WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit connection scheme

  1. An improved current control scheme for grid-connected DG unit based distribution system harmonic compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Wei Li, Yun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2013-01-01

    In order to utilize DG unit interfacing converters to actively compensate distribution system harmonics, this paper proposes an enhanced current control approach. It seamlessly integrates system harmonic mitigation capabilities with the primary DG power generation function. As the proposed current...... controller has two well decoupled control branches to independently control fundamental and harmonic DG currents, phase-locked loops (PLL) and system harmonic component extractions can be avoided during system harmonic compensation. Moreover, a closed-loop power control scheme is also employed to derive...... the fundamental current reference. The proposed power control scheme effectively eliminates the impacts of steady-state fundamental current tracking errors in the DG units. Thus, an accurate power control is realized even when the harmonic compensation functions are activated. Experimental results from a single...

  2. A robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fengtong

    2013-12-01

    User authentication plays an important role to protect resources or services from being accessed by unauthorized users. In a recent paper, Das et al. proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. This scheme uses three factors, e.g. biometrics, password, and smart card, to protect the security. It protects user privacy and is believed to have many abilities to resist a range of network attacks, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is compromised. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das et al.'s scheme, and show that the scheme is in fact insecure against the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks. Then, we also propose a robust uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. Compared with the existing schemes, our protocol uses a different user authentication mechanism to resist replay attack. We show that our proposed scheme can provide stronger security than previous protocols. Furthermore, we demonstrate the validity of the proposed scheme through the BAN (Burrows, Abadi, and Needham) logic.

  3. Connection Setup Signaling Scheme with Flooding-Based Path Searching for Diverse-Metric Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Ko; Ishii, Daisuke; Okamoto, Satoru; Oki, Eiji; Yamanaka, Naoaki

    Connection setup on various computer networks is now achieved by GMPLS. This technology is based on the source-routing approach, which requires the source node to store metric information of the entire network prior to computing a route. Thus all metric information must be distributed to all network nodes and kept up-to-date. However, as metric information become more diverse and generalized, it is hard to update all information due to the huge update overhead. Emerging network services and applications require the network to support diverse metrics for achieving various communication qualities. Increasing the number of metrics supported by the network causes excessive processing of metric update messages. To reduce the number of metric update messages, another scheme is required. This paper proposes a connection setup scheme that uses flooding-based signaling rather than the distribution of metric information. The proposed scheme requires only flooding of signaling messages with requested metric information, no routing protocol is required. Evaluations confirm that the proposed scheme achieves connection establishment without excessive overhead. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme greatly reduces the number of control messages compared to the conventional scheme, while their blocking probabilities are comparable.

  4. INTERNET CONNECTIVITY FOR MASS PRODUCED UNITS WITHOUT USER INTERFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    To the manufacturer of mass produced units without a user interface, typically field level units, connection of these units to a communications network for enabling servicing, control and trackability is of interest. To provide this connection, a solution is described in which an interface...

  5. A uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Fen; Yu, Shih-Hui; Shiao, Ding-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Connected health care provides new opportunities for improving financial and clinical performance. Many connected health care applications such as telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring have been proposed. Correct and quality care is the goal of connected heath care, and user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. After reviewing authentication schemes for connected health care applications, we find that many of them cannot protect patient privacy such that others can trace users/patients by the transmitted data. And the verification tokens used by these authentication schemes to authenticate users or servers are only password, smart card and RFID tag. Actually, these verification tokens are not unique and easy to copy. On the other hand, biometric characteristics, such as iris, face, voiceprint, fingerprint and so on, are unique, easy to be verified, and hard to be copied. In this paper, a biometrics-based user authentication scheme will be proposed to ensure uniqueness and anonymity at the same time. With the proposed scheme, only the legal user/patient himself/herself can access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data.

  6. Lyapunov-Based Control Scheme for Single-Phase Grid-Connected PV Central Inverters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meza, C.; Biel, D.; Jeltsema, D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    A Lyapunov-based control scheme for single-phase single-stage grid-connected photovoltaic central inverters is presented. Besides rendering the closed-loop system globally stable, the designed controller is able to deal with the system uncertainty that depends on the solar irradiance. A laboratory

  7. Considerations of coil protection and electrical connection schemes in large superconducting toroidal magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.

