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Sample records for unit cross-sectional area

  1. Muscle Torque Relative to Cross-Sectional Area and the Functional Muscle-Bone Unit in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dale Y.; Wetzsteon, Rachel J.; Zemel, Babette S.; Shults, Justine; Organ, Jason M.; Foster, Bethany J.; Herskovitz, Rita M.; Foerster, Debbie L.; Leonard, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of muscle mass or size are often used as surrogates of forces acting on bone. However, chronic diseases may be associated with abnormal muscle force relative to muscle size. The muscle-bone unit was examined in 64 children and adolescents with new-onset Crohn’s disease (CD), 54 with chronic kidney disease (CKD), 51 treated with glucocorticoids for nephrotic syndrome (NS), and 264 healthy controls. Muscle torque was assessed by isometric ankle dynamometry. Calf muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and tibia cortical section modulus (Zp) were assessed by quantitative CT. Log-linear regression was used to determine the relations among muscle CSA, muscle torque, and Zp, adjusted for tibia length, age, Tanner stage, sex, and race. Muscle CSA and muscle torque-relative-to-muscle CSA were significantly lower than controls in advanced CKD (CSA −8.7%, p = 0.01; torque −22.9%, p < 0.001) and moderate-to-severe CD (CSA −14.1%, p < 0.001; torque −7.6%, p = 0.05), but not in NS. Zp was 11.5% lower in advanced CKD (p = 0.005) compared to controls, and this deficit was attenuated to 6.7% (p = 0.05) with adjustment for muscle CSA. With additional adjustment for muscle torque and body weight, Zp was 5.9% lower and the difference with controls was no longer significant (p = 0.09). In participants with moderate-to-severe CD, Zp was 6.8% greater than predicted (p = 0.01) given muscle CSA and torque deficits (R2=0.92), likely due to acute muscle loss in newly diagnosed patients. Zp did not differ in NS, compared with controls. In conclusion, muscle torque relative to muscle CSA was significantly lower in CKD and CD, compared with controls, and was independently associated with Zp. Future studies are needed to determine if abnormal muscle strength contributes to progressive bone deficits in chronic disease, independent of muscle area. PMID:25264231

  2. Peripheral nerve imaging: Not only cross-sectional area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto Stefano

    2016-08-28

    Peripheral nerve imaging is recognized as a complement to clinical and neurophysiological assessment in the evaluation of peripheral nerves with the ability to impact patient management, even for small and difficult nerves. The European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology, suggest to use ultrasound (US) for nerve evaluation due to the fact that, in sever anatomical area, magnetic resonance imaging is not able to give additional informations. US could be considered the first-choice approach for the assessment of peripheral nerves. The relative drawback of peripheral nerve US is the long learning curve and the deep anatomic competence to evaluate even small nerves. In the recent years, the role of US in peripheral nerve evaluation has been widened. In the past, nerve US was mainly used to assess nerve-cross sectional area, but now more advanced measurements and considerations are desirable and can boost the role of peripheral nerve US. Nerve echotexture evaluation was defined in 2010: The ratio between the hypoechoic and hyperechoic areas of peripheral nerves on US was called "nerve density". For evaluation of patients who have peripheral neuropathies, the role of peripheral nerve is US wider than simple cross-sectional area evaluation. Quantitative measurements describing the internal fascicular echotexture of peripheral nerves introduce the concept of considering US as a possible quantitative imaging biomarker technique. The potential of nerve US has started to be uncovered. It seems clear that only cross-sectional area measurement is no more sufficient for a comprehensive US evaluation of peripheral nerves.

  3. The Magnitude and Time Course of Muscle Cross-section Decrease in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Haaf, Dianne; Hemmen, Bea; van de Meent, Henk; BovendʼEerdt, Thamar J H

    2017-09-01

    Bedriddenness and immobilization of patients at an intensive care unit may result in muscle atrophy and devaluation in quality of life. The exact effect of immobilization on intensive care unit patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude and time course of muscle cross-section decrease in acute critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. An observational pilot study was performed in intensive care unit patients. Data of bilateral ultrasound muscle cross-section measurements of the knee extensors and the elbow flexors were collected. Thirty-four intensive care unit patients were included in this study; data are presented from 14 patients who were measured at least three times. Repeated measures analysis of variance shows a significant decrease in muscle cross-section over time (F1,13 = 80.40, P ≤ 0.001).The decrease in muscle cross-section of the arms was significantly higher (F1,13 = 5.38, P = 0.037) than the decrease of the legs. Four weeks after intensive care unit admission, the muscle cross-section decrease had not reached an asymptote yet. The muscle cross-section decrease in bedridden intensive care unit patients is significant for a time of 2 to 4 weeks. The decrease in muscle cross-section of the arms is greater than the decrease of the legs.

  4. Importance of sarcomere length when determining muscle physiological cross-sectional area: a spine example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Gerling, Michael E

    2012-05-01

    Muscle physiological cross-sectional area predicts the maximum capability of a muscle to generate isometric force. Biomechanical models often use estimates of individual muscle physiological cross-sectional area to partition internal forces among different muscles and predict joint forces and stability. In the spine literature, these physiological cross-sectional area values are generally obtained from imaging or cadaveric studies that have not accounted for a potential lengthened or shortened (and thus thinned or thickened, respectively) state of the muscles in question. Sarcomere length measurements can be used to normalize muscle lengths and correct for these length discrepancies. This article was designed to demonstrate potential effects of not accounting for instantaneous sarcomere length when calculating the physiological cross-sectional area of muscles of the spine region. Because some muscles of the spine region appear to be shortened and others lengthened in the neutral spine posture, both over- and under-estimations of physiological cross-sectional area are possible. Specifically, it is shown that the muscle physiological cross-sectional area could be over-estimated or under-estimated by as much as + 36% (multifidus) and -21% (rectus abdominis), respectively. This differential error effect poses difficulties in accurately estimating individual muscle forces and subsequent spine forces and stability that result from biomechanical models incorporating physiological cross-sectional area data obtained in the absence of sarcomere length measurements. Future work is needed to measure the dynamic range of sarcomere lengths of all spinal muscles to ensure correct inputs to biomechanical models.

  5. Dorsiflexor muscle-group thickness in children with cerebral palsy: Relation to cross-sectional area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Magnusson, Peter; Jensen, Bente R;

    2009-01-01

    If the thickness and cross-sectional area of the dorsiflexor muscle group are related in children with cerebral palsy, measurements of muscle thickness may be used to monitor changes in muscle size due to training or immobilisation in these patients. We assessed the validity and reliability...... of measurements of dorsiflexor muscle-thickness using the cross-sectional area of the muscle group as the criterion-related muscle-size variable. Muscle thickness was measured using ultrasound, and cross-sectional area using MRI in nine children with spastic cerebral palsy (eight with hemiplegia). Test......-retest reliability of the muscle-thickness measurements was assessed in six healthy subjects. All measurements were made on both legs at 35% lower leg length. In the children with cerebral palsy, dorsiflexor muscle-thickness and cross-sectional area were well correlated (r;{2} = 0.778, P

  6. Sonographic Estimation of Umbilical Cord Cross-section Area and its Reference Value in Normal Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroze, Khizer Hussain; Prabha, Subhash Lakshmi; Chandrakala, V; Deepak, M

    2017-08-01

    The routine antenatal sonographic investigations of the umbilical cord are limited for assessment of number of umbilical vessels and doppler evaluation of umbilical blood flow. With the advancements of the sonographic techniques it is now possible to have more detailed evaluation of umbilical cord. There exist only few literatures on assessment of umbilical cord cross-sectional area during pregnancy to provide a baseline reference value. To establish the reference intervals of cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord during gestation and to find the correlation of umbilical cord cross-sectional area with the foetal anthropometric measurements. This study was conducted among 214 normal pregnant women who underwent a routine antenatal sonogram during gestational age ranging from 24-39 weeks in the Department of Radiodiagnosis. The umbilical cord cross-sectional area was calculated at a plane immediately close to the umbilical cord insertion to the foetal abdomen. The following foetal parameters were studied: Biparietal Diameters (BPD), Head Circumference (HC), Abdominal Circumference (AC), Femur Length (FL), and Estimated Foetal weight (EFW). The relationship between foetal anthropometric measurements and umbilical cord cross sectional area was assessed using spearman rank correlation. The 5(th), 10(th), 50(th), 90(th) and 95(th) percentiles of umbilical cord cross-sectional area were calculated for each gestational groups using polynomial regression analysis. A statistically significant correlation was observed between cross-sectional area of umbilical cord with both gestational age and foetal anthropometric parameters. The mean age of study population was 25.08±3.5 years and the mean gestational age was 34.42±2.5 weeks. We observed a strong correlation between head circumference and umbilical cord cross-sectional area. The mean umbilical cord cross-section area increases steadily with gestational age for up to 34 weeks and then it declines. Umbilical cord cross-sectional

  7. An evolutionary attractor model for sapwood cross section in relation to leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westoby, Mark; Cornwell, William K; Falster, Daniel S

    2012-06-21

    Sapwood cross-sectional area per unit leaf area (SA:LA) is an influential trait that plants coordinate with physical environment and with other traits. We develop theory for SA:LA and also for root surface area per leaf area (RA:LA) on the premise that plants maximizing the surplus of revenue over costs should have competitive advantage. SA:LA is predicted to increase in water-relations environments that reduce photosynthetic revenue, including low soil water potential, high water vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and low atmospheric CO(2). Because sapwood has costs, SA:LA adjustment does not completely offset difficult water relations. Where sapwood costs are large, as in tall plants, optimal SA:LA may actually decline with (say) high VPD. Large soil-to-root resistance caps the benefits that can be obtained from increasing SA:LA. Where a plant can adjust water-absorbing surface area of root per leaf area (RA:LA) as well as SA:LA, optimal RA:SA is not affected by VPD, CO(2) or plant height. If selection favours increased height more so than increased revenue-minus-cost, then height is predicted to rise substantially under improved water-relations environments such as high-CO(2) atmospheres. Evolutionary-attractor theory for SA:LA and RA:LA complements models that take whole-plant conductivity per leaf area as a parameter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Fisher, Carissa L.; Aggabao, Patricia C. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chavez, Thomas A. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Broom, Alexander M.; Wren, Tishya A.L.; Skaggs, David L. [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gilsanz, Vicente [Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    When compared to boys, girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area, which conveys a greater spinal flexibility, and a higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. To test the hypothesis that small vertebral cross-sectional area and tall intervertebral disc height are structural characteristics of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using multiplanar imaging techniques, measures of vertebral cross-sectional area, vertebral height and intervertebral disc height in the lumbar spine were obtained in 35 pairs of girls and 11 pairs of boys with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of the thoracic spine matched for age, height and weight. Compared to adolescents without spinal deformity, girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had, on average, 9.8% (6.68 ± 0.81 vs. 7.40 ± 0.99 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.0007) and 13.9% (8.22 ± 0.84 vs. 9.55 ± 1.61 cm{sup 2}; P = 0.009) smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions, respectively. Additionally, patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis had significantly greater values for intervertebral disc heights (9.06 ± 0.85 vs. 7.31 ± 0.62 mm and 9.09 ± 0.87 vs. 7.61 ± 1.00 mm for girls and boys respectively; both P ≤ 0.011). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the presence of scoliosis was negatively associated with vertebral cross-sectional area and positively with intervertebral disc height, independent of sex, age and body mass index. We provide new evidence that girls and boys with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional area and taller intervertebral disc heights - two major structural determinants that influence trunk flexibility. With appropriate validation, these findings may have implications for the identification of children at the highest risk for developing scoliosis. (orig.)

  9. US Findings of Biceps Tendinitis: Cross Sectional Area Measurements of Long Head of Biceps Brachii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong Soo; Seo, Kyung Mook; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup [ChungAng University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seung Min [Bundang Cha Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe typical sonographic findings in patients with biceps tendinitis. Seventy five patients who had been clinically diagnosed with biceps tendinitis were included. Of the 75, 37 were male, 38 were female, and their mean age was 56 {+-} 9.74. The patients complained of shoulder pain and ultrasonography was performed for bilateral shoulders in all patients. The cross sectional area of the biceps tendon was measured. The status of fluid collection around the biceps tendon and accompanying rotator cuff disease were also investigated. The cross sectional areas of the diseased biceps tendon were 0.18 {+-} 0.09 cm2 (range: 0.07-0.42), and the areas of the normal side was 0.11 {+-} 0.05 cm2 (0.03-0.24). The cross sectional area of the diseased biceps tendon was 0.075 {+-} 0.062 cm2 greater, on average, than the uninvolved site (p < 0.01). Thirty six patients(48%) had fluid collection around the inflamed biceps tendon, and 30 patients had accompanied rotator cuff disease. During US examination of the shoulder in patients complaining of shoulder pain, if the cross sectional area of the biceps tendon in the painful shoulder is asymmetrically and larger than the contralateral tendon, biceps tendonitis is suggested

  10. Empirical relationship between inlet cross-sectional area and tidal prism: A re-evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; Ji, L.; Brouwer, R.L.; Van de Kreeke, J.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    The well-known empirical relationship between the equilibrium cross-sectional area of tidal inlet entrances (A) and the tidal prism (P), first developed by O’Brien (1931), has been extensively reviewed. Our theoretical investigations indicate that a unique A-P relationship should only be expected fo

  11. Pressure/cross-sectional area probe in the assessment of urethral closure function. Reproducibility of measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    -pressure zone and distally in the urethra. The in vitro study showed that cross sectional areas of 13-79 mm2 were determined with a SD of 1.4 mm2. In vivo measurements revealed that the urethral parameters: elastance, hysteresis, pressure and power of contraction during coughing and squeezing were fairly...

  12. Modeling and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Varying Cross-Sectional Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the modeling and on the experimental verification of electromechanically coupled beams with varying cross-sectional area for piezoelectric energy harvesting. The governing equations are formulated using the Rayleigh-Ritz method and Euler-Bernoulli assumptions. A load resistance is considered in the electrical domain for the estimate of the electric power output of each geometric configuration. The model is first verified against the analytical results for a rectangular bimorph with tip mass reported in the literature. The experimental verification of the model is also reported for a tapered bimorph cantilever with tip mass. The effects of varying cross-sectional area and tip mass on the electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric energy harvesters are also discussed. An issue related to the estimation of the optimal load resistance (that gives the maximum power output on beam shape optimization problems is also discussed.

  13. Association between vertebral cross-sectional area and lumbar lordosis angle in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Aggabao, Patricia C; Poorghasamians, Ervin; Chavez, Thomas A; Ponrartana, Skorn; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar lordosis (LL) is more prominent in women than in men, but the mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy are poorly defined. A recent study indicates that newborn girls have smaller vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) when compared to boys-a difference that persists throughout life and is independent of body size. We determined the relations between vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) and LL angle and whether sex differences in lumbar lordosis are related to sex differences in vertebral CSA. Using multi-planar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we measured vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) and vertebral height of the spine of 40 healthy boys and 40 girls, ages 9-13 years. Measures of the CSA of the lumbar vertebrae significantly differed between sexes (9.38 ± 1.46 vs. 7.93 ± 0.69 in boys and girls, respectively; P < 0.0001), while the degree of LL was significantly greater in girls than in boys (23.7 ± 6.1 vs. 27.6 ± 8.0 in boys and girls, respectively; P = 0.02). When all subjects were analyzed together, values for LL angle were negatively correlated to vertebral CSA (r = -0.47; P < 0.0001); this was also true when boys and girls were analyzed separately. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that vertebral CSA was independently associated with LL, even after accounting for sex, age, height or vertebral height, and weight. Similar negative relations were present when thoracic vertebrae were analyzed (Model P < 0.0001, R2 = 0.37, thoracic vertebral CSA slope P < 0.0001), suggesting that deficient vertebral cross-sectional dimensions are not merely the consequence of the anterior lumbar curvature. We conclude that vertebral CSA is negatively associated with LL, and that the greater degree of LL in females could, at least in part, be due to smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions. Studies are needed to examine the potential relations between vertebral CSA and spinal conditions known to be associated with increased LL, such as spondylolysis

  14. [Computation of the cross-sectional area of the cable in the power circuit of the X-ray machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin-min; Feng, Da-yu

    2007-01-01

    The source impedance of the power circuit in the x-ray machine is analyzed in the paper and based on the voltage drop generated by the impedance, the cross-sectional area of the cable is calculated. In the end, the cross-sectional areas of the cables, corresponding to their respective distances between the transformers and the switchboards are given.

  15. Sandblasting Effect on Flexural Strength and Fracture Resistance of Two Zirconia with Two Cross Sectional Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Norberto Calvo Ramírez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yttrium stabilized zirconia a ceramic material currently considered as an “aesthetic” alternative in fixed partial denture. Clinical studies they have shown micro fractures in the area of the connectors, detachment or “chipping” ceramic coating and also the difficulties in fitting for her cementing. Objective: To establish the influence of sandblasting on flexural strength and fracture toughness of two Yttrium stabilized zirconia with two cross- sectional areas. Material and methods: Two materials were tested VITA Inceram YZ and IPS e.max ZirCAD, for each material was obtained 20 bars of 25mm in length, 2x2mm±0.02 width and height and 20 bars of 3x3mm±0.03 width and height. The samples were sintered; ten samples of each group were subjected to surface treatment with sandblasting. Each specimen was loaded to fracture in a Universal Testing Machine with a transverse head speed of 1±0.5mm/min. The data were analysed with the t student test. Results: The zirconia e.max ZirCAD has the highest flexural strength (1232.78 MPa and the load-bearing fracture (802.74N. Surface treatment VITA Inceram YZ had a higher flexural strength (906.85 MPa and supported a major load 565,55N. The test t student indicated statistically significant differences in the group IPS e.max ZirCAD when it is sandblasting, so much in the resistance to the flexion, since in the maximum load up to the fracture in both areas. There were no statistically significant differences between two ceramics, it having considered both cross-section areas and surface treatment (with and without sandblasting. Conclusions: Sandblasting, the values flexural strength and fracture toughness of the two ceramics in the two areas of cross section significantly decreasing.  

  16. Does achilles tendon cross sectional area differ after downhill, level and uphill running in trained runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Katy Andrews; Johnson, A Wayne; Hunter, Iain; Myrer, J William

    2014-12-01

    In this study we examined how hill running affects the Achilles tendon, a common location for injuries in runners. Twenty females ran for 10 min on each of three randomly ordered grades (-6%, 0 and +6%) at speeds selected to match the metabolic rates. Achilles tendon (AT) cross-sectional area (CSA) was imaged using Doppler ultrasound and peak vertical forces were analyzed using an instrumented treadmill. A metabolic cart and gas analyzer ensured a similar metabolic cost across grades. Data were analyzed using a forward selection regression. Results showed similar decreases in AT CSA from pre- to post-run for all three conditions of ~5 to 7% (p = 0.0001). Active peak vertical forces were different across grades (p = 0.0001) with the largest occurring during downhill running and smallest during uphill running. Since changes in AT CSA were not different between grades, each form of running appears equal and acceptable in regards to how the Achilles tendon reacts. That is, the results suggest that the Achilles tendon is affected by downhill, level, and uphill running and a decrease in CSA appears to be a normal response. Key PointsDownhill (- 6%), level and uphill (+ 6%) running at different speeds each caused a statistically significant decrease in the Achilles tendon cross-sectional area in healthy, trained runners.The magnitude of change in Achilles tendon cross-sectional area did not differ between grades when metabolic cost of running was matched.Downhill running resulted in the largest peak vertical force, while uphill running resulted in the smallest.

  17. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  18. Temporal Geobiotic Mapping: a conceptual mapping technique toward visualising geobiotic areas in cross-section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte C. Ebach

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geobiota are defined by taxic assemblages (i.e., biota and their defining abiotic breaks, which are mapped in cross-section to reveal past and future biotic boundaries. We term this conceptual approach Temporal Geobiotic Mapping (TGM and offer it as a conceptual approach for biogeography. TGM is based on geological cross-sectioning, which creates maps based on the distribution of biota and known abiotic factors that drive their distribution, such as climate, topography, soil chemistry and underlying geology. However, the availability of abiotic data is limited for many areas. Unlike other approaches, TGM can be used when there is minimal data available. In order to demonstrate TGM, we use the well-known area in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales (NSW, south-eastern Australia and show how surface processes such as weathering and erosion affect the future distribution of a Moist Basalt Forest taxic assemblage. Biotic areas are best represented visually as maps, which can show transgressions and regressions of biota and abiota over time. Using such maps, a biogeographer can directly compare animal and plant distributions with features in the abiotic environment and may identify significant geographical barriers or pathways that explain biotic distributions.

  19. Healthcare professionals' readiness for an interprofessional orthogeriatric unit: A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Charlotte; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Draborg, Eva

    2016-01-01

    conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess readiness for change (N=223 employees) in a hospital on the verge of implementing an interprofessional, co-managed, orthogeriatric unit. Staff members from three departments with tasks related to orthogeriatric patients were invited to answer a web...... of the orthogeriatric unit and 71.7% stated that it would “significantly promote the interdisciplinary approach” of their department. Eliciting the respondents’ readiness for change, we found that 88.5% indicated a belief that orthogeriatric care would match the hospital’s need for change, and that it would furthermore...... aspects; those voiced by the nursing staff related to work strain and the interests of their professional group whereas the physicians’ reservations concentrated on the planning of the change. The exploration of readiness for organizational change among health care professionals offers managers...

  20. The relationship between nasal resistance to airflow and the airspace minimal cross-sectional area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Hariri, Benjamin M; Patel, Ruchin G; Rhee, John S

    2016-06-14

    The relationship between nasal resistance (R) and airspace minimal cross-sectional area (mCSA) remains unclear. After the introduction of acoustic rhinometry, many otolaryngologists believed that mCSA measurements would correlate with subjective perception of nasal airway obstruction (NAO), and thus could provide an objective measure of nasal patency to guide therapy. However, multiple studies reported a low correlation between mCSA and subjective nasal patency, and between mCSA and R. This apparent lack of correlation between nasal form and function has been a long-standing enigma in the field of rhinology. Here we propose that nasal resistance is described by the Bernoulli Obstruction Theory. This theory predicts two flow regimes. For mCSA>Acrit, the constriction is not too severe and there is not a tight coupling between R and mCSA. In contrast, when mCSAfluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were run in 3-dimensional models based on computed tomography scans of 15 NAO patients pre- and post-surgery (i.e., 60 unilateral nasal cavities). Airspace cross-sectional areas were quantified perpendicular to airflow streamlines. Our computational results are consistent with the theory. Given that in most people mCSA>Acrit (estimated to be 0.37cm(2)), this theory suggests that airway constrictions are rarely an exclusive contributor to nasal resistance, which may explain the weak correlation between mCSA and subjective nasal patency.

  1. Concomitant changes in cross-sectional area and water content in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Uhrbrand, Anders; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how one bout (1EX) and three bouts (3EX) of strenuous resistance exercise affected the cross-sectional area (CSA) and water content (WC) of the quadriceps muscle and patella tendon (PT), 4 h and 52 h after the last exercise bout. Ten healthy untrained male subjects performed...... was significantly reduced at 52 h (3EX: 14 ± 2%) compared with baseline and (3EX: 13 ± 1%) compared with 4 h. Present data demonstrate that strenuous resistance exercise results in an acute increase in muscle WC and underlines the importance of ensuring sufficient time between the last exercise bout...

  2. Accuracy of MRI technique in measuring tendon cross-sectional area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, Christian; Svensson, R. B.; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has commonly been applied to determine tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) and length either to measure structural changes or to normalize mechanical measurements to stress and strain. The ability to reproduce CSA measurements on MRI images has been reported......, but the accuracy in relation to actual tendon dimensions has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare tendon CSA measured by MRI with that measured in vitro with the mould casting technique. The knee of a horse was MRI-scanned with 1.5 and 3 tesla, and two examiners measured the patellar...... tendon CSA. Thereafter, the patellar tendon of the horse was completely dissected and embedded in an alginate cast. The CSA of the embedded tendon was measured directly by optical imaging of the cast impression. 1.5 tesla grey tendon CSA and 3 tesla grey tendon CSA were 16.5% and 13.2% lower than...

  3. The tunneling magnetoresistance current dependence on cross sectional area, angle and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. H., E-mail: zhaohui@physics.umanitoba.ca; Bai, Lihui; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2 Canada (Canada); Hemour, S.; Wu, K. [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 Canada (Canada); Fan, X. L.; Xue, D. S. [The Key Lab for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Houssameddine, D. [Everspin Technologies, 1347 N. Alma School Road, Chandler, Arizona 85224 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The magnetoresistance of a MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) was studied experimentally. The magnetoresistance as a function of current was measured systematically on MTJs for various MgO cross sectional areas and at various temperatures from 7.5 to 290.1 K. The resistance current dependence of the MTJ was also measured for different angles between the two ferromagnetic layers. By considering particle and angular momentum conservation of transport electrons, the current dependence of magnetoresistance can be explained by the changing of spin polarization in the free magnetic layer of the MTJ. The changing of spin polarization is related to the magnetoresistance, its angular dependence and the threshold current where TMR ratio equals zero. A phenomenological model is used which avoid the complicated barrier details and also describes the data.

  4. Numerical investigation on detonation cell evolution in a channel with area-changing cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Bo

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional cellular detonation propagating in a channel with area- changing cross section was numerically simulated with the dispersion-controlled dissipative scheme and a detailed chemical reaction model. Effects of the flow expansion and compression on the cellular detonation cell were investigated to illustrate the mechanism of the transverse wave development and the cellular detonation cell evolution. By examining gas composition variations behind the leading shock, the chemical reaction rate, the reaction zone length, and thermodynamic parameters, two kinds of the abnormal detonation waves were identified. To explore their development mechanism, chemical reactions, reflected shocks and rarefaction waves were discussed, which interact with each other and affect the cellular detonation in different ways.  ……

  5. Numerical investigation on detonation cell evolution in a channel with area-changing cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The two-dimensional cellular detonation propagating in a channel with area- changing cross section was numerically simulated with the dispersion-controlled dissipative scheme and a detailed chemical reaction model. Effects of the flow expansion and compression on the cellular detonation cell were investigated to illustrate the mechanism of the transverse wave development and the cellular detonation cell evolution. By examining gas composition variations behind the leading shock, the chemical reaction rate, the reaction zone length, and thermodynamic parameters, two kinds of the abnormal detonation waves were identified. To explore their development mechanism, chemical reactions, reflected shocks and rarefaction waves were discussed, which interact with each other and affect the cellular detonation in different ways.

  6. The tunneling magnetoresistance current dependence on cross sectional area, angle and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoresistance of a MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ was studied experimentally. The magnetoresistance as a function of current was measured systematically on MTJs for various MgO cross sectional areas and at various temperatures from 7.5 to 290.1 K. The resistance current dependence of the MTJ was also measured for different angles between the two ferromagnetic layers. By considering particle and angular momentum conservation of transport electrons, the current dependence of magnetoresistance can be explained by the changing of spin polarization in the free magnetic layer of the MTJ. The changing of spin polarization is related to the magnetoresistance, its angular dependence and the threshold current where TMR ratio equals zero. A phenomenological model is used which avoid the complicated barrier details and also describes the data.

  7. Basic Competence of Intensive Care Unit Nurses: Cross-Sectional Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta-Liisa Lakanmaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical care patients benefit from the attention of nursing personnel with a high competence level. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the self-assessed basic competence of intensive care unit nurses and related factors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A basic competence scale (Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale version 1, Likert scale 1–5, 1 = poor and 5 = excellent was employed among Finnish intensive care unit nurses (n=431. Intensive care unit nurses’ self-assessed basic competence was good (mean 4.19, SD 0.40. The attitude and value base of basic competence was excellent whereas experience base was the poorest compared to the knowledge base and skill base of intensive and critical care nursing. The strongest factor explaining nurses’ basic competence was their experience of autonomy in nursing care (F value 60.85, β 0.11, SE 0.01, and P≤0.0001. Clinical competence was self-rated as good. Nurses gave their highest competence self-ratings for ICU patient care according to the principles of nursing care. The ICU nurses also self-rated their professional competence as good. Collaboration was self-rated as the best competence. In basic and continuing education and professional self-development discussions it is meaningful to consider and find solutions for how to improve nurses’ experienced autonomy in nursing.

  8. Flow structure caused by a local cross-sectional area increase and curvature in sharp river bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Horizontal flow recirculation is often observed in sharp river bends, causing a complex three-dimensional flow structure with large implications for the morphological and planimetric development of meanders. Several field observations in small scale systems show that sharp bends are often found in association with a strong increase in cross-sectional area, the deposition of outer bank benches and reattachment bars near the inner bank. Recent studies show that these bends can also occur in large scale systems. In this study, we present field measurements of a sharp bend in the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The cross-sectional area increases by a factor of three compared with the reach averaged cross-sectional area. Along a river reach of about 150 km, cross-sectional area correlates strongly with curvature. The field measurements are analyzed together with the results from numerical simulation with a 3D finite element model, which yields a comprehensive view of the intricate flow structure. In turn, the model is used to validate a new equation that captures the water surface topography dependence on cross-sectional area variation and curvature. The results show the importance of the increase in cross-sectional area in the development of horizontal recirculation. Vertical acceleration of the flow into the scour causes the pressure to deviate from a hydrostatic pressure distribution. Strong downflow (up to 12 cm/s) advects longitudinal momentum towards the bed, causing the flow to concentrate in the lower part of the cross-section. This increases the velocity magnitude throughout the cross-section, which is expected to maintain the large scour depth found in several bends along the Mahakam River.

  9. Flow structure caused by a local cross-sectional area increase and curvature in a sharp river bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Labeur, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    Horizontal flow recirculation is often observed in sharp river bends, causing a complex three-dimensional flow structure with large implications for the morphological and planimetric development of meanders. Several field observations in small-scale systems show that sharp bends are often found in association with a strong increase in cross-sectional area, the deposition of outer bank benches, and reattachment bars near the inner bank. Recent studies show that these bends can also occur in large-scale systems. In this study, we present field measurements of a sharp bend in the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The cross-sectional area increases by a factor of 3 compared with the reach-averaged cross-sectional area. Along a river reach of about 150 km, cross-sectional area correlates strongly with curvature. The field measurements are analyzed together with the results from numerical simulation with a three-dimensional finite element model, which yields a comprehensive view of the intricate flow structure. In turn, the model is used to validate a new equation that captures the water surface topography dependence on cross-sectional area variation and curvature. The results show the importance of the increase in cross-sectional area in the development of horizontal recirculation. Vertical acceleration of the flow into the scour causes the pressure to deviate from a hydrostatic pressure distribution. Strong downflow (up to 12 cm s-1) advects longitudinal momentum toward the bed, causing the flow to concentrate in the lower part of the cross section. This increases the velocity magnitude throughout the cross section, which is expected to maintain the large scour depth found in several bends along the Mahakam River.

  10. Cross-sectional study on AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Na; Cheng Yi-min; Li Ying; Guo Xin; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To understand AIDS knowledge and condom use in rural areas, and to analyze the influencing factors of condom use. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the cluster-sampling method. 4,800 subjects, randomly selected from six counties in China, were questioned using an anonymous survey. Results: 36% of the subjects knew that tooth extraction could transmit AIDS. 38.4% of the subjects knew that the use of public razors could transmit AIDS. 27.1% of the subjects had used a condom in the last year. The influencing factors of condom use were: sex (OR=1.325), age (OR=1.419), AIDS counseling (OR=2.181), educational level (OR=0.622), location of registered permanent residence (OR=0.732), AIDS knowledge score (OR=0.736), and resident of high AIDS prevalent province (OR=0.354). Conclusion: AIDS knowledge in rural areas is still lacking. The rate of condom use was very low. The main influencing factors of low condom use were being female, elderly, and no AIDS counseling. Higher educational level, registered permanent resident in town, high AIDS knowledge score, and resident of high AIDS prevalent provinces were the propitious factors for condom use.

  11. Force per cross-sectional area from molecules to muscles: a general property of biological motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    2016-07-01

    We propose to formally extend the notion of specific tension, i.e. force per cross-sectional area-classically used for muscles, to quantify forces in molecular motors exerting various biological functions. In doing so, we review and compare the maximum tensions exerted by about 265 biological motors operated by about 150 species of different taxonomic groups. The motors considered range from single molecules and motile appendages of microorganisms to whole muscles of large animals. We show that specific tensions exerted by molecular and non-molecular motors follow similar statistical distributions, with in particular, similar medians and (logarithmic) means. Over the 10(19) mass (M) range of the cell or body from which the motors are extracted, their specific tensions vary as M(α) with α not significantly different from zero. The typical specific tension found in most motors is about 200 kPa, which generalizes to individual molecular motors and microorganisms a classical property of macroscopic muscles. We propose a basic order-of-magnitude interpretation of this result.

  12. Ultrasound Assessment of the Rectus Femoris Cross-Sectional Area: Subject Position Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Peters, Tara; Garkova, Miglena

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of the rectus femoris (RF) is a novel, proxy measure for muscle strength. The impact of hip flexion/head of bed positioning on RF cross-sectional area (CSA) has not been fully explored. This study describes and compares differences in RF CSA across four degrees of hip flexion. This repeated-measures, comparative study enrolled healthy, pre-menopausal women (n = 20). RF CSA of the dominant leg was measured using the SonoSite M-Turbo ultrasound system with the head of bed at 0°, 20°, 30°, and 60°. One-way repeated measures indicated significant differences in RF CSA, F(3, 17) = 14.18, p < .001, with variation in hip flexion/head of bed elevation and significant RF CSA differences between: (a) 0° and 20°, (b) 0° and 30°, (c) 0° and 60°, and (d) 20° and 60°. Standardizing patient positioning when conducting ultrasonic measurement of RF CSA is vital for researchers who assess muscle mass.

  13. Does Achilles Tendon Cross Sectional Area Differ after Downhill, Level and Uphill Running in Trained Runners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Andrews Neves, A. Wayne Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined how hill running affects the Achilles tendon, a common location for injuries in runners. Twenty females ran for 10 min on each of three randomly ordered grades (-6%, 0 and +6% at speeds selected to match the metabolic rates. Achilles tendon (AT cross-sectional area (CSA was imaged using Doppler ultrasound and peak vertical forces were analyzed using an instrumented treadmill. A metabolic cart and gas analyzer ensured a similar metabolic cost across grades. Data were analyzed using a forward selection regression. Results showed similar decreases in AT CSA from pre- to post-run for all three conditions of ~5 to 7% (p = 0.0001. Active peak vertical forces were different across grades (p = 0.0001 with the largest occurring during downhill running and smallest during uphill running. Since changes in AT CSA were not different between grades, each form of running appears equal and acceptable in regards to how the Achilles tendon reacts. That is, the results suggest that the Achilles tendon is affected by downhill, level, and uphill running and a decrease in CSA appears to be a normal response.

  14. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE DURING MENOPAUSE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - Menopause is a universal reproductive phenomenon. All the nutrients plays important role at the time of menopause and in prevention of diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is one of the major contributory factors responsible for lower bone mineral density (BMD in menopausal women. Iron deficiency anemia is common among menopausal women. The present study was conducted to assess the views on importance of nutrition & intake of various food items during menopause.Methods: - Community based   cross sectional study. A total of 100 women aged 45-55 years in post-menopausal phase were selected from urban areas of district Varanasi during 2012-13. Data were collected by pretested questionnaire cum interview method.Results: - In the present study half of respondent belonged to 40-45 years age group. When they were asked about importance of nutrition during menopause 70% respondent said that they paid attention on their diet during menopause. 79% women preferred food being cooked in their kitchen. 69% women took milk in their regular diet. 95% women’s took fruits and vegetables in their diet. Only 76% have knowledge of added requirement of iron & calcium but only 59% women had iron and calcium reach foods in their regular diet.Conclusion: - In the present study about three fourth respondents knew about nutritional importance during menopause.

  15. The association between hip muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahedi, Harbeer; Aitken, Dawn; Scott, David; Blizzard, Leigh; Cicuttini, Flavia; Jones, Graeme

    2014-07-01

    Studies examining the association between muscle size, muscle strength, and bone mineral density (BMD) are limited. Thus, this study aimed to describe the association between hip muscles cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle strength, and BMD of the hip and spine. A total of 321 subjects from the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort study with a right hip MRI scan conducted between 2004 and 2006 were included. Hip muscles were measured on MR images by OsiriX (Geneva) software measuring maximum muscle CSA (cm(2)) of gluteus maximus, obturator externus, gemelli, quadratus femoris, piriformis, pectineus, sartorius, and iliopsoas. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total hip, femoral neck, and spine BMD, and lower limb muscle strength was assessed by dynamometer. Muscle CSA of the hip flexors (pectineus, sartorius, and iliopsoas) and the hip rotators, obturator externus, and quadratus femoris were associated with both total hip and femoral neck BMD (all p muscles (except gluteus maximus and gemelli) were positively associated with leg strength (p = 0.02 to strength was weakly associated with BMD (p = 0.11-0.007). Hip muscle CSA, and to a lesser extent muscle strength, were positively associated with hip BMD. These data suggest that both higher muscle mass and strength may contribute to the maintenance of bone mass and prevention of disease progression in older adults.

  16. Carpal Tunnel Cross-Sectional Area Affected by Soft Tissues Abutting the Carpal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabra, Joseph N; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The carpal tunnel accommodates free movement of its contents, and the tunnel's cross-sectional area is a useful morphological parameter for the evaluation of the space available for the carpal tunnel contents and of potential nerve compression in the tunnel. The osseous boundary of the carpal bones as the dorsal border of the carpal tunnel is commonly used to determine the tunnel area, but this boundary contains soft tissues such as numerous intercarpal ligaments and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. The aims of this study were to quantify the thickness of the soft tissues abutting the carpal bones and to investigate how this soft tissue influences the calculation of the carpal tunnel area. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed for eight cadaveric specimens. A medical balloon with a physiological pressure was inserted into an evacuated tunnel to identify the carpal tunnel boundary. The balloon-based (i.e. true carpal tunnel) and osseous-based carpal tunnel boundaries were extracted and divided into regions corresponding to the hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium, and transverse carpal ligament (TCL). From the two boundaries, the overall and regional soft tissue thicknesses and areas were calculated. The soft tissue thickness was significantly greater for the trapezoid (3.1±1.2mm) and trapezium (3.4±1.0mm) regions than for the hamate (0.7±0.3mm) and capitate (1.2±0.5mm) regions. The carpal tunnel area using the osseous boundary (243.0±40.4mm(2)) was significantly larger than the balloon-based area (183.9±29.7mm(2)) with a ratio of 1.32. In other words, the carpal tunnel area can be estimated as 76% (= 1/1.32) of the osseous-based area. The abundance of soft tissue in the trapezoid and trapezium regions can be attributed mainly to the capitate-trapezium ligament and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. Inclusion of such soft tissue leads to overestimations of the carpal tunnel area. Correct quantification of the carpal tunnel area aids in examining carpal

  17. Transient variation of a cross-sectional area of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during furnace sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongkeun; Lee, Iksang; Yoo, Youngbum; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae, E-mail: smoon@hanyang.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the transient variation of a cross-sectional area of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink was monitored as a function of temperature. The ink was composed of 34 wt% silver nanoparticles with an average grain size of 50 nm. In order to determine the relationship between shrinkage and electrical properties, the cross-sectional area and specific resistance change were measured with various sintering temperatures and times. The samples were sintered at 150, 200, and 250 °C for 60, 120, 300, 600, 1200, and 3000 s. The cross-sectional profile was investigated in order to calculate the cross-sectional area of the ink using a surface profiler. To examine the mass transfer in a conductive line with various sintering temperatures and times, the surface morphology was investigated via field-emission scanning electron microscopy. As the temperature increased, the shrinkage ratio of the ink's cross-sectional area increased. By investigating the relationship between specific resistance and shrinkage, the sintering mechanisms can be determined.

  18. [Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in a primary care area: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Urrusuno, Rocío; Flores-Dorado, Macarena; Vilches-Arenas, Angel; Serrano-Martino, Carmen; Corral-Baena, Susana; Montero-Balosa, M Carmen

    2014-05-01

    To assess the profile of patients receiving antibiotics and the appropriateness of these prescriptions for the clinical conditions. Cross-sectional study of prescription-indication. A primary health care area in Andalusia. Patients assigned to primary care centres. Patients with antibiotic prescriptions during 2009 were selected by simple random sampling (confidence level: 95%, accuracy: 5%). Primary endpoint: appropriateness of antibiotics prescribing to recommendations included in local guidelines. Data were obtained through the billing computerised prescriptions system and medical histories. Twenty-five per cent of the population area received antibiotics during 2009. The 1,266 patient samples showed the following characteristics: 57.9% were women, with a mean age of 41 (±1) years. There were 39.3% pensioners. The percentage of appropriate antibiotic prescriptions was 19.9%, with no difference due to gender. Statistically significant differences were related to age, being those over 65 years the group of patients with the highest percentage of inappropriateness. The main reasons for inappropriateness were: no recording of the infectious process (44.5%), a wrong treatment duration (15.5%), and the use of an inadequate antibiotic (11.5%). There is a high level of inappropriateness in antibiotic prescribing in primary care. The high level of under-recording of diagnoses, mainly in elderly patients, followed by the use of wrong schedules, and the wrong type of antibiotics were the main reasons of inappropriateness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area after using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulkan, Marcelo; Sá, Alvaro Julio de Andrade; Alonso, Nivaldo

    2012-10-01

    Describe a modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages. A modified surgical technique was used to obtain, carve and insert cartilage grafts over alar nasal cartilages. This study used standardized pictures and measured 90 cadaveric nostril cross-sectional area using Autocad(®); 30 were taken before any procedure and 60 were taken after grafts over lateral crura (30 using costal cartilage and 30 using septal cartilage). Statistical analysis were assessed using a model for repeated measures and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) for the variable "area". There's statistical evidence that rib cartilage graft is more effective than septal cartilage graft. The mean area after the insertion of septal cartilage graft is smaller than the mean area under rib graft treatment (no confidence interval for mean difference contains the zero value and all P-values are below the significance level of 5%). The technique presented is applicable to increase nostril cross section area in cadavers. This modified technique revealed to enhance more nostril cross section area with costal cartilage graft over lateral crura rather than by septal graft.

  20. Effect of Wrist Deviation on Median Nerve Cross-Sectional Area at Proximal Carpal Tunnel Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yeap LOH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders among computer users. Computer users exhibit various wrist angles while typing. Dynamic changes of wrist angle may cause different degrees of median nerve compression. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the effects of the combination of wrist flexion-extension with wrist deviation on median nerve cross-sectional area (MNCSA.Methods:  Eight right-handed participants were recruited in this study. Both wrists were examined by sonographic ultrasound (US at the proximal carpal tunnel level in the transverse plane. A total of nine wrist positions were examined, including wrist neutral (WN, wrist flexion (WF30°, and wrist extension (WE30°, together with three wrist deviation conditions, namely, without radial deviation (RD and ulnar deviation (UD, with maximal RD and with maximal UD. MNCSA was measured by tracing method with ImageJ.Results: Paired t-test showed a significant difference of WN MNCSA between the dominant hand (7.93 ± 0.63 mm2 and the non-dominant hand (6.98 ± 0.42 mm2 (P<0.001. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (handedness as an independent factor showed that WF30° and WE30° caused significant differences of MNCSA when compared with WN (P<0.001. However, wrist RD/UD did not have a significant interaction with the changes of MNCSA in WN, WF and WE positions.Conclusion: The results indicate a significant reduction of MNCSA when WN changed to WF and WE. Wrist RD and UD did not cause significant changes of MNCSA at different wrist positions. Keywords: Median nerve, Ultrasound, Wrist active holding, Nerve deformation

  1. Simulations of IEF in microchannel with variable cross-sectional area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yin; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2009-03-01

    This study develops a 1-D mass transport model to describe the electrophoresis transport behavior within a microchannel with a variable cross-sectional area. Utilizing three different numerical schemes, simulations are performed to investigate the IEF of proteins in ampholyte-based pH gradients within both a planar microchannel and a contraction-expansion microchannel, respectively. The simulation results obtained using the modified 1-D mass transport model and the finite-volume method (FVM) for the IEF separation of a single protein sample in a ten-ampholyte-based pH gradient within a planar microchannel are consistent with those presented by Shim et al. [Electrophoresis 2007, 28, 572-586] using a 2-D FVM scheme. In addition, the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number insensitive conservation element and solution element (CNI-CESE) method is found to be both more robust and more computationally efficient than the conventional CESE scheme when modeling IEF phenomena within a contraction-expansion microchannel. In modeling the IEF separation of four sample ampholytes in a 20-ampholtye-based pH gradient within a contraction-expansion microchannel, the results obtained using the CNI-CESE scheme are in good agreement with those published in literature. Moreover, the simulations can be performed significantly faster with the new 1-D model and the CNI-CESE scheme. Finally, the results obtained using the modified 1-D mass transport model and the CNI-CESE scheme demonstrate that the concentration of the focused test sample and the resolution of the pH gradient within the microchannel increase as the number of ampholytes used to accomplish the IEF separation process is increased.

  2. Reliability and Validity of Ultrasound Cross Sectional Area Measurements for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Martin, David S.; Cunningham, David; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Hackney, Kyle J.; Arzeno, Natalia; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Limb muscle atrophy and the accompanying decline in function can adversely affect the performance of astronauts during mission-related activities and upon re-ambulation in a gravitational environment. Previous characterization of space flight-induced muscle atrophy has been performed using pre and post flight magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to being costly and time consuming, MRI is an impractical methodology for assessing in-flight changes in muscle size. Given the mobility of ultrasound (US) equipment, it may be more feasible to evaluate changes in muscle size using this technique. PURPOSE: To examine the reliability and validity of using a customized template to acquire panoramic ultrasound (US) images for determining quadriceps and gastrocnemius anatomical cross sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) CSA were assessed in 10 healthy individuals (36+/-2 yrs) using US and MRI. Panoramic US images were acquired by 2 sonographers using a customized template placed on the thigh and calf and analyzed by the same 2 sonographers (CX50 Philips). MRI images of the leg were acquired while subjects were supine in a 1.5T scanner (Signa Horizon LX, General Electric) and were analyzed by 3 trained investigators. The average of the 2 US and 3 MRI values were used for validity analysis. RESULTS: High inter-experimenter reliability was found for both the US template and MRI analysis as coefficients of variation across muscles ranged from 2.4 to 4.1% and 2.8 to 3.8%, respectively. Significant correlations were found between US and MRI CSA measures (VL, r = 0.85; RF, r = 0.60; MG, r = 0.86; LG, r = 0.73; p muscles. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that utilizing a customized US template provides reliable measures of leg muscle CSA, and thus could be used to characterize changes in muscle CSA both in flight and on the ground.

  3. Median nerve cross-sectional area and MRI diffusion characteristics: normative values at the carpal tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lawrence; Gai, Neville [Clinical Center, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Enlargement of the median nerve is an objective potential imaging sign of carpal tunnel syndrome. Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) may provide additional structural information that may prove useful in characterizing median neuropathy. This study further examines normal values for median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Twenty-three wrists in 17 healthy volunteers underwent MRI of the wrist at 3 T. In 13 subjects, DTI was performed at a B value of 600 mm{sup 2}/s. Median nerve CSA, ADC, and FA were analyzed at standardized anatomic levels. Mean (SD) median nerve CSA within the proximal carpal tunnel was 10.0 (3.4) mm{sup 2}. The mean (SD) FA of the median nerve was 0.71 (0.06) and 0.70 (0.13) proximal to and within the carpal tunnel, respectively. There was a significant difference between nerve CSA and ADC, but not FA, at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel. Nerve CSA, ADC, and FA did not differ between men and women or between dominant and non-dominant wrists. Nerve CSA at the proximal carpal tunnel was positively correlated with subject age and body mass index. Our results suggest a 90% upper confidence limit for normal median nerve CSA of 14.4 mm{sup 2} at the proximal carpal tunnel, higher than normal limits reported by many ultrasound studies. We observed a difference between the CSA and ADC, but not the FA, of the median nerve at the distal forearm and proximal carpal tunnel levels. (orig.)

  4. The effect of scaling physiological cross-sectional area on musculoskeletal model predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsterlee, Bart; Vardy, Alistair N; van der Helm, Frans C T; Veeger, H E J DirkJan

    2015-07-16

    Personalisation of model parameters is likely to improve biomechanical model predictions and could allow models to be used for subject- or patient-specific applications. This study evaluates the effect of personalising physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA) in a large-scale musculoskeletal model of the upper extremity. Muscle volumes obtained from MRI were used to scale PCSAs of five subjects, for whom the maximum forces they could exert in six different directions on a handle held by the hand were also recorded. The effect of PCSA scaling was evaluated by calculating the lowest maximum muscle stress (σmax, a constant for human skeletal muscle) required by the model to reproduce these forces. When the original cadaver-based PCSA-values were used, strongly different between-subject σmax-values were found (σmax=106.1±39.9 N cm(-2)). A relatively simple, uniform scaling routine reduced this variation substantially (σmax=69.4±9.4 N cm(-2)) and led to similar results to when a more detailed, muscle-specific scaling routine was used (σmax=71.2±10.8 N cm(-2)). Using subject-specific PCSA values to simulate an shoulder abduction task changed muscle force predictions for the subscapularis and the pectoralis major on average by 33% and 21%, respectively, but was force changed less than 1.5% as a result of scaling. We conclude that individualisation of the model's strength can most easily be done by scaling PCSA with a single factor that can be derived from muscle volume data or, alternatively, from maximum force measurements. However, since PCSA scaling only marginally changed muscle and joint contact force predictions for submaximal tasks, the need for PCSA scaling remains debatable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area Enlargement Is Associated with Aging in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Magnano

    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein (IJV narrowing has been implicated in central nervous system pathologies, however normal physiological age- and gender-related IJV variance in healthy individuals (HIs has not been adequately assessed.We assessed the relationship between IJV cross-sectional area (CSA and aging.This study involved 193 HIs (63 males and 130 females who received 2-dimensional magnetic resonance venography at 3T. The minimum CSA of the IJVs at cervical levels C2/C3, C4, C5/C6, and C7/T1 was obtained using a semi-automated contouring-thresholding technique. Subjects were grouped by decade. Pearson and partial correlation (controlled for cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, heart disease, smoking and body mass index and analysis of variance analyses were used, with paired t-tests comparing side differences.Mean right IJV CSA ranges were: in males, 41.6 mm2 (C2/C3 to 82.0 mm2 (C7/T1; in females, 38.0 mm2 (C2/C3 to 62.3 mm2 (C7/T1, while the equivalent left side ranges were: in males, 28.0 mm2 (C2/C3 to 52.2 mm2 (C7/T1; in females, 27.2 mm2 (C2/C3 to 47.8 mm2 (C7/T1. The CSA of the right IJVs was significantly larger (p<0.001 than the left at all cervical levels. Controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, the correlation between age and IJV CSA was more robust in males than in the females for all cervical levels.In HIs age, gender, hand side and cervical location all affect IJV CSA. These findings suggest that any definition of IJV stenosis needs to account for these factors.

  6. Pulmonary artery diameters, cross sectional areas and area changes measured by cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Elisabeth D; Keegan, Jennifer; Kilner, Philip J

    2016-03-03

    We measured by cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) main and branch pulmonary artery diameters and cross sectional areas in diastole and systole in order to establish normal ranges and the effects on them of age, gender and body surface area (BSA). Documentation of normal ranges provides a reference for research and clinical investigation in the fields of congenital heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and connective tissue disorders. We recruited 120 healthy volunteers: ten males (M) and ten females (F) in each decile between 20 and 79 years, imaging them in a 1.5 Tesla CMR system. Scout acquisitions guided the placement of steady state free precession cine acquisitions transecting the main, right and left pulmonary arteries (MPA, RPA and LPA). Cross sections were rarely quite circular. From all subjects, the means of the greater and lesser orthogonal diastolic diameters in mm were: MPA, 22.9 ± 2.4 (M) and 21.2 ± 2.1 (F), RPA 16.6 ± 2.8 (M) and 14.7 ± 2.2 (F), and LPA 17.3 ± 2.5 (M) and 15.9 ± 2.0 (F), p cine CMR are provided for reference, with documentation of their changes with age and BSA.

  7. Alcohol use in a military population deployed in combat areas: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwella Raveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is more prevalent among military populations. Association between PTSD and heavy drinking have been reported in many studies. Most of the studies on alcohol use among military personnel are from US and UK. Aim of this study is to describe alcohol consumption patterns among military personnel in Sri Lanka, a country where the alcohol consumption among the general population are very different to that in US and UK. Methods Cross sectional study consisting of representative samples of Sri Lanka Navy Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas continuously during a one year period was carried out. Data was collected using a self report questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess alcohol consumption. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. The median AUDIT score was 2.0 (interquartile range 6.0. Prevalence of current drinking was 71.2 %. Of the current users 54.81 % were infrequent users (frequency ≤ once a month while 37.87 % of users consumed 2–4 times a month. Prevalence of hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8 was 16.69 % and binge drinking 14.01 %. Five (0.75 % had AUDIT total ≥20. There was no significant difference between Special Forces and regular forces in hazardous drinking or binge drinking. Total AUDIT score ≥16 were associated with difficulty performing work. Conclusions High rates of hazardous drinking and binge drinking described among military personnel in US and UK were not seen among SLN personnel deployed in combat areas. This finding contrasts with previously reported association between combat exposure and hazardous alcohol use among military personnel. Alcohol use among military personnel may be significantly influenced by alcohol consumption patterns among the general population, access to alcohol and attitudes about alcohol use. Similar to findings from other countries, heavy

  8. Ultrasonographic quantification of intrinsic hand muscle cross-sectional area; Reliability and validity for predicting muscle strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohseny, Behnam; Nijhuis, Tim H.; Hundepool, Caroline A.; Janssen, Wim G.; Selles, Ruud W.; Coert, J. Henk

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether ultrasonographic measurement of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the intrinsic hand muscles can be used to predict muscle strength in a valid and reliable manner, and to determine if this method can be used for follow-up of patients with peripheral nerve injury betw

  9. Urethral pressure reflectometry. A method for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area (CA) in the female urethra, denoted Urethral Pressure Reflectometry (UPR), was devised. A very thin and highly flexible polyurethane-bag was placed in the urethra. A pump applied increasing and decreasing pressur...

  10. Human capital growth in a cross section of U.S. metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Christopher H.

    2005-01-01

    Growth of human capital, defined as the change in the fraction of a metropolitan area's labor force with a bachelor's degree, is typically viewed as generating a number of desirable outcomes, including economic growth. Yet, in spite of its importance, few empirical studies have explored why some economies accumulate more human capital than others. This paper attempts to do so using a sample of more than 200 metropolitan areas in the United States over the years 1980, 1990, and 2000. The resul...

  11. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó hAiseadha, Coilín

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources.

  12. Coping behavior and risk and resilience stress factors in French regional emergency medicine unit workers: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    AI, Lala; LM, Sturzu; JP, Picard; F, Druot; F, Grama; G, Bobirnac

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) has the highest workload in a hospital, offering care to patients in their most acute state of illness, as well as comforting their families and tending to stressful situations of the physical and psychological areal. Method. A cross-sectional survey of 366 Emergency Unit staff members including medical doctors, medical residents, medical nurses and ward aids, was undergone. Study participants came from four periphery hospitals in the Moselle Department of Easter...

  13. Urban sprawl, obesity, and cancer mortality in the United States: cross-sectional analysis and methodological challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Berrigan, David; Tatalovich, Zaria; Pickle, Linda W; Ewing, Reid; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban sprawl has the potential to influence cancer mortality via direct and indirect effects on obesity, access to health services, physical activity, transportation choices and other correlates of sprawl and urbanization. Methods This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of associations between urban sprawl and cancer mortality in urban and suburban counties of the United States. This ecological analysis was designed to examine whether urban sprawl is associated with total an...

  14. Diagnostic Usefulness of Ultrasonographic Examination of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: Analysis of Ulnar Nerve Cross-sectional Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Yu Mee; Hong, Suk Joo; Yoon, Joon Shik; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hyuk [Korea University Auam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of sonography for diagnosis of cubital tunnel syndrome (CUTS) confirmed by electrodiagnostic study. From February 2004 to March 2005, we prospectively analyzed 24 elbows in 19 patients (8 women, 11 men: mean age, 49.2 years: range 23-65 years) with cubital tunnel syndrome, including 5 bilateral cases. Diagnoses of CUTS were confirmed by both clinical symptom and electrodiagnostic study. Sonographic findings of 20 asymptomatic cases served as controls. In sonographic examination, the cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve was measured at the inlet (at the level of medial epicondyle) and outlet (at the level of convergence of flexor carpi ulnaris tendons) of the cubital tunnel. The shape and echogenicity of the ulnar nerve were also evaluated, as were possible causes of entrapment. The accuracy of using ultrasonographic cross sectional area to diagnose CUTS was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve at the inlet and outlet levels in CUTS patients was increased much more than in the asymptomatic cases. Decreased echogenicity and distortion of normal parallel echotexture of the ulnar nerve were observed in all CUTS patients. At the inlet level, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.816, and the ideal cut-off value for CUTS diagnosis was 0.08 cm{sup 2} with a sensitivity of 58.3%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 66.7%. At the distal outlet level, the AUC was 0.785, and the cut-off value was 0.06 cm{sup 2} with a sensitivity of 79.2%, specificity of 70%, PPV of 76%, and NPV of 73.7%. When the summation value of inlet and outlet cross sectional areas was used, the AUC was 0.853, and cut-off value was 0.14 cm{sup 2} with a sensitivity of 70.8%, specificity of 85%, PPV of 85%, and NPV of 70.8%. Measurement of the cross sectional area of the ulnar nerve at the inlet and outlet of the cubital

  15. The effect of high-resistance training on the strength and cross-sectional area of the human quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A; Stokes, M; Round, J M; Edwards, R H

    1983-10-01

    Seventeen volunteers performed unilateral strength-training of the quadriceps with high-resistance, low-repetition, dynamic exercise, thrice weekly for an average of 5 weeks. Both before and after the training period, bilateral measurements were made of isometric quadriceps strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (by ultrasound scanning), and thigh circumference. There were no significant changes in the untrained thighs. The trained quadriceps increased their isometric strength by more than they changed their cross-sectional area (mean increments = 15% and 6% respectively). Quadriceps hypertrophy was underestimated by measurements of thigh circumference and could not be predicted from them. We conclude that studies of localized muscle growth require direct measurements of the size of the muscle(s) concerned. Nevertheless, these may still underestimate the improvements in strength produced by high-resistance training.

  16. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwad Shaikh; R. G. Viveki; A.B. Halappanavar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which...

  17. Correlation of pontic design and partial edentulous areas: A one year cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: By definition, pontic is an artificial replacement of missing tooth (teeth which is essentially used to establish function and esthetics. In order to this fact that, pontic(s is not completely the same as tooth (teeth to be replaced, it may not be concern as a simple type of restoration to achieve the best result, it must be design from the esthetically and hygienically point of view as well as comfort, demand and tissue health of patient. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the pontic designs and their relationship to edentulous partial aras. "nMaterials and Methods: 73 pontics in 57 patients have been included in this cross-sectional study. These patients were under treatment in the department of prosthodontics. A primary cast was achieved from each patient and then the cross-sectional contour of edentulous ridge was depicted. For each patient the type of pontic design was derived from textbook standards and then compared with the design of actual verified Prosthesis at delivery. The shape of tissue surface of each denture was determined by a low viscous impression material. The result of each comparison was recorded in a chart data set. "nResults: The most common pontic design was Modified ridge lap with frequency of 93.2%. The type of ridge was %45.2 normal, %19.2 class I, %8.2 class II and %27.4 class III, respectively. %72.6 of pontics tested have inappropriate design in tissue surface. "nConclusion: It seems that in a high percentage of cases the tissue surface contour of prescribed pontics in department of prosthodontics was incorrect and more attention must be paid to the education of students and technicians.

  18. The african origin of complex projectile technology: an analysis using tip cross-sectional area and perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Matthew L; Shea, John J

    2011-01-01

    Despite a body of literature focusing on the functionality of modern and stylistically distinct projectile points, comparatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the functionality of the early stages of projectile use. Previous work identified a simple ballistics measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Area, as a way of determining if a given class of stone points could have served as effective projectile armatures. Here we use this in combination with an alternate measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Perimeter, a more accurate proxy of the force needed to penetrate a target to a lethal depth. The current study discusses this measure and uses it to analyze a collection of measurements from African Middle Stone Age pointed stone artifacts. Several point types that were rejected in previous studies are statistically indistinguishable from ethnographic projectile points using this new measure. The ramifications of this finding for a Middle Stone Age origin of complex projectile technology is discussed.

  19. The African Origin of Complex Projectile Technology: An Analysis Using Tip Cross-Sectional Area and Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Sisk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a body of literature focusing on the functionality of modern and stylistically distinct projectile points, comparatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the functionality of the early stages of projectile use. Previous work identified a simple ballistics measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Area, as a way of determining if a given class of stone points could have served as effective projectile armatures. Here we use this in combination with an alternate measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Perimeter, a more accurate proxy of the force needed to penetrate a target to a lethal depth. The current study discusses this measure and uses it to analyze a collection of measurements from African Middle Stone Age pointed stone artifacts. Several point types that were rejected in previous studies are statistically indistinguishable from ethnographic projectile points using this new measure. The ramifications of this finding for a Middle Stone Age origin of complex projectile technology is discussed.

  20. Alternative method for estimating the cross-sectional interpolation errors of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the quality of discharge measurements by uncertainty analysis is a challenge in the hydrometric community. Discharge measurements are the first step to produce hydrometric data which are used in many hydrological studies like design of hydraulic structures or calibration of hydrological models for flood forecasting and warning. Thus associated uncertainty has to be estimated carefully. The velocity-area method is a common approach for estimating river discharge. It consists in integrating depths and point velocities through the cross-section. Due to the limited number of point measurements, the quality of the measurement depends mainly on the sampling strategy. Different methods of uncertainty estimation are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q+ and IVE). The main uncertainty component, noted um, is often related to the cross-sectional interpolation errors. However the computation of this term according to these approaches does not evaluate both the sampling strategy and the complexity of the cross-section. The FLAURE method (FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation) includes a new methodology to estimate this term. It is based on the study of high-resolution stream-gaugings (i.e. reference stream-gaugings made with a high number of verticals). The high-resolution measurements are first subsampled by reducing the number of verticals to generate a sample of realistic stream-gaugings. A statistical analysis is performed to estimate the um component and then a sampling quality index is defined. For each reference stream-gauging, it leads to a curve of um component as a function of the sampling quality index. This set of curves is finally used to compute the um component of any routine stream-gauging. Curves are then selected according to the similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings. The similitude between the routine stream-gauging and reference stream-gaugings is evaluated thanks to the Nash criteria computed on lateral

  1. A cross sectional study on health status of infants in rural areas of Kamrup, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhur Borah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Infancy is the period of growth and development of a child. Inadequate care, malnutrition and infections in this crucial period lead to high neonatal and infant deaths and also high prevalence of morbidities. But data on childhood and infant mortality and morbidities are still not adequate in North Eastern part of India, so this cross sectional study was initiated. Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and morbidity profile of infants and to study the associated socio-economic factors. Material and methods: Total 450 singleton infants under 1 year of age in 30 cluster villages were selected for the study. Data collected about socioeconomic condition of the family, infants’ nutrition and morbidity status and anthropometric measurements were done. Results: Out of 450 infants 24% were found to be underweight while 13.3% were stunted and 7.1% were wasted. Female infants were found to be more malnourished. A statistically significant association was found between gender and nutritional status. ARI (20% and Diarrhoea (14% were the most common morbidities among the study population and 6 to 8 months age group was the most vulnerable for these common morbidities. Conclusion: the study revealed that high percentages of the infants were suffering from malnutrition with female predominance and respiratory diseases, diarrhoea and malnutrition were the major causes of morbidity during the first year of life.

  2. Urban sprawl, obesity, and cancer mortality in the United States: cross-sectional analysis and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrigan, David; Tatalovich, Zaria; Pickle, Linda W; Ewing, Reid; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-01-06

    Urban sprawl has the potential to influence cancer mortality via direct and indirect effects on obesity, access to health services, physical activity, transportation choices and other correlates of sprawl and urbanization. This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of associations between urban sprawl and cancer mortality in urban and suburban counties of the United States. This ecological analysis was designed to examine whether urban sprawl is associated with total and obesity-related cancer mortality and to what extent these associations differed in different regions of the US. A major focus of our analyses was to adequately account for spatial heterogeneity in mortality. Therefore, we fit a series of regression models, stratified by gender, successively testing for the presence of spatial heterogeneity. Our resulting models included county level variables related to race, smoking, obesity, access to health services, insurance status, socioeconomic position, and broad geographic region as well as a measure of urban sprawl and several interactions. Our most complex models also included random effects to account for any county-level spatial autocorrelation that remained unexplained by these variables. Total cancer mortality rates were higher in less sprawling areas and contrary to our initial hypothesis; this was also true of obesity related cancers in six of seven U.S. regions (census divisions) where there were statistically significant associations between the sprawl index and mortality. We also found significant interactions (p obesity related cancer mortality in both sexes. Thus, the association between urban sprawl and cancer mortality differs in different regions of the US. Despite higher levels of obesity in more sprawling counties in the US, mortality from obesity related cancer was not greater in such counties. Identification of disparities in cancer mortality within and between geographic regions is an ongoing public health challenge and an

  3. Thinness among preschool children residing in rural area: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh K Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The legacy of malnutrition especially among preschool children is a huge obstacle to overall national development. India is home to more than one-third of the world′s under-nourished children. While there is global acceptance that body mass index (BMI should be used for assessment of obesity/adiposity in children, there has not been a similar consensus regarding use of BMI for assessment of under-nutrition in children. Materials and Methods: The present study was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out in a primary health center between January and December 2011. Study population comprised of 697 children aged between 2 and 5 years. Weight (kg and height (cm measurements were taken on each subject, and BMI was computed. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Cole′s age- and sex-specific cut-off points of BMI. One-way ANOVA (F-test was performed to test for age differences in means of weight, height, and BMI using SPSS statistical package. Results: A total of 339 boys and 358 females were studied. Result showed that age-combined prevalence of under-nutrition (Grades I, II, and III combined among boys and girls was 63.4% and 58.6% respectively with an overall prevalence of 61.7%. There were significant mean differences between ages among boys in weight (F = 4.160; P < 0.001 and height (F = 6.502; P < 0.001. However, no significant mean differences between ages for BMI (F = 1.098; P = 0.295. Similar findings were seen among girls where in significant differences were observed in weight (F = 3.125, P < 0.001 and height (F = 6.895; P < 0.001 but not with BMI (F = 1.091; P = 0.311. Conclusion: Our study provided evidence that these children were under acute and chronic nutritional stress in the form of thinness.

  4. Constructing river stage-discharge rating curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feifei; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing from satellites and airborne platforms provides valuable data for monitoring and gauging river discharge. One effective approach first estimates river stage from satellite-measured inundation area based on the inundation area-river stage relationship (IARSR), and then the estimated river stage is used to compute river discharge based on the stage-discharge rating (SDR) curve. However, this approach is difficult to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the SDR curves. This study proposes a new method to construct the SDR curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry. The proposed method was tested over a river reach between two USGS gauging stations, i.e., Kingston Mines (KM) and Copperas Creek (CC) along the Illinois River. First a polygon over each of two cross sections was defined. A complete IARSR curve was constructed inside each polygon using digital elevation model (DEM) and river bathymetric data. The constructed IARSR curves were then used to estimate 47 river water surface elevations at each cross section based on 47 river inundation areas estimated from Landsat TM images collected during 1994-2002. The estimated water surface elevations were substituted into an objective function formed by the Bernoulli equation of gradually varied open channel flow. A nonlinear global optimization scheme was applied to solve the Manning's coefficient through minimizing the objective function value. Finally the SDR curve was constructed at the KM site using the solved Manning's coefficient, channel cross sectional geometry and the Manning's equation, and employed to estimate river discharges. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the estimated river discharges against the USGS measured river discharges is 112.4 m3/s. To consider the variation of the Manning's coefficient in the vertical direction, this study also suggested a power-law function to describe the vertical decline of the Manning

  5. Area deprivation and its association with health in a cross-sectional study: are the results biased by recent migration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piro Fredrik

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between area deprivation and health has mostly been examined in cross-sectional studies or prospective studies with short follow-up. These studies have rarely taken migration into account. This is a possible source of misclassification of exposure, i.e. an unknown number of study participants are attributed an exposure of area deprivation that they may have experienced too short for it to have any influence. The aim of this article was to examine to what extent associations between area deprivation and health outcomes were biased by recent migration. Methods Based on data from the Oslo Health Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2000 in Oslo, Norway, we used six health outcomes (self rated health, mental health, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking and exercise and considered migration nine years prior to the study conduct. Migration into Oslo, between the areas of Oslo, and the changes in area deprivation during the period were taken into account. Associations were investigated by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results After adjustment for individual socio-demographic variables we found significant associations between area deprivation and all health outcomes. Accounting for migration into Oslo and between areas of Oslo did not change these associations much. However, the people who migrated into Oslo were younger and had lower prevalences of unfavourable health outcomes than those who were already living in Oslo. But since they were evenly distributed across the area deprivation quintiles, they had little influence on the associations between area deprivation and health. Evidence of selective migration within Oslo was weak, as both moving up and down in the deprivation hierarchy was associated with significantly worse health than not moving. Conclusion We have documented significant associations between area deprivation and health outcomes in Oslo after

  6. Sonographic evaluation of supraspinatus cross-sectional area in collegiate baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chu, Samuel K; Ramirez Del Toro, Jose; Karnaugh, Ronald D; Dentico, Richard; Komaroff, Eugene

    2012-07-01

    To establish the normal thickness of the supraspinatus tendon in collegiate baseball players with the use of ultrasound and to determine whether there are any significant differences between the dominant and nondominant supraspinatus thickness. A cross-sectional observational study. An outpatient clinical setting. Twelve healthy, asymptomatic collegiate pitchers between the ages of 19 and 22 years. Sonographic evaluation of 12 asymptomatic pitchers (9 right-hand dominant and 3 left-hand dominant) between the ages of 19 and 22 years was performed in a transverse plane (short axis) and longitudinal view (long axis) of their right and left shoulders. Maximum thickness was measured in both the long- and short-axis views. On the long-axis view, measurement was taken at the point where there was maximal height observed at the footprint insertion. Mixed-model analysis of variance was used to test for differences in tendon thickness across factors. Post hoc contrasts were performed with a Tukey adjustment for the P values. The mean ± SD values, side-to-side difference, and difference between dominant and nondominant values were calculated and statistically analyzed for differences. An ultrasound examination showed a significant 3-way interaction (P = .038) for view by side of hand dominance. Post hoc contrasts revealed that supraspinatus tendon thickness for right-handed pitchers in the long-axis view on the right side showed a mean value of 8.0 ± 0.32 mm versus the long-axis view on the left side of 6.5 ± 0.34 mm (P = .006) and the short-axis view on the right of 7.4 ± 0.40 mm versus the short-axis view on the left of 6.1 ± 0.26 mm (P = .036). Supraspinatus tendon thickness for left-handed pitchers in the long-axis view on the left side showed a mean value of 7.5 ± 0.59 mm versus the long-axis view on the right side of 5.9 ± 0.56 mm (P = .137) and the short-axis view on the left of 6.5 ± 0.45 mm versus the short-axis view on the right of 6.5 ± 0.68 mm (P = .999

  7. The in vivo relationship between cross-sectional area and CT dose index in abdominal multidetector CT with automatic exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeson, S; Alvey, C M; Golding, S J, E-mail: stuart.meeson@nds.ox.ac.u [Radiology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The relationship between patient cross-sectional area and both volume CT dose index (CTDI) and dose length product was explored for abdominal CT in vivo, using a 16 multidetector row CT (MDCT) scanner with automatic exposure control. During a year-long retrospective survey of patients with MDCT for symptoms of abdominal sepsis, cross-sectional areas were estimated using customised ellipses at the level of the middle of vertebra L3. The relationship between cross-sectional area and the exposure parameters was explored. Scans were performed using a LightSpeed 16 (GE Healthcare Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) operated with tube current modulation. From a survey of 94 patients it was found that the CTDI increased with the increase in patient cross-sectional area. The relationship was logarithmic rather than linear, with a least-squares fit to the data (R{sup 2} = 0.80). For abdominal CT the cross-sectional area gave a measure of patient size based on the region of the body to be exposed. Exposure parameters increased with increasing cross-sectional area and the greater radiation exposure of larger patients was partly a consequence of their size. Given increasing obesity levels we believe that cross-sectional area and scan length should be added to future dose surveys, allowing patient size to be considered as a factor of relevance when examining population doses.

  8. Associations of muscle force, power, cross-sectional muscle area and bone geometry in older UK men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Ayse; Pye, Stephen R; Cook, Michael J; Adams, Judith E; Rawer, Rainer; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W; Ward, Kate A

    2017-08-01

    Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and increased fall risk, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Mechanically, bone strength adapts in response to forces created by muscle contractions. Adaptations can be through changes in bone size, geometry, and bending strength. Muscle mass is often used as a surrogate for muscle force; however, force can be increased without changes in muscle mass. Increased fall risk with ageing has been associated with a decline in muscle power-which is a measure of mobility. The aims of this study were as follows: (i) to investigate the relationship between muscle parameters in the upper and lower limbs with age in UK men and the influence of ethnicity on these relationships; (ii) to examine the relationships between jump force/grip strength/cross-sectional muscle area (CSMA) with bone outcomes at the radius and tibia. White European, Black Afro-Caribbean, and South Asian men aged 40-79 years were recruited from Manchester, UK. Cortical bone mineral content, cross-sectional area, cortical area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, and CSMA were measured at the diaphysis of the radius and tibia using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Lower limb jump force and power were measured from a single two-legged jump performed on a ground-reaction force platform. Grip strength was measured using a dynamometer. Associations between muscle and bone outcomes was determined using linear regression with adjustments for age, height, weight, and ethnicity. Three hundred and one men were recruited. Jump force was negatively associated with age; for every 10 year increase in age, there was a 4% reduction in jump force (P power (P = 0.039); after adjustments, this was attenuated (P = 0.088). For every 10 year increase in age, grip strength decreased by 11%. Jump force was positively associated with tibial bone outcomes: a 1 standard deviation greater jump force was associated with significantly higher cortical

  9. Quantitative ultrasound method for assessing stress-strain properties and the cross-sectional area of Achilles tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yung-Fu; Li, Chien-Ming; Lin, Chia-Hung; Yang, Chia-En; Wu, Jian-Xing; Chen, Tainsong

    2013-12-01

    The Achilles tendon is one of the most commonly observed tendons injured with a variety of causes, such as trauma, overuse and degeneration, in the human body. Rupture and tendinosis are relatively common for this strong tendon. Stress-strain properties and shape change are important biomechanical properties of the tendon to assess surgical repair or healing progress. Currently, there are rather limited non-invasive methods available for precisely quantifying the in vivo biomechanical properties of the tendons. The aim of this study was to apply quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods, including ultrasonic attenuation and speed of sound (SOS), to investigate porcine tendons in different stress-strain conditions. In order to find a reliable method to evaluate the change of tendon shape, ultrasound measurement was also utilized for measuring tendon thickness and compared with the change in tendon cross-sectional area under different stress. A total of 15 porcine tendons of hind trotters were examined. The test results show that the attenuation and broadband ultrasound attenuation decreased and the SOS increased by a smaller magnitude as the uniaxial loading of the stress-strain upon tendons increased. Furthermore, the tendon thickness measured with the ultrasound method was significantly correlated with tendon cross-sectional area (Pearson coefficient = 0.86). These results also indicate that attenuation of QUS and ultrasonic thickness measurement are reliable and potential parameters for assessing biomechanical properties of tendons. Further investigations are needed to warrant the application of the proposed method in a clinical setting.

  10. Estimation of unemployment rates using small area estimation model by combining time series and cross-sectional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchlisoh, Siti; Kurnia, Anang; Notodiputro, Khairil Anwar; Mangku, I. Wayan

    2016-02-01

    Labor force surveys conducted over time by the rotating panel design have been carried out in many countries, including Indonesia. Labor force survey in Indonesia is regularly conducted by Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik-BPS) and has been known as the National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas). The main purpose of Sakernas is to obtain information about unemployment rates and its changes over time. Sakernas is a quarterly survey. The quarterly survey is designed only for estimating the parameters at the provincial level. The quarterly unemployment rate published by BPS (official statistics) is calculated based on only cross-sectional methods, despite the fact that the data is collected under rotating panel design. The study purpose to estimate a quarterly unemployment rate at the district level used small area estimation (SAE) model by combining time series and cross-sectional data. The study focused on the application and comparison between the Rao-Yu model and dynamic model in context estimating the unemployment rate based on a rotating panel survey. The goodness of fit of both models was almost similar. Both models produced an almost similar estimation and better than direct estimation, but the dynamic model was more capable than the Rao-Yu model to capture a heterogeneity across area, although it was reduced over time.

  11. Are Sport-Specific Profiles of Tendon Stiffness and Cross-Sectional Area Determined by Structural or Functional Integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Wiesinger

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine whether distinct sets of tendon properties are seen in athletes engaged in sports with contrasting requirements for tendon function and structural integrity. Patellar and Achilles tendon morphology and force-deformation relation were measured by combining ultrasonography, electromyography and dynamometry in elite ski jumpers, distance runners, water polo players and sedentary individuals. Tendon cross-sectional area normalized to body mass2/3 was smaller in water polo players than in other athletes (patellar and Achilles tendon; -28 to -24% or controls (patellar tendon only; -9%. In contrast, the normalized cross-sectional area was larger in runners (patellar tendon only; +26% and ski jumpers (patellar and Achilles tendon; +21% and +13%, respectively than in controls. Tendon stiffness normalized to body mass2/3 only differed in ski jumpers, compared to controls (patellar and Achilles tendon; +11% and +27%, respectively and to water polo players (Achilles tendon only; +23%. Tendon size appears as an adjusting variable to changes in loading volume and/or intensity, possibly to preserve ultimate strength or fatigue resistance. However, uncoupled morphological and mechanical properties indicate that functional requirements may also influence tendon adaptations.

  12. Surgical Procedures of the Elbow: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Observational Study in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kinaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Elbow surgery is shared by several subspecialties. We were curious about the most common elbow surgeries and their corresponding diagnoses in the United States.   Methods:  We used the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS data gathered in 2006-databases that together provide an estimate of all inpatient and ambulatory surgical care in the US.  Results:  An estimated 150,000 elbow surgeries were performed in the US in 2006, 75% in an outpatient setting. The most frequent diagnosis treated operative was enthesopathy (e.g. lateral epicondylitis and it was treated with several different procedures. More than three quarters of all elbow surgeries treated enthesopathy, cubital tunnel syndrome, or fracture (radial head in particular. Arthroscopy and arthroplasty accounted for less than 10% of all elbow surgeries.  Conclusions:  Elbow surgery in the United States primarily addresses enthesopathies such as tennis elbow, cubital tunnel syndrome, and trauma. It is notable that some of the most common elbow surgeries (those that address enthesopathy and radial head fracture are some of the most variably utilized and debated.

  13. Urban sprawl, obesity, and cancer mortality in the United States: cross-sectional analysis and methodological challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban sprawl has the potential to influence cancer mortality via direct and indirect effects on obesity, access to health services, physical activity, transportation choices and other correlates of sprawl and urbanization. Methods This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of associations between urban sprawl and cancer mortality in urban and suburban counties of the United States. This ecological analysis was designed to examine whether urban sprawl is associated with total and obesity-related cancer mortality and to what extent these associations differed in different regions of the US. A major focus of our analyses was to adequately account for spatial heterogeneity in mortality. Therefore, we fit a series of regression models, stratified by gender, successively testing for the presence of spatial heterogeneity. Our resulting models included county level variables related to race, smoking, obesity, access to health services, insurance status, socioeconomic position, and broad geographic region as well as a measure of urban sprawl and several interactions. Our most complex models also included random effects to account for any county-level spatial autocorrelation that remained unexplained by these variables. Results Total cancer mortality rates were higher in less sprawling areas and contrary to our initial hypothesis; this was also true of obesity related cancers in six of seven U.S. regions (census divisions) where there were statistically significant associations between the sprawl index and mortality. We also found significant interactions (p obesity related cancer mortality in both sexes. Thus, the association between urban sprawl and cancer mortality differs in different regions of the US. Conclusions Despite higher levels of obesity in more sprawling counties in the US, mortality from obesity related cancer was not greater in such counties. Identification of disparities in cancer mortality within and between geographic regions is an

  14. Blood pressure control in hypertensive patients within Family Health Program versus at Primary Healthcare Units: analytical cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Telma Lima; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib; Silva, Edina Mariko Koga da

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem due to its high prevalence and long-term cardiovascular complications. In Brazil in 2005, cardiovascular diseases were responsible for 28% of all deaths. Efforts are being made within primary care to achieve adequate hypertension control. The Family Health Program (FHP) has the aims of promoting quality of life and intervening in factors that put this at risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of blood pressure control among patients followed up at FHP units compared with those at primary healthcare units (PHUs). Analytical cross-sectional study in the municipality of Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, from January to December 2005. Five hundred patients with a diagnosis of hypertension were included: 250 were being followed up at two FHP units and 250 at two PHUs. The diagnosis of hypertension was based on the Fourth Brazilian Hypertension Consensus, and the patients needed to have been under follow-up at the units for at least 12 months. Patients' blood pressure was considered to be under control if it was less than 140/90 mmHg at the last consultation. Blood pressure was under control in 29.2% (n = 73) at FHP units and 39.23% (n = 98) at PHUs (odds ratio = 0.64; confidence interval = 0.44-0.93; P = 0.024). Blood pressure control was better among patients followed up at PHUs than among those followed up at FHP units.

  15. EFFECTS OF STABILIZATION EXERCISE USING A BALL ON MUTIFIDUS CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SinHo Chung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises using balls to the effects of general lumbar stabilization exercises with respect to changes in the cross section of the multifidus (MF, weight bearing, pain, and functional disorders in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain. Twelve patients participated in either a 8 week (3 days per week stabilization exercise program using balls and control group (n = 12. The computer tomography (CT was used to analyze MF cross-sectional areas (CSA and Tetrax balancing scale was used to analyze left and right weight bearing differences. Both groups had significant changes in the CSA of the MF by segment after training (p < 0.05 and the experimental group showed greater increases at the L4 (F = 9.854, p = 0.005 and L5 (F = 39. 266, p = 0.000. Both groups showed significant decreases in weight bearing, from 9.25% to 5.83% in the experimental group and from 9.33% to 4.25% in the control group (p < 0.05, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. These results suggests that stabilization exercises using ball can increases in the CSA of the MF segments, improvement in weight bearing, pain relief, and recovery from functional disorders, and the increases in the CSA of the MF of the L4 and L5 segments for patients with low back pain

  16. Analytical Model of Inlet Growth and Equilibrium Cross-Sectional Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Sectional Area by Richard Styles PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) focuses on inlet stability theory in...earlier treatments, Escoffier used the hydraulic radius instead of water depth in the friction term (Walton and Escoffier 1981). However, the ratio of...a0) tidal amplitude ratio. The details can be found in his original work and are not presented here except to note that Escoffier introduced two

  17. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  18. Work with visual display units and musculoskeletal disorders: A cross-sectional study

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    Matteo Riccò

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that employees working with visual display units (VDU are more likely to complain about musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. The aim of this study has been to evaluate associations among MSDs and individuals and work-related factors. Material and Methods: A total of 1032 VDU workers were assessed about their personal (i.e., age, working history, smoking history, physical activity and work-related factors (i.e., predominant job tasks performed, work posture. Work environment was evaluated regarding fulfillment of the standard ISO 9241-5:1998. The investigation required a direct observation of participants (in order to accurately assess the prevalence of MSDs and workstations. Adjusted odds ratios (ORa were calculated by means of the logistic regression model. Results: Prevalence of MSDs was relatively high (53%. In general, MSDs were significantly associated with female sex (OR = 2.832, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.178–3.683, age ≥ 50 years old (OR = 2.231, 95% CI: 1.236–4.026, longer exposure to VDU, both as working history (10–14 years: OR = 1.934, 95% CI: 1.301–2.875; ≥ 15 years: OR = 2.223, 95% CI: 1.510–3.271 and working time (30–39 h/week: OR = 1.537, 95% CI: 1.087–2.273. Inappropriate workstation design was confirmed by the multivariate analysis as a risk factor for MSDs (ORa = 2.375, 95% CI: 1.124–5.018. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal disorders were significantly associated with individual factors as well as characteristics of work environment. An appropriate design of workstations may significantly reduce their prevalence amongst VDU workers. Med Pr 2016;67(6:707–719

  19. Work with visual display units and musculoskeletal disorders: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Gualerzi, Giovanni; Signorelli, Carlo

    2016-12-22

    Epidemiological studies have shown that employees working with visual display units (VDU) are more likely to complain about musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The aim of this study has been to evaluate associations among MSDs and individuals and work-related factors. A total of 1032 VDU workers were assessed about their personal (i.e., age, working history, smoking history, physical activity) and work-related factors (i.e., predominant job tasks performed, work posture). Work environment was evaluated regarding fulfillment of the standard ISO 9241-5:1998. The investigation required a direct observation of participants (in order to accurately assess the prevalence of MSDs) and workstations. Adjusted odds ratios (ORa) were calculated by means of the logistic regression model. Prevalence of MSDs was relatively high (53%). In general, MSDs were significantly associated with female sex (OR = 2.832, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.178-3.683), age ≥ 50 years old (OR = 2.231, 95% CI: 1.236-4.026), longer exposure to VDU, both as working history (10-14 years: OR = 1.934, 95% CI: 1.301-2.875; ≥ 15 years: OR = 2.223, 95% CI: 1.510-3.271) and working time (30-39 h/week: OR = 1.537, 95% CI: 1.087-2.273). Inappropriate workstation design was confirmed by the multivariate analysis as a risk factor for MSDs (ORa = 2.375, 95% CI: 1.124-5.018). Musculoskeletal disorders were significantly associated with individual factors as well as characteristics of work environment. An appropriate design of workstations may significantly reduce their prevalence amongst VDU workers. Med Pr 2016;67(6):707-719.

  20. The best cutoff point for median nerve cross sectional area at the level of carpal tunnel inlet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Sarraf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy. It accounts 90% of all entrapment neuropathies all over the world. Ultrasound is a non-invasive, cost effective and available para-clinical method which could be applied for CTS diagnosis. Cross-sectional area of the median nerve at the level of the inlet is considered as a diagnostic criterion in CTS cases. In this study, thirty-eight patients with electrophysiologically confirmed idiopathic CTS and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventy-one affected nerves and 42 unaffected nerves were evaluated within 14 days after electrophysiological examination. The largest cross-sectional area (CSA was measured at the level of the carpal tunnel inlet and the maximum nerve perimeter was also recorded by means of the software. Mean CSA and perimeter were 14.02 ± 4.5 mm2 and 1.7±0.28m in all patients and 8.2±2.1 mm2, 1.3±0.19 m in controls (P<0.001, P<0.001. Mean CSA and Perimeter were significantly different between patient's groups and control. The best cut off point for CSA of the tunnel inlet was 10.5 mm2 with sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 76% (AUC (Area under the Curve = 0.9, P<0.001. The best cut off point for inlet perimeter was 1.44 m with sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 77 % (AUC=0.87, P<0.001. Our findings showed that median nerve CSA at carpal tunnel inlet could be used as the diagnostic criteria for CTS.

  1. HYPERTENSION AND ITS RISK FACTORS- A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN RURAL AREA

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    Purnendu Kumar Singh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND An elevated arterial pressure is probably the most important public health problem in developing & developed countries. Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular disorder and one of the major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in rural field practice area of the Department of Community medicine Katihar Medical College, Katihar. A sample of 500 families was selected by systematic sampling technique from all the families registered at Health Centre and all the persons aged 20 years and above residing in these families were selected for the purpose of the study. RESULTS In total 1680 study subjects, 602 persons (35.8% aged 20 years & above were found to be hypertensive. It shows that hypertension increased with increasing age with peak in 60 + years category (65.6%. The prevalence was found to be 66.2% in persons with high salt intake and 31.2% and 20.3% respectively in average and low salt intake. The prevalence of hypertension was 40.3% in non-vegetarians and 34.7% among vegetarians. The prevalence was 48.4% in persons consuming saturated fats, 39.1% in those consuming unsaturated fats and 32.6% in both types of fat consumers. The prevalence of hypertension was 37.9% in those engaged in light physical activity while it was found to be 29.6% in moderate and 28.6% in heavy physical activity. It was found to be 91.2% in obese with while this was 23.4% and 18.9% respectively in normal and underweight. It showed that prevalence of hypertension was 38.3% in occasional, 40.0% in frequent and 73.1% in constant group and only 33.0% in group with no mental stress. CONCLUSION This study shows that the prevalence of hypertension was high in the subjects having low physical activity, High BMI and high saturated fat/salt intake and high level of mental stress.

  2. Urethral pressure reflectometry. A method for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels

    2012-01-01

    per second. The examinations were performed with the women supine relaxing, supine squeezing, and standing relaxing. The examination provided measures of the opening pressure (the pressure exactly needed to open the urethra), the closing pressure (the pressure where the urethra closes again after......A novel technique for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area (CA) in the female urethra, denoted Urethral Pressure Reflectometry (UPR), was devised. A very thin and highly flexible polyurethane-bag was placed in the urethra. A pump applied increasing and decreasing pressures...... the hysteresis were decreased in stress urinary incontinent (SUI) women compared to continent women. Thus the parameters seem to be relevant regarding SUI. UPR examination was performed before and after urethral bulking and from these examinations a mechanism of action of the bulking procedure was proposed...

  3. Urethral pressure reflectometry, a novel technique for simultaneous recording of pressure and cross-sectional area in the prostatic urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Mikael; Klarskov, Niels; Sønksen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Urethral pressure reflectometry (UPR) was introduced in 2005, for simultaneous measurement of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra. It has shown to be more reproducible than conventional pressure measurement. Recently, it has been tested in the anal canal...... and the prostatic urethra. The primary aim of this study was to describe UPR in men without bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study investigated 18 men, median age 59 (range 50-77) with UPR and pressure-flow analyses (PQ), the International Prostate Symptom Score and the Danish...... version of Prostate Symptom Score, flow rate, residual urine measurements, transrectal ultrasound, urethral pressure profilometry and visual analogue scale (Discomfort). UPR parameters measured were opening and closing pressure, opening and closing elastance and hysteresis, from the bladder neck...

  4. Family satisfaction with patient care in critical care units in Pakistan: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtisham, Younas; Subia, Parveen; Gideon, Victor

    2016-11-23

    To assess family satisfaction with care provided to patients in critical care units in Islamabad. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 medical and surgical critical care units at two private hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan. The purposive sample consisted of 323 immediate family members and other relatives and friends (referred to as family members in this article) of 323 patients admitted to the critical care units for at least 24 hours. The revised Critical Care Family Satisfaction Survey was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. A total of 149/323 (46%) family members were 'very satisfied' with the honesty (openness) of staff in explaining the patient's condition, and 137/323 (42%) family members were 'very satisfied' with the nurses' availability to speak to them. A total of 143/323 (44%) family members were 'satisfied' with the honesty (openness) of staff in explaining the patient's condition, and 131/323 (41%) were 'satisfied' with the nurses' availability to speak to them. A few family members (21/323, 6%) were 'very dissatisfied' with the flexibility of the visiting hours and a few (20/323, 6%) were 'very dissatisfied' with the noise level in the critical care units. Some family members (38/323, 12%) were 'not satisfied' with the flexibility of the visiting hours, and some (18/323, 6%) were 'not satisfied' with the noise level in the critical care units. The majority of family members (244/323, 75%) were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' that their relatives' needs were being met in the critical care units. However, qualitative data indicate that most family members wanted greater involvement in decision making. These findings should be considered by staff working in critical care settings to ensure high-quality patient care.

  5. Ultrasonographic quantification of intrinsic hand muscle cross-sectional area; reliability and validity for predicting muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseny, Behnam; Nijhuis, Tim H; Hundepool, Caroline A; Janssen, Wim G; Selles, Ruud W; Coert, J Henk

    2015-05-01

    To investigate whether ultrasonographic measurement of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the intrinsic hand muscles can be used to predict muscle strength in a valid and reliable manner, and to determine if this method can be used for follow-up of patients with peripheral nerve injury between the wrist and elbow. Repeated-measures cross-sectional study. Clinical and academic hospital. Healthy adults (n=31) and patients with ulnar and median nerve injuries (n=16) between the wrist and elbow who were visiting the Erasmus Medical Center or Maasstad Hospital were included in the study (N=47). Not applicable. Correlation between measured muscle CSA and strength and assessment of inter- and intrarater reliability. Ultrasound and strength measurements of the intrinsic hand muscles were conducted bilaterally. To establish validity, the CSA of 4 muscles (abductor digiti minimi, first dorsal interosseus, abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis) was compared with strength measurements of the same muscles conducted with the Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer. Repeated measures were conducted to assess inter- and intrarater reliability. The assessed CSA strongly correlated with strength measurements, with correlations ranging from 0.82 to 0.93 in healthy volunteers and from 0.63 to 0.94 in patients. Test-retest reliability showed excellent intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.99-1.00) in patients and volunteers and good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.88-0.95) in healthy volunteers. We found that ultrasound is a valid and reliable method to assess the CSA of specific muscles in the hand. Therefore, this technique could be useful to monitor muscle reinnervation in patients suffering from peripheral nerve injury as a valuable addition to strength dynamometers. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Income distribution and mortality: cross sectional ecological study of the Robin Hood index in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I; Prothrow-Stith, D

    1996-04-20

    To determine the effect of income inequality as measured by the Robin Hood index and the Gini coefficient on all cause and cause specific mortality in the United States. Cross sectional ecological study. Households in the United States. Disease specific mortality, income, household size, poverty, and smoking rates for each state. The Robin Hood index was positively correlated with total mortality adjusted for age (r = 0.54; P < 0.05). This association remained after adjustment for poverty (P < 0.007), where each percentage increase in the index was associated with' an increase in the total mortality of 21.68 deaths per 100,000. Effects of the index were also found for infant mortality (P = 0.013); coronary heart disease (P = 0.004); malignant neoplasms (P = 0.023); and homicide (P < 0.001). Strong associations were also found between the index and causes of death amenable to medical intervention. The Gini coefficient showed very little correlation with any of the causes of death. Variations between states in the inequality of income were associated with increased mortality from several causes. The size of the gap between the wealthy and less well off--as distinct from the absolute standard of living enjoyed by the poor--seems to matter in its own right. The findings suggest that policies that deal with the growing inequities in income distribution may have an important impact on the health of the population.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A

    2016-09-28

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities.

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Soong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11 and the US (10. Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities.

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities. PMID:27690072

  10. MEASUREMENT OF ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE CUFF PRESSURE IN MECHANICALLYVENTILATED PATIENTS ON ARRIVAL TO INTENSIVE CARE UNIT - A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Ajjappa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The monitoring of Endotracheal Tube (ETT cuff pressure in intubated patients on arrival to intensive care unit is very essential. The cuff pressure must be within an optimal range of 20-30cm H2O ensuring ventilation with no complications related to cuff overinflation and underinflation. This can be measured with a cuff pressure manometer. The aim of the study is to measure the endotracheal tube cuff pressure in patients on arrival to intensive care unit and to identify prevalence of endotracheal cuff underinflation and overinflation. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was done on mechanically-ventilated patients who were intubated in casualty (emergency department on arrival to intensive care unit in S.S. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Davangere. About 50 critically-ill patients intubated with a high volume, low pressure endotracheal tube were included in the study. An analogue manometer was used to measure the endotracheal tube cuff pressure. It was compared with the recommended level. The settings of mechanical ventilation, endotracheal tube size and peak airway pressure were recorded. RESULTS It was found that the mean cuff pressure was 64.10 cm of H2O with a standard deviation of 32.049. Of the measured cuff pressures, only 2% had pressures within an optimal range (20-30cm of H2O. 88% had cuff pressures more than 30cm of H2O. The mean peak airway pressure found to be 20.50cm of H2O with a Standard Deviation (SD of 5.064. CONCLUSION This study is done to emphasise the importance of cuff pressure measurement in all mechanically-ventilated patients as cuff pressure is found to be high in most of the patients admitted to intensive care unit. Complications of overinflation and underinflation can only be prevented if the acceptable cuff pressures are achieved.

  11. Tendon retraction with rotator cuff tear causes a decrease in cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Shoji; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Amari, Rui; Wada, Keizo; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    Muscle atrophy and fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles have been reported as negative prognostic indicators after rotator cuff repair. Although the Y-shaped view is widely used for measuring the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle, the contribution of retraction of the torn tendon as well as muscle atrophy must be considered. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between cross-sectional area and tendon retraction or size of the tear. This study included 76 shoulders that were evaluated arthroscopically for the presence and size of tears. Cross-sectional areas of rotator cuff muscles were measured from the Y-shaped view to 3 more medial slices. The occupation ratio and tangent sign were evaluated on the Y-shaped view. The retraction of torn tendon was also measured on the oblique coronal images. On the Y-shaped view, the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus and the occupation ratio decreased in conjunction with the increase in tear size. A significant decrease in cross-sectional area was noted only in large and massive tears on more medial slices from the Y-shaped view. Significant decreases in the cross-sectional area of the infraspinatus were observed in large and massive tears on all images. A negative correlation was found between tendon retraction and cross-sectional area, which was strongest on the Y-shaped view. To avoid the influence of retraction of the supraspinatus tendon, sufficient medial slices from the musculotendinous junction should be used for evaluation of muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Simon; Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-12-14

    To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Cross sectional study. Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA's "traffic light" system for labelling food. No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% Psupermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals.

  13. Coping behavior and risk and resilience stress factors in French regional emergency medicine unit workers: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, AI; Sturzu, LM; Picard, JP; Druot, F; Grama, F; Bobirnac, G

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) has the highest workload in a hospital, offering care to patients in their most acute state of illness, as well as comforting their families and tending to stressful situations of the physical and psychological areal. Method. A cross-sectional survey of 366 Emergency Unit staff members including medical doctors, medical residents, medical nurses and ward aids, was undergone. Study participants came from four periphery hospitals in the Moselle Department of Eastern France with similar workforce and daily patient loads statistics. The instruments used were the Perceived Stress Scale PSS-10 and the Brief COPE questionnaire. Conclusions. Perceived work overload and overall stress is strongly related to work hours and tend to have a stronger influence on doctors than on the nursing staff. Substance use is a common coping method for medical interns, consistent with prior research. The regular assessment of the ED staff perception of stress and stress related factors is essential to support organizational decisions in order to promote a better work environment and better patient care. PMID:27928439

  14. Coping behavior and risk and resilience stress factors in French regional emergency medicine unit workers: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, A I; Sturzu, L M; Picard, J P; Druot, F; Grama, F; Bobirnac, G

    2016-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) has the highest workload in a hospital, offering care to patients in their most acute state of illness, as well as comforting their families and tending to stressful situations of the physical and psychological areal. Method. A cross-sectional survey of 366 Emergency Unit staff members including medical doctors, medical residents, medical nurses and ward aids, was undergone. Study participants came from four periphery hospitals in the Moselle Department of Eastern France with similar workforce and daily patient loads statistics. The instruments used were the Perceived Stress Scale PSS-10 and the Brief COPE questionnaire. Conclusions. Perceived work overload and overall stress is strongly related to work hours and tend to have a stronger influence on doctors than on the nursing staff. Substance use is a common coping method for medical interns, consistent with prior research. The regular assessment of the ED staff perception of stress and stress related factors is essential to support organizational decisions in order to promote a better work environment and better patient care.

  15. Value of Power Doppler and Gray-Scale US in the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Contribution of Cross-Sectional Area just before the Tunnel Inlet as Compared with the Cross-Sectional Area at the Tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcar, Nevbahar; Ozkan, Serhat; Mehmetoglu, Ozlem; Calisir, Cuneyt; Adapinar, Baki [Osmangazi University Hospital, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2010-12-15

    To determine the value of gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Median nerves at the carpal tunnel were evaluated by using gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonography and by using accepted and new criteria in 42 patients with CTS (62 wrists) confirmed by electromyogram and 33 control subjects. We evaluated the cross-sectional area of the nerve just proximal to the tunnel inlet (CSAa), and at mid level (CSAb). We then calculated the percentage area increase of CSAb, and area difference (CSAb-CSAa). We measured two dimensions of the nerve at the distal level to calculate the flattening ratio. The power Doppler ultrasonography was used to assess the number of vessels, which proceeded to give a score according to the vessel number, and lastly evaluated the statistical significance by comparing the means of patients with control subjects by the Student t test for independent samples. Sensitivities and specificities were determined for sonographic characteristics mentioned above. We obtained the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess the optimal cut-off values for the diagnosis of CTS. A statistically significant difference was found between patients and the control group for mean CSAb, area difference, percentage area increase, and flattening ratio (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively). From the ROC curve we obtained optimal cut-off values of 11 mm{sup 2} for CSAb, 3.65 for area difference, 50% for the percentage of area increase, and 2.6 for the flattening ratio. The mean number of vessels obtained by power Doppler ultrasonography from the median nerve was 1.2. We could not detect vessels from healthy volunteers. Mean CSAbs related to vascularity intensity scores were as follows: score 0: 12.3 {+-} 2.8 mm{sup 2}, score 1: 12.3 {+-} 3.1 mm{sup 2}, score 2: 14.95 {+-} 3.5 mm{sup 2}, score 3: 19.3 {+-} 3.8 mm{sup 2}. The mean PI value in vessels of the median nerve was 4

  16. Ultrasonographic measurement of median nerve cross-sectional area reference values in a healthy Han population from Guiyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Shan Wu; Jun Ren

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasonography was used to analyze the nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at 7 sites: the wrist crease, pisiform bone, hamate bone, 6 cm proximal to the tip of the wrist crease, proximal forearm (where the nerve enters the pronator teres muscle), 4 cm proximal to the tip of the medial epicondyle, and mid-humerus (mid-point between elbow crease and axilla) in 200 healthy volunteers from Guiyang, China. Results showed similar CSA values between the left and right sides, but the CSA 6 cm proximal to the tip of the wrist crease, proximal forearm, 4 cm proximal to tip of the medial epicondyle, and mid-humerus in males was greater than that of females. Moreover, CSA values at the wrist crease, pisiform bone, and hamate bone were greater in the middle-aged and old groups when compared to the young group, and correlated with body mass and height. Thus, reference values of median nerve CSA of the upper limbs can facilitate the analysis of abnormal nerve conditions.

  17. Pain and quality of life in leprosy patients in an endemic area of Northeast Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Victor S; Santana, Jamilly C V; Castro, Fabrícia D N; Oliveira, Laudice S; Santana, Julianne C V; Feitosa, Vera L C; Gurgel, Ricardo Q; Cuevas, Luis E

    2016-03-07

    Pain emerges as a challenge in the treatment of leprosy patients. In this study, we describe the prevalence and type of pain in patients with leprosy, and its effect on patients' quality of life in an endemic area of Northeast Brazil. A cross-sectional survey of 260 patients attending leprosy reference centres in Sergipe, Northeast Brazil was conducted. Individuals were assessed for the presence and type of pain, skin sensory loss, peripheral nerve enlargement, touch and pinprick sensations, mechanical allodynia and nerve palpation. Participants completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire, and we also used the Brief Pain Inventory scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF instrument to arrive at our results. One hundred and ninety-five (75 %) patients reported pain, mostly of the neuropathic type. Pain was moderate in 84 (43.1 %) and severe in 94 (48.2 %) participants. The presence of pain was associated with disability (p = 0.001), leprosy reactions (p = 0.004) and lower quality of life. Most patients with neuropathic pain were treated with steroids, despite their low efficacy for this type of pain. Pain is highly prevalent among leprosy patients and is associated with low quality of life. Leprosy management should include a systematic assessment of the type of pain a patient experiences in order to provide adequate treatment.

  18. The rate of velocity development associates with muscle echo intensity, but not muscle cross-sectional area in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jacob A; Giuliani, Hayden K; Gerstner, Gena R; Ryan, Eric D

    2017-09-21

    The examination of mechanisms contributing to the age-related reductions in rapid velocity development is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) on plantarflexor rate of velocity development (RVD) in older adults. Twenty-two men (mean ± SD age = 69 ± 3 years) performed three maximal plantarflexion voluntary isokinetic muscle actions at a velocity of 2.09 rad · s(-1). Peak RVD was determined as the peak derivative of the velocity-time curve from the onset of velocity development to the onset of the load range. B-mode ultrasound was used to examine CSA and EI from the lateral and medial gastrocnemius. Plantarflexor RVD was related to EI (r = -0.491, P = 0.020), but not CSA (r = -0.003, P = 0.989). The findings of the present investigation suggest that alterations in muscle tissue composition (i.e., increase in intramuscular fat and/or fibrous tissue) may influence the ability of older adults to rapidly accelerate their limb.

  19. The relationship between passive stiffness and muscle power output: influence of muscle cross-sectional area normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Thompson, Brennan J; Smith, Douglas B; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationship between passive stiffness of posterior hip and thigh muscles and muscle power output before and after normalization of passive stiffness to muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess the relationships between the normalized and non-normalized slopes of the initial (phase 1) and final (phase 2) portions of the angle-torque curve and peak power output (Pmax). A significant positive relationship was observed between the non-normalized slope of phase 1 and Pmax (r = 0.723; P ≤ 0.001); however, no correlations were observed between the normalized slope of phase 1 and Pmax (r = 0.244; P = 0.299) nor between Pmax and the normalized and non-normalized slopes of phase 2 (r = -0.159-0.418; P = 0.067-0.504). The findings suggest that muscle size, rather than stiffness, accounted for a significant portion of the variance in muscle power output. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation training increases intermuscular fascial length but not tendon cross-sectional area after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Khalil, Refka E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of 12 weeks of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training with ankle weights on intermuscular fascial length and patellar tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study was a pre-post intervention. Seven men with motor complete SCI were randomly assigned to a resistance training plus diet (RT + diet) group (n = 4) or a diet control group (n = 3). Participants in the RT + diet group were enrolled in a 12-week leg extension weight-lifting program via surface NMES of the knee extensor muscle group. The length of mid-thigh intermuscular fascia and the patellar tendon CSA were measured using MRI. In the RT + diet group, a nonsignificant 8% increase in the CSA of the patellar tendon (P = .14) was noted. The length of the mid-thigh intermuscular fascia increased by 19% and 23% in the right (P = .029) and left (P = .015) legs, respectively, with no changes in the diet control group. Positive relationships were noted between skeletal muscle CSAs of the whole thigh (r = 0.77, P = .041) and knee extensors (r = 0.76, P = .048) and intermuscular fascial length. The preliminary results suggest that noncontractile connective tissue structures of the knee extensors respond differently to NMES training after SCI. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is associated with an increase in the intermuscular fascial length.

  1. Correlation of Visceral Fat Area with Metabolic Risk Factors in Romanian Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hâncu Anca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA, estimated by bioimpedance, and cardiovascular risk factors independent of BMI and waist circumference in a cohort of Romanian patients. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which were collected data from 751 patients ≥18 years of age from Cluj-Napoca. Anthropometric, biochemistry, body composition and medical history parameters were recorded from patients’ files. Results: Compared with the participants with VFA <100 cm2, those with VFA ≥100 cm2 had significantly worse levels of the laboratory parameters describing the glycemic metabolism, lipid metabolism and liver functions (p <0.05 for all. A higher percentage of participants with VFA ≥100 cm2 had diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia (p <0.05 for all. VFA was correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and LDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, ALT, previous diagnosis of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia independent of BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions: Among this cohort of Romanian adults, an increasing level of visceral adiposity was correlated with worse lipid and glucose metabolism parameters as well as with increased levels of ALT, which probably reflects liver fat deposition.

  2. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  3. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Yanagawa, Noriyuki, E-mail: yanagawa@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sato, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Suzuki, Yoichi, E-mail: ysuzuki@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm{sup 2} as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers.

  4. A cross-sectional study of ownership of backyard poultry in two areas of Palmerston North, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, C Y; Stevenson, M A; Rawdon, T G

    2010-06-01

    To determine the proportion of residential land parcels with backyard poultry in an urban and urban-rural fringe area of provincial New Zealand. To document key husbandry and biosecurity practices of owners of backyard poultry, and to identify factors that might assist animal health authorities in locating backyard poultry flocks in the event of an infectious disease emergency. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken, in which residents of 449 land parcels in an urban and urban-rural fringe area within and adjacent to the city of Palmerston North, respectively, were visited between February and November 2006. Residents were asked if backyard poultry were kept on the premises. Details recorded for those that kept poultry included the type and number of birds kept, and details of management and biosecurity practices. The geographical distribution of poultry-positive land parcels was assessed for evidence of spatial clustering. Backyard poultry were kept on 3.5 (95% CI=2.1- 5.0)% of land parcels; 1.6 (95% CI=0.7-3.4)% in the urban area and 18.9 (95% CI=11.6-29.3)% in the urban-rural fringe area. There were no significant clusters of poultry-positive land parcels in either area. On all poultry-positive parcels birds were allowed, for at least a portion of the day, to range freely over the property. Three poultry-positive land parcels were within a distance of 1 km of a commercial poultry enterprise in the urban-rural fringe area. Most owners of backyard poultry used feed prepared commercially. The prevalence of ownership of backyard poultry in this area of New Zealand was low, and varied according to classification of the land, viz urban, or urban-rural fringe. The close proximity of backyard flocks to the single commercial enterprise in the urban-rural fringe area reiterates the importance of strict biosecurity measures on commercial farms. In the event of an infectious disease emergency, it is proposed that a sampling frame of owners of backyard poultry might be

  5. Prevalence of diabetes among Han, Manchu and Korean ethnicities in the Mudanjiang area of China: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid socioeconomic development resulting in changing lifestyles and life expectancy appears to be accompanied by an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Genetic predisposition related to ethnicity is a major determinant of diabetes risk. This study investigates the prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes in different ethnic populations residing in the Mudanjiang area located in the northeast of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among Han, Manchu and Korean Chinese aged 20 years or older. Diabetes and prediabetes were diagnosed using standard oral glucose tolerance tests. Results The prevalence of diabetes in Manchu (8.39% and Korean Chinese (9.42% was significantly lower than that in Han (12.10%. The prevalence of prediabetes was 18.96%, 19.36% and 20.47% in Han, Manchu and Korean populations, respectively. Korean Chinese had a lower prevalence of isolated impaired fasting glucose and higher prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance than the other two ethnic groups. Most patients with diabetes, especially ethnic minority patients, were undiagnosed. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, family history of diabetes, control of diet, self-monitoring of weight, central obesity, increased heart rate, hypertension, elevated plasma triglyceride level, elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Han ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Further, Manchu Chinese were found to have the lowest risk of diabetes. Conclusions Our study indicates that diabetes is a major public health problem in the Mudanjiang area of China. Ethnicity plays a role in the different prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes among the three ethnic groups. Diabetes is less prevalent among Manchu Chinese compared with Han and Korean Chinese.

  6. Effect of tibiotarsal joint inflammation on gene expression and cross-sectional area in rat soleus muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Joint inflammation is a common clinical problem in patients treated by physical therapists. The hypothesis of this study is that joint inflammation induces molecular and structural changes in the soleus muscle, which is composed mainly of slow-twitch muscle fibers. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of tibiotarsal joint inflammation on muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA, gene expression levels (atrogin-1, MuRF1, MyoD, myostatin, p38MAPK, NFκB, TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha protein in the soleus muscle. METHOD: Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 periods (2, 7 and 15 days and assigned to 4 groups (control, sham, inflammation, and immobilization. RESULTS: In the inflammation group at 2 days, MuRF1 and p38MAPK expression had increased, and NFκB mRNA levels had decreased. At 7 days, myostatin expression had decreased. At 7 and 15 days, this group had muscle fiber CSA reduction. At 2 days, the immobilization group showed increased atrogin-1, MuRF1, NFκB, MyoD, and p38MAPK expressions and reduced muscle fiber CSA. At 7 and 15 days, myostatin mRNA levels had increased, and the CSA had decreased. The sham group showed increased p38MAPK and myostatin expressions at 2 and 7 days, respectively. No changes occurred in TNF-alpha gene or protein expression. CONCLUSION: Acute joint inflammation induces gene expression related to the proteolytic pathway without reduction in muscle fiber CSA. Chronic joint inflammation induced muscle atrophy without up-regulation of important genes belonging to the proteolytic pathway. Thus, muscle adaptation may differ according to the stage of joint inflammation, which suggests that the therapeutic modalities used by physical therapists at each stage should also be different.

  7. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawwad Shaikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which included all 347 students (199 boys and 148 girls of classes VII to X. The students were asked to answer, by recall method, a self-administered, pre tested, structured questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behaviour by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to the statements regarding physical / verbal aggression, after taking their consent. Results: Majority of the students (58.8% were from nuclear families and 26.2% students experienced aggressive behaviour in the family. Role models for aggressive behaviour were parents (42.3% and TV / Cinema actors (39.0%. Overall, 241 (69.5% children were physically aggressive in the previous month. Physical active direct and indirect aggression was significantly more common among boys than among girls. 248 (71.5% children were verbally aggressive in the previous month. Physical aggression increased substantially from VII standard (56.9% to X standard (84.6%. Conclusion: Aggressive behaviour was common among both boys and girls, with increasing trend of physical aggression from VII standard to X standard. Classroom management, counseling and life skills education strategies are recommended for channelizing the aggressive behaviour among school children.

  8. Cross-sectional area measurements versus volumetric assessment of the quadriceps femoris muscle in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Magda [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Udine, Department of Radiology, Udine (Italy); Ciritsis, Bernhard; Laux, Christoph [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Traumatology, Zurich (Switzerland); Nanz, Daniel; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Fischer, Michael A.; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-31

    Our aim was to validate the use of cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements at multiple quadriceps muscle levels for estimating the total muscle volume (TMV), and to define the best correlating measurement level. Prospective institutional review board (IRB)-approved study with written informed patient consent. Thighs of thirty-four consecutive patients with ACL-reconstructions (men, 22; women, 12) were imaged at 1.5-T using three-dimensional (3D) spoiled dual gradient-echo sequences. CSA was measured at three levels: 15, 20, and 25 cm above the knee joint line. TMV was determined using dedicated volumetry software with semiautomatic segmentation. Pearson's correlation and regression analysis (including standard error of the estimate, SEE) was used to compare CSA and TMV. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for the CSA was 60.6 ± 12.8 cm{sup 2} (range, 35.6-93.4 cm{sup 2}), 71.1 ± 15.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 42.5-108.9 cm{sup 2}) and 74.2 ± 17.1 cm{sup 2} (range, 40.9-115.9 cm{sup 2}) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. The mean ± SD quadriceps' TMV was 1949 ± 533.7 cm{sup 3} (range, 964.0-3283.0 cm{sup 3}). Pearson correlation coefficient was r = 0.835 (p < 0.01), r = 0.906 (p < 0.01), and r = 0.956 (p < 0.01) for CSA-15, CSA-20 and CSA-25, respectively. Corresponding SEE, expressed as percentage of the TMV, were 15.2 %, 11.6 % and 8.1 %, respectively. The best correlation coefficient between quadriceps CSA and TMV was found for CSA-25, but its clinical application to estimate the TMV is limited by a relatively large SEE. (orig.)

  9. Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in urban areas of China: a cross-sectional study in four cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoying; Wang, Na; Chen, Yue; Xiao, Tian; Fu, Chaowei; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The economic burden of COPD has not been well studied in China. This study investigated the total costs caused by COPD and the influencing factors for the high economic burden in urban areas of China. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 678 COPD patients in four cities in China in 2011. The average annual direct medical costs (DMCs), direct nonmedical costs (DNMCs), and indirect costs (ICs) on COPD were measured by median and mean (± standard deviation). Logistic regression model was used to explore factors related to high total costs on COPD. Results The median annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs per COPD patient were RMB 5565 Yuan (US$ 862), 0 Yuan (US$ 0), and 0 Yuan (US$ 0), respectively, and the mean annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs per COPD patient were RMB 11968 (±22422) Yuan [US$ 1853 (±3472)], 539 (±2092) Yuan [US$ 83 (±324)], and 2087 (±8110) Yuan [US$ 323 (±1256)], respectively. The annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs for diagnosed COPD patients were RMB 195.70 billion Yuan (US$ 30.30 billion), 8.78 billion Yuan (US$ 1.36 billion), and 34.10 billion Yuan (US$ 5.28 billion), respectively, in China. Hospitalization accounted for 56.7% of the total costs. High economic burden was significantly related to age, acute exacerbations, and disease severity in COPD patients. Conclusion COPD posed a heavy economic burden in China. Measures to delay the disease progression and to reduce the risks of acute exacerbation and hospitalization will help substantially lower the costs for COPD care.

  10. Epiglottis cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal airway length in male and female obstructive sleep apnea patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Melinda A; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M; Yan-Go, Frisca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a male-predominant condition, characterized by repeated upper-airway collapse with continued diaphragmatic efforts during sleep, and is accompanied by severe physiological consequences. Multiple morphological aspects, including epiglottis cross-sectional area (CSA) and oropharyngeal airway length (OPAL), can contribute to airway collapsibility in the condition. This study focused on the effects of OSA severity, sex, and race on OPA dimensions. Materials and methods Two high-resolution T1-weighted image series were collected from 40 mild-to-severe OSA subjects (age 46.9±9 years, body mass index 30.4±5.4 kg/m2, Apnea–Hypopnea Index score 32.8±22.5, 28 males) and 54 control subjects (47±9 years, 24.7±3.8 kg/m2, 32 males) using a 3 T magnetic resonance-imaging scanner. Caucasian, Asian, African-American, and “other” subjects constituted the study pool. Both image series were realigned and averaged, and reoriented to a common space. CSA and OPAL were measured, normalized for subject height, and compared between sexes and disease-severity levels in OSA and control subjects. Results Significantly reduced epiglottis CSA appeared only in severe OSA vs controls (P=0.009). OPAL increased significantly with OSA severity vs controls (mild, P=0.027; moderate, Pepiglottis CSA and increased OPAL in OSA subjects may enhance airway-collapse vulnerability, more so with greater disease severity, and partially underlie male vs female susceptibility to the sleep disorder. PMID:27757056

  11. Occupation, smoking, and chronic obstructive respiratory disorders: a cross sectional study in an industrial area of Catalonia, Spain

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    Kogevinas Manolis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the independent effects of occupational exposures and smoking on chronic bronchitis and airflow obstruction. We assessed the association between lifetime occupational exposures and airflow obstruction in a cross-sectional survey in an urban-industrial area of Catalonia, Spain. Methods We interviewed 576 subjects of both sexes aged 20–70 years (response rate 80% randomly selected from census rolls, using the ATS questionnaire. Forced spirometry was performed by 497 subjects according to ATS normative. Results Lifetime occupational exposure to dust, gases or fumes was reported by 52% of the subjects (63% in men, 41% in women. Textile industry was the most frequently reported job in relation to these exposures (39%. Chronic cough, expectoration and wheeze were more prevalent in exposed subjects with odds ratios ranging from 1.7 to 2.0 being highest among never-smokers (2.1 to 4.3. Lung function differences between exposed and unexposed subjects were dependent on duration of exposure, but not on smoking habits. Subjects exposed more than 15 years to dusts, gases or fumes had lower lung function values (FEV1 -80 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI -186 to 26; MMEF -163 ml, CI -397 to 71; FEV1/FVC ratio -1.7%, CI -3.3 to -0.2 than non-exposed. Conclusion Chronic bronchitis symptoms and airflow obstruction are associated with occupational exposures in a population with a high employment in the textile industry. Lung function impairment was related to the duration of occupational exposure, being independent of the effect of smoking.

  12. A Heterogeneous Bayesian Regression Model for Cross-Sectional Data Involving a Single Observation per Response Unit

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    Fong, Duncan K. H.; Ebbes, Peter; DeSarbo, Wayne S.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple regression is frequently used across the various social sciences to analyze cross-sectional data. However, it can often times be challenging to justify the assumption of common regression coefficients across all respondents. This manuscript presents a heterogeneous Bayesian regression model that enables the estimation of…

  13. Measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube in the lumbar spine on magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison between normal, pre- and post-discectomy conditions

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    Matsubayashi, Yasutomo [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-07-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar disc hernia with special attention to measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube. Twenty-five patients (20 men and 5 women; 25 discs) who underwent posterior lumbar discectomy and 73 normal individuals (44 men and 29 women; 219 discs) of a similar age distribution were studied. Axial MRI was mainly used for the measurement of the dural tube. In the patient group, MRI examination was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Assessment of the clinical symptoms was also included and used for comparison with the MRI evaluation. The cross-sectional area was significantly reduced to about 50% of the normal preoperatively. One month postoperatively, there was no significant increase in the size of the area, but after three months, the area increased significantly and progressed to the normal size within a year. One-month postoperatively, MRI examination was not considered useful because of postoperative hematoma and/or edema at the surgical site. The increase in the size of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube correlated well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. Three-months postoperatively, MRI evaluation of the lumbar disc seemed useful and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube appeared to serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of the surgery. (author)

  14. Dynamic changes of elasticity, cross-sectional area, and fat infiltration of multifidus at different postures in men with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Suk-Tak; Fung, Po-Kwan; Ng, Nim-Yu; Ngan, Tsz-Lung; Chong, Man-Yan; Tang, Chi-Ngong; He, Jun-Feng; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2012-05-01

    Multifidus cross-sectional area was often measured in chronic low back pain (LBP) patients to estimate the muscle activity for spinal stability. However, such estimation may be inadequate as the contribution of muscle elasticity in muscle activity is ignored. In vivo quantitative data on multifidus elasticity is therefore important for the study of muscle contractile function in response to motor control for spinal stability in chronic LBP patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify the elasticity, cross-sectional area, and fat area of the multifidus for the contractile function and the distribution of deformable muscle tissue and nondeformable fat tissue at different postures in patients with and without chronic LBP. This is a prospective study. Force-deformation data of the multifidus were acquired using ultrasound elastography. The anatomical changes of the multifidus were measured on the cross-sectional images of the multifidus acquired using B-mode ultrasound imaging. The sample comprised 12 adult male patients with chronic LBP and 12 asymptomatic male controls. The outcome measure was the elasticity of the multifidus at the L4 level for the assessment of muscle contractile function when patients were in the prone, upright, and 25° and 45° forward stooping positions. The cross-sectional area and fat area were also measured on the B-mode ultrasound images of the multifidus acquired at the same vertebral level and the postures. With the patients in each of the prone, upright, and 25° and 45° forward stooping positions, ultrasound elastography and B-mode ultrasound imaging were performed on the left and right multifidus at the L4 level. The elasticity of multifidus indicated by the effective Young's modulus was derived from the force-deformation data acquired using ultrasound elastography. The cross-sectional area and fat area were assessed on the B-mode ultrasound images. The effective Young's modulus, cross-sectional area, and fat area were analyzed

  15. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. Samples 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Main outcome measures Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA’s “traffic light” system for labelling food. Results No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% P<0.01). The recipes were more likely to comply with the recommended sodium density (36% v 4%, P<0.01), although salt used for seasoning was not assessed. The distributions of traffic light colours under the FSA’s food labelling recommendations differed: the modal traffic light was red for the recipes (47%) and green for ready meals (42%). Overall, the recipes contained significantly more energy (2530 kJ v 2067 kJ), protein (37.5 g v 27.9 g), fat (27.1 g v 17.2 g), and saturated fat (9.2 g v 6.8 g; P<0.01 for all) and significantly less fibre (3.3 g v 6.5 g, P<0.01) per portion than the ready meals. Conclusions Neither recipes created by television chefs nor ready meals sold by three of the leading UK supermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals. PMID:23247976

  16. Assessing nursing quality in paediatric intensive care units: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; Liu, Linxia; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Yanhong; Lu, Guoping; Li, Guangyu; Zuo, Zelan; Lu, Hua; Zou, Huan; Wang, Zaihua; Huang, Quelan

    2016-05-23

    Nursing-sensitive indicators are considered effective tools for improving the quality of care in hospitals. However, these have not been used in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in China. To develop nursing-sensitive indicators for PICUs and to assess the quality of nursing in PICUs in China based on the nursing-sensitive indicators. Multi-centre, cross-sectional study. Structure, process and outcome indicators were developed and measured from 1 January to 31 March 2014 in seven PICUs in China. The structure indicators showed that one nurse cared for an average of 2·8 patients in a PICU, and 44% of nurses had a bachelor's degree. The process indicators revealed that hand-washing compliance varied across PICUs, whereas pain management and physical restraint have not been adequately addressed in China. The outcome indicators revealed that the incidence rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia and central-line-associated blood stream infections were 2·96 and 0·7, respectively, per 1000 device days. Patients were intubated for a total of 4392 mechanical ventilator days, and 32 patients (7·29‰) had an unplanned extubation. Nurses were moderately satisfied in their jobs (3·1 ± 0·3), and parents reported that nurses provide high quality of care. This study developed and used nursing-sensitive indicators to assess the quality of nursing in PICUs in China, which provided a reference for national and international comparisons of nursing quality in PICUs. Nursing staffing levels and education should be improved. Pain management and physical restraints should be regulated in China's PICUs. Nurse managers need to explore staff attitudes towards implementation of family-centred care. The development of a national database of nursing quality indicators can contribute to quality and safety improvement. This study developed a set of nursing-sensitive indicators, and these indicators were used to assess and improve the quality of nursing in PICUs. © 2016 British

  17. Mass fatality preparedness among medical examiners/coroners in the United States: a cross-sectional study.

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    Gershon, Robyn R M; Orr, Mark G; Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Chen, Daniel Y; Riley, Halley E M; Sherman, Martin F

    2014-12-15

    In the United States (US), Medical Examiners and Coroners (ME/Cs) have the legal authority for the management of mass fatality incidents (MFI). Yet, preparedness and operational capabilities in this sector remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold; first, to identify appropriate measures of preparedness, and second, to assess preparedness levels and factors significantly associated with preparedness. Three separate checklists were developed to measure different aspects of preparedness: MFI Plan Elements, Operational Capabilities, and Pre-existing Resource Networks. Using a cross-sectional study design, data on these and other variables of interest were collected in 2014 from a national convenience sample of ME/C using an internet-based, anonymous survey. Preparedness levels were determined and compared across Federal Regions and in relation to the number of Presidential Disaster Declarations, also by Federal Region. Bivariate logistic and multivariable models estimated the associations between organizational characteristics and relative preparedness. A large proportion (42%) of respondents reported that less than 25 additional fatalities over a 48-hour period would exceed their response capacities. The preparedness constructs measured three related, yet distinct, aspects of preparedness, with scores highly variable and generally suboptimal. Median scores for the three preparedness measures also varied across Federal Regions and as compared to the number of Presidential Declared Disasters, also by Federal Region. Capacity was especially limited for activating missing persons call centers, launching public communications, especially via social media, and identifying temporary interment sites. The provision of staff training was the only factor studied that was significantly (positively) associated (p < .05) with all three preparedness measures. Although ME/Cs ranked local partners, such as Offices of Emergency Management, first responders, and

  18. Shifting tides in the emigration patterns of Canadian physicians to the United States: a cross-sectional secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas R; Petterson, Stephen; Finnegan, Sean; Bazemore, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources. This analysis was undertaken to re-examine the issue of Canadian physician migration to the US. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 2015 American Medical Association (AMA) Masterfile to identify and locate any graduates of Canadian schools of medicine (CMGs) working in the United States in direct patient care. We reviewed annual reports of the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS); the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry (CAPER); and the Canadian Collaborative Centre for Physician Resources (C3PR). Beginning in the early 1990s the number of CMGs locating in the U.S. reached an all-time high and then abruptly dropped off in 1995. CMGs are going to the US for post-graduate training in smaller numbers and, are less likely to remain than at any time since the 1970's. This four decade retrospective found considerable variation in the migration pattern of CMGs to the US. CMGs' decision to emigrate to the U.S. may be influenced by both 'push' and 'pull' factors. The relative strength of these factors changed and by 2004, more CMGs were returning from abroad than were leaving and the current outflow is negligible. This study supports the need for medical human resource planning to assume a long-term view taking into account national and international trends to avoid the rapid changes that were observed. These results are of importance to medical

  19. Prevalence of Diabetes among Migrant Women and Duration of Residence in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed M.; Ali, Raghib; Loney, Tom; Aziz, Faisal; ElBarazi, Iffat; Al Dhaheri, Salma; Farooqi, M. Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the highest in United Arab Emirates (UAE), however data for the expatriate population is limited. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of T2DM amongst migrant women and test the hypothesis that acculturation (measured by years of residency) is associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Methods This was a cross-sectional study and we recruited a representative sample (n = 599, 75% participation rate) of migrant women aged 18 years and over in Al Ain, UAE. The American Diabetes Association criteria were used to diagnose T2DM. An adapted WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyle and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify correlates of T2DM including length of UAE residence. Results The mean age of participants was 34.1 (± 9.5) years. Of the study participants, based on HbA1C levels, 18.6% (95% CI: 13.9–24.4) had prediabetes and 10.7% (95% CI: 7.2–15.6) had T2DM. Prevalence of prediabetes was 8.5% for Filipinos, 16.7% for Arabs and 30.3% for South Asians. Similarly the prevalence of T2DM was 1.7% for Filipinos, 12.2% for Arabs and 16.7% for South Asians. Significant correlates of overall T2DM (measured and known diabetes) included length of UAE residence for more than 10 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.74, 95% CI: 1.21–6.20), age ≥40 years (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.53–7.87) and South Asian nationality (AOR 2.10, 95% CI: 0.94–4.70). Conclusion Diabetes is a significant public health problem among migrant women in the UAE, particularly for South Asians. Longer length of residence in the UAE is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes. PMID:28099445

  20. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsena, P. H.; van Ginkel, F. C.; van Schijndel, R. A.; Castelijns, J. A.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is quest

  1. Vastus medialis cross-sectional area is positively associated with patella cartilage and bone volumes in a pain-free community-based population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Patricia A; Teichtahl, Andrew J; Galevska-Dimitrovska, Ana; Hanna, Fahad S; Wluka, Anita E; Wang, Yuanyuan; Urquhart, Donna M; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Although vastus medialis and lateralis are important determinants of patellofemoral joint function, their relationship with patellofemoral joint structure is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine potential determinants of vastus medialis and lateralis cross-sectional areas and the relationship between the cross-sectional area and patella cartilage and bone volumes. Methods Two hundred ninety-seven healthy adult subjects had magnetic resonance imaging of their dominant knee. Vastus medialis and lateralis cross-sectional areas were measured 37.5 mm superior to the quadriceps tendon insertion at the proximal pole of the patella. Patella cartilage and bone volumes were measured from these images. Demographic data and participation in vigorous physical activity were assessed by questionnaire. Results The determinants of increased vastus medialis and lateralis cross-sectional areas were older age (P ≤ 0.002), male gender (P patella cartilage volume (beta 0.6; 95% CI 0.23, 0.94) (P = 0.001) and bone volume (beta 3.0; 95% CI 1.40, 4.68) (P patella cartilage and bone volumes may benefit patellofemoral joint health and reduce the long-term risk of patellofemoral pathology. PMID:19077298

  2. The value of MRI iniIdiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome by measuring the cross-sectional area of tarsal tunnel

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    Kim, Min Jung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Lee, Sheen Woo; Choi Seung; Kim, Jeong Ho; Park, Hong Gi [Gachon University, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of MRI as a diagnostic test in tarsal tunnel syndrome. There are no published reports with this aim and no diagnostic standard for idiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) using imaging modalities. We retrospectively searched our Picture Archiving and Communication System data and medical records to identify patients who were clinically and electomyographically diagnosed with idiopathic TTS without space-occupying lesion on MRI. Twenty five patients were included in the patient group. Another twenty-five patients who underwent ankle MRI for Achilles tendon disease were selected and included in the control group. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of tarsal tunnel were manually measured independently by two radiologists who were blinded to clinical and surgical results, using three-dimensional reconstruction software in our hospital. Measurements were done on axial images at three levels (level 1, tibiotalar joint level; level 2, medial malleolar tip level; level 3, sustentaculum tali level). Patient and control group data were statistically analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test. The mean values of CSA at levels 1, 2, and 3 of the tarsal tunnel were 87.8 mm2, 98.2 mm2, and 105.2 mm2, respectively in the patient group; and 100.0 mm2, 113.8 mm2, and 127.9 mm2 in the control group, respectively, in reader 1; and 86.2 mm2, 97.6 mm2, 105.2 mm2, respectively in the patient group; and 99.7 mm2, 112.3 mm2, 124.4 mm2, respectively, in the control group, in reader 2. The mean CSA in the patient group was significantly less than that of the control group at all three levels (p < 0.05). Intra-class correlation coefficient value between reader 1 and reader 2 were 0.98 in group 1, and 0.97 in group 2, respectively. MRI can be helpful in the assessment of idiopathic tarsal tunnel syndrome. CSA measurements of tarsal tunnel at each level may predict TTS even though there are no space occupying lesions in the tarsal tunnel on MRI.

  3. JUNK FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Junk food simply means an empty calorie food; it lacks in micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, or amino acids, and fibre but has high energy (calories. During school - age years, children begin to establish habits for eating and exercise that stick w ith them for their entire lives. If children establish healthy habits, their risk for developing many chronic diseases will be greatly decreased. The family, friends, schools, and community resources in a child’s environment reinforce lifestyle habits rega rding diet and activity. OBJECTIVES: To study the fast food consumptions pattern and fast food preferences among the school going children (9 - 13yrs and some of the determinants related to fast food consumption . STUDY SETTING: Department of Community Medic ine in an Urban field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - sectional study. STUDY DURATION: Three months duration ( Oct – Dec 2014. STUDY POPULATION: school students studying in V th standard to X th standar d. SAMPLE SIZE : The selected school had a strength of 200 students. Hence complete enumeration of the students was considered for this study. DATA COLLECTION : by using pre - structured questionnaire by interview method. The variables included were socio - demographic profile, measurement of height, weight and questions related to junk food consumption and its patterns. DATA ANALYSIS: using statistics software SPSS 20. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for anthropometric measurements. Test of significance for proportions was done by Chi - square test. RESULTS: Among 200 study subjects, 107 were male (53.5% and 93 females (46.5%. Majority of the students wer e in the age group of 12 - 15 years ( 66% and 9 - 11 years ( 34%. Snacks (41%, Fast food (25.50%, soft drinks (17.50% and candies (16% were the favourite junk foods among the study subjects. Taste and time factors, watching television while consuming

  4. Cross-Sectional Area of the Rotator Cuff Muscles in MRI - Is there Evidence for a Biomechanical Balanced Shoulder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaicha, Samy; Slankamenac, Ksenija; Moor, Beat K; Tok, Sina; Andreisek, Gustav; Finkenstaedt, Tim

    2016-01-01

    To provide in-vivo evidence for the common biomechanical concept of transverse and craniocaudal force couples in the shoulder that are yielded by both the rotator cuff muscles (RCM) and the deltoid and to quantitatively evaluate and correlate the cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the corresponding RCM as a surrogate marker for muscle strength using MRI. Fifty patients (mean age, 36 years; age range, 18-57 years; 41 male, 9 female) without rotator cuff tears were included in this retrospective study. Data were assessed by two readers. The CSA (mm2) of all rotator cuff muscles was measured on parasagittal T1-weighted FSE sequence at two different positions (at the established "y-position" and at a more medial slice in the presumably maximal CSA for each muscle, i.e., the "set position"). The CSA of the deltoid was measured on axial intermediate-weighted FSE sequences at three positions. CSA measurements were obtained using 1.5 Tesla MR-arthrographic shoulder. Pearson's correlation for the corresponding CSA of the force couple as well as was the intraclass correlation coefficient for the inter- and intra-reader agreement was calculated. The mean CSA was 770 mm2 (±167) and 841 mm2 (±191) for the supraspinatus (in the y- and set-positions, respectively) and 984 mm2 (±241) and 1568 mm2 (±338) for the infraspinatus. The mean CSA was 446 mm2 (±129) and 438 mm2 (±128) for the teres minor (in the y- and set-positions, respectively) and 1953 mm2 (±553) and 2343 mm2 (±587) for the subscapularis. The three measurements of the deltoid revealed a CSA of 3063 mm2 (±839) for the upper edge, 3829 mm2 (±836) for the lower edge and 4069 mm2 (±937) for the middle of the glenoid. At the set position Pearson's correlation of the transverse force couple (subscapularis/infraspinatus) showed a moderate positive correlation of r = 0.583 (pshoulder in patients with an intact rotator cuff.

  5. Epiglottis cross-sectional area and oropharyngeal airway length in male and female obstructive sleep apnea patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma MA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Melinda A Ma,1 Rajesh Kumar,2–4 Paul M Macey,4,5 Frisca L Yan-Go,6 Ronald M Harper,1,4 1Department of Neurobiology, 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, 4Brain Research Institute, 5UCLA School of Nursing, 6Department of Neurology, David Geffen School ofMedicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a male-predominant condition, characterized by repeated upper-airway collapse with continued diaphragmatic efforts during sleep, and is accompanied by severe physiological consequences. Multiple morphological aspects, including epiglottis cross-sectional area (CSA and oropharyngeal airway length (OPAL, can contribute to airway collapsibility in the condition. This study focused on the effects of OSA severity, sex, and race on OPA dimensions.Materials and methods: Two high-resolution T1-weighted image series were collected from 40 mild-to-severe OSA subjects (age 46.9±9 years, body mass index 30.4±5.4 kg/m2, Apnea–Hypopnea Index score 32.8±22.5, 28 males and 54 control subjects (47±9 years, 24.7±3.8 kg/m2, 32 males using a 3 T magnetic resonance-imaging scanner. Caucasian, Asian, African-American, and “other” subjects constituted the study pool. Both image series were realigned and averaged, and reoriented to a common space. CSA and OPAL were measured, normalized for subject height, and compared between sexes and disease-severity levels in OSA and control subjects.Results: Significantly reduced epiglottis CSA appeared only in severe OSA vs controls (P=0.009. OPAL increased significantly with OSA severity vs controls (mild, P=0.027; moderate, P<0.001; severe, P<0.001. OSA males showed increased CSA and greater OPAL than OSA females, which may underlie the increased proportion of affected males with higher apnea–hypopnea index scores. However, no significant differences appeared between CSA and OPAL

  6. Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in urban areas of China: a cross-sectional study in four cities

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    Chen XY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoying Chen,1,2 Na Wang,1,2 Yue Chen,3 Tian Xiao,1,2 Chaowei Fu,1,2 Biao Xu1,2 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, 2Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The economic burden of COPD has not been well studied in China. This study investigated the total costs caused by COPD and the influencing factors for the high economic burden in urban areas of China.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 678 COPD patients in four cities in China in 2011. The average annual direct medical costs (DMCs, direct nonmedical costs (DNMCs, and indirect costs (ICs on COPD were measured by median and mean (± standard deviation. Logistic regression model was used to explore factors related to high total costs on COPD.Results: The median annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs per COPD patient were RMB 5565 Yuan (US$ 862, 0 Yuan (US$ 0, and 0 Yuan (US$ 0, respectively, and the mean annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs per COPD patient were RMB 11968 (±22422 Yuan [US$ 1853 (±3472], 539 (±2092 Yuan [US$ 83 (±324], and 2087 (±8110 Yuan [US$ 323 (±1256], respectively. The annual DMCs, DNMCs, and ICs for diagnosed COPD patients were RMB 195.70 billion Yuan (US$ 30.30 billion, 8.78 billion Yuan (US$ 1.36 billion, and 34.10 billion Yuan (US$ 5.28 billion, respectively, in China. Hospitalization accounted for 56.7% of the total costs. High economic burden was significantly related to age, acute exacerbations, and disease severity in COPD patients.Conclusion: COPD posed a heavy economic burden in China. Measures to delay the disease progression and to reduce the risks of acute exacerbation and hospitalization will help substantially lower the costs for COPD care. Keywords: economic burden, hospitalization, acute exacerbations, disease severity

  7. A linear laser scanner to measure cross-sectional shape and area of biological specimens during mechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergari, Claudio; Pourcelot, Philippe; Holden, Laurène; Ravary-Plumioën, Bérangère; Laugier, Pascal; Mitton, David; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2010-10-01

    Measure of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of biological specimens is a primary concern for many biomechanical tests. Different procedures are presented in literature but besides the fact that noncontact techniques are required during mechanical testing, most of these procedures lack accuracy or speed. Moreover, they often require a precise positioning of the specimen, which is not always feasible, and do not enable the measure of the same section during tension. The objective of this study was to design a noncontact, fast, and accurate device capable of acquiring CSA of specimens mounted on a testing machine. A system based on the horizontal linear displacement of two charge-coupled device reflectance laser devices next to the specimen, one for each side, was chosen. The whole measuring block is mounted on a vertical linear guide to allow following the measured zone during sample tension (or compression). The device was validated by measuring the CSA of metallic rods machined with geometrical shapes (circular, hexagonal, semicircular, and triangular) as well as an equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in static condition. We also performed measurements during mechanical testing of three SDFTs, obtaining the CSA variations until tendon rupture. The system was revealed to be very fast with acquisition times in the order of 0.1 s and interacquisition time of about 1.5 s. Measurements of the geometrical shapes yielded mean errors lower than 1.4% (n=20 for each shape) while the tendon CSA at rest was 90.29 ± 1.69 mm(2) (n=20). As for the tendons that underwent tension, a mean of 60 measures were performed for each test, which lasted about 2 min until rupture (at 20 mm/min), finding CSA variations linear with stress (R(2)>0.85). The proposed device was revealed to be accurate and repeatable. It is easy to assemble and operate and capable of moving to follow a defined zone on the specimen during testing. The system does not need precise centering of the sample

  8. Cross-Sectional Area of the Rotator Cuff Muscles in MRI - Is there Evidence for a Biomechanical Balanced Shoulder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Bouaicha

    Full Text Available To provide in-vivo evidence for the common biomechanical concept of transverse and craniocaudal force couples in the shoulder that are yielded by both the rotator cuff muscles (RCM and the deltoid and to quantitatively evaluate and correlate the cross-sectional areas (CSA of the corresponding RCM as a surrogate marker for muscle strength using MRI.Fifty patients (mean age, 36 years; age range, 18-57 years; 41 male, 9 female without rotator cuff tears were included in this retrospective study. Data were assessed by two readers. The CSA (mm2 of all rotator cuff muscles was measured on parasagittal T1-weighted FSE sequence at two different positions (at the established "y-position" and at a more medial slice in the presumably maximal CSA for each muscle, i.e., the "set position". The CSA of the deltoid was measured on axial intermediate-weighted FSE sequences at three positions. CSA measurements were obtained using 1.5 Tesla MR-arthrographic shoulder. Pearson's correlation for the corresponding CSA of the force couple as well as was the intraclass correlation coefficient for the inter- and intra-reader agreement was calculated.The mean CSA was 770 mm2 (±167 and 841 mm2 (±191 for the supraspinatus (in the y- and set-positions, respectively and 984 mm2 (±241 and 1568 mm2 (±338 for the infraspinatus. The mean CSA was 446 mm2 (±129 and 438 mm2 (±128 for the teres minor (in the y- and set-positions, respectively and 1953 mm2 (±553 and 2343 mm2 (±587 for the subscapularis. The three measurements of the deltoid revealed a CSA of 3063 mm2 (±839 for the upper edge, 3829 mm2 (±836 for the lower edge and 4069 mm2 (±937 for the middle of the glenoid. At the set position Pearson's correlation of the transverse force couple (subscapularis/infraspinatus showed a moderate positive correlation of r = 0.583 (p<0.0001 and a strong correlation when the CSA of the teres minor was added to the infraspinatus CSA (r = 0.665, p = 0.0008 and a strong positive

  9. Comparison of the sagittal sinus cross-sectional area between patients with multiple sclerosis, hydrocephalus, intracranial hypertension and spontaneous intracranial hypotension: a surrogate marker of venous transmural pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Grant A; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Copping, Ross; Moeskops, Christopher; Yap, Swee Leong

    2017-07-06

    There is evidence that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and hydrocephalus share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. Alterations in CSF pressure are known to affect cerebral venous sinus geometry. To further explore these mechanisms, we measured the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) cross-sectional area 3 cm above the torcular using T2 images in 20 MS, 10 spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH), 21 hydrocephalus and 20 idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) patients and compared with 20 matched controls. The SSS area was reduced by 25% in hydrocephalus (p = 0.0008), increased by 22% (p = 0.037) in SIH and unchanged in IIH compared to matched controls. In MS there was a 16% increase in SSS area (p = 0.01).The findings suggest that changes in SSS cross-sectional are common between MS and SIH patients, while in hydrocephalus and IIH these are different.

  10. Use Of Pulsed IR Thermography For Determination Of Size And Depth Of Subsurface Defect Taking Into Account The Shape Of Its Cross-Section Area

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    Wysocka-Fotek O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to reconstruction of size and depth (distance from the tested surface of artificial defects with square and rectangular cross-section areas using the pulsed IR thermography. Defects in form of flat-bottom holes were made in austenitic steel plate. The defect size was estimated on the basis of surface distribution of the time derivative of the temperature. In order to asses the depth of defects with considered geometries on the basis of calibration relations (i.e. dependence of time of contrast maximum vs. defect depth for given defect diameter obtained for circular defects, the ‘equivalent diameter’ describing not only the defect cross-section area but also its shape was assigned. It has been shown that presented approach gives satisfactory results.

  11. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  12. Assessment and management of pain in newborns hospitalized in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, Natália Pinheiro Braga; Rossato, Lisabelle Mariano; Bueno, Mariana; Kimura, Amélia Fumiko; Costa, Taine; Guedes, Danila Maria Batista

    2017-09-12

    to determine the frequency of pain, to verify the measures adopted for pain relief during the first seven days of hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and to identify the type and frequency of invasive procedures to which newborns are submitted. cross-sectional retrospective study. Out of the 188 hospitalizations occurred during the 12-month period, 171 were included in the study. The data were collected from the charts and the presence of pain was analyzed based on the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale and on nursing notes suggestions of pain. For statistical analysis, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used, and the significance level was set at 5%. there was at least one record of pain in 50.3% of the hospitalizations, according to the pain scale adopted or nursing note. The newborns underwent a mean of 6.6 invasive procedures per day. Only 32.5% of the pain records resulted in the adoption of pharmacological or non-pharmacological intervention for pain relief. newborns are frequently exposed to pain and the low frequency of pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions reinforces the undertreatment of this condition. determinar a frequência de dor e verificar as medidas realizadas para seu alívio durante os sete primeiros dias de internação na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, bem como identificar o tipo e frequência de procedimentos invasivos aos quais os recém-nascidos foram submetidos. estudo retrospectivo transversal. Das 188 internações ocorridas no período estipulado de 12 meses, 171 foram incluídas na pesquisa. Os dados foram coletados a partir dos prontuários e a presença de dor foi analisada tanto com base na escala de dor Neonatal Infant Pain Scale quanto mediante anotação de enfermagem sugestiva de dor. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se o programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, adotando-se nível de significância de 5%. em 50,3% das internações houve ao menos um registro de dor

  13. Considering sampling strategy and cross-section complexity for estimating the uncertainty of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the

  14. Comparison of the effects of flexion and extension of the thumb and fingers on the position and cross-sectional area of the median nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Toge

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the separate effects of thumb and finger extension/flexion on median nerve position and cross-sectional area. METHODS: Ultrasonography was used to assess median nerve transverse position and cross-sectional area within the carpal tunnel at rest and its movement during volitional flexion of the individual digits of the hand. Both wrists of 165 normal subjects (11 men, 4 women, mean age, 28.6, range, 22 to 38 were studied. RESULTS: Thumb flexion resulted in transverse movement of the median nerve in radial direction (1.2 ± 0.6 mm, whereas flexion of the fingers produced transverse movement in ulnar direction, which was most pronounced during flexion of the index and middle fingers (3.2 ± 0.9 and 3.1 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. Lesser but still statistically significant movements were noted with flexion of the ring finger (2.0 ± 0.8 mm and little finger (1.2 ± 0.5 mm. Flexion of the thumb or individual fingers did not change median nerve cross-sectional area (8.5 ± 1.1 mm(2. CONCLUSIONS: Volitional flexion of the thumb and individual fingers, particularly the index and middle fingers, produced significant transverse movement of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel but did not alter the cross-sectional area of the nerve. The importance of these findings on the understanding of the pathogenesis of the carpal tunnel syndrome and its treatment remains to be investigated.

  15. Does the ratio of the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet cross-sectional areas in the median nerve relfect carpal tunnel syndrome severity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Aierken Rehemutula; Feng Peng; Cong Yu; Tian-bin Wang; Lin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Although ultrasound measurements have been used in previous studies on carpal tunnel syn-drome to visualize injury to the median nerve, whether such ultrasound data can indicate the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome remains controversial. The cross-sectional areas of the median nerve at the tunnel inlet and outlet can show swelling and compression of the nerve at the carpal. We hypothesized that the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet to outlet accurately relfects the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. To test this, high-resolution ultrasound with a linear array transducer at 5–17 MHz was used to assess 77 pa-tients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The results showed that the cut-off point for the inlet-to-outlet ratio was 1.14. Signiifcant differences in the inlet-to-outlet ratio were found among patients with mild, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome. The cut-off point in the ratio of cross-section-al areas of the median nerve was 1.29 between mild and more severe (moderate and severe) carpal tunnel syndrome patients with 64.7% sensitivity and 72.7% speciifcity. The cut-off point in the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the median nerve was 1.52 between the moderate and severe carpal tunnel syndrome patients with 80.0% sensitivity and 64.7% speciifcity. These results suggest that the inlet-to-outlet ratio relfected the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  16. Does the ratio of the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet cross-sectional areas in the median nerve reflect carpal tunnel syndrome severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although ultrasound measurements have been used in previous studies on carpal tunnel syndrome to visualize injury to the median nerve, whether such ultrasound data can indicate the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome remains controversial. The cross-sectional areas of the median nerve at the tunnel inlet and outlet can show swelling and compression of the nerve at the carpal. We hypothesized that the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet to outlet accurately reflects the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome. To test this, high-resolution ultrasound with a linear array transducer at 5-17 MHz was used to assess 77 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. The results showed that the cut-off point for the inlet-to-outlet ratio was 1.14. Significant differences in the inlet-to-outlet ratio were found among patients with mild, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome. The cut-off point in the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the median nerve was 1.29 between mild and more severe (moderate and severe carpal tunnel syndrome patients with 64.7% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity. The cut-off point in the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the median nerve was 1.52 between the moderate and severe carpal tunnel syndrome patients with 80.0% sensitivity and 64.7% specificity. These results suggest that the inlet-to-outlet ratio reflected the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  17. Composition and cross-sectional area of muscle fibre types in relation to daily gain and lean and fat content of carcass in Landrace and Yorkshire pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The muscle fibre-type properties of longissimus were compared between Landrace and Yorkshire breeds and between the sexes in an attempt to shed light on the relationship of these histochemical parameters to animal growth and carcass composition. Muscle fibres were classified into three groups, type I, type IIA and type IIB, using the myosin ATPase method. At a given live weight, the cross-sectional area of type I fibres (CSA I was smaller (p

  18. Influence of body mass index on median nerve function, carpal canal pressure, and cross-sectional area of the median nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Robert A; Jacobson, Jon A; Jamadar, David A

    2004-10-01

    Obese individuals have slowed conduction in the median nerve across the wrist, but the mechanism for this is not established. This case-control study of 27 obese subjects and 16 thin subjects was designed to test the hypothesis that obese individuals have higher carpal canal pressures and more median nerve swelling than thin individuals. All subjects were asymptomatic for hand symptoms, and had measurements of median and ulnar sensory nerve conduction in the nondominant hand, ultrasound measurement of the median nerve cross-sectional area proximal to the carpal canal, and carpal canal pressure measurement. There was no difference in age or gender ratio between the obese and thin groups. The median nerve cross-sectional area was equal in the obese and thin groups (9.3 mm2 vs. 9.4 mm2), as was the carpal canal pressure (16.2 mmHg vs. 15.5 mmHg, respectively). There was a strong correlation between median nerve conduction slowing across the wrist and median nerve cross-sectional area at the wrist (r = 0.55, P = 0.002). Obesity does not influence carpal canal pressure or the size of the median nerve at the wrist. However, there is a strong association between slowed median nerve conduction and increased nerve size which suggests endoneurial edema as a metabolic mechanism; the conduction slowing does not appear to be related to mechanical stress.

  19. Profile of elderly attending a general practice clinic in a poor urban area: A cross-sectional study from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimple Madhukar Jamkhandi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, the number of elderly is steadily increasing and is likely to reach 301 million by 2051. The increasing number and proportion of elderly will have a direct impact on the demand for health and pension services. As per the Demography of Indian Aging (Rajan et al., information on morbidity profile of this population is essential to plan health-care facilities. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to study the morbidity profile of 100 elderly persons reporting to the outpatient clinic of a family practice unit of a tertiary care center in South India between June 2008 and May 2010. This was done with a view to plan better services for the elderly in that area. Results: In this study, 88% of the participants were on a follow-up while new ailment(s were diagnosed in 11 participants. A majority of participants were illiterate (62%, unemployed (83%, and financially dependent (54%. Forty-four participants screened had depression that required intervention such as counseling and follow-up; in ten participants, the screening score was sufficient to warrant therapy. In nearly half of the participants, the musculoskeletal system was involved, and a significant number had the involvement of cardiorespiratory system and urinary incontinence. Conclusion: A large number of elderly are affected by a constellation of conditions including mental as well social issues. A family practice unit may be a good setup to provide the first-contact care for the diagnosis and management of common problems in the elderly and help to improve their quality of life.

  20. Evaluation of plasma treatment effects on improving adhesive/dentin bonding by using the same tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Ritts, Andy Charles; Staller, Corey; Yu, Qingsong; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and verify the effectiveness of plasma treatment for improving adhesive/dentin interfacial bonding by performing micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) test using the same-tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns to expose the dentin surface. For each dentin surface, one half of it was treated with a non-thermal argon plasma brush, while another half was shielded with glass slide and used as untreated control. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were then applied as directed. The teeth thus prepared were further cut into micro-bar specimens with cross-sectional size of 1×1 mm2, 1×2 mm2 and 1×3 mm2 for μTBS test. The test results showed that plasma treated specimens gave substantially stronger adhesive/dentin bonding than their corresponding same tooth controls. As compared with their untreated controls, plasma treatment gave statistically significant higher bonding strength for specimens having cross-sectional area of 1×1 mm2 and 1×2 mm2, with mean increases of 30.8% and 45.1%, respectively. Interface examination using optical and electron microscopy verified that plasma treatment improved the quality of the adhesive/dentin interface by reducing defects/voids and increasing the resin tag length in dentin tubules. PMID:23841788

  1. Is the Health and Wellbeing of University Students Associated with their Academic Performance? Cross Sectional Findings from the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the associations between health awareness, health behaviour, subjective health status, and satisfaction of students with their educational experience as independent variables and three outcomes of educational achievement as dependent variables. We undertook two simultaneous cross-sectional surveys among students from one University in the UK during 2008−2009. The first survey was a general health survey; the second survey measured students’ satisfaction with different aspects of their learning and teaching experience. Students’ registration numbers linked the responses of both questionnaires together, and subsequently linked the questionnaires to the university database to import the grades that students actually achieved in their studies. Generally, students (N = 380 exhibited average medium to high satisfaction with their educational experiences. Students’ satisfaction with their educational experiences was not associated with any of the three indicators of educational achievement (actual module mark; perceived own performance; importance of achieving good grades. The associations of educational satisfaction, health, health behaviours, heath complaints and financial parameters with the three outcomes of educational achievement did not differ between male and female students. Each of the health, health behaviours, health complaints and financial parameters were selectively associated with only some but not all three indicators of student educational achievement. We conclude that the findings support a conceptual framework suggesting reciprocal relationships between health, health behaviour and educational achievement. Comprehensive health promotion programmes may have the potential to influence relevant predictors of educational achievement in university students.

  2. Use of Videoconferencing for Lactation Consultation: An Online Cross-Sectional Survey of Mothers' Acceptance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mona F; Springer, Cary M; Spence, Marsha L; Hansen-Petrik, Melissa B; Kavanagh, Katherine F

    2017-06-01

    Suboptimal breastfeeding duration and exclusivity rates are a public health concern. Therefore, there is a need for identifying effective tools for use in interventions targeting specific barriers to optimal breastfeeding outcomes. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the relationship between acceptance of remote lactation consultation using videoconferencing and (a) maternal demographic factors, (b) technology acceptance subscales, (c) maternal learning style preferences, and (d) other potentially explanatory maternal factors. This was a cross-sectional, online study. English-speaking mothers of at least 18 years of age, with an infant age 4 months or younger, and who reported initiating breastfeeding were eligible to participate. Mothers were recruited from 27 randomly selected states. One hundred one mothers completed the survey, resulting in a response rate of 71%. The main outcome was acceptance of videoconferencing use for lactation consultation. No significant differences were found in acceptance by maternal demographic factors or learning style preferences. Acceptance was significantly related to perceived ease of use ( r = .680, p < .001), perceived usefulness/extrinsic motivation ( r = .774, p < .001), intrinsic motivation ( r = .689, p < .001), desire for control of privacy ( r = -.293, p < .01), and mother's perception of the infant father's/maternal partner's acceptance of videoconferencing for lactation consultation ( r = .432, p < .001). Only perceived usefulness/extrinsic motivation and maternal age remained in the final regression model ( R(2) = .616, p < .001). Although perceived usefulness/extrinsic motivation was positively associated with acceptance, maternal age was inversely related. This sample of mothers indicated general acceptance of videoconferencing for lactation consultation, with younger mothers and those perceiving it to be more useful demonstrating greater acceptance.

  3. The Near Mallett Unit Foveal Suppression Test: a cross-sectional study to establish test norms and relationship with other optometric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sosena T W; Evans, Bruce J W

    2007-01-01

    When the binocular system comes under prolonged stress in decompensated heterophoria, a small suppression area can develop at the fovea. This foveal suppression (FS) may be an adaptation to eliminate symptoms. The near Mallett unit (NMU) is a hand-held instrument that contains a binocular status test for detecting and quantifying FS. We measured FS in a cross-sectional study of 131 patients to investigate the normal range of responses. A ratio scoring method was devised which considers the number of letters read with dichoptic viewing when binocularly fused (b) and under monocular (m) conditions, using the formula 100 x (m - b)/m. The 95th percentile value of the FS ratios was calculated as the limit of the normal range and this gave a value for the right eye (RE; 33%), left eye (LE; 43%) and total (38%). This result shows that statistically significant FS occurs when a patient can read approximately one line further in the test monocularly, compared to under fused dichoptic conditions. A statistically significant correlation was found between absolute values of horizontal aligning prism (associated heterophoria on the NMU) and FS ratio. Some limitations of the FS test and unexpected results became apparent during our research and an abnormal result on the test does not always indicate a binocular vision anomaly. Nonetheless, we feel that the test can provide useful information when the results are taken in the context of other clinical tests. Our results are used to develop recommendations and clinical guidelines for using the FS test, and to make suggestions for improvements in future designs of the test.

  4. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Oh Jin-Kyoung; Lim Min; Kang Yoon; Yun E Hwa; Son Jung

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rura...

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study on Selected Correlates of High risk Sexual Behavior in Polish Migrants Resident in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Czubińska, Grażyna; Korzeń, Marcin; Szych, Zbigniew

    2017-04-14

    Objective: To assess the correlates of the high risk sexual behaviors of Polish migrants in the United Kingdom (UK) after 2004, and to compare such behaviors before/after immigration. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted through the use of a Computer-assisted web interviewing surveying technique with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Among 408 respondents (56.9% women), with a median age of 32 years, significantly more admitted to having unprotected sexual contact with a casual partner while in the UK (p sexual behavior among Polish migrants, and to introduce interventions to promote an awareness of HIV sero-status.

  6. Nerve Damage in Young Patients with Leprosy Diagnosed in an Endemic Area of the Brazilian Amazon: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Sabrina Sampaio; Pires, Carla Avelar; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões

    2017-06-01

    To describe nerve damage and its association with clinical and epidemiologic characteristics in young patients with leprosy diagnosed in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon. All 45 patients with leprosy younger than 15 years of age and diagnosed at a health referral unit in northern Brazil were invited to participate in a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study. Subjects were submitted to a templated simple neurologic examination of the peripheral nerves and answered a structured questionnaire. Of 41 cases, referral was the mode of detection in 33 participants (80.5%); 19 (46.3%) had been seen by 3 or more physicians to obtain a diagnosis, and 26 (63.4%) had received other diagnoses. The interval between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was more than 1 year in 30 cases (73.2%). Borderline leprosy was the predominant clinical form (48.8%); 63.4% of the participants had multibacillary leprosy, 31.7% had nerve damage, and 17.1% exhibited disabilities. The following variables showed a statistically significant association (P???.05) with nerve damage at diagnosis: home visit by the community health worker, number of doctors seen, number of skin lesions (>5), and lesions along the path of nerve trunks. Centralized healthcare, a low frequency of home visits by community health workers, and the difficulty in diagnosing leprosy in children are factors that contribute to late treatment initiation and an increased risk of peripheral nerve damage. In addition, multiple skin lesions and lesions along the path of nerve trunks require rigorous monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Breast Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behavior Among Filipino Women in a Rural Area: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Kashiwagi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer are high among Filipino women. The lack of knowledge on preventive behavior and early detection related to breast cancer is considered a reason. Objectives This study aimed to determine the association between knowledge about breast cancer and selected sociodemographic characteristics, daily life factors, reproductive factors, and perceived breast cancer risk factors. Patients and Methods This study used a cross-sectional design. The study population consisted of 527 women. Interviews were conducted by the investigators. The contents of the questionnaire collected basic characteristics of the respondents, including their sociodemographic profiles, their knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, preventive behaviors, early detection, and their daily life and reproductive factors. Predictor variables were analyzed using a Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and a t-test. Multivariate logistic regression was applied for any significant differences (P < 0.005 among the predictor variables. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HDS were used to evaluate the association between education level and reproductive factors. Results Less than half of the women (42.7% had knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, and an equivalent number had knowledge on breast cancer symptoms. Women with higher educational levels were noted to give birth to their first child at a significantly older age and have a significantly lower number of childbirths. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that body mass index, education history, knowledge about symptoms, knowing how to conduct a breast self-examination, family history of cancer, and passive smoking could predict breast cancer knowledge. Conclusions Women who were aware of risk factors for breast cancer possessed a higher education level and had knowledge of the association of risk factors with preventive behaviors and early detection. However, a minority of

  8. HEALTH STATUS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN: A COMMUNITY BASED CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN RURAL AREAS OF KAMRUP DISTRICT, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Children are the wealth of any nation as they constitute one of the important segments of the population. School is important for cognitive, creative and social development of children. The primary school children group is non - earning, depended to family and easily accessible for the health assessment, care and education through teachers, books etc. OBJECTIVES : a to assess the morbidity pattern amongst primary school children b To assess the association between morbidity pattern and socioeconomic status of the school children. METHODOLOGY: A c ommunity based cross sectional study was under taken amongst the primary school children in Boko - Bongaon block of Kamrup district, Assam from August 2012 to July 2013 with the help of a predesigned and pretested proforma, clinical examination, anthropometric measurement and laboratory investigation. Statistical analysis used: Data was analyzed in Microsoft excel and by using chi - square test and proport ions. RESULTS: 228 (57% school children were suffering from one or more morbidities. The leading cause of morbidities were anaemia (70%, under nutrition(31.25%, worm infestation (29%, vitamin (vitamin B complex and vitamin C deficiency disorder (29.75 %, skin disorder (24.25%, dental carries (23.75%, ocular disorder (13% etc. 139 (34.75% of school children were suffering from at least one episode of fever in the last 4 weeks followed by ARI 127 (31.75%. There is strong association between socioeconomic status and morbidities amongst the children and it is highly significant. CONCLUSION: In this study, Prevalence of diseases is found to be clubbed in the lower socioeconomic group. Health education and proper awareness to parents or guardians regarding prevention and treatment of common health problems and to improve personal hygiene of the children is necessary.

  9. Nutritional status of adolescent girls residing in rural area: A community-based cross-sectional study

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    Sulakshana S Baliga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. Nutritional requirements during this period increase tremendously compared to preceding years of growth. The nutritional status of adolescent girls, the future mothers, contributes significantly to the nutritional status of the community. The present study was aimed to assess the current nutritional status of the adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This one-year community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken at a village Peeranwadi of District Belgaum, Karnataka among 400 adolescent girls of 10 to 19 years. Information on socio-demographic variables was collected by an interview using pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. A 24-hour recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. The nutrient intake was calculated using tables of nutritive value of Indian foods. For the comparison of anthropometric data, National Center for Health Statistics and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey standards were used. Results: The mean age among the study population was 12.9 ± 2.06 years. Majorities (73.5% of them were Hindus, 98.5% were literate, and 90% were currently studying. Adolescent girls between 10 and 14 years were more stunted (63.82% as compared to 15 to 19 years (40.84% (P = 0.0003 and thin (60.79% vs. 39.43%; P = 0.0009. Overall, the mean calorie intake was observed to be 1272.20 ± 133.28 kcal/day, protein intake was 40.99 ± 3.32 gm, and iron intake was 14.42 ± 2.58 mg. Conclusion: Overall, majority of girls were having dietary intake less than 50% of RDA, and almost three fourth of girls were anemic.

  10. Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Jemima C; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Mindell, Jennifer S; Brunner, Eric J; Shelton, Nicola J

    2016-05-18

    Physical activity is essential for health; walking is the easiest way to incorporate activity into everyday life. Previous studies report positive associations between neighbourhood walkability and walking but most focused on cities in North America and Australasia. Urban form with respect to street connectivity, residential density and land use mix-common components of walkability indices-differs in European cities. The objective of this study was to develop a walkability index for London and test the index using walking data from the Whitehall II Study.  A neighbourhood walkability index for London was constructed, comprising factors associated with walking behaviours: residential dwelling density, street connectivity and land use mix. Three models were produced that differed in the land uses included. Neighbourhoods were operationalised at three levels of administrative geography: (i) 21,140 output areas, (ii) 633 wards and (iii) 33 local authorities. A neighbourhood walkability score was assigned to each London-dwelling Whitehall II Study participant (2003-04, N = 3020, mean ± SD age = 61.0 years ± 6.0) based on residential postcode. The effect of changing the model specification and the units of enumeration on spatial variation in walkability was examined. There was a radial decay in walkability from the centre to the periphery of London. There was high inter-model correlation in walkability scores for any given neighbourhood operationalisation (0.92-0.98), and moderate-high correlation between neighbourhood operationalisations for any given model (0.39-0.70). After adjustment for individual level factors and area deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighbourhoods operationalised as wards were more likely to walk >6 h/week (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.1-1.9) than those in the least walkable. Walkability was associated with walking time in adults. This walkability index could help urban planners identify and design neighbourhoods in

  11. HIV prevalence in severely malnourished children admitted to nutrition rehabilitation units in Malawi: Geographical & seasonal variations a cross-sectional study

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    Maleta Kenneth

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe malnutrition in childhood associated with HIV infection presents a serious humanitarian and public health challenge in Southern Africa. The aim of this study was to collect country wide data on HIV infection patterns in severely malnourished children to guide the development of integrated care in a resource limited setting. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in 12 representative rural and urban Nutrition Rehabilitation Units (NRUs, from each of Malawi's 3 regions. All children and their caretakers admitted to each NRU over a two week period were offered HIV counselling and testing. Testing was carried out using two different rapid antibody tests, with PCR testing for discordant results. Children under 15 months were excluded, to avoid difficulties with interpretation of false positive rapid test results. The survey was conducted once in the dry/post-harvest season, and repeated in the rainy/hungry season. Results 570 children were eligible for study inclusion. Acceptability and uptake of HIV testing was high: 523(91.7% of carers consented for their children to take part; 368(70.6% themselves accepted testing. Overall HIV prevalence amongst children tested was 21.6%(95% confidence intervals, 18.2–25.5%. There was wide variation between individual NRUs: 2.0–50.0%. Geographical prevalence variations were significant between the three regions (p HIV prevalence was significantly higher in urban areas, 32.9%(95%CI 26.8–39.4% than in rural 13.2%(95%CI 9.5–17.6%(p NRU HIV prevalence rates were lower in the rainy/hungry season 18.4%(95%CI 14.7–22.7% than in the dry/post-harvest season 30.9%(95%CI 23.2–39.4% (p Conclusion There is a high prevalence of HIV infection in severely malnourished Malawian children attending NRUs with children in urban areas most likely to be infected. Testing for HIV is accepted by their carers in both urban and rural areas. NRUs could act as entry points to HIV treatment and

  12. Sexual, Reproductive Health Needs, and Rights of Young People in Slum Areas of Kampala, Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Kamara, Joseph K.; Georgeou, Nichole; Kamanga, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Background Young people in Uganda face various sexual and reproductive health risks, especially those living in urban slums. The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with comprehensive categories of sexual and reproductive health, including sexual behaviours; sexual education and access to contraceptive services; family planning; prevention of STDs; sexual consent as a right; gender based violence; as well as HIV testing, counselling, disclosure and support. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and was carried out in July 2014 in Makindye and Nakawa Divisions of Kampala City, Uganda. Using systematic random sampling, data were collected on 663 participants aged between 13 and 24 years in Kampala’s urban slums. Results Sixty two percent of participants reported having ever had sex and the mean age of sexual debut was 16 years (95%CI: 15.6, 16.4 years, range: 5–23 years). The odds of reporting ever having had sexual intercourse were higher among respondents living alone (OR: 2.75; 95%CI: 1.35, 5.61; psexual partners in the last 12 months preceding the survey averaged 1.8 partners (95%CI: 1.7, 1.9; range 1–4) with 18.1% reporting an age gap of 10 years or older. More than three quarters (80.6%) of sexually active participants reported that their first sexual encounter was consensual, suggesting that most young people are choosing when they make their sexual debut. Low prevalence of willing first sexual intercourse was associated with younger age (OR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.90, psexual intercourse was significantly higher among women for persuasion (13.2% vs. 2.4%, psexual abuse emerged from the data with 34.3% affirming that it was alright for a boy to force a girl to have sex if he had feelings for her; 73.3% affirming that it was common for strangers and relatives to force young females to have sexual intercourse with them without consent; 26.3% indicating that it was sometimes justifiable for a boy to hit his girlfriend, as long as

  13. Comparison of High Resolution Ultrasonography and Nerve Conduction Study in the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Diagnostic Value of Median Nerve Cross-Sectional Area

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    A. Mohammadi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. This study was performed to evaluate whether high-resolution ultrasonography may be an alternative diagnostic method for nerve conduction study (NCS in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. "nPatients and Methods: 132 wrists of 82 patients and 152 wrists of controls were enrolled in the study. The cross sectional area of the median nerve was measured at the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet in all patients and controls. All patients had a nerve conduction study. Then comparison between ultrasonography and NCS was performed. Combination of clinical diagnosis and NCS was used as the gold standard. "nResults: The mean cross-sectional area (CSA of the median nerve at the tunnel inlet was 11.4±1.7 mm2 for the patient group and 5.78 ±0.9 mm2 for the control group (P<0.001. The mean cross-sectional area at the tunnel outlet was 9.9±1.2 mm2 for the patient group and 4.7±0.7 mm2 for the control group (P<0.001. The best cut-off value of CSA at the tunnel inlet and the outlet was 7.5 mm2. "nConclusion: In patients with clinical diagnosis of CTS we confirmed that the diagnostic value of ultrasonography is similar to NCS and sonography may be used in primary evaluation of CTS.

  14. Fatigue during dynamic muscle contractions in male sprinters and marathon runners: relationships between performance, electromyographic activity, muscle cross-sectional area and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzon, R; Johansson, C; Sjöström, M; Fagerlund, M; Fugl-Meyer, A R

    1988-04-01

    Knee extensor fatigue and endurance during repeated maximum isokinetic manoeuvres were studied in five sprinters and five marathon runners, all males. Fatigue and endurance were expressed in terms of output (contractional work, CW) and input (integrated electromyograms, iEMG), and was related to muscle fibre composition of m. vastus lateralis and to cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. quadriceps. The initially performed contractional work was positively related to the calculated absolute type II fibre area of m. vastus lateralis, but not to the cross-sectional area of m. quadriceps. During the first 25 contractions, sprinters fatigued, with a slope of decline in contractional work that was correlated to the absolute type II fibre area, also after correction of performed work for CSA of m. quadriceps. As the electromyographic activity decreased less than the contractional work, a drastic fall in the CW/iEMG ratio was found in the sprinter group. Three out of five sprinters could perform less than 50 knee extensions, due to subjective discomfort in tested thighs. In contrast, all marathon runners could, after a minor similar decline in electromyographic activity and contractional work during the first part of the experiment, maintain a steady-state endurance level of CW and iEMG throughout the test (200 knee extensions). In conclusion, fatigue during isokinetic maximal knee extensions is closely related to the muscle structure of m. vastus lateralis.

  15. Effects of long-term low-level radiation exposure after the Chernobyl catastrophe on immunoglobulins in children residing in contaminated areas: prospective and cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Daria M; Vdovenko, Vitaliy Y; Karmaus, Wilfried; Kondrashova, Valentina; Svendsen, Erik; Litvinetz, Oksana M; Stepanova, Yevgenia I

    2014-05-10

    After the Chernobyl nuclear incident in 1986, children in the Narodichesky region, located 80 km west of the Chernobyl Power Plant, were exposed to 137Cesium (137Cs). Little is known about the effects of chronic low-level radiation on humoral immune responses in children residing in contaminated areas. In four different approaches we investigated the effect of residential 137Cs exposure on immunoglobulins A, G, M, and specific immunoglobulin E in children. In a dynamic cohort (1993-1998) we included 617 children providing 2,407 repeated measurements; 421 and 523 children in two cross-sectional samples (1997-1998 and 2008-2010, respectively); and 25 participants in a small longitudinal cohort (1997-2010). All medical exams, blood collections, and analyses were conducted by the same team. We used mixed linear models to analyze repeated measurements in cohorts and general linear regression models for cross-sectional studies. Residential soil contamination in 2008 was highly correlated with the individual body burden of 137Cs. Serum IgG and IgM concentrations increased between 1993 and 1998. Children with higher 137Cs soil exposure had lower serum IgG levels, which, however, increased in the small cohort assessed between 1997 and 2010. Children within the fourth quintile of 137Cs soil exposure (266-310 kBq/m2) had higher IgM serum concentrations between 1993 and 1998 but these declined between 1997 and 2010. IgA remained stable with median 137Cs exposures related to higher IgA levels, which was corroborated in the cross-sectional study of 2008-2010. Specific IgE against indoor allergens was detected less often in children with higher 137Cs exposure. Our findings show radiation-related alterations of immunoglobulins which by themselves do not constitute adverse health effects. Further investigations are necessary to understand how these changes affect health status.

  16. Cardiotocography interpretation skills and the association with size of maternity unit, years of obstetric work experience and healthcare professional background: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellesen, Line; Sorensen, Jette L; Hedegaard, Morten; Rosthoej, Susanne; Colov, Nina P; Andersen, Kristine S; Bergholt, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to examine whether cardiotocography (CTG) knowledge, interpretation skills and decision-making measured by a written assessment were associated with size of maternity unit, years of obstetric work experience and healthcare professional background. A national cross-sectional study in the setting of a CTG teaching intervention involving all 24 maternity units in Denmark. Participants were midwives (n = 1260) and specialists (n = 269) and residents (n = 142) in obstetrics and gynecology who attended a 1-day CTG course and answered a 30-item multiple-choice question test. Associations between mean test score and work conditions were analyzed using multivariable robust regression, in which the three variables were mutually adjusted. Participants from units with > 3000 deliveries/year scored higher on the test than participants from units with 4000 deliveries/year: mean difference 0.5, p = 0.006). Participants with 15 years of experience (15-20 years of experience: mean difference - 0.6, p = 0.007; > 20 years experience: mean difference - 0.9, p skills and decision-making measured by a written assessment were positively associated with working in large maternity units and having skills in small units and among experienced staff but could also reflect different levels of motivation, test familiarity and learning culture. Whether the findings are transferable to the clinical setting was not examined. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems - A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children

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    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    2005-01-01

    Background We examined the association of area deprivation with the occurrence of psychosocial problems among children aged 4-16 in a representative national sample of children based on standardised measures of parent-reported problems and diagnoses made by doctors and nurses working in child health

  18. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy

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    Andrea Carvelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7–7.5; 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8% and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%, and were fed with commercial food (54.8% and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%. The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle.

  19. Attitudes of dermatologists in the southeastern United States regarding treatment of alopecia areata: a cross-sectional survey study

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    Stewart Paul W

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little evidence exists to guide treatment of alopecia areata (AA. The current practices in treatment of children compared to adults and of progressive stages of hair loss are unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the current practices of southeastern United States dermatologists for the treatment of AA. Methods Dermatologists were sent anonymous questionnaires regarding their treatment practices by mail. Respondents' frequencies of treatment in children compared to adults and in patchy hair loss compared to widespread hair loss were compared with Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and Friedman tests. As a secondary source, the National Alopecia Areata Registry (NAAR database was analyzed for patients' treatment histories. Results Survey results suggested that dermatologists recommend treatment less frequently for children than adults and for more advanced hair loss. NAAR data confirmed that offering no treatment for AA is relatively common. Conclusion Dermatologists' treatment of AA is inconsistent. A stronger evidence base will provide more consistent treatment options.

  20. Practice characteristics and prescribing of cardiovascular drugs in areas with higher risk of CHD in Scotland: cross-sectional study

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    McLean Gary

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examine whether practices in areas with higher risks of CHD prescribe different levels of cardiovascular drugs and describe how they differ in GP and practice characteristics. Methods Propensity score matching was used to identify two groups of practices in Scotland. The cases were in areas with 5% or more of the population in South Asian ethnic groups. The controls were in areas with less than 1% of the population in South Asian ethnic groups and were matched for other population characteristics. Results The 39 case practices have lower prescribing rates than the matched controls for all heart disease drugs Significant different are found for six drugs (statins, ace Inhibitors, clopidogrel, thiazides, warfarin and digoxin. The differences range from 12.8% less for amlodipine to 43.9% for clopidogrel. The case practices also have lower prescribing costs than the unmatched group with the exception of ace inhibitors and aspirin. The highest prescribing costs for all drugs are found in the matched control group. The case practices are smaller than the controls, and have fewer GPs per 1,000 patients. Case practices have fewer quality markers and receive less in total resources, but have higher sums reimbursed to cover their employed staff costs. Conclusion Patients with higher risk of CHD tend to live in areas served by practices with lower prescribing rates and poorer structural characteristics. The scale of the differences in prescribing suggests that health care system factors rather than individual treatment decisions cause inequity in care. Identifying whether South Asian individuals are less likely to receive heart disease drugs than non South Asians requires individual-level prescribing data, which is currently not available in the UK.

  1. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  2. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

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    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  3. Environmental risk factors associated with Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Converse, R R; Wade, T J

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori imparts a considerable burden to public health. Infections are mainly acquired in childhood and can lead to chronic diseases, including gastric ulcers and cancer. The bacterium subsists in water, but the environment's role in transmission remains poorly understood. The nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was examined for environmental risk factors associated with H. pylori seroprevalence. Data from 1999-2000 were examined and weighted to represent the US population. Multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations with seropositivity. Self-reported general health condition was inversely associated with seropositivity. Of participants aged <20 years, seropositivity was significantly associated with having a well as the source of home tap water (aOR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1-2·6) and living in a more crowded home (aOR 2·3, 95% CI 1·5-3·7). Of adults aged ⩾20 years, seropositivity was not associated with well water or crowded living conditions, but adults in soil-related occupations had significantly higher odds of seropositivity compared to those in non-soil-related occupations (aOR 1·9, 95% CI 1·2-2·9). Exposures to both well water and occupationally related soil increased the effect size of adults' odds of seropositivity compared to non-exposed adults (aOR 2·7, 95% CI 1·3-5·6). Environmental exposures (well-water usage and occupational contact with soil) play a role in H. pylori transmission. A disproportionate burden of infection is associated with poor health and crowded living conditions, but risks vary by age and race/ethnicity. These findings could help inform interventions to reduce the burden of infections in the United States.

  4. Basic research on lattice structures focused on the reliance of the cross sectional area and additional coatings

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    Kessler Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific survey is about periodic lattice structures which are made by Selective Laser Melting (SLM. Selective laser melting is based on Additive Manufacturing. The increased use and increasing demand of lattice structures in different fields of applications forms the necessity of a closer look on complex structures. Lattice structures can be found in different fields of applications for example in lightweight applications, filters and heat exchangers. Because of the expanding of application areas and thus arising requirements, the quality improvement is indispensable. Additive manufacturing and especially the SLM process enable the manufacturing of highly complex shapes and structures. Further it allows the integration of lightweight structures within to be manufactured applications. These high performance structures and applications need specific boundary and process conditions [1-3]. The main aim of this survey is an extraction of important parameters concerning the shape of lattices. A first focus will be on mechanical properties and the therefore necessary tensile tests.

  5. The use of the lumbosacral enlargement as an intrinsic imaging biomarker: feasibility of grey matter and white matter cross-sectional area measurements using MRI at 3T.

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    Marios C Yiannakas

    Full Text Available Histopathological studies have demonstrated the involvement of spinal cord grey matter (GM and white matter (WM in several diseases and recent research has suggested the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a promising tool for in vivo assessment of the upper spinal cord. However, many neurological conditions would benefit from quantitative assessment of tissue integrity at different levels and relatively little work has been done, mainly due to technical challenges associated with imaging the lower spinal cord. In this study, the value of the lumbosacral enlargement (LSE as an intrinsic imaging biomarker was determined by exploring the feasibility of obtaining within it reliable GM and WM cross-sectional area (CSA measurements by means of a commercially available MRI system at 3 tesla (T. 10 healthy volunteers (mean age 27.5 years, 6 female gave written informed consent and high resolution images of the LSE were acquired and analysed using an optimised MRI acquisition and analysis protocol. GM and WM mean CSA measurements were obtained from a 15 mm section at the level of the LSE and the reproducibility of the measurements was determined by means of scan-rescan, intra- and inter-observer assessments. Mean (±SD LSE cross-sectional area (LSE-CSA was 62.3 (±4.1 mm2 and mean (±SD LSE grey matter cross-sectional area (LSE-GM-CSA was 19.8 (±3.3 mm2. The mean scan-rescan, intra- and inter-observer % coefficient of variation (COV for measuring the LSE-CSA were 2%, 2% and 2.5%, respectively and for measuring the LSE-GM-CSA were 7.8%, 8% and 8.6%, respectively. This study has shown that the LSE can be used reliably as an intrinsic imaging biomarker. The method presented here can be potentially extended to study the LSE in the diseased state and could provide a solid foundation for subsequent multi-parametric MRI investigations.

  6. Waterpipe Tobacco Use in the United Kingdom: A Cross-Sectional Study among University Students and Stop Smoking Practitioners.

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    Mohammed Jawad

    Full Text Available Despite cigarette-like adverse health outcomes associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking and increase in its use among youth, it is a much underexplored research area. We aimed to measure the prevalence and patterns of waterpipe tobacco use and evaluate tobacco control policy with respect to waterpipe tobacco, in several universities across the UK. We also aimed to measure stop smoking practitioners' encounter of waterpipe tobacco smoking.We distributed an online survey to six UK universities, asking detailed questions on waterpipe tobacco. Multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, graduate status, university and socioeconomic status (SES assessed associations between waterpipe tobacco smoking (single use and dual use with cigarettes and sociodemographic variables. SES was ascertained by average weekly self-spend on non-essentials. We also descriptively analysed data from a 2012 survey of stop smoking practitioners to assess the proportion of clients that used waterpipe regularly.f 2217 student responses, 66.0% (95% CI 63.9-68.0% had tried waterpipe tobacco smoking; 14.3% (95% CI 12.8-15.8% reported past-30 day use, and 8.7% (95% CI 7.6-9.9% reported at least monthly users. Past-30 day waterpipe-only use was associated with being younger (AOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99, male (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08-1.94, higher SES (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.28 and belonging to non-white ethnicities (vs. white, AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.66-3.04. Compared to less than monthly users, monthly users were significantly more likely to have urges to smoke waterpipe (28.1% vs. 3.1%, p<0.001 report difficulty in quitting (15.5% vs. 0.8%, p<0.001, report feeling guilty, and annoyed when criticised about waterpipe smoking (19.2% vs. 9.2%, p<0.001. Nearly a third (32.5% of respondents who had tried waterpipe had violated the UK smokefree law and a quarter (24.5% reporting seeing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco packaging or apparatuses. Of 1

  7. The effects of magnetic-field geometry on longitudinal oscillations of solar prominences: Cross-sectional area variation for thin tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, M; Oliver, R; Terradas, J; Karpen, J

    2016-01-01

    Solar prominences are subject to both field-aligned (longitudinal) and transverse oscillatory motions, as evidenced by an increasing number of observations. Large-amplitude longitudinal motions provide valuable information on the geometry of the filament-channel magnetic structure that supports the cool prominence plasma against gravity. Our pendulum model, in which the restoring force is the gravity projected along the dipped field lines of the magnetic structure, best explains these oscillations. However, several factors can influence the longitudinal oscillations, potentially invalidating the pendulum model. The aim of this work is to study the influence of large-scale variations in the magnetic field strength along the field lines, i.e., variations of the cross-sectional area along the flux tubes supporting prominence threads. We studied the normal modes of several flux tube configurations, using linear perturbation analysis, to assess the influence of different geometrical parameters on the oscillation p...

  8. A novel computer algorithm allows for volumetric and cross-sectional area analysis of indirect decompression following transpsoas lumbar arthrodesis despite variations in MRI technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Timothy A; Vasudevan, Ram R; Miller, Kai J; Stamatopoulou, Vasiliki; Mindea, Stefan A

    2014-03-01

    Many patients present for neurosurgical spine evaluation with MRI studies conducted at facilities outside of the treating medical center. These images often vary widely in technique, for example, variation in slice thickness, number of slices, and gantry angle. While these images may be sufficient in conjunction with a physical exam to make surgical evaluations, we have found they are often incapable of being used for objective post-operative volumetric comparisons. In order to overcome this, we created a computer program that compensates for these variations in MRI technique. For this study, we examined patients who had undergone outside MRI pre-operatively and were deemed appropriate for a lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas lumbar interbody arthrodesis procedure. Volumetric analysis was performed on sagittal and axial T2-weighted pre- and post-operative MRI. The percentage change of central canal volume and foraminal area was calculated for each level. The authors identified five levels with MRI sufficient for volumetric analysis and eight levels (16 foramina) sufficient for foraminal cross-sectional analysis. Through use of our computer algorithm, average central canal volume and foraminal cross-sectional area was calculated to increase by 32.8% and 67.6% respectively following the procedure. These results are consistent with previous study findings and support the idea that restoration of the anterior column via a lateral approach can result in significant indirect decompression of the neural elements. Additionally, the novel algorithm created and used for this study suggests that it can achieve quick measurement and comparison of MRI studies despite variations in pre- and post-operative technique.

  9. Hospital and unit characteristics associated with nursing turnover include skill mix but not staffing level: an observational cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggs, Vincent S; Dunton, Nancy

    2012-09-01

    Nursing turnover is expensive and may have adverse effects on patient care. Little is known about turnover's association with most hospital and nursing unit characteristics, including nurse staffing level and registered nurse skill mix. To explore associations between nursing unit turnover rates and several hospital- and unit-level variables, including staffing level and skill mix. Observational cross-sectional study of longitudinal data. 1884 nursing units in 306 U.S. acute care hospitals. During a 2-year period units reported monthly data on staffing and turnover. Total nursing staff turnover and registered nurse turnover rates were modeled as dependent variables in hierarchical Poisson regression models. The following hospital characteristics were considered as predictors: Magnet(®) status, ownership (government or non-government), teaching status, locale (metropolitan, micropolitan, or rural), and size (average daily census). The U.S. state in which the hospital was located was included as a covariate. Unit-level variables included total nursing hours per patient day, size of nursing staff, registered nurse skill mix, population age group (neonatal, pediatric, or adult), and service line (critical care, step-down, medical, surgical, medical/surgical, psychiatric, or rehabilitation). Government ownership, Magnet designation, and higher skill mix were associated with lower total turnover and registered nurse turnover. Neonatal units had lower total and registered nurse turnover than pediatric units, which had lower total and registered nurse turnover than adult units. Unit service line was associated only with total turnover. Psychiatric, critical care, and rehabilitation units had the lowest mean turnover rates, but most differences between service lines were not significant. The other explanatory variables considered were not significant. Several hospital and unit characteristic variables have significant associations with nursing turnover; these associations

  10. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  11. The Variation in the Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation in an Adult Asian Population and Its Relationship with the Cross-Sectional Area of the Multifidus and Erector Spinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayose, Masaki; Watanabe, Kota

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study of healthy volunteers. Purpose We aimed to investigate the variation in the lumbar facet joint orientation in an adult Asian population. The relationship between the facet joint orientation and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of multifidus and erector spinae was also clarified. Overview of Literature Several studies have reported that lumbar pathologies, such as lumbar spondylolysis and degenerative spondylolisthesis, were related to the horizontally shaped lumbar facet joint orientation at the lower lumbar level. However, data regarding variations in the facet joint orientation in asymptomatic subjects have not been well documented. Methods In 31 healthy male adult Asian volunteers, the facet joint orientation and CSA of multifidus and erector spinae were measured using magnetic resonance imaging at the L4–5 and L5–S1 levels. Variation in the facet joint orientation was examined using coefficients of variation (CV). Pearson's product-moment coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between the facet joint orientation and CSA of multifidus and erector spinae. Results Lumbar facet joint orientation had a wider range of variation at L5–S1 (CV=0.30) than at L4–5 (CV=0.18). The L4–5 facet joint orientation had a weak but significant correlation with the CSA of erector spinae (r=0.40; p=0.031). The CSA of the multifidus had no relationship with the facet joint orientation at the L4–5 (r=0.19; p=0.314) and the L5–S1 level (r=0.19; p=0.312). Conclusions The lumbar facet joint orientation was found to have a wide variation, particularly at the L5–S1 in the Asian adult population, and the facet joint orientation had a relationship with the CSA of the erector spinae at the L4–5.

  12. Ultrasound screening for asymptomatic carotid stenosis in subjects with calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs: a cross-sectional study

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    Karp Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Directed ultrasonic screening for carotid stenosis is cost-effective in populations with > 5% prevalence of the diagnosis. Occasionally, calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries are incidentally detected on odontological panoramic radiographs. We aimed to determine if directed screening for carotid stenosis with ultrasound is indicated in individuals with such calcifications. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Carotid ultrasound examinations were performed on consecutive persons, with findings of calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiography that were otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Results Calcification in the area of the carotid arteries was seen in 176 of 1182 persons undergoing panoramic radiography. Of these, 117 fulfilled the inclusion criterion and were examined with carotid ultrasound. Eight persons (6.8%; 95% CI 2.2-11.5% had a carotid stenosis - not significant over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.232, Binomial test. However, there was a significant sex difference (p = 0.008, as all stenoses were found in men. Among men, 12.5% (95%CI 4.2-20.8% had carotid stenosis - significantly over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.014, Binomial test. Conclusions The incidental finding of calcification in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs should be followed up with carotid screening in men that are otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Trial Registration The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00514644

  13. Folic acid awareness and intake among women in areas with high prevalence of neural tube defects in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziqian; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Xi; Zhu, Jun

    2011-07-01

    To measure folic acid awareness and intake rates among women of childbearing age in certain areas of China with a high prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD). A cross-sectional survey was carried out utilising a nineteen-item questionnaire enquiring into individual women's knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of folic acid supplementation. A total of 293 low-income counties in six provinces of China. Women aged 19-44 years from six provinces with a high prevalence of NTD recruited from June to August 2008. Among 33 025 participants, 57 % had heard of folic acid but only 15 % knew all of the core information. The intake rate was 12 %; only 8 % took the recommended dose and only 4 % of non-pregnant women took folic acid. Some women did not take folic acid because they did not know that they should take it (49 %) or they had misconceptions about it (24 %). According to logistic regression analysis, rural residence was a risk factor for folic acid awareness. Ethnicity, educational level, average annual income per person and pregnancy were the influencing factors of folic acid awareness and folic acid intake. Although more than half of the respondents had heard of folic acid, the intake rate was still very low in areas with a high prevalence of NTD. Thus, more efforts are needed to increase folic acid awareness and intake among women of reproductive age in these areas.

  14. Child Sex Ratio and It’s Socio-Demographic Correlates: A Cross Sectional Study in an Urban Area of Eastern Maharashtra

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    Mamta K Shewte, Smita P Andurkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex ratio is an important social indicator to measure the extent of prevailing equity between males and females in a society. Objective: The Objective of the study was to find Child Sex Ratio (CSR in the urban area of Aurangabad, Maharashtra and socio?demographic factors affecting it. Methods: The present study is community based cross sectional study which involved house to house interview of mothers of 0-6 year children from urban area of Aurangabad. Information regarding all children born in last 6 years, their date of birth, birth order and demographic informa-tion of family was noted. Results: Overall child sex ratio of study area was 853. The highest child sex ratio was obtained for (CSR 1255 Muslim religion, (CSR 2667 when father studies up-to primary school, (CSR1778 when mother was illiterate and (CSR 1000 for class V and III socio-economic status. Least CSR 605 was obtained when the families have all females in previous birth order. Conclusion: This part of country or Maharashtra has lower CSR than national average. There are demographic factors like socio-economic status, education status of parents, religion and previous birth order, which influence CSR. There is less girl child insubsequent birth order, especially when the previous born child is female.

  15. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

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    Griffin, P.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Peters, C.D. [Sandia Staffing Alliance, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of

  16. Staff working in hospital units with greater social capital experience less work-home conflict: Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Anika; Kuntz, Ludwig; Miedaner, Felix

    2017-07-31

    When the interplay between work and private life does not function correctly (work-home conflict), this constitutes a well-known risk factor for poorer health, increased absenteeism and lower work performance. Information about influencing factors of work-home conflict is therefore indispensable in order to avoid it. In this study, we analyse whether a good working atmosphere that fosters mutual trust, support and a 'sense of unity' (organizational social capital) can reduce an employee's conflict between work and private life. This study investigates the link between organizational social capital and work-home conflict in health professionals. This issue was investigated using a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013. Data from questionnaires completed by physicians and nurses (n=1733) were linked with structural data from 66 neonatal intensive care units in Germany. Using multi-level analyses, we investigated associations between organizational social capital at the ward level and work-home conflict at the level of individual employees, taking into account additional structural and individual characteristics. Employees on wards with greater social capital reported significantly less work-home conflict. Our results support the hypothesis that organizational social capital is an important collective resource. As such, more attention should be given to establishing a good working atmosphere that fosters mutual trust, support and a 'sense of unity', and this should be encouraged in a targeted fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddern, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Laurberg, Søren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life (QoL). This is a population-based cross-sectional study of chronic pain and QoL in patients treated for rectal cancer from 2001 to 2007. A modified version of the Brief Descriptive Danish Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire were mailed to 1713 Danish patients. Informative answers were obtained from 1369 patients (80%). A total of 426 patients (31%) reported chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities, 173 (41%) of whom had daily pain. Pain in other parts of the body was associated with the presence of pain in the pelvic region (odds ratio [OR] 4.81 [3.63-6.38], P pain in female patients (OR 1.91 [1.51-2.43], P pelvic pain. Chronic pain in the pelvic region or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment is a common but largely neglected problem that is associated with female gender, type of surgery, radio(chemo)therapy, and young age, all of which impact the patient's QoL.

  18. A CROSS - SECTIONAL STUDY TO FIND THE PREVALENCE AND VARIOUS SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS OF MALNUTRITION AMONG 0 - 5 YEARS CHILDREN IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA RAJAPUR

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    Nigudgi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood is the most vulnerable phase in the life of human being, nutritional inadequacies will result in the hampering of the development of the body. If this nutritional inadequacy is continued for a long period of time it results into malnourishment. So the current study was undertaken to know the prevalence of malnutrition in under five children in urban field practice area. METHODS: The present study was a cross sectional study conducted in urban field practice area Rajapur which include 759 children whom 450 males and 309 females. Anthropometric data was collected from the study population and analysis was done according to IAP Classification. RESULTS: The percentage of underweight among under five children according IAP classification was 37.94%. Agewise distribution of malnourishment was found to be more 25% in 1 - 2 years. Males were more malnourished 51.04% than females. CONCLUSION: Malnourishment was more prevalent in 1 - 2 years and 2 - 3 years and in the SES IV followed by III. Mothers should be taught regarding the treatment of the common ailments in the house such as diarrhea using homemade ORS and to monitor the growth of their children by regular weighting and noting on the WHO growth charts, so that the growth faltering can be diagnosed at an earlier stage and the necessary timely interventions can be taken.

  19. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

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    Kulesza Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  20. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Joel A.; Arzu Alpan, F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  1. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

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    Oh Jin-Kyoung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rural areas. Information on participants' tobacco use, stress, social support, and social networks was collected using structured questionnaires. The chi-square test, the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The overall smoking prevalence in the study was 17.4% (men, 38.8%; women, 5.1%. Overall, stress was high among women, and social support was high among men. Smokers had high levels of social support (t = -2.90, p = .0038 and social networks (t = -2.22, p = .0271, as compared to non- and former smokers. Those in the high social support group were likely to be smokers (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.26. Women with moderate social ties were less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.61. Conclusion There was a protective role of a moderate social network level among women, and a high level of social support was associated with smoking behaviors in rural areas. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of social contextual factors including social support and social networks in order to conduct more effective anti-smoking interventions in rural areas.

  2. Effect of a culture-based screening algorithm on tuberculosis incidence in immigrants and refugees bound for the United States: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Posey, Drew L; Cetron, Martin S; Painter, John A

    2015-03-17

    Before 2007, immigrants and refugees bound for the United States were screened for tuberculosis (TB) by a smear-based algorithm that could not diagnose smear-negative/culture-positive TB. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a culture-based algorithm. To evaluate the effect of the culture-based algorithm on preventing the importation of TB to the United States by immigrants and refugees from foreign countries. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Panel physician sites for overseas medical examination. Immigrants and refugees with TB. Comparison of the increase of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm with the decline of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Of the 3 212 421 arrivals of immigrants and refugees from 2007 to 2012, a total of 1 650 961 (51.4%) were screened by the smear-based algorithm and 1 561 460 (48.6%) were screened by the culture-based algorithm. Among the 4032 TB cases diagnosed by the culture-based algorithm, 2195 (54.4%) were smear-negative/culture-positive. Before implementation (2002 to 2006), the annual number of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival was relatively constant (range, 1424 to 1626 cases; mean, 1504 cases) but decreased from 1511 to 940 cases during implementation (2007 to 2012). During the same period, the annual number of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees bound for the United States by the culture-based algorithm increased from 4 to 629. This analysis did not control for the decline in new arrivals of nonimmigrant visitors to the United States and the decrease of incidence of TB in their countries of origin. Implementation of the culture-based algorithm may have substantially reduced the incidence of TB among newly arrived, foreign-born persons in

  3. Workplace availability, risk group and perceived barriers predictive of 2016-17 influenza vaccine uptake in the United States: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Paula M; Johnson, Riley E; Brown, Heidi E

    2017-10-13

    Seasonal influenza, though mostly self-limited in the healthy adult, may lead to severe disease and/or complications in subpopulations. Annual influenza vaccination is available in many countries with coverage goals rarely being met. We conducted a cross-sectional study of influenza vaccine uptake and explored socio-demographic, economic, and psychological factors that explained vaccine uptake. The survey was administered via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) to United States residents in January 2017, using the Qualtrics platform. Using principal axis factor analysis, we reduced the 25 items theory-based psychological determinants into the primary constructs they measure if/when internal consistency was sufficient (Cronbach's alpha >0.60). Logistic regression models were used to quantify the association of socio-demographic, economic, and psychological factors with reported vaccine behavior in the 2016-17 flu season. 1007 participants completed the survey, sex distribution was even, 67% had 25-44years of age, and 61% annual household income of $30-99 thousand United States dollars. About 25% had the flu shot offered at their workplace and 20% reported belonging to a group for whom the flu shot is recommended. Vaccine uptake was 31.5%. Eight predictors remained in the final adjusted model (R(2)=0.489), having the vaccine offered at the workplace, belonging to a group for whom the vaccine is recommended, and higher perceived barriers were the strongest predictors of vaccine uptake, increasing (and decreasing in the case of barriers) the odds by >3-fold. Additionally, higher household income, higher perceived susceptibility and higher perceived benefits also independently predicted vaccine uptake. We found evidence that perceived barriers significantly impaired vaccine uptake to the same extent that having the vaccine offered at the workplace or belonging to a group for whom the vaccine is recommended facilitated uptake. Ideally, a better understanding of drivers of

  4. Cross-sectional reference values for mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and arm fat area of Turkish children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ahmet; Budak, Nurten; Cicek, Betul; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Bayram, Fahri; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study was to establish cross-sectional reference values for the mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and arm fat area (AFA) of Turkish children and adolescents. In total 5,553 students aged between 6 and 17 years were selected by a multistage sampling method from schools representing city centre, rural and urban areas of Kayseri, Central Anatolia. The MUAC and TSF were measured, and the arm muscle area, arm area, AFA and fat percentage (%) were calculated. The LMS method was employed to calculate the MUAC, TSF and AFA curve parameters. The MUAC, TSF, AFA and fat percentage in each age group were significantly higher in girls than in boys. In boys, the TSF 50th percentile ranged from 7.6 mm at 17 years to 9.0 mm at 11 years; whereas in girls this ranged from 9.4 mm at 6 years to 14.6 mm at 17 years. The MUAC 50th percentile ranged from 17.0 to 23.6 cm in boys, and from 15.6 cm to 20.9 cm in girls. The AFA 50th percentile measurements ranged from 4.5 cm at 6 years to 5.8 cm at 12-14 years in boys; and ranged from 7.2 cm at 6 years to 14.8 cm at 17 years in girls. The percentile distribution was more disperse towards higher TSF and AFA values in boys than in girls.

  5. The importance of accounting for the area of the medullary cavity in cross-sectional geometry: A test based on the femoral midshaft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparacello, V S; Pearson, O M

    2010-12-01

    In cross-sectional geometric (CSG) studies, both the subperiosteal and endosteal contours are considered important factors in determining bone bending rigidity. Recently, regression equations predicting CSG properties from a section's external dimensions were developed in a world-wide sample of human long bones. The results showed high correlations between some subperiosteally derived and actual CSG parameters. We present a theoretical model that further explores the influence of endosteal dimensions on CSG properties. We compare two hypothetical femoral midshaft samples with the same total subperiosteal area but with percentages of cortical bone at the opposite ends of published human variation for population sample means. Even in this relatively uncommon scenario, the difference between the samples in the resultant means for predicted femoral polar second moment of area (J) appears to be modest: power analysis indicates that a minimum sample size of 61 is needed to detect the difference 90% of the time via a t-test. Moreover, endosteal area can be predicted--although with substantial error--from periosteal area. Despite this error, including this relationship in subperiosteally derived estimates of J produces sample mean estimates close to true mean values. Power analyses reveal that when similar samples are used to develop prediction equations, a minimum sample of hundreds or more may be needed to distinguish a predicted mean J from the true mean J. These results further justify the use of regression equations estimating J from periosteal contours when analyzing behaviorally induced changes in bone rigidity in ancient populations, when it is not possible to measure endosteal dimensions. However, in other situations involving comparisons of individual values, growth trends, and senescence, where relative cortical thickness may vary greatly, inclusion of endosteal dimensions is still important. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Assessment of pulmonary venous stenosis after radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation by magnetic resonance angiography: a comparison of linear and cross-sectional area measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintera, Jaroslav; Porod, Vaclav; Rolencova, Eva; Fendrych, Pavel [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Radiology, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Cihak, Robert; Mlcochova, Hanka; Kautzner, Josef [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2006-12-15

    One of the recognised complications of catheter ablation is pulmonary venous stenosis. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of evaluation of pulmonary venous diameter for follow-up assessment of the above complication: (1) a linear approach evaluating two main diameters of the vein, (2) semiautomatically measured cross-sectional area (CSA). The study population consists of 29 patients. All subjects underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CeMRA) of the pulmonary veins (PVs) before and after the ablation; 14 patients were also scanned 3 months later. PV diameter was evaluated from two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions by measuring either the linear diameter or CSA. A comparison between pulmonary venous CSA and linear measurements revealed a systematic difference in absolute values. This difference was not significant when comparing the relative change CSA and quadratic approximation using linear extents (linear approach). However, a trend towards over-estimation of calibre reduction was documented for the linear approach. Using CSA assessment, significant PV stenosis was found in ten PVs (8%) shortly after ablation. Less significant PV stenosis, ranging from 20 to 50% was documented in other 18 PVs (15%). CeMRA with CSA assessment of the PVs is suitable method for evaluation of PV diameters. (orig.)

  7. Association of Urogenital Symptoms with History of Water Contact in Young Women in Areas Endemic for S. haematobium. A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural South Africa

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    Hashini Nilushika Galappaththi-Arachchige

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Female genital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium. Infected females may suffer from symptoms mimicking sexually transmitted infections. We explored if self-reported history of unsafe water contact could be used as a simple predictor of genital schistosomiasis. In a cross-sectional study in rural South Africa, 883 sexually active women aged 16–22 years were included. Questions were asked about urogenital symptoms and water contact history. Urine samples were tested for S. haematobium ova. A score based on self-reported water contact was calculated and the association with symptoms was explored while adjusting for other genital infections using multivariable logistic regression analyses. S. haematobium ova were detected in the urine of 30.5% of subjects. Having ova in the urine was associated with the water contact score (p < 0.001. Symptoms that were associated with water contact included burning sensation in the genitals (p = 0.005, spot bleeding (p = 0.012, abnormal discharge smell (p = 0.018, bloody discharge (p = 0.020, genital ulcer (p = 0.038, red urine (p < 0.001, stress incontinence (p = 0.001 and lower abdominal pain (p = 0.028. In S. haematobium endemic areas, self-reported water contact was strongly associated with urogenital symptoms. In low-resource settings, a simple history including risk of water contact behaviour can serve as an indicator of urogenital schistosomiasis.

  8. Experimental investigation and exergy analysis of the performance of a counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube with regard to nozzle cross-section areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincer, K.; Avci, A.; Berber, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Eng., Fac. of Eng. and Architecture, Selcuk Univ., Selcuklu, Konya (Turkey); Baskaya, S. [Dept. of Mechanical Eng., Fac. of Eng. and Architecture, Gazi Univ., Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    Exergy analysis and performance of a Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube (RHVT) with various nozzle cross-section areas (NCSA = 3 x 3, 4 x 4, 5 x 5 mm{sup 2}) were determined under inlet pressures (P{sub i}) of 260, 300 kPa (absolute) pressurized air. The maximum difference in the temperatures of hot output and cold output streams was obtained for NCSA = 3 x 3 mm{sup 2}. The total inlet exergy (sum E{sub i}), total outlet exergy (sum E{sub O}), total lost exergy (sum E{sub Lost}) and exergy efficiency ({eta}, %) were calculated. It was determined that the exergy efficiency of the system, varied between 1% and 39%, and the highest exergy efficiency was obtained for NCSA = 3 x 3 mm{sup 2}. The exergy efficiency strongly depends on the level of P{sub i}, {xi} and v{sub cold}. Variation of the exergy efficiency decreased with decreasing P{sub i}, {xi}, v{sub cold} and the highest and lowest exergy efficiencies were found when the values of P{sub i}, {xi}, v{sub cold} reached maximum and minimum levels, respectively. (author)

  9. Assessment of periodontal status of the patients with dental fluorosis in area with natural high levels of fluoride: A cross-sectional survey

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    Ketan Sukumar Vora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental fluorosis exhibits as enamel mottling, surface irregularities, leading to plaque accumulation and periodontal diseases. It may cause failure of cemental resorption leading to hypercementosis and causes osteonecrosis of alveolar bone leading to reduced bone height. The study is conducted in Raichur, being known as one of the highest fluoride containing area in Karnataka with level of fluoride in drinking water approximately 3.5-5.5 ppm. This is an effort to find an association between dental fluorosis and periodontal diseases. Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of severity of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status in the patients assessed. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional, epidemiological survey was carried out at rural parts of Raichur. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eleven subjects with dental fluorosis were selected for the study with age range of 15-45 years. Assessment of dental fluorosis and periodontal status was done by Dean′s Community Fluorosis Index (DCFI and Ramfjord′s Periodontal Index (RPI, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance (ANOVA test, chi-square test, and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: A statistically significant relation was found between severity of dental fluorosis and severity of periodontal diseases (Spearman′s correlation coefficient 0.88, significant. Discussion: Dental fluorosis may have significant effect on periodontal condition. But, further studies on the periodontal status of subjects from naturally high water fluoride regions from different parts of India are essential.

  10. Malarial anaemia and anaemia severity in apparently healthy primary school children in urban and rural settings in the Mount Cameroon area: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbele, Irene Ule Ngole; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo; Ndamukong-Nyanga, Judith Lum; Nweboh, Malaika; Anchang-Kimbi, Judith Kuoh; Lum, Emmaculate; Nana, Yannick; Ndamukong, Kenneth K J; Lehman, Leopold G

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relative importance of living in an urban versus rural setting and malaria in contributing to the public health problem of malarial anaemia (MA) and anaemia respectively in apparently healthy primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 727 school children aged between four and 15 years living in an urban (302) and rural (425) settings in the Mount Cameroon area. Blood sample collected from each child was used for the preparation of blood films for detection of malaria parasites and assessment of malaria parasite density as well as full blood count determination using an automated haematology analyzer. Based on haemoglobin (Hb) measurements, children with malaria parasitaemia were stratified into MA (Hbanaemia was performed by multinomial logistic-regression analysis and odds ratios used to evaluate risk factors. Out of the 727 children examined, 72 (9.9%) had MA. The prevalence of MA and anaemia were significantly higher (χ2 = 36.5, P anaemia. In addition, low parasite density was associated with MA while malaria parasite negative and microcytosis were associated with anaemia. Malarial anaemia and anaemia display heterogeneity and complexity that differ with the type of settlement. The presence of severe MA and the contributions of the age group ≤6 years, low parasite density and microcytosis to the public health problem of MA and anaemia are noteworthy.

  11. A cross-sectional descriptive study of prevalence and nature of psychiatric referrals from intensive care units in a multispecialty hospital

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    Govind S Bhogale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in general hospital range from 20% to 60%. Presence of psychiatric morbidity compounds the disability and suffering in medical patients. There is a limited literature on the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in patients admitted in the intensive care units (ICUs. Aims: The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and nature of comorbid psychiatric illness in the cases referred from ICUs. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: This study included all the consecutive patients referred from different ICUs to psychiatry department for consultation during the four-year period from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2003, assessment was done by psychiatrist and diagnosis was made using ICD-10. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics. Results: There were 309 (1.97% referrals from ICUs to psychiatry department during the period of study. Among the referred patients, diagnosis of organic mental disorders was the commonest psychiatric diagnosis present in 104 (33.65% patients followed by suicidal attempt in 101 (32.69%; anxiety disorders in 40 (12.94%; depressive disorders in 21 (6.8%; Psychotic illness in 10 (3.24%; other psychiatric illnesses in 28 (9.06%; and nil psychiatric illness in 5 (1.62% patients. Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric referrals from ICUs was low. This could be due to stigma and lack of awareness among physicians. There is increased need for recognition and treatment of comorbid psychiatric illness by the treating physicians which may help to decrease morbidity and overall cost of the treatment.

  12. A network model of communication in an interprofessional team of healthcare professionals: A cross-sectional study of a burn unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, David A; Harris, Jenine K; Mundt, Marlon; McGaghie, William

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare teams consist of individuals communicating with one another during patient care delivery. Coordination of multiple specialties is critical for patients with complex health conditions, and requires interprofessional and intraprofessional communication. We examined a communication network of 71 health professionals in four professional roles: physician, nurse, health management, and support personnel (dietitian, pharmacist, or social worker), or other health professionals (including physical, respiratory, and occupational therapists, and medical students) working in a burn unit. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected by surveying members of a healthcare team. Ties were defined by asking team members whom they discussed patient care matters with on the shift. We built an exponential random graph model to determine: (1) does professional role influence the likelihood of a tie; (2) are ties more likely between team members from different professions compared to between team members from the same profession; and (3) which professions are more likely to form interprofessional ties. Health management and support personnel ties were 94% interprofessional while ties among nurses were 60% interprofessional. Nurses and other health professionals were significantly less likely than physicians to form ties. Nurses were 1.64 times more likely to communicate with nurses than non-nurses (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.01-2.66); there was no significant role homophily for physicians, other health professionals, or health management and support personnel. Understanding communication networks in healthcare teams is an early step in understanding how teams work together to provide care; future work should evaluate the types and quality of interactions between members of interprofessional healthcare teams.

  13. Magnitude of Malaria and Factors among Febrile Cases in Low Transmission Areas of Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia: A Facility Based Cross Sectional Study.

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    Romedan Kedir Delil

    Full Text Available Despite a remarkable decline in morbidity and mortality since the era of malaria roll back strategy, it still poses a huge challenge in Ethiopia in general and in Hadiya Zone in particular. Although, there are data from routine health management information on few indicators, there is scarcity of data showing magnitude of malaria and associated factors including knowledge and practice in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess magnitude and factors affecting malaria in low transmission areas among febrile cases attending public health facilities in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia.A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone from May 15 to June 15, 2014. Simple random sampling was used to select the health facility while systematic random sampling technique was used to reach febrile patients attending public health facilities. Data were collected by a pre-tested structured questionnaire containing sections of socio demographic risk factors and knowledge and prevention practices of malaria. Data were entered to Epi-Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis.One hundred six (25.8% of participating febrile patients attending at sampled health facilities were found to have malaria by microscopy. Of which, P.vivax, P.falciparum and mixed infection accounted for 76(71. 7%, 27 (25.5% and 3 (2.8%, respectively. History of travel to malaria endemic area, [AOR: 2.59, 95% CI: (1.24, 5.38], not using bed net, [AOR: 4.67, 95%CI:, (2.11, 10.37], poor practice related to malaria prevention and control, [AOR: 2.28, (95%CI: (1.10, 4.74], poor knowledge about malaria, [AOR: 5.09,95%CI: (2.26,11.50] and estimated distance of stagnant water near to the residence, [AOR: 3.32, (95%CI: (1.13, 9.76] were significantly associated factors of malaria positivity in the study.The present study revealed that malaria is still a major source of morbidity in the study area among

  14. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  15. The total charm cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  16. Soil-transmitted helminths and plasmodium falciparum malaria among individuals living in different agroecosystems in two rural communities in the mount Cameroon area: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbele, Irene Ule Ngole; Nkemnji, Gladys Belanka; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2017-03-16

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Plasmodium falciparum infections remain public health problems in Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mount Cameroon area to determine the prevalence and intensity of STHs and P. falciparum infections in individuals living in different agroecosystems; to assess the influence of these infections on haematological parameters; and to identify the risk factors associated with STH infections. STH and malaria parasites were detected using the Kato-Katz method and Giemsa staining of blood films, respectively. Complete blood count values were obtained using an automatic haematology analyser. Soil samples were analysed using the sucrose floatation sedimentation method. Categorical and continuous variables were compared as required and logistic regression models were used to assess the risk factors for STH infections and anaemia. Of the 450 participants examined, STHs, P. falciparum and mixed co-infections were detected in 14.0, 33.3 and 5.6% of participants, respectively. Significantly higher prevalences of Ascaris (18.8%) and Trichuris (7.9%) infections were observed in participants from tea plantation areas compared to those from banana and palm plantation areas, with similar trends in egg density. P. falciparum prevalence and parasite density were comparable between the different agroecosystems. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 64.2%. The prevalence of haematological manifestations such as moderate (48.0%) and severe (8.0%) anaemia, leucopenia (26.9%) and microcytosis (30.8%) was significantly higher among Plasmodium-STH co-infected participants. Soil samples from plantations showed the highest prevalences of STH eggs compared to soil samples from areas around pit toilets and public water taps. Living in a tea plantation area (OR = 3.07), age (AOR = 1.49) and lack of access to potable water (OR = 2.25) were identified as risk factors for STH infections, while the age groups 15-25 years (OR

  17. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

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    Muneko Nishijo

    Full Text Available Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (<25, 25-50, 50-75, ≥75 percentile of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ, cross-sectional comparisons of body size and neurodevelopment scales and comparisons of longitudinally assessed body size were performed respectively. At birth, head circumference of girls in the ≥75 percentile group was significantly larger than those in the <25 and 50-75 percentile groups. At 4 months of age, the weight and body mass index (BMI of boys in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. Increase in weight was significantly lower in the ≥75 percentile group in both sexes from birth to 1 month but only in boys at 1-4 months of age. Estimated marginal mean values in a mixed model of weight and BMI during the first 4 months of life were significantly lower in the ≥75 percentile group in boys. In girls, marginal mean values for head circumference were increased with increase in dioxin levels. Only in boys, cognitive, language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  18. Influence of Various Lifestyle and Psychosocial Factors on Sleep Disturbances among the College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Urban Area of India

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    Yugantara R. Kadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep occupies nearly 1/3rd of our life and is essential for overall growth and stability. Sleep deprivation results weakening of physical functions, mental health problems like depression and lowering of productivity, thus resulting in loss to an individual and society. Aim and Objectives: Sleep is essential for physical and mental stability. Its deprivation lowers work productivity and results in mental problem like depression. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors may have impact on the sleep. In the western countries the subject is amply explored; however studies on student from developing countries like India are limited. Our objective was to study the extent of sleep disturbance and associated factors among the graduating college students. Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Arts, Commerce and Science graduating college students from an urban area. The sampling technique was cluster random sampling with the sample size of 890. A pretested, selfadministered questionnaire was used as a study tool. Statistical Analysis was done using percentages, chisquare test and bi-variate logistic regression. Results: The mean duration of sleep reported by the 900 study subjects was 7.3 hours (std. deviation 1 hour. Any sleep disturbance was reported by 826 (91.8% subjects; with day time sleepiness (77.5% and difficulty in falling asleep (65.4% being the commonest complaint. Sleep disturbance score was associated with exercise, outdoor games and tea / coffee intake. It was also associated with nocturnal use of mobiles and feeling depressed. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances were present in majority of college students with day time sleepiness as its commonest manifestation. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors had impact on the sleep. Proper lifestyle modification and good family environment areimportant to avoid sleep disturbances among the college students.

  19. The cross-sectional area of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to habitual exercise loading: Implications for activity-related and evolutionary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Sirpa; Härkönen, Laura; Nikander, Riku; Abe, Shinya; Knüsel, Christopher; Sievänen, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Greater size of the gluteus maximus muscle in humans compared to non-human primates has been considered an indication of its function in bipedal posture and gait, especially running capabilities. Our aim was to find out how the size of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to sports while controlling for variation in muscle strength and body weight. Data on gluteus maximus muscle cross-sectional area (MCA) were acquired from magnetic resonance images of the hip region of female athletes (N=91), and physically active controls (N=20). Dynamic muscle force was measured as counter movement jump and isometric knee extension force as leg press. Five exercise loading groups were created: high impact (triple-jumpers and high-jumpers), odd impact (soccer and squash players), high magnitude (power-lifters), repetitive impact (endurance runners) and repetitive non-impact (swimmers) loadings. Individuals in high impact, odd impact or high-magnitude loading groups had greater MCA compared to those of controls, requiring powerful hip extension, trunk stabilization in rapid directional change and high explosive muscle force. Larger body size and greater muscle strength were associated with larger MCA. An increase in dynamic force was associated with larger MCA, but the strength of this relationship varied with body weight. Thus, gluteal adaptation in humans promotes powerful lower limb movements required in sprinting and rapid changes in direction, as well as maintenance and stabilization of an erect trunk which also provides a platform for powerful motions of the upper limbs. These movements have likely evolved to facilitate food acquisition, including hunting.

  20. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-07-26

    A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Patients' work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants' employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was 'freelancer' (17.5%), followed by 'blue-collar worker' (10.6%) and 'farmer' (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  1. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Run Training on Cross-sectional Area of the Vastus Lateralis in Untrained College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESTES, REBEKAH R.; MALINOWSKI, AMY; PIACENTINI, MEREDITH; THRUSH, DAVID; SALLEY, ERIC; LOSEY, CASSIDY; HAYES, ERIK

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic cycling has been repeatedly shown to induce hypertrophy in skeletal muscle across a variety of populations, while there has been a lack of investigation into the impact of running upon hypertrophy. An increasingly popular model of aerobic exercise is high-intensity interval training (HIIT); in addition to its positive impact upon cardiovascular health, HIIT may be sufficient for inducing significant muscular hypertrophy. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of a high-intensity interval running protocol upon hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in an untrained, young population. Twelve recreationally active university students (Male: 2; Female: 10; 19.9±0.5 yr.; 169.8±1.9 cm; 63.8±2.3 kg; VO2max: 42.1±1.6 ml•kg−1min−1) completed 24.5±0.6 sessions of high-intensity interval run training over 10 weeks. The protocol consisted of four sets of 4 minutes running at 90–95% HRmax followed by 3 minutes active rest at 70% HRmax. Relative and absolute aerobic capacity increased 5.2±2.2% and 6.0±2.3% respectively as a result of the intervention (p< 0.05). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis was measured via panoramic ultrasound imaging pre- and post-intervention. Following the protocol, CSA of the intervention group was 10.6±2.7% greater (p< 0.05), while that of the control group did not change. This is the first data to demonstrate hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in a young population following a running protocol. These data support the existing body of evidence suggesting aerobic exercise to be an effective mode of improving cardiorespiratory fitness as well as increasing whole muscle size of the quadriceps. PMID:28479954

  2. Intra-rater and Inter-rater Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging of Multifidus Muscle Thickness, Cross Section Area and Bladder Wall Displacement in Multiparous Women

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    Zahra Teymuri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pregnancy related changes can affect the role of multifidus (MF and pelvic floor muscles (PFM in the spinal stability and load transfer mechanism. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI is a powerful tool that provides unavailable information about the myofascial system. Objective. This study aimed to determine intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of ultrasound imaging in the measurement of MF thickness, cross section area (CSA and bladder wall displacement as a reflection of PFM action in multiparous healthy women. Design.A single-group repeated measures reliability study was conducted. Methods. Ten healthy multiparous women (mean age=35.36 SD=7.71 participated in this study. Bladder wall displacement in the transverse plan through trans-abdominal (TA approach, MF muscle thickness at rest and during contralateral arm lift (CAL and MF muscle CSA were obtained by using RUSI. Infraclass correlation coefficient (ICC with 95% confidence interval (CI, standard error of measurement (SEM and minimal detectable change (MDC were calculated for all variables. Results: ICC values with 95% CI showed that bladder wall displacement has high intra-rater (ICC: 0.91-0.99 and high inter-rater reliability (ICC: 0.93-0.96, MF muscle thickness has good to high intra-rater (ICC: ranged from 0.85 to 0.98 and good to high inter-rater reliability (ICC ranged from0.73 to 0.98 and MF muscle CSA has good to high intra-rater (ICC: 0.78-0.86 and fair inter-rater reliability (ICC: 0.54-0.61. SEMs ranged from 0.69 to 3.98 mm and MDCs ranged from 1.92 to 11.03 mm. Limitation.The number of delivery was not equal between subjects. Conclusions. RUSI is a reliable method in measurement of bladder wall displacement, MF muscle thickness and CSA in multiparous women.

  3. Association of cross-sectional area of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle with active trigger points in chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether cross-sectional area (CSA) of the suboccipital muscles was associated with active trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine was performed in 11 females with CTTH aged from 26 to 50 yrs old. CSA for both rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin) and rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj) muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images, using axial MRI slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 wks to record the pain history. TrPs in the suboccipital muscle were identified by eliciting referred pain to palpation, and increased referred pain with muscle contraction. TrPs were considered active if the elicited referred pain reproduced the head pain pattern and features of the pattern seen during spontaneous headache attacks. Active TrPs were found in six patients (55%), whereas the remaining five patients showed latent TrPs. CSA of the RCPmin was significantly smaller (F = 13.843; P = 0.002) in the patients with active TrPs (right side: 55.9 +/- 4.4 mm; left side: 61.1 +/-: 3.8 mm) than in patients with latent TrPs (right side: 96.9 +/- 14.4 mm; left side: 88.7 +/- 9.7 mm). No significant differences were found for CSA of the RCPmaj between the patients with either active or latent TrP (P > 0.5). It seems that muscle atrophy in the RCPmin, but not in the RCPmaj, was associated with suboccipital active TrPs in CTTH, although studies with larger sample sizes are now required. It may be that nociceptive inputs in active TrPs could lead to muscle atrophy of the involved muscles. Muscle disuse or avoidance behavior can also be involved in atrophy.

  4. Electrical stimulation and blood flow restriction increase wrist extensor cross-sectional area and flow meditated dilatation following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Timmons, Mark K; Dolbow, David R; Bengel, Justin; Fugate-Laus, Kendall C; Michener, Lori A; Gater, David R

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise on wrist extensors cross-sectional area (CSA), torque and hand functions compared NMES only in individuals with incomplete tetraplegia. The acute effect of an acute bout of NMES with BFR on flow mediated dilation (FMD) was compared with BFR only. Nine men completed 6 weeks twice weekly of bilateral NMES training of the wrist extensor muscles. The right forearm received NMES + BFR (30 % above the resting systolic blood pressure), while the left forearm received NMES only. The CSA of the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles was measured on ultrasound images. Torque was measured isometrically and hand function with grasp and release test. Another eight men with SCI received NMES+BFR to the right forearm, while the left forearm received BFR only. Immediately, the FMD of the brachial artery was measured. Following training, the ECRL CSA was 17 % greater in the NMES+BFR forearm (mean difference = 0.6 cm(2), p = 0.003) compared with the NMES only. The NMES+BFR had a 15 % increase in ECRL CSA (mean increase = 0.58 cm(2), p = 0.048). FMD increased (p = 0.05) in the exercise arm (12 ± 3 %) compared with the control arm (6.5 ± 6 %). NMES training with BFR is a strategy that can increase skeletal muscle size. NMES with and without BFR can improve wrist strength and hand function. The acute effects of NMES+BFR may suggest that an increase in FMD may partially contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  5. Effects of the Trendelenburg Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on the Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area in Children With Simple Congenital Heart Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Yeong; Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yong-Hun; Lee, Sukyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Gwak, Mijeung

    2016-05-01

    Catheterization of the internal jugular vein (IJV) remains difficult in pediatric populations. Increasing the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the IJV facilitates cannulation and decreases complications. We aimed to evaluate the Trendelenburg position and the levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at which the maximum increase of CSA of the IJV occurred in children undergoing cardiac surgery.In this prospective study, the CSA of the right IJV was assessed using ultrasound in 47 anesthetized pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects. The baseline CSA was obtained in response to a supine position with no PEEP and compared with 5 different randomly ordered maneuvers, that is, a PEEP of 5 and 10 cm H2O in a supine position and of 0, 5, and 10 cm H2O in a 10° Trendelenburg position. Hemodynamic variables, including blood pressure and heart rate, maximum and minimum diameters, and CSA, were measured.All maneuvers increased the CSA of the right IJV with respect to the control condition. In the supine position, the CSA was increased by 9.4% with a PEEP of 5 and by 19.5% with a PEEP of 10 cm H2O. The Trendelenburg tilt alone increased the CSA by 19.0%, and combining the 10° Trendelenburg with a 10 cm H2O PEEP resulted in the largest IJV CSA increase (33.3%) compared with the supine position with no PEEP. Meanwhile, vital signs remained relatively steady during the experiment.The application of the Trendelenburg position and a 10 cm H2O PEEP thus significantly increases the CSA of the right IJV, perhaps improving the chances of successful cannulation in pediatric patients with simple congenital heart defects.

  6. Quality of drug prescribing in elderly people in nursing homes and special care units for dementia: a cross-sectional computerized pharmacy register analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jonny; Bergman, Asa; Carlsten, Anders; Oké, Thimothy; Bernsten, Cecilia; Schmidt, Ingrid K; Fastbom, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Drug prescribing to the elderly is extensive and often inappropriate. Furthermore, the number of drugs used is the most important risk factor for adverse drug reactions. Despite this, drug prescribing in the elderly in Sweden is high and increasing. In 2003 the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare launched a set of indicators to evaluate the quality of drug therapy in the elderly. Use of this tool in combination with the Swedish computerized national register covering all persons receiving multi-dose drug dispensing (drugs dispensed in one dose unit bag for each dose occasion) would enable detection of inappropriate drug prescribing and could help reduce the risk of drug-related problems among the elderly. To assess the extent and quality of drug prescribing in younger and older elderly residents receiving multi-dose drug dispensing in ordinary nursing homes (NHs) and special care units for dementia (NHDs), and to evaluate the relationship between the quality of prescribing and the number of prescribers per resident, in a Swedish county. The computerized national pharmacy drug register provided the database and a cross-sectional design was used. Selected drug-specific quality indicators proposed by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in 2003 were used to assess the quality of drug prescribing. This study included 3705 residents. Their mean age was 85 years and 72% were women. The mean number of prescribed drugs was 10.3 per resident. The proportion of residents with prescriptions for psychotropic drugs was 80% in NHs and 85% in NHDs. The prevalence of each drug-specific quality indicator was as follows: long-acting benzodiazepines 16.4% (NHs) versus 11.7% (NHDs), anticholinergic drugs 20.7% versus 18.5%, drug duplication 14.6% versus 13.6%, three or more psychotropic drugs 25.6% versus 35.3%, class C interactions (drug combinations that may require dose adjustment) 41.9% versus 38.7% and class D interactions (drug combinations that should be

  7. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit – A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP

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    Coilín ÓhAiseadha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU in University Hospital Limerick (UHL, Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources. Methods We used a questionnaire based on the paediatric appropriateness evaluation protocol (PAEP, modified and validated for use in the United Kingdom, to prospectively gather data regarding reasons for admission and for ongoing care after 2 days, from case records for all inpatients during 11 days in February (winter and 7 days in May–June (summer. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to explore associations between failure to meet PAEP criteria and patient attributes including age, gender, admission outside of office hours, arrival by ambulance, and private health insurance. Inpatient bed occupancy and day ward activity were also scrutinised. Results Mean bed occupancy was 84.1%. In all, 12/355 (3.4%, 95% CI: 1.5%–5.3% of children failed to meet PAEP admission criteria, and 27/189 (14.3%, 95% CI: 9.3%–19.3% who were still inpatients after 2 days failed to meet criteria for ongoing care. 35/355 (9.9%, 95% CI: 6.8%–13.0% of admissions fulfilled only the PAEP criterion for intravenous medications or fluid replacement. A logistic regression model constructed by forward selection identified a significant association between failure to meet PAEP criteria for ongoing care 2 days after admission and admission during office hours (08.00–17.59 (P = .020, and a marginally significant association between this outcome and arrival by ambulance (P = .054. Conclusion At a mean bed occupancy of 84.1%, an Irish RPU can achieve 96.6% appropriate admissions

  8. A cross-sectional analysis of patterns of obesity in a cohort of working nurses and midwives in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogossian, Fiona E; Hepworth, Julie; Leong, Gary M; Flaws, Dylan F; Gibbons, Kristen S; Benefer, Christine A; Turner, Catherine T

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the association with demographic, reproductive work variables in a representative cohort of working nurses and midwives. A cross sectional study of self reported survey data. Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Measurement outcomes included BMI categories, demographic (age, gender, marital status, ethnicity), reproductive (parity, number of births, mother's age at first birth, birth type and menopausal status) and workforce (registration council, employment type and principal specialty) variables. 4996 respondents to the Nurses and Midwives e-Cohort study who were currently registered and working in nursing or midwifery in Australia (n=3144), New Zealand (n=778) or the United Kingdom (n=1074). Amongst the sample 61.87% were outside the healthy weight range and across all three jurisdictions the prevalence of obesity in nurses and midwives exceeded rates in the source populations by 1.73% up to 3.74%. Being overweight or obese was significantly associated with increasing age (35-44 yrs aOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.41-2.08; 45-55 yrs aOR 1.90, 95%CI 1.56-2.31; 55-64 aOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.71-2.88), and male gender (aOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.15-1.87). Primiparous nurses and midwives were more likely to be overweight or obese (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.76) as were those who had reached menopause (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.11-1.69). Nurses and midwives in part-time or casual employment had significantly reduced risk of being overweight or obese, (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94 and aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.96 respectively), whilst working in aged carried increased risk (aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04-1.80). Nurses and midwives in this study have higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than the general population and those who are older, male, or female primiparous and menopausal have significantly higher risk of overweight or obesity as do those working fulltime, or in aged care. The consequences of overweight and

  9. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit – A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ÓhAiseadha, Coilín; Mannix, Mai; Saunders, Jean; Philip, Roy K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources. Methods: We used a questionnaire based on the paediatric appropriateness evaluation protocol (PAEP), modified and validated for use in the United Kingdom, to prospectively gather data regarding reasons for admission and for ongoing care after 2 days, from case records for all inpatients during 11 days in February (winter) and 7 days in May–June (summer). We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to explore associations between failure to meet PAEP criteria and patient attributes including age, gender, admission outside of office hours, arrival by ambulance, and private health insurance. Inpatient bed occupancy and day ward activity were also scrutinised. Results: Mean bed occupancy was 84.1%. In all, 12/355 (3.4%, 95% CI: 1.5%–5.3%) of children failed to meet PAEP admission criteria, and 27/189 (14.3%, 95% CI: 9.3%–19.3%) who were still inpatients after 2 days failed to meet criteria for ongoing care. 35/355 (9.9%, 95% CI: 6.8%–13.0%) of admissions fulfilled only the PAEP criterion for intravenous medications or fluid replacement. A logistic regression model constructed by forward selection identified a significant association between failure to meet PAEP criteria for ongoing care 2 days after admission and admission during office hours (08.00–17.59) (P = .020), and a marginally significant association between this outcome and arrival by ambulance (P = .054). Conclusion: At a mean bed occupancy of 84.1%, an Irish RPU can achieve 96.6% appropriate admissions

  10. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiken, L.H.; Sermeus, W.; Heede, K. Van den; Sloane, D.M.; Busse, R.; McKee, M.; Bruyneel, L.; Rafferty, A.M.; Griffiths, P.; Moreno-Casbas, M.T.; Tishelman, C.; Scott, A.; Brzostek, T.; Kinnunen, J.; Schwendimann, R.; Heinen, M.M.; Zikos, D.; Sjetne, I.S.; Smith, H.L.; Kutney-Lee, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hospitals with a good organisation of care (such as improved nurse staffing and work environments) can affect patient care and nurse workforce stability in European countries. DESIGN: Cross sectional surveys of patients and nurses. SETTING: Nurses were surveyed in

  11. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiken, L.H.; Sermeus, W.; Heede, K. Van den; Sloane, D.M.; Busse, R.; McKee, M.; Bruyneel, L.; Rafferty, A.M.; Griffiths, P.; Moreno-Casbas, M.T.; Tishelman, C.; Scott, A.; Brzostek, T.; Kinnunen, J.; Schwendimann, R.; Heinen, M.M.; Zikos, D.; Sjetne, I.S.; Smith, H.L.; Kutney-Lee, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hospitals with a good organisation of care (such as improved nurse staffing and work environments) can affect patient care and nurse workforce stability in European countries. DESIGN: Cross sectional surveys of patients and nurses. SETTING: Nurses were surveyed in gen

  12. SU-E-I-25: Quantification of Coronary Artery Cross-Sectional Area in CT Angiography Using Integrated Density: A Simulation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T; Ding, H; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a physics-based model for accurate quantification of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of coronary arteries in CT angiography by measuring the integrated density to account for the partial volume effect. Methods: In this technique the integrated density of the object as compared with its local background is measured to account for the partial volume effect. Normal vessels were simulated as circles with diameters in the range of 0.1–3mm. Diseased vessels were simulated as 2, 3, and 4mm diameter vessels with 10–90% area stenosis, created by inserting circular plaques. A simplified two material model was used with the lumen as 8mg/ml Iodine and background as lipid. The contrast-to-noise ratio between lumen and background was approximately 26. Linear fits to the known CSA were calculated. The precision and accuracy of the measurement were quantified using the root-mean-square fit deviations (RMSD) and errors to the known CSA (RMSE). Results compared to manual segmentation of the vessel lumen. To assess the impact of random variations, coefficients of variation (CV) from 10 simulations for each vessel were computed to determine reliability. Measurements with CVs less than 10% were considered reliable. Results: For normal vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.12mm{sup 2} and 0.28mm{sup 2}, respectively. The corresponding results for manual segmentation were 0.27mm{sup 2} and 0.43mm{sup 2}. For diseased vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.14mm{sup 2} and 0.19mm{sup 2}. Corresponding results for manual segmentation were 0.42mm{sup 2} and 0.71mm{sup 2}. Reliable CSAs were obtained for normal vessels with diameters larger than 1 mm and for diseased vessels with area as low as 1.26mm2. Conclusion: The CSA based on integrated density showed improved precision and accuracy as compared with manual segmentation in simulation. These results indicate the potential of using

  13. Malarial anaemia and anaemia severity in apparently healthy primary school children in urban and rural settings in the Mount Cameroon area: cross sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele

    Full Text Available This study examines the relative importance of living in an urban versus rural setting and malaria in contributing to the public health problem of malarial anaemia (MA and anaemia respectively in apparently healthy primary school children.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 727 school children aged between four and 15 years living in an urban (302 and rural (425 settings in the Mount Cameroon area. Blood sample collected from each child was used for the preparation of blood films for detection of malaria parasites and assessment of malaria parasite density as well as full blood count determination using an automated haematology analyzer. Based on haemoglobin (Hb measurements, children with malaria parasitaemia were stratified into MA (Hb<11 g/dL; mild MA (Hb of 8-10.9 g/dL; moderate MA (Hb of 6.1-7.9 g/dL and severe MA (Hb≤6 g/dL. Evaluation of potential determinants of MA and anaemia was performed by multinomial logistic-regression analysis and odds ratios used to evaluate risk factors.Out of the 727 children examined, 72 (9.9% had MA. The prevalence of MA and anaemia were significantly higher (χ2 = 36.5, P <0.001; χ2 = 16.19, P <0.001 respectively in children in the urban (17.9%; 26.8% respectively than in the rural area (4.2%; 14.8% respectively. Majority of the MA cases were mild (88.9%, with moderate (5.6% and severe MA (5.6% occurring in the urban area only. The age group ≤6 years was significantly (P <0.05 associated with both MA and anaemia. In addition, low parasite density was associated with MA while malaria parasite negative and microcytosis were associated with anaemia.Malarial anaemia and anaemia display heterogeneity and complexity that differ with the type of settlement. The presence of severe MA and the contributions of the age group ≤6 years, low parasite density and microcytosis to the public health problem of MA and anaemia are noteworthy.

  14. Diagnosis of post-traumatic sepsis according to "Sepsis guidelines": a cross-sectional survey of sepsis in a trauma intensive care unit

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    Hao TANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of post-traumatic sepsis, and to evaluate the rationality of the 1992, 2001 and 2012 international sepsis definitions in diagnosing post-traumatic sepsis in a trauma intensive care unit (ICU in China. Methods  A one-day cross-sectional survey of trauma patients who met the inclusion criteria was conducted from 8:00 a.m., June 16, 2014 to 8:00 a.m., June 17, 2014 in the trauma ICU of Daping Hospital. The survey data included demographic information, clinical characteristics, pertinent scores (APACHE Ⅱ, SOFA, GCS, ISS and injury mechanism. According to the definition of sepsis as depicted in the 1992, 2001, and 2012 "International Guideline of Sepsis", the patients were divided into A, B and C groups. The infection site, infection pathogens, and key medical treatment were recorded, the infection identified, and the 28day mortality recorded. A positive pathogen culture of respiratory and urinary tracts, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and wound secretion was adopted as the diagnostic "gold standard" for septic infection. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the guidelines were statistically analyzed and the diagnostic feasibility of each definition was assessed. Results  A total of 30 trauma patients were enrolled, twenty-three patients met the 1992 sepsis criteria, 22 met the 2001 criteria, and 20 met the 2012 criteria. The prevalence rates were 76.7%, 73.3%, and 66.7%, respectively, and there was no significant statistical difference. Four patients died within 28 days, which was in line with the diagnostic criteria of the three versions of the sepsis criteria. The 28-day mortality in the three sepsis guidelines groups was 17.4%, 18.2%, and 25.0%, respectively, indicating no statistical difference. By adopting culture-positive pathogens as the "gold standard" of septic infection, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the group A was 77.8% and 25

  15. Performance of a limiting-antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay for cross-sectional estimation of HIV incidence in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Konikoff

    Full Text Available A limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (HIV-1 LAg-Avidity assay was recently developed for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation. We evaluated the performance of the LAg-Avidity assay alone and in multi-assay algorithms (MAAs that included other biomarkers.Performance of testing algorithms was evaluated using 2,282 samples from individuals in the United States collected 1 month to >8 years after HIV seroconversion. The capacity of selected testing algorithms to accurately estimate incidence was evaluated in three longitudinal cohorts. When used in a single-assay format, the LAg-Avidity assay classified some individuals infected >5 years as assay positive and failed to provide reliable incidence estimates in cohorts that included individuals with long-term infections. We evaluated >500,000 testing algorithms, that included the LAg-Avidity assay alone and MAAs with other biomarkers (BED capture immunoassay [BED-CEIA], BioRad-Avidity assay, HIV viral load, CD4 cell count, varying the assays and assay cutoffs. We identified an optimized 2-assay MAA that included the LAg-Avidity and BioRad-Avidity assays, and an optimized 4-assay MAA that included those assays, as well as HIV viral load and CD4 cell count. The two optimized MAAs classified all 845 samples from individuals infected >5 years as MAA negative and estimated incidence within a year of sample collection. These two MAAs produced incidence estimates that were consistent with those from longitudinal follow-up of cohorts. A comparison of the laboratory assay costs of the MAAs was also performed, and we found that the costs associated with the optimal two assay MAA were substantially less than with the four assay MAA.The LAg-Avidity assay did not perform well in a single-assay format, regardless of the assay cutoff. MAAs that include the LAg-Avidity and BioRad-Avidity assays, with or without viral load and CD4 cell count, provide accurate incidence estimates.

  16. Branding Asklepios and the Traditional and Variant Serpent Symbol Display Among Health Professional Schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Claus; Martelon, MaryKate

    2016-05-25

    History supports the staff and single serpent, the asklepian, as the symbol of healing and medicine, yet its confusion with the caduceus (a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it) persists. No population-based information on serpent symbol use exists. To determine the prevalence of asklepian and caduceus display among Internet images of medical and health professional schools' emblems, and to compare asklepian and caduceus display between medical and health professional schools, examining the effects of school longevity and geographic location on symbol display. This cross-sectional survey examined Internet websites and Google Images associated with medical and other health professional schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada from 2013 to 2015. The primary outcome was display of a traditional or variant asklepian or caduceus among current and past emblems in Google Images. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the comparison of medical versus other health professional schools were calculated by logistic regression. Differences among schools' longevity were assessed with Student's t-tests and linear regression. Among images of current and past emblems of 482 schools-159 medical schools and 323 health professional schools-107 (22.2%) emblems displayed only the traditional, and 205 (42.5%) any, asklepian. Adjusting for geographic region and longevity, medical schools were 59% less likely than health professional schools to display the traditional asklepian (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.71, P=.001), and were 7.7 times more likely than health professional schools to display the traditional caduceus. Medical schools were 8% less likely than health professional schools to display any asklepian (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.62-1.38, P=.70), and were 3.3 times more likely than health professional schools to display any caduceus. Schools' preference of the asklepian over the caduceus confirmed historical origins. Less asklepian and more caduceus display by

  17. Barriers to initiation of antiretroviral treatment in rural and urban areas of Zambia: a cross-sectional study of cost, stigma, and perceptions about ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Matthew P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the number of HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings has increased dramatically, some patients eligible for treatment do not initiate ART even when it is available to them. Understanding why patients opt out of care, or are unable to opt in, is important to achieving the goal of universal access. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 400 patients on ART (those who were able to access care and 400 patients accessing home-based care (HBC, but who had not initiated ART (either they were not able to, or chose not to, access care in two rural and two urban sites in Zambia to identify barriers to and facilitators of ART uptake. Results HBC patients were 50% more likely to report that it would be very difficult to get to the ART clinic than those on ART (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.21-1.82. Stigma was common in all areas, with 54% of HBC patients, but only 15% of ART patients, being afraid to go to the clinic (RR: 3.61; 95% CI: 3.12-4.18. Cost barriers differed by location: urban HBC patients were three times more likely to report needing to pay to travel to the clinic than those on ART (RR: 2.84; 95% CI: 2.02-3.98 and 10 times more likely to believe they would need to pay a fee at the clinic (RR: 9.50; 95% CI: 2.24-40.3. In rural areas, HBC subjects were more likely to report needing to pay non-transport costs to attend the clinic than those on ART (RR: 4.52; 95% CI: 1.91-10.7. HBC patients were twice as likely as ART patients to report not having enough food to take ART being a concern (27% vs. 13%, RR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.71-2.41, regardless of location and gender. Conclusions Patients in home-based care for HIV/AIDS who never initiated ART perceived greater financial and logistical barriers to seeking HIV care and had more negative perceptions about the benefits of the treatment. Future efforts to expand access to antiretroviral care should consider ways to reduce these barriers

  18. Nursing unit teams matter: Impact of unit-level nurse practice environment, nurse work characteristics, and burnout on nurse reported job outcomes, and quality of care, and patient adverse events--a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Timmermans, Olaf; Weeks, Susan Mace; van Heusden, Danny; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the impact of nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, and burnout on nurse reported job outcomes, quality of care, and patient adverse events variables at the nursing unit level. Nurse practice environment studies show growing insights and knowledge about determining factors for nurse workforce stability, quality of care, and patient safety. Until now, international studies have primarily focused on variability at the hospital level; however, insights at the nursing unit level can reveal key factors in the nurse practice environment. A cross-sectional design with a survey. In a cross-sectional survey, a sample of 1108 nurses assigned to 96 nursing units completed a structured questionnaire composed of various validated instruments measuring nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, burnout, nurse reported job outcomes, quality of care, and patient adverse events. Associations between the variables were examined using multilevel modelling techniques. Various unit-level associations (simple models) were identified between nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, burnout dimensions, and nurse reported outcome variables. Multiple multilevel models showed various independent variables such as nursing management at the unit level, social capital, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization as important predictors of nurse reported outcome variables such job satisfaction, turnover intentions, quality of care (at the unit, the last shift, and in the hospital within the last year), patient and family complaints, patient and family verbal abuse, patient falls, nosocomial infections, and medications errors. Results suggested a stable nurse work force, with the capability to achieve superior quality and patient safety outcomes, is associated with unit-level favourable perceptions of nurse work environment factors, workload, decision latitude, and social capital, as well low levels of burnout

  19. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  20. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paget

    Full Text Available MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.Cross-sectional prevalence study carried out between November 2011 and June 2012. Nasal swabs and questionnaires were collected in patients (>4 years who had used antibiotics in the previous three months from twelve Dutch General Practitioners (GPs, seven German GPs and two German outpatient urologists. To assess nasal carriage, swabs were analyzed using selective MRSA agars after broth enrichment. MRSA positive samples were spa typed.Data were collected from 513 GP outpatients in the Netherlands, 261 GP outpatients in Germany and 200 urologist outpatients in Germany. The overall prevalence of MRSA carriage was 0.8%, 1.1% and 2.0%, respectively. In the GP outpatient populations, the prevalence was similar in both countries (0.8% and 1.1%, respectively, p = 0.879, all spa types were indicative for livestock-associated MRSA (4xt011 in the Netherlands; 2xt034 and t011 in Germany and being a farmer, living on or near (<5km to a farm were associated with MRSA carriage. In the urologist outpatient population, the prevalence was higher (2.0%, all spa types were indicative for healthcare-associated MRSA (t068, t032, t003, t10231 and being a farmer, living on or near to a farm were factors not associated with MRSA carriage.The prevalence of MRSA carriage in these community outpatient populations along the Dutch-German border was low. There were striking similarities in livestock-associated MRSA carriage and clonal spread in the outpatient populations seeing their GP in both countries. In contrast, urologist outpatients in Germany were colonized with spa types indicative of healthcare-associated MRSA.

  1. Estimating teat canal cross-sectional area to determine the effects of teat-end and mouthpiece chamber vacuum on teat congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penry, J F; Upton, J; Mein, G A; Rasmussen, M D; Ohnstad, I; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of mouthpiece chamber vacuum on teat-end congestion. The secondary objective was to assess the interactive effects of mouthpiece chamber vacuum with teat-end vacuum and pulsation setting on teat-end congestion. The influence of system vacuum, pulsation settings, mouthpiece chamber vacuum, and teat-end vacuum on teat-end congestion were tested in a 2×2 factorial design. The low-risk conditions for teat-end congestion (TEL) were 40 kPa system vacuum (Vs) and 400-ms pulsation b-phase. The high-risk conditions for teat-end congestion (TEH) were 49 kPa Vs and 700-ms b-phase. The low-risk condition for teat-barrel congestion (TBL) was created by venting the liner mouthpiece chamber to atmosphere. In the high-risk condition for teat-barrel congestion (TBH) the mouthpiece chamber was connected to short milk tube vacuum. Eight cows (32 quarters) were used in the experiment conducted during 0400 h milkings. All cows received all treatments over the entire experimental period. Teatcups were removed after 150 s for all treatments to standardize the exposure period. Calculated teat canal cross-sectional area (CA) was used to assess congestion of teat tissue. The main effect of the teat-end treatment was a reduction in CA of 9.9% between TEL and TEH conditions, for both levels of teat-barrel congestion risk. The main effect of the teat-barrel treatment was remarkably similar, with a decrease of 9.7% in CA between TBL and TBH conditions for both levels of teat-end congestion risk. No interaction between treatments was detected, hence the main effects are additive. The most aggressive of the 4 treatment combinations (TEH plus TBH) had a CA estimate 20% smaller than for the most gentle treatment combination (TEL plus TBL). The conditions designed to impair circulation in the teat barrel also had a deleterious effect on circulation at the teat end. This experiment highlights the importance of elevated mouthpiece

  2. Estimation of the mass absorption cross section of the organic carbon component of aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Barnard

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Data taken from the MCMA-2003 and the 2006 MILAGRO field campaigns are used to examine the absorption of solar radiation by the organic component of aerosols. Using irradiance data from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR and an actinic flux spectroradiometer (SR, we derive aerosol single scattering albedo, π0,λ, as a function of wavelength, λ. We find that in the near-UV spectral range (250 to 400 nm π0,λ is much lower compared to π0,λ at 500 nm indicating enhanced absorption in the near-UV range. Absorption by elemental carbon, dust, or gas cannot account for this enhanced absorption leaving the organic part of the aerosol as the only possible absorber. We use data from a surface deployed Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS along with the inferred π0,λ to estimate the Mass Absorption Cross section (MAC for the organic carbon. We find that the MAC is about 10.5 m2/g at 300 nm and falls close to zero at about 500 nm; values that are roughly consistent with other estimates of organic carbon MAC. These MAC values can be considered as "radiatively correct" because when used in radiative transfer calculations the calculated irradiances/actinic fluxes match those measured at the wavelengths considered here. For an illustrative case study described here, we estimate that the light absorption by the "brown" (organic carbonaceous aerosol can add about 40% to the light absorption of black carbon in Mexico City. This contribution will vary depending on the relative abundance of organic carbon relative to black carbon. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that organic aerosol would slow down photochemistry by selectively scavenging the light reaching the ground at those wavelengths that drive photochemical reactions. Finally, satellite retrievals of trace gases that are used to infer emissions currently assume that the MAC of organic carbon is zero. For trace gases that are

  3. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B Beggs

    Full Text Available Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV cross-sectional area (CSA in these two groups, something previously unknown.65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years and 74 healthy controls (HCs (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA.PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072 between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019 and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020; and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026 and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039, whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021. Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015.In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients.

  4. Screening for latent TB, HIV, and hepatitis B/C in new migrants in a high prevalence area of London, UK: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Sally; Seedat, Farah; Car, Josip; Escombe, Rod; Hasan, Samia; Eliahoo, Joseph; Friedland, Jon S

    2014-12-03

    Rising rates of infectious diseases in international migrants has reignited the debate around screening. There have been calls to strengthen primary-care-based programmes, focusing on latent TB. We did a cross-sectional study of new migrants to test an innovative one-stop blood test approach to detect multiple infections at one appointment (HIV, latent tuberculosis, and hepatitis B/C) on registration with a General Practitioner (GP) in primary care. The study was done across two GP practices attached to hospital Accident and Emergency Departments (A&E) in a high migrant area of London for 6 months. Inclusion criteria were foreign-born individuals from a high TB prevalence country (>40 cases per 100,000) who have lived in the UK ≤ 10 years, and were over 18 years of age. All new migrants who attended a New Patient Health Check were screened for eligibility and offered the blood test. We followed routine care pathways for follow-up. There were 1235 new registrations in 6 months. 453 attended their New Patient Health Check, of which 47 (10.4%) were identified as new migrants (age 32.11 years [range 18-72]; 22 different nationalities; time in UK 2.28 years [0-10]). 36 (76.6%) participated in the study. The intervention only increased the prevalence of diagnosed latent TB (18.18% [95% CI 6.98-35.46]; 181.8 cases per 1000). Ultimately 0 (0%) of 6 patients with latent TB went on to complete treatment (3 did not attend referral). No cases of HIV or hepatitis B/C were found. Foreign-born patients were under-represented at these practices in relation to 2011 Census data (Chi-square test -0.111 [95% CI -0.125 to -0.097]; p < 0.001). The one-stop approach was feasible in this context and acceptability was high. However, the number of presenting migrants was surprisingly low, reflecting the barriers to care that this group face on arrival, and none ultimately received treatment. The ongoing UK debate around immigration checks and charging in primary care for new

  5. Collision cross sectional areas from analysis of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance line width: a new method for characterizing molecular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Voelkel, Jacob E; Dearden, David V

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a technique for determining molecular collision cross sections via measuring the variation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) line width with background damping gas pressure, under conditions where the length of the FTICR transient is pressure limited. Key features of our method include monoisotopic isolation of ions, the pulsed introduction of damping gas to a constant pressure using a pulsed leak valve, short excitation events to minimize collisions during the excitation, and proper choice of damping gas (Xe is superior to He). The measurements are reproducible within a few percent, which is sufficient for distinguishing between many structural possibilities and is comparable to the uncertainty in cross sections calculated from computed molecular structures. These techniques complement drift ion mobility measurements obtained on dedicated instruments. They do not require a specialized instrument, but should be easily performed on any FTICR mass spectrometer equipped with a pulsed leak valve.

  6. Flow patterns and their transition characteristicsof the air-water two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe with asudden-changed cross-section area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Flow patterns in upstream and downstream straight tubes of sudden-changedareas in ahorizontal straight pipe were experimentally examined. Both sudden-expansioncross-section (SECS)and sudden-contraction cross-section (SCCS) were investigated. The flow pattern mapsupstream anddownstream were delineated and compared with those in straight tubes with uniformcross-sections.The effects of the SECS and SCCS on flow patterns were discussed and analyzed.Furthermore, flowpattern transition mechanisms resulting in occurrences of different flow patternswere simplydiscussed and some transition criteria for the flow pattern transitions were deduced byusing the non-dimensionlized analysis method.

  7. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-07-01

    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  8. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  9. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES, on self-rated health (SRH in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS and in-person interviews (RECORD. All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA. Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle and from real estate sales (Paris. Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  10. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  11. Reactivity effects in VVER-1000 of the third unit of the kalinin nuclear power plant at physical start-up. Computations in ShIPR intellectual code system with library of two-group cross sections generated by UNK code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizin, M. N.; Zimin, V. G.; Zizina, S. N.; Kryakvin, L. V.; Pitilimov, V. A.; Tereshonok, V. A.

    2010-12-01

    The ShIPR intellectual code system for mathematical simulation of nuclear reactors includes a set of computing modules implementing the preparation of macro cross sections on the basis of the two-group library of neutron-physics cross sections obtained for the SKETCH-N nodal code. This library is created by using the UNK code for 3D diffusion computation of first VVER-1000 fuel loadings. Computation of neutron fields in the ShIPR system is performed using the DP3 code in the two-group diffusion approximation in 3D triangular geometry. The efficiency of all groups of control rods for the first fuel loading of the third unit of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant is computed. The temperature, barometric, and density effects of reactivity as well as the reactivity coefficient due to the concentration of boric acid in the reactor were computed additionally. Results of computations are compared with the experiment.

  12. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  13. Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

  14. Prevalence of dental caries among 13 and 15-year-old school children in an endemic fluorosis area: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Br; Laxmi, G Sri; Sudhakar, P; Malik, Vn; Reddy, K Amarendher; Reddy, S Nagalaxmi; Prasanna, A Lakshmi

    2011-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children in Panyam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 school children and were examined for dental fluorosis and dental caries. This study shows that male students have a decrease in DMFT (Decayed, missing, filled, teeth) index and increase in Dean's index when compared with females. Among students with 13 to 15 years of age, 13-year-old student has increase in DMFT score when compared with other age groups and 14-year-old students has increase in Dean's score when compared with other age group students. The prevalence of dental caries decreased with the increase of fluorosis among the students examined. Patients with dental fluorosis show a decreased prevalence of dental caries.

  15. Area-aggregated assessments of perceived environmental attributes may overcome single-source bias in studies of green environments and health: results from a cross-sectional survey in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadbro John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies assessing health effects of neighborhood characteristics either use self-reports or objective assessments of the environment, the latter often based on Geographical Information Systems (GIS. While objective measures require detailed landscape data, self-assessments may yield confounded results. In this study we demonstrate how self-assessments of green neighborhood environments aggregated to narrow area units may serve as an appealing compromise between objective measures and individual self-assessments. Methods The study uses cross-sectional data (N = 24,847 from a public health survey conducted in the county of Scania, southern Sweden, in 2008 and validates the Scania Green Score (SGS, a new index comprising five self-reported green neighborhood qualities (Culture, Lush, Serene, Spacious and Wild. The same qualities were also assessed objectively using landscape data and GIS. A multilevel (ecometric model was used to aggregate individual self-reports to assessments of perceived green environmental attributes for areas of 1,000 square meters. We assessed convergent and concurrent validity for self-assessments of the five items separately and for the sum score, individually and area-aggregated. Results Correlations between the index scores based on self-assessments and the corresponding objective assessments were clearly present, indicating convergent validity, but the agreement was low. The correlation was even more evident for the area-aggregated SGS. All three scores (individual SGS, area-aggregated SGS and GIS index score were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, indicating concurrent validity. However, while individual SGS was associated with vitality, this association was not present for aggregated SGS and the GIS-index score, suggesting confounding (single-source bias when individual SGS was used. Conclusions Perceived and objectively assessed qualities of the green neighborhood environment correlate

  16. A cross-sectional study of emergency care utilization and associated costs of violent-related (assault) injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W; Lee, Lois K

    2017-08-01

    Violent-related (assault) injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Many violent injury victims seek treatment in the emergency department (ED). Our objectives were to (1) estimate rates of violent-related injuries evaluated in United States EDs, (2) estimate linear trends in ED visits for violent-related injuries from 2000 to 2010, and (3) to determine the associated health care and work-loss costs. We examined adults 18 years and older from a nationally representative survey (the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) of ED visits, from 2000 to 2010. Violent injury was defined using International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Clinical Modification, diagnosis and mechanism of injury codes. We calculated rates of ED visits for violent injuries. Medical and work-loss costs accrued by these injuries were calculated for 2005, inflation-adjusted to 2011 dollars using the WISQARS Cost of Injury Reports. An annual average of 1.4 million adults were treated for violent injuries in EDs from 2000 to 2010, comprising 1.6% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-1.6%) of all US adult ED visits. Young adults (18-25 years), men, nonwhites, uninsured or publically insured patients, and those residing in high poverty urban areas were at increased risk for ED visits for violent injury. The 1-year, inflation-adjusted medical and work-loss cost of violent-inflicted injuries in adults in the United States was US $49.5 billion. Violent injuries account for over one million ED visits annually among adults, with no change in rates over the past decade. Young black men are at especially increased risk for ED visits for violent injuries. Overall, violent-related injuries resulted in substantial financial and societal costs. Epidemiological study, level III.

  17. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  18. Effect of cardiometabolic risk factors on hypertension management: a cross-sectional study among 28 physician practices in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacker Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor clusters (CMRFCs and their effect on BP control among hypertensive patients from 28 US physician practices. Methods Each participating practice identified a random sample of 150-300 adults aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with hypertension. The primary outcome variable was BP control (BP Results Overall, 6,527 hypertensive patients were identified for study inclusion. More than half (54.3% were female, and mean age was 64.7 years. Almost half (48.7% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. About 1 in every 4 patients (25.3% had diabetes, and 60.7% had dyslipidemia. Mean blood pressure was 132.5/77.9 mmHg, and 55.0% of all patients had controlled BP; 62.4% of non-diabetic patients, and 33.3% of diabetic hypertensive patients, had BP controlled to recommended levels. Most (81.7% hypertensive patients had ≥ 1 cardiometabolic risk factor, and 12.2% had all 3 risk factors. As compared to hypertensive patients without additional risk factors, adjusted odds ratios for BP control were significantly lower for all combinations of CMRFCs (ORs 0.15-0.83, all p Conclusions Across 28 US practices, only 18% of hypertensive patients did not have any additional cardiometabolic risk factors. The high prevalence of CMRFCs presents a challenge to effective hypertension management.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  20. Frequency and correlates of malaria over-treatment in areas of differing malaria transmission: a cross-sectional study in rural Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onchiri, Frankline M; Pavlinac, Patricia B; Singa, Benson O; Naulikha, Jacqueline M; Odundo, Elizabeth A; Farquhar, Carey; Richardson, Barbra A; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L

    2015-03-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization shifted its malaria guidelines from recommending the empiric treatment of all febrile children to treating only those with laboratory-confirmed malaria. This study evaluated the frequency and predictors of malaria over-treatment among febrile malaria-negative children in Kenya. Between 2012 and 2013, 1,362 children presenting consecutively with temperature ≥37.5°C to Kisii and Homa Bay hospitals were enrolled in a cross-sectional study evaluating causes of fever. Children were screened for malaria using smear microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests and managed according to standard of care at the hospitals. The frequency of anti-malarial prescriptions among children with laboratory-confirmed malaria negative children (malaria over-treatment) was determined; and clinical and demographic correlates of overtreatment evaluated using logistic regression. Because of differences in malaria endemicity, analyses were stratified and compared by site. Among 1,362 children enrolled, 46 (7%) of 685 children in Kisii, and 310 (45.8%) of 677 in Homa Bay had laboratory-confirmed malaria; p malaria-negative children; 210 (57.2%) in Homa Bay and 45 (7.0%) in Kisii received anti-malarials; p Malaria over-treatment was common, particularly in Homa Bay, where the prevalence of malaria was extremely high. Severe illness and high or prolonged fever were associated with overtreatment. Overtreatment may result in failure to treat other serious causes of fever, drug resistance, and unnecessarily treatment costs.

  1. Characterization of culturable vaginal Lactobacillus species among women with and without bacterial vaginosis from the United States and India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Raphael, Eva; Rumphs, Alnecia; Krupp, Karl; Ravi, Kavitha; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Reingold, Arthur L; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Riley, Lee W

    2014-07-01

    Lactobacillus species play an integral part in the health of the vaginal microbiota. We compared vaginal Lactobacillus species in women from India and the USA with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV). Between July 2009 and November 2010, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 40 women attending a women's health clinic in Mysore, India, and a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in San Francisco, USA. Women were diagnosed with BV using Amsel's criteria and the Nugent score. Lactobacillus 16S rDNA was sequenced to speciate the cultured isolates. Ten Indian and 10 US women without BV were compared with an equal number of women with BV. Lactobacilli were isolated from all healthy women, but from only 10% of Indian and 50% of US women with BV. 16S rDNA from 164 Lactobacillus colonies was sequenced from healthy women (126 colonies) and women with BV (38 colonies). Seven cultivable Lactobacillus species were isolated from 11 Indian women and nine species from 15 US women. The majority of Lactobacillus species among Indian women were L. crispatus (25.0%), L. jensenii (25.0%) and L. reuteri (16.7%). Among US women, L. crispatus (32.0%), L. jensenii (20.0%) and L. coleohominis (12.0%) predominated. L. jensenii and L. crispatus dominated the vaginal flora of healthy Indian and US women. Indian women appeared to have a higher percentage of obligate heterofermentative species, suggesting the need for a larger degree of metabolic flexibility and a more challenging vaginal environment. © 2014 The Authors.

  2. Knowledge and practices on maternal health care among mothers: A Cross sectional study from rural areas of mid-western development region Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Gyawali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe motherhood is a priority program in Nepal, aiming to restrain maternal deaths. Meanwhile, knowledge, practices, accessibility, and service quality are considered keys to improve service utilization. This study was conducted to identify knowledge and practices of maternal health care among mothers having < 1-year-old child in the Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during January-April 2011 in rural, Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Three Village Development Committees (VDC from Bardiya (plain and two VDCs from each of the Salyan and Pyuthan (hill and Jumla (mountain districts were selected randomly. Hence, there were 81 clusters (1VDC = 9 clusters and 7-8 participants were selected randomly from each cluster. Data were collected by interview using structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guideline (18 FGDs, analyzed by SPSS (16.0. CD recorded qualitative data were transcribed and narrated. Percent mean and standard deviation were calculated. Results: Three quarters of the participants had correct knowledge regarding minimum numbers of antenatal visits to be done by a pregnant woman (WHO guideline. Nearly two-fifth participants knew schedule of antenatal care (ANC visits. Almost 60% had done ≥ 4 ANC visits during last pregnancy. Majority visited Sub Health Post/Health Post/Primary Health Care Centre for ANC Checkup. About 90% had taken Iron and folic acid tablets. About 57% were home deliveries (last childbirth, 40% deliveries were assisted by relatives/husband, and only 32% did postnatal health checkup. Conclusions: There were gaps in the knowledge and practices for health care during pregnancy, childbirth and in the postpartum period. A high rate of home deliveries with the low postnatal service utilization was prevalent. Intensive awareness progam and behavioral change interventions, regular pregnancy monitoring may promote the

  3. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  4. [The link between aggressive behavior and depression in adolescence. A cross-sectional study conducted in the psychiatric emergency unit at the Sainte-Anne hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarous, X; Guedj, M J; Braitman, A; Gallois, E; Lana, P

    2014-12-01

    The link between depression and aggressive behavior in adults has been found in many studies. In adolescents, this relationship is still controversial. Several studies point out that irritability is a key symptom in adolescent depressed. Few studies have analyzed precisely the kind of aggressive behavior. This study sets out to assess the relationship between aggressive behavior and depressive affects in adolescents. We also pay attention in this population to hopelessness feelings, anxiety, global functioning and the type of aggressive behavior. This is a descriptive and observational cross-sectional study. Data was collected from 49 successive adolescents admitted for a 24-hour evaluation in the emergency department of the Sainte-Anne psychiatric hospital. The inclusion period was from February to April 2012, with age limits between 15 and 18. For each patient, the clinician completed with the parents or other caregivers the Modified Overt Aggressive Scale (MOAS) searching for existence of aggressive behavior in the week prior to the consultation. The population was divided into two groups: P- group when the MOAS score was Adolescent Depression Rating Scale for clinicians (ADRSc) were also completed. Each patient completed the self-report Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (QA), the Beck Hopelessness scale and the Adolescent Depression Rating Scale for patients (ADRSp). Forty-nine adolescents with a median age of 16 years and 4 months participated. The first reason for consultation was depressive symptoms, followed by disruptive behavior. The analysis was conducted on 39 questionnaires. The demographic profile of the two groups was similar. We did not find any significant difference between the groups P+ and P- on ADRSc scores and secondary criteria. However, we found higher scores in the QA in the more depressed patient, especially a higher hostility score in this sample. In the subgroup analysis: as expected self-aggressive behavior was associated with a

  5. Uptake of a new meningitis vaccination programme amongst first-year undergraduate students in the United Kingdom: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagden, Sarah; Seddon, Daniel; Hungerford, Daniel; Stanistreet, Debbi

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 meningococcal group W was declared endemic in the UK, with the meningococcal ACWY vaccination (MenACWY) subsequently introduced amongst adolescents and first-year university students. This study aimed to determine MenACWY uptake amongst students and to evaluate how this was influenced by demographics and via the Health Belief Model (HBM). This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a British university amongst first-year undergraduate students aged 18-25 years. Data collection was via an electronic questionnaire encompassing demographics, the HBM and vaccination status. Univariable analysis of the associations between demographics, health beliefs and vaccination was performed, followed by multiple logistic regression. 401 participants were included in analysis. Vaccine uptake was 68.1%. Variables independently associated with vaccination upon multiple regression were age, gap-year, perceived effectiveness of the vaccine and knowledge about risk of meningitis. Compared to 18 year-olds, the odds of vaccination were reduced for 19 year-olds (aOR = 0.087, 95% CI = 0.010-0.729), 20 year-olds (aOR = 0.019, 95% CI = 0.002-0.161) and 21-25 year-olds (aOR = 0.003, 95% CI = year (aOR = 2.939, 95% CI = 1.329-6.501), higher perceived vaccine effectiveness (aOR = 3.555, 95% CI = 1.787-7.073) and knowledge about meningitis risk (aOR = 2.481, 95% CI = 1.165-5.287) were independently associated with increased uptake. MenACWY uptake amongst students in this study and in other sources is above the national coverage for all adolescents (35.3%), indicating that this vaccination programme may be increasing health inequalities. Older students are less likely to become vaccinated due to differing vaccination policy in this age-group. In future, strategies that focus on specific student cohorts and that highlight vaccine effectiveness and the risk of meningitis should be considered. National evaluation of this vaccination programme is recommended to clarify its impact on health

  6. The severity of dental caries in adults aged 35 to 44 years residing in the metropolitan area of a large city in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M; Vasconcelos, Mara; Haddad, João Paulo A; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2012-07-31

    In recent decades, studies in the field of public health have increasingly focused on social determinants that affect the health-illness process. The epidemiological perspective considers oral health to be a reflection of socioeconomic and environmental aspects, and it is particularly influenced by the social context. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the severity of dental caries among adults aged 35 to 44 years and characteristics on the different levels at which the determinants of caries operate (individual, social structure and social context). A home-based, cross-sectional field study was carried out involving a sample of 1,150 adults (35 to 44 years of age) residing in metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The DMFT (decayed, missing, filled tooth) index (≥14) was used to determine the severity of dental caries. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Poisson regression model with the level of significance set at 5% (p caries severity. The rate of high-severity caries in the group between 40 and 44 years of age was 1.15-fold (CI: 1.04-1.26) greater than that among those aged 35 to 39 years. A greater prevalence of high caries severity was found among those who frequently visited the dentist (PR = 1.18; CI: 1.07-1.30), those with a lower income (PR = 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23), those who reported that their neighborhood did not come together in the previous year to petition political leaders for benefits (PR = 1.16; CI: 1.05-1.28) and those who are unable to make decisions (without empowerment) (PR = 1.12; CI: 1.01-1.24). The present study revealed high dental caries severity in adults, which was associated with individual characteristics, health-related behavior and social structure and contextual variables. These findings underscore the importance of considering social determinants involved in the health-illness process when carrying out epidemiological studies on dental caries.

  7. Profile of patients and physiotherapy patterns in intensive care units in public hospitals in Zimbabwe: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiotherapy is integral to patient management in the Intensive Care Unit. The precise role that physiotherapists play in the critical care differs significantly worldwide. The aim of the study was to describe the profile of patients and the current patterns of physiotherapy services delivered for patients admitted in the five public hospital intensive care units in Zimbabwe. Methods A prospective record review was performed and records of all consecutive patients admitted into th...

  8. 变截面管道内流噪声预报与实验测量%Numerical Prediction and Experimental Measurement of Flow Noise in Pipes with Variable Cross-Sectional Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕景伟; 季振林

    2011-01-01

    The time-domain CFD method based on the large eddy simulation (LES) is applied to predict the flow noise in pipes with variable cross-sectional area.For the pipes with sudden area contraction and expansion, the numerical predictions agree with the experimentally measured results very well.Afterwards, the affects of pipe' s connection structures on the flow noise are investigated numerically.This work provides a reference for low-noise design of pipes with variable cross-sectional area.%应用大涡模拟(LES)时域CFD方法计算变截面管道内的气流噪声,对于突缩和突扩管道,CFD计算结果和实验测量结果吻合较好,进而研究不同的过渡形式对变截面管道内部流噪声的影响,为变截面管道的低噪声设计提供依据.

  9. Salmonella and raw shell eggs: results of a cross-sectional study of contamination rates and egg safety practices in the United Kingdom catering sector in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, R; Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2005-02-01

    This study was prompted by epidemiological investigations of the unusual number of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks associated with the use of eggs in catering premises in England and Wales during 2002. The aims of the study, performed between April and May 2003, were to establish the rate of Salmonella contamination in raw shell eggs from catering premises, investigate any correlation between the origin and type of eggs and the presence of particular serotypes or phage types (PTs) of Salmonella, and examine the use of raw shell eggs in catering premises in the United Kingdom. A total of 34,116 eggs (5,686 pooled samples of six eggs) were collected from 2,104 catering premises, most of which were eggs produced in the United Kingdom (88%). Salmonella was isolated from 17 pools (0.3%) of eggs. Of these, 15 were Salmonella Enteritidis, which were further characterized to PTs as follows: PT6 (0.1%), PT4 (0.07%), PT12 (0.04%), PT1 (0.04%), and PT14b (0.02%). Salmonella Livingstone and Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 7 resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline were also isolated. The Salmonella contamination rate of eggs produced in the United Kingdom appears to have decreased significantly since 1995 and 1996. This trend is reflected in the decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis and, in particular, Salmonella Enteritidis PT4. The impact of the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency's advice on the use of eggs, issued in January 2003, is discussed.

  10. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    CERN Document Server

    Cornet, F; Grau, A; Pancheri, G; Sciutto, S J

    2015-01-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultra-high energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air-showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  11. 46 CFR 64.25 - Cross section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross section. 64.25 Section 64.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.25 Cross section. A tank must have a cross section design that is— (a...

  12. Blood pressure patterns in relation to geographic area of residence: a cross-sectional study of adolescents in Kogi state, Nigeria

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    Ugwu Chidi E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, is increasing in the developing countries and this may be connected with the economic transition in those countries. Adult hypertension is thought to be related to childhood and adolescent increases in blood pressure, and hence the need to monitor patterns in early life. This study investigates the BP patterns, and their correlates, of adolescents from different geographic areas of residence in Nigeria. Methods A total of 1,088 Nigerian adolescents from different geographic areas of residence were recruited for the study. Their blood pressures and anthropometric indices were measured using standard procedures. The association of blood pressure with height, weight, body mass index (BMI and geographic area of residence was assessed. Results Male and female urban-dwelling adolescents had significantly (p 2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females than those in the non-urban areas (20.33 ± 3.11 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females though the difference was significant (p Conclusion These findings underscore the need for efforts to be made towards addressing adolescent blood pressure elevation (in both urban and non-urban areas as they are a reflection of adult morbidity and mortality from hypertension and the associated disorders.

  13. Patient enablement requires physician empathy: a cross-sectional study of general practice consultations in areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation in Scotland

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    Mercer Stewart W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient 'enablement' is a term closely aligned with 'empowerment' and its measurement in a general practice consultation has been operationalised in the widely used patient enablement instrument (PEI, a patient-rated measure of consultation outcome. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the factors that influence enablement, particularly the effect of socio-economic deprivation. The aim of the study is to assess the factors influencing patient enablement in GP consultations in areas of high and low deprivation. Methods A questionnaire study was carried out on 3,044 patients attending 26 GPs (16 in areas of high socio-economic deprivation and 10 in low deprivation areas, in the west of Scotland. Patient expectation (confidence that the doctor would be able to help was recorded prior to the consultation. PEI, GP empathy (measured by the CARE Measure, and a range of other measures and variables were recorded after the consultation. Data analysis employed multi-level modelling and multivariate analyses with the PEI as the dependant variable. Results Although numerous variables showed a univariate association with patient enablement, only four factors were independently predictive after multilevel multivariate analysis; patients with multimorbidity of 3 or more long-term conditions (reflecting poor chronic general health, and those consulting about a long-standing problem had reduced enablement scores in both affluent and deprived areas. In deprived areas, emotional distress (GHQ-caseness had an additional negative effect on enablement. Perceived GP empathy had a positive effect on enablement in both affluent and deprived areas. Maximal patient enablement was never found with low empathy. Conclusions Although other factors influence patient enablement, the patients' perceptions of the doctors' empathy is of key importance in patient enablement in general practice consultations in both high and low deprivation settings.

  14. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among caregivers of patients with severe mental illness in the outpatient unit of Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintayehu, Mezinew; Mulat, Haregwoin; Yohannis, Zegeye; Adera, Tewodros; Fekade, Maereg

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers like family members or other relatives are central and provide not only practical help and personal care but also give emotional support, and they are suffering from plenty of challengeable tasks. These, eventually, cast out family caregivers into multidimensional problems prominently for mental distress like depression, anxiety, sleep problem and somatic disorder which are followed by physiologic changes and impaired health habits that ultimately lead to illness and possibly to death. Numerous studies demonstrate that mental distress of caregivers are two times compared to general populations. Despite it was not uncommon to observe manifestations of caregivers' mental distress, yet there was no study on this area. Therefore, this study was intended to assess the prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among the caregivers of persons with severe mental illness in the out patients unit of Amanuel Hospital, Ethiopia. Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 31, 2013 at Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique with "k" interval of 13 was employed to withdraw a total of 423 participants from study population. Five psychiatric nurses carried out interview by using standardized and validated Self Reported Questionnaire (SRQ 20). Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. This study revealed that the overall prevalence of mental distress was found to be 221(56.7 %). The factors like missed social support, two or more times admission of patient, care giving for psychotic patient, being farmer and being female were found to be predictors for mental distress of caregivers with this [AOR 95 % CI = 9.523(5.002, 18.132)], 3.293(1.474, 3.3560), 2.007(1.109, 3.634), 2.245(1.129, 4.463) and 3.170(1.843, 5.454)] respectively. In this respect the study observed that there was a higher level of mental distress experienced by caregivers of

  15. Dementia care worker stress associations with unit type, resident, and work environment characteristics: a cross-sectional secondary data analysis of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project (SHURP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Barbara; De Geest, Sabina; Fierz, Katharina; Beckmann, Sonja; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2017-03-01

    Although caring for residents with dementia in nursing homes is associated with various stressors for care workers, the role of the unit type, and particularly the proportion of residents with dementia, remains unclear. This study aimed to explore associations between unit type and care worker stress, taking into account additional potential stressors. This cross-sectional study was a secondary data analysis in the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project, which included data from 3,922 care workers from 156 Swiss nursing homes. Care workers' stress was measured with a shortened version of the Health Professions Stress Inventory. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess care worker stress and its relationships with three unit types (special care units and others with high or low proportions of residents with dementia), work environment factors, and aggressive resident behavior. After including all potential stressors in the models, no significant differences between the three unit types regarding care worker stress were found. However, increased care worker stress levels were significantly related to lower ratings of staffing and resources adequacy, the experience of verbal aggression, and the observation of verbal or physical aggression among residents. Although the unit type plays only a minor role regarding care worker stress, this study confirms that work environment and aggressive behavior of residents are important factors associated with work-related stress. To prevent increases of care worker stress, interventions to improve the work environment and strengthen care workers' ability to cope with aggressive behavior are suggested.

  16. Tackling the reasons for GP shortage: the workload of GPs in rural and urban areas in Austria. A cross-sectional study within the framework of QUALICOPC.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, K.; Schober, J.; Schäfer, W.; Maier, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the near future Austria like many other European countries will face a shortage of GPs, especially in rural regions. The interest of young doctors to work in this profession is decreasing steadily. According to the literature, working in rural areas is often associated with a higher n

  17. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R.; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. PMID:25841285

  18. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets.

  19. Awareness and knowledge of schistosomiasis infection and prevention in the "Three Gorges Dam" reservoir area: a cross-sectional study on local residents and health personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huan; Yang, Xiaowei; Meng, Siying; Wang, Hong; Tang, Xiaojun; Tang, Wenge; Zeng, Shu; Jeschke, Sandra; Wang, Yang

    2011-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a severe public health problem in China. It has been predicted that the ecological changes caused by the "Three Gorges Dam", the world's largest hydropower project, could potentially aggravate the spread of schistosomiasis in the area. This study focused on investigating (a) local residents' knowledge on the potential risks of schistosomiasis and (b) the capability of local health personnel in preventing schistosomiasis. A quantitative survey combined with qualitative interviews was conducted in three counties of the reservoir area during November and December 2008. A total of 1386 inhabitants and 180 local health personals participated in questionnaire survey; 18 inhabitants, 21 health professionals, and 8 local government officials were interviewed. Of the surveyed inhabitants, 66.3% had no access to safe drinking water; 47.9% had water-contact regularly through farming or swimming; 58.7% did not have hygienic toilets; and only 13.7% used methane for energy. Besides, only 3.8% of the inhabitants had knowledge scores higher than 6 points within the range 0-10. Educational level, occupation and income were significant predictors of knowledge score (Pwork as significant factors to their knowledge level (Pwork was often severely hindered by a shortage of funding, and challenged by monitoring of migrant population. There were very limited training opportunities for the health workers, and almost no health education for inhabitants, if any, neither efficient nor effective. Although there were multiple risks for potential Schistosoma japonicum infections in the study area, the knowledge level on schistosomiasis and surveillance was relatively low both in local residents and health personnel. Thus, more health education and professional training are urgently required to local residents and health personnel, respectively. By considering limited activities in surveillance and health education been implemented, a strategy plan on intervention to ensure a

  20. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  1. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  2. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF SELF-MEDICATION PRACTICES AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG HOUSEWIVES IN RURAL AREAS OF ERNAKULAM DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesley Elsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Self-medication can be defined as obtaining and consuming drugs without the advice of a physician. There is a lot of public and professional concern about the irrational use of drugs in Self Medication. Even if self-medication helps in reducing the burden on the health care system to a certain extent, it can lead to severe problems like antimicrobial resistance and addictions. This study will provide useful insight on the reasons for which patients resort to this practice and might help the policy makers and regulatory authorities to streamline the process of drug regulations and safety issues of over-the-counter drugs. This study also focuses on the attitude of people, who follow the practice of self-medication. Self-medication in modern pharmaceuticals seems to be a field in which information is scarce and to the best of our knowledge there is limited research conducted to reveal the extent of this problem in our community. OBJECTIVE To find out the prevalence of self-medication among housewives and to study the associated factors in rural areas of Ernakulum district. METHODOLOGY The rural areas selected for the study was the field areas of MOSC Medical College, Kolencherry; 163 subjects were studied (With P=71% from a study conducted on self-medication practices in coastal regions of South India. 1 . Cluster sampling was used to select subjects and data was collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire from those who signed the informed written consent. Data was entered using EPI INFO software and analysis was done using appropriate statistical tools. (Prevalence, probabilities, confidence limits were calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of self-medication among housewives was 57.67% and included analgesics (81.9%, antacids (31.91% and antibiotics were only used by 4.26%.

  3. PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG ADOLESCENT SCHOOL CHILDREN IN AN URBAN AREA IN CENTRAL KERALA- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar C. P

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Childhood obesity is emerging as a serious public health problem among low and middle-income countries. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood. They are more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. So early intervention is very important. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in an urban area of Kottayam district in Kerala. The schools were stratified as Government, Aided and Unaided Schools. Cluster sampling technique was adopted and data was collected after informed consent using pre-tested semistructured questionnaire and analysed in SPSS vs 16. RESULTS The prevalence of obesity as per the present study was 5.1% and the prevalence of overweight was 10.8%. The Demographic and Social factors associated with Childhood obesity were Age, Birth order, Socioeconomic status and Family history of diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION This study concludes that the prevalence of obesity and overweight are increasing in urban area. Lifestyle transition and economic improvement have contributed to the problem of adolescent obesity.

  4. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiling of imipenem in patients admitted to an intensive care unit in India: A nonrandomized, cross-sectional, analytical, open-labeled study

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    B Abhilash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Widespread use of imipenem in intensive care units (ICUs in India has led to the development of numerous carbapenemase-producing strains of pathogens. The altered pathophysiological state in critically ill patients could lead to subtherapeutic antibiotic levels. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the variability in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of imipenem in critically ill patients admitted to an ICU in India. Materials and Methods: Plasma concentration of imipenem was determined in critically ill patients using high performance liquid chromatography, at different time points, by grouping them according to their locus of infection. The elimination half-life (t΍ and volume of distribution (V d values were also computed. The patients with imipenem trough concentration values below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and 5 times the MIC for the isolated pathogen were determined. Results: The difference in the plasma imipenem concentration between the gastrointestinal and the nongastrointestinal groups was significant at 2 h (P = 0.015 following drug dosing; while the difference was significant between the skin/cellulitis and nonskin/cellulitus groups at 2 h (P = 0.008, after drug dosing. The imipenem levels were above the MIC and 5 times the MIC for the isolated organism in 96.67% and 50% of the patients, respectively. Conclusions: The pharmacokinetic profile of imipenem does not vary according to the locus of an infection in critically ill patients. Imipenem, 3 g/day intermittent dosing, maintains a plasma concentration which is adequate to treat most infections encountered in patients admitted to an ICU. However, a change in the dosing regimen is suggested for patients infected with organisms having MIC values above 4 mg/L.

  5. Diagnostic work-up for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after acute ischemic stroke: cross-sectional survey on German stroke units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Timolaos; Quilitzsch, Anika; Busse, Otto; Haeusler, Karl Georg; Endres, Matthias; Heuschmann, Peter; Veltkamp, Roland

    2015-06-01

    Multiple methods to detect paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF) in patients with acute stroke are available. However, it is unknown which approaches are currently used in clinical routine and guidelines remain vague to the extent of cardiac monitoring. We characterize diagnostic efforts for pAF detection on German stroke units (SU). A standardized anonymous questionnaire was sent to all clinical leads of certified SUs in Germany. The questionnaire focused on basic characteristics of SUs, procedures to detect AF, and estimates on AF detection. One hundred seventy-nine SU leads participated (response rate 71.6%). All patients undergo continuous bedside ECG monitoring. A percentage of 77.6 SUs initiate additional 24-hour Holter ECG in >50% of patients without known AF. Patients with transient ischemic attack are monitored significantly shorter than patients with ischemic stroke. Independent of SU type or size, 67.6% of leads assumed to fail detecting pAF in 5% to 20% of patients. In cryptogenic stroke, additional ECG monitoring is recommended by 90.2% but only 13.8% of SUs perform routine ECG follow-up visits. The use of implanted event recorders is low (1-10 patients/y by 60.7% of SUs; 28.1%: no use). A percentage of 83.9 do not use external event recorders. Our survey demonstrates substantial heterogeneity among German SUs on diagnostic work-up for pAF. Future prospective multicenter studies should systematically evaluate the impact of different methods to uncover pAF. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Tobacco smoking using Midwakh is an emerging health problem--evidence from a large cross-sectional survey in the United Arab Emirates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Houqani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Accurate information about the prevalence and types of tobacco use is essential to deliver effective public health policy. We aimed to study the prevalence and modes of tobacco consumption in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, particularly focusing on the use of Midwakh (Arabic traditional pipe. METHODS: We studied 170,430 UAE nationals aged ≥ 18 years (44% males and 56% females in the Weqaya population-based screening program in Abu Dhabi residents during the period April 2008-June 2010. Self-reported smoking status, type, quantity and duration of tobacco smoked were recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study findings; prevalence rates used the screened sample as the denominator. RESULT: The prevalence of smoking overall was 24.3% in males and 0.8% in females and highest in males aged 20-39. Mean age (SD of smokers was 32.8 (11.1 years, 32.7 (11.1 in males and 35.7 (12.1 in females. Cigarette smoking was the commonest form of tobacco use (77.4% of smokers, followed by Midwakh (15.0%, shisha (waterpipe (6.8%, and cigar (0.66%. The mean durations of smoking for cigarettes, Midwakh, shisha and cigars were 11.4, 9.3, 7.6 and 11.0 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is most common among younger UAE national men. The use of Midwakh and the relatively young age of onset of Midwakh smokers is of particular concern as is the possibility of the habit spreading to other countries. Comprehensive tobacco control laws targeting the young and the use of Midwakh are needed.

  7. Aortic Cross-Sectional Area/Height Ratio and Outcomes in Patients With a Trileaflet Aortic Valve and a Dilated Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Ahmad; Kalahasti, Vidyasagar; Svensson, Lars G; Roselli, Eric E; Johnston, Douglas; Hammer, Donald; Schoenhagen, Paul; Griffin, Brian P; Desai, Milind Y

    2016-11-29

    In patients with a dilated proximal ascending aorta and trileaflet aortic valve, we aimed to assess (1) factors independently associated with increased long-term mortality and (2) the incremental prognostic utility of indexing aortic root to patient height. We studied consecutive patients with a dilated aortic root (≥4 cm) that underwent echocardiography and gated contrast-enhanced thoracic aortic computed tomography or magnetic resonance angiography between 2003 and 2007. A ratio of aortic root area over height was calculated (cm(2)/m) on tomography, and a cutoff of 10 cm(2)/m was chosen as abnormal, on the basis of previous reports. All-cause death was recorded. The cohort comprised 771 patients (63 years [interquartile range, 53-71], 87% men, 85% hypertension, 51% hyperlipidemia, 56% smokers). Inherited aortopathies, moderate to severe aortic regurgitation, and severe aortic stenosis were seen in 7%, 18%, and 2%, whereas 91% and 54% were on β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, respectively. Aortic root area/height ratio was ≥10 cm(2)/m in 24%. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons score and right ventricular systolic pressure were 3.3±3 and 31±7 mm Hg, respectively. At 7.8 years (interquartile range, 6.6-8.9), 280 (36%) patients underwent aortic surgery (76% within 1 year) and 130 (17%) died (1% in-hospital postoperative mortality). A lower proportion of patients in the surgical (versus nonsurgical) group died (13% versus 19%, Parea/height ratio (hazard ratio, 4.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.69-6.231) was associated with death, whereas aortic surgery (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27-0.81) was associated with improved survival (both Parea/height ratio ≥10 cm(2)/m to a clinical model (Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, inherited aortopathies, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, medications, aortic regurgitation, and right ventricular systolic pressure), increased the c-statistic from 0.57 (95% CI, 0.35-0.77) to 0.65 (95% CI, 0

  8. Impact of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Infant Growth: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies in Dioxin-Contaminated Areas in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Morikawa, Yuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother–infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants’ birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ) in breast milk. The infants’ size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (dioxin levels. Only in boys, cognitive, language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ. PMID:22815734

  9. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Luong, Hoang Van; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Morikawa, Yuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ) in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  10. Assessment of diabetes care and the healthcare system in economically and transport underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Linqiu; Zhang, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaoqian; Li, Shengyong; Yang, Wei; Tong, Nanwei

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the quality of diabetes care and characteristics of the healthcare system in underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 288 diabetic patients with a multistage cluster sampling method in Zhongjiang County (Sichuan Province) between October 2009 and April 2010. Sixty-two village clinics, 23 town health centers, and a county central hospital were included to assess the availability of diabetes-related medical resources, in addition to diabetes-related medical insurance, reimbursement policies, and manpower. Of 288 patients, 38.2 % monitored their blood glucose regularly. Targets for fasting blood glucose (≤7 mmol/L) and blood pressure (≤130/80 mmHg) were achieved by 7.6 % and 9.7 % of patients, respectively. On average, each patient paid US$120 out of pocket annually for out-patient diabetes care, with a maximum US$86 reimbursed. The county central hospital was the only healthcare facility in the county that could provide all essential diabetes-related drugs and process-of-care measures and tests, except measures of HbA1c and the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio. Insulin was not available at village clinics, and only 29 % of village clinics had glucometers. "Certified" doctors were not available to provide primary care in village clinics. The quality of diabetes care was quite poor in underdeveloped rural mountain areas of western China. Recommendations for further intervention research to improve diabetes healthcare include increasing investment in medical infrastructure, improving the availability of essential drugs and process measures, organizing regular diabetes patient education, and recruiting village doctors. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Exploring the Cross-sectional Association between Transit-Oriented Development Zoning and Active Travel and Transit Usage in the United States, 2010-2014

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    Emily eThrun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In response to traditional zoning codes that contribute to car-dependent, sprawling, and disconnected neighborhoods, communities are reforming their land use laws to create pedestrian-friendly areas that promote physical activity. One such reform is the adoption of transit-oriented developments or districts (TODs. TODs are higher-density, compact, mixed use areas located around transit stops that are designed to encourage walking.Purpose: To identify the characteristics of communities that have adopted TODs in their land use laws and examine if communities that have included TODs in their zoning codes are more likely to have adults that commute by any form of active transportation (i.e., walking, biking, or public transportation or by using public transportation specifically.Methods: Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were obtained for a purposeful sample of the largest 3,914 municipal jurisdictions located in 473 of the most populous US counties and consolidated cities within 48 states and the District of Columbia. They were evaluated to determine whether they included TOD districts or regulations using a coding tool developed by the study team. Descriptive statistics together with t-tests and Pearson’s chi-squared independence test were used to compare characteristics of jurisdictions with and without TOD zoning. Multivariate linear regressions were used to compute the adjusted association between TOD zoning and taking public or active transportation to work.Results: Jurisdictions with TOD zoning were located more in the South and West than non-TOD jurisdictions and were more populous, higher income, more racially diverse, and younger. Jurisdictions with TOD zoning had significantly higher percentages of occupied housing with no vehicle than those without TOD zoning. TOD zoning was associated with significantly higher rates of public transportation to work (β=2.10, 95% CI=0.88, 3.32 and active transportation to work (β=2.48, 95

  12. Trends in resource utilization by children with neurological impairment in the United States inpatient health care system: a repeat cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay G Berry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Care advances in the United States (US have led to improved survival of children with neurological impairment (NI. Children with NI may account for an increasing proportion of hospital resources. However, this assumption has not been tested at a national level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a study of 25,747,016 US hospitalizations of children recorded in the Kids' Inpatient Database (years 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006. Children with NI were identified with International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses resulting in functional and/or intellectual impairment. We assessed trends in inpatient resource utilization for children with NI with a Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test using all 4 y of data combined. Across the 4 y combined, children with NI accounted for 5.2% (1,338,590 of all hospitalizations. Epilepsy (52.2% [n = 538,978] and cerebral palsy (15.9% [n = 164,665] were the most prevalent NI diagnoses. The proportion of hospitalizations attributable to children with NI did not change significantly (p = 0.32 over time. In 2006, children with NI accounted for 5.3% (n = 345,621 of all hospitalizations, 13.9% (n = 3.4 million of bed days, and 21.6% (US$17.7 billion of all hospital charges within all hospitals. Over time, the proportion of hospitalizations attributable to children with NI decreased within non-children's hospitals (3.0% [n = 146,324] in 1997 to 2.5% [n = 113,097] in 2006, p<.001 and increased within children's hospitals (11.7% [n = 179,324] in 1997 to 13.5% [n = 209,708] in 2006, p<0.001. In 2006, children with NI accounted for 24.7% (2.1 million of bed days and 29.0% (US$12.0 billion of hospital charges within children's hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Children with NI account for a substantial proportion of inpatient resources utilized in the US. Their impact is growing within children's hospitals. We must ensure that the current health care system is staffed, educated, and equipped to

  13. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  14. Associations between Urinary Excretion of Cadmium and Renal Biomarkers in Nonsmoking Females: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Areas of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-rui Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the relationship between urinary excretion of cadmium (U-Cd and biomarkers of renal dysfunction. Methods: One hundred eighty five non-smoking female farmers (aged from 44 to 71 years were recruited from two rural areas with different cadmium levels of exposure in southern China. Morning spot urine samples were collected for detecting U-Cd, urinary creatinine (U-cre, β2-microglobulin (β2-MG, α1-microglobulin (α1-MG, metallothionein (MT, retinol binding protein (RBP, albumin (AB, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1. Spearman’s rank correlation was carried out to assess pairwise bivariate associations between continuous variables. Three different models of multiple linear regression (the cre-corrected, un-corrected and cre-adjusted model were used to model the dose-response relationships between U-Cd and nine urine markers. Results: Spearman’s rank correlation showed that NAG, ALP, RBP, β2-MG and MT were significantly associated with U-Cd for both cre-corrected and observed data. Generally, NAG correlated best with U-Cd among the nine biomarkers studied, followed by ALP and MT. In the un-corrected model and cre-adjusted model, the regression coefficients and R2 of nine biomarkers were larger than the corresponding values in the cre-corrected model, indicating that the use of observed data was better for investigating the relationship between biomarkers and U-Cd than cre-corrected data. Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAG, MT and ALP in urine were better biomarkers for long-term environmental cadmium exposure assessment among the nine biomarkers studied. Further, data without normalization with creatinine show better relationships between cadmium exposure and renal dysfunction.

  15. Association between ambient noise exposure and school performance of children living in an urban area: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Houot, Hélène; Petit, Rémy; Berthillier, Marc; Defrance, Jérôme; Lardies, Joseph; Masselot, Cyril; Mauny, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    Most of the studies investigating the effects of the external noise on children's school performance have concerned pupils in schools exposed to high levels due to aircraft or freeway traffic noise. However, little is known about the consequences of the chronic ambient noise exposure at a level commonly encountered in residential urban areas. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the school performance of 8- to 9-year-old-children living in an urban environment and their chronic ambient noise exposure at home and at school. The children's school performances on the national standardized assessment test in French and mathematics were compared with the environmental noise levels. Children's exposure to ambient noise was calculated in front of their bedrooms (Lden) and schools (LAeq,day) using noise prediction modeling. Questionnaires were distributed to the families to collect potential confounding factors. Among the 746 respondent children, 586 were included in multilevel analyses. On average, the LAeq,day at school was 51.5 dB (SD= 4.5 dB; range = 38-58 dB) and the outdoor Lden at home was 56.4 dB (SD= 4.4 dB; range = 44-69 dB). LAeq,day at school was associated with impaired mathematics score (p = 0.02) or impaired French score (p = 0.01). For a + 10 dB gap, the French and mathematics scores were on average lower by about 5.5 points. Lden at home was significantly associated with impaired French performance when considered alone (p school exposure was considered (p = 0.06). The magnitude of the observed effect on school performance may appear modest, but should be considered in light of the number of people who are potentially chronically exposed to similar environmental noise levels.

  16. 椎旁肌横截面积变化可导致退行性腰椎滑脱%Alterations in cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscle induce degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱康; 孙根文; 乔培柳; 塔依尔•阿不都哈德尔

    2014-01-01

    背景:近年来,关节突关节形态在退变性腰椎滑脱症发病中所起的作用是讨论的焦点,但多集中于关节角及骨关节炎 CT 表现的研究。有研究表明椎旁肌横截面积的变化被认为可能是退行性腰椎滑脱的病理学诊断的重要标志,但既往的研究由于样本量偏小、研究对象的年龄较小以及测量等诸多问题限制了其结论的准确性。  目的:观察退变性腰椎滑脱两侧椎旁肌的MRI影像学变化。  方法:采用回顾性研究方法,选取退行性腰椎滑脱的患者80例作为腰椎滑脱组,选取健康者80例作为对照组。应用Image J软件测量两组MRI T2加权像上L 3-5椎体下终板水平两侧竖脊肌和腰大肌的横截面积,并计算相关数据的比值。  结果与结论:与对照组相比,腰椎滑脱组同侧并同水平椎旁肌的横截面积比值增高(P0.05)。结果说明,椎旁肌横截面积的变化可导致退行性腰椎滑脱,可考虑其作为退行性腰椎滑脱的诊断标准。%BACKGROUND:Recently, the effects of lumbar facet joint morphology on the onset of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis have been a discussion point. However, the discussion mainly concerned CT manifestations of joint angle and osteoarthritis. Studies have shown that the changes in cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscle were considered as the essential marker for the pathological diagnosis of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, previous studies limited the accuracy of the conclusion due to smal sample size, young age, and measurement. OBJECTIVE:To observe changes in MRI images of bilateral paraspinal muscles after degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. METHODS:This study adopted the method of retrospective study, selected 80 cases of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis as lumbar spondylolisthesis group, and 80 healthy persons as control group. Image J software was utilized to measure cross-sectional

  17. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  18. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  19. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  20. Improved Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A new version is proposed for the universal empirical formula, EPAX, which describes fragmentation cross sections in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. The new version, EPAX 3, can be shown to yield cross sections that are in better agreement with experimental data for the most neutron-rich fragments than the previous version. At the same time, the very good agreement of EPAX 2 with data on the neutron-deficient side has been largely maintained. Comparison with measured cross sections show that the bulk of the data is reproduced within a factor of about 2, for cross sections down to the pico-barn range.

  1. Nucleon-XcJ Dissociation Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯又层; 许晓明; 周代翠

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon-XcJ dissociation cross sections are calculated in a constituent interexchange model in which quark-quark potential is derived from the Buchmüller-Tye quark-anti-quark potential. These new cross sections for dominant reaction channels depend on the centre-of-mass energy of the nucleon and the charmonium.

  2. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  3. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  4. Age, gender and normalization covariates for spinal cord gray matter and total cross-sectional areas at cervical and thoracic levels: A 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Papinutto

    Full Text Available The source of inter-subject variability and the influence of age and gender on morphometric characteristics of the spinal cord, such as the total cross-sectional area (TCA, the gray matter (GM and white matter (WM areas, currently remain under investigation. Understanding the effect of covariates such as age, gender, brain volumes, and skull- and vertebra-derived metrics on cervical and thoracic spinal cord TCA and GM areas in healthy subjects would be fundamental for exploring compartment specific changes in neurological diseases affecting the spinal cord. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T we investigated 32 healthy subjects using a 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery sequence and we measured TCA, GM and WM areas at 4 cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord. We assessed age and gender relationships of cord measures and explored associations between cord measures and a brain volumes and b skull- and vertebra-derived metrics. Age and gender had a significant effect on TCA, WM and GM areas (with women and elderly having smaller values than men and younger people respectively, but not on the GM area/TCA ratio. The total intracranial volume and C3 vertebra dimensions showed the highest correlations with cord measures. When used in multi-regression models, they reduced cord areas group variability by approximately a third. Age and gender influences on cord measures and normalization strategies here presented might be of use in the study of compartment specific changes in various neurological diseases affecting the spinal cord.

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with VIA positive result among clients screened at Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, south west area office, Jimma model clinic, Jimma, Ethiopia 2013: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deksissa, Zewdie Mulissa; Tesfamichael, Fessahaye Alemseged; Ferede, Henok Assefa

    2015-10-29

    Cervical cancer is the 2nd most frequent and top killer cancer among women in Ethiopia. Prevalence and factors associated with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) positive result is not studied yet at the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jimma model clinic of Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia, from September 11, 2013 to October 11, 2013. Pertinent data of 334 screened clients were transferred to Epidata version3.1 using checklist, double data entry verification done and exported to SPSS version16.0. After cleaning the data, descriptive analysis was done and logistic regression model employed to identify predictors of VIA positive result. Statistical significance was declared at P result. Initiation of sexual intercourse earlier than 16 years was found to be an independent predictor increasing the risk of VIA positive by 2.2 times as compared to clients who started at the age of 16 or more years (AOR [95% CI] = 2.2 [1.1, 4.3]). Early initiation of sexual intercourse was an independent predictor of VIA positive result in this study. Thus, any cervical cancer prevention and control effort at the study area should address the problem of early initiation of sexual intercourse.

  6. A Shadow Map Approach to Calculate Cross Section Area of Spacecraft%应用阴影图的航天器迎风面积计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成; 唐歌实; 李勰; 陈光明

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric drug must be fully taken into account for accuracy orbit determining of space-craft below 500 km. In this paper, a computer graphical approach based on the fundamental idea of shadow map is proposed to accurately calculate the cross section area of spacecraft. Firstly, the complex geometry surface of spacecraft is represented in the form of triangle grids, and the relative motion among spacecraft components is considered. Secondly, the shadow map algorithm is employed to project the spacecraft model onto a shadow plane, and then the cross section area can be found out by analysis the amount of shadow pixels in the shadow graph. The simulation and experiments are given to validate the proposed method and the results indicate that this method can deal with complex spacecrafts whose components have relative motion.%航天器轨道低于500 km时大气阻力影响显著,该阻力与航天器迎风面的面积成正比.对于复杂外形的航天器, 其迎风面积常常进行近似处理, 会对阻力分析结果带来一定误差. 针对航天器迎风面积对大气阻力的影响, 提出一种复杂航天器迎风面积的精确计算方法. 该方法同时考虑航天器几何外形和部件运动, 根据活动部件的实际运动状态对复杂外形和结构进行精细三维建模; 利用图形学中的实时阴影生成方法产生航天器在投影面的阴影图像, 进一步分析得到航天器的迎风面积. 该方法易于实现, 能处理复杂外形航天器及其活动部件的运动, 具有较好的通用性. 将文中方法应用到我国航天测控任务中, 证明了该方法的有效性.

  7. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  8. Long Memory, Fractional Integration, and Cross-Sectional Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Vera-Valdés, Eduardo

    It is commonly argued that observed long memory in time series variables can result from cross-sectional aggregation of dynamic heterogeneous micro units. For instance, Granger (1980) demonstrated that aggregation of AR(1) processes with a Beta distributed AR coefficient can exhibit long memory...

  9. Computer Simulation of Blast Waves in a Tunnel with Sudden Decrease in Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Neuscamman, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-22

    The case of an explosion in a tunnel where the blast wave encounters a sudden decrease in cross section is studied with quasi-one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional axisymmetric codes (2D) and the results are compared to experimental data. It is found that the numerical results from both codes are in good agreement until the interface at the change in cross section is encountered. Thereafter, however, the peak pressure derived with the codes is found to be significantly higher than the experimental results although the agreement between the 2D result and the experiment improves with increasing distance down the tunnel. Peak pressure and impulse per unit area obtained downstream of the interface with the 1D analysis are found to be substantially higher than with either the experiment or the 2D results. The reason for this is the time delay for the shock reflecting off the (vertical) rigid wall between the inner and outer tunnel radii to interact with the (supersonic) core flow into the decreased cross section. In the 1D case the reflected and transmitted shocks are formed instantaneously across the entire cross section resulting in higher pressure and increased shock speed downstream of the interface.

  10. A cross-sectional study of correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression in the adolescents from a rural area of Sangli district in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Baliram Waghachavare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%, 193 (19.4% and 326 (32.7% participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004 and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P < 0.001 were significant predictors for depression. Conclusions: Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents.

  11. Lower insulin sensitivity is related to lower relative muscle cross-sectional area, lower muscle density and lower handgrip force in young and middle aged non-diabetic men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysel, T.; Tonoli, C.; Pardaens, S.; Cambier, D.; Kaufman, J-M.; Zmierczak, H-G.; Goemaere, S.; Lapauw, B.; Calders, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated whether an association between insulin resistance (IR) and muscle parameters is appreciable in young healthy men, independent of obesity. Furthermore, markers of muscle metabolism and hormones/possible determinants, were explored. Methods: 358 healthy young men were divided into a less and more insulin sensitive (LIS [age=33.2±5.4, BMI=23.4±2.3] and MIS [age=35.5±5.3, BMI=28.1±3.7]) group based on upper and lower quartile of HOMA-IR. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), -density, handgrip force, serum testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, Vitamin 25(OH)D, creatinine, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and leptin levels were compared between these groups, correcting for differences in age, physical activity and fat mass. Correlations between HOMA-IR and these parameters, and between muscle measures and biochemical parameters, were calculated. Results: LIS is related to lower relative muscle CSA, muscle density, muscle/fat CSA ratio, relative handgrip force and level of physical activity. Furthermore, lower levels in SHBG, testosterone, Vitamin 25(OH)D and higher leptin, IGF-1 & IGFBP-3 levels were observed in LIS. Bio available T, FT, TE2, FE2, bioavailable E2, serum and urinary creatinine levels did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Differences in muscle performance are already present in healthy men with lower insulin sensitivity and could be possibly modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27973382

  12. Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. 3. In vivo ultrasonographic assessment of the cross-sectional area and echogenicity of the superficial digital flexor tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, N R; Rogers, C W; Firth, E C; Anderson, B H

    2004-10-01

    To determine if the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of young Thoroughbred horses changed in size and echogenicity in association with early race training. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and echogenicity were determined ultrasonographically at five levels of the SDFT of the forelimbs of 2-year-old fillies (n=14), corresponding to 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 cm distal to the accessory carpal bone (DACB). Measurements were made before and after a 13-week period in which a trained group of seven horses was compared with another group of seven untrained horses. Level below the accessory carpal bone had a significant effect on CSA and Level 8 was smaller than all other levels except Level 12, while Level 12 was smaller than Levels 4 and 20 but not different from Levels 8 and 16. There was a significant interaction between level and time due to effects observed at Level 8. The CSA at Level 8 measured pre-training was different from that of Levels 4 and 20 in both pre- and post-training groups (pmaturity may play a role in limiting this increase.

  13. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  14. Differential cross sections of positron hydrogen collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于荣梅; 濮春英; 黄晓玉; 殷复荣; 刘旭焱; 焦利光; 周雅君

    2016-01-01

    We make a detailed study on the angular differential cross sections of positron–hydrogen collisions by using the momentum-space coupled-channels optical (CCO) method for incident energies below the H ionization threshold. The target continuum and the positronium (Ps) formation channels are included in the coupled-channels calculations via a complex equivalent-local optical potential. The critical points, which show minima in the differential cross sections, as a function of the scattering angle and the incident energy are investigated. The resonances in the angular differential cross sections are reported for the first time in this energy range. The effects of the target continuum and the Ps formation channels on the different cross sections are discussed.

  15. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Systematics of (n,2n) Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The experimental data of (n, 2n) cross sections were collected and evaluated as complete as possible. There are 640 sets of experimental data for 130 nuclei. The data were fitted to the expressions that describe the

  17. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  18. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenfang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76. Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and

  19. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  20. Total Cross Sections for Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.; Weppner, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of neutron total cross-sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross-sections for neutron scattering from $^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca are calculated as a function of energy from $50-700$~MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although ...

  1. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  2. Modified Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, K

    2000-01-01

    New experimental data obtained mainly at the GSI/FRS facility allow to modify the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX. It will be shown that minor modifications of the parameters lead to a much better reproduction of measured cross sections. The most significant changes refer to the description of fragmentation yields close to the projectile and of the memory effect of neutron-deficient projectiles.

  3. Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

  4. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermience, Michael; Mathieu, Françoise; Li, Xiao Wei; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Claus, William; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Dufourny, Ghislaine; Bin, Li; Yangzom, Dechen; Lognay, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R.), and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se) involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013). Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution. PMID:28257043

  5. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  6. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dermience

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R., and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD. However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013. Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution.

  7. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Wirth

    Full Text Available Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  8. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  9. NURSE STAFFING AND MEDICATION ERRORS: CROSS SECTIONAL OR LONGITUDINAL RELATIONSHIPS?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We used autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) modeling to examine the relationship between change in nurse staffing and change in medication errors over 6 months in 284 general medical-surgical nursing units. We also investigated the impact of select hospital and nursing unit characteristics on the baseline level and rate of change in medication errors. We found essentially no support for a nurse staffing – medication error relationship either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Few hospita...

  10. Acute non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears are associated with relatively increased vastus medialis to semimembranosus cross-sectional area ratio: a case-control retrospective MR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieschhoff, Ged G; Mandell, Jacob C; Czuczman, Gregory J; Nikac, Violeta; Shah, Nehal; Smith, Stacy E

    2017-07-15

    Hamstring muscle deficiency is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vastus medialis to semimembranosus cross-sectional area (VM:SM CSA) ratio on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with ACL tears compared to controls. One hundred knee MRIs of acute ACL tear patients and 100 age-, sex-, and side-matched controls were included. Mechanism of injury, contact versus non-contact, was determined for each ACL tear subject. The VM:SM CSA was measured on individual axial slices with a novel method using image-processing software. One reader measured all 200 knees and the second reader measured 50 knees at random to assess inter-reader variability. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to evaluate for correlation between readers. T-tests were performed to evaluate for differences in VM:SM CSA ratios between the ACL tear group and control group. The ICC for agreement between the two readers was 0.991 (95% confidence interval 0.984-0.995). Acute ACL tear patients have an increased VM:SM CSA ratio compared to controls (1.44 vs. 1.28; p = 0.005). Non-contact acute ACL tear patients have an increased VM:SM CSA ratio compared to controls (1.48 vs. 1.20; p = 0.003), whereas contact acute ACL tear patients do not (1.23 vs. 1.26; p = 0.762). Acute non-contact ACL tears are associated with increased VM:SM CSA ratios, which may imply a relative deficiency in hamstring strength. This study also demonstrates a novel method of measuring the relative CSA of muscles on MRI.

  11. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Shota; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  12. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  13. The immutability of the critical current under any sample cross-sectional form modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogolyubov, N.A. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Lavrent' eva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: bna@che.nsk.su

    2008-11-24

    The temperature and size dependences of the critical currents in bismuth-based high-temperature superconducting ceramic samples consisting of randomly oriented grains have been studied in zero magnetic field. It is shown that the critical current is a function of the sample cross-sectional area only. At constant sample cross-sectional area the value of the critical current is independent of any variation of a sample cross-sectional shape. At the same time the distributions of the critical current density and induced magnetic field in ceramics are functions of the sample cross-sectional shape. These values very in accordance with a change of the sample cross-sectional shape (at constant cross-sectional area i.e. at constant value of the critical current). The field and current distributions in the rectangular sample are reported.

  14. Correlations between the cross-sectional area and moment arm length of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle as measured by MRI and the body mass index in lumbar degenerative kyphosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Ho [Busan Wooridul Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flatback syndrome, which is a condition caused by spinal degeneration. LDK is reported to be the most frequent cause of lumbar spine deformity in the farming districts of the 'oriental' countries. We investigated the relationship between the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the moment arm length (MAL) of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle (PT) and the body mass index (BMI) by performing statistical analysis, and we tried to show the crucial role of these variables for diagnosing LDK. From July 2004 to April 2005, we retrospectively reviewed 17 LDK patients who had undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with posterior stabilization. We measured both the CSA and MAL on the transverse cross-sectional MR image of the trunk at the fourth to fifth vertebrae (L4/5). The MAL was defined as the anterior-posterior distance between the center of the erector spinae muscle and that of the vertebral body. A comparative study was undertaken between the LDK group and the matched (according to age and gender) control group with regard to the CSA, MAL, PT and BMI. The 17 LDK patients were all females [age: 62.5 {+-} 4.93 years, height: 157 {+-} 6.19 cm, weight: 55.59 {+-} 4.7 kg, and BMI: 22.58 {+-} 2.08 kg/m{sup 2}]. The control group patients were all female [age: 63.6 {+-} 2.27 years, height: 156 {+-} 5.05 cm, weight: 59.65 {+-} 7.39 kg and BMI: 24.38 {+-} 2.94 kg/m{sup 2}]. Spearman's rho indicated a positive association between the CSA and BMI (rho = 0.49, {rho} = 0.046), between the MAL and BMI (rho = 0.808, {rho} = 0.000) and between the CSA and PT (rho = 0.566, {rho} = 0.018) in the LDK patients. In terms of the CSA versus MAL, there was a positive association in both groups (rho = 0.67, {rho} = 0.000, MAL = 0.023CSA + 5.454 in the LDK group; rho = 0.564, {rho} 0.018, MAL = 0.02CSA + 5.832 in the control group with using linear regression analysis). Independent

  15. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  16. Reaction cross section of 22C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  17. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Derrick, Malcolm; Magill, S; Mikunas, D; Musgrave, B; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Talaga, R L; Zhang, H; Ayad, R; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, P; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Chiarini, M; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Nemoz, C; Palmonari, F; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Timellini, R; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, Antonino; Bargende, A; Crittenden, James Arthur; Desch, Klaus; Diekmann, B; Doeker, T; Eckert, M; Feld, L; Frey, A; Geerts, M; Geitz, G; Grothe, M; Haas, T; Hartmann, H; Haun, D; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Katz, U F; Mari, S M; Mass, A; Mengel, S; Mollen, J; Paul, E; Rembser, C; Schattevoy, R; Schramm, D; Stamm, J; Wedemeyer, R; Campbell-Robson, S; Cassidy, A; Dyce, N; Foster, B; George, S; Gilmore, R; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Llewellyn, T J; Morgado, C J S; Norman, D J P; O'Mara, J A; Tapper, R J; Wilson, S S; Yoshida, R; Rau, R R; Arneodo, M; Iannotti, L; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Bernstein, A M; Caldwell, A; Cartiglia, N; Parsons, J A; Ritz, S; Sciulli, F; Straub, P B; Wai, L; Yang, S; Zhu, Q; Borzemski, P; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Piotrzkowski, K; Zachara, M; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Zajac, J; Kotanski, Andrzej; Przybycien, M B; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Beier, H; Bienlein, J K; Coldewey, C; Deppe, O; Desler, K; Drews, G; Flasinski, M; Gilkinson, D J; Glasman, C; Göttlicher, P; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gutjahr, B; Hain, W; Hasell, D; Hessling, H; Hultschig, H; Iga, Y; Joos, P; Kasemann, M; Klanner, Robert; Koch, W; Köpke, L; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Labs, J; Ladage, A; Löhr, B; Loewe, M; Lüke, D; Manczak, O; Ng, J S T; Nickel, S; Notz, D; Ohrenberg, K; Roco, M T; Rohde, M; Roldán, J; Schneekloth, U; Schulz, W; Selonke, F; Stiliaris, E; Surrow, B; Voss, T; Westphal, D; Wolf, G; Youngman, C; Zhou, J F; Grabosch, H J; Kharchilava, A I; Leich, A; Mattingly, M C K; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Wulff, N; Barbagli, G; Pelfer, P G; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Maccarrone, G D; De Pasquale, S; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Eisenhardt, S; Freidhof, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Schröder, J; Trefzger, T M; Brook, N H; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Fleck, I; Saxon, D H; Utley, M L; Wilson, A S; Dannemann, A; Holm, U; Horstmann, D; Neumann, T; Sinkus, R; Wick, K; Badura, E; Burow, B D; Hagge, L; Lohrmann, E; Mainusch, J; Milewski, J; Nakahata, M; Pavel, N; Poelz, G; Schott, W; Zetsche, F; Bacon, Trevor C; Butterworth, Ian; Gallo, E; Harris, V L; Hung, B Y H; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Morawitz, P P O; Prinias, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Whitfield, A F; Mallik, U; McCliment, E; Wang, M Z; Wang, S M; Wu, J T; Zhang, Y; Cloth, P; Filges, D; An Shiz Hong; Hong, S M; Nam, S W; Park, S K; Suh, M H; Yon, S H; Imlay, R; Kartik, S; Kim, H J; McNeil, R R; Metcalf, W; Nadendla, V K; Barreiro, F; Cases, G; Graciani, R; Hernández, J M; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Puga, J; Terrón, J; De Trocóniz, J F; Smith, G R; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Hartmann, J; Hung, L W; Lim, J N; Matthews, C G; Patel, P M; Sinclair, L E; Stairs, D G; Saint-Laurent, M G; Ullmann, R T; Zacek, G; Bashkirov, V; Dolgoshein, B A; Stifutkin, A; Bashindzhagian, G L; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Golubkov, Yu A; Kobrin, V D; Kuzmin, V A; Proskuryakov, A S; Savin, A A; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Zotov, N P; Botje, M; Chlebana, F S; Dake, A P; Engelen, J; De Kamps, M; Kooijman, P M; Kruse, A; Tiecke, H G; Verkerke, W; Vreeswijk, M; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Van Woudenberg, R; Acosta, D; Bylsma, B G; Durkin, L S; Honscheid, K; Li Chuan; Ling, T Y; McLean, K W; Murray, W N; Park, I H; Romanowsky, T A; Seidlein, R; Bailey, D S; Blair, G A; Byrne, A; Cashmore, Roger J; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Daniels, D C; Devenish, R C E; Harnew, N; Lancaster, M; Luffman, P; Lindemann, L; McFall, J D; Nath, C; Noyes, V A; Quadt, A; Uijterwaal, H; Walczak, R; Wilson, F F; Yip, T; Abbiendi, G; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; De Giorgi, M; Dosselli, U; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Bulmahn, J; Butterworth, J M; Feild, R G; Oh, B Y; Whitmore, J; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Tassi, E; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Prytz, K; Shah, T P; Short, T L; Barberis, E; Dubbs, T; Heusch, C A; Van Hook, M; Hubbard, B; Lockman, W; Rahn, J T; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Biltzinger, J; Seifert, R J; Walenta, Albert H; Zech, G; Abramowicz, H; Briskin, G M; Dagan, S; Levy, A; Hasegawa, T; Hazumi, M; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Mine, S; Nagasawa, Y; Nakao, M; Susuki, I; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Chiba, M; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Homma, K; Kitamura, S; Nakamitsu, Y; Yamauchi, K; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Lamberti, L; Maselli, S; Peroni, C; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Bandyopadhyay, D; Bénard, F; Brkic, M; Crombie, M B; Gingrich, D M; Hartner, G F; Joo, K K; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Sampson, C R; Teuscher, R; Catterall, C D; Jones, T W; Kaziewicz, P B; Lane, J B; Saunders, R L; Shulman, J; Blankenship, K; Kochocki, J A; Lu, B; Mo, L W; Bogusz, W; Charchula, K; Ciborowski, J; Gajewski, J; Grzelak, G; Kasprzak, M; Krzyzanowski, M; Muchorowski, K; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Eisenberg, Y; Karshon, U; Revel, D; Zer-Zion, D; Ali, I; Badgett, W F; Behrens, B H; Dasu, S; Fordham, C; Foudas, C; Goussiou, A; Loveless, R J; Reeder, D D; Silverstein, S; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wodarczyk, M; Tsurugai, T; Bhadra, S; Cardy, M L; Fagerstroem, C P; Frisken, W R; Furutani, K M; Khakzad, M; Schmidke, W B; Levy, A

    1995-01-01

    Dijet production by almost real photons has been studied at HERA with the ZEUS detector. Jets have been identified using the cone algorithm. A cut on xg, the fraction of the photon energy participating in the production of the two jets of highest transverse energy, is used to define cross sections sensitive to the parton distributions in the proton and in the photon. The dependence of the dijet cross sections on pseudorapidity has been measured for xg \\ge 0.75 and xg < 0.75. The former is sensitive to the gluon momentum density in the proton. The latter is sensitive to the gluon in the photon. The cross sections are corrected for detector acceptance and compared to leading order QCD calculations.

  18. Photodisintegration Cross Section of 241Am

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Hammond, S.; Howell, C. R.; Huibregtse, C.; Hutcheson, A.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2009-03-01

    The photodisintegration cross section of radioactive 241Am has been obtained for the first time using monoenergetic γ-ray beams from the HIγS facility. The induced activity of 240Am produced via the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the γ-ray energy range from 9.5 to 16 MeV was measured by the activation technique utilizing high resolution HPGe detectors. The 241Am(γ,n) cross section was determined both by measuring the absolute γ-ray flux and by comparison to the 197Au(γ,n) and 58Ni(γ,n) cross section standards. The experimental data for the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the giant dipole resonance energy region is compared with statistical nuclear-model calculations.

  19. Calculating Cross Sections of Composite Interstellar Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Voshchinnikov, N V; Voshchinnikov, Nikolai V.; Mathis, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Interstellar grains may be composite collections of particles of distinct materials, including voids, agglomerated together. We determine the various optical cross sections of such composite grains, given the optical properties of each constituent, using an approximate model of the composite grain. We assume it consists of many concentric spherical layers of the various materials, each with a specified volume fraction. In such a case the usual Mie theory can be generalized and the extinction, scattering, and other cross sections determined exactly. We find that the ordering of the materials in the layering makes some difference to the derived cross sections, but averaging over the various permutations of the order of the materials provides rapid convergence as the number of shells (each of which is filled by all of the materials proportionately to their volume fractions) is increased. Three shells, each with one layer of a particular constituent material, give a very satisfactory estimate of the average cross...

  20. The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Barva, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Villella, I.; Xu, G

    2005-07-15

    KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) at the electron-positron collider DA{phi}NE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section {sigma}(e{sup +}e{sup -}->{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) for the mass range 0.35

  1. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  2. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  3. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for Enwell with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  4. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  5. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Umesh R; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of

  6. Was there a disparity in age appropriate infant immunization uptake in the theatre of war in the North of Sri Lanka at the height of the hostilities?: a cross-sectional study in resettled areas in the Kilinochchi district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran Ananthan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was long speculated that there could be under-immunized pockets in the war affected Northern part of Sri Lanka relative to other areas. With the cessation of hostilities following the military suppression of the rebellion, opportunities have arisen to appraise the immunization status of children in areas of re-settlement in former war ravaged districts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the coverage and age appropriateness of infant vaccinations in a former conflict district during the phase of re-settlement. The target population comprised all children of re-settled families in the age group of 12 – 23 months in the district. We selected a study sample of 300 children from among the target population using the WHO’s 30 cluster EPI survey method. Trained surveyors collected data using a structured checklist. The infant vaccination status was ascertained by reviewing vaccination records in the Child Health Development Record or any other alternative documentary evidence. Results The survey revealed that the proportion of fully vaccinated children in the district was 91%. For individual vaccines, it ranged from 92% (measles to 100% (BCG, DPT/OPV1. However, the age appropriateness of vaccination was less than 50% for all antigens except for BCG (94%. The maximum number of days of delay of vaccinations ranged from 21 days for BCG to 253 days for measles. Age appropriate vaccination rates significantly differed for DPT/OPV1-3 and measles during the conflict and post-conflict stages while it did not for the BCG. Age appropriate vaccination rates were significantly higher for DPT/OPV1-3 during the conflict while for the measles it was higher in the post conflict stage. Conclusions Though the vaccination coverage for infant vaccines in the war affected Kilinochchi district was similar to other districts in the country, it masked a disparity in terms of low age-appropriateness of infant immunizations

  7. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh R. Aryal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October–November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14–16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results: The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46–4.24, the teacher (2.45; 1.28–4.68, adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13–4.04, and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05–2.95. Conclusions: Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors

  8. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Umesh R.; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October–November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14–16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46–4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28–4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13–4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05–2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on

  9. Cross-sectional imaging patterns of desmoplastic fibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.; Wildberger, J.E.; Guenther, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Wirtz, D.C. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, University Hospital, University of Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to work out the cross-sectional imaging characteristics of desmoplastic fibroma (DF). In 3 patients with histologically proven DF, the imaging characteristics obtained with cross-sectional techniques were reviewed retrospectively. Radiographs and CT scans were available in all patients, and plain and contrast-enhanced MR examinations in 2 patients. Compared with conventional radiographs, CT allowed more accurate assessment of the extent of bone destruction including cortical breakthrough and articular invasion. Intramedullary tumor growth and soft tissue extension was best detected with MRI. Apart from heterogeneity on MR images, DF displayed nonspecific low signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images and an intermediate to high signal intensity including areas of low intensity on T2-weighted images. Desmoplastic fibroma showed a distinct, inhomogeneous gadolinium enhancement. Although cross-sectional imaging features of DF are nonspecific, some MR characteristics, such as inhomogeneous contrast enhancement and the presence of low-intensity regions on T2-weighted images, are helpful in determining the differential diagnosis. Cross-sectional imaging of DF is useful for local staging of the tumor because it provides valuable information about the extent of bone destruction as well as medullary and extraosseous spread. (orig.)

  10. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  11. Top Quark Production Cross Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sectionsinproton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association witha W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  12. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production crosssection of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  13. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  14. Power corrections in eikonal cross sections

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    We discuss power corrections associated with the infrared behavior of the perturbative running coupling in the eikonal approximation to Drell-Yan and other annihilation cross sections in hadron-hadron scattering. General properties of the eikonal approximation imply that only even powers of the energy scale are necessary.

  15. Near-Field Cross Section Imaging of Wideband Millimeter Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Yingzhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Near-field millimeter wave imaging has been a hot topic recent years for its importance applications in the area of anti-terrorism. The penetrating characteristic of millimeter wave is of significant importance to security, such as the concealed weapons detection, ground-penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging and so on. Cross section imaging is a basic aspect for near-field millimeter wave imaging, which includes antenna array distribution and wideband signal processing. This paper utilizes back projection method in space area to realize ultra-band nearfield cross section imaging. We induce two dimensional direction integral formulas to obtain the reconstruction image of the near-field imaging area, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness of this imaging algorithm.

  16. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AND DIABETES AMONG OBESE AND NON OBESE PERSONS, IN ABOVE 40 YEARS AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA OF CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hubbe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT : Obesity is increasing in the developed as well as developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is on the rise among the slum population. Increased incidence of vis ceral adiposity, hypertension, n on insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM and coron ary heart disease often cluster in the same individual and there have been speculations that a common mechanism may be responsible for all these pathological conditions. This risk factor constellation, which is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiova scular disease, is referred to as “Syndrome X . AIMS : To assess the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among obese and non obese in above 40 years age group in a slum area of Chennai. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Urban slum in Chennai, Cross sectional study . MATERIALS AND METHODS : P r esent study was undertaken in a s lum in Chennai in persons above 4 0 years age group . One slum was selected randomly and the households in the slum were sampled by a systematic random sampling method. A pre - designed and pre - tested questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the socio - demographic profile, the diet pattern , the intake of non - vegetarian and oily foods , past history of hypertension and diabetes . Anthropometric data regarding height and weight was taken to assess body mass index (BMI , blood pressure was checked using mercury column sphygmomanometer and blood gluco se level b y G lucometer. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : The prevalence was expressed in percentage and the Chi square test was used to find association with the factors. RESULTS : The prevalence of obesity was 13.66% and of overweight was 27.72%. The prevalence of Hy pertension among obese was 39.13%, pre obese 32.39% and non obese 24.93%. The prevalence of Dia betes among obese was 28.98%, pre obese 19.71% and non obese 15.34%. CONCLUSION : There is a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among the urban slum dwellers. The prevalence of

  17. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiao-Di [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Qian, Zhengmin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Vaughn, Michael G. [School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Trevathan, Edwin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Emo, Brett [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Paul, Gunther [Facuty of Health, School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Ren, Wan-Hui [Department of Ambient Air Pollution Monitor, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hao, Yuan-Tao [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: donggh5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Background: Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China. Methods: We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25–29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m{sup 2}, respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15–1.47 for stroke, 1.33–1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22–1.35 for stroke, 1.07–1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98–1.01 for stroke, 0.93–1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality

  18. VELOCITY AND CONCENTRATION OF BUBBLES IN OZONIZATION COLUMNS WITH CROSS SECTIONS OF DIFFERENT SIZES

    OpenAIRE

    Salla, Marcio Ricardo; Vieira Soares,Leonardo; Alamy Filho,José Eduardo; Daniel,Luiz Antonio; Schulz, Harry Edmar

    2008-01-01

    The size of the cross section of an ozonization column influences its hydrodynamic characteristics, which, on its turn, has effects on phenomena that depend on the relative movement between gas bubbles and liquid. To observe the influence of the cross sectional area on gas concentration and bubbles velocity, two columns were used. The first column had a square cross section with side of 0.19m and the second had a circular cross section with diameter of 0.10 m. The ascendant velocities of the ...

  19. (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  20. nxs a program library for neutron cross section calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boin, M.

    2012-01-01

    A collection of routines for calculating neutron scattering and absorption cross sections on the basis of crystal structure descriptions is presented and implemented in the new and reusable nxs program library. An example program providing a graphical user interface to the nxs functions is created to demonstrate their usage. The flexibility of the library and the possibilities for multiple areas of application are shown by further examples involving Monte Carlo neutron simulations concerned ...

  1. Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Giannaka, P G

    2015-01-01

    In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  2. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  3. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  4. Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.

    1997-03-01

    Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)

  5. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, M. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  6. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C. [Universita di Torino and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  7. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  8. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  9. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-04-15

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-next-to-leading order. (orig.)

  10. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, Inna [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    At high collision energies accessible at ep collider HERA hard hadronic jets can be produced. At leading order, at low virtualities of the exchanged photon, two processes contribute to the jet production. In the direct photon process an almost real photon interacts as a point-like particle with a parton of the proton. In contrast in resolved processes the photon fluctuates to an hadronic state. The measurements of the jet production give an important information about the structure of the photon and the proton. Dijet cross sections have been measured in the reaction ep{yields} e+jet+jet+X with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 189 pb{sup -1}. Differential cross sections are presented as functions of average jet transverse energy and presudorapidity for dijet events with E{sub T}{sup jet1} > 21 GeV, E{sub T}{sup jet2} > 17 GeV, -1 < {eta}{sup jet1(2)} < 3 for {gamma}p centre-of-mass energies in range 142 < W{sub {gamma}p} < 293 GeV and photon virtuality Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}. In addition, the dijet cross section was measured as a function of the fraction of the incoming photon momentum taken by the dijet system. The dijet cross sections were also measured as functions of the dijet invariant mass, M{sub jj} and scattering angle in the dijet centre-of-mass system for E{sub T}{sup jet1(2)} > 17 GeV, -1 < {eta}{sup jet1(2)} < 3 and M{sub jj} > 60 GeV. Next-to-leading order calculations give a good description of the measurements. These measurements can be used to further constraint the gluon component of the proton parton density function at medium to high x.

  11. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  12. MCNPX Simulations for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Tesinsky, Milan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents MCNPX simulations of the SCANDAL set-up used at the Theodor Svedberg Laboratory for neutron scattering cross-section measurements. The thesis describes processes and data important for the upcoming off-line data analysis. In the experiment, neutrons scattered off the target are converted to protons which are stopped in scintillator crystals. The results of presented simulations include a description of the proton spectra in dependence of the neutron-to-proton conversion a...

  13. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification in a lith......Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....

  14. Inelastic cross section measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bindi, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The dependence of the rate of proton–proton interactions on the centre-of-mass collision energy, √s, is of fundamental importance for both hadron collider physics and particle astrophysics. The dependence cannot yet be calculated from first principles; therefore, experimental measurements are needed. Here we present the first measurements of the inelastic proton–proton interaction cross-section at a centre-of-mass energy, √s, of 7 TeV using the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the Large Hadron Collider. For ATLAS the events are selected by requiring hits on scintillation counters mounted in the forward region of the detector. An inelastic cross-section of 60.3 ± 2.1 mb is measured for ξ > 5×10−6, where ξ is calculated from the invariant mass, MX, of hadrons selected using the largest rapidity gap in the event. For diffractive events, this corresponds to requiring at least one of the dissociation masses to be larger than 15.7 GeV. For CMS a new method to measure the inelastic pp cross section ha...

  15. Active-beam cross-sectional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Ortega-Morales, Miguel

    2000-06-01

    A finite-element based analysis for modeling active composite beams with embedded anisotropic actuation is presented. It is derived from three-dimensional electroelasticity, where the original problem is reduced via the variational asymptotic method. The resulting cross-sectional analysis takes into consideration passive and active anisotropic and nonhomogeneous materials, and represents general (thin-walled, thick-walled, solid) cross-sectional geometries. The formulation requires neither the costly use of 3-D finite element discretization nor the loss of accuracy inherent to any simplified representation of the cross section. The developed formulation is numerically implemented in VABS-A, and several numerical and experimental tests cases are used to support validation of the proposed theory. Also, the effect of the presence of a core in originally hallow configurations is presented and counter-intuitive conclusions are discussed. The generality of the method and accuracy of the results increase confidence at the design stage that the active beam structure will perform as expected and, consequently, should lower costs from experimental tests and further adjustments.

  16. Regional cross section program for Illinois basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treworgy, J.D.; Whitaker, S.T. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (USA))

    1989-08-01

    For the first time, the Illinois State Geological Survey will publish a network of regional cross sections portraying the structural and stratigraphic framework of the entire Illinois basin. The network of 16 structural cross sections radiating outward from the Union Oil 1 Cisne Community well (Sec. 3, T1N, 7E, Wayne County, Illinois) will consist of wireline logs showing formation boundaries and gross lithofacies of the entire stratigraphic column for over 140 wells. Indiana and Kentucky portions of the network will be prepared in conjunction with their respective state geological surveys. Wireline logs are being digitized and stored to allow reproduction of log curves at different scales and in various combinations. Initial cross sections will be published at a vertical scale of 1 in. = 400 ft and a horizontal scale of 1 in. = 8 mi (1:500,000). To assure the most accurate structural and lithologic portrayals possible, numerous wireline logs are being examined in addition to the 140 illustrated on the sections. Available seismic data, sample and core descriptions, and existing structure, isopach, and facies maps are also being used. Text describing the sections will be included on each sheet. Topics will cover a brief history of deposition and structural evolution, distribution of source rocks, reservoir rocks and seals, and significant fields and plays.

  17. New cross sections for H on H2 collisional transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qianxia

    The cross section for H on H2 collisions is important for astrophysics as well as our understanding of the simple chemical systems. This is the simplest atom-molecule cross section. With a new H3 potential surface by Mielke et al., we have modified the ABC code by Skouteris, Castillo and Manolopoulos to calculate new cross sections. These cross sections are compared to previous cross section calculations.

  18. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  19. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  1. Automatic Computation of Cross Sections in HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Yuasa, F; Ishikawa, T; Jimbo, M; Kaneko, T; Kato, K; Kawabata, S; Kon, T; Kurihara, Y; Kuroda, M; Nakazawa, N; Shimizu, Y; Tanaka, H

    2000-01-01

    For the study of reactions in High Energy Physics (HEP) automatic computation systems have been developed and are widely used nowadays. GRACE is one of such systems and it has achieved much success in analyzing experimental data. Since we deal with the cross section whose value can be given by calculating hundreds of Feynman diagrams, we manage the large scale calculation, so that effective symbolic manipulation, the treat of singularity in the numerical integration are required. The talk will describe the software design of GRACE system and computational techniques in the GRACE.

  2. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  3. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  4. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I M

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  5. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, M B; Arendse, G J; Cowley, A A; Richter, W A; Lawrie, J J; Newman, R T; Pilcher, J V; Smit, F D; Steyn, G F; Koen, J W; Stander, J A

    1999-01-01

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  6. Multicollinearity in cross-sectional regressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen; Mur, Jesùs

    2006-10-01

    The paper examines robustness of results from cross-sectional regression paying attention to the impact of multicollinearity. It is well known that the reliability of estimators (least-squares or maximum-likelihood) gets worse as the linear relationships between the regressors become more acute. We resolve the discussion in a spatial context, looking closely into the behaviour shown, under several unfavourable conditions, by the most outstanding misspecification tests when collinear variables are added to the regression. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed. The conclusions point to the fact that these statistics react in different ways to the problems posed.

  7. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Top cross section measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present a measurement of the top-quark pair-production in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider using the full 2010 data sample. The cross sections are measured in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels. This is a 15 minute talk (+ 6min discussion) to be given at "DIS2011" Workshop , Newport News, VA USA. The conference starts on April 11, 2011. The talk is scheduled for April 13, 2011.

  9. Monostatic radar cross section of flying wing delta planforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevoor Meenakshisundaram Vaitheeswaran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of the flying wing and its variants shapes continues to have a profound influence in the design of the current and future use of military aircraft. There is very little in the open literature available to the understanding and by way of comparison of the radar cross section of the different wing planforms, for obvious reasons of security and sensitivity. This paper aims to provide an insight about the radar cross section of the various flying wing planforms that would aid the need and amount of radar cross section suppression to escape detection from surveillance radars. Towards this, the shooting and bouncing ray method is used for analysis. In this, the geometric optics theory is first used for launching and tracing the electromagnetic rays to calculate the electromagnetic field values as the waves bounce around the target. The physical optics theory is next used to calculate the final scattered electric field using the far field integration along the observation direction. For the purpose of comparison, all the planform shapes are assumed to be having the same area, and only the aspect ratio and taper ratio are varied to feature representative airplanes.

  10. Catalyst shape engineering for anisotropic cross-sectioned nanowire growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Kelrich, Alexander; Cohen, Shimon; Ritter, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer material properties at the nanoscale is a crucial prerequisite for nanotechnology. Hereunder, we suggest and demonstrate a novel approach to realize non-hemispherically shaped nanowire catalysts, subsequently used to grow InP nanowires with a cross section anisotropy ratio of up to 1:1.8. Gold was deposited inside high aspect ratio nanotrenches in a 5 nm thick SiNx selective area mask; inside the growth chamber, upon heating to 455 °C, the thin gold stripes agglomerated, resulting in an ellipsoidal dome (hemiellipsoid). The initial shape of the catalyst was preserved during growth to realize asymmetrically cross-sectioned nanowires. Moreover, the crystalline nature of the nanowire side facets was found to depend on the nano-trench orientation atop the substrate, resulting in hexagonal or octagonal cross-sections when the nano-trenches are aligned or misaligned with the [1¯10] orientation atop a [111]B substrate. These results establish the role of catalyst shape as a unique tool to engineer nanowire growth, potentially allowing further control over its physical properties.

  11. (n,α reactions cross section research at IPPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorginis G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set-up based on an ionization chamber with a Frisch grid and wave form digitizer was used for (n,α cross section measurements. Use of digital signal processing allowed us to select a gaseous cell inside the sensitive area of the ionization chamber and determine the target atoms in it with high accuracy. This kind of approach provided us with a powerful method to suppress background arising from the detector structure and parasitic reactions on the working gas components. This method is especially interesting to study neutron reactions with elements for which solid target preparation is difficult (noble gases for example. In the present experiments we used a set of working gases which contained admixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and boron. Fission of 238U was used as neutron flux monitor. The cross section of the (n,α reaction for 16O, 14N, 20Ne, 36Ar, 40Ar and the yield ratio α0/α1 of 10B(n,α0 to 10B(n,α1 reactions was measured for neutron energies between 1.5 and 7 MeV. Additionally a measurement of the 50Cr(n,α cross section using a solid chromium target is also reported.

  12. Determination of Optimum Cross-section for Oran Highway Revetment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Deniz; Sogut, Erdinc; Guler, Isikhan

    2017-04-01

    Revetments are shore parallel, sloping coastal structures which are built to provide protection from the negative effects of the sea. The revetment mentioned in this study is located in the City of Oran, Algeria and is currently under construction. This study investigates the determination of the optimum revetment cross section for Oran highway, considering both the hydraulic stability of the revetment and economy. The existence of cliffs in the region and the settlement of the City of Oran created a necessity to re-align Oran highway; therefore, it was shifted towards the Gulf of Oran. Approximately 1 km of the highway is to be constructed on the Mediterranean Sea due to the new alignment. In order to protect the sea side of the road from the adverse effects of the sea, a revetment was designed. The proposed cross section had an armour layer composed of 23 tons of antifer units and regular placement of armour units was recommended. In order to check the hydraulic stability of the proposed section, physical model tests were performed in the laboratory of LEM (Laboratoire d'Etudes Maritimes) in Algeria, using the pre-determined design wave conditions. The physical model tests revealed that the trunk of the revetment was totaly damaged. Accordingly, the proposed section was found insufficient and certain modifications were required. The first modification was made in the arrangement of armour units, changing them from regular to irregular. After testing the new cross section, it was observed that the revetment was vulnerable to breaking wave attack due to the toe geometry and thus the toe of the revetment had to be re-shaped. Therefore, the second option was to reduce the toe elevation. It was observed that even though the revetment trunk was safe, the damage in the toe was not in acceptable limits. The new cross section was found insufficient and as the final option, the weight of the antifer units used in the armour layer was increased, the toe length of the

  13. Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion.

  14. Total cross sections for neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.; Weppner, S. P.

    1995-02-01

    Measurements of neutron total cross sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross sections for neutron scattering from 16O and 40Ca are calculated as a function of energy from 50 to 700 MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first-order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although these results are aleady in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator is essential to correctly predict the energy dependence given by the experiment. In the region between 100 and 200 MeV, where off-shell tρ calculations for both 16O and 40Ca overpredict the experiment, the modification due to the nuclear medium reduces the calculated values. Above 300 MeV these corrections are very small and depending on the employed nuclear mean field tend to compensate for the underprediction of the off-shell tρ results.

  15. Total cross sections for neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R.; Elster, C.; Thaler, R.M.; Weppner, S.P. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States) Center for Computationally Intensive Physics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States) Institute of Nuclear Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States) Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Measurements of neutron total cross sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross sections for neutron scattering from [sup 16]O and [sup 40]Ca are calculated as a function of energy from 50 to 700 MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first-order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although these results are aleady in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator is essential to correctly predict the energy dependence given by the experiment. In the region between 100 and 200 MeV, where off-shell [ital t][rho] calculations for both [sup 16]O and [sup 40]Ca overpredict the experiment, the modification due to the nuclear medium reduces the calculated values. Above 300 MeV these corrections are very small and depending on the employed nuclear mean field tend to compensate for the underprediction of the off-shell [ital t][rho] results.

  16. Top quark cross section measurements with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Skubic, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive top quark pair production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented. The measurements are performed requiring one or two electrons or muons in the final state. Various experimental techniques are compared. The most precise result requires events with an electron and a muon of opposite sign and uses the full data-set at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data are in good agreement with a recent NNLO+NNLL QCD calculation. Measurements of the differential top quark pair production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are also presented. The measurements are performed requiring one electron or muon in the final state and are carried out differentially in the reconstructed top transverse momentum, and the invariant mass, rapidity and transverse momentum of the top pair system. These measurements probe our understanding of top pair production in the TeV regi...

  17. A contribuição de estudos transversais na área da linguagem com enfoque em afasia Contribution of cross-section studies in the language area with focus on aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Ibelli Sitta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: um dos delineamentos mais empregados na pesquisa epidemiológica consiste no estudo transversal. Este consiste em uma ferramenta de grande utilidade para a descrição de características da população e para a identificação de grupos de risco. Considerando a afasia uma desintegração da linguagem, é necessário compreender as dissociações e comprometimentos pertinentes. OBJETIVO: analisar estudos epidemiológicos de caráter transversal que focam alterações em pacientes afásicos adultos para investigação das suas principais manifestações. CONCLUSÃO: estudos transversais mostram meios de buscar compreender como esta modificação de saúde abrange os sinais e sintomas relacionados. Considerando que a linguagem por ser um meio de comunicação privilegiado, para o afásico, a perda desse instrumento torna-se uma fonte de isolamento e de solidão. Assim, a identificação de indivíduos portadores de afasia pode contribuir ao diagnóstico preciso, corroborando a compreensão dos achados fonoaudiológicos em linguagem e no auxílio à reabilitação. Porém, estas evidências científicas deverão ser efetivadas em conjunto aos estudos longitudinais para dar suporte à criação de novas técnicas e estratégias de recuperação para os lesionados cerebrais favorecendo a melhora da comunicação e consequente interatividade.BACKGROUND: one of the most widely delineations used in epidemiological research is the cross-sectional study. It consists of a very useful tool for describing characteristics of the population and identifying risk groups. Considering aphasia as a disintegration of language, it is necessary to understand the dissociations and relevant commitments. PURPOSE: to analyze epidemiological studies that analyzed cross-sectional changes in adult aphasic patients in order to investigate their main manifestations. CONCLUSION: the cross-sectional studies show ways to understand how this change in health covers signs and

  18. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  19. Surface Reconstruction for Cross Sectional Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐美和; 唐泽圣

    1996-01-01

    In this paper,a new solution to the problem of reconstructing the surface of 3D objects over a set of cross-sectional contours is proposed.An algorithm for single branch contours connection,which is based on the closest local polar angle method,is first presented.Then the branching problems(including non-singular branchin and singular branching)are completely solved by decomposing them into several single-branching problems.Finally,these methods are applied to the reconstruction of the external surface of a complexly shaped object such as the cellular region of human brain.The results show that the presented methods are practical and satisfactory.

  20. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, str. Atomistilor nr. 407 (Romania); Utsunomiya, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Filipescu, D. [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics, str. Atomistilor nr. 407, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O.BOX MG6 and National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, str. Atomistilor nr. 407 (Romania); Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Tesileanu, O. [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics, str. Atomistilor nr. 407, Bucharest-Magurele, P.O.BOX MG6 (Romania); Shima, T.; Takahisa, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Miyamoto, S. [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  1. Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Xiao Long; LuHanLin; Yu Wei Xiang; Zhao Wen Rong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross sections of sup 7 sup 1 Ga(n, gamma) sup 7 sup 2 Ga, sup 9 sup 4 Zr(n, gamma) sup 9 sup 5 Zr and sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 Ir(n, gamma) sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir sup m sup 1 sup + sup g sup , sup m sup 2 reactions were measured by using activation method and compared with other measured data. Meanwhile the half-life of sup 7 sup 2 Ga was also measured. The samples were irradiated with the neutron in the thermal column of heavy water reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy. The activities of the reaction products were measured by well-calibrated Ge(Li) detector

  2. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  3. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  4. Electroweak Boson Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the ATLAS prospects for the measurement of W and Z pro- duction cross-section at the LHC. The electron and muon decay channels are considered. Focusing on the early data taking phase, strategies are presented that allow a fast and robust extraction of the signals. An overall uncertainty of about 5% can be achieved with 50 pb−1 in the W channels, where the background uncertainty dominates (the luminosity measurement uncertainty is not discussed here). In the Z channels, the expected preci- sion is 3%, the main contribution coming from the lepton selection efficiency uncertainty. Extrapolating to 1 fb−1 , the uncertainties shrink to incompressible values of 1-2%, de- pending on the final state. This irreducible uncertainty is essentially driven by strong interaction effects, notably parton distribution uncertainties and non-perturbative effects, affecting the W and Z rapidity and transverse momentum distributions. These effects can be constrained by measuring these distributions. Al...

  5. Radar Cross Section of Moving Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gholizade, H

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the effects of movement on radar cross section calculations. The results show that relativistic effects (the constant velocity case) can change the RCS of moving targets by changing the incident plane wave field vectors. As in the Doppler effect, the changes in the fields are proportional to $\\frac{v}{c}$. For accelerated objects, using the Newtonian equations of motion yields an effective electric field (or effective current density) on the object due to the finite mass of the conducting electrons. The results indicate that the magnetic moment of an accelerated object is different from that of an un-accelerated object, and this difference can change the RCS of the object. Results for moving sphere and non-uniformly rotating sphere are given and compared with static (\\textbf{v}=0) case.

  6. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  7. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross-section

  8. Measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section at √{ s} = 7 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Gartner, J.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Roinishvili, V.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.

    2013-05-01

    A measurement is presented of the inelastic proton-proton cross section at a centre-of-mass energy of √{ s} = 7 TeV. Using the CMS detector at the LHC, the inelastic cross section is measured through two independent methods based on information from (i) forward calorimetry (for pseudorapidity 3 200 MeV / c. The measurements cover a large fraction of the inelastic cross section for particle production over about nine units of pseudorapidity and down to small transverse momenta. The results are compared with those of other experiments, and with models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions.

  9. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Surveys of Dental Student Values: Limitations of Cross-Sectional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakumura, Joseph S.

    Surveys of dental student values are described that were designed to assess value ratings by four dental classes in 1976, annual value ratings of a freshman class as they progressed through their four year program, and the usefulness of the cross-sectional design versus the longitudinal design. Each of the two surveys, which were conducted by the…

  10. Acoustic propagation in ducts with varying cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Telionis, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to derive the equations that describe the spatial and temporal variation of the amplitudes and phases of a wave packet propagating in slowly varying hard-walled or lined ducts. The analysis is carried out for rectangular as well as circular ducts. These equations are statements of the conservation of energy. For large admittance or high-frequency modes, an approximate expression is obtained for the attenuation. This expression shows that all possible acoustic modes are attenuating. The results also show that decreasing the cross sectional area can lead to elimination of some of the acoustic modes.

  11. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, B K [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India); Joshipura, K N [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India); Mason, N J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes-MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-14

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, C{sub 3}F{sub 8} and CF{sub 3}I and the CF{sub x} (x 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CF{sub x} (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  12. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  13. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  14. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  15. Finite sum expressions for elastic and reaction cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werneth, Charles M., E-mail: charles.m.werneth@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid Street, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Maung, Khin Maung, E-mail: khin.maung@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 College Drive, Box 5046, Hattiesburg, MS (United States); Mead, Lawrence R., E-mail: lawrence.mead@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 College Drive, Box 5046, Hattiesburg, MS (United States); Blattnig, Steve R., E-mail: steve.r.blattnig@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid Street, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear cross section calculations are often performed by using the partial wave method or the Eikonal method through Glauber theory. The expressions for the total cross section, total elastic cross section, and total reaction cross section in the partial wave method involve infinite sums and do not utilize simplifying approximations. Conversely, the Eikonal method gives these expressions in terms of integrals but utilizes the high energy and small angle approximations. In this paper, by using the fact that the lth partial wave component of the T-matrix can be very accurately approximated by its Born term, the infinite sums in each of the expressions for the differential cross section, total elastic cross section, total cross section, and total reaction cross section are re-written in terms of finite sums plus closed form expressions. The differential cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O,{sup 12}C+{sup 12}C, and p+{sup 12}C elastic scattering. Total cross sections, total reaction cross sections, and total elastic cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C scattering.

  16. Characteristics of primary care office visits to nurse practitioners, physician assistants and physicians in United States Veterans Health Administration facilities, 2005 to 2010: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Perri A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care, an essential determinant of health system equity, efficiency, and effectiveness, is threatened by inadequate supply and distribution of the provider workforce. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA has been a frontrunner in the use of nurse practitioners (NPs and physician assistants (PAs. Evaluation of the roles and impact of NPs and PAs in the VHA is critical to ensuring optimal care for veterans and may inform best practices for use of PAs and NPs in other settings around the world. The purpose of this study was to characterize the use of NPs and PAs in VHA primary care and to examine whether their patients and patient care activities were, on average, less medically complex than those of physicians. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of administrative data from VHA primary care encounters between 2005 and 2010. Patient and patient encounter characteristics were compared across provider types (PA, NP, and physician. Results NPs and PAs attend about 30% of all VHA primary care encounters. NPs, PAs, and physicians fill similar roles in VHA primary care, but patients of PAs and NPs are slightly less complex than those of physicians, and PAs attend a higher proportion of visits for the purpose of determining eligibility for benefits. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a highly successful nationwide primary care system relies on NPs and PAs to provide over one quarter of primary care visits, and that these visits are similar to those of physicians with regard to patient and encounter characteristics. These findings can inform health workforce solutions to physician shortages in the USA and around the world. Future research should compare the quality and costs associated with various combinations of providers and allocations of patient care work, and should elucidate the approaches that maximize quality and efficiency.

  17. Preferences for care towards the end of life when decision-making capacity may be impaired: A large scale cross-sectional survey of public attitudes in Great Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gemma; Fistein, Elizabeth; Holland, Anthony; Barclay, Matthew; Theimann, Pia; Barclay, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    There is continuing public debate about treatment preferences at the end of life, and the acceptability and legal status of treatments that sustain or end life. However, most surveys use binary yes/no measures, and little is known about preferences in neurological disease when decision-making capacity is lost, as most studies focus on cancer. This study investigates changes in public preferences for care towards the end of life, with a focus on measures to sustain or end life. Large-scale international public opinion surveys using a six-stage patient vignette, respondents chose a level of intervention for each stage as health and decision-making capacity deteriorated. Cross-sectional representative samples of the general public in Great Britain and the USA (N = 2016). Primary outcome measure: changes in respondents' preferences for care, measured on a four-point scale designed before data collection. The scale ranged from: maintaining life at all costs; to intervention with agreement; to no intervention; to measures for ending life. There were no significant differences between GB and USA. Preference for measures to sustain life at all costs peaked at short-term memory loss (30.2%, n = 610). Respondents selecting 'measures to help me die peacefully' increased from 3.9% to 37.0% as the condition deteriorated, with the largest increase occurring when decision-making capacity was lost (10.3% to 23.0%). Predictors of choosing 'measures to help me die peacefully' at any stage were: previous personal experience (OR = 1.34, pdecision-making capacity was compromised, which increased as dementia progressed. In contrast, a significant number chose preservation of life at all costs, even in end stage dementia. It is challenging to respect the longstanding values of people with dementia concerning either the inviolability of life or personal autonomy, whilst protecting those without decision-making capacity.

  18. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among never smokers in Golestan Province, Iran, an area of high incidence of esophageal cancer – a cross-sectional study with repeated measurement of urinary 1-OHPG in two seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad eIslami

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested a possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the etiology of esophageal cancer in Golestan Province, Iran, where incidence of this cancer is very high. In order to investigate the patterns of non-smoking related exposure to PAHs in Golestan, we conducted a cross-sectional study collecting questionnaire data, genotyping polymorphisms related to PAH metabolism, and measuring levels of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG, a PAH metabolite, in urine samples collected in two seasons from the same group of 111 randomly-selected never-smoking women. Beta-coefficients for correlations between 1-OHPG as dependent variable and other variables were calculated using linear regression models. The creatinine-adjusted 1-OHPG levels in both winter and summer samples were approximately 110 μmol/molCr (P for seasonal difference= 0.40. In winter, red meat intake (β= 0.208; P= 0.03, processed meat intake (β= 0.218; P= 0.02 and GSTT1-02 polymorphism (null genotype: β= 0.228; P= 0.02 showed significant associations with 1-OHPG levels, while CYP1B1-07 polymorphism (GG versus AA+GA genotypes: β= –0.256; P= 0.008 showed an inverse association. In summer, making bread at home (>weekly versus never: β= 0.203; P= 0.04, second-hand smoke (exposure to ≥3 cigarettes versus no exposure: β= 0.254; P= 0.01, and GSTM1-02 null genotype (β= 0.198; P= 0.04 showed significant associations with 1-OHPG levels, but GSTP1-02 polymorphism (CT+TT versus CC: β= –0.218; P= 0.03 showed an inverse association. This study confirms high exposure of the general population in Golestan to PAHs and suggests that certain foods, cooking methods, and genetic polymorphisms increase exposure to PAHs.

  19. Absorption Cross Section of Einstein-Maxwell Dilation Axion Black Hole for Dirac Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The absorption cross section of the Einstein-Maxwell Dilaton Axion (EMDA) black hole for Dirac particles is investigated. It is shown that the absorption cross section decreases as both the v and the absolute value of the dilaton increase, but it increases as the mass of the particle increases. It is also shown that the absorption cross section for the masslcss Dirac particles is 1/8 of the area of the horizon, which may be an universal property for minimally coupled massless Dirac particles.

  20. Compassion fatigue and satisfaction: a cross-sectional survey among US healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Denise; English, Ashley; James, Jennifer; Wilson, Marian; Daratha, Kenn B; Childers, Belinda; Magera, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Professional quality of life among healthcare providers can impact the quality and safety of patient care. The purpose of this research was to investigate compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue levels as measured by the Professional Quality of Life Scale self-report instrument in a community hospital in the United States. A cross-sectional survey study examined differences among 139 RNs, physicians, and nursing assistants. Relationships among individual and organizational variables were explored. Caregivers for critical patients scored significantly lower on the Professional Quality of Life subscale of burnout when compared with those working in a noncritical care unit. Linear regression results indicate that high sleep levels and employment in critical care areas are associated with less burnout. Identification of predictors can be used to design interventions that address modifiable risks. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. KAERI charged particle cross section library for radioisotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, J H; Kim, D H; Lee, Y O; Zhuang, Y X

    2001-01-01

    This report summarized information and figures describing the 'KAERI Charged Particle Cross Section Library for Radioisotope production' The library contains proton-, deutron-, He-3-, and alpha-induced monitor cross sections, and gamma- and positron-emitter production cross sections. Experimental data and evaluation methods are described, and the evaluated cross sections are compared with those of the IAEA, MENDL, and LA150. The library has cross sections and emission spectra suitable for the transport analysis in the design of radioisotope production system, and are available at http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/ in ENDF-6 format.

  2. Radar Cross-section Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borkar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Radar cross-section (RCS is an important study parameter for defence applications specially dealing with airborne weapon system. The RCS parameter guides the detection range for a target and is therefore studied to understand the effectiveness of a weapon system. It is not only important to understand the RCS characteristics of a target but also to look into the diagnostic mode of study where factors contributing to a particular RCS values are studied. This further opens up subject like RCS suppression and stealth. The paper discusses the RCS principle, control, and need of measurements. Classification of RCS in terms of popular usage is explained with detailed theory of RF imaging and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR. The various types of RCS measurement ranges are explained with brief discussion on outdoor RCS measurement range. The RCS calibration plays a critical role in referencing the measurement to absolute values and has been described.The RCS facility at Reseach Centre Imarat, Hyderabad, is explained with some details of different activities that are carried out including RAM evaluation, scale model testing, and diagnostic imaging.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.204-212, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.341

  3. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andrzejewski, J; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Assimakopoulos, P A; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Chepel, V; Cennini, P; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillman, I; Dolfini, R; Dridi, W; Durán, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Kölbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F K; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; Oshima, M; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín, D; Vincente6, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  4. Healthcare environments and spatial variability of healthcare associated infection risk: cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Gaudart

    Full Text Available Prevalence of healthcare associated infections remains high in patients in intensive care units (ICU, estimated at 23.4% in 2011. It is important to reduce the overall risk while minimizing the cost and disruption to service provision by targeted infection control interventions. The aim of this study was to develop a monitoring tool to analyze the spatial variability of bacteriological contamination within the healthcare environment to assist in the planning of interventions. Within three cross-sectional surveys, in two ICU wards, air and surface samples from different heights and locations were analyzed. Surface sampling was carried out with tryptic Soy Agar contact plates and Total Viable Counts (TVC were calculated at 48 hrs (incubation at 37 °C. TVCs were analyzed using Poisson Generalized Additive Mixed Model for surface type analysis, and for spatial analysis. Through three cross-sectional survey, 370 samples were collected. Contamination varied from place-to-place, height-to-height, and by surface type. Hard-to-reach surfaces, such as bed wheels and floor area under beds, were generally more contaminated, but the height level at which maximal TVCs were found changed between cross-sectional surveys. Bedside locations and bed occupation were risk factors for contamination. Air sampling identified clusters of contamination around the nursing station and surface sampling identified contamination clusters at numerous bed locations. By investigating dynamic hospital wards, the methodology employed in this study will be useful to monitor contamination variability within the healthcare environment and should help to assist in the planning of interventions.

  5. COPD and its association with smoking in the Mainland China: a cross-sectional analysis of 0.5 million men and women from ten diverse areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmi OP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Om P Kurmi,1 Liming Li,2,3 Jenny Wang,1 Iona Y Millwood,1 Junshi Chen,4 Rory Collins,1 Yu Guo,2 Zheng Bian,2 Jiangtao Li,5 Biyun Chen,6 Kaixu Xie,7 Weifan Jia,8 Yali Gao,9 Richard Peto,1 Zhengming Chen1 On behalf of the China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group 1Nuffield Department of Population Health, Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, 3Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Dong Cheng District, 4China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, 5NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Huixian CDC, Huixian, Henan, 6NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Hunan CDC, Changsha, 7NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Tongxiang CDC, Zhejiang, 8NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Liuyang CDC, Baiyikengdao, Liuyang, Changsha, Hunan, 9NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Sichuan CDC, Sichuan, Mainland China Purpose: In adult Chinese men, smoking prevalence is high, but little is known about its association with chronic respiratory disease, which is still poorly diagnosed and managed. Methods: A nationwide study recruited 0.5 million men and women aged 30–79 years during 2004–2008 from ten geographically diverse areas across the Mainland China. Information was collected from each participant regarding smoking and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis/emphysema (CB/E, along with measurement of lung function indices. Logistic regression was used to yield sex-specific odds ratios (ORs relating smoking to airflow obstruction (AFO, defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC <0.7 and CB/E, adjusting for age, areas, education, and income. Results: Overall 74% of men were ever regular smokers; among them, 7.2% had AFO compared with 5.4% in never-smokers, yielding an OR of 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34–1

  6. First measurement of unpolarized SIDIS cross section and cross section ratios from a $^3$He target

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, X; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J -P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, C; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Katich, J; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; LeRose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liu, T; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H -J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Camacho, C Munoz; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J -C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L -G; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wang, Y; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, B; Zhao, Y X; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2016-01-01

    The unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) differential cross sections in $^3$He($e,e^{\\prime}\\pi^{\\pm}$)$X$ have been measured for the first time in Jefferson Lab experiment E06-010 performed with a $5.9\\,$GeV $e^-$ beam on a $^3$He target. The experiment focuses on the valence quark region, covering a kinematic range $0.12 < x_{bj} < 0.45$, $1 < Q^2 < 4 \\, \\textrm{(GeV/c)}^2$, $0.45 < z_{h} < 0.65$, and $0.05 < P_t < 0.55 \\, \\textrm{GeV/c}$. The extracted SIDIS differential cross sections of $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production are compared with existing phenomenological models while the $^3$He nucleus approximated as two protons and one neutron in a plane wave picture, in multi-dimensional bins. Within the experimental uncertainties, the azimuthal modulations of the cross sections are found to be consistent with zero.

  7. WHEELSET AXLE WITH THE CAVITY OF UNIFORM CROSS SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolesnykov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Due to operation in complex loading conditions, the rolling stock wheelsets should provide high reliability, since the train traffic safety largely depends on them. Design and technical condition of wheelsets affect the smoothness, intensity of forces generated by the interaction between the car and track, and the motion resistance. Specificity of the axle operation consists in the fact that it undergoes the bending stresses under loading. These stresses are unevenly distributed along the cross-sectional area, reaching the highest values in the outer fibers and the minimal values in the internal ones. This aspect sets the problem of replacement of the uniform cross section with the hollow cross section. The disadvantages of hollow axle design, which are used at the present time, should include a significant manufacturing complexity of the variable section cavity. The purpose is to develop a modernized design of the wheelset axle. Methodology. A construction of the hollow axle having an inner longitudinal cylindrical through hole of the constant diameter throughout its length was proposed. The item is made of steel seamless tube. The inner surface of the tube is treated by mechanical means to remove the voltage concentrations in the internal longitudinal cylindrical through hole, which has a constant diameter along the entire length of the axle. Findings. Application of this design will facilitate manufacturing of the hollow axle and the machining of the inner longitudinal through hole, while retaining all the use advantages of the hollow axle in the rolling stock wheel pairs. Another use advantage of the hollow axle of this design is the absence of partial heterogeneity of the metal, which is inevitably, occurs during the solid axles blanking. Originality. A new design of the wheelset hollow axle of railway rolling stock was proposed. Practical value. Introduction of the new design simplifying the manufacture and mechanical treatment of

  8. Thermal conductivity of dielectric nanowires with different cross-section shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Xiao-Kun; Cao Bing-Yang

    2007-01-01

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of the cross-section shape on the thermal conductivity of argon nanowires. Some typical cross-section shapes, such as triangle, square,pentagon, hexagon and circle, are carefully explore. The simulation results show that with the same cross-sectional area of the regular polygons, the thermal conductivities decrease with the reduction of the sides of the polygon, and the thermal conductivity of the circular nanowire is larger than those of the other polygonal ones. Phonon gas kinetic theory is used to analyse the phonon transport in nanowires, and the concept of equivalent diameter is proposed to illustrate the characteristic dimension of the none-circular cross-section.

  9. Optimal cross-sectional sampling for river modelling with bridges: An information theory-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, E.; Alfonso, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Napolitano, F.

    2016-06-01

    The description of river topography has a crucial role in accurate one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling. Specifically, cross-sectional data define the riverbed elevation, the flood-prone area, and thus, the hydraulic behavior of the river. Here, the problem of the optimal cross-sectional spacing is solved through an information theory-based concept. The optimal subset of locations is the one with the maximum information content and the minimum amount of redundancy. The original contribution is the introduction of a methodology to sample river cross sections in the presence of bridges. The approach is tested on the Grosseto River (IT) and is compared to existing guidelines. The results show that the information theory-based approach can support traditional methods to estimate rivers' cross-sectional spacing.

  10. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  11. A Theoretical Study of Photoabsorption Cross Sections of Na2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-Hua; GAO Xiang; HAN Xiao-Ying; LI Jia-Ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the framework of quantum defect theory, we calculate photoabsorption cross sections of Na2+. Based on our calculations, there is an absorption window in the photoabsorption cross sections of Na2+, and more than one bump above the absorption window. The calculated photoabsorption cross sections provide an explanation for the abnormal bump in the experimental measurements of Hudson, which is a long-standing experimental puzzle.

  12. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  13. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-09-27

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

  14. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  15. Capture cross sections from (p,d) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, J. E.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Ota, S.; Scielzo, N. D.

    2017-09-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Several indirect methods have been proposed to determine neutron capture cross sections for unstable isotopes. We consider an approach that aims at constraining statistical calculations of capture cross sections with data obtained from light-ion transfer reactions such as (p,d). We discuss the theoretical descriptions that have to be developed in order to extract meaningful cross section constraints from such data and show some benchmark results.

  16. Flow in Tubes of Non-Circular Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    In this thesis steady, laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of non-circular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (a) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (b) to consider non-circular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (c) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent -shaped cross sections and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the

  17. Single boson production and differential cross section measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Debenedetti, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High-precision measurements of the Drell-Yan production allow to extract information on different aspects contributing to the process, such as parton distribution functions (PDFs), and to compare with the current precision reached theoretically on the calculations of the cross sections of such process. This document describes ATLAS measurements, performed at different centre of mass energies of vector boson (W and Z) cross sections and cross-section ratios, and ratios of Z-boson and top-quark pair production cross sections, obtaining important information on the proton PDFs.

  18. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  19. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY TO DETERMINE THE PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERN OF GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI ISOLATED FROM INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN AHMEDNAGAR, MAHARASHTRA

    OpenAIRE

    Gunjal, Prasad Niranjan; Gunjal, Shraddha; Kher, Sudheer

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to track down commonest gram negative bacilli along with their pattern of resistance to antibiotics from various clinical specimens, from patients admitted to intensive care unit. A total of 182 clinical specimens were analyzed using standard techniques. Out of 182 specimens 105 were culture positive, whereas the remaining 77 were culture negative.  From 105 culture positive specimens 65 (61.90%) showed growth of gram negative bacilli, remaining 40 (38.09%) wi...

  20. Impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME ultraviolet measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of using three different cross section data sets on ozone profile retrievals from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME ultraviolet measurements (289–307 nm, 326–337 nm. These include Bass-Paur, Brion, and GOME flight model cross sections (references below. Using different cross sections can significantly affect the retrievals, by up to 12 Dobson Units (DU, 1 DU=2.69×1016 molecules cm−2 in total column ozone, up to 10 DU in tropospheric column ozone, and up to 100% in retrieved ozone values for individual atmospheric layers. Compared to using the Bass-Paur and GOME flight model cross sections, using the Brion cross sections not only reduces fitting residuals by 15–60% in the Huggins bands, but also improves retrievals, especially in the troposphere, as seen from validation against ozonesonde measurements. Therefore, we recommend using the Brion cross section for ozone profile retrievals from ultraviolet measurements. The total column ozone retrieved using the GOME flight model cross sections is systematically lower, by 7–10 DU, than that retrieved using the Brion and Bass-Paur cross sections and is also systematically lower than Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS observations. This study demonstrates the need for improved ozone cross section measurements in the ultraviolet to improve profile retrievals of this key atmospheric constituent.

  1. Development of radar cross section analysis system of naval ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kookhyun Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A software system for a complex object scattering analysis, named SYSCOS, has been developed for a systematic radar cross section (RCS analysis and reduction design. The system is based on the high frequency analysis methods of physical optics, geometrical optics, and physical theory of diffraction, which are suitable for RCS analysis of electromagnetically large and complex targets as like naval ships. In addition, a direct scattering center analysis function has been included, which gives relatively simple and intuitive way to discriminate problem areas in design stage when comparing with conventional image-based approaches. In this paper, the theoretical background and the organization of the SYSCOS system are presented. To verify its accuracy and to demonstrate its applicability, numerical analyses for a square plate, a sphere and a cylinder, a weapon system and a virtual naval ship have been carried out, of which results have been compared with analytic solutions and those obtained by the other existing software.

  2. Record Multiphoton Absorption Cross-Sections by Dendrimer Organometalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Peter V; Watson, Laurance A; Barlow, Adam; Wang, Genmiao; Cifuentes, Marie P; Humphrey, Mark G

    2016-02-12

    Large increases in molecular two-photon absorption, the onset of measurable molecular three-photon absorption, and record molecular four-photon absorption in organic π-delocalizable frameworks are achieved by incorporation of bis(diphosphine)ruthenium units with alkynyl linkages. The resultant ruthenium alkynyl-containing dendrimers exhibit strong multiphoton absorption activity through the biological and telecommunications windows in the near-infrared region. The ligated ruthenium units significantly enhance solubility and introduce fully reversible redox switchability to the optical properties. Increasing the ruthenium content leads to substantial increases in multiphoton absorption properties without any loss of optical transparency. This significant improvement in multiphoton absorption performance by incorporation of the organometallic units into the organic π-framework is maintained when the relevant parameters are scaled by molecular weights or number of delocalizable π-electrons. The four-photon absorption cross-section of the most metal-rich dendrimer is an order of magnitude greater than the previous record value.

  3. Collision Cross Sections for 20 Protonated Amino Acids: Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance and Ion Mobility Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupriya; Jones, Chad A.; Dearden, David V.

    2016-08-01

    We report relative dephasing cross sections for the 20 biogenic protonated amino acids measured using the cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (CRAFTI) technique at 1.9 keV in the laboratory reference frame, as well as momentum transfer cross sections for the same ions computed from Boltzmann-weighted structures determined using molecular mechanics. Cross sections generally increase with increasing molecular weight. Cross sections for aliphatic and aromatic protonated amino acids are larger than the average trend, suggesting these side chains do not fold efficiently. Sulfur-containing protonated amino acids have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting the mass of the S atom. Protonated amino acids that can internally hydrogen-bond have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting more extensive folding. The CRAFTI measurements correlate well with results from drift ion mobility (IMS) and traveling wave ion mobility (TWIMS) spectrometric measurements; CRAFTI results correlate with IMS values approximately as well as IMS and TWIMS values from independent measurements correlate with each other. Both CRAFTI and IMS results correlate well with the computed momentum transfer cross sections, suggesting both techniques provide accurate molecular structural information. Absolute values obtained using the various methods differ significantly; in the case of CRAFTI, this may be due to errors in measurements of collision gas pressure, measurement of excitation voltage, and/or dependence of cross sections on kinetic energy.

  4. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  5. Evaluation of neutron cross sections for Er isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun-ar-Rashid, A.K.M. [Univ. of Chittagong, Department of Physics, Chittagong (Bangladesh); Shibata, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Igashira, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The neutron reaction cross sections of {sup 166,167,168,170}Er from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV were studied. The cross sections were calculated with a variety of nuclear-reaction models by different codes. The calculations were mainly based on the statistical and optical modes. In the calculation, the Optical Model Parameters (OMP) for {sup nat}Er were determined. The calculated capture cross sections are in good agreement with the very recent measurements. The calculated total cross sections of {sup 166,168,170}Er are also in good agreement with the experimental results at 14 MeV. The direct inelastic scattering cross sections for the first excited state of the above nuclei were calculated by Distorted-Wave Born-Approximation (DWBA). The direct and semi-direct (DSD) capture cross sections were also calculated. The pre-equilibrium correction was done. The parameters for the electric-dipole pygmy resonance and the depression factor were extracted from a comparison between the calculated and very recent observed capture gamma-ray spectra. The other cross sections, such as (n,n'), (n,2n) and (n,p) reactions and, the emitted-particle (n,p,d,etc.) spectra from these reactions were also calculated. In the thermal and resonance region, the total, elastic scattering and capture cross sections were derived from the resonance parameters. (author)

  6. Modeling and analysis of ground target radiation cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiang; LOU GuoWei; LI XingGuo

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the passive millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer detection, the ground target radiation cross section is modeled as the new token for the target MMW radiant characteristics. Its ap-plication and actual testing are discussed and analyzed. The essence of passive MMW stealth is target radiation cross section reduction.

  7. On the scattering cross section of passive linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solymar, L.

    1973-01-01

    A general formula is derived for the scattering cross section of a passiven-element linear array consisting of isotropic radiators. When all the reactances are tuned out and scattering in the mirror direction is investigated, it is found thatA_{sr}, the relative scattering cross section is equal ...

  8. Determination of Electron Collision Cross Sections Set for Tetramethysilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie-Claude BORDAGE

    2007-01-01

    A swarm analysis technique based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation is used to derive low energy electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane (TMS).The calculated swarm parameters with this first available cross sections set is consistent with measured values of the swarm parameters.Calculations of transport parameters in mixtures of TMS with argon are also presented.

  9. Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando, E-mail: mariobotelho@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)

  10. Nucleon-x sub c sub J dissociation cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Feng You Ceng; Xu Xiao Ming

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon-x sub c sub J dissociation cross sections are calculated in a constituent inter-exchange model in which quark-quark potential is derived from the Buchmueller-Type quark-anti-quark potential. These new cross sections for dominant reaction channels depend on the centre-of-mass energy of the nucleon and the charmonium

  11. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  12. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  13. Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2002-01-01

    Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.

  14. Heisenberg's Universal (lns)**2 Increase of Total Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Dosch, H G; Nicolescu, Basarab

    2003-01-01

    The (lns)**2 behaviour of total cross-sections, first obtained by Heisenberg 50 years ago, receives now increased interest both on phenomenological and theoretical levels. In this paper we present a modification of the Heisenberg's model in connection with the presence of glueballs and we show that it leads to a realistic description of all existing hadron total cross-section data.

  15. Cross-section measurements in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Petti, R

    2006-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment collected valuable neutrino data samples, matching both the large statistics of massive calorimeters and the reconstruction quality of bubble chambers. This paper describes the recent measurements of neutrino cross-sections on carbon target. The approach followed for cross-section modeling is also explained.

  16. Cross sections for electron collisions with nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2016-09-01

    Cross section data are reviewed for electron collisions with nitric oxide. Collision processes considered are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational, and electronic states, ionization, and dissociative electron attachment. After a survey of the literature (up to the end of 2015), recommended values of the cross section are determined, as far as possible.

  17. Ni elemental neutron induced reaction cross-section evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divadeenam, M.

    1979-03-01

    A completely new evaluation of the nickel neutron induced reaction cross sections was undertaken as a part of the ENDF/B-V effort. (n,xy) reactions and capture reaction time from threshold to 20 MeV were considered for /sup 58/ /sup 60/ /sup 61/ /sup 62/ /sup 64/Ni isotopes to construct the corresponding reaction cross section for natural nickel. Both experimental and theoretical calculated results were used in evaluating different partial cross sections. Precompound effects were included in calculating (n,xy) reaction cross sections. Experimentally measured total section data extending from 0.7 MeV to 20 MeV were used to generate smooth cross section. Below 0.7 to MeV elastic and capture cross sections are represented by resonance parameters. Inelastic angular distributions to the discrete isotopic levels and elemental elastic angular distributions are included in the evaluated data file. Gamma production cross sections and energy distribution due to capture and the (n,xy) reactions were evaluated from experimental data. Finally, error files are constructed for all partial cross sections.

  18. Occurrence of post traumatic stress symptoms and their relationship to professional quality of life (ProQoL in nursing staff at a forensic psychiatric security unit: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonstad Kåre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence is frequent towards nurses in forensic mental health hospitals. Implications of this high risk environment have not been systematically explored. This paper explores occurrence of symptoms on post traumatic stress and their relationship to professional quality of life. Methods Self report questionnaires assessing symptoms of post traumatic stress and professional quality of life were distributed among psychiatric nurses in a high security forensic psychiatric unit with high frequency of violent behaviour. Relationships between post traumatic stress symptoms, forensic nursing experience, type of ward and compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue were explored. Results The prevalence of post traumatic stress symptoms was low. Low scores were found on compassion satisfaction. Length of psychiatric nursing experience and low scores on compassion satisfaction were correlated to increased post traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusion Although high violence frequency, low rate of post traumatic stress symptoms and low compassion satisfaction scores was found. High staff/patient ratio and emotional distance between staff and patients are discussed as protective factors.

  19. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  20. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir;

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...

  1. On river cross-sectional change in the Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abam, T. K. S.; Omuso, W. O.

    2000-08-01

    A network of dominantly distributary river systems dissects the superficial deposits of the Niger Delta comprising alluvial sediments. Changes in river cross-sections are instigated mainly by bank failures, fluctuations in discharge, and bed degradation by fluvial processes. The relative importance of factors causing river cross-sectional change was ranked, based on a deterministic sensitivity technique involving partial differentiation of soil properties, flow characteristics, and geometrical parameters of the river channels. Analysis suggests that steep bank inclination and high flow velocity/discharge are the major causes of cross-sectional change, while interlocking of soil grains is the major erosion-restraining factor. Sensitivity coefficients were used further to generate susceptibility indices, indicating the vulnerability of channel cross-sections to change. Based on this, the risks of channel cross-sectional change were compared at different sites.

  2. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  3. Relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius are obtained on basis of quantum mechanics and the particle-like properties of a photon. The photoionization cross sections of H atom and H-like ions, He atom and He like ions, alkali metal atoms, and Rydberg atoms are calculated using the relations. The calculation results are found to be good agreement with the known experimental data. The results show that the photoionization cross section is always smaller than the cross section of the photon to ionize the atom or ion and can be expressed as the product of the cross section of the photon and the probability that electron meets with the photon. These provide the intuitive understanding for the photoionization phenomena and open a new avenue of research on interaction between a photon and an atom or ion.

  4. Elevated cardiovascular risk among adults with obstructive and restrictive airway functioning in the United States: a cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Earl S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for the excess risk for cardiovascular disease among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the cardiovascular risk profile for adults with obstructive and restrictive impairments of lung functioning in a representative sample of adults from the United States. Methods We used data from adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010 and had a pulmonary function test. The severity of obstructive impairment was defined by adapting the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Results Among 7249 participants, 80.9% had a normal pulmonary function test, 5.7% had a restrictive impairment, 7.9% had mild obstructive impairment, and 5.5% had moderate or severe/very severe obstructive impairment. Participants with obstructive impairment had high rates of smoking and increased serum concentrations of cotinine. Compared to participants with normal pulmonary functioning, participants with at least moderate obstructive impairment had elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein but lower concentrations of total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Among participants aged 50–74 years, participants with at least a moderate obstructive impairment or a restrictive impairment had an elevated predicted 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The high rates of smoking among adults with impaired pulmonary functioning, particularly those with obstructive impairment, point to a need for aggressive efforts to promote smoking cessation in these adults. In addition, adults with restrictive impairment may require increased attention to and fine-tuning of their cardiovascular risk profile.

  5. Modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area after using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages Técnica modificada para aumentar a área seccional externa da narina após o uso de enxerto cartilaginoso de costela e septo sob as cartilagens alares nasais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Wulkan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Describe a modified technique to increase nostril cross-sectional area using rib and septal cartilage graft over alar nasal cartilages. METHODS: A modified surgical technique was used to obtain, carve and insert cartilage grafts over alar nasal cartilages. This study used standardized pictures and measured 90 cadaveric nostril cross-sectional area using Autocad®; 30 were taken before any procedure and 60 were taken after grafts over lateral crura (30 using costal cartilage and 30 using septal cartilage. Statistical analysis were assessed using a model for repeated measures and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance for the variable "area". RESULTS: There's statistical evidence that rib cartilage graft is more effective than septal cartilage graft. The mean area after the insertion of septal cartilage graft is smaller than the mean area under rib graft treatment (no confidence interval for mean difference contains the zero value and all P-values are below the significance level of 5%. CONCLUSIONS: The technique presented is applicable to increase nostril cross section area in cadavers. This modified technique revealed to enhance more nostril cross section area with costal cartilage graft over lateral crura rather than by septal graft.OBJETIVO: Descrever uma técnica modificada para se aumentar a área seccional externa da narina com cartilagem septal e costal acima das cartilagens alares nasais. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se uma técnica cirúrgica modificada para obter, esculpir e inserir enxertos de cartilagem sobre as cartilagens alares. Realizou-se fotos padronizadas e mensuração de 90 áreas seccionais externas de narina em cadáveres com Autocad®; 30 antes sem procedimento; 60 após a inclusão de enxertos sob a cruz lateral (30 usando cartilagem costal e 30 usando cartilagem septal. A análise estatística foi feita com um modelo de medidas repetidas e ANOVA para a variável "área" RESULTADOS: Existe evidência estatística de que o enxerto de

  6. Accessing completeness of pregnancy, delivery, and death registration by Accredited Social Health Activists [ASHA] in an innovative mHealth project in the tribal areas of Gujarat: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Modi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Innovative Mobile-phone Technology for Community Health Operation (ImTeCHO is a mobile-phone application that helps Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs in complete registration through the strategies employed during implementation that is linking ASHAs′ incentives to digital records, regular feedback, onsite data entry, and demand generation among beneficiaries. Objective: To determine the proportion of pregnancies, deliveries, and infant deaths (events being registered through the ImTeCHO application against actual number of events in a random sample of villages. Materials and Methods: Five representative villages were randomly selected from the ImTeCHO project area in the tribal areas of Gujarat, India to obtain the required sample of 98 recently delivered women. A household survey was done in the entire villages to enumerate each family and create a line-listing of events since January 2014; the line-listing was compared with list of women registered through the ImTeCHO application. The proportion of events being registered through the ImTeCHO application was compared against the actual number of events to find sensitivity of the ImTeCHO application. Result: A total of 844 families were found during household enumeration. Out of actual line-listing of pregnancies (N = 39, deliveries (N = 102, and infant deaths (N = 5 found during household enumeration, 38 (97.43%, 101 (99.01%, and 5 (100% were registered by ASHAs through the ImTeCHO application. Conclusion: The use of mobile-phone technology and strategies applied during the ImTeCHO implementation should be upscaled to supplement efforts to improve the completeness of registration.

  7. High prestress truss cable support principle and its application in large cross section coal roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jing-ming; HE Fu-lian; XIAO Xiao

    2007-01-01

    With the enlarge of cross section of roadway,the radius of plastic area and broken area increase.and the tensile stress and shear stress distributing in roof coal-rock layers relevantly increase,which induce support effect not obvious for ordinary bolt(cable).While bounding point and support structure of the truss cable is in vertex angle of roadway,and supplies coal-rock layers in bounding area with the horizontal and vertical pressure,SO it settles the support problems in large cross section coal roadway.From the point of view of mechanics,gave emphasis on the invalid mechanics of ordinary bolt(cable)in large cross section coal roadway and supported mechanics of prestress truss cable.The author successfully used this technique in Wuyang Mine.and had the huge economic efficiency and the social benefit.

  8. Cross-sectional investigation on overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Huaian urban area%淮安市城区中学生超重和肥胖现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娟; 过晓阳; 陈晓敏

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the distribution of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Huaian urban area,provide evidence for formulating the nutritional improvement measures.[Methods] The students were collected from 8 secondary schools in Huaian urban area by random and cluster sampling method,to calculate BMI,and the results were evaluated according to the BMI classification standard for overweight and obesity screening in school-age children and adolescents in China.[Results] A total of 18 299 secondary school students aged 12-17 yeas old were investigated,including 9 831 boys and 8 468 girls.The detection rate of overweight and obesity was 14.5% and 8.4% respectively.The rate of overweight in boys and girls was 18.4% and 11.4% respectively,and the difference was statistically significant (x2=253.50,P<0.05).The rate of obesity in boys and girls was 10.0% and 5.0% respectively,and the difference was statistically significant (x2=241.13,P<0.05).The rate of overweight in junior and senior high school students was 15.0% and 14.1%,and the difference was statistically significant (x2=3.53,P>0.05).The rate of obesity in junior and senior high school students was 9.8% and 7.3%,and the difference was statistically significant (x2=36.34,P<0.05).[Conclusion] The overweight and obesity coexist among secondary school students in Huaian urban area,and this problem should be paid attention to.%目的 了解淮安市城区中学生超重、肥胖分布现况,为制定营养改善措施提供依据.方法 采取随机整群抽样方法,选择淮安市城区8所中学学生为调查对象,计算体重指数(BMI),根据《中国学龄儿童青少年超重、肥胖筛查BMI值分类标准》进行评价.结果 共调查了18 299名中学生,年龄为12~17岁,其中男生为9 831名,女生为8 468名;超重和肥胖检出率分别为14.5%、8.4%.男女生超重率分别为18.4%和11.4%,差异有统计学意义(x2=253.50,P<0

  9. 安徽省皖江地区自然人群乙型肝炎流行现况调查%A cross-sectional survey on hepatitis B among general population in areas along Yangzi River in Anhui province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽鸿; 李筱青; 叶冬青; 郑迎军; 葛阜阳; 蔡标; 黄芬

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemic status of hepatitis B along the Yangzi River area,ill Anhui province.Methods A croSS-sectional seroepidemiological survey was conducted and the samples were collected by stratified cluster sampling.Serological biomarkers to hepatitis B virus were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)reagents.Results Among 2282 people.the prevalence rates of HBsAg,HBsAb,HBeAg.HBeAb,HBeAb and hepatitis B virus infection were 9.8%,43.5%.1.0%,7.8%,10.3%and 40.6%respectively.The prevalence rate of HBsAg among males was higllel"than that offemales(P<0.05).The vaccination rate was 24.7%,higher in urban than in taral areas.The vaccination rate was high in children younger than ten years old and in students.The prevalence rates of HBsAg and HBV among people who had received vaccines were lower than those who had not.Conclusion The standardized prevalence rates of HBsAg(9.3%)Was high in the area along the Yangzi River in Althai province.The vaccinate rate Was low in the country side.Expanded vaccinate which can obviously reduce the prevalence rate of HBsAg should be enhanced.%目的 了解安徽省皖汀地区自然人群乙型肝炎(乙肝)病毒(HBV)感染状况.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法对皖汀地区自然人群进行问卷调查并采集血标本,用ELISA方法检测HBV感染标志.结果 在2282例血清标本中,乙肝HBsAg、HBsAb、HBeAg、HBeAb及HBcAb流行率分别为9.8%、43.5%、1.0%、7.8%、10.3%;HBV总感染率(HBV流行率)为40.6%(926/2282).HBsAg流行率男性高于女性(X2=3.992,P<0.05).乙肝疫苗的接种率为24.7%(539/2178),10岁以下年龄组疫苗接种率最高为97.4%(76/78),学生疫苗接种率较高为78.2%(355/454),乙肝疫苗接种率农村低于城市.接种乙肝疫苗后HBsAg及HBV流行率均显著降低(P<0.01).结论 皖江地区HBsAg的标化流行率为9.3%,为全国乙肝高流行区;尤其是农村地区乙肝疫苗接种率偏低.

  10. Overweight among students aged 11-15 years and its relationship with breakfast, area of residence and parents' education: results from the Italian HBSC 2010 cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Giacchi, Mariano Vincenzo; Spinelli, Angela; Pammolli, Andrea; Dalmasso, Paola; Nardone, Paola; Lamberti, Anna; Cavallo, Franco

    2014-07-05

    The international increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over the past three decades confirms that childhood obesity is a global 'epidemic'. The World Health Organization considers childhood obesity to be a major public health concern. Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complications, and may have psycho-social consequences. The aim of this paper is to examine overweight (including obesity) prevalence and its association with geographic area of residence, parental education and daily breakfast consumption in Italian students aged 11-15 yrs. A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year old students from 20 Italian Regions (Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010-HBSC) was randomly selected (2,504 schools and 77,113 students). Self-reported anonymous questionnaires, prepared by the international HBSC network, were used to collect the data. BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the relationship between the risk of overweight and parental education, area of residence and breakfast consumption in each age group and gender. Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (28.1% vs. 18.9% at 11 yrs-old, 24.8% vs. 16.5% at 13 yrs and 25.4 vs. 11.8% at 15 yrs). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower among the older girls. Overweight and obesity rates increased from the North of Italy to the South in both boys and girls and in all age groups. Boys 11-15 yrs living in southern Italy had an OR=2.05 (1.77-2.38) and girls 2.04 (95% CI 1.70-2.44) for overweight (including obesity) compared with those living in the North. Parent's low educational level and no daily breakfast consumption were also associated with overweight including obesity (p<0.05). The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Italian school-children 11

  11. Utilization pattern of antenatal health care services among married women of reproductive age group in the rural area of Surendranagar district, Gujarat, India: a community based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant R. Bhimani

    2016-01-01

    Results: A total of 403 women were included in the study. Pregnancy registration was done by 88.77% of the women at either government facility or private doctor. Out of total registered women, majority i.e. 54.25% had registered their pregnancy during 2nd trimester. In response to frequency of antenatal visits, study showed that, 59.18% (216 women had availed three or more than three antenatal visits. It was found that 81.92% (299 had taken complete (2 doses tetanus immunization. About 47% of women had completed full course of iron and folic acid tablets. It was observed that only 46.03% women had availed complete ANC package. Conclusions: Although Antenatal services in India have been created, strengthened and expanded over the years, their output in terms of utilization particularly in rural area is still limited. The present study has brought out many significant socio cultural barriers like caste, women's literacy, husband's literacy, occupation of women, socio-economic class and parity of women affecting the utilization of services. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 252-261

  12. A Potential Synergy between Incomplete Arsenic Methylation Capacity and Demographic Characteristics on the Risk of Hypertension: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in an Arsenic-Endemic Area of Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with various health hazards induced by arsenic. In this study, we aimed to explore the interaction effect of lower arsenic methylation capacity with demographic characteristics on hypertension risk. A total of 512 adult participants (126 hypertension subjects and 386 non-hypertension subjects residing in an arsenic-endemic area in Inner Mongolia, China were included. Urinary levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA were measured for all subjects. The percentage of urinary arsenic metabolites (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%, primary methylation index (PMI and secondary methylation index (SMI were calculated to assess arsenic methylation capacity of individuals. Results showed that participants carrying a lower methylation capacity, which is characterized by lower DMA% and SMI, have a higher risk of hypertension compared to their corresponding references after adjusting for multiple confounders. A potential synergy between poor arsenic methylation capacity (higher MMA%, lower DMA% and SMI and older age or higher BMI were detected. The joint effects of higher MMA% and lower SMI with cigarette smoking also suggest some evidence of synergism. The findings of present study indicated that inefficient arsenic methylation capacity was associated with hypertension and the effect might be enhanced by certain demographic factors.

  13. The cross-sectional size and shape of human terminal scalp hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, P E; Thompson, J R

    1997-02-01

    Change in size of the hair shaft with distance form the scalp has been investigated, using a rotatory profile method of diameter measurement, in terminal human scalp hair of long-haired young Caucasian women. As the whole length of hairs having completed anagen are rarely found intact, two types of hair were investigated: those including segments produced at the onset of anagen ('anagen hairs'), and those including segments produced at the end of anagen ('telogen hairs'). In addition, a method of determining the cause of any size variation has been described and employed. Changes were found in the major axis of the hair cross-section, cross-sectional area and ellipticity with distance from the scalp, while the minor cross-sectional axis remained constant. It was established that these changes were the result of intrafollicular rather than extrafollicular mechanisms. Finally, a composite picture of the cross-sectional size and shape of the 'average' whole anagen hair of the study has been constructed. From the distal tip towards the scalp for approximately 6-8 cm, there was an abrupt increase in size, representing a starting-up phase of early anagen. Following this, the hair was at its greatest cross-sectional size and ellipticity which then progressively decreased through anagen (20% decrease for cross-sectional area and 13% for ellipticity). In contrast, the minor axis of the hair cross-section, remained constant throughout anagen. The hair was not therefore a uniformly sized cylinder. It was approximately spear-shaped, being broadened out in one plane distally where it was more elliptical. Subsequently as anagen progressed the hair shaft became smaller and more circular.

  14. Disaster characteristics and optimum cross-section design of drainage canal of debris flow in Ganlanba-sha Gully in the Baihetan reservoir area on the Jinsha River%金沙江白鹤滩水电站库区橄榄坝沙沟泥石流灾害及其排导槽的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游勇; 柳金峰; 陈兴长

    2012-01-01

      The Ganlanba-sha gully is a right branch of the Jinsha River, with a catchment area of 6.98 km2 and a total length of 5.32km. The precipitation of the gully is concentrated from May to October ac⁃counting for 90% of the year. The composition of landform,geology and rainstorm provides favorable condi⁃tion for the formation of debris flow. Through field observation,the characteristics of the debris flow in Gan⁃lanba-sha Gully can be described as viscous debris flow. The density of the gully is 2.0~2.2t/m3. The type of debris flow in the gully can be defined as rainstorm valley type with high density,high viscosity and high frequency. The major activity characteristics of debris flow are as follows:(1) The loose solid ma⁃terial for debris flow is mainly supplied by the slope landslip;(2) the frequency of the debris flow is very high;(3) rapid damage,strong erosion and great damage. Based on the analysis of the disaster characteris⁃tics,the optimal cross-section design method for the“trapezoid-v”shaped debris flow drainage canal of the Ganlanba-sha gully is discussed. The depths (h1 and h2) of the cross-section of the“trapezoid-v”shaped drainage canal and the optimal cross-section parameters using these two measurements are defined. In addi⁃tion, several formulae for calculating the cross-section measurements are deduced under optimal hydraulic conditions when discharge (Q),debris grain composition (D50) and longitudinal ratio (I) are known. Final⁃ly,the optimal dimensions for the cross-section of the Ganlanba-sha gully debris flow canal are determined.%  金沙江白鹤滩水电站库区右岸橄榄坝沙沟的泥石流活动具有松散固体物质以坡面崩塌补给为主、泥石流活动频率高和成灾快,冲刷强烈,危害严重等特征。在分析泥石流危害及活动特征的基础上,对橄榄坝沙沟泥石流排导槽的最佳过流横断面进行了分析研究,在已知排导槽排泄流量、排导槽纵

  15. Awareness and management of chronic disease, insurance status, and health professional shortage areas in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Raegan W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited financial and geographic access to primary care can adversely influence chronic disease outcomes. We examined variation in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia according to both geographic and financial access to care. Methods We analyzed data on 17,458 participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study with either hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes and living in either complete Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA counties or non-HPSA counties in the U.S. All analyses were stratified by insurance status and adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors. Results 2,261 residents lived in HPSA counties and 15,197 in non-HPSA counties. Among the uninsured, HPSA residents had higher awareness of both hypertension (adjusted OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.08, 4.89 and hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.01, 2.22 compared to non-HPSA residents. Also among the uninsured, HPSA residents with hypertension had lower blood pressure control (adjusted OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.29, 0.71 compared with non-HPSA residents. Similar differences in awareness and control according to HPSA residence were absent among the insured. Conclusions Despite similar or higher awareness of some chronic diseases, uninsured HPSA residents may achieve control of hypertension at lower rates compared to uninsured non-HPSA residents. Federal allocations in HPSAs should target improved quality of care as well as increasing the number of available physicians.

  16. A cross -sectional study on self -reported acute gastroenteritis in Hangzhou -Jiaxing -Huzhou area%杭嘉湖地区居民自报急性胃肠炎现况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 齐小娟; 吕鹏; 王绩凯; 陈莉莉; 章荣华

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解浙江省杭嘉湖地区居民自报急性胃肠炎的患病状况及人群分布。方法采用多阶段抽样方法按人囗容量比抽取调查户,于2010年7月—2011年6月每月入户按生日确定调查其中1名家庭成员在近四周内急性胃肠炎发生情况及其就诊等情况。结果共调查居民9548人,急性胃肠炎四周患病率为2.95%,发病率为0.39次/人年。推算杭嘉湖地区全年有587.56万人次感染急性胃肠炎。多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,女性四周患病率高于男性;7月和8月患病率较高;未到入学年龄人群急性胃肠炎四周患病率最高;农村患病率高于城市;家庭居住户人口数≥3人的月患病率高于居住人口数为1~2人户。56.38%的病例患病时曾去医院就诊,54.67%的病例服用抗菌药物;13.48%的病例因病误工,另有2.13%的病例因病误学。结论杭嘉湖地区人群自我报告急性胃肠炎患病率2.95%,自我报告患病率与性别、文化程度、月份(季节)、城乡居住地和家庭户人口数有关。%Objective To understand epidemiological characteristics of self -reported acute gastroenteritis in Hangzhou -Jiaxing -Huzhou area in Zhejiang Province.Methods According to the population capacity,the household interview was conducted among families selected by multi stage sampling method from July 2010 to June 2011,and one person who was approaching birthday in every family was selected for investigation, including symptoms and treatment of acute gastroenteritis.Results Totally 9 548 people were investigated.The monthly prevalence of acute gastroenteritis among the surveyed population was 2.95% and the incidence was 0.39 per person year.It was estimated that there would be 5.875 6 million cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred during this year in the area.Logistic regression analysis showed that monthly prevalence in female was higher than in male

  17. Review of empirical relationships between inlet cross-section and tidal prism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; Rakhorst, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Although other engineers had considered the relationship between tidal prism and inlet crosssectional area before, it is O’Brien who is usually credited for deriving the familiar relationship A = aPm, where A is the cross-sectional area (relative to mean sea level) and P is the spring tidal prism. T

  18. Cross-sectional study of rate-adaptive pacemaker in Shanghai area%频率应答起搏器在上海地区的应用情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骁; 毛家亮; 刘志刚; 李京波; 蒋金发; 李莹; 乔增勇; 宿燕岗; 葛均波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the use of rate-adaptive pacemaker in Shanghai area and provide a preliminary overview of application of rate-adaptive function in clinical practice. Methods We selected 16 hospitals covering most districts of Shanghai and collected data in the patient demographics,types of arrhythmi-a,types of pacemaker and status of rate-adaptive function of pacemakers that were implanted from February 2013 to February 2014. In addition,we analyzed clinicians’ perspective in rate-adaptive function by means of questionnaire. Results The proportion of rate-adaptive pacemaker was 74. 86 ( predominantly DDDR) . How-ever,only 36. 63% of these pacemaker had rate-adaptive function turned on. Most were kept turned off on pur-pose. The main reason for rate-adaptive function turned off was that patients had been used to low heart rate be-fore pacemaker implantation,leading to 50. 97% patients had it turned off during follow up. Clinicians paid little attention to chronotropic incompetence or age before rate-adaptive pacemaker implantation. Conclusion The proportion of rate-adaptive pacemaker is high. However,the proportion of these pacemakers that had rate-adap-tive function turned on is low. More attention should be paid to standardize default setting and follow up strategy of rate-adaptive pacemakers.%目的:调查上海地区频率应答起搏器的使用情况,为国内该领域提供较为客观的临床现状数据。方法选取覆盖上海多数区县的16家医院,对2013年2月至2014年2月已植入频率应答起搏器患者的人口学情况、心律失常原因、起搏器类型和开启及开启后关闭频率应答功能的情况进行回顾性研究。另外,问卷调查每家医院2~3名植入医生对频率应答起搏器使用情况等的看法。结果①频率应答起搏器植入比例高达74.86%(主要为DDDR),但频率应答功能开启比例不高(平均36.63%),主观有意识不开启R功能的主要原因;②开启

  19. Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.

  20. Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, William A.

    1980-07-01

    Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

  1. Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi, E-mail: minaxivinod@yahoo.co.in [V P and R P T P Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India); Limbachiya, Chetan, E-mail: chetanlimbachiya2@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Desai, Hardik, E-mail: hardikdesai.phy@gmail.com; Vinodkumar, P. C., E-mail: p.c.vinodkumar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India)

    2014-09-28

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH₂) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a π* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a σ* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

  2. Rest Areas in the Western United States<