Facilities (RAHF's) developed by the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office (SLSPO) at Ames Research Center. In order to properly maintain the health and well-being of these important research animals, sufficient quantities of food and water had to be available for the duration of the mission. An inflight Refill Unit was developed by the SLSPO to replenish the animals' drinking water inflight using the Shuttle potable water system in the middeck galley as the source of additional water. The Inflight Refill Unit consists of two major subsystems, a Fluid Pumping Unit (FPU) and a Collapsible Water Reservoir (CWR). The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out and into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar(trademark) reinforced storage bladder, connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system and allows for the transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two RAHFs. Additional components of the FPU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 28 volt direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab. This paper will present the design process and development approach for the lnflight Refill Unit, define some of the key design issues which had to be addressed, and summarize the inflight operational performance

  16. Developing a framework for implementing intensive care unit diaries: a focused review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Muna; Scruth, Elizabeth; Liu, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Intensive care unit diaries have been shown to improve post-critical illness recovery, however, prior reports of diary implementation are heterogeneous. We sought to construct a common framework for designing and implementing Intensive Care Unit diaries based on prior studies. We conducted a focused review of the literature regarding intensive care diaries based on a systematic search of several databases. Two reviewers assessed 56 studies and data were abstracted from a total of 25 eligible studies conducted between 1990 and 2014. We identified key information regarding the development, design, and implementation of the journals. We then grouped elements that appeared consistently across these studies within three main categories: (1) diary target populations; (2) diary format and content; and (3) the manner of diary return and follow-up. Most studies were conducted in European countries in adult intensive care units and targeted patients in both medical and surgical units. The timing of diary initiation was based on the elapsed length of stay or duration of mechanical ventilation. We categorised diary format and content as: entry content, authors, use of standardised headings, type of language, initiation, frequency of entries, and physical location of diaries. Diaries were hand written and many studies found that photographs were an essential element in ICU diaries. We categorised the manner of diary return and follow-up. The context in which intensive care unit diaries were returned were felt to be important factors in improving the use of diaries in recovery. In conclusion, we describe a common framework for the future development of intensive care unit diaries that revolves around the target population for the diaries, their format and content, and the timing of their use. Future studies should address how these elements impact the mechanisms by which intensive are diaries exert beneficial effects. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses

  17. Academic medicine amenities unit: developing a model to integrate academic medical care with luxury hotel services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David W; Kagan, Sarah H; Abramson, Kelly Brennen; Boberick, Cheryl; Kaiser, Larry R

    2009-02-01

    The interface between established values of academic medicine and the trend toward inpatient amenities units requires close examination. Opinions of such units can be polarized, reflecting traditional reservations about the ethical dilemma of offering exclusive services only to an elite patient group. An amenities unit was developed at the University of Pennsylvania Health System in 2007, using an approach that integrated academic medicine values with the benefits of philanthropy and service excellence to make amenities unit services available to all patients. Given inherent internal political concerns, a broadly based steering committee of academic and hospital leadership was developed. An academically appropriate model was conceived, anchored by four principles: (1) integration of academic values, (2) interdisciplinary senior leadership, (3) service excellence, and (4) recalibrated occupancy expectations based on multiple revenue streams. Foremost is ensuring the same health care is afforded all patients throughout the hospital, thereby overcoming ethical challenges and optimizing teaching experiences. Service excellence frames the service ethic for all staff, and this, in addition to luxury hotel-style amenities, differentiates the style and feel of the unit from others in the hospital. Recalibrated occupancy creates program viability given revenue streams redefined to encompass gifts and patient revenue, including both reimbursement and self-pay. The medical-surgical amenities patient-care unit has enjoyed a successful first year and a growing stream of returning patients and admitting physicians. Implications for other academic medical centers include opportunities to extrapolate service excellence throughout the hospital and to cultivate philanthropy to benefit services throughout the medical center.

  18. The role of Ethiopia's public universities in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Paul

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the Ethiopian government has embarked on an ambitious agriculture development strategy aimed at raising Ethiopia to the status of a middle-income-level country by 2025. Encouraged by the international development push behind the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the rapid expansion of public universities has taken centre stage in facilitating the country's aim of equipping a new generation with the expertise needed to fuel the country's economic development. While impressive strides have been made over the last two decades, various development challenges threaten to derail this promising progress. This article examines three of the main challenges - urbanisation, climate change and food security - and the potential for universities to address them. Based on a study using key informant analysis research with 50 experts in Ethiopian education and development, the author concludes that the developing public university system offers promising capabilities to assist the country on its developmental path despite many inherent problems.

  19. Development of a power electronics unit for the Space Station plasma contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-02-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  20. Development of a Power Electronics Unit for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  1. Development of High-Power Hall Thruster Power Processing Units at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bozak, Karin E.; Santiago, Walter; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested four different power processor concepts for high power Hall thrusters. Each design satisfies unique goals including the evaluation of a novel silicon carbide semiconductor technology, validation of innovative circuits to overcome the problems with high input voltage converter design, development of a direct-drive unit to demonstrate potential benefits, or simply identification of lessonslearned from the development of a PPU using a conventional design approach. Any of these designs could be developed further to satisfy NASA's needs for high power electric propulsion in the near future.

  2. MEDICAL BRIGADES, GLOBAL HEALTH AND THE UNITED NATIONS: MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND DEVELOPING NATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Mark T; Martin, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, recommendations have been made that global health initiatives change their focus from disease specific intervention to bolstering health systems and general health care. The aim of this is to ultimately increase access to primary care, clean water, education, hygiene, and prevent malnutrition, among other goals. While many major global health initiatives have followed this trend, so have many smaller scale programs including short-term medical brigades. Despite a trending increase in the number of privately run short-term medical brigades, until recently, little research has been done on the potential positive and negative effects that can arise from such programs. Now, guidelines have been initiated to create well-structured programs. When followed, these smaller scale initiatives can be successful in helping increase access to healthcare, sustainably strengthening communities in terms of general health. While recent legislation in the United States has addressed domestic policy in the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), the ACA should also consider some of the basic "sustainable" policies being implemented by international health care providers.

  3. 对统计改革持续发展的建议%The Suggestions of Sustainable Development of Statistical Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓楚保

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the history of statistical reform, the current situation of statistics, especially the current situation and problems of grass roots, together with the problems of sustainable development of statistics.

  4. [Risk for the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children in an intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Glenda Karina; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Angel; González-Ortiz, Beatriz; Troconis-Trens, Germán; Tapia-Monge, Dora María; Flores-Calderón, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Although gastrointestinal tract bleeding can occur at any age, most studies trying to establish causes or risk factors for its development have been conducted in adults. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors in children admitted in a pediatric intensive care unit. A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Children who developed upper gastrointestinal bleeding children during their stay at the intensive care unit were considered the cases. Variables were obtained from medical records including age, sex, nutritional status, mechanical ventilation, use of nasogastric tube, development of complications, presence of coagulopathy, use of prophylaxis for upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, fasting and use of steroids. Using a multivariate analysis, risk factors were identified, with odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) calculations. Out of 165 patients, 58 had upper gastrointestinal bleeding (35 %). Risk factors identified were prolonged clotting times (OR = 3.35), thrombocytopenia (OR = 2.39), development of sepsis (OR = 6.74) or pneumonia (OR = 4.37). Prophylaxis for upper gastrointestinal bleeding was not a protective factor. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding frequency in children hospitalized in an intensive care unit was high. Identifying risk factors should help to reduce upper gastrointestinal bleeding frequency.

  5. Ground test challenges in the development of the Space Shuttle orbiter auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, N. H.; Lance, R. J.; Weary, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional aircraft hydraulic system design approach was selected to provide fluid power for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Developing the power unit, known as the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), to drive the hydraulic pumps presented a major technological challenge. A small, high speed turbine drive unit powered by catalytically decomposed hydrazine and operating in the pulse mode was selected to meet the requirement. Because of limitations of vendor test facilities, significant portions of the development, flight qualification, and postflight anomaly testing of the Orbiter APU were accomplished at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) test facilities. This paper discusses the unique requirements of attitude, gravity forces, pressure profiles, and thermal environments which had to be satisfied by the APU, and presents the unique test facility and simulation techniques employed to meet the ground test requirements. In particular, the development of the zero-g lubrication system, the development of necessary APU thermal control techniques, the accomplishment of integrated systems tests, and the postflight investigation of the APU lube oil cooler behavior are discussed.

  6. Ventralization of an indirect developing hemichordate by NiCl₂ suggests a conserved mechanism of dorso-ventral (D/V) patterning in Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttinger, E; Martindale, M Q

    2011-06-01

    One of the earliest steps in embryonic development is the establishment of the future body axes. Morphological and molecular data place the Ambulacraria (echinoderms and hemichordates) within the Deuterostomia and as the sister taxon to chordates. Extensive work over the last decades in echinoid (sea urchins) echinoderms has led to the characterization of gene regulatory networks underlying germ layer specification and axis formation during embryogenesis. However, with the exception of recent studies from a direct developing hemichordate (Saccoglossus kowalevskii), very little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying early hemichordate development. Unlike echinoids, indirect developing hemichordates retain the larval body axes and major larval tissues after metamorphosis into the adult worm. In order to gain insight into dorso-ventral (D/V) patterning, we used nickel chloride (NiCl₂), a potent ventralizing agent on echinoderm embryos, on the indirect developing enteropneust hemichordate, Ptychodera flava. Our present study shows that NiCl₂ disrupts the D/V axis and induces formation of a circumferential mouth when treated before the onset of gastrulation. Molecular analysis, using newly isolated tissue-specific markers, shows that the ventral ectoderm is expanded at expense of dorsal ectoderm in treated embryos, but has little effect on germ layer or anterior-posterior markers. The resulting ventralized phenotype, the effective dose, and the NiCl₂ sensitive response period of Ptychodera flava, is very similar to the effects of nickel on embryonic development described in larval echinoderms. These strong similarities allow one to speculate that a NiCl₂ sensitive pathway involved in dorso-ventral patterning may be shared between echinoderms, hemichordates and a putative ambulacrarian ancestor. Furthermore, nickel treatments ventralize the direct developing hemichordate, S. kowalevskii indicating that a common pathway patterns both larval and adult

  7. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  8. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo Yon, E-mail: boyonlee@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sperm centriole is the progenitor of centrosomes in all somatic cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centrioles and centrosomes exist in parthenogenetic ovarian teratoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without a sperm centriole, parthenogenetic oocytes produce centrioles and centrosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parthenogenetic human oocytes can develop and differentiate into mature cells. -- Abstract: In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue.

  9. Development of a Wood Powder Fuelled 35 kW Stirling CHP Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pålsson, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    For biomass fuelled CHP in sizes below 100 kW, Stirling engines are the only feasible alternative today. Using wood powder as fuel, the Stirling engine can be heated directly by the flame like when using a gaseous or liquid fuel burner. However, the combustion chamber will have to be much larger...... recirculation (CGR) a smaller air preheater can be used, while system efficiency will increase compared with using excess air for flame cooling. In a three-year project, a wood powder fuelled Stirling engine CHP unit will be developed and run in field test. The project will use the double-acting four......, using wood powder as fuel will be developed at Lund University, Sweden, in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark and with the wood powder boiler manufacturer VTS AB. The unit is to be run in CHP operation by Vattenfall - the largest electric power company in Sweden - in a one-year field...

  10. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-02

    The primary focus of this Process Development Unit operating program was to prepare for a confident move to the next scale of operation with a simplified and optimized process. The main purpose of these runs was the evaluation of the alternate commercial catalyst (F21/0E75-43) that had been identified in the laboratory under a different subtask of the program. If the catalyst proved superior to the previous catalyst, then the evaluation run would be continued into a 120-day life run. Also, minor changes were made to the Process Development Unit system to improve operations and reliability. The damaged reactor demister from a previous run was replaced, and a new demister was installed in the intermediate V/L separator. The internal heat exchanger was equipped with an expansion loop to relieve thermal stresses so operation at higher catalyst loadings and gas velocities would be possible. These aggressive conditions are important for improving process economics. (VC)

  11. Issues in the Economic Development of Nonmetropolitan United States. Economic Development Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledebur, Larry C.

    Describing issues relative to economic development in nonmetropolitan areas, this document presents narrative and tabular data re: (1) the causal forces behind economic decline in rural America (technology, shifting patterns of demand for goods and services, and changes in life styles and residential preferences); (2) the incidence and indicators…

  12. Development of Advanced In core Management Codes for Ulchin Unit 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Park, Moon Gyu [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the first case of FRAMATOME`s plants, Ulchin Unit 1 Cycle 8 core was loaded with V5H fuel. Because of the heterogeneity in the axial enrichment of the V5H fuel, FRAMATOME`s 2-D in core management codes, CEDRIC-CARIN-ESTHER, are no longer valid to be used for in core management. In order to analyze Ulchin Unit 1 an 2 cores loaded with V5H fuel exactly, this study substituted them with WH`s In core-3D and Tote code. The previous IN CORE-Tote codes have been utilized on the HP workstation or the IBM mainframe which are not easily accessible by the site engineers and require the complicated manipulation in the computer network system. This study developed the PC-version of IN CORE-3D and Tote codes available in plants, including an interface code linking the data measured by the in core instrument system (RIC-KIT system) to IN CORE code. These codes reduce the time to manage in core and increase the economic benefits. We installed the developed codes in Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 and actually applied them to the core power distribution measurement performed during Cycle 8 power escalation tests. The results satisfied all limits of Technical Specification very well. The major contents of this study can be categorized as follows. 1. Analysis of the in core management codes. (a) Analysis of flux mapping system and measurement reduction algorithm. (b) Analysis of the methodology of in core management codes. 2. Development and verification of PC-version in core management codes. (a) Development of the measured-data processing code (C2I). (b) Development of PC-version IN CORE code. (c) Development of PC-version Tote code (d) Verification of the developed codes. 3. Application to core physics test of Ulchin until cycle 8. (a) Power distribution measurement at 75% and 100%. (author). 14 refs., figs., tabs.

  13. Development of DC Inverter Scroll Compressor used for Marine Container Refrigeration Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Tomomi; Kato, Katsumi; Nojima, Nobuhiro; Yoshimura, Keiji; Kitaura, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, energy saving of a container ship is becoming one of the most important issues from the point of environmental protection of the global marine transportation business. To solve this problem, we have developed a new gas injection inverter scroll compressor for marine container refrigeration unit. The new compressor is based on a conventional scroll compressor, which has been used in various industrial air conditioners for a long time, with some greatly improved technologies. F...

  14. Development of an angled Si-PM-based detector unit for positron emission mammography (PEM) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kouhei; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    2016-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) systems have higher sensitivity than clinical whole body PET systems because they have a smaller ring diameter. However, the spatial resolution of PEM systems is not high enough to detect early stage breast cancer. To solve this problem, we developed a silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) based detector unit for the development of a PEM system. Since a Si-PM's channel is small, Si-PM can resolve small scintillator pixels to improve the spatial resolution. Also Si-PM based detectors have inherently high timing resolution and are able to reduce the random coincidence events by reducing the time window. We used 1.5×1.9×15 mm LGSO scintillation pixels and arranged them in an 8×24 matrix to form scintillator blocks. Four scintillator blocks were optically coupled to Si-PM arrays with an angled light guide to form a detector unit. Since the light guide has angles of 5.625°, we can arrange 64 scintillator blocks in a nearly circular shape (a regular 64-sided polygon) using 16 detector units. We clearly resolved the pixels of the scintillator blocks in a 2-dimensional position histogram where the averages of the peak-to-valley ratios (P/Vs) were 3.7±0.3 and 5.7±0.8 in the transverse and axial directions, respectively. The average energy resolution was 14.2±2.1% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). By including the temperature dependent gain control electronics, the photo-peak channel shifts were controlled within ±1.5% with the temperature from 23 °C to 28 °C. With these results, in addition to the potential high timing performance of Si-PM based detectors, our developed detector unit is promising for the development of a high-resolution PEM system.

  15. Gene expression analysis of parthenogenetic embryonic development of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, suggests that aphid parthenogenesis evolved from meiotic oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayalan G Srinivasan

    Full Text Available Aphids exhibit a form of phenotypic plasticity, called polyphenism, in which genetically identical females reproduce sexually during one part of the life cycle and asexually (via parthenogenesis during the remainder of the life cycle. The molecular basis for aphid parthenogenesis is unknown. Cytological observations of aphid parthenogenesis suggest that asexual oogenesis evolved either through a modification of meiosis or from a mitotic process. As a test of these alternatives, we assessed the expression levels and expression patterns of canonical meiotic recombination and germline genes in the sexual and asexual ovaries of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We observed expression of all meiosis genes in similar patterns in asexual and sexual ovaries, with the exception that some genes encoding Argonaute-family members were not expressed in sexual ovaries. In addition, we observed that asexual aphid tissues accumulated unspliced transcripts of Spo11, whereas sexual aphid tissues accumulated primarily spliced transcripts. In situ hybridization revealed Spo11 transcript in sexual germ cells and undetectable levels of Spo11 transcript in asexual germ cells. We also found that an obligately asexual strain of pea aphid produced little spliced Spo11 transcript. Together, these results suggest that parthenogenetic oogenesis evolved from a meiosis-like, and not a mitosis-like, process and that the aphid reproductive polyphenism may involve a modification of Spo11 gene activity.

  16. A Suggested Project to Develop EFL Teaching in the Egyptian Universities in the Light of Knowledge Economy Investing in ELT Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Nahed Mohammed Mahmoud; Elghotmy, Heba Elsayed Abdelsalam

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge Investment is a new and unique concept. Converting the output of scientific research into reality requires a promising start-up. Knowledge economy should be given the priority it deserves and be considered one of the strategic objectives of the development plans in Egypt. With English increasingly being positioned as the pre-eminent…

  17. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  18. Considerations for the development of shale gas in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Jake; Finkel, Madelon L; Depledge, Michael; Law, Adam; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2015-04-15

    The United States shale gas boom has precipitated global interest in the development of unconventional oil and gas resources. Recently, government ministers in the United Kingdom started granting licenses that will enable companies to begin initial exploration for shale gas. Meanwhile, concern is increasing among the scientific community about the potential impacts of shale gas and other types of unconventional natural gas development (UGD) on human health and the environment. Although significant data gaps remain, there has been a surge in the number of articles appearing in the scientific literature, nearly three-quarters of which has been published since the beginning of 2013. Important lessons can be drawn from the UGD experience in the United States. Here we explore these considerations and argue that shale gas development policies in the UK and elsewhere should be informed by empirical evidence generated on environmental, public health, and social risks. Additionally, policy decisions should take into account the measured effectiveness of harm reduction strategies as opposed to hypothetical scenarios and purported best practices that lack empirical support.

  19. Nosocomial infections in a pediatric intensive care unit of a developing country: NHSN surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pena Porto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the three most common nosocomial infections (NI, namely, sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection (UTI, in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU in a developing country and to define the risk factors associated with NI. METHODS: We performed a prospective study on the incidence of NI in a single PICU, between August 2009 and August 2010. Active surveillance by National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN was conducted in the unit and children with NI (cases were compared with a group (matched controls in a case-control fashion. RESULTS: We analyzed 172 patients; 22.1% had NI, 71.1% of whom acquired it in the unit. The incidence densities of sepsis, pneumonia, and UTI per 1,000 patients/day were 17.9, 11.4, and 4.3, respectively. The most common agents in sepsis were Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli (18% each; Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated in 13% of cases. In pneumonias Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause (3.2%, and in UTI the most frequent agents were yeasts (33.3%. The presence of NI was associated with a long period of hospitalization, use of invasive devices (central venous catheter, nasogastric tube, and use of antibiotics. The last two were independent factors for NI. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of NI acquired in this unit was high and was associated with extrinsic factors.

  20. The development of transnationality in Danish Noir - from Unit One to The Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2016-01-01

    Brostrøm, are selected to trace the transnational development in Danish Noir. Unit One is seen as the international breakthrough. The Eagle and The Protectors illustrate an increasing transnational development at all levels, and The Team represents its provisional culmination. The conclusion seeks......The idea of transnationality is often used as a key concept to explain current developments in production and distribution of TV drama. However, this term can be understood in different ways with different implications. The main purpose of this article is to map prevalent uses of the term...... and to investigate the development of transnationality in Danish Noir during the period 2000–2015. The concepts of internationalism and globalization as well as Nordic Noir are used to frame the theoretical discussion of transnationality. Inspired by recent developments in film theory, the argument...

  1. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  2. The cultural heritage of the metropolitan area of Mendoza (Argentina). Methodological suggestions for their evaluation as a resource in local development project

    OpenAIRE

    Raffa, Cecilia; Conicet Argentina.; Cirvini, Silvia Augusta; Conicet Argentina.

    2014-01-01

    The research methodology proposal as presented, articulate and transfer of applied research results about EnvironmentalHeritage (pca) of the Metropolitan Area of Mendoza (amm). Our general hypothesis argues that the cultural heritage associatedwith the Territory (real estate: architectural, urban, landscape, with its accessories and environment) is a resource and a toolin local development processes, which in the case of the amm is not taken into account by the main actors involved. That is w...

  3. 加快林下经济发展的几点建议%Suggestions for Accelerating the Development of Under-forest Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高炎君

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, in order to fundamentally curb the deterioration of ecological environment, consere the biological diversity, and promote social and economic sustainable development, the state implemented the natural forest protection project for the substantial reduction in deforestation. The production and living level of forest workers is dropping with a decline in deforestation. While the development of under-forest economy is of great significance for increasing added value of forestry, raising forest worker's revenue, strengthening forestry ecological construction achievements, and promoting the sustainable forestry development.%近年来为了从根本上遏制生态环境的恶化,保护生物多样性,促进社会、经济的可持续发展,国家实施了天然林保护工程,大幅度的调减森林采伐量,国有林区职工的生产生活随着森林采伐量的下降而降低,而林下经济的发展对增加林业附加值,提高林区职工收入,巩固林业生态建设成果,促进林业可持续发展具有重要意义。

  4. Taizhou pre-school education development present situation and the suggestion%泰州市学前教育发展现状与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学翠

    2015-01-01

    Taizhou pre-school education enterprise obtained the rapid development in recent years, rising in high quality resources, to achieve the goal of basic popularization. But compared with developed areas, there exist many problems and difficulties, to promote Taizhou pre-school education healthy and sustainable development in the future, Taizhou should implement responsibility government, enlarge high quality pre-school education resources, improve the safeguard mechanism for preschool education, strengthen the pre-school education teachers’ team construction.%泰州市学前教育事业近年来得到了长足发展,优质资源不断扩大,实现了基本普及的目标。但与发达地区相比,还存在很多问题与困难,为促进泰州市学前教育今后健康可持续发展,泰州市应落实政府责任,扩大优质学前教育资源,健全学前教育投入保障机制,加强学前教育师资队伍建设。

  5. Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 6U reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m(sub 2) solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA has launched to date. NEA Scout is currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis was able to capture understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system as well as mature an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. Full scale system testing on the ground is the optimal way to demonstrate system robustness, repeatability, and overall performance on a compressed flight schedule. To physically test the system, the team developed a flight sized engineering development unit with design features as close to flight as possible. The test suite included ascent vent, random vibration, functional deployments, thermal vacuum, and full sail deployments. All of these tests contributed towards development of the final flight unit. This paper will address several of the design challenges and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. Testing on the component level all the way to the integrated subsystem level. From optical properties of the sail material to fold and spooling the single sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. The team completed several deployments of the sail system in preparation for flight at half scale (4m) and full scale (6.8m): boom only, half scale sail deployment, and full scale sail deployment. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  6. Development of a full-scale training simulator for an 800-MW power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, S. K.; Andreev, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Stages of work involving preparation of requirements specification, development, and subsequent implementation of a project for constructing a full-scale training simulator of an 800-MW power unit are considered. The training simulator is constructed using the Kosmotronika-Venets computerized automation system developed by PIK Progress (Moscow). The entire personnel training system, the arrangement of drills, and the concept of structuring the entire personnel education system at the Surgut GRES-2 district power station, a branch of E.ON Rossiya, had to be touched in drawing up the requirements specification for elaborating the training simulator. The article describes how these problems were solved.

  7. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miles, J. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Zammit, D. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Loomis, D. [Great Lakes Wind Network, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report uses the offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model and provides four case studies of potential offshore deployment scenarios in different regions of the United States: the Southeast, the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Researchers worked with developers and industry representatives in each region to create potential offshore wind deployment and supply chain growth scenarios, specific to their locations. These scenarios were used as inputs into the offshore JEDI model to estimate jobs and other gross economic impacts in each region.

  8. Learning Agreements and Socially Responsible Approaches to Professional and Human Resource Development in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Emma

    2008-01-01

    This article draws upon original qualitative data to present an initial assessment of the significance of learning agreements for the development of socially responsible approaches to professional and human resource development within the workplace. The article suggests that the adoption of a partnership-based approach to learning is more…

  9. A Systematic View of the MLO Family in Rice Suggests Their Novel Roles in Morphological Development, Diurnal Responses, the Light-Signaling Pathway, and Various Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van N. T.; Vo, Kieu T. X.; Park, Hyon; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Mildew resistance Locus O (MLO) family is unique to plants, containing genes that were initially identified as a susceptibility factor to powdery mildew pathogens. However, little is known about the roles and functional diversity of this family in rice, a model crop plant. The rice genome has 12 potential MLO family members. To achieve systematic functional assignments, we performed a phylogenomic analysis by integrating meta-expression data obtained from public sources of microarray data and real-time expression data into a phylogenic tree. Subsequently, we identified 12 MLO genes with various tissue-preferred patterns, including leaf, root, pollen, and ubiquitous expression. This suggested their functional diversity for morphological agronomic traits. We also used these integrated transcriptome data within a phylogenetic context to estimate the functional redundancy or specificity among OsMLO family members. Here, OsMLO12 showed preferential expression in mature pollen; OsMLO4, in the root tips; OsMLO10, throughout the roots except at the tips; and OsMLO8, expression preferential to the leaves and trinucleate pollen. Of particular interest to us was the diurnal expression of OsMLO1, OsMLO3, and OsMLO8, which indicated that they are potentially significant in responses to environmental changes. In osdxr mutants that show defects in the light response, OsMLO1, OsMLO3, OsMLO8, and four calmodulin genes were down-regulated. This finding provides insight into the novel functions of MLO proteins associated with the light-responsive methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. In addition, abiotic stress meta-expression data and real-time expression analysis implied that four and five MLO genes in rice are associated with responses to heat and cold stress, respectively. Upregulation of OsMLO3 by Magnaporthe oryzae infection further suggested that this gene participates in the response to pathogens. Our analysis has produced fundamental information that will enhance future

  10. The Promotion Status and Development Suggestions of Formula Fertilizer in Changsha%长沙市配方肥推广现状和发展建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓玉; 刘永全; 陈敏; 胡明勇; 张啸

    2016-01-01

    介绍了长沙市2005~2015年配方肥推广现状和成效,总结了其推广经验和做法,并分析了配方肥推广过程中存在的问题,提出了建立测土配方施肥长效机制、加大宣传培训、加快土地流转、加大配方肥补贴、加强肥料监督管理和基层农技推广服务体系建设等加快配方肥推广的建议。%This paper introduced the promotion status and effect of 2005~2015 formula fertilizer in Changsha, summarized the experience and method of work, analyzed the problems in the process of the promotion of the formula fertilizer, put forward the long term mechanism for the establishment of soil testing and formula fertilization, increase publicity and training, speed up the transfer of land, increase formula fertilizer subsidies, strengthen the supervision and management of fertilizer and the construction of agricultural technology extension service system, and any other suggestions of speed up the promotion of formula fertilizer.

  11. 我国北美红杉研究进展及发展建议%Research Progress and Development Suggestion of Sequoia sempervirens in our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常晓勇; 徐钡昌; 张夸云; 余秋尚; 王永强

    2015-01-01

    Sequoia sempervirens is aworld famous fast-growing valuable large-grade timber trees and huge sawmill industrial raw materials. Rresearch progress of Sequoia sempervirens in China were summarized from introduction of Redwood from North America,asexual reproduction,planting and pests.Suggestions for its future breeding direction were put forward,in order to provide a reference for breeders of Sequoia sempervirens.%北美红杉是一种国内外广泛应用的世界著名速生珍贵大径级用材树种,也是巨大锯木工业原料。该文概述了我国北美红杉引种、无性繁殖、造林、病虫害防治等方面的研究进展,并对其今后的发展提出了若干建议,以期为从事北美红杉相关科研及生产的工作者提供参考。

  12. 加快我国纤维乙醇产业发展的建议%Suggestions to Speed Up the Development of Cellulosic Ethanol Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钺; 杜风光

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous growth of China�s car ownership,vehicle emissions has become one of the important factors that affect air quality. Cellulosic ethanol, with the superiority of being a kind of green, environmentally friendly and renewable resource,can contribute to promote combustion and to reduce emissions. This paper summarized the importance and necessity of developing cellulosic ethanol industry considering from the national energy security,food security,farmers�income, environmental pollution and other aspects. Meanwhile, combined with the current development status of cellulosic ethanol industry, this paper also proposed policy recommendations for cellulosic ethanol industry.%随着我国汽车保有量的不断增长,机动车尾气排放成为影响空气质量的重要因素之一。燃料乙醇具有绿色、环保、可再生的资源优势,能够促进燃烧、减少排放污染。本文从国家能源安全、粮食安全、农民增收和环境污染等多方面综述了发展纤维乙醇产业的重要性和必要性,同时结合当前纤维乙醇产业的发展现状对纤维乙醇产业政策提出了建议。

  13. The Development of a Socioscientific Issues-Based Curriculum Unit for Middle School Students: Global Warming Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabey, Nejla; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at developing "Human and Environment" unit around SSI based instruction. We followed action research methodology in development and implementation of the unit. The participants of this study were 24 seventh graders students and the instruction was extended to eight and a half weeks, taking four hours in a week.…

  14. Development of a 14-digit Hydrologic Unit Code Numbering System for South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, David E.; Lowry, Claude; Lowery, Mark A.; Hurley, Noel M.

    1999-01-01

    A Hydrologic Unit Map showing the cataloging units, watersheds, and subwatersheds of South Carolina has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, funded through a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 319 Grant, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. These delineations represent 8-, 11-, and 14-digit Hydrologic Unit Codes, respectively. This map presents information on drainage, hydrography, and hydrologic boundaries of the water-resources regions, subregions, accounting units, cataloging units, watersheds, and subwatersheds. The source maps for the basin delineations are 1:24,000-scale 7.5-minute series topographic maps and the base maps shown on figure 1 are from 1:100,000-scale Digital Line Graphs; however, the data are published at a scale of 1:500,000. In addition, an electronic version of the data is provided on a compact disc. Of the 1,022 subwatersheds delineated for this project, 1,004 range in size from 3,000 to 40,000 acres (4.69 to 62.5 square miles). Seventeen subwatersheds are smaller than 3,000 acres and one subwatershed, located on St. Helena Island, is larger than 40,000 acres. This map and its associated codes provide a standardized base for use by water-resource managers and planners in locating, storing, retrieving, and exchanging hydrologic data. In addition, the map can be used for cataloging water-data acquisition activities, geographically organizing hydrologic data, and planning and describing water-use and related land-use activities.

  15. An impact evaluation of a newly developed pediatric cardiac intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Michelle Hanna; Keller, Sheila D; Northington, LaDonna

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex pediatric patients with congenital heart disease require interprofessional teamwork and collaboration to ensure high-quality outcomes with low mortality and morbidity (Congenit Heart Dis. 2013;8:3-19). The purpose of this study was to conduct an impact evaluation for a newly formed pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) and to answer: Is there a difference between the pediatric intensive care unit and the PCICU on clinical outcome measures of pediatric cardiac postoperative patients and nursing resources? A retrospective pretest/posttest design was used with the independent variables being type of intensive care unit. The confounding variables included demographic data, clinical outcome data, registered nurse (RN) staffing data, and RN turnover data. The setting was a large, level I pediatric medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) located at a children's hospital within an academic medical center. The population was pediatric cardiac postoperative patients. Patients excluded were those older than 18 years or cases without a Society of Thoracic Surgeons and European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality Category score of 1 through 5. Owen's impact evaluation method and descriptive statistical measures, t test and Pearson χ test, were used for analysis. Demographic data were comparable between the pediatric intensive care unit (n = 296) and PCICU (n = 333). No statistical differences were found in several of the clinical outcome measures. Statistically significant differences were found in surgeon (P = .00) and RN nursing hours per patient day for all cardiac patients (P = .01). The PCICU time frame had a higher RN turnover rate. The majority of quality measures were not statistically different between the 2 ICUs. Even though statistical significance was not reached, the clinical impact of the PCICU's reduction in patient infections, mortality, and ICU length of stay was noted. This evaluation has

  16. Current Situation and Suggestions for Development of Recycling Agriculture in Lingwu Municipality%灵武市循环农业发展现状及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仲军; 杨金贵; 俞宏彪

    2015-01-01

    The combination of agriculture with animal husbandry as well as planting with livestock raising is a kind of recy-cling agriculture. Based on an investigation on the current situation of the combination of agriculture with animal husbandry as well as planting with livestock raising in Lingwu Municipality, an exploration is made on the development of recycling a-griculture, organic agriculture and the new ways for supporting animal husbandry with agriculture and promoting agriculture with animal husbandry.%农牧种养结合是循环农业的一种形式,通过对灵武市农牧种养结合现状调研,探索发展循环农业、有机农业、以"农养牧,以牧促农"的新路子.

  17. The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Wilken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development The Best Practice Unit (BPU model constitutes a unique form of practice-based research. A variant of the Community of Practice model developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002, the BPU has the specific aim of improving professional practice by combining innovation and research. The model is used as a way of working by a group of professionals, researchers and other relevant individuals, who over a period of one to two years, work together towards a desired improvement. The model is characterized by interaction between individual and collective learning processes, the development of new or improved working methods, and the implementation of these methods in daily practice. Multiple knowledge resources are used, including experiential knowledge, professional knowledge and scientific knowledge. The research serves diverse purposes: articulating tacit knowledge, documenting learning and innovation processes, systematically describing the working methods that have been revealed or developed, and evaluating the efficacy of the new methods. Each BPU is supported by a facilitator, whose main task is to optimize learning processes. An analysis of ten different BPUs in different professional fields shows that this is a successful model. The article describes the methodology and results of this study. De Best Practice Unit: een model voor leren, onderzoek en ontwikkeling Het model van de Best Practice Unit (BPU is een unieke vorm van praktijkgericht onderzoek. De Best Practice Unit is een variant van de Community of Practice zoals ontwikkeld door Wenger, McDermott en Snyder (2002 met als specifiek doel om de professionele praktijk te verbeteren door innovatie en onderzoek te combineren. Het model wordt gebruikt om in een periode van 1-2 jaar met een groep professionals, onderzoekers en andere betrokkenen te werken aan een gewenste verbetering. Kenmerkend is de wisselwerking tussen

  18. Vaccines in the pipeline: the path from development to use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Larry K; Walton, L Reed

    2013-08-01

    New vaccines in the United States go through a complex process on their path from development to the domestic market involving an intricate partnership of public and private agencies and organizations. This process includes licensure by the US Food and Drug Administration, the development of recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, and safety oversight post-licensure. This article examines the roles of the US Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as well as certain professional organizations in governing the testing, marketing, and usage of new vaccines. Vaccines currently in development to treat numerous infectious and noninfectious diseases are also examined and compared with frameworks of domestic vaccine development prioritization, past and present, as assessed by the Institute of Medicine.

  19. Measuring and developing Communities of Practice in a blood analysis unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus; Edwards, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    developing and measuring CoP is lacking. We propose a method to measure and develop CoP and the method is tested in a blood analysis unit at ‘Nordsjællands Hospital’ in Denmark. Material and method: The practice was operationalized narrowly as employees performing a specific maintenance task. A questionnaire...... was developed based on a CoP literature review. Using the ‘think aloud’ method the questionnaire was tested with practitioners investigating if questions were decoded correctly and triggered the desired mental image. CoP level was measured at baseline and at follow-up (seven weeks after the intervention......Introduction: Knowledge sharing is essential to develop operational efficiency and quality. However, knowledge sharing is difficult to achieve due to 24-7 shifts, patient contact and little time for meetings. The theory of communities of practice (CoP) proposes an alternate approach to knowledge...

  20. 高校培养商务英语口译应对能力之建议%Suggestions on Developing Competence of Coping Strategies in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丹

    2013-01-01

    伴随着全球化趋势的不断蔓延,中国市场需要大批高素质的口译人才。目前各高校的商务英语专业对口译教学给予很大重视,其中商务英语口译在课堂教学中的比重也开始加大。除了侧重语言文化知识的传授和心理素质的培养外,也应当在课堂上将口译应对策略和翻译技巧作为训练重点。本文着眼教学的各个环节---课前营造气氛、课堂技巧训练、课后自学强化和课业表现评估,对高校如何通过教学培养商务英语口译应对能力进行分析阐述,并强调了培养口译应对能力的重要性。%With the continuous spread of globalization, China’s market needs a large number of high-quality business English interpreters. At present, colleges give great attention to the teaching of Business English and the proportion of business English interpreting is increased in teaching. In addition to focusing on the teaching of language and cultural knowledge and psychological quality of training, coping strategies and translation skills will be considered as a training focus in class. This article focuses on four stages of teaching-Create interpreting atmosphere before class, In-class skill training, After-class practice and Performance evaluation, analyzes and elaborates how colleges and universities promote and develop interpreting coping ability of Business English through training, emphasizing the importance of developing interpreting coping ability.

  1. Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Vazakidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between credit market development and economic growth for UK for the period 1975-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 0.006%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 1.05% in UK. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and credit market development with direction from economic growth to credit market development and a bilateral causality between inflation and credit market development for United Kingdom. Bank development is determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

  2. Developing a drug library for smart pumps in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Rodríguez, Silvia; Sánchez-Galindo, Amelia; Fernández-Llamazares, Cecilia M; López-Herce, Jesús; García-López, Isabel; Carrillo-Álvarez, Angel; Sanjuro-Sáez, María

    2012-03-01

    The most serious medication errors occur during intravenous administration. The potential consequences are more serious the more critical and younger the patient. Smart pumps can help to prevent infusion-related programming errors, thanks to associated dose-limiting software known as "drug library". Drug libraries alert the user if pre-determined high dosage limits are exceeded or if entry is below pre-determined low dosage limits. To describe the process for developing a specific drug library for a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and the key factors for preventing programming errors. The study was performed by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a clinical pharmacist, a PICU pediatrician, and the chief nurse of the unit. The process of developing the drug library lasted seven months. A literature review was carried out to determine standard concentrations and accurate limits for intravenous administration of high-risk drugs. Alaris(®) syringe pumps and Guardrails(®) CQI v4.1 Event Reporter software were used. Several manufacturers offer smart pump technology. Users should be aware of differences in features, such as definition of parameters and associations between them, definition of safety limits, organization of the drug library, and data use. Our infusion pump technology covered 108 drugs. Compliance with the drug library was 85% and nurses' acceptance of the drug library was high as 94% would recommend implementation of this technology in other units. After nine months of implementation, several potentially harmful infusion-related programming errors were intercepted. Drug libraries are specifically designed for a particular hospital unit, and may condition the success in implementing this technology. Implementation of smart pumps proved effective in intercepting infusion-related programming errors after nine months of implementation in a PICU. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and validation of evaluation tools of nursing students’ clinical pharmacology unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navabi, Nasrin; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Shamsalinia, Abbas; Faghani, Safieh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The need for valid, reliable, and objective tools has always been emphasized in studies related to the clinical assessment of nursing students. The aims of this study were to develop and assess the validity and reliability of the tools used to evaluate the clinical pharmacology unit. Methods This study was a methodological one, conducted in 2016. An item pool was developed based on the literature review and personal interviews with faculty members. The tool’s validity was determined through assessment of face validity, content validity, and construct validity, using exploratory factor analysis on the data provided by 264 second- and third-semester nursing students of the Islamic Azad University of Babol University of Medical Sciences. Reliability was determined through internal and external consistency, using a Cronbach’s coefficient of the correlation between classes. Results Based on the exploratory factor analysis, all items with a special value of >1 were grouped into six factors: 1) professional behavior; 2) effective communication; 3) recognition of medical terminology; 4) nursing actions before administering medicine; 5) nursing actions while administering medicine; and 6) nursing actions after administering medicine. These factors explained 77% of the total variance of the concept of assessment of the clinical pharmacology unit. In this study, reliability was demonstrated by a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.96; the correlation coefficient between floors for the total tool was 0.91, ranging from 0.64 to 0.89 in its dimensions. Conclusion The evaluation tool of the clinical pharmacology unit has an acceptable construct validity and satisfactory reliability and validity. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the clinical pharmacology unit in the nursing education system in Iran. PMID:28008285

  4. Development and Suggestion of a Cardiac CTA Scoring System for the Prediction of Revascularization Success in Chronic Total Occlusions (CTO) of the Coronary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, F C; Harth, S; Rixe, J; Krombach, G A; Schneider, C

    2016-02-01

    Analyzing occluded segments with computed tomography angiography (CTA) prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) increased revascularization success in chronic total occlusions (CTO). The aim of our study was to develop a scoring system for the prediction of PCI success in CTO. 41 consecutive CTO patients (30 male; 63.1 years +/- 8.3 standard deviation) underwent CTA prior to PCI. All CTOs were categorized by two radiologists in consensus regarding the presence of special features and without knowledge of PCI outcome. All outcome criteria were evaluated. Afterwards one point was assigned for each unequally distributed outcome criteria per CTO and all points were added up to a single score. Severe calcifications (failure group 68.8 % vs. success group 28.0 %; p CTO have been identified. Success rates are improved by analyzing CTA data sets prior to revascularization approaches. Prediction of revascularization success via a scoring system based on five CTA criteria seems promising. Patient selection for the right treatment options might be improved in the future due to application of the scoring system. Also risks, complications, contrast media amounts and radiation doses might be reduced. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Chenghua; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  6. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion.

  7. Advancing Implementation of Evidence-Based Public Health in China: An Assessment of the Current Situation and Suggestions for Developing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwei; Tan, Duxun; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Pan, Ying; Zhang, Hanzhi; Yang, Beilei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Existing research shows a serious scarcity of EBPH practice in China and other developing regions; as an exploratory study, this study aimed to assess the current EBPH implementation status in Shanghai of China qualitatively. Methods. Using semistructured key informant interviews, we examined the status of and impediments to the lagging EBPH in China. Data were analyzed based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results. Chinese public health practitioners knew more about evidence-based medicine but less about EBPH. The situation was worse in community healthcare centers. Participants perceived that evidence sources were limited and the quality of evidence was low. Concerning the inner setting factors, the structural characteristics, networks and communications, implementation climate, and leadership engagement were confronted with many problems. Among the outer setting factors, external government policies and incentives and low patient compliance were the key problems. Additionally, public health practitioners in Shanghai lacked sufficient awareness of EBPH. Furthermore, the current project-based EBPH lacks a systematic implementation system. Conclusions. Existing practical perspectives on EBPH indicate a lag in the advocacy of this new ideology in China. It would be advisable for healthcare institutions to take the initiative to explore feasible and multiple methods of EBPH promotion. PMID:27597958

  8. The Development Strategies for the Management Models of the Electronic Documents and Records in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Yen Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The trend toward electronic government has espoused a large quantity of electronic records, which challenge the existing records management models in the modern countries. This paper describes and compares the development and transition toward electronic records management in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia to show how the three advanced countries evolved the government records management practices. The analysis emphasized on the holistic policy initiative perspective and compared the directives and regulations, research and development programs and plans, the emerging structures of governance, staffing and professional training, and risk management provisions. The comparison may shed lights on the government electronic management in the other countries. [Article content in Chinese

  9. Development Innovations through Entrepreneurial Microfinance and the Attempt to Achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of the countries in the Global South, Bangladesh has experienced numerous development challenges since its liberation in 1971. Bangladesh has showcased how to fight against poverty and to initiate meaningful change and development in human lives. Nobel Prize (2006 winner Grameen Bank is one of the popular development innovations in the country. Since the beginning of this Bank in the early 1970s, microfinance and entrepreneurship development with small amounts of money have proliferated to nearly every corner of the globe with the paramount goal of alleviating global poverty and ensuring human development. Like all other new social science techniques, the societal revolution brought about by microfinance expansion has left substantial room for refinement and further support by empirical evidence. This article critically evaluates a non-governmental initiative to empower extremely poor women through entrepreneurial microfinance, and examines the socioeconomic impacts in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (UNMDGs. This article covers both primary and secondary information. The aim is to demonstrate how countries of the Global South can use carefully designed microfinance projects to address major development challenges and meaningfully contribute to creating a more equal, humane society.

  10. MODEL-BASED DEVELOPMENT OF REAL-TIME SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC UNIT PUMP SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shitao; YANG Shiwei; YANG Lin; GONG Yuanming; ZHUO Bin

    2007-01-01

    A real-time operating system (RTOS), also named OS, is designed based on the hardware platform of MC68376, and is implemented in the electronic control system for unit pump in diesel engine. A parallel and time-based task division method is introduced and the multi-task software architecture is built in the software system for electronic unit pump (EUP) system. The V-model software development process is used to control algorithm of each task. The simulation results of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation system (HILSS) and the engine experimental results show that the OS is an efficient real-time kernel, and can meet the real-time demands of EUP system; The built multi-task software system is real-time, determinate and reliable. V-model development is a good development process of control algorithms for EUP system, the control precision of control system can be ensured, and the development cycle and cost are also decreased.

  11. 民间残疾人组织现状分析及发展建议%Non-governmental Disability Organizations:Situation Analysis and Development Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小蕾

    2013-01-01

      随着中国经济社会迅速发展,公民社会日益兴起。与此同时,残疾人权利意识觉醒,各项需求不断上升,迫切需要民间组织发挥作用,为残疾人提供服务,弥补政府失灵和市场失灵。然而现阶段我国民间残疾人组织的生存和发展举步维艰,造成困境的原因十分复杂,包括经济社会发展水平、传统文化、公众意识、公共政策以及民间残疾人组织自身因素等。问题的解决需要政府法规政策的健全、社会公众意识的提高和民间残疾人组织加强自身能力建设。%  China has been undergoing dramatic transition into civil society in an all-round way. To meet the soaring needs of people with disabilities in China, a large number of grassroots NGOs have mushroomed and been playing an increasingly important role as a compensation for government failure and market failure. However, the service capacity of NGOs for people with disabilities in China is weak in both quality and quantity. Externally, they face policy barriers and suffer from social stigma. Internally, they have problems with leadership, transparency, values and vision. The causes of the predicament of the NGOs for people with disabilities are complicated and intertwined. In addition to their own efforts for capacity development, legislation and public policies should be improved to address this issue.

  12. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Meenal; Fisher, Tonja W; He, Ruifeng; Nelson, William; Yin, Guohua; Cicero, Joseph M; Willer, Mark; Kim, Ryan; Kramer, Robin; May, Greg A; Crow, John A; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R; Brown, Judith K

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB). The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt), classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW) (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/). Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas transmission.

  13. Asian Citrus Psyllid Expression Profiles Suggest Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus-Mediated Alteration of Adult Nutrition and Metabolism, and of Nymphal Development and Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal Vyas

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the insect vector of the fastidious bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas, the causal agent of citrus greening disease, or Huanglongbing (HLB. The widespread invasiveness of the psyllid vector and HLB in citrus trees worldwide has underscored the need for non-traditional approaches to manage the disease. One tenable solution is through the deployment of RNA interference technology to silence protein-protein interactions essential for ACP-mediated CLas invasion and transmission. To identify psyllid interactor-bacterial effector combinations associated with psyllid-CLas interactions, cDNA libraries were constructed from CLas-infected and CLas-free ACP adults and nymphs, and analyzed for differential expression. Library assemblies comprised 24,039,255 reads and yielded 45,976 consensus contigs. They were annotated (UniProt, classified using Gene Ontology, and subjected to in silico expression analyses using the Transcriptome Computational Workbench (TCW (http://www.sohomoptera.org/ACPPoP/. Functional-biological pathway interpretations were carried out using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Differentially expressed contigs in adults and/or nymphs represented genes and/or metabolic/pathogenesis pathways involved in adhesion, biofilm formation, development-related, immunity, nutrition, stress, and virulence. Notably, contigs involved in gene silencing and transposon-related responses were documented in a psyllid for the first time. This is the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of ACP adults and nymphs infected and uninfected with CLas. The results provide key initial insights into host-parasite interactions involving CLas effectors that contribute to invasion-virulence, and to host nutritional exploitation and immune-related responses that appear to be essential for successful ACP-mediated circulative, propagative CLas

  14. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  15. Development of a Real-time Personal Dosimeter System and its Application to Hanul Unit-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kidoo; Cho, Moonhyung; Son, Jungkwon [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main reasons to adopt the system are to minimize unnecessary exposure, to calculate one's dose faster, to provide a possible alternatives of personnel such as radiation safety manager. The KHNP's Remote radiation Monitoring System (KRMS) is characterized as integrated, less bulky, lighter comparing to existing instrument although it have multifunction of real-time dosimetry and voice communication. After laboratory test in Central Research Institute (CRI) and field test in Hanbit unit-3 and 4, KRMS was applied to main radiation works in Hanul unit-4. KHNP-CRI has developed real-time personal dose monitoring system and applied to Hanul overhaul which include steam generator replacement. It took 5 days to install the system in reactor building and the optimal location for the repeater was 3 points at 122ft and 3 points at 100ft. Owing to the optimization of repeater and high sensitivity antenna, there was no shaded area of wireless network and no loss of dose data in spite of wearing lead jacket. The average deviation of personal dose received by KRMS and existing ADR is about 2%, which tell us it matches well. The lessons learned in Hanul unit-4 are it needs simplification of operating system and it requires a function to be able to check battery level at remote area.

  16. Didactical Design Material Units of Distance and Speed to Developed Mathematical Connection in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannah, R. R.; Apriliya, S.; Karlimah

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to develop alternative instructional design based of barriers learning which identified by developing mathematical connection capabilities to the material unit of distance and speed. The research was conducted in the fifth grade elementary school Instructional design is complemented with a hypothetical learning trajectory in the form of a pedagogical didactic anticipation. The method used is descriptive method with qualitative approach. Techniques data collection used were observation, interviews, and documentation. The instrument used the researchers themselves are equipped with an instrument written test. The data were analyzed qualitatively to determine the student learning obstacles, then arrange hypothetical learning trajectory and pedagogical didactic anticipation. Learning obstacle are identified, it is learning obstacle related the connections between mathematical topics, learning obstacle related with other disciplines, and learning obstacle related with everyday life. The results of this research are improvement and development of didactic design in mathematics which has activities mathematical connection to the material unit of distance and speed in elementary school. The learning activities are carried out is using varied methods include method lectures, demonstrations, practice and exercise, as well as using the modified instructional media.

  17. Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Peng, J. (Energy Systems); ( NE)

    2011-02-24

    Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.

  18. Voith power transmission systems in diesel multiple units and railcars. A review on recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, W. [Voith Turbo GmbH und Co. KG, Heidenheim (Germany). Rail Div.

    1999-04-01

    Voith today offers complete transmission systems consisting of hydrodynamic and hydromechanical transmissions with integrated retarders, cardan shafts, final drives and cooling units. For DMUs with underfloor powerpacks, the hydrodynamic power transmission system currently is the pre-eminent drive system worldwide and meets the established standards for rail service, i.e. high availability, low operating costs and a reasonable purchasing price. In this article, the author describes Voith`s contribution to the further development of these transmission systems in several modern dieselhydraulic railcars and DMUs for regional and main-line operations. (orig.)

  19. Advanced Motor Control Test Facility for NASA GRC Flywheel Energy Storage System Technology Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Hofmann, Heath; Mackin, Michael; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the flywheel test facility developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center with particular emphasis on the motor drive components and control. A four-pole permanent magnet synchronous machine, suspended on magnetic bearings, is controlled with a field orientation algorithm. A discussion of the estimation of the rotor position and speed from a "once around signal" is given. The elimination of small dc currents by using a concurrent stationary frame current regulator is discussed and demonstrated. Initial experimental results are presented showing the successful operation and control of the unit at speeds up to 20,000 rpm.

  20. [Health care units image development on the market of medical services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    The cause for this document is to present a deliberation on public health facility image development on the medical services market. Marketization of the health service, growing awareness of Polish citizens and their expectation of high service quality as well as increased competition in the healthcare system market is the reason why health unit managers need to put a lot of strength and effort in sustaining or improving the image of the facility they run. Such action gives a chance for obtaining a competitive advantage.

  1. Scoping Study on Research and Development Priorities for Distribution-System Phasor Measurement Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Travis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Buckner, Mark [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report addresses the potential use of phasor measurement units (PMUs) within electricity distribution systems, and was written to assess whether or not PMUs could provide significant benefit, at the national level. We analyze examples of present and emerging distribution-system issues related to reliability, integration of distributed energy resources, and the changing electrical characteristics of load. We find that PMUs offer important and irreplaceable advantages over present approaches. However, we also find that additional research and development for standards, testing and calibration, demonstration projects, and information sharing is needed to help industry capture these benefits.

  2. Embedding Evolution: Exploring Changes in Students' Conceptual Development, Beliefs, and Motivations in a Population Ecology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nancy L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore student changes in conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when evolution concepts are embedded and explicit reflective discourse is used in a unit for population ecology. The two research problems were: (1) What changes are observed in student's conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when there is explicit reflective discourse within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution?, and (2) In what ways does explicit reflection influence students' mental models within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution? This mixed-method, quasi-experimental study assessed two regular high school biology classes in a small, urban, Midwestern high school. Students in this study had not studied evolution within any formal chapters, but had been immersed in a curriculum with embedded evolution. The study was conducted over a four-week period in a population ecology unit near the beginning of second semester. Instruction emphasized basic conceptions in population ecology. Five key intervention activities included evolutionary concepts as part of an embedded curriculum. The independent variable was explicit reflective discourse with one or two intervention questions after completion of these activities. Data included pre- and posttest surveys measuring (a) evolutionary understanding of natural selection, (b) science beliefs, and (c) science motivations. Written artifacts included (a) explanations to scenarios, (b) pre- and post-argument reflections revealing student's science beliefs and science motivations resultant from two argumentations, and (c) three, pre-, post-, and 6-week final concept maps constructed from 12 concepts. All data sources provided descriptive data. Conceptual change was interpreted from an ontological, epistemological, and motivational perspective. The experimental class receiving explicit reflective discourse showed greater overall increases in conceptual development. Students

  3. Glassmaking Units and Glass Feeders Production——a New Production Development Stage at JSC "Krastsvetmet"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MALTSEV E. V.; MAMONOV S. N.; DMITRIEV V. A.; KHORIKOV P. A.

    2012-01-01

    JSC "Krastsvetmet" has launched the production of glass melting units (GU) and glass feeders (GF),with the number of bushings being from 200 to 4000,made from platinum-rhodium alloys doped with oxide-forming and reinforcing elements.The proprietary technology for dispersion-stabilized material of PtRh10DS composition having high strength and performance properties has been developed and applied.Combined products production was launched where bushings made of PtRh-20 alloy are welded to the plate of the dispersion-stabilized PtRh10DS material.The manufacture of seamless spinning assemblies has been organized.

  4. 中国苯酐-DOP产业链分析及发展建议%The Analysis of Phthalic Anhydride–DOP Industry Chain and Suggestions for Its Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳

    2012-01-01

    Because of relatively lower investment threshold of phthalic anhydride and DOP units and relatively higher initial industrial profit,the capacity of them has been rapidly expanded,but the relevant upstream feeds have not developed synchronously,resulting in fierce price competition in phthalic anhydride and DOP industry with the phenomenon that domestic price is lower than international market price as well as relatively lower selfsuffcient ratio of ortho-xylene.Comprehensively looking at the industry,the phthalic anhydride–DOP industry chain is structural unbalanced and the prospect of the industry is not optimistic.The author puts forward suggestions as follow: holding back the continuous expansion tendency of phthalic anhydride and DOP,investing octanol projects cautiously and strengthening the coordination of the industry so as to strive for survival in adverse circumstances.%由于苯酐、DOP装置投资门槛较低、行业利润初期较高,刺激了产能迅速扩张,而相应上游原料却未能同步发展,导致苯酐与DOP行业价格竞争激烈,出现国内价格低于国际市场价格的现象,而原料邻二甲苯自给率较低,综合来看苯酐-DOP产业链结构性不平衡,行业前景不容乐观。建议遏制苯酐和DOP继续扩张的势头,谨慎投资辛醇项目,同时加强行业协调,争取逆境生存。

  5. Development of certified environmental management in hospital and outpatient haemodialysis units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vicente, Sergio; Morales Suárez-Varela, María; Martí Monrós, Anna; Llopis González, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of haemodialysis is very high. Institutional activity in this sense is important, even in the production of references. Voluntary environmental management systems (EMS), environmental management and auditing systems (EMAS) and the International Organization for Standardization standards (ISO 14001) are important tools for environmental protection, together with legislation, taxation and tax benefits. To determine the degree of implementation of EMS in hospital units and outpatient haemodialysis in the Spanish National Health System to provide a group of reference centres in environmental management in this healthcare activity. Development of a list by autonomous communities showing hospital and outpatient dialysis units using an EMAS and/or ISO 14001 in 2012-2013. The sources of information were the Spanish National Catalogue of Hospitals, Spanish Registry of Healthcare Certification and Accreditation, European and regional EMAS records, world ISO registrations, dialysis centre lists from scientific societies and patients, responses from accredited entities in Spain for environmental certification and the institutional website of each haemodialysis centre identified. Of the 210 hospitals with a dialysis unit, 53 (25%) have the ISO 14001 and 15 of these also have an EMAS). This constitutes 30% of all hospital dialysis chairs in Spain: 1,291 (of 4,298). Only 11 outpatient clinics are recorded, all with the ISO 14001. There is no official documentation of the implementation of EMS in dialysis units. Making this list provides an approach to the situation, with special reference to haemodialysis because of its significant environmental impact. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. 美国杂交水稻现状及发展前景%Current Status and Developing Prospect of Hybrid Rice in the United States of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继银; 蒋艾青

    2011-01-01

    The history and current status in research and application including the aspects of breeding, seed production and expansion of hybrid rice in the United States of America were introduced.Based on the achievements and progresses, the authors suggested that the development of hybrid rice would have a good prospect in the United States of America and other countries with similar conditions.%介绍了美国杂交水稻的发展历程及杂交水稻育种、种子生产和推广现状及发展前景.

  7. The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS): development of a brief measure of unit level implementation leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R

    2014-04-14

    In healthcare and allied healthcare settings, leadership that supports effective implementation of evidenced-based practices (EBPs) is a critical concern. However, there are no empirically validated measures to assess implementation leadership. This paper describes the development, factor structure, and initial reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of a very brief measure of implementation leadership: the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS). Participants were 459 mental health clinicians working in 93 different outpatient mental health programs in Southern California, USA. Initial item development was supported as part of a two United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) studies focused on developing implementation leadership training and implementation measure development. Clinician work group/team-level data were randomly assigned to be utilized for an exploratory factor analysis (n = 229; k = 46 teams) or for a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 230; k = 47 teams). The confirmatory factor analysis controlled for the multilevel, nested data structure. Reliability and validity analyses were then conducted with the full sample. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 12-item scale with four subscales representing proactive leadership, knowledgeable leadership, supportive leadership, and perseverant leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis supported an a priori higher order factor structure with subscales contributing to a single higher order implementation leadership factor. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. The ILS is a brief and efficient measure of unit level leadership for EBP implementation. The availability of the ILS will allow researchers to assess strategic leadership for implementation in order to advance understanding of leadership as a predictor of organizational context for implementation. The ILS also holds promise as a tool for

  8. The implementation leadership scale (ILS): development of a brief measure of unit level implementation leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In healthcare and allied healthcare settings, leadership that supports effective implementation of evidenced-based practices (EBPs) is a critical concern. However, there are no empirically validated measures to assess implementation leadership. This paper describes the development, factor structure, and initial reliability and convergent and discriminant validity of a very brief measure of implementation leadership: the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS). Methods Participants were 459 mental health clinicians working in 93 different outpatient mental health programs in Southern California, USA. Initial item development was supported as part of a two United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) studies focused on developing implementation leadership training and implementation measure development. Clinician work group/team-level data were randomly assigned to be utilized for an exploratory factor analysis (n = 229; k = 46 teams) or for a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 230; k = 47 teams). The confirmatory factor analysis controlled for the multilevel, nested data structure. Reliability and validity analyses were then conducted with the full sample. Results The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 12-item scale with four subscales representing proactive leadership, knowledgeable leadership, supportive leadership, and perseverant leadership. Confirmatory factor analysis supported an a priori higher order factor structure with subscales contributing to a single higher order implementation leadership factor. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusions The ILS is a brief and efficient measure of unit level leadership for EBP implementation. The availability of the ILS will allow researchers to assess strategic leadership for implementation in order to advance understanding of leadership as a predictor of organizational context for implementation

  9. Brand Development Suggestions of Chinese Clothing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 陈素英

    2013-01-01

    According to the analysis of the current situation and problems of Chinese clothing brand, the corresponding measures are raised from three aspects of brand positioning, brand broadcast and brand extension strategy. Some guidance and reference value is provided for the brand building and upgrading of Chinese clothing brand.

  10. Developing and testing a tool to measure nurse/physician communication in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Saint, Sanjay; Forman, Jane; Fletcher, Carol E; Keith, Rosalind; Krein, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study, conducted in 3 intensive care units (ICUs) at 1 Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, was to develop tools and procedures to measure nurse/physician communication in future studies. We used mixed methods in a multistaged approach. Qualitative data came from 4 observations of patient care rounds and 8 interviews with nurses and physicians. Quantitative data came from anonymous surveys distributed to nurses in all 3 ICUs (n = 66). We administered the Safety Organizing Scale to measure nurses' self-reported behaviors that enable a safety culture. Analysis of variance was the main statistical test. Qualitative data were used to create an observation data collection tool and a working protocol, to measure nurse/physician communication in a future study. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the 3 units (f = 4.57, P = 0.02). There also were significant differences on 4 of 9 items of the Safety Organizing Scale. Using mixed methods, we gained multiple perspectives that helped us to clarify and validate the context and content of communication. Quantitative analysis showed significant differences between the 3 ICUs in nurses' perceptions of a safety culture. According to qualitative analyses, nurses from the unit which reported the weakest safety culture also were the least satisfied in their communication with physicians. Qualitative analyses corroborated quantitative findings and demonstrated the importance of contextual influences on nurse/physician communication. Through the tools and protocol we created, more realistic strategies to promote effective communication between nurses and physicians may be developed and tested in future studies.

  11. World Biodiesel Development Situation and Development Suggestions of that in China%世界生物柴油产业发展现状及我国生物柴油发展建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵群; 王红岩; 刘德勋; 杨慎; 董雷

    2012-01-01

    生物柴油具有安全、环保和可再生等优点。欧盟、美国和巴西等原料充足,出台多项扶持政策,在生物柴油发展方面走在世界前列。我国生物柴油产业由于原料供应问题,近年来发展缓慢。我国生物柴油产业发展应以地沟油为主要原料,建立稳定廉价的原料来源;加强宏观调控和政府监管,确保有计划稳步实施;加强微藻制生物柴油技术攻关,解决原料瓶颈。%Biodiesel was a kind of reproducible energy with advantages of safety and environmental protection. EU, U.S. and Brazil, etc. were rich in raw material for biodiesel production, and the biodiesel industry of these places was developed in the front ranks of the world. Because of the raw material supply problem, the biodiesel industry in China was developed slowly in recent years. The biodiesel development suggestions of China were that low - cost source of feed should be established, and especially the illegal cooking oil in China should be the mail source of feed for biodiesel, mocro -control and supervise should be strengthened to guarantee the steadily development in a planned way, and micro algae biodiesel technology research should be strengthened to solve the problem of raw material supply problem.

  12. Development of the NSSS thermal-hydraulic program for YGN unit 1 simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Doo; Jeong, Jae Jun; Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Dong; Ha, Kwi Seok; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2000-09-01

    The NSSS thermal-hydraulic programs installed in the domestic full-scope power plant simulators were provided in early 1980s by foreign vendors. Because of limited computational capability at that time, they usually adopt very simplified physical models for a real-time simulation of NSSS thermal-hydraulic phenomena, which entails inaccurate results and the possibility of so-called 'negative training', especially for complicated two-phase flows in the reactor coolant system. To resolve the problem, we developed a realistic NSSS T/H program (named 'ARTS' code) for use in YongGwang Nuclear Unit 1 full-scope simulator. The best-estimate code RETRAN03, developed by EPRI and approved by USNRC, was selected as a reference code of ARTS. For the development of ARTS, the followings have been performed: -Improvement of the robustness of RETRAN - Improvement of the real-time simulation capability of RETRAN - Optimum input data generation for the NSSS simulation - New model development that cannot be efficiently modeled by RETRAN - Assessment of the ARTS code. The systematic assessment of ARTS has been conducted in both personal computers (Windows 98, Visual fortran) and the simulator development environment (Windows NT, GSE simulator development tool). The results were resonable in terms of accuracy, real-time simulation and robustness.

  13. A new type of swaddling clothing improved development of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitase, Yuma; Sato, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Misaki; Ishikawa, Chie; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Hayakawa, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    Preterm infants undergo stress owing to essential treatments and exposure to the extrauterine environment in neonatal intensive care units. The aim of this study was to enable preterm infants to maintain adequate positioning with a newly developed swaddling clothing, in order to improve low muscle tone and sleep quality, and to confirm the safety of the clothing. This prospective clinical trial included an intervention group (preterm infants wearing bag-shaped clothing, allowing only exposure of the head, n=27), and a control group (preterm infants managed only with conventional swaddling, n=12). We used the Dubowitz method to analyze behavior, recorded the frequency of vomiting and apnea in both groups, and assessed the sleep state in the intervention group. Muscle tone and total score for the Dubowitz method significantly improved in the intervention group, compared with those in the control group. We evaluated the sleep state before and after the introduction of the device in the intervention group, and State 1 increased from 53.5% to 69.2% after introduction. No significant difference was seen in the frequency of vomiting and apnea between the groups. The new swaddling clothing with enhanced stretch capacity improved the muscle tone and increased sleep time by decreasing the state level of preterm infants. This is an effective tool to assist in infant development in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnosis and suggestions for the knowledge management applied to a nuclear installation: the uranium hexafluoride production unit; Diagnostico e sugestoes para a gestao do conhecimento aplicada a uma instalacao nuclear: a unidade de producao de hexafluoreto de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, Paulo Roberto de Andrade

    2008-07-01

    It has been more than 25 years since Brazilian Navy started applying resources and staff in a nuclear power program in which the main objective is the necessary technology for project and construction of a nuclear power reactor and nuclear fuel production for naval propulsion. A long period project tends to be susceptible to loss of essential parcels of knowledge. The objective of the present research is to identify actions and initiatives that may improve learning and dissemination of knowledge in an organization that develops complexes projects during a long period of time. The revision of the literature about Knowledge Management allowed the researcher to select a reference that indicates how people involved in a project gets the necessary information and knowledge for developing their activities and uses them to add value and to learn how to contribute for the organization, in order to prevent nature difficulties. The adopted methodology was a case study on the implantation of the {sup U}nidade de Hexafluoreto de Uranio{sup ,} which is being developed by the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha in Sao Paulo. With the application of structured and opened interviews, it was possible to identify some factors related with the attainment and dissemination of knowledge that can be developed. The result of this work was a proposal of action and initiatives that will improve the attainment of the knowledge, its structure and maintenance by the organization and the contribution by the people, of the knowledge acquired. (author)

  15. Care and treatment of the mentally ill in the United States: historical developments and reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, J P; Goldman, H H

    1986-03-01

    Three major cycles of reform in public mental health care in the United States--the moral treatment, mental hygiene, and community mental health movements--are described as a basis for assessing the shifting boundaries between the mental health, social welfare, and criminal justice systems. Historical forces that led to the transinstitutionalization of the mentally ill from almshouses to the state mental hospitals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have now been reversed in the aftermath of recent deinstitutionalization policies. Evidence is suggestive that the mentally ill are also being caught up in the criminal justice system, a circumstance reminiscent of pre-asylum conditions in the early nineteenth century. These trends shape the current mental health service delivery system and the agenda for policy-relevant research on issues involving the legal and mental health fields.

  16. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  17. Development of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System (GIS) for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Herzog; Holly Javedan

    2009-12-31

    In this project a Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) for the US was developed. The GIS stored, integrated, and manipulated information relating to the components of carbon management systems. Additionally, the GIS was used to interpret and analyze the effect of developing these systems. This report documents the key deliverables from the project: (1) Carbon Management Geographical Information System (GIS) Documentation; (2) Stationary CO{sub 2} Source Database; (3) Regulatory Data for CCS in United States; (4) CO{sub 2} Capture Cost Estimation; (5) CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity Tools; (6) CO{sub 2} Injection Cost Modeling; (7) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport Cost Estimation; (8) CO{sub 2} Source-Sink Matching Algorithm; and (9) CO{sub 2} Pipeline Transport and Cost Model.

  18. Personnel involved in the development of nuclear standards in the United States, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.B. (ed.)

    1976-05-01

    The development of voluntary nuclear standards in the United States is an active and necessary endeavor of the technical community concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of the nuclear potential. There are almost 8000 people presently involved either in writing voluntary standards and codes or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document records the current participation of these people as member, chairman, or secretary of about 900 identified committees and projects. The standards projects are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. The Directory has four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a KWIC Index of committee titles. The Directory can be used to identify those nuclear standards projects currently active, to indicate the participation of employers, and to recognize the contributions of individuals to these often interdisciplinary activities.

  19. Candidate sites for future hot-dry-rock development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Decker, E.R.

    1982-12-01

    Generalized geologic and other data are tabulated for 24 potential hot dry rock (HDR) sites in the contiguous United States. The data show that HDR resources occur in many geologic and tectonic settings. Potential reservoir rocks at each prospect are described and each system is cateogrized accoridng to inferred heat sources. The Fenton Hill area in New Mexico is discussed in detail because this region may be considered ideal for HDR development. Three other prospectively valuable localities are described: The Geysers-Clear lake region in California, the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah, and the White Mountains region in New Hampshire. These areas are singled out to illustrate the roles of significantly different geology and geophysics, reservoir rocks, and reservoir heat contents in possible HDR developments.

  20. Personnel involved in the development of nuclear standards in the United States, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.B. (ed.)

    1977-03-01

    The development of voluntary nuclear standards in the United States is an active and necessary endeavor of the technical community concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of the nuclear potential. There are almost 8000 people presently involved either in writing voluntary standards and codes or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document records the current participation of these people as member, chairman, or secretary of about 900 identified committees and projects. The standards projects are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. The directory has four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a KWIC index of committee titles. The directory can be used to identify those nuclear standards projects currently active, to indicate the participation of employers, and to recognize the contributions of individuals to these often interdisciplinary activities.

  1. Development of Electrode Units for Electrokinetic Desalination of Masonry and Pilot Scale Test at Three locations for Removal of Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Skibsted, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Electrode units for electrokinetic desalination of masonry has been developed and tested in pilot scale at three different locations. The units are formed as casings with a metallic mesh electrode, and carbonate rich clay to buffer the acid produced at the anode. The case has an extra loose bottom...

  2. Labour Movement and Labour Law: Development of Two Introductory Units for Secondary Students. ERIBC Reports. Report No. 79:1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Advisory Committee, Terrace (British Columbia).

    Introductory teaching units for secondary students on the history of the Canadian labor movement and labor law are presented in this report. Five units are outlined, addressing the following questions: (1) How do students perceive organized labor, its position in today's society, and its historical development?; (2) What knowledge do students have…

  3. Developing an efficient scheduling template of a chemotherapy treatment unit: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Z; Elmekkawy, Ty; Bates, S

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to improve the performance of a Chemotherapy Treatment Unit by increasing the throughput and reducing the average patient's waiting time. In order to achieve this objective, a scheduling template has been built. The scheduling template is a simple tool that can be used to schedule patients' arrival to the clinic. A simulation model of this system was built and several scenarios, that target match the arrival pattern of the patients and resources availability, were designed and evaluated. After performing detailed analysis, one scenario provide the best system's performance. A scheduling template has been developed based on this scenario. After implementing the new scheduling template, 22.5% more patients can be served. 1. CancerCare Manitoba is a provincially mandated cancer care agency. It is dedicated to provide quality care to those who have been diagnosed and are living with cancer. MacCharles Chemotherapy unit is specially built to provide chemotherapy treatment to the cancer patients of Winnipeg. In order to maintain an excellent service, it tries to ensure that patients get their treatment in a timely manner. It is challenging to maintain that goal because of the lack of a proper roster, the workload distribution and inefficient resource allotment. In order to maintain the satisfaction of the patients and the healthcare providers, by serving the maximum number of patients in a timely manner, it is necessary to develop an efficient scheduling template that matches the required demand with the availability of resources. This goal can be reached using simulation modelling. Simulation has proven to be an excellent modelling tool. It can be defined as building computer models that represent real world or hypothetical systems, and hence experimenting with these models to study system behaviour under different scenarios.1, 2 A study was undertaken at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario to identify the issues behind the long waiting

  4. Postpartum depression screening in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: program development, implementation, and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry AS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Amanda S Cherry,1 Ryan T Blucker,1 Timothy S Thornberry,2 Carla Hetherington,3 Mary Anne McCaffree,3 Stephen R Gillaspy1 1Department of Pediatrics, Section of General and Community Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 2Department of Psychology, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 3Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Objective: The aims of this project were to describe the development of a postpartum depression screening program for mothers of infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and assess the implementation of the screening program. Methods: Screening began at 14 days postpartum and was implemented as part of routine medical care. A nurse coordinator facilitated communication with mothers for increasing screen completion, review of critical self-harm items, and making mental health referrals. During the 18-month study period, 385 out of 793 eligible mothers completed the screen. Results: Approximately 36% of mothers had a positive screen that resulted in a mental health referral and an additional 30% of mothers had screening results indicating significant symptoms. Conclusion: Several barriers were identified, leading to adjustments in the screening process, and ultimately recommendations for future screening programs and research. Development of a postpartum depression screening process in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit involves support, training, implementation, and coordination from administrators, medical staff, new mothers, and mental health specialists. Several predictable challenges to program development require ongoing assessment and response to these challenges. Relevance: This study highlights the expanding role of the psychologist and behavioral health providers in health care to intervene as early as possible in the life of a child and family with medical complications through multidisciplinary program development and

  5. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Pedersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Background The inorganic (Pi) phosphate transporter (PiT) family comprises known and putative Na+- or H+-dependent Pi-transporting proteins with representatives from all kingdoms. The mammalian members are placed in the outer cell membranes and suggested to supply cells with Pi to maintain house......-keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian Pi...... sequences of PiT family members from all kingdoms, along with the studies of the dual functions of the human PiT paralogs show that these proteins are excellent as models for studying the evolution of a protein's structure-function relationship....

  6. [Antibiotic Consumption and the Development of Antibiotic Resistance in Surgical Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammer, I; Geginat, G; Lange, S; Kropf, S; Lodes, U; Schlüter, D; Lippert, H; Meyer, F

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistence is increasing worldwide. A longitudinal analysis of the influence of the density of antibiotic use on the development of resistance in surgical units was undertaken. Over five years the incidence of pathogens and the resistance rates of isolates from patients of normal surgical units and those of a surgical ICU at a university hospital were examined. The resistence rates were correlated with the density of antibiotic use - calculated from the antibiotic consumption (in DDD) and the number of patient-days. At both units, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci were mostly cultured. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter predominated. In the group of Enterococci, E. faecalis predominated at wards whereas at ICU E. faecium was the most frequent. Anaerobes ranked third at normal wards and Candida spp. at ICU. From 2007 to 2011, there was an increasing resistance against ciprofloxacin in P. mirabilis (r = 0.87; p = 0.054) and against imipenem (r = 0.86; p = 0.06) and piperacillin (r = 0.81; p = 0.09) in P. aeruginosa at normal wards. At ICU, the resistance rates of imipenem in P. aeruginosa rose (r = 0.88; p = 0.049). Resistance against ciprofloxacin in E. coli increased (r = 0.65; p = 0.23). Due to the increasing use of ciprofloxacin and meropenem at normal wards, the density of antibiotic usage rose 1.4 %/year (r = 0.94; p = 0.02). Despite the increase of meropenem use at ICU (r = 0.9; p = 0.035), the total antibiotic uptake rate remained almost constant. The antibiotic usage density was 3-fold higher at ICU than at normal wards. At normal wards, the ciprofloxacin usage correlated with the rate of resistance against ciprofloxacin in P. mirabilis P. m. At ICU, an association was detected between the uptake rate of ceftazidime and the rate of resistance against cefotaxime in the CES group. In P. aeruginosa, the use of piperacillin and the rate

  7. Sport Education and Direct Instruction Units: Comparison of Student Knowledge Development in Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Bessa, Cristiana; Mesquita, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted a comparative analysis of students’ knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls). Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students’ gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task. Key points The results in this study showed that regardless of students’ sex, both DI and SE were efficient in the promotion of improvements in students’ content knowledge of athletics. Both boys and girls improved from the pre-test to the post-test in SE and DI. SE was particularly beneficial to lower skill-level. On the contrary, in the DI unit

  8. Mountain Forests and Sustainable Development: The Potential for Achieving the United Nations' 2030 Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Gratzer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing numerous and severe environmental, social, and economic challenges. To address these, in September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The United Nations' 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs and their 169 targets are ambitious, broadly encompassing, and indivisible. They are intended to guide nations and communities toward attaining healthy and peaceful livelihoods free of poverty and hunger. Collectively the goals envision sound and safe environments, where global threats like climate change are successfully combated through both mitigation and adaptation. Agenda 2030 envisages sustainable production patterns with inclusive, effective economies and institutions. It is of specific relevance to mountain communities, where the population is predominantly rural and half of the rural inhabitants experience food insecurity and are often highly dependent on forest resources. Mountain forests also contribute to human welfare well beyond the local community: through functions such as climate and hydrological services provided at regional and global scales, and harvested commodities traded at multiple economic scales. In this introductory essay we argue that sustainable forest management in mountain areas disproportionately contributes to achieving the SDGs. We discuss (1 the potential of mountain forests to help achieve SDGs in mountainous regions and beyond, (2 the potential of the SDGs to help solve severe socioeconomic and ecological problems in forested mountain areas, and (3 challenges and opportunities associated with implementing the SDGs. We base our argumentation also on the 8 papers presented in this Focus Issue of Mountain Research and Development. Together, they establish a clear connection between sustainable use and protection of mountain forests and vital ecosystem services upon which many regions depend. We

  9. A Review of Underground Coal Gasification Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    An intense and productive period of research and development on underground coal gasification (UCG) took place in the United States from the mid-1970’s through the late 1980’s. It began with the translation and review of Soviet literature and ended with the Rocky Mountain 1 field test. This demonstrated the feasibility of newly-developed technologies that form the basis of many UCG projects around the world today. This period began with little domestic understanding of UCG and ended with an accurate observation-based conceptual model and a corresponding predictive multi-physics mathematical model of the process. The many accomplishments of this period form the main content of this report. This report also covers recent U.S. activities and accomplishments during the period 2004-2015, and touches briefly on the Bureau of Mines efforts between 1948 and 1963. Most of the activities were funded by the United States Department of Energy and its predecessors. While private/commercially-funded activities are reviewed here, the emphasis is on government-funded work. It has a much greater extent of publicly available reports and papers, and they generally contain much greater technical detail. Field tests were the marquis activities around which an integrated multi-faceted program was built. These are described in detail in Section 4. Highlights from modeling efforts are briefly covered, as the program was integrated and well-rounded, with field results informing models and vice-versa. The primary goal of this report is to review what has been learned about UCG from the U.S. experience in aggregate. This includes observations, conclusions, lessons-learned, phenomena understood, and technology developed. The latter sections of this report review these things.

  10. Volunteer Service and Service Learning: Opportunities, Partnerships, and United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmida, Safiya George; Amerson, Roxanne; Foster, Jennifer; McWhinney-Dehaney, Leila; Magowe, Mabel; Nicholas, Patrice K; Pehrson, Karen; Leffers, Jeanne

    2016-09-01

    This article explores approaches to service involvement and provides direction to nurse leaders and others who wish to begin or further develop global (local and international) service or service learning projects. We review types of service involvement, analyze service-related data from a recent survey of nearly 500 chapters of the Honor Society of Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI), make recommendations to guide collaborative partnerships and to model engagement in global and local service and service learning. This article offers a literature review and describes results of a survey conducted by the STTI International Service Learning Task Force. Results describe the types of service currently conducted by STTI nursing members and chapters, including disaster response, service learning, and service-related responses relative to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The needs of chapter members for information about international service are explored and recommendations for promoting global service and sustainability goals for STTI chapters are examined. Before engaging in service, volunteers should consider the types of service engagement, as well as the design of projects to include collaboration, bidirectionality, sustainability, equitable partnerships, and inclusion of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. STTI supports the learning, knowledge, and professional development of nurses worldwide. International service and collaboration are key to the advancement of the nursing profession. Culturally relevant approaches to international service and service learning are essential to our global organization, as it aims to impact the health status of people globally. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Playful Politics: Developing a Framework for Designing Video Games for Political Participation in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew James Reid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Political participation in the United Kingdom among young voters (aged 18-24 has steadily declined over the past two decades. Alongside this decline, video game popularity has meteorically risen among the same demographic, resulting in video games becoming increasingly more integrated within modern society. While these instances are not necessarily related, there is opportunity to explore the use of video games’ popularity to increase political participation.The basis of this research is to investigate video games as a medium for social change, and its application within a political context in order to encourage political participation in the United Kingdom. The research intends to critically analyse existing video game design theories with implications of social impact, such as transformative design, procedural rhetoric, ethical design, persuasive principles and the theory of play.This research has assisted in the development of the Political Design Framework, a design methodology that provides ethical definition and validation for video games that intend to promote political engagement.

  12. Sport Education and Direct Instruction Units: Comparison of Student Knowledge Development in Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Bessa, Cristiana; Mesquita, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    This study conducted a comparative analysis of students' knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls). Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students' gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task.

  13. The Creative Component Development in Educational Systems of the United Kingdom, the USA and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Sergeyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the competitiveness and integration of the Russian educational system in the global educational environment it is necessary to study the experience of the leading countries faced by the problem of creativity fostering. The paper provides the comparative analysis of the content, approaches to and organizational forms of the creative faculty formation in educational systems of the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia. According to the author, the creative component is the inherent part of educational systems of the given countries, though its place in the system might be different. At the state level, the interest to creativity development is demonstrated by the statutory documents, official statements and legislative acts; their content reveals that both in Russia and the USA the interest to creativity fostering results from the state strategic policy, while in the UK the focus is on the economic prospects. The author mentions the centralized projects supported by the British government and aimed at stimulating creativity, though the participation of universities in the projects is optional. The didactic and methodological materials acquired by the author have the practical implications and can be used in teachers’ training at various levels. The research materials were introduced at several Russian and International scientific conferences, discussed at seminars, round-table talks, and in the course of the International Creative Project performed by the students of Yekaterinburg and York in 2007–2013. 

  14. Route to One Atomic Unit of Time: Development of a Broadband Attosecond Streak Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Qi; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu

    A new attosecond streak camera based on a three-meter-long magnetic-bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer (MBES) is developed. The temporal resolution of the photoelectron detection system is measured to be better than 250 ps, which is sufficient to achieve an energy resolution of 0.5 eV at 150 eV photoelectron energy. In preliminary experiments, a 94-as isolated XUV pulse was generated and characterized. With a new algorithm to retrieve the amplitude and phase of XUV pulses (PROOF—phase retrieval by omega oscillation filtering), the attosecond streak camera will be able to characterize isolated attosecond pulses as short as one atomic unit of time (25 as).

  15. Development of a biorefinery optimized biofuel supply curve for the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Nathan [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Tittmann, Peter [Department of Geography, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hart, Quinn [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Nelson, Richard [Engineering Extension, KSU College of Engineering, 133 Ward Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-2508 (United States); Skog, Ken [Forest Products Laboratory, One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Schmidt, Anneliese; Gray, Edward [The Antares Group Inc., 4351 Garden City Drive, Suite 301, Landover, MD 20785 (United States); Jenkins, Bryan [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    A resource assessment and biorefinery siting optimization model was developed and implemented to assess potential biofuel supply across the Western United States from agricultural, forest, urban, and energy crop biomass. Spatial information including feedstock resources, existing and potential refinery locations and a transportation network model is provided to a mixed integer-linear optimization model that determines the optimal locations, technology types and sizes of biorefineries to satisfy a maximum profit objective function applied across the biofuel supply and demand chain from site of feedstock production to the product fuel terminal. The resource basis includes preliminary considerations of crop and residue sustainability. Sensitivity analyses explore possible effects of policy and technology changes. At a target market price of 19.6 $ GJ{sup -1}, the model predicts a feasible production level of 610-1098 PJ, enough to supply up to 15% of current regional liquid transportation fuel demand. (author)

  16. Patterns of admissions in an acute medical unit: priorities for service development and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Natalie J; Hussain, Rumana; Moonie, Alasdair; Richardson, Donald; Waring, W Stephen

    2012-01-01

    An Acute Medical Unit has recently been established at York Hospital. The present study sought to characterise the case mix of acutely unwell medical patients to allow identification of priorities for ongoing service development and to assess educational opportunities for trainees in the region. Data were collected for 16001 admission episodes between January 2010 and April 2011 inclusive. These allowed characterisation of the case mix, and identified key priorities where clinical pathway do not yet exist, namely heart failure, urinary tract infection, and acute diarrhoea. Good educational opportunities exist for most aspects of the Acute Medicine curriculum; several weaknesses were identified, and trainees might address these by undertaking a specific period of specialty training in endocrinology and neurology.

  17. Ultrasonic inspection technology development and search units design examples of practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brook, Mark V

    2012-01-01

    "Ultrasonic testing is a relatively new branch of science and industry. The development of ultrasonic testing started in the late 1920s. At the beginning, the fundamentals of this method were borrowed from basic physics, geometrical and wave optics, acoustics and seismology. Later it became clear that some of these theories and calculation methods could not always explain the phenomena observed in many specific cases of ultrasonic testing. Without knowing the nuances of the ultrasonic wave propagation in the test object it is impossible to design effective inspection technique and search units for it realization. This book clarifies the theoretical differences of ultrasonics from the other wave propagation theories presenting both basics of physics in the wave propagation, elementary mathematic and advanced practical applications. Almost every specific technique presented in this book is proofed by actual experimental data and examples of calculations"--

  18. Development of position measurement unit for flying inertial fusion energy target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, R.; Endo, T.; Yoshida, H.; Norimatsu, T.

    2016-03-01

    We have reported the present status in the development of a position measurement unit (PMU) for a flying inertial fusion energy (IFE) target. The PMU, which uses Arago spot phenomena, is designed to have a measurement accuracy smaller than 1 μm. By employing divergent, pulsed orthogonal laser beam illumination, we can measure the time and the target position at the pulsed illumination. The two-dimensional Arago spot image is compressed into one-dimensional image by a cylindrical lens for real-time processing. The PMU are set along the injection path of the flying target. The local positions of the target in each PMU are transferred to the controller and analysed to calculate the target trajectory. Two methods are presented to calculate the arrival time and the arrival position of the target at the reactor centre.

  19. Developing consensus: mercury science and policy in the NAFTA countries (Canada, the United States and Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, W; Schroeder, W; Porcella, D B; Santos-Burgoa, C; Montgomery, S; Hamilton, A; Trip, L

    2000-10-16

    The international science community has recognized methylmercury in the aquatic food chain, as a potential environmental and human health risk. As a result, countries around the world have implemented a number of mercury management initiatives. The United States, Mexico and Canada in consultation with stakeholders are developing a trilateral North American Regional Action Plan (NARAP) on mercury. Through public involvement in the decision making process, the NARAP has offered opportunities for more transparency in transactions between governments, industry and stakeholders. In spite of the available scientific information, there are still important uncertainties associated with the mercury issue. These knowledge gaps include: the most appropriate methylmercury reference dose for sensitive groups; the percentage of the North American population that is at risk from methylmercury exposure; spatial and temporal mercury deposition patterns in each country; the link between mercury emissions, atmospheric deposition and methylmercury concentrations in fish; and the relative magnitude of contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources.

  20. Design and Development of the Engine Unit for a Twin-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Avanzini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced computer-aided technologies played a crucial role in the design of an unconventional Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV, developed at the Turin Technical University and the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. The engine unit of the vehicle is made of a complex system of three two stroke piston engines coupled with two counter-rotating three-bladed rotors, controlled by rotary PWM servos. The focus of the present paper lies on the enabling technologies exploited in the framework of activities aimed at designing a suitable and reliable engine system, capable of performing the complex tasks required for operating the proposed rotorcraft. The synergic use of advanced computational tools for estimating the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle, solid modeling for mechanical components design, and rapid prototyping techniques for control system logic synthesis and implementation will be presented. 

  1. The Host Response in Patients with Sepsis Developing Intensive Care Unit-acquired Secondary Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vught, Lonneke A; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Frencken, Jos F; Scicluna, Brendon P; Klouwenberg, Peter M C Klein; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Lutter, Rene; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J; Bonten, Marc M J; Cremer, Olaf L; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-08-15

    Sepsis can be complicated by secondary infections. We explored the possibility that patients with sepsis developing a secondary infection while in the intensive care unit (ICU) display sustained inflammatory, vascular, and procoagulant responses. To compare systemic proinflammatory host responses in patients with sepsis who acquire a new infection with those who do not. Consecutive patients with sepsis with a length of ICU stay greater than 48 hours were prospectively analyzed for the development of ICU-acquired infections. Twenty host response biomarkers reflective of key pathways implicated in sepsis pathogenesis were measured during the first 4 days after ICU admission and at the day of an ICU-acquired infection or noninfectious complication. Of 1,237 admissions for sepsis (1,089 patients), 178 (14.4%) admissions were complicated by ICU-acquired infections (at Day 10 [6-13], median with interquartile range). Patients who developed a secondary infection showed higher disease severity scores and higher mortality up to 1 year than those who did not. Analyses of biomarkers in patients who later went on to develop secondary infections revealed a more dysregulated host response during the first 4 days after admission, as reflected by enhanced inflammation, stronger endothelial cell activation, a more disturbed vascular integrity, and evidence for enhanced coagulation activation. Host response reactions were similar at the time of ICU-acquired infectious or noninfectious complications. Patients with sepsis who developed an ICU-acquired infection showed a more dysregulated proinflammatory and vascular host response during the first 4 days of ICU admission than those who did not develop a secondary infection.

  2. Enhancing quality and safety competency development at the unit level: an initial evaluation of student learning and clinical teaching on dedicated education units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulready-Shick, Joann; Kafel, Kathleen W; Banister, Gaurdia; Mylott, Laura

    2009-12-01

    The need to attend to quality and safety competency development, increase capacity in nursing education programs, address the faculty and nursing shortages, and find new ways to keep step with an ever-changing health care environment has brought forth numerous creative curricular responses and collaborative efforts. To tackle these multiple needs and challenges simultaneously, a new academic-service partnership was created to collaboratively develop an innovative clinical education delivery model. The designed dedicated education unit model not only promoted student learning about quality and safety competencies via unit-based projects but also supported quality improvements in nursing care delivery. Following the initial semester of the model's implementation, a pilot study was conducted. The findings generated the evidence required to take this innovation to the next level. Moreover, the education-practice partnership, which was created to implement the clinical education delivery model, was strengthened as a result of this preliminary evaluation.

  3. Organization of acute stroke services in Poland - Polish Stroke Unit Network development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzyńska-Długosz, Iwona; Skowrońska, Marta; Członkowska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    According to the recommendations of stroke organizations, every stroke patient should be treated in a specialized stroke unit (SU). We aimed to evaluate the development of the SU network in Poland during the past decade. In Poland, stroke is treated mainly by neurologists. A questionnaire evaluating structure and staff of neurological departments was sent to all neurological departments in 2003, 2005 and 2007. In 2010, we collected data based on information from the National Health Fund. We divided departments into categories: with a comprehensive SU, with a primary SU unit, and departments without an SU. Primary SUs were further divided into class A SUs (fulfilling criteria of the National Programme of Prevention and Treatment of Stroke Experts - eligible for thrombolysis), class B (conditionally fulfilling criteria), and class C (not fulfilling criteria). Final analyses included 87.4% of departments (194/222) in 2003, 85.5% of departments (188/220) in 2005, and 83.1% of departments (182/219) in 2007. According to the above-mentioned classification there were 20 class A SUs in 2003, 58 in 2005 and 5 comprehensive and 51 class A SUs in 2007. In 2012, based on information from the National Health Fund there were 150 SUs, all fulfilling criteria for thrombolysis, 9 of them comprehensive SUs. The SU network in Poland is developing dynamically but thrombolysis and endovascular procedures are done too rarely. Now it is necessary to improve quality of stroke services and to make organizational changes in the in-hospital stroke pathways as well as to organize continuous education of medical staff.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Across-Unit Diagnostic Feedback Mechanism for Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng; Szu, Yu-Chin; Lai, Ching-Neng; Chuang, Yuh-Shy; Chen, Yen-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Solving well-structured problems often requires using considerable related concepts which are usually scattered and introduced throughout different learning units of a subject. In addition, poor learning of related concepts of preceding units may block the learning of subsequent units, and eventually leads to the inability to solve well-structured…

  5. Development and implementation of thermal signature testing protocol of auxiliary power unit (APU) and diesel tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chelsea L.; Bourne, Stefanie M.; Rowley, Matthew J.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2004-04-01

    Thermal signature may be one of the defining factors in determining the applicability of fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) technology in military applications. Thermal characterization is important for military applications given that identification and detection may be accomplished through observation of its thermal signature. The operating modes and power takeoff operations of a vehicle will likely determine the thermal profile. The objective of our study was to develop and implement a protocol for quantifying the thermal characteristics of a methanol fuel cell and an idling tractor engine under representative characteristic operations. APU thermal characteristics are a special case for which standardized testing procedures do not presently exist. A customized testing protocol was developed and applied that is specific to an APU-equipped vehicle. Initial testing was conducted on the methanol APU-equipped Freightliner tractor using a high-performance radiometric infrared system. The APU profile calls for a series of infrared images to be collected at three different viewing angles and two different elevations under various loads. The diesel engine was studied in a similar fashion using seven different viewing angles and two different elevations. Raw data collected according to the newly developed methodology provided the opportunity for computer analysis and thermal profiling of both the fuel cell and the diesel engine.

  6. Assessing and developing critical-thinking skills in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinny, Betsy

    2010-01-01

    A lot of resources are spent on the development of new staff in the intensive care unit (ICU). These resources are necessary because the environment in the ICU is complex and the patients are critically ill. Nurses need an advanced knowledge base, the ability to accurately define and change priorities rapidly, good communication and teamwork skills, and the ability to work in a stressful environment in order to succeed and give their patients quality care. Critical thinking helps the nurse to navigate the complex and stressful environment of the ICU. Critical thinking includes more than just nursing knowledge. It includes the ability to think through complex, multifaceted problems to anticipate needs, recognize potential and actual complications, and to expertly communicate with the team. A nurse who is able to think critically will give better patient care. Various strategies can be used to develop critical thinking in ICU nurses. Nurse leaders are encouraged to support the development of critical-thinking skills in less experienced staff with the goal of improving the nurse's ability to work in the ICU and improving patient outcomes.

  7. Geologic applications of an MWD communications system in a development drilling project, Point Pedernales unit, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krase, S.J.; Wagnon, J.P. (Teleco Oilfield Services, Broussard, LA (USA)); Lothringer, C. (Unocal, Bakersfield, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A low-cost communication system for measurement while drilling has been developed. This system has been used effectively on a major development project offshore California. The Point Pedemales unit is currently being developed from platform Irene with Unocal serving as the operator. The user end (remote) of the system is designed to reside on any IBM-compatible personal computer. For the Point Pedernales project, the software was installed on a Unocal system and used the existing microwave voice phone communications. The availability of real-time data in the operator's office results in the elimination of unnecessary trips to the rig site. The flexible plotting capabilities allow true stratigraphic thickness logs to be generated. In high-angle, long-reach wells, these plots allow for more accurate correlation not typically achievable with measured depth and true vertical depth logs. This capability allows for casing point selection to be made accurately. The cost savings associated with accurate casing point selection can be significant. The ability to transmit MWD data from the drilling rig to the office allows all personnel involved in a project to take advantage of the real-time benefits of MWD. The systems lends itself to installation on any drilling Project where voice phone communications, including cellular networks, are available.

  8. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  9. Radioisotope Heater Unit-Based Stirling Power Convertor Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Geng, Steven M.; Penswick, Lawrence; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A variety of mission concepts have been studied by NASA and the U. S. Department of Energy that would utilize RPS for landers, probes, and rovers and only require milliwatts to tens of watts of power. These missions would contain science measuring instruments that could be distributed across planetary surfaces or near objects of interest in space solar flux insufficient for using solar cells. A low power Stirling convertor is being developed to provide an RPS option for future low power applications. Initial concepts convert heat available from several Radioisotope Heater Units to electrical power for spacecraft instruments and communication. Initial development activity includes defining and evaluating a variety of Stirling configurations and selecting one for detailed design, research of advanced manufacturing methods that could simplify fabrication, evaluating thermal interfaces, characterizing components and subassemblies to validate design codes, and preparing for an upcoming demonstration of proof of concept in a laboratory environment.

  10. Development of a domestic platn cultivation unit. Kateiyo saibai sochi no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, K. (The Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    This paper describes development and operation evaluation on a domestic plant cultivating unit that can cultivate plants throughout a year by installing a prototype cultivating device effectively utilizing electric power, and controlling the cultivation environments. The prototype plant cultivating device uses trially an air cooling heat pump for general household use with high general-purpose applicability installed in a glass greenhouse with an area of about 10 m[sup 2], similar to those used by orchid lover club members. The device also uses commercially available humidifying and ventilating devices. No household horticultural facilities in cold district have ever used this kind of heat pump. Generally, cultivating environments in glass greenhouses are affected more easily by outside climate change as the greenhouse volume becomes smaller. For this reason, with this small-scale prototype cultivating device, orchids are cultivated to identify cultivating environments, and study technological development on controls over proper year-round cultivation and effective cultivation environments, as well as development and operation evaluation on household plant cultivation devices. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The development of forensic medicine in the United Kingdom from the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W

    1992-06-01

    Forensic medicine in the United Kingdom includes both forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine on the living. It began at the end of the 18th century, long after its development in Germany, Italy, France, and other countries in Europe. Initial beginnings were in Scotland, where a program began at the University of Edinburgh with the establishment of a chair in Forensic Medicine by Prof. Andrew Duncan Sr. The development in England began in London's Kings College Medical School with a chair held by Prof. William A. Guy. Later chairs in Forensic Medicine were established in Glasgow, Aberdeen, and in London, where Forensic Medicine was taught at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Guy's Hospital Medical School, London Hospital Medical School, Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, St. Thomas Hospital Medical School, and St. George's Hospital Medical School. In other cities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, departments were founded in Leeds, Manchester, Cardiff, and Belfast. Many textbooks were prepared during this time by professors from these medical schools and by others working in nonacademic areas. The development of coroner activities and those of the police surgeons is also part of the study of forensic medicine.

  12. Unconventional natural gas development and human health: thoughts from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon L; Hays, Jake; Law, Adam

    2015-10-05

    If unconventional gas development (UGD) continues to expand in Australia, the potential health and environmental impacts should be adequately addressed and preventive public health measures should be implemented. The United States has embraced UGD and has decades of experience that could be beneficial to Australia as stakeholders debate the potential benefits and harms of the technique. Additional research on the health impacts of UGD is necessary. Baseline and trend morbidity and mortality data need to be collected to assess changes in population health over time. To date, few health or epidemiological studies have been conducted, so it remains difficult to assess actual health outcomes. In the absence of scientific consensus, there are two possible risks: failing to develop unconventional natural gas when the harms are manageable; or developing it when the harms are substantial. Many government bodies around the world have chosen to minimise the risk of the latter until the impacts of UGD are better understood. Policies should be informed by empirical evidence based on actual experience rather than assurance of best practices. There is a strong rationale for precautionary measures based on the health and environmental risks identified in the scientific literature.

  13. The effect of nursing management development program on clinical competency in coronary care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Vaezi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses are the main members in nursing cares and nursing managers can improve their clinical competency by applying better leadership skills. This study carried out to determine the effect of nursing management program on clinical competency of nurses in a coronary care unit (CCU.Methods: A quasi-experimental study was carried out in two educational hospitals in Yazd- Iran. These hospitals were allocated randomly in case and control hospitals. 25 matched nurses were selected by convenience sampling from both case and control hospitals. The clinical competency of nurses was measured by related questioners consisted of two dimensions caring and care management behaviors by self-evaluation and head nurse evaluation in case and control groups. Then, the intervention was implemented in four stages including nurse's development, managers' development, adaptation and supervision period during four months in the case group. After intervention, clinical competency of nurses was measured in both groups.Results: The results showed that before intervention more than 80% of nurses in two groups was in the moderate clinical competency level and they were proficient based on Benner's skill acquisition model. After intervention, nurses' clinical competency improved to higher level in case group but it didn't change in control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Creating necessary modifications in nursing environments through the management development program by head nurses may improve nurses' clinical competency.

  14. A novel in vitro model to study pericytes in the neurovascular unit of the developing cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph M Zehendner

    Full Text Available Cortical function is impaired in various disorders of the central nervous system including Alzheimer's disease, autism and schizophrenia. Some of these disorders are speculated to be associated with insults in early brain development. Pericytes have been shown to regulate neurovascular integrity in development, health and disease. Hence, precisely controlled mechanisms must have evolved in evolution to operate pericyte proliferation, repair and cell fate within the neurovascular unit (NVU. It is well established that pericyte deficiency leads to NVU injury resulting in cognitive decline and neuroinflammation in cortical layers. However, little is known about the role of pericytes in pathophysiological processes of the developing cortex. Here we introduce an in vitro model that enables to precisely study pericytes in the immature cortex and show that moderate inflammation and hypoxia result in caspase-3 mediated pericyte loss. Using heterozygous EYFP-NG2 mouse mutants we performed live imaging of pericytes for several days in vitro. In addition we show that pericytes maintain their capacity to proliferate which may allow cell-based therapies like reprogramming of pericytes into induced neuronal cells in the presented approach.

  15. A novel in vitro model to study pericytes in the neurovascular unit of the developing cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehendner, Christoph M; Wedler, Hannah E; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2013-01-01

    Cortical function is impaired in various disorders of the central nervous system including Alzheimer's disease, autism and schizophrenia. Some of these disorders are speculated to be associated with insults in early brain development. Pericytes have been shown to regulate neurovascular integrity in development, health and disease. Hence, precisely controlled mechanisms must have evolved in evolution to operate pericyte proliferation, repair and cell fate within the neurovascular unit (NVU). It is well established that pericyte deficiency leads to NVU injury resulting in cognitive decline and neuroinflammation in cortical layers. However, little is known about the role of pericytes in pathophysiological processes of the developing cortex. Here we introduce an in vitro model that enables to precisely study pericytes in the immature cortex and show that moderate inflammation and hypoxia result in caspase-3 mediated pericyte loss. Using heterozygous EYFP-NG2 mouse mutants we performed live imaging of pericytes for several days in vitro. In addition we show that pericytes maintain their capacity to proliferate which may allow cell-based therapies like reprogramming of pericytes into induced neuronal cells in the presented approach.

  16. Apparent glacially induced structural controls on limestone conduit development in Ohio Caverns, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne M. Watts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock discontinuities such as bedding planes and joints are important controls on the form that caves take. We examined structural controls on the development of Ohio Caverns. The cave formed in Devonian limestone underlying a small bedrock knob (Mt. Tabor within the Interior Lowland province, United States. The area has been overridden by continental glaciation multiple times. The bedrock is pervasively fractured, with many curved and wavy near-vertical fractures showing many different orientations. In the case of Ohio Caverns, it appears that the controlling fractures in map view may not be joints sensu stricto, but rather some combination of tensile and shear (mode-1 and mode-2 fractures, probably forming in the regime transition between tensile and shear fracturing. This is easy to envision in a situation with ice advancing over this topographic high, and would result in the curved fractures that are observed in many places in the cave. It can also explain the numerous fracture directions. However, not all fractures are conduit-significant. The cave initiated on or near a single bedding plane, and the cave passages exhibit strong keyhole or plus-sign cross sections. Passage and fracture orientations are inconsistent with regionally expected directions. It is likely that mechanical, hydraulic, and thermal stresses related to glaciation caused the fracturing in Mt. Tabor. The cave then developed on this template according to local hydrologic conditions. This presents a newly documented structural template sub-type for cave development.

  17. 2016 State of Wind Development in the United States by Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, Ruth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Significant expansion of wind energy development will be required to achieve the scenarios outlined in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s Wind Vision: 20% wind energy by 2030 and 35% wind energy by 2050. Wind energy currently provides nearly 5% of the nation's electricity but has the potential to provide much more. The wind industry and the DOE's Wind Energy Technologies Office are addressing technical wind energy challenges, such as reducing turbine costs and increasing energy production and reliability. The Office recognizes that public acceptance of wind energy can be challenging, depending on the proximity of proposed wind farms to local populations. Informed decision makers and communities equipped with unbiased information about the benefits and impacts of wind energy development are better prepared to navigate the sometimes contentious development process. In 2014, DOE established six Regional Resource Centers (RRCs) across the United States to communicate unbiased, credible information about wind energy to stakeholders through regional networks. The RRCs provide ready access to this information to familiarize the public with wind energy; raise awareness about potential benefits and issues; and disseminate data on siting considerations such as turbine sound and wildlife habitat protection. This document summarizes the status and drivers for U.S. wind energy development during 2016. RRC leaders provided a report of wind energy development in their regions, which was combined with findings from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers to provide an account of the state of the regions, as well as updates on developments in individual states. NREL researchers and state partners added updates for all states that are not directly supported by an RRC. Accounts for each region include updates on renewable portfolio standards, the Clean Power Plan, workforce development, manufacturing and economic development, and individual

  18. 设施园艺发展概况、存在问题与产业发展建议%Development Situation, Problems and Suggestions on Industrial Development of Protected Horticulture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋卫杰; 邓杰; 余宏军

    2015-01-01

    近年来中国设施园艺产业发展迅速,在农产品供应、农民增收和农村经济繁荣方面发挥了重要作用,在作物栽培管理技术、环境控制技术和温室工程技术及配套装备等方面也取得较迅速的发展.文章概述了国内外设施园艺的发展概况与趋势,从设施装备、科技含量、连作障碍等方面分析了目前中国设施园艺存在的主要问题.根据实际情况对中国设施园艺的持续发展提出了相关的重点研究方向:要加强温室结构装备和环境精确控制技术、无土栽培技术、病虫害可持续控制技术、连作障碍克服技术、设施园艺专业品种培育技术等的研究.并从加强政策宏观调控,加大科技创新投入力度,加强设施装备标准化发展,完善园艺产品供求预警及构建质量安全控制长效机制等方面提出了产业化发展措施与建议.%Protected agriculture has developed rapidly in China and plays important roles in agricultural products supplying, farmers income and countryside economic prosperity. Meanwhile, high techniques have also been applied in protected horticulture, including crop management, environment control and greenhouse construction. This paper reviewed the update development characteristics of protected horticulture in China, summarized the world latest development trends and proposes. The main problems in the existing facilities in China were analyzed from the aspects of facility equipment, scientific and technological content and continuous cropping obstacles. It was pointed out that the structure of greenhouse equipment and environment precision control technology, soilless cultivation techniques, pest damage sustainable control technology, the technology for overcoming the obstacles of continuous cropping, and the protected horticulture varieties cultivation technology should be strengthened in research in the future. The suggestions in research fields and industry policy for

  19. Color photographic index of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development and accumulated thermal units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Boyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the relationship between accumulated thermal units and developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos can be used to determine the approximate date of egg fertilization in natural redds, thus providing insight into oviposition timing of wild salmonids. However, few studies have documented time to different developmental stages of embryonic Chinook salmon and no reference color photographs are available. The objectives of this study were to construct an index relating developmental stages of hatchery-reared fall Chinook salmon embryos to time and temperature (e.g., degree days and provide high-quality color photographs of each identified developmental stage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fall Chinook salmon eggs were fertilized in a hatchery environment and sampled approximately every 72 h post-fertilization until 50% hatch. Known embryonic developmental features described for sockeye salmon were used to describe development of Chinook salmon embryos. A thermal sums model was used to describe the relationship between embryonic development rate and water temperature. Mean water temperature was 8.0 degrees C (range; 3.9-11.7 degrees C during the study period. Nineteen stages of embryonic development were identified for fall Chinook salmon; two stages in the cleavage phase, one stage in the gastrulation phase, and sixteen stages in the organogenesis phase. The thermal sums model used in this study provided similar estimates of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development rate in water temperatures varying from 3.9-11.7 degrees C (mean=8 degrees C to those from several other studies rearing embryos in constant 8 degrees C water temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The developmental index provides a reasonable description of timing to known developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos and was useful in determining developmental stages of wild fall Chinook salmon embryos excavated from redds in the Columbia River. This index

  20. Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

  1. Critical Illness Polyneuromyopathy Developing After Diabetic Ketoacidosis in an Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Sevdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM is a primary axonal-degenerative condition that occurs in sensory and motor fibers after the onset of a critical illness. It is thought that it develops due to tissue damage due to hypoxia/ischemia. When 24-year-old female patient was followed in the intensive care unit (ICU due to diabetic ketoacidosis, she was extubated on the second day. She was reintubated on the third day because of respiratory acidosis. Sedation was withdrawn on the fifth day, however the patient could not recover consciousness until the 14th day and tetraplegia was found during her neurological examination. Motor peripheral nerve-transmission response in the upper-and lower-extremity was evaluated to be of low amplitude in the conducted needle electroneuromyography. The patient was weaned from mechanical ventilation on the 23rd day. The neuromuscular symptoms developing as a result of critical illnesses reflect themselves as an increase in the hospitalization duration in the ICU, a difficulty in separation from the mechanical ventilator and an extension of rehabilitation.

  2. Development of Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the United States and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterbrook R.L.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of theoretical principles and methodological approaches within the framework of research schools both in the United States and Russia; these schools provide the basis for the development of effective learning and communication skills for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The authors consider the indicators for communication disorders in children with ASD, as well as the main strategies for overcoming them in the context of utilizing verbal behavior analysis (B.F. Skinner, M.L. Sundberg, J.W. Partington, and M.L. Barbera - USA, the tradition of cultural-historical psychology (L.S. Vygotsky, D.B. Elkonin, B.D. Elkonin - Russia, reflective-activity approach (A.N. Leontiev, V.K. Zaretsky – Russia, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions(A.R. Luria – Russia, and method of ”replacing ontogenesis” (B.A. Arkhipov, A.V. Semenovich Russia. Despite the differences in methodologies used by American and Russian scholars, the most important idea is that the researchers and practitioners of both schools have common goal: to concentrate their efforts on developing social interaction skills in children with ASD, which helps them to better adjust in their lives and function in the social environment

  3. Development Status of Power Processing Unit for 250mN-Class Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ozaki, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Suga, I.; Tamida, T.; Akuzawa, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Soga, Y.; Furuichi, T.; Maki, S.; Matui, K.

    2008-09-01

    Institute for Unmanned Space Experiment Free Flyer (USEF) and Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) are developing the next generation ion engine system under the sponsorship of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) within six years. The system requirement specifications are a thrust level of over 250mN and specific impulse of over 1500 sec with a less than 5kW electric power supply, and a lifetime of over 3,000 hours. These target specifications required the development of both a Hall Thruster and a Power Processing Unit (PPU). In the 2007 fiscal year, the PPU called Second Engineering Model (EM2) consist of all power supplies was a model for the Hall Thruster system. The EM2 PPU showed the discharge efficiency was over 96.2% for 250V and 350V at output power between 1.8kW to 4.5kW. And also the Hall Thruster could start up quickly and smoothly to control the discharge voltage, the inner magnet current, the outer magnet current and the xenon flow rate. This paper reports on the design and test results of the EM2 PPU.

  4. Development of HT-PEMFC components and stack for CHP unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Q. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemistry, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Terkelsen, C.; Rudbech, H.C.; Steenberg, T. (Danish Power System Aps, Charlottenlund (Denmark)); Thibault de Rycke (IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark))

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the project has been to further develop components for an all Danish high temperature PEM fuel cells stack for application in combined heat and power units (CHP units). The final product aimed at was a 1.5-2 kW stack for operation at 150-200 deg. C. The project follows the previous PSO project 4760, 'High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell'. The project has addressed the HT-PEM fuel cells form a components point of view and the materials here for. The main areas were polymer and membrane development, electrode and MEA development (MEA = membrane electrode assembly, i.e. the cells.) and stack development. The membrane development begins with the polymer. The polymerization technique was improved significantly in two ways. Better understanding of the process and the critical issues has led to more reproducible results with repeated high molecular weights. The molecular weight is decisive for the membrane strength and durability. The process was also scaled up to 100-200 g polymer pr. batch in a new polymerization facility build during the project. It is dimensioned for larger batches too, but this was not verified during the project. The polymer cannot be purchased in the right quality for fuel cell membranes and it is important that it manufacture is not a limiting factor at the present state. Experiments with other membrane casting techniques were also made. The traditional PBI doped with phosphoric acid is still the state of art membrane for the HT-PEM fuel cells, but progress was also made with modified membranes. Different variants of PBI were synthesized and tested. Electrodes have been manufactured by a spray technique in contrast to the previously applied tape casting. The hand held spray gun previously led to an improvement of the electrodes, but the reproducibility was limited. Subsequently the construction of a semi automated spray machine was started and results like of the best hand sprayed electrodes were obtained. A viable way of MEA rim

  5. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  6. Development of an Emergency Locking Unit for a Belt-In-Seat (BIS System Using a MEMS Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Baek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an emergency locking unit (ELU for a seat belt retractor which is mounted on the back frame of a vehicle seat. The proposed unit uses a recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor and solenoid mechanism. The seat has an upper frame supported to tilt on a lower frame. The retractor in belt in seat (BIS system is supported by the upper frame. The proposed recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor comprises orientation means for maintaining a predetermined orientation of emergency relative to the lower frame independently of the force of gravity when the upper frame tilts on the lower frame. Experimental results show that the developed recliner sensor unit operates effectively with respect to rollover angles. Thus, the developed unit will have a considerable potential to offer a new design concept in BIS system.

  7. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  8. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkinton, Chris [DNV GL; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa

    2014-03-21

    As offshore wind energy develops in the United States, port facilities will become strategic hubs in the offshore wind farm supply chain because all plant and transport logistics must transit through these facilities. Therefore, these facilities must provide suitable infrastructure to meet the specific requirements of the offshore wind industry. As a result, it is crucial that federal and state policy-makers and port authorities take effective action to position ports in the offshore wind value chain to take best advantage of their economic potential. The U.S. Department of Energy tasked the independent consultancy GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) with carrying out a review of the current capability of U.S. ports to support offshore wind project development and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities related to upgrading this capability to support the growth of as many as 54 gigawatts of offshore wind installed in U.S. waters by 2030. The GL GH report and the open-access web-based Ports Assessment Tool resulting from this study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations. The offshore wind industry in the United States is still in its infancy and this study finds that additional port facilities capable of supporting offshore wind projects are needed to meet the anticipated project build-out by 2030; however, no significant barriers exist to prevent the development of such facilities. Furthermore, significant port capabilities are in place today with purpose-build port infrastructure currently being built. While there are currently no offshore wind farms operating in the United States, much of the infrastructure critical to the success of such projects does exist, albeit in the service of other industries. This conclusion is based

  9. Research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, R.J.; Gorton, C.W.; Knight, J.A.; Newman, C.J.; O' Neil, D.J. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    An atmospheric flash pyrolysis process, the Georgia Tech Entrained Flow Pyrolysis Process, for the production of liquid biofuels from oak hardwood is described. The development of the process began with bench-scale studies and a conceptual design in the 1978--1981 timeframe. Its development and successful demonstration through research on the pyrolysis of hardwood in an entrained bed process development unit (PDU), in the period of 1982--1989, is presented. Oil yields (dry basis) up to 60% were achieved in the 1.5 ton-per-day PDU, far exceeding the initial target/forecast of 40% oil yields. Experimental data, based on over forty runs under steady-state conditions, supported by material and energy balances of near-100% closures, have been used to establish a process model which indicates that oil yields well in excess of 60% (dry basis) can be achieved in a commercial reactor. Experimental results demonstrate a gross product thermal efficiency of 94% and a net product thermal efficiency of 72% or more; the highest values yet achieved with a large-scale biomass liquefaction process. A conceptual manufacturing process and an economic analysis for liquid biofuel production at 60% oil yield from a 200-TPD commercial plant is reported. The plant appears to be profitable at contemporary fuel costs of $21/barrel oil-equivalent. Total capital investment is estimated at under $2.5 million. A rate-of-return on investment of 39.4% and a pay-out period of 2.1 years has been estimated. The manufacturing cost of the combustible pyrolysis oil is $2.70 per gigajoule. 20 figs., 87 tabs.

  10. Teaching against the Grain: Multi-Disciplinary Teamwork Effectively Delivers a Successful Undergraduate Unit in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Anthony; Cornell, Sarah; Bertram, Christopher; Gallagher, Karen; Heslop, Sally; Lieven, Nicholas; MacLeod, Christine; Morgan, John; Pickering, Andrew; Wells, Suzi; Willmore, Christine

    2008-01-01

    A team-taught interdisciplinary undergraduate unit in Sustainable Development has been developed and run over the past two years at the University of Bristol. This has been a unique initiative for this university to take. As in most other research-intensive higher education institutions, teaching generally follows rather traditional disciplinary…

  11. Factors in the Development of School Libraries in Great Britain and the United States: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of school library development in Great Britain and the United States and discusses five factors that have facilitated or retarded school library development in each country: standards, staffing and certification, government support, rationale for school libraries, and professional organizations. (Author/LRW)

  12. New Stream-reach Development (NSD): A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory with evaluating the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential of more than 3 million U.S. streams in order to help individuals and organizations evaluate the feasibility of developing new hydropower sources in the United States.

  13. Major role for a 3p21 region and lack of involvement of the t(3;8) breakpoint region in the development of renal cell carcinoma suggested by loss of heterozygosity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anke; Hulsbeek, MMF; deJong, D; Kok, K; Veldhuis, PMJF; Roche, J; Buys, CHCM

    1996-01-01

    In a loss of heterozygosity analysis of 3p, we examined 44 sporadic cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and matched normal tissue with 18 markers distributed over the whole p-arm. The majority of these markers clustered in three regions that have been suggested to be involved in the development of R

  14. Effect of ageing on the force development in tetanic contractions of motor units in rat medial gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łochyński, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Krutki, Piotr; Celichowski, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ageing on the rate of force generation of motor units, and the mechanical efficiency of contraction produced by a doublet discharge. The study was carried out on isolated motor units of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle of young (5-10 mo) and two groups of old (24-25 and 28-30 mo) Wistar rats. Motor units were classified into the fast fatigable (FF), fast resistant (FR) and slow (S) ones. The force output and rate of force development were determined for non-doublet unfused tetanic contractions evoked by a series of a constant-rate trains of pulses and corresponding doublet contractions starting with an initial brief interpulse interval of 5 ms, and for maximal tetanic contraction. In FF motor units the rate of force development and the force produced by the doublet discharge increased transiently at the age of 24-25 mo, while in S and FR motor units this increase was observed at the age of 28-30 mo. Age-related decrease in the rate of force development of skeletal muscle cannot be attributed to a decline in efficiency of force production by functioning motor units.

  15. A Few of Our Favorite Things. Grade 1. One in a Series of Career Development Curriculum Units for the Elementary Classroom. (Second Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Coleen; And Others

    Focusing on occupational clusters in the areas of the arts, technology, research, and personal and product services, this unit entitled "A Few of Our Favorite Things" is one of four grade 1 units which are part of a total set of twenty-seven career development curriculum units for grades K-6. This unit is organized into four sections.…

  16. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  17. Guiyang modern logistics industry and regional economic coordinated development of the Current Situation and Suggestions%贵阳市现代物流业与区域经济协调发展现状及对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾方俊

    2012-01-01

    根据现代物流业与区域经济协调发展的重要性和内在机理,对贵阳市现代物流业与区域经济发展现状进行调研,针对存在的问题,提出了相关对策建议。%According to the importance of the modem logistics industry and the coordinated development of regional economy and the internal mechanism of Guiyang City, the modem logistics industry and regional economic development research, development and put forward relevant suggestions for possible problems.

  18. United states national land cover data base development? 1992-2001 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    An accurate, up-to-date and spatially-explicate national land cover database is required for monitoring the status and trends of the nation's terrestrial ecosystem, and for managing and conserving land resources at the national scale. With all the challenges and resources required to develop such a database, an innovative and scientifically sound planning must be in place and a partnership be formed among users from government agencies, research institutes and private sectors. In this paper, we summarize major scientific and technical issues regarding the development of the NLCD 1992 and 2001. Experiences and lessons learned from the project are documented with regard to project design, technical approaches, accuracy assessment strategy, and projecti imiplementation.Future improvements in developing next generation NLCD beyond 2001 are suggested, including: 1) enhanced satellite data preprocessing in correction of atmospheric and adjacency effect and the topographic normalization; 2) improved classification accuracy through comprehensive and consistent training data and new algorithm development; 3) multi-resolution and multi-temporal database targeting major land cover changes and land cover database updates; 4) enriched database contents by including additional biophysical parameters and/or more detailed land cover classes through synergizing multi-sensor, multi-temporal, and multi-spectral satellite data and ancillary data, and 5) transform the NLCD project into a national land cover monitoring program. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  19. Maternal-fetal unit interactions and eutherian neocortical development and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Montiel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The conserved brain design that primates inherited from early mammals differs from the variable adult brain size and species-specific brain dominances observed across mammals. This variability relies on the emergence of specialized cerebral cortical regions and sub-compartments, triggering an increase in brain size, areal interconnectivity and histological complexity that ultimately lies on the activation of developmental programs. Structural placental features are not well correlated with brain enlargement; however, several endocrine pathways could be tuned with the activation of neuronal progenitors in the proliferative neocortical compartments. In this article, we reviewed some mechanisms of eutherians maternal-fetal unit interactions associated with brain development and evolution. We propose a hypothesis of brain evolution where proliferative compartments in primates become activated by 'non-classical' endocrine placental signals participating in different steps of corticogenesis. Changes in the inner placental structure, along with placenta endocrine stimuli over the cortical proliferative activity would allow mammalian brain enlargement with a concomitant shorter gestation span, as an evolutionary strategy to escape from parent-offspring conflict.

  20. Developing a multiscale, multi-resolution agent-based brain tumor model by graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Le

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiscale agent-based modeling (MABM has been widely used to simulate Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM and its progression. At the intracellular level, the MABM approach employs a system of ordinary differential equations to describe quantitatively specific intracellular molecular pathways that determine phenotypic switches among cells (e.g. from migration to proliferation and vice versa. At the intercellular level, MABM describes cell-cell interactions by a discrete module. At the tissue level, partial differential equations are employed to model the diffusion of chemoattractants, which are the input factors of the intracellular molecular pathway. Moreover, multiscale analysis makes it possible to explore the molecules that play important roles in determining the cellular phenotypic switches that in turn drive the whole GBM expansion. However, owing to limited computational resources, MABM is currently a theoretical biological model that uses relatively coarse grids to simulate a few cancer cells in a small slice of brain cancer tissue. In order to improve this theoretical model to simulate and predict actual GBM cancer progression in real time, a graphics processing unit (GPU-based parallel computing algorithm was developed and combined with the multi-resolution design to speed up the MABM. The simulated results demonstrated that the GPU-based, multi-resolution and multiscale approach can accelerate the previous MABM around 30-fold with relatively fine grids in a large extracellular matrix. Therefore, the new model has great potential for simulating and predicting real-time GBM progression, if real experimental data are incorporated.

  1. Wildlife conservation and solar energy development in the Desert Southwest, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Josua R.

    2011-01-01

    Large areas of public land are currently being permitted or evaluated for utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) in the southwestern United States, including areas with high biodiversity and protected species. However, peer-reviewed studies of the effects of USSED on wildlife are lacking. The potential effects of the construction and the eventual decommissioning of solar energy facilities include the direct mortality of wildlife; environmental impacts of fugitive dust and dust suppressants; destruction and modification of habitat, including the impacts of roads; and off-site impacts related to construction material acquisition, processing, and transportation. The potential effects of the operation and maintenance of the facilities include habitat fragmentation and barriers to gene flow, increased noise, electromagnetic field generation, microclimate alteration, pollution, water consumption, and fire. Facility design effects, the efficacy of site-selection criteria, and the cumulative effects of USSED on regional wildlife populations are unknown. Currently available peer-reviewed data are insufficient to allow a rigorous assessment of the impact of USSED on wildlife.

  2. Maternal-fetal unit interactions and eutherian neocortical development and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Juan F.; Kaune, Heidy; Maliqueo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The conserved brain design that primates inherited from early mammals differs from the variable adult brain size and species-specific brain dominances observed across mammals. This variability relies on the emergence of specialized cerebral cortical regions and sub-compartments, triggering an increase in brain size, areal interconnectivity and histological complexity that ultimately lies on the activation of developmental programs. Structural placental features are not well correlated with brain enlargement; however, several endocrine pathways could be tuned with the activation of neuronal progenitors in the proliferative neocortical compartments. In this article, we reviewed some mechanisms of eutherians maternal–fetal unit interactions associated with brain development and evolution. We propose a hypothesis of brain evolution where proliferative compartments in primates become activated by “non-classical” endocrine placental signals participating in different steps of corticogenesis. Changes in the inner placental structure, along with placenta endocrine stimuli over the cortical proliferative activity would allow mammalian brain enlargement with a concomitant shorter gestation span, as an evolutionary strategy to escape from parent-offspring conflict. PMID:23882189

  3. Carbon capture test unit design and development using amine-based solid sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, Ronald W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Spenik, James L. [REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV (United States); Shadle, Lawrence J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Hoffman, James S. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gray, McMahan L. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Panday, Rupen [REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV (United States); Stehle, Richard C. [ORISE, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This study presents the design and development of a reactor system and the subsequent modifications to evaluate an integrated process to scrub carbon dioxide (CO2) from synthetic flue gas using amine based solid sorbents. The paper presents the initial system design and then discusses the various changes implemented to address the change in sorbent from a 180 μm Geldart group B material to a 115 μm Geldart group A material as well as issues discovered during experimental trials where the major obstacle in system operation was the ability to maintain a constant circulation of a solid sorbent stemming from this change in sorbent material. The system primarily consisted of four fluid beds, through which an amine impregnated solid sorbent was circulated and adsorption, pre-heat, regeneration, and cooling processes occurred. Instrumentation was assembled to characterize thermal, hydrodynamic, and gas adsorption performance in this integrated unit. A series of shakedown tests were performed and the configuration altered to meet the needs of the sorbent performance and achieve desired target capture efficiencies. Finally, methods were identified, tested, and applied to continuously monitor critical operating parameters including solids circulation rate, adsorbed and desorbed CO2, solids inventories, and pressures.

  4. Developing a performance data suite to facilitate lean improvement in a chemotherapy day unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaratnam, Senthil; Murray, Danielle; Carle, Amber; Kirsa, Sue W; Paterson, Rebecca; Rischin, Danny

    2013-07-01

    A multidisciplinary team from the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre in Melbourne, Australia, developed a performance data suite to support a service improvement project based on lean manufacturing principles in its 19-chair chemotherapy day unit (CDU) and cytosuite chemotherapy production facility. The aims of the project were to reduce patient wait time and improve equity of access to the CDU. A project team consisting of a pharmacist and CDU nurse supported the management team for 10 months in engaging staff and customers to identify waste in processes, analyze root causes, eliminate non-value-adding steps, reduce variation, and level workloads to improve quality and flow. Process mapping, staff and patient tracking and opinion surveys, medical record audits, and interrogation of electronic treatment records were undertaken. This project delivered a 38% reduction in median wait time on the day (from 32 to 20 minutes; P lean improvement methodology provided a robust framework for improved understanding and management of complex system constraints within a CDU, resulting in improved access to treatment and reduced waiting times on the day.

  5. The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Roberto; Porcella, Annalisa; Fanos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Since the 19th century, devices termed incubators were developed to maintain thermal stability in low birth weight (LBW) and sick newborns, thus improving their chances of survival. Remarkable progress has been made in the production of infant incubators, which are currently highly technological devices. However, they still need to be improved in many aspects. Regarding the temperature and humidity control, future incubators should minimize heat loss from the neonate and eddies around him/her. An unresolved issue is exposure to high noise levels in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Strategies aimed at modifying the behavior of NICU personnel, along with structural improvements in incubator design, are required to reduce noise exposure. Light environment should be taken into consideration in designing new models of incubators. In fact, ambient NICU illumination may cause visual pathway sequelae or possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), while premature exposure to continuous lighting may adversely affect the rest-activity patterns of the newborn. Accordingly, both the use of incubator covers and circadian lighting in the NICU might attenuate these effects. The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on infant health is still unclear. However, future incubators should be designed to minimize the EMF exposure of the newborn.

  6. Preliminary test results from the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, Mark H.; Macelroy, R. D.; Blackwell, C. C.; Borchers, B. A.; Drews, M. E.; Longabaugh, J. R.; Yendler, B. S.; Zografos, A. I.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, a CELSS Test Facility (CTF) is being planned for installation on the Space Station. The CTF will be used to provide data on the productivity and efficiency of a variety of CELSS higher plant crops grown in the microgravity environment of the Space Station. Tight environmental control will be maintained while data on gas exchange rates and biomass accumulation rates are collected. In order to obtain an early realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary to provide the environmental conditions specified for CTF crop productivity experiments, an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) has been designed, constructed and is in the process of subsystem and system testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The EDU is a ground test-bed which will be used to characterize the integrated performance of major subsystem technologies, to evaluate hardware candidates and control strategies required for the CTF, and to further define the ability to meet CTF requirements within present Space Station constraints. This paper reviews the functional requirements for the EDU, and focuses on the performance evaluation and test results of the various subsystems. Preliminary integrated performance results and control system operation are addressed, and plans for future science and technology testing are discussed.

  7. Development of a slicer integral field unit for the existing optical spectrograph FOCAS: progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shinobu; Tanaka, Yoko; Hattori, Takashi; Mitsui, Kenji; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Norio; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Tsuzuki, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Yamashita, Takuya

    2014-07-01

    We are developing an integral field unit (IFU) with an image slicer for the existing optical spectrograph, Faint Object Camera And Spectrograph (FOCAS), on the Subaru Telescope. The slice width is 0.43 arcsec, the slice number is 23, and the field of view is 13.5 × 9.89 arcsec2. Sky spectrum separated by about 5.7 arcmin from an object field can be simultaneously obtained, which allows us precise background subtraction. Slice mirrors, pupil mirrors and slit mirrors are all glass, and their mirror surfaces are fabricated by polishing. Our IFU is about 200 mm × 300 mm × 80 mm in size and 1 kg in weight. It is installed into a mask storage in FOCAS along with one or two mask plates, and inserted into the optical path by using the existing mask exchange mechanism. This concept allow us flexible operation such as Targets of Opportunity observations. High reflectivity of multilayer dielectric coatings offers high throughput (>80%) of the IFU. In this paper, we will report a final optical layout, its performances, and results of prototyping works.

  8. Development of microcontroller-based acquisition and processing unit for fiber optic vibration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi; Puranto, P.; Adinanta, H.; Waluyo, T. B.; Priambodo, P. S.

    2017-04-01

    Microcontroller based acquisition and processing unit (MAPU) has been developed to measure vibration signal from fiber optic vibration sensor. The MAPU utilizes a 32-bit ARM microcontroller to perform acquisition and processing of the input signal. The input signal is acquired with 12 bit ADC and processed using FFT method to extract frequency information. Stability of MAPU is characterized by supplying a constant input signal at 500 Hz for 29 hours and shows a stable operation. To characterize the frequency response, input signal is swapped from 20 to 1000 Hz with 20 Hz interval. The characterization result shows that MAPU can detect input signal from 20 to 1000 Hz with minimum signal of 4 mV RMS. The experiment has been set that utilizes the MAPU with singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber optic sensor to detect vibration which is induced by a transducer in a wooden platform. The experimental result indicates that vibration signal from 20 to 600 Hz has been successfully detected. Due to the limitation of the vibration source used in the experiment, vibration signal above 600 Hz is undetected.

  9. Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Monica S.; Swinburn, Tracy K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Discussion: We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda. Citation: Hammer MS, Swinburn TK, Neitzel RL. 2014. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ Health Perspect 122:115–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307272 PMID:24311120

  10. Development of a Training Plan for DCW Juvenile Service Unit Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources Research Organization, Fort Knox, KY. Div. 2.

    A study was conducted to ascertain the job requirements and training needs of juvenile service unit workers. A training needs assessment inventory questionnaire was mailed to all juvenile service unit workers in the Kentucky Department of Child Welfare (DCW). Data from 146 questionnaires were analyzed to provide job descriptive information, which…

  11. Developing Global Public Participation (1) : Global Public Participation at The United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, O.; Honniball, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this first article, we will analyse the actuality and potential of participation at the international level, or more specifically: at the level of the United Nations (un). Is there a demand for public participation in the work of the United Nations, and if so, who has such demands? And how should

  12. Coal Gasification Unit Using CO2 as Gasifying Agent Developed by Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Zhongyuan Dahua Group of Henan province has announced that the first in the world Shell's coal gasification unit using CO2 as the gasifying agent has been operating successfully,delivering syngas produced by the gasifier to fully meet the needs for methanol synthesis,which can increase the methanol output by 200 tons a day under full load of the methanol unit.

  13. Development of the anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit for air breathing PEMFC stack using silicone adhesive bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkook; Lee, Dai Gil

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) exhibit a wide power range, low operating temperature, high energy density and long life time. These advantages favor PEMFC for applications such as vehicle power sources, portable power, and backup power applications. With the push towards the commercialization of PEMFC, especially for portable power applications, the overall balance of plants (BOPs) of the systems should be minimized. To reduce the mass and complexity of the systems, air-breathing PEMFC stack design with open cathode channel configuration is being developed. However, the open cathode channel configuration incurs hydrogen leakage problem. In this study, the bonding strength of a silicon adhesive between the Nafion membrane and the carbon fiber/epoxy composite bipolar plate was measured. Then, an anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit which was bonded with the silicone adhesive was developed to solve the hydrogen leakage problem. The reliability of the anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit was estimated under the internal pressure of hydrogen by the FE analysis. Additionally, the gas sealability of the developed air breathing PEMFC unit cell was experimentally measured. Finally, unit cell performance of the developed anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit was tested and verified under operating conditions without humidity and temperature control.

  14. Application of Jean Piaget's theory of human development for nursing children in an adult intensive therapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A

    1991-12-01

    Piaget (1964) believed that interaction with the environment has a large part to play in human development. Matthew (1986) states that in an ideal world critically ill children should be cared for by staff trained in paediatrics, within designated paediatric intensive therapy units. Unfortunately, there are only 28 paediatric intensive therapy units in Great Britain (CMA Medical Data, 1987), consequently each year a third of children requiring intensive care are admitted to adult intensive therapy units (ITU). A knowledge and understanding of developmental psychology can therefore be beneficial to nurses in assessing which stage of development a child has reached, in order to plan the correct level of stimulation, and hence facilitate progress rather than regression in the accomplishment of developmental tasks. The psychological and social processes involved in Jean Piaget's (1896-1980) theory of human development are discussed with regard to nursing children requiring intubation and ventilation in an adult ITU.

  15. QbD-enabled systematic development of gastroretentive multiple-unit microballoons of itopride hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sanjay; Beg, Sarwar; Asthana, Abhay; Garg, Babita; Asthana, Gyati Shilakari; Kapil, Rishi; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of present studies were to develop the systematically optimized multiple-unit gastroretentive microballoons, i.e. hollow microspheres of itopride hydrochloride (ITH) employing quality by design (QbD)-based approach. Initially, the patient-centric QTPP and CQAs were earmarked, and preliminary studies were conducted to screen the suitable polymer, solvent, solvent ratio, pH and temperature conditions. Microspheres were prepared by non-aqueous solvent evaporation method employing Eudragit S-100. Risk assessment studies carried out by constructing Ishikawa cause-effect fish-bone diagram, and techniques like risk estimation matrix (REM) and failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) facilitated the selection of plausible factors affecting the drug product CQAs, i.e. percent yield, entrapment efficiency (EE) and percent buoyancy. A 3(3) Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed for optimizing CMAs and CPPs selected during factor screening studies employing Taguchi design, i.e. drug-polymer ratio (X1), stirring temperature (X2) and stirring speed (X3). The hollow microspheres, as per BBD, were evaluated for EE, particle size and drug release characteristics. The optimum formulation was embarked upon using numerical desirability function yielding excellent floatation characteristics along with adequate drug release control. Drug-excipient compatibility studies employing FT-IR, DSC and powder XRD revealed absence of significant interaction among the formulation excipients. The SEM studies on the optimized formulation showed hollow and spherical nature of the prepared microspheres. In vivo X-ray imaging studies in rabbits confirmed the buoyant nature of the hollow microspheres for 8 h in the upper GI tract. In a nutshell, the current investigations report the successful development of gastroretentive floating microspheres for once-a-day administration of ITH.

  16. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A; Barna, Michael G; Moore, Tom

    2009-09-01

    The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the region. The following work presents an analysis of these impacts using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). CAMx is a state-of-the-science, "one-atmosphere" Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). Meteorology and emissions inventories developed by the Western Regional Air Partnership Regional Modeling Center for regional haze analysis and planning are used to establish an ozone baseline simulation for the year 2002. The predicted range of values for ozone in the national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States is then evaluated with available observations from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). This evaluation demonstrates the model's suitability for subsequent planning, sensitivity, and emissions control strategy modeling. Once the ozone baseline simulation has been established, an analysis of the model results is performed to investigate the regional impacts of oil and gas development on the ozone concentrations that affect the air quality of Class I areas. Results indicate that the maximum 8-hr ozone enhancement from oil and gas (9.6 parts per billion [ppb]) could affect southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Class I areas in this region that are likely to be impacted by increased ozone include Mesa Verde National Park and Weminuche Wilderness Area in Colorado and San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area, Bandelier Wilderness Area, Pecos Wilderness Area, and Wheeler Peak Wilderness Area in New Mexico.

  17. Developing Indicators of Service Quality Provided for Cardiovascular Patients Hospitalized in Cardiac Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most prevalent chronic diseases leading to high degrees of mortality and morbidity worldwide and in Iran. The aim of the current study was to determine and develop appropriate indicators for evaluating provided service quality for cardiovascular patients admitted to Cardiac Care Units (CCU in Iran. Methods: In order to determine the indicators for evaluating provided service quality, a four-stage process including reviewing systematic review articles in premier bibliographic databases, interview, performing two rounds of Delphi technique, and holding experts panel by attendance of experts in different fields was adopted. Finally, after recognizing relevant indicators in resources, these indicators were finalized during various stages using ideas of 27 experts in different fields. Results: Among 2800 found articles in the text reviewing phase, 21 articles, which had completely mentioned relevant indicators, were studied and 48 related indicators were extracted. After two interviews with a cardiologist and an epidemiologist, 32 items of the indicators were omitted and replaced by 27 indicators coping with the conditions of Iranian hospitals. Finally, 43 indicators were added into the Delphi phase and after 2 rounds of Delphi with 18 specialists, 7 cases were excluded due to their low scores of applicability. In the experts’ panel stage, 6 items were also omitted and 10 new indicators were developed to replace them. Eventually, 40 indicators were finalized. Conclusion: In this study, some proper indicators for evaluating provided service quality for CCU admissions in Iran were determined. Considering the informative richness of these indicators, they can be used by managers, policy makers, health service providers, and also insurance agencies in order to improve the quality of services, decisions, and policies.

  18. Development of a 2001 National Land Cover Database for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Huang, Chengquan; Yang, Limin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Coan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Resolution Land Characterization 2001 (MRLC 2001) is a second-generation Federal consortium designed to create an updated pool of nation-wide Landsat 5 and 7 imagery and derive a second-generation National Land Cover Database (NLCD 2001). The objectives of this multi-layer, multi-source database are two fold: first, to provide consistent land cover for all 50 States, and second, to provide a data framework which allows flexibility in developing and applying each independent data component to a wide variety of other applications. Components in the database include the following: (1) normalized imagery for three time periods per path/row, (2) ancillary data, including a 30 m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived into slope, aspect and slope position, (3) perpixel estimates of percent imperviousness and percent tree canopy, (4) 29 classes of land cover data derived from the imagery, ancillary data, and derivatives, (5) classification rules, confidence estimates, and metadata from the land cover classification. This database is now being developed using a Mapping Zone approach, with 66 Zones in the continental United States and 23 Zones in Alaska. Results from three initial mapping Zones show single-pixel land cover accuracies ranging from 73 to 77 percent, imperviousness accuracies ranging from 83 to 91 percent, tree canopy accuracies ranging from 78 to 93 percent, and an estimated 50 percent increase in mapping efficiency over previous methods. The database has now entered the production phase and is being created using extensive partnering in the Federal government with planned completion by 2006.

  19. Assessment of Ports for Offshore Wind Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkinton, Chris [DNV GL; Blatiak, Alicia; Ameen, Hafsa

    2014-03-21

    As offshore wind energy develops in the United States, port facilities will become strategic hubs in the offshore wind farm supply chain because all plant and transport logistics must transit through these facilities. Therefore, these facilities must provide suitable infrastructure to meet the specific requirements of the offshore wind industry. As a result, it is crucial that federal and state policy-makers and port authorities take effective action to position ports in the offshore wind value chain to take best advantage of their economic potential. The U.S. Department of Energy tasked the independent consultancy GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) with carrying out a review of the current capability of U.S. ports to support offshore wind project development and an assessment of the challenges and opportunities related to upgrading this capability to support the growth of as many as 54 gigawatts of offshore wind installed in U.S. waters by 2030. The GL GH report and the open-access web-based Ports Assessment Tool resulting from this study will aid decision-makers in making informed decisions regarding the choice of ports for specific offshore projects, and the types of investments that would be required to make individual port facilities suitable to serve offshore wind manufacturing, installation and/or operations. The offshore wind industry in the United States is still in its infancy and this study finds that additional port facilities capable of supporting offshore wind projects are needed to meet the anticipated project build-out by 2030; however, no significant barriers exist to prevent the development of such facilities. Furthermore, significant port capabilities are in place today with purpose-build port infrastructure currently being built. While there are currently no offshore wind farms operating in the United States, much of the infrastructure critical to the success of such projects does exist, albeit in the service of other industries. This conclusion is based

  20. Factors driving the development of healthcare waste management in the United Kingdom over the past 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, William K; Cheeseman, Christopher; Edgar, Jen; Tudor, Terry

    2009-06-01

    Since the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom in 1948 there have been significant changes in the way waste materials produced by healthcare facilities have been managed due to a number of environmental, legal and social drivers. This paper reviews the key changes in legislation and healthcare waste management that have occurred in the UK between 1948 and the present time. It investigates reasons for the changes and how the problems associated with healthcare wastes have been addressed. The reaction of the public to offensive disposal practices taking place locally required political action by the UK government and subsequently by the European legislature. The relatively new UK industry of hazardous healthcare waste management has developed rapidly over the past 25 years in response to significant changes in healthcare practices. The growth in knowledge and appreciation of environmental issues has also been fundamental to the development of this industry. Legislation emanating from Europe is now responsible for driving change to UK healthcare waste management. This paper examines the drivers that have caused the healthcare waste management to move forward in the 60 years since the NHS was formed. It demonstrates that the situation has moved from a position where there was no overall strategy to the current situation where there is a strong regulatory framework but still no national strategy. The reasons for this situation are examined and based upon the experience gained; suggestions are made for the benefit of countries with systems for healthcare waste management still in the early stages of development or without any provisions at all.

  1. The United States Military Entrance Processing Command (USMEPCOM) Uses Six Sigma Process to Develop and Improve Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    mecpom.army.mil Original title on 712 A/B: The United States Military Entrance Processing Command (USMEPCOM) uses Six Sigma process to develop and...Entrance Processing Command (USMEPCOM) uses Six Sigma Process to Develop and Improve Data Quality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Processing Command (USMEPCOM) uses Six Sigma Process to Develop and Improve Data Quality 3 • USMEPCOM Overview/History • Purpose • Define: What is Important

  2. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  3. VIRUS characterization development and results from first batches of delivered units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indahl, Briana L.; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Gebhardt, Karl; Tuttle, Sarah; Ramsey, Jason; Ziemann, Greg; Chonis, Taylor; Peterson, Trent; Peterson, Andrew; Vattiat, Brian L.; Li, Huan; Hao, Lei

    2016-08-01

    The Visible Integral Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), the instrument for the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), consists of 78 replicable units, each with two integral field spectrographs. Each spectrograph has its own 2kx2k CCD detector with 15 micron pixels. Following alignment, the final stage prior to deployment of each unit is characterization of the 156 spectrograph channels and their CCDs. We describe the laboratory calibration system and scripting that automates this process. Both fiber and continuous (non-spatially modulated) input slits are utilized. Photon transfer curves are made to measure the gain and read noise of each CCD. Pixel flats are also made to correct for pixel-to-pixel QE variations. Relative throughput measurements of each unit are made using the same lab fiber bundle for consistency, and fiber profiles are characterized for later use by the CURE data reduction package. Replicable unit instruments provide a cost effective solution for scaling up instruments for large and extremely large class telescopes. Because VIRUS is the first massively replicated instrument, we have the opportunity to examine the end result of variations in the manufacturing processes that go into production. This paper presents the characterization setup for VIRUS units and compares the performance and variability of processed units with specifications for HETDEX.

  4. Development of certified environmental management in hospital and outpatient haemodialysis units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio García Vicente

    2015-11-01

    Discussion: There is no official documentation of the implementation of EMS in dialysis units. Making this list provides an approach to the situation, with special reference to haemodialysis because of its significant environmental impact.

  5. Dedicated pediatric cardiac intensive care unit in a developing country: Does it improve the outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : Establishment of a dedicated pediatric cardiac intensive care unit has shown better outcomes in terms of earlier extubation, de-intensification, and discharge from the ICU. Blood stream infections were also reduced.

  6. Developing a United States Marine Corps Organizational and Intermediate Level Maintenance Performance Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Marine Corps Integrated Maintenance Management System MIPR Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request MLG Marine Corps Logistics Unit MOSIS ...D. (1997). An examination of the Marine Operating and Support Information System ( MOSIS ) as a mechanism for linking resources to readiness for

  7. Climate change risks to United States infrastructure: impacts on coastal development, roads, bridges, and urban drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of infrastructure, its deployment, and its role in protecting econom...

  8. Development of a Wearable Device for Motion Capturing Based on Magnetic and Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel wearable device for gesture capturing based on inertial and magnetic measurement units that are made up of micromachined gyroscopes, accelerometers, and magnetometers. The low-cost inertial and magnetic measurement unit is compact and small enough to wear and there are altogether thirty-six units integrated in the device. The device is composed of two symmetric parts, and either the right part or the left one contains eighteen units covering all the segments of the arm, palm, and fingers. The offline calibration and online calibration are proposed to improve the accuracy of sensors. Multiple quaternion-based extended Kalman filters are designed to estimate the absolute orientations, and kinematic models of the arm-hand are considered to determine the relative orientations. Furthermore, position algorithm is deduced to compute the positions of corresponding joint. Finally, several experiments are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed wearable device.

  9. Development and Evaluation of High-Resolution Climate Simulations Over the Mountainous Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Beckage, Brian; Bucini, Gabriela; Horton, Radley M.; Clemins, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain regions of the northeastern United States are a critical socioeconomic resource for Vermont, New York State, New Hampshire, Maine, and southern Quebec. While global climate models (GCMs) are important tools for climate change risk assessment at regional scales, even the increased spatial resolution of statistically downscaled GCMs (commonly approximately 1/ 8 deg) is not sufficient for hydrologic, ecologic, and land-use modeling of small watersheds within the mountainous Northeast. To address this limitation, an ensemble of topographically downscaled, high-resolution (30"), daily 2-m maximum air temperature; 2-m minimum air temperature; and precipitation simulations are developed for the mountainous Northeast by applying an additional level of downscaling to intermediately downscaled (1/ 8 deg) data using high-resolution topography and station observations. First, observed relationships between 2-m air temperature and elevation and between precipitation and elevation are derived. Then, these relationships are combined with spatial interpolation to enhance the resolution of intermediately downscaled GCM simulations. The resulting topographically downscaled dataset is analyzed for its ability to reproduce station observations. Topographic downscaling adds value to intermediately downscaled maximum and minimum 2-m air temperature at high-elevation stations, as well as moderately improves domain-averaged maximum and minimum 2-m air temperature. Topographic downscaling also improves mean precipitation but not daily probability distributions of precipitation. Overall, the utility of topographic downscaling is dependent on the initial bias of the intermediately downscaled product and the magnitude of the elevation adjustment. As the initial bias or elevation adjustment increases, more value is added to the topographically downscaled product.

  10. Risk factors for the development of hospital infections in the intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović Biljana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients admitted to intensive-care units (ICU are at a high risk of nosocomial infections (NI due to susceptibility associated with severity of their condition, but also the invasive medical procedures they undergo. Aim. To determine the frequency of NI at the ICU of the General Hospital Užice, and to identify the risk factors for their development. Methods. A prospective surveillance study of NI, conducted between June 27 and December 31 2001, included 914 patients who spent at least 24 hours in the ICU (total of 2 615 days. The surveillance of NI in the ICU was carried out daily. Follow-up period covered the time from the ICU admission to 48 hours after the ICU discharge. To assess risk factors for NI, we performed a case-control study. The variables measuring of extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors for NI were collected. Results. In a six-month prospective surveillance study, the incidence of NI was 16.7% or 58.5 per 1,000 patient-day, respectively. The most frequent were the infections of the surgery wounds (32.6%, urinary tract infections (23.5%, and infections of the blood (7.1%. The identified independent risk factors for NI were: surgical intervention (OR = 5.74; CI = 2.01-16.41, endotracheal tubes (OR = 3.40; CI = 1.07-10.89, cystoscopy (OR = 2.35; CI = 1.38- 4.02, obesity (OR = 1.98; CI = 1.27-3.11, and the duration of the infusion (OR = 1.34; CI = 1.23-1.46. Conclusions. The most important risk factors for NI at ICU were surgical interventions and endotracheal tubes.

  11. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  12. Infant Care Suggestions for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a cure, education, awareness, and mutual support. Nurses who work in neonatal intensive care units and nursery departments have experience caring for very small and fragile infants. They can help parents learn the skills and gain confidence necessary to care for their ...

  13. History of the development and industrial production of low thermal emissivity coatings for high heat insulating glass units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, Hans J

    2008-05-01

    Low-emissivity (low-E) coatings play a dominate role in high heat insulating multiple glass units with which an essential part of heat energy can be saved in buildings. With such coatings as the main part, and to a lesser part with low thermal conductive filling gases of the units' interspaces, their heat transmittance can be reduced from 6.0 W/m(2)? K for a single glazing--still glazed to a high degree--to 0.4 W/m(2) K for a triple insulating glass unit. This astonishing development is regarded as one of the most important innovations of the flat glass industry in the past century. The roots of low-E coatings in the 1960s, their startup for production in the 1970s, and, most important, further development steps accompanied by, and partly also codesigned actively by the author, are depicted.

  14. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  15. New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; DeNeale, Scott T [ORNL; Yeasmin, Dilruba [California State University, Fresno; Pasha, M. Fayzul K. [California State University, Fresno; Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

    2014-04-01

    The rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets related to topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics in the past decade have provided new opportunities for the refinement of hydropower resource potential from undeveloped stream-reaches. Through 2011 to 2013, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program to evaluate the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential for more than 3 million US streams. A methodology was designed that contains three main components: (1) identification of stream-reaches with high energy density, (2) topographical analysis of stream-reaches to estimate inundated surface area and reservoir storage, and (3) environmental attribution to spatially join information related to the natural ecological systems, social and cultural settings, policies, management, and legal constraints to stream-reaches of energy potential. An initial report on methodology (Hadjerioua et al., 2013) was later reviewed and revised based on the comments gathered from two peer review workshops. After implementing the assessment across the entire United States, major findings were summarized in this final report. The estimated NSD capacity and generation, including both higher-energy-density (>1 MW per reach) and lower-energy-density (<1 MW per reach) stream-reaches is 84.7 GW, around the same size as the existing US conventional hydropower nameplate capacity (79.5 GW; NHAAP, 2013). In terms of energy, the total undeveloped NSD generation is estimated to be 460 TWh/year, around 169% of average 2002 2011 net annual generation from existing conventional hydropower plants (272 TWh/year; EIA, 2013). Given the run-of-river assumption, NSD stream-reaches have higher capacity factors (53 71%), especially compared with conventional larger-storage peaking-operation projects that usually have capacity factors of around 30%. The highest potential is identified in the Pacific Northwest

  16. A United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-14): What Difference Will It Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Ingrid; Tilbury, Daniella

    2009-01-01

    The launch of the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) (2005-2014) was accompanied by a series of high-profile events and celebratory activities across the globe, which raised awareness about the Decade's objectives. Now, as the DESD approaches its mid-term, many stakeholders are asking these questions: What will…

  17. "Organizational Development Training in the Unitized, Differentiated Staffing, Elementary School." DSP Progress Report No. 2: Organizational Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Richard I.; Essig, Don M.

    This report is the second in a series describing the background, theory, and progress of the Differentiated Staffing Project in the Eugene, Oregon, School District. The report discusses the Organizational Development Training Program, its rationale, its activities, and its relationship to the Unitized Project. It describes the main ideas of OD…

  18. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOTOTHERMAL DETOXIFICATION UNIT - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GROUP - UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Dayton Research Institute has developed a novel photochemical process embodied in a device called a Photothermal Detoxification Unit (PDU) which offers an efficient means of destroying hazardous organic wastes. The PDU, which overcomes the problems of slow react...

  19. Developing Authentic Online Problem-Based Learning Case Scenarios for Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Mike; McCall, Steve; Hinton, Danielle; Weston, Annette

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the development of online problem-based learning case scenarios for use in a distance education program for teachers of students with visual impairments in the United Kingdom. Following participation in two case scenarios, a cohort of teachers provided feedback. This feedback was analyzed in relation to the relevant…

  20. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  1. Professionalisation as development and as regulation: Adult education in Germany, the United Kingdom and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Lesley; Egetenmeyer, Regina; Singai, Chetan; Devi, Uma

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the authors seek to disentangle what they see as contradictory uses of the term "professionalisation" with reference to adult educator development and training (AEDT). They set out to distinguish professionalisation from professionalism, and to identify the locus of control of AEDT in Germany, the UK and India. In these three countries, all of which have a long tradition of adult education, "professionalisation" and "professionalism" are used interchangeably to describe conflicting purposes. The authors aim to identify and critically explore the organisations and policies which control and support AEDT in their own countries using American sociologist Eliot Freidson's "third logic" model, and drawing on his juxtaposition of "professions", "the market" and "bureaucracy". Applying Freidson's models to the organisations highlights the role of bureaucracy and that where adult education is concerned, national governments, the European Union and aid organisations not only serve bureaucracy but also support the market rather than operating separately from it. While the term "professionalisation" continues to be used to mean professional development, either by adult educators and representative organisations (as in the UK) or by organisations acting on their behalf (as in Germany and India), it is also used to denote regulation and standardisation issuing from bureaucratic institutions and adult education provider organisations in the interests of the market. The authors suggest that Freidson's model provides a useful tool for adult educators in other countries to reflect on their professional position and to engage in the development of their own professional standards, both in their own interests and in the interests of those they educate.

  2. A pressure ulcer and fall rate quality composite index for acute care units: A measure development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Diane K; Jayawardhana, Ananda; Burman, Mary E; Dunton, Nancy E; Staggs, Vincent S; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron J

    2016-11-01

    Composite indices are single measures that combine the strengths of two or more individual measures and provide broader, easy-to-use measures for evaluation of provider performance and comparisons across units and hospitals to support quality improvement. The study objective was to develop a unit-level inpatient composite nursing care quality performance index-the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index. Two-phase measure development study. 5144 patient care units in 857 United States hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indictors(®) during the year 2013. The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index was developed in two phases. In Phase 1 the formula was generated using a utility function and generalized penalty analysis. Experts with experience in healthcare quality measurement provided the point of indicator equivalence. In Phase 2 initial validity evidence was gathered based on hypothesized relationships between the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index and other variables using two-level (unit, hospital) hierarchical linear mixed modeling. The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index=100-PUR-FR, where PUR is pressure ulcer rate and FR is total fall rate. Higher scores indicate better quality. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between pairs of experts and provided evidence for inter-rater reliability of the formula. The validation process demonstrated that higher registered nurse skill mix, higher percent of registered nurses with a baccalaureate in nursing or higher degree, higher percent of registered nurses with national specialty certification, and lower percent of hours supplied by agency staff were significantly associated with higher Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index scores. Higher percentages of unit patients at risk for a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and higher unit rates of physical restraint use were not associated with higher Pressure

  3. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  4. 中国旅游资源开发可持续发展研究及建议%Research on Sustainable Development of China's Tourism Resources and the Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晔

    2012-01-01

    Based on the summarization of the previous research results of China' s tourism resources, this paper focuses on development and protection of tourism resources, starts from the analysis of five reasons of affecting sustainable development of China's tourism resources and puts forward some feasible suggestions from aspects, such as development model of tourism resources, excavation of cultural connotation, establishment of sustainable development system, "artificialization, commercialization and urbanization" of travel service etc., under the support of the concept of sustainable development of Domestic and international tourism resources, so as to promote sustainable development of China's tourism industry.%本文在总结我国旅游资源研究已有成果的基础上,以旅游资源开发和保护为着眼点,从分析影响我国旅游资源开发可持续发展五个原因入手,在国内外旅游资源可持续开发理念的支持下,从旅游资源开发模式、文化内涵的挖掘、可持续发展体系的建立、旅游服务“三化”等方面提出了可行性建议,以期对我国旅游业的可持续发展有所促进.

  5. Energy, economic and urban impacts of United States postindustrial development: A critique of the postindustrial paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykoff, Rebecca J.

    Postindustrial theory has become the mainstream model of social progress in the Western world during the latter half of the twentieth century. It is a technoeconomic vision of change which argues that society is transforming from the industrial order to new social forms and functions that are anchored in services and information rather than materials and manufacturing. Observable shifts cited as evidence of postindustrialization include the movement from blue-collar to white-collar occupations, the increasing scale of economic activities, and the widespread adoption of electricity-based technology. This dissertation identifies three primary principles which define postindustrial theory: abundance, or expanding wealth and productivity; technological and economic efficiency; and adaptation to technological and economic forces. In the United States, postindustrialism has been challenged by the national urban crisis of the 1960s and the energy crises of the 1970s. The apparent contradictions to social well-being prompted a theoretical reconceptualization which defined the "crises" as "transition costs." Empirical implications are defined and appropriate indicators identified to assess the validity of postindustrialism as an explanation of current phenomena and a guide for future development. The time frame for the analysis is 1967--1997, which encompasses the culmination of post-World War II growth, the periods of crisis, and present manifestations. It is concluded that postindustrial theory is less an explanation of contemporary social change than a presumption that change is progressive. The period of "transition" is critically examined as one in which rapid increases in inequality, decreases in social health and growth in trends of unsustainable resource use occur. The future orientation of postindustrialism, and its appeal to aggregate trends as evidence of progress, ignores the existence of problems experienced by a majority of Americans and mounting threats to

  6. Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units. Final report; Udvikling af integrerede DMFC og PEM braendselscelle enheder. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odgaard, M. (IRD Fuel Cell Technology, Svendborg (DK))

    2007-06-15

    The 36-month long project 'Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units' has been completed. The project goal was to develop a completely new MEA concept for integrated PEM and DMFC unit cells with enhanced power density and in this way obtain a price reduction. The integrated unit cell consists of a MEA, a gas diffusion layer with flow fields completed with bipolar plates and seals. The main focus of the present project was to: 1) Develop new catalyst materials fabricated by the use of FSD (flame spray deposition method). 2) Optimisation of the state-of-the-art MEA materials and electrode structure. 3) Implementation of a model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM fuel cells. Results and progress obtained in the project established that the individual unit cell components were able to meet and follow the road map of LT-PEM FC regarding electrode catalyst loading and fulfilled the targets for Year 2006. The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: 1) MEA structure knowledge acquired in the project provide a sound basis for further progress. 2) A novel method for the synthesis of electrode by using flame spray synthesis was explored. 3) Electrochemical and catalytic behaviours of catalysts activity for CH{sub 3}OH explored. 4) Implementation of a sub model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM FC has been developed. 5) Numerical study of the flow distribution in FC manifolds was developed and completed with experimental data. 6) The electrode catalyst loading targets for year 2006 achieved. 7) The DMFC MEA performance has been improved by 35%. 8) Optimisation of the MEAs fabrication process has been successfully developed. 9) A new simple flow field design has been designed. 10) A procedure for integrated seals has been developed (au)

  7. Development of topographic asymmetry: Insights from dated cinder cones in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Luke A.; Pelletier, Jon D.; Roering, Joshua J.

    2014-08-01

    Topographic asymmetry, that is, differences in the morphology of landscapes as a function of slope aspect, can be used to infer ecohydrogeomorphic feedback relationships. In this study, we document the dependence of topographic gradients and drainage densities on slope aspect and time/age in four Quaternary cinder cone fields in Arizona, Oregon, and California. Cinder cones are particularly useful as natural experiments in geomorphic evolution because they begin their evolution at a known time in the past (many have been radiometrically dated) and because they often have simple, well-constrained initial morphologies. North-facing portions of cinder cones have steeper topographic gradients and higher mean vegetation cover (i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, values) under current climatic conditions compared with corresponding south-facing portions of cones within each volcanic field. Drainage density is also higher on north-facing portions of cones in three of the four volcanic fields. These differences in topography were not present initially but developed progressively over time, indicating that the asymmetry is a result of post-eruption geomorphic processes. To test alternative hypotheses for the slope-aspect control of topography, we developed a numerical model for cinder cone evolution and a methodology for estimating local paleovegetation cover as a function of elevation, slope aspect, and time within the Quaternary. The numerical model results demonstrate that rates of colluvial transport were higher on south-facing hillslopes in at least three of the four cinder cones fields. Our paleovegetation analysis suggests that in the two Arizona volcanic fields we studied, higher rates of colluvial transport on south-facing hillslopes were the result of greater time-averaged vegetation cover and hence higher rates of sediment transport by floral bioturbation. Our results illustrate the profound impact that relatively small variations in solar

  8. The experience in the Cernavoda Unit 1 operation - a stimulating argument for future nuclear power development in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, I. [S.N. Nuclearelectrica, S.A., Romanian Nuclear Power Company (Romania); Bucur, I. [CNE - PROD, Cernavoda Unit 1 (Romania); Galeriu, A.C. [FCN, Pitesti, Nuclear Fuel Plant (Romania); Budan, O. [S.N. Nuclearelectrica, S.A., Romanian Nuclear Power Company (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    The Romanian nuclear program has been developed based on the option for CANDU type reactors. At the beginning, this program was unrealistically conceived and its management was inappropriate. The program was reconsidered in 1990 and the management policy and organization structure were also adapted accordingly. The paper presents, in the first part, the actual organization structure, adapted for the execution of the current and future activities, related to the nuclear power program. The performance achieved by Cernavoda Unit 1 constitutes the main part of the paper. The performances described demonstrate that the Cernavoda Unit 1 is a success and the Romania's electricity needs are satisfied in a proportion of about 12% by the nuclear power. The paper also presents a general view on Cernavoda Unit 2 perspectives. The essential conclusion of the paper is that the continuation of the nuclear program appears to be a logical option, generally accepted in Romania, limited only by financial restraints. (author)

  9. Development of Electrode Units for Electrokinetic Desalination of Masonry and Pilot Scale Test at Three locations for Removal of Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Skibsted, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Electrode units for electrokinetic desalination of masonry has been developed and tested in pilot scale at three different locations. The units are formed as casings with a metallic mesh electrode, and carbonate rich clay to buffer the acid produced at the anode. The case has an extra loose bottom...... which allows continuous pressure between clay and masonry so good electrical contact is remained. The electrode units were tested at three different locations, two on baked brick masonry (inside in a heated room and outside on a masonry with severe plaster peeling) and the third pilot scale experiment...... was conducted outside on a limestone masonry. The duration of the experiments was 4-8 month. Chloride concentrations were measured in drilling powder from the masonry before and after experiments. In all three masonries, the average concentrations decreased. The transport numbers for chloride was between 0...

  10. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

  11. Science, Technology and Innovation for Achieving United Nations Millennium Development Goals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In September 2000, 147 heads of State and Government, and 189 nations intotal,committed themselves by year 2015 to roduce significantly global poverty and the related problems of illiteracy,hunger,discrimination against women, unsafe drinking water,and degraded environments and ecosystems,through the United Nations Millennium Declaration[A/RES/55/2].

  12. Development and the Urban and Rural Geography of Mexican Emigration to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Villarreal, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Past research on international migration from Mexico to the United States uses geographically-limited data and analyzes emigrant-sending communities in isolation. Theories supported by this research may not explain urban emigration, and this research does not consider connections between rural and urban Mexico. In this study we use national data…

  13. Renewables-Friendly Grid Development Strategies. Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with "renewables-friendly"" grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  14. Using domain specific languages to improve the development of a power control unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the design of a power control unit at Philips, two Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) have been used. The first DSL provides a concise and readable notation for the essential state transitions. It is used to generate both configuration files and analysis models. In addition, we also generat

  15. Ethnic Identity Development in Schools among First Generation Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Erkan; Yigit, Mehmet Fatih; Aslan, Dolgun

    2016-01-01

    Today, Americans are increasingly concerned about the matter of immigration in the United States. A growing number believe that immigrants are a burden to the country, taking jobs and housing and creating strains on the health care system. Many Americans are also worried about the cultural impact of the expanding number of newcomers to the U.S.…

  16. Water safety and spatial development: An institutional comparison between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, M.; Mastenbroek, E.; Meijerink, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands and the United Kingdom are known for their different traditions of river flood risk management, which is reflected in their respective institutional frameworks. Whereas the Dutch have focused almost exclusively on reducing the probability of flooding by defining high safety standards

  17. A Journey. A Unit to Develop Self-Awareness Through a Fine Arts Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitchelo, Jack; Hickens, Carole

    Designed for elementary school students, the unit presents five brief sessions for teaching an historical event using a fine arts approach. By incorporating dance, drama, art, and music into the study of historical events, students heighten their awareness of themselves and of the characters in history. In session 1, students reenact and discuss…

  18. Development of Test Unit for Production of Oxygen by a Regenerative Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-05-31

    inspect the unit so it was decided to cancel the plans for building the two more casos . Dec. 19W - Feb. 19»5 On December 26, 194*, I reached the Ü. S...again, another crude experiment, was carried out to determine how the humidity of the oxygen which was produced compared with cylinder oxygen. The

  19. Human Resource Development through Vocational Education in the United Arab Emirates: The Case of Dubai Polytechnic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Data from Dubai Polytechnic and United Arab Emirates government sources indicate that postsecondary private-sector vocational education plays a significant role in the government policy of increasing the proportion of native workers in the labor force. However, private colleges and universities have been hindered by political and economic…

  20. A Statement on the Philosophy, Development, and Adoption of the Continuing Education Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William L.

    The CEU (continuing education unit) appears to be fulfilling a long term need of the individual learner, the college and university, the professional society, the licensing board, the accrediting organization, the employer, and many other groups. It was established by a national task force from the National University Extension Association…

  1. Efficiency Analysis of Basic Health Units: A Comparison of Developed and Deprived Regions in Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Razzaq

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to measure the efficiency of primary health care units completed in health sector of rural Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK and to compare it across developed and deprived regions.Operational efficiency and beneficiary efficiency of a total of 32 Basic Health Units (BHUs were measured through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA by using different input and output variables. Independent sample T-test was applied to compare these efficiencies across developed and deprived regions.The study could find no significant difference of operational efficiency across developed and deprived regions, however a significant difference was found across regions from beneficiary perspective (P= 0.044.The study concludes that BHUs of deprived region are more efficient from beneficiary perspective, however there is no significant difference of operational efficiency across the regions.

  2. Analysis of the Main Indicators of Socio-Economic Development of the Kharkiv Region and its Administrative-Territorial Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication conducts an analysis of the socio-economic development of the Kharkiv region and its administrative-territorial units. The Kharkiv region has a fairly strong economic potential and demonstrates a high level of socioeconomic development. Along with this, asymmetries in the development of administrative-territorial units of the Kharkov region do not decrease, the constant reallocation of resources from the more economically self-sufficient territories in the region towards the less self-sufficient leads to internal regional tensions and deprives the administrative-territorial units of incentives to economic growth. Establishment of an effective system of organization and management of socio-economic development at the local level in Ukraine remains one of the priority tasks for implementing structural reforms. One of the main directions in addressing the interregional differentiation and overcoming problems of regional development in Ukraine is modernization of both administrative-territorial organization and local self-government bodies, through the implementation of the decentralization reform

  3. Development of a thermal scheme for a cogeneration combined-cycle unit with an SVBR-100 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Dudolin, A. A.; Krasheninnikov, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    At present, the prospects for development of district heating that can increase the effectiveness of nuclear power stations (NPS), cut down their payback period, and improve protection of the environment against harmful emissions are being examined in the nuclear power industry of Russia. It is noted that the efficiency of nuclear cogeneration power stations (NCPS) is drastically affected by the expenses for heat networks and heat losses during transportation of a heat carrier through them, since NPSs are usually located far away from urban area boundaries as required for radiation safety of the population. The prospects for using cogeneration power units with small or medium power reactors at NPSs, including combined-cycle units and their performance indices, are described. The developed thermal scheme of a cogeneration combined-cycle unit (CCU) with an SBVR-100 nuclear reactor (NCCU) is presented. This NCCU should use a GE 6FA gasturbine unit (GTU) and a steam-turbine unit (STU) with a two-stage district heating plant. Saturated steam from the nuclear reactor is superheated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) to 560-580°C so that a separator-superheater can be excluded from the thermal cycle of the turbine unit. In addition, supplemental fuel firing in HRSG is examined. NCCU effectiveness indices are given as a function of the ambient air temperature. Results of calculations of the thermal cycle performance under condensing operating conditions indicate that the gross electric efficiency η el NCCU gr of = 48% and N el NCCU gr = 345 MW can be achieved. This efficiency is at maximum for NCCU with an SVBR-100 reactor. The conclusion is made that the cost of NCCU installed kW should be estimated, and the issue associated with NCCUs siting with reference to urban area boundaries must be solved.

  4. Development of a new toxic-unit model for the bioassessment of metals in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.S.; Clements, W.H.; Mitchell, K.A.; Church, S.E.; Wanty, R.B.; Fey, D.L.; Verplanck, P.L.; San, Juan C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Two toxic-unit models that estimate the toxicity of trace-metal mixtures to benthic communities were compared. The chronic criterion accumulation ratio (CCAR), a modification of biotic ligand model (BLM) outputs for use as a toxic-unit model, accounts for the modifying and competitive influences of major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, H+), anions (HCO3−, CO32−,SO42−, Cl−, S2−) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in determining the free metal ion available for accumulation on the biotic ligand. The cumulative criterion unit (CCU) model, an empirical statistical model of trace-metal toxicity, considers only the ameliorative properties of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (hardness) in determining the toxicity of total dissolved trace metals. Differences in the contribution of a metal (e.g., Cu, Cd, Zn) to toxic units as determined by CCAR or CCU were observed and attributed to how each model incorporates the influences of DOC, pH, and alkalinity. Akaike information criteria demonstrate that CCAR is an improved predictor of benthic macroinvertebrate community metrics as compared with CCU. Piecewise models depict great declines (thresholds) in benthic macroinvertebrate communities at CCAR of 1 or more, while negative changes in benthic communities were detected at a CCAR of less than 1. We observed a 7% reduction in total taxa richness and a 43% decrease in Heptageniid abundance between background (CCAR = 0.1) and the threshold of chronic toxicity on the basis of continuous chronic criteria (CCAR = 1). In this first application of the BLM as a toxic-unit model, we found it superior to CCU.

  5. 大数据时代下组织机构代码未来发展趋势及建议探讨%Development Trend and Suggestion on Organization Code in Big Date Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘柯颖

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid development of big data brings a technological revolution. This paper deeply analyzes that the organization code has become a significant part of “big data” of our national macroeconomic management for its own features, elaborates the application status and development suggestion of organization code with the requirement of big data era.%近年来,大数据发展迅速,带来颠覆性的技术革命。本文深入分析了组织机构代码因自身的几点特性成为我国宏观管理“大数据”的重要组成部分,阐述了在大数据时代的要求下,组织机构代码的应用现状和发展建议。

  6. Problems and Suggestions on the Development of Tea-oil Tree Industry in Ji'an City%吉安市油茶产业发展存在的问题与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎志强

    2014-01-01

    发展油茶产业对于促进全市社会主义新农村建设、构建资源节约型和环境友好型社会、建设生态文明具有十分重要的意义。就油茶产业发展存在的问题进行分析,并提出解决办法及发展建议。%Developing the tea-oil tree industry has very important significance for Ji'an city to building new socialist countryside, building a resource conserving and environment friendly society, building the ecological civilization. This article analyzes the existing problems of the development of tea-oil tree industry in Ji'an city, then puts forward the solutions and development suggestions.

  7. 产业链视角下我国绿色农业发展现况及对策%Status and Suggestions of Green Agriculture Development from Perspective of Industrial Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱绪荣; 邓宛竹; 施政

    2012-01-01

    As a new model of modern agricultural development,China green agriculture is in the initial stage.Under the guidance of industrial chain,governments,enterprises,farmers' cooperative organizations,farmers and consumers are the main participants of green agriculture chain.All participants need cooperate with each other to develop green agriculture.From the perspective of industry chain,this article discussed about the current development status,problems of green agriculture in China,and raised the relative policy support suggestions to improve green agriculture development.%绿色农业作为一种现代农业发展的新模式,在我国的发展仍处于起步阶段。绿色农业的发展需要在产业链理念的指导下,政府、企业、农民合作组织、农户以及消费者等主体共同参与。本文从产业链角度分析了我国绿色农业的发展现状,深入探讨了当前绿色农业产业发展面临的一些问题,提出了加强绿色农业产业发展的对策建议。

  8. 中国村镇银行可持续发展存在的问题与对策%The problems and suggestions of sustainable development of rural banks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康微婧

    2015-01-01

    村镇银行作为新型农村金融机构的主力军,高效解决了中国社会主义新农村建设中存在的“三农”问题。因此,通过研究中国村镇银行的发展现状、存在的问题,进而借鉴孟加拉、印度、拉丁美洲和美国微小金融机构经验,从而为中国村镇银行持续发展寻求新的出路。%Rural banks, as the main force of the new rural financial institution, effectively solved the problems of agriculture, rural areas and farmers in the new rural construction in China to a large extent. Through the study of the current situation of rural banks in china, the internal and external problems, the application of advanced international experience of small financial institutions from Bangladesh, India, Latin America and the United States, this paper is going to explore some ways for the sustainable development of the rural banks in China.

  9. The Impact of United States Investment for Civil Infrastructure in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    training, service, or technical advice , any item of real, personal, or mixed property, any agriculture commodity, United States dollar, and any...from Britain in 1981 (CIA: The World Factbook, 2014). Classified as a parliamentary 27 democracy, the government of Belize consists of three...monarchy exists in addition to the parliamentary democracy, Queen Elizabeth II holds the title of Head of State and she appoints a Governor-General to

  10. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  11. Dental age estimation utilizing third molar development: A review of principles, methods, and population studies used in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James M; Senn, David R

    2010-09-10

    When an individual reaches the age of legal majority, their treatment within the criminal and civil legal systems is changed dramatically in the United States. Forensic odontologists are often asked to assist government agencies in estimating the ages of persons who may or may not have reached that legally important age. The third molars are the only teeth useful as forensic estimators of chronological age in the target age group. This study reviews the principles, methodology, and population data of the most commonly used technique in the United States, the analysis of the third molar development based on modified Demirjian staging. The method analyzes the developing third molar to estimate mean age, age intervals and the empirical probability that an individual has reached the anniversary of her or his eighteenth birthday.

  12. Development and validation of the Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese College Students in the United States (ASSCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru

    2016-04-01

    Chinese students are the biggest ethnic group of international students in the United States. This study aims to develop a reliable and valid scale to accurately measure their acculturative stress. A 72-item pool was sent online to Chinese students and a five-factor scale of 32 items was generated by exploratory factor analysis. The five factors included language insufficiency, social isolation, perceived discrimination, academic pressure, and guilt toward family. The Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese Students demonstrated high reliability and initial validity by predicting depression and life satisfaction. It was the first Chinese scale of acculturative stress developed and validated among a Chinese student sample in the United States. In the future, the scale can be used as a diagnostic tool by mental health professionals and a self-assessment tool by Chinese students. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. THE FINANCING OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE TERRITORIAL UNITS IN THE WEST DEVELOPMENT REGION THROUGH THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME 2007 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Nicolae-Eugen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to be found methods to increase the competitiveness between the Romanian administrative-territorial units, under the current conditions of the economic crisis, by means of the existing economic levers successfully used within the European Union regions. The development regions of Romania do not have the statute of administrative units, but they represent territorial units large enough to constitute a good basis for the elaboration and implementation of regional development strategies, allowing an efficient use of the financial and human resources. The scope for which these development regions were created had in view the support granted for the larger communities in their action to settle the problems which go beyond the administrative borders and which surpass the financial possibilities of one county. In Romania, the communes, towns, municipalities and counties are defined as administrative-territorial units within which the local autonomy is exercised and the authorities of the local public administration are organized and operate. The local, communal, town, municipality and county councils, as deliberative authorities, and also the mayors and the presidents of county councils as executive authorities have the duties to solve the public matters of the community, acting as authorities of the Romanian public administration. In Romania, the local autonomy is only administrative and financial, having as objective the organization, operation, competencies and tasks, and also the management of the inland resources. The principle of the local financial autonomy implies the fact that the administrative-territorial units have the right to financial resources, which can be used by the authorities of the local public administration when exercising their tasks. According to the Law of the local public finances, the local budget incomes could be made also of the non-reimbursable funds granted by the European Union. Based on the

  14. Analysis and Suggestions for the Development of Green Mining Industry in China%我国绿色矿业发展现状分析及对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相洪波

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the current situation and problems of the development of green mining industry in China, and found that: there’s a lack of overall planning; the supporting policies for the development of green mining industry are not perfect; also there’s the lack of special funds; mostly are small and medium sized mines, and operating in an extensive way; yet the development of green mining industry don’t show good economic impact on enterprises; there is a high cost of government regulation. We also promote some suggestions for the development of green mining industry in China: ifrstly, to strengthen the overall plan of green mining industry development; secondly, supporting the implementation of policies, including increased funding on green mining development and the implementation of preferential tax and land policies; thirdly, to convert the development model of green mining industry, and change the business model correspondingly; fourthly, to enhance scientiifc and technological innovation, and optimize the mining industry structure; iffthly, to play a main role of the enterprise in market economy; sixthly, to strengthen the coordination and supporting role of non-proift social organizations in the development.%我国绿色矿业发展现状及问题:缺乏总体规划,发展绿色矿业的配套政策尚未完善,缺少专项资金,中小型矿山居多,且经营粗放,发展绿色矿业尚未对矿山企业经济利好,政府监管成本过高。我国绿色矿业发展的对策建议:(1)加强绿色矿业发展总体规划;(2)落实配套政策,包括加大绿色矿业发展的资金扶持力度,落实缴税优惠和用地优惠政策;(3)转变矿业发展模式,改变矿业经营模式;(4)提升科技创新,优化矿业产业结构;(5)发挥企业市场主体作用;(6)加强非盈利性社会团体组织协调支撑作用。

  15. 休闲农业旅游产品开发模式创新研究%LEISURE AGRICULTURE TOURISM PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT MODEL——SUGGESTIONS ON PRODUCT BEVELOPMENT FOR LUOYANG CHINESE GINKGO CARNIVAL TOURISM SPOT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜文华

    2015-01-01

    products,to package tourist tourism experience,to compose products for tourists traveling. Taking the Luoyang Chinese ginkgo carnival tourism spot as the empirical research case,this paper showed the use of the new model,put forward some suggestions on optimizing product development from mac-ro,micro and middle level. At last,it concluded that the new model was useful for not only providing new thinking and new lessons for reference of developing leisure agriculture tourism product,but also making evaluation index system of leisure agriculture tourism product development.

  16. Development and field tests of a damping controller to mitigate electromechanical oscillations on large diesel generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Fabricio G.; Barreiros, Jose A.L.; Barra, Walter Jr.; Costa, Carlos T. Jr. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Instituto de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica, Campus Universitario do Guama, CEP: 66075-900, Belem (Brazil); Ferreira, Andre M.D. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Campus Belem, Departamento de Controle e Processos Industriais, Av. Almirante Barroso, 1155 (Marco), CEP: 66093-020, Belem (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the development and field tests of a digital damping controller designed to mitigate intra-plant electromechanical oscillations via the speed governor system of fast acting units. The controller performance is assessed on an 18-MVA diesel generating unit, at Santana Power Plant (Amapa State, Amazon Region at Northern Brazil). In order to design the damping control law, a set of parametric ARX models representing the plant dynamics at several load conditions, are previously identified from data collected on field tests. The damping controller gains are calculated by using the identified ARX models parameters as inputs to a discrete-time pole-placement design method (pole-shifting) and then embedded on a DSP based microcontroller digital system, for field tests assessment. The digital damping controller modulates the diesel engine inlet valve position according to the observed oscillation on the measured electric power, using a PWM device, which is specially developed to this application. The experimental results shown the good performance of the developed controller on damping efficiently the electromechanical oscillations observed between generating units at Santana Power Plant. (author)

  17. Development of hydraulic power unit and accumulator charging circuit for electricity generation, storage and distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.N.Okoye; JIANG Ji-hai; LIU Hai-chang

    2008-01-01

    It is the purpose of the present paper to convert hydraulic energy to electric energy and saves both the pressure and electrical energy for re - use during the next system upstroke using two secondary units coupled to induction motor to drive cylinder loads. During upstroke operation, the variable pump/motor (P/M) driven by both electric motor and the second (P/M) works as hydraulic pump and output flow to the cylinders which drive the load. During load deceleration, the cylinders work as pump while the operation of the two secondary units are reversed, the variable (P/M) works as a motor generating a torque with the electric motor to drive the other(P/M) which transforms mechanical energy to hydraulic energy that is saved in the accumulator. When the en-ergy storage capacity of the accumulator is attained as the operation continues, energy storage to the accumulator is thermostatically stopped while the induction motor begins to work as a generator and generates electricity that is stored in the power distribution unit. Simulations were performed using a limited PT2 Block, I.e. 2nd-ordertransfer function with limitation of slope and signal output to determine suitable velocity of the cylinder which will match high performance and system stability. A mathematical model suited to the simulation of the hydrau-lic accumulator both in an open-or close-loop system is presented. The quest for improvement of lower energy capacity storage, saving and re-utilization of the conventional accumulator resulting in the short cycle time usage of hydraulic accumulators both in domestic and industrial purposes necessitates this research. The outcome of the research appears to be very efficient for generating fluctuation free electricity, power quality and reliability, energy saving/reutilization and system noise reduction.

  18. United Nations principles on remote sensing - Report on developments, 1970-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossinghoff, G. J.; Fuqua, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) to reach a consensus on legal principles governing the international use of remote sensing of the earth from space. The proceedings of the Working Group from 1971 to 1974 and the Legal Subcommittee from 1973 to 1980 are presented. Though the Committee has reached agreement on certain points, some key questions remain unresolved relative to dissemination of data and to the need for or method of classifying remote sensing data based on spatial resolution. An appendix of texts and draft principles worked out by COPUOS is also presented.

  19. A critical examination of developments in nursing doctoral education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaké Ketefian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Graduate nursing education in the United States is undergoing major transformations, as a result of factors both within nursing and in the larger society.OBJECTIVE: In this paper the authors examine the trends and factors that are influencing the changes, especially in doctoral education, for both nurse scientist and advanced practice preparation.CONCLUSION: The paper provides a background that serves as context, it gives an overview of the PhD and the DNP degrees, focusing on the recent changes and identifying the most compelling issues and concerns, ending with a series of recommendations.

  20. THE METHODOLOGY OF DEVELOPING VALUE INDICATORS TO INTEGRALLY ASSESS RESOURCE POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TIMOFTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of increasing the economic efficiency of resource use in agricultural production is very important. Its solution directly depends on the economic security of the country and its constant supply with agricultural products.There are three basic factors in agricultural production: nature (land, labour and capital, which have differentmeasure units. Comparability is necessary to express the value of the integral potential that gives the possibility totake into account the main resources involved in producing and obtaining results from the agricultural sector.

  1. Subjects of Agricultural Products Supply Chain and Development Suggestions Oriented by Benefit Demand%以利益诉求为导向的农产品供应链主体与发展建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静

    2012-01-01

    总结了农产品供应链的主体,包括农户和农业合作社、农产品加工企业和经销商、农产品超市、消费者、政府等,并提出发展建议,以期促进农产品供应链的发展完善。%The subjects of agricultural products supply chain were summarized,including farmers and agricultural cooperatives,agricultural products processing enterprises and dealers,agricultural products supermarkets,consumers,government,etc.,and the suggestions were put forward,so as to to promote the development and perfection of agricultural products supply chain.

  2. Suggestions for Domestic Biogas Development in Rural China Based on SWOT Analysis%基于SWOT分析的中国农村家庭沼气发展对策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丕东; 欧国武

    2012-01-01

    SWOT framework was adopted to analyse the issues of domestic biogas development in rural China.The main issues included technical improvement,maintenance and finance management,and labour shortage and suggestions were proposed to address the issues.%运用SWOT分析框架对中国农村家用沼气发展的优势、劣势、机遇及挑战进行了系统的文献梳理,讨论了目前中国农村沼气发展在后续服务及管理、资金保障和农村劳动力供给等方面存在的问题,并提出了相应的对策建议.

  3. Analysis And Suggestions Of Shanghai Low Carbon Development Practice Area Construction%上海市低碳发展实践区建设情况分析及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华晋

    2015-01-01

    文章对上海市低碳发展实践区试点工作的工作概况和建设成效进行了总结,同时结合首批实践区试点的中期评价情况,对各实践区的建设进展进行分析,并提出了下一步的工作建议。%This article summarized general situation and construction effectiveness of Shanghai low carbon development practice area pilot work and combined with interim evaluation of the first batch practice area pilot. It analyzed construction progress of each practice area and put forward the next step work suggestions.

  4. 替代喷气燃料的进展及在我国发展的建议%PROGRESS IN ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR AVIATION AND SUGGESTIONS OF ITS DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶志平

    2011-01-01

    随着世界经济的发展,对喷气燃料的需求不断增长,然而航空工业面临全球原油资源下降和减少温室气体排放的双重压力.针对减少温室气体碳排放的问题,评述目前国际上煤液化喷气燃料、气体合成喷气燃料和生物质喷气燃料三种替代喷气燃料的原料来源、工艺技术和标准规格最新发展.针对我国航空工业对喷气燃料的需求,提出我国替代喷气燃料发展战略的思考及建议.%With the rapid development of world economy, the demand of jet fuel is increasing heavily.However,the global aviation industry is facing the challenges of declining in crude oil resources and forcing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.Thus,the development of alternative fuels for aviation is urged since it could increase jet fuel resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in some ways.In thi s paper three types of current international alternative fuels for aviation,including coal to liquids(CTL)jet fuel,gas to liquids (GTL) jet fuel and bio-jet fuel (BTL) are reviewed from the aspects of material sources,process technologies,standard specifications and latest developments.Some suggestions for the strategies of developing alternative jet fuel in China are proposed based on considering the progress in domestic aviation industry,the increasing demands of jet fuel and environmental protection.

  5. An Alternative Theoretical Model: Examining Psychosocial Identity Development of International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the plethora of college student identity development research, very little attention has been paid to the identity formation of international students. Rather than adopting existing identity theories in college student development, this exploratory qualitative study proposes a new psychosocial identity development model for international…

  6. Douglas United Nuclear, Inc. report to the Working Committee of the Fuel Element Development Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringer, J.T.

    1966-05-04

    This document provides the report to the working committee of the fuel element development committee for small and K reactor production fuels. Topics discussed are: Uranium core production data; uranium specification; future planning -- five year R&D program; thoria development; heat treating; UO{sub 2} irradiation; and alternate process development.

  7. Estimating the employment and earnings costs of mental illness: recent developments in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, D E; Wilcox-Gök, V

    2001-07-01

    Substantial attention has recently been focused on both the prevalence and consequences of mental illness. Generally, public interest in the costs of mental illness has been limited to the direct costs of treating the mentally ill. In this paper, we consider the magnitude and importance of a major component of the indirect costs of mental illness: employment and earnings losses. We first describe the technical difficulties involved in estimating these costs. We then describe new data and recent advances in the United States that have improved our ability to make such estimates. Our conclusions from the recent research are that each year in the United States 5-6 million workers between the ages of 16 and 54 lose, fail to seek, or cannot find employment as a consequence of mental illness. Among those who do work, we estimate that mental illness decreases annual income by an amount between $3,500 and $6,000. We then discuss an emerging challenge to the traditional method for arriving at such estimates: the friction cost approach. We describe both the conceptual and technical differences between the friction cost method and the traditional human capital approach. We conclude that while economic context has much to do with whether one relies on human capital or friction cost estimates, each can offer useful information about labor market losses due to mental illness.

  8. Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas in the United Kingdom: Lessons from the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadoo, Annabel, E-mail: aly21@cam.ac.uk [Centre for Sustainable Development, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Gormally, Alexandra [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Cruickshank, Heather [Centre for Sustainable Development, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas is becoming increasingly popular in the United Kingdom. However, many developing countries have been electrifying their rural areas in this way for decades. Case study fieldwork in Nepal and findings from United Kingdom based research will be used to examine how developed nations can learn from the experience of developing countries with regard to the institutional environment and delivery approach adopted in renewable energy off-grid rural electrification. A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance during project development are advised. External coordinators should also engage the community in a mobilization process a priori to help alleviate internal conflicts of interest that could later impede a project. - Highlights: > Development of community renewable energy projects in the UK is commended. > The UK can benefit from the experience of successful programmes in Nepal. > A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance is required. > External coordinators should engage the community in a mobilization process.

  9. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, B; Hamadani, J D; Ahmed, T; Tofail, F; Rahman, A; Huda, S N; Grantham-McGregor, S M

    2009-06-01

    Young children with severe malnutrition usually have poor mental development. Psychosocial stimulation may reduce their cognitive deficit, but it is not usually provided. The aim of the study was to incorporate stimulation into the routine treatment of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit and evaluate the impact on their growth and development. Time-lagged controlled study. Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) in ICDDR,B Dhaka Hospital. Severely malnourished children, aged 6-24 months, admitted to the NRU were enrolled. All received standard nutritional care. A control group of 43 children was studied initially, followed by an intervention group of 54 children. The intervened mothers and children participated in daily group meetings and individual play sessions for 2 weeks in hospital and were visited at home for 6 months. Children's growth was measured and development assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Twenty-seven children were lost to the study. In the remaining children, both groups had similar developmental scores and anthropometry initially. After 6 months, the intervention group had improved more than the controls did by a mean of 6.9 (Pchildren in hospital, followed by home visits for 6 months, was effective in improving children's growth and development and should be an integral part of their treatment.

  10. 浅谈影响忻州市粮食发展的主要因素与建议%Introduction of the main factors affecting the development of grain In Xinzhou city and the suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾眉中

    2013-01-01

    Main factors influenced the grain development in Xinzou city consisted of both natural factors and social factors. Natural factors included declined cultivated acreage, severe soil erosion, low soil fertility, soil diversity, and low resistance against natural surroundings. Social factors included rising prices of agricultural production materi-als, high grain production cost, and low profits.By analyzing these factors, suggestions improving present grain de-velopment in Xinzhou city were put forward.%影响忻州市粮食发展的主要因素包括耕地面积锐减、水土流失严重、土壤肥力不足、土质多样、抵抗防御自然能力差等自然因素及涉农生产资料不断上涨、粮食生产成本高、收益低等社会因素。通过对影响因素的分析,提出改善忻州市粮食发展现状的建议。

  11. 基于SWOT模型的四川创新团队发展现状分析及建议%Analysis on Current Status of Innovation Team Development in Sichuan Province Based on SWOT Model and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晓卫; 李晓; 雷波

    2015-01-01

    加强四川创新团队建设是提升科技支撑产业发展、促进农业产业提档升级的有效方式.文章采用SWOT模型分析了四川创新团队在科研力量、优势产业和管理方式等方面的优势,以及在科技协作、经费投入等方面的劣势.提出了通过加强组织领导和管理创新、突出成果转化应用和大力培育新型职业农民等促进四川创新团队健康、持续发展的建议.%Strengthening the construction of innovation team is the effective way of promoting the development of scientific supporting industry and accelerating the upgrade of agricultural industry. In this article, innovation team of Sichuan Province was analyzed by SWOT model, which has advantages in scientific research force, superior industry and management mode, and has main obstacles in cooperative mode and fund input. Suggestions to promote healthy and sustainable development of innovation team in Sichuan Province were put forward, i.e., strengthening the organization leadership and management innovation, laying stress on transformation and application of achievements, and cultivating new type of professional farmers.

  12. 泗水南部矿泉水分布特征及开发建议%Distribution Characteristics and Suggestion for Development of Mineral Water Fields in Southern Limestone Area in Sishui County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖为国; 冯凤玲; 王集宁; 冯克印; 付娟; 王鲁林

    2012-01-01

    根据泗水县地下水调查与监测,结合已有资料,经过综合分析,提出了对泗水南部灰岩地区矿泉水矿田的认识,重点介绍了泗水矿泉水矿田的地质背景,形成分布特征,同时提出了几点开发建议,为进一步开发和研究泗水矿泉水矿田指明了重要的思路和方向。%On the basis of investigating and monitoring ground water in Sishui county,combining with the former information and comprehensive analysis,recognition of mineral water fields in southern limestone area in Sishui have been introduced.Geological background,distribution characteristics of mineral water fields in this area have been introduced as well,and suggestions for development are put forward.It wll provide some references for further development of mineral water fields in Sishui county.

  13. 我国“互联网+医疗”发展概况、存在问题及建议%The Development and Problems of China’s“Internet Plus Healthcare” and Corresponding Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴英姣; 赵飞

    2016-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces the background of “Internet plus healthcare”, and gives the definition. On this basis, we analyze the four major driving factors for Its rapid development and its remodeling of traditional ecology of health care. Finally, we analyze the problems existing in “Internet plus healthcare” and give some suggestions for the development of the industry.%本文首先介绍了“互联网+医疗”产生的背景,并给出了“互联网+医疗”的定义。在此基础上,我们分析了“互联网+医疗”快速发展的四大驱动因素及对传统医疗健康生态的重塑,最后对“互联网+医疗”存在的问题进行了分析并对产业发展提出了相关建议。

  14. The Necessity and Suggestion of the Development of Offshore (Re)insurance Market in Shanghai Free Trade Zone%上海自贸区离岸(再)保险市场发展的必要性及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐英

    2015-01-01

    Offshore reinsurance market is an important part of the international reinsurance market. Developing offshore reinsurance market in Shanghai Free Trade Zone can not only expand the reinsurance business, but also helps align with the international reinsurance market, and to achieve the strategic goal of international reinsurance center. This paper discusses the necessity of development of offshore reinsurance market in Shanghai Free Trade Zone from the national and enterprise levels separately, and puts forward related suggestions.%离岸再保险市场是国际再保险市场的重要组成部分。上海自贸区发展离岸再保险市场,不但可以扩大再保险业务,而且有利于与国际再保险市场接轨,实现把上海建设成为国际再保险中心的战略目标。本文分别从国家和企业层面探讨了上海自贸区发展离岸再保险市场的必要性,并提出了相关建议。

  15. The relationship between developing oligodendrocyte units and maturing axons during myelinogenesis in the anterior medullary velum of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, A M; Ibrahim, M; Berry, M

    1997-05-01

    Myelinogenesis was investigated in whole-mounted anterior medullary vela from rats aged postnatal day (P) 10-12, using double immunofluorescence labelling with Rip and anti-neurofilament 200 (NF200) antibodies, to identify oligodendrocytes and axons, respectively. A number of discrete phases of maturation of oligodendrocyte units were recognised. (1) Promyelinating oligodendrocytes co-expressed Rip and Myelin basic Protein and formed axonal associations, prior to ensheathment. (2) Transitional oligodendrocytes contained both ensheathing and non-ensheating processes. (3) Myelinating oligodendrocytes were established after a period of remodelling (in which non-ensheathing processes were lost), appearing as oligodendrocyte unit morphological phenotypes with a definitive number of incipient myelin sheaths. (4) Maturation of myelinating oligodendrocytes was defined as the establishment of internodal sheath lengths and the redistrubution of myelin basic protein from the cell somata and radial processes into the myelin sheaths only. Myelination was probably related to the maturational state of the axons, since it was initiated when the latter had attained a critical diameter of between approximately 0.2 and 0.4 micron, coincident with the expression of NF200. Oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination of the AMV were asynchronous and multifocal, and at P10: (1) axons which were destined to be of the largest calibre in the adult AMV were already myelinated by early developing oligodendrocytes, whilst those which were destined to be the smallest calibre in the adult were unmyelinated, but ultimately became ensheathed by late developing oligoendrocytes; (2) axons were sequentially ensheathed by early developing myelinating oligodendrocytes and late developing promyelinating oligodendrocytes; (3) all axons were small calibre; (4) oligodendrocyte units exhibited polymorphism. Thus, the development of oligodendrocyte morphological phenotypes was not related solely to

  16. Suggestions on photons and fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvargonzalez, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a configuration of photons consistent with a spin $\\hbar$, and a configuration of the fermions coherent with a spin $\\hbar/2$. These suggested configurations open the way to further analyses which lead to the following conclusions: - There cannot exist elementary particles of spin $\\hbar/2$ with a mass inferior to $1m_e$ or with a radius greater than $1l_e$. - The electrostatic force derives from the centrifugal forces inherent to the spin and are propagated by photons. - The derivation of the electrostatic force explains the existence of positive and negative charges and Coulomb's law. - The enormous differences between the centrifugal forces and the centripetal forces at the surface of the protons give rise to quantic fluctuations of space which generate the energy flows necessary for equilibrium. These energy flows can explain gravitation and the strong force. - The mass of the proton, $m_p$, and the mass of the neutron, $m_n$, must each have a concrete value required for the cohes...

  17. Problems and Suggestions for Ecological Economy Development of Harbin Urban Fringe%哈尔滨城市边缘区及其生态经济问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何萍; 王永杰; 高梅香; 烟贯发

    2014-01-01

    Researches on ecological economy development of Harbin urban fringe will optimize the layout of urban functional zone and promote the ecological construction of urban fringe. The synthetical potential index for villages and towns was used, combined with GIS technology, to identify the range of the urban fringe. In addition, the characteristics and problems of Harbin urban fringe were analyzed. Then the suggestions for those problems were proposed. The results showed that there are several problems for ecological economy development of Harbin urban fringe: serious ecological environment destruction, more percentage of secondary industry, less industrial chain links, reduction of cultivated area and non-reasonable plan of the government. For simulating the ecological construction of Harbin urban fringe, suggestions to those problems were proposed as follow: strengthen-ing environmental protection, adjusting the industrial structure to realize diversified development, strengthening government guide to optimize industry chain, strengthening the management of land resources and strengthening unified planning and management.%哈尔滨城市边缘区生态经济发展的研究,能够优化城市功能区布局、促进城市边缘区生态建设。本研究采用乡镇综合实力指数与地理信息系统相结合的方法,探讨了城市边缘区范围及生态经济建设问题。结果表明,哈尔滨市城市边缘区存在生态环境破坏严重、第二产业比重过大、企业之间缺少产业链条联系、耕地面积急剧缩减和政府规划管理不合理等问题。加大环境保护力度、调整产业结构实现多元化发展、加强政府引导优化产业链条、加强土地资源管理、强化统一规划和管理,可以提高哈尔滨城市边缘区的生态建设水平。

  18. Agenda 21: biotechnology at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylhardat, A R; Zilinskas, R A

    1992-04-01

    Preparation has yet to be completed for the 1992 Earth Summit, UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nonetheless, it has been planned as a forum in which recommendations will be made to governments and international organizations on how to alleviate environmental damage caused by human activities and how to prevent future damage without retarding development in the Third World. It will declare basic principles for national and individual conduct regarding environmental preservation and sustainable development; adopt international conventions to protect biodiversity and manage climatic change; lay out Agenda 21 activities as specified by UNCED; provide an agenda to help Third World governments manage environmental matters; and provide an agenda for improving the transfer of technology to developing countries. Where biotechnology is concerned, scientists and policy makers in developing countries have shown their interest. Limited resources and capabilities, however, constrain their abilities to engage in serious research and development. International organizations such as the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) may help UNCED and developing countries with biotechnology. Since 1986, UNIDO has held the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) as a special project. The ICGEB conducts research and development (R&D) on high priority topics in developing countries; trains scientific and technical personnel from member countries in advanced biotechnology techniques; helps member countries implement and operate ICGEB-affiliated R&D and training centers; and manages an information exchange for internationally affiliated centers. To maximize the potential of biotechnology to help Third World nations clear their environments of pollutants while safely exploiting natural resources, organizations should promote full use of available training resources; promote biosafety and the dissemination of

  19. An Exploration of Emerging Collaborative Conservation Strategies to Support Sustainable Development in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kimmel, Courtney E.

    2011-01-01

    Completed as a series of manuscripts, this dissertation reflects four aspects of my research into the intersections of conservation and sustainable development as practiced by conservation land trusts and community landcare groups, as well as by faculty and staff at land grant universities. The first paper included in this dissertation explores "Conservation 2.0" strategies being developed and employed by land trust across the US to integrate social and economic development goals into their c...

  20. Implementation of 14 bits floating point numbers of calculating units for neural network hardware development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoev, I. V.; Beresnev, A. P.; Mytsko, E. A.; Malchukov, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    An important aspect of modern automation is machine learning. Specifically, neural networks are used for environment analysis and decision making based on available data. This article covers the most frequently performed operations on floating-point numbers in artificial neural networks. Also, a selection of the optimum value of the bit to 14-bit floating-point numbers for implementation on FPGAs was submitted based on the modern architecture of integrated circuits. The description of the floating-point multiplication (multiplier) algorithm was presented. In addition, features of the addition (adder) and subtraction (subtractor) operations were described in the article. Furthermore, operations for such variety of neural networks as a convolution network - mathematical comparison of a floating point (‘less than’ and ‘greater than or equal’) were presented. In conclusion, the comparison with calculating units of Atlera was made.