    1976-03-01

    A preliminary comparison of several different coil protection and electrical connection schemes for large superconducting toroidal magnet systems (STMS) is carried out. The tentative recommendation is to rely on external dump resistors for coil protection and to connect the coils in the toroidal magnet in several parallel loops (e.g., every fourth coil is connected into a single series loop). For the fault condition when a single coil quenches, the quenched coil should be isolated from its loop by switching devices. The magnet, as a whole, should probably be discharged if more than a few coils have quenched

  8. Improvement of a uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Liu, Wenhao; Wang, Shengbao; Han, Lidong; Hu, Bin; Wu, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Patient's privacy-preserving, security and mutual authentication between patient and the medical server are the important mechanism in connected health care applications, such as telecare medical information systems and personally controlled health records systems. In 2013, Wen showed that Das et al.'s scheme is vulnerable to the replay attack, user impersonation attacks and off-line guessing attacks, and then proposed an improved scheme using biometrics, password and smart card to overcome these weaknesses. However, we show that Wen's scheme is still vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks, does not provide user's anonymity and perfect forward secrecy. Further, we propose an improved scheme to fix these weaknesses, and use the applied pi calculus based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove the security and authentication.

  9. Coordinated Voltage Control Scheme for VSC-HVDC Connected Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yifei; Gao, Houlei; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a coordinated voltage control scheme based on model predictive control (MPC) for voltage source converter‐based high voltage direct current (VSC‐HVDC) connected wind power plants (WPPs). In the proposed scheme, voltage regulation capabilities of VSC and WTGs are fully utilized...... and optimally coordinated. Two control modes, namely operation optimization mode and corrective mode, are designed to coordinate voltage control and economic operation of the system. In the first mode, the control objective includes the bus voltages, power losses and dynamic Var reserves of wind turbine...

  10. Dynamic Evaluation of LCL-type Grid-Connected Inverters with Different Current Feedback Control Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Li, Zipeng; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    typical current feedback control schemes in LCL grid-connected system are analyzed and compared systematically. Analysis in s-domain take the effect of the digital computation and modulation delay into account. The stability analysis is presented by root locus in the discrete domain, the optimal values......Proportional-resonant (PR) compensator and LCL filter becomes a better choice in grid-connected inverter system with high performance and low costs. However, the resonance phenomenon caused by LCL filter affect the system stability significantly. In this paper, the stability problem of three...

  11. Fishing for meaningful units in connected speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Peter Juel; Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    In many branches of spoken language analysis including ASR, the set of smallest meaningful units of speech is taken to coincide with the set of phones or phonemes. However, fishing for phones is difficult, error-prone, and computationally expensive. We present an experiment, based on machine...

  12. Adaptive Protection Scheme for a Distribution System Considering Grid-Connected and Islanded Modes of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Ates

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy-based distributed generation (DG implementation in power systems has been an active research area during the last few decades due to several environmental, economic and political factors. Although the integration of DG offers many advantages, several concerns, including protection schemes in systems with the possibility of bi-directional power flow, are raised. Thus, new protection schemes are strongly required in power systems with a significant presence of DG. In this study, an adaptive protection strategy for a distribution system with DG integration is proposed. The proposed strategy considers both grid-connected and islanded operating modes, while the adaptive operation of the protection is dynamically realized considering the availability of DG power production (related to faults or meteorological conditions in each time step. Besides, the modular structure and fast response of the proposed strategy is validated via simulations conducted on the IEEE 13-node test system.

  13. A Combined Two-Method MPPT Control Scheme for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorofte, Christinel; Borup, Uffe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In order to increase the output efficiency of a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system it is important to have an efficient Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT). In the case of low irradiation, the Perturb and Observe (PO) and Incremental Conductance (IC) methods have a poor efficiency, because...... of the poor resolution in the acquired signals, when a fixed point implementation is done. A cost-effective two-method MPPT control scheme is proposed in this paper to track the maximum power point (MPP) at both low and high irradiation, by combining a Constant Voltage (CV) method and modified PO algorithm...

  14. Adapting Parcellation Schemes to Study Fetal Brain Connectivity in Serial Imaging Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Xi; Wilm, Jakob; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa

    2013-01-01

    A crucial step in studying brain connectivity is the definition of the Regions Of Interest (ROI's) which are considered as nodes of a network graph. These ROI's identified in structural imaging reflect consistent functional regions in the anatomies being compared. However in serial studies...... of the developing fetal brain such functional and associated structural markers are not consistently present over time. In this study we adapt two non-atlas based parcellation schemes to study the development of connectivity networks of a fetal monkey brain using Diffusion Weighted Imaging techniques. Results...... demonstrate that the fetal brain network exhibits small-world characteristics and a pattern of increased cluster coefficients and decreased global efficiency. These findings may provide a route to creating a new biomarker for healthy fetal brain development....

  15. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  16. A secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-06-01

    Connected health care has several applications including telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring. In such applications, user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. In user authentication for such applications, only the legal user/patient himself/herself is allowed to access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data. Chang et al. proposed a uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care (Chang et al., J Med Syst 37:9902, 2013). Their scheme uses the user's personal biometrics along with his/her password with the help of the smart card. The user's biometrics is verified using BioHashing. Their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function and exclusive-or (XOR) operations. In this paper, we show that though their scheme is very efficient, their scheme has several security weaknesses such as (1) it has design flaws in login and authentication phases, (2) it has design flaws in password change phase, (3) it fails to protect privileged insider attack, (4) it fails to protect the man-in-the middle attack, and (5) it fails to provide proper authentication. In order to remedy these security weaknesses in Chang et al.'s scheme, we propose an improvement of their scheme while retaining the original merit of their scheme. We show that our scheme is efficient as compared to Chang et al.'s scheme. Through the security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible attacks. Further, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, after successful authentication between the user and the server, they establish a secret session key shared between them for future secure communication.

  17. Use of a Generic Identification Scheme Connecting Events and Detector Description in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Arnault, C.

    2003-01-01

    High energy physics detectors can be described hierarchically from the different subsystems to their divisions in r, phi, theta and to the individual readout channels. An identification schema that follows the logical decomposition of the ATLAS detector has been introduced allowing identification of individual readout channels as well as other parts of the detector, in particular detector elements. These identifiers provide a sort of ?glue? allowing, for example, the connection of raw event data to their detector description for position calculation or alignment corrections, as well as fast access to subsets of the event data for event trigger selection. There are two important requirements on the software to support such an identification scheme. First is the possibility to formally specify these identifiers in terms of their structure and allowed values. And second is to generate different forms of the identifiers optimised in terms of access efficiency to information content, compactness or search key effi...

  18. Cross connecting absorber module inlets of multiple boiler units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, A.J.; Sperber, P.K.; Belavadi, V.N.; Mukherji, A.

    1991-01-01

    The retrofitting of scrubbers downstream of existing balanced draft boilers is often accomplished by the addition of induced draft (ID) booster fans. By creating a common plenum between the ID fans and the ID booster fans of two or more boiler-absorber trains, absorber module capacity may be shared among multiple boiler units. At Harrison Power Station, three (3) 4,900,000 lb/hour boilers (640 MWe Gross) will be linked through a common plenum. This sharing capability precludes the need to add standby module capacity, thereby saving capital dollars and keeping project critical path schedules, which typically run through absorber procurement and construction, to a minimum. Through damper placement in the ductwork cross connections, unitized boiler-absorber module operation or common plenum operation may be obtained, thus providing both operational flexibility and reliability. Additionally, open plenum operation allows the removal of an absorber unit from service, while keeping its associated boiler on line, thereby precluding 'cold starts' and maintaining overall unit availabilities. As either unitized or common plenum operation is possible with the cross connection, the furnace draft control systems of each boiler must be examined for varying load operation and trip conditions. This paper addresses the means by which to analyze such cross connection operational scenarios while maintaining compliance with furnace flame out safety guidelines, and will discuss the physical design considerations, ramifications and benefits of same, with select emphasis on what is being implemented at the Harrison Power Station

  19. Evaluating the impact of electrical grid connection on the wind turbine performance for Hofa wind farm scheme in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrazzaq, M.H.; Aloquili, O.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of wind energy is attributed to the development of turbine size and the increase in number of units in each wind farm. The current modern design of large wind turbines (WT) is directed towards producing efficient, sensitive and reliable units. To achieve this goal, modern turbines are equipped with several devices which are operated with highly advanced electronic circuits. Sensing instruments, measuring devices and control processes of major systems and subsystems are based on various types of electronic apparatus and boards. These boards are very sensitive to the voltage variations caused by abnormal conditions in both the turbine itself and the electric grid to which the wind farm is connected. This paper evaluates wind farm records and proposes a number of methods to overcome such obstacles associated with the design of large wind turbines. Several cases of grid abnormality such as sudden feeder interruption due to the short circuit, network disconnection, voltage variation and circuit breaker opening affecting wind turbines operation and availability are classified and presented. The weight of such impact is determined for each type of disturbances associated with electronic problems in the wind turbine. Wind turbine performance at Hofa wind farm scheme in Jordan is taken as a case study

  20. Voltage Control Scheme with Distributed Generation and Grid Connected Converter in a DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chan Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct Current (DC microgrids are expected to become larger due to the rapid growth of DC energy sources and power loads. As the scale of the system expends, the importance of voltage control will be increased to operate power systems stably. Many studies have been performed on voltage control methods in a DC microgrid, but most of them focused only on a small scale microgrid, such as a building microgrid. Therefore, a new control method is needed for a middle or large scale DC microgrid. This paper analyzes voltage drop problems in a large DC microgrid and proposes a cooperative voltage control scheme with a distributed generator (DG and a grid connected converter (GCC. For the voltage control with DGs, their location and capacity should be considered for economic operation in the systems. Accordingly, an optimal DG allocation algorithm is proposed to minimize the capacity of a DG for voltage control in DC microgrids. The proposed methods are verified with typical load types by a simulation using MATLAB and PSCAD/EMTDC.

  1. Effect of age on changes in motor units functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    With age, there is a change in functional connectivity of motor units in muscle. This leads to reduced muscle strength. This study has investigated the effect of age on the changes in the motor unit recruitment by measuring the mutual information between multiple channels of surface electromyogram (sEMG) of biceps brachii muscle. It is hypothesised that with ageing, there is a reduction in number of motor units, which can lead to an increase in the dependency of remaining motor units. This increase can be observed in the mutual information between the multiple channels of the muscle activity. Two channels of sEMG were recorded during the maximum level of isometric contraction. 28 healthy subjects (Young: age range 20-35years and Old: age range - 60-70years) participated in the experiments. The normalized mutual information (NMI), a measure of dependency factor, was computed for the sEMG recordings. Statistical analysis was performed to test the effect of age on NMI. The results show that the NMI among the older cohort was significantly higher when compared with the young adults.

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Resonance in LCL-Type Grid-Connected Inverters under Different Control Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basic building block in power systems, the three-phase voltage-source inverter (VSI connects the distributed energy to the grid. For the inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL-filter three-phase VSI, according to different current sampling position and different reference frame, there mainly exist four control schemes. Different control schemes present different impedance characteristics in their corresponding determined frequency range. To analyze the existing resonance phenomena due to the variation of grid impedances, the sequence impedance models of LCL-type grid-connected three-phase inverters under different control schemes are presented using the harmonic linearization method. The impedance-based stability analysis approach is then applied to compare the relative stability issues due to the impedance differences at some frequencies and to choose the best control scheme and the better controller parameters regulating method for the LCL-type three-phase VSI. The simulation and experiments both validate the resonance analysis results.

  3. Do storage dynamics in hydropedological units control hydrological connectivity? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Birkel, C.; Dick, J.; Geris, J.; Soulsby, C.

    2013-12-01

    In many northern landscapes, peat-dominated riparian wetlands often characterise the zone of connection between terrestrial drainage and the river network. In order to understand the relationship between connectivity and stream flow generation in a montane headwater catchment, we examined the storage dynamics and isotopic composition of soil water in major hydropedological units. These formed a classic catena sequence for northern catchments from free-draining podzols on steep upper hillslopes through to peaty gleysols in lower receiving slopes to deeper peats (Histosols) in the riparian zone. The peaty gleys and peats remained saturated throughout the year, whilst the podzols showed distinct wetting and drying cycles. In this climatic region, most precipitation events are less than 10mm in magnitude, storm runoff is mainly generated from the Histosols and Gleysols, with runoff coefficients (RCs) typically horizons of the soils due to mixing with larger volumes of stored water. This damping is accentuated in the deeper soil profile and groundwater. Consequently, the isotopic composition of stream water is also damped, but the strongly reflects that of the near surface waters in the riparian peats. Old 'pre-event' water generally accounts for >80% of flow, even in large events, mainly reflecting the displacement of water stored in the riparian peats and peaty gleys. These riparian areas appear to be the dominant zone where different catchment source waters mix; acting as an 'isostat' that regulates the isotopic composition of stream waters and integrates the Transit Time Distribution (TTD) for the catchment.

  4. Abolition of set-aside schemes and its impact on habitat connectivity in Denmark from 2007 - 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Gregor

    In Denmark, agriculture occupies 28,000 km² or 65% of the land. As a consequence, habitats for wild species are mainly characterized by small patches, surrounded by intensive agriculture. Due to extensive agricultural management, set-aside land can spatially connect habitats and thus positively...... affect habitat connectivity, which is of importance to the survival of wild species. In 2008 set-aside schemes were abolished, leading to a considerable re-cultivation of former set-aside land and consequently to a decline in the area of set-aside land from 6% of all agricultural land in 2007 to 3......% in 2008. The main argument against regulations of the re-cultivation of set-aside land with the aim to minimize declines in habitat-connectivity was that re-cultivation would primarily occur on highly productive land at a long distance from habitats, while set-aside land located on marginal land, close...

  5. A Highly Robust Single-Loop Current Control Scheme for Grid-Connected Inverter with an Improved LCCL Filter Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Donghua; Ruan, Xinbo; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    Single-loop current control is an attractive scheme for the LCL-type grid-connected inverter due to its simplicity and low cost. However, conventional single-loop control schemes, which command either the inverter current or the grid current, are subject to the specific resonance frequency regions....... The weighted average current control, which splits the filter capacitor into two parts (in form of an LCCL filter) and commands the current flowing between these two parts, is independent of the resonance frequency, but on the other hand, it is limited by the poor sensitivity to the grid impedance variation...... and weak stability in the grid current. These limitations are comprehensively explained in this paper and then addressed by identifying that the single-loop weighted average current control is equivalent to the dual-loop grid current control with an inherent capacitor current active damping. By tuning...

  6. Improved FRT Control Scheme for DFIG Wind Turbine Connected to a Weak Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Chen, Zhe; Iov, Florin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved coordinated fault ridethrough (FRT) control strategy for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine, (WT), in a weak grid. A technique for grid synchronization against voltage excursions, i.e., a Dual Second Order Generalized Integrator – Frequency ...... controllers to counteract rotor as well as stator currents and regulate the rotor speed. Simulation results which assure the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is presented....

  7. Minimization of entropy production in separate and connected process units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesjorde, Audun

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this thesis was to further develop a methodology for minimizing the entropy production of single and connected chemical process units. When chemical process equipment is designed and operated at the lowest entropy production possible, the energy efficiency of the equipment is enhanced. We have found for single process units that the entropy production could be reduced with up to 20-40%, given the degrees of freedom in the optimization. In processes, our results indicated that even bigger reductions were possible. The states of minimum entropy production were studied and important painter's for obtaining significant reductions in the entropy production were identified. Both from sustain ability and economical viewpoints knowledge of energy efficient design and operation are important. In some of the systems we studied, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was used to model the entropy production. In Chapter 2, we gave a brief introduction to different industrial applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The link between local transport phenomena and overall system description makes nonequilibrium thermodynamics a useful tool for understanding design of chemical process units. We developed the methodology of minimization of entropy production in several steps. First, we analyzed and optimized the entropy production of single units: Two alternative concepts of adiabatic distillation; diabatic and heat-integrated distillation, were analyzed and optimized in Chapter 3 to 5. In diabatic distillation, heat exchange is allowed along the column, and it is this feature that increases the energy efficiency of the distillation column. In Chapter 3, we found how a given area of heat transfer should be optimally distributed among the trays in a column separating a mixture of propylene and propane. The results showed that heat exchange was most important on the trays close to the re boiler and condenser. In Chapter 4 and 5, we studied how the entropy

  8. Thirty-six pulse rectifier scheme based on zigzag auto-connected transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Qiang Chen; Chun-Ling Hao; Hao Qiu; Min Li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a low kilo-volt-ampere rating zigzag connected autotransformer based 36-pulse rectifier system supplying vector controlled induction motor drives (VCIMD) is designed, modeled and simulated. Detailed design procedure and magnetic rating calculation of the proposed autotransformer and interphase reactor is studied. Moreover, the design process of the autotransformer is modified to make it suitable for retrofit applications. Simulation results confirm that the proposed 36-pulse re...

  9. A new encoding scheme for visible light communications with applications to mobile connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David M.; St. John Brittan, Paul

    2017-10-01

    A new, novel and unconventional encoding scheme called concurrent coding, has recently been demonstrated and shown to offer interesting features and benefits in comparison to conventional techniques, such as robustness against burst errors and improved efficiency of transmitted power. Free space optical communications can suffer particularly from issues of alignment which requires stable, fixed links to be established and beam wander which can interrupt communications. Concurrent coding has the potential to help ease these difficulties and enable mobile, flexible optical communications to be implemented through the use of a source encoding technique. This concept has been applied for the first time to optical communications where standard light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been used to transmit information encoded with concurrent coding. The technique successfully transmits and decodes data despite unpredictable interruptions to the transmission causing significant drop-outs to the detected signal. The technique also shows how it is possible to send a single block of data in isolation with no pre-synchronisation required between transmitter and receiver, and no specific synchronisation sequence appended to the transmission. Such systems are robust against interference - intentional or otherwise - as well as intermittent beam blockage.

  10. Thirty-six pulse rectifier scheme based on zigzag auto-connected transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low kilo-volt-ampere rating zigzag connected autotransformer based 36-pulse rectifier system supplying vector controlled induction motor drives (VCIMD is designed, modeled and simulated. Detailed design procedure and magnetic rating calculation of the proposed autotransformer and interphase reactor is studied. Moreover, the design process of the autotransformer is modified to make it suitable for retrofit applications. Simulation results confirm that the proposed 36-pulse rectifier system is able to suppress less than 35th harmonics in the utility line current. The influence of load variation and load character is also studied to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed 36-pulse rectifiers. A set of power quality indices at AC mains and DC link are presented to compare the performance of 6-, 24- and 36-pulse AC-DC converters.

  11. Cooperative control scheme for an HVDC system connected to an isolated BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, T.; Goto, K.; Kawai, T.; Matori, I.; Nakao, T.; Watanabe, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a cooperative control system to achieve stable operation of an isolated BWR nuclear plant linked to an HVDC system. In the proposed control system, under normal conditions the power plant is controlled according to the generating power reference and the generator frequency deviation is adjusted by converter power control. Such frequency control is also effective in the case of AC-DC system faults. In addition to the frequency control, an overload control is provided with the HVDC system, where the DC transmission power in the sound poles is increased due to a fault detection signal from the faulty pole. Effects of the above mentioned control systems were studied using digital dynamic programs. The sets of simulation results confirmed that in the case of a DC single pole fault, the plant is able to continue operation without any use of the turbine speed control units even for a restarting failure in the faulty pole. In case of a DC two pole fault, the plant is able to continue operation, being assisted by turbine speed control units when restarting in the faulty poles succeeds. In case of an AC three-line to ground fault near the AC terminal of the converter at the sending or receiving end, the system is able to continue stable operation, being supplemented by the turbine control unit when the faulty section of the AC system is isolated by a main or back-up relaying system

  12. A New Coordinated Voltage Control Scheme for Offshore AC Grid of HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Rather, Zakir Hussain

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a coordinated voltage control scheme (CVCS) which enhances the voltage ride through (VRT) capability of an offshore AC grid comprised of a cluster of offshore wind power plants (WPP) connected through AC cables to the offshore voltage source converter based high voltage DC (VSC......-HVDC) converter station. Due to limited short circuit power contribution from power electronic interfaced variable speed wind generators and with the onshore main grid decoupled by the HVDC link, the offshore AC grid becomes more vulnerable to dynamic voltage events. Therefore, a short circuit fault...... in the offshore AC Grid is likely to have significant implications on the voltage of the offshore AC grid, hence on the power flow to the onshore mainland grid. The proposed CVCS integrates individual local reactive power control of wind turbines and of the HVDC converter with the secondary voltage controller...

  13. Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2001-05-15

    With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which

  14. Cogeneration using small sized series connected units: Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondelli, F.; Bergamini, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper evidences the technical/economic feasibility of the use of methane fuelled modular cogeneration systems based on small series connected Otto or Diesel cycle engines delivering from 20 to 90 kW of power. Ample reference is made to the successful application of modular cogeneration systems to supply low temperature thermal energy to hospitals, hotels, food processing firms, etc., in Italy. The cost benefit analysis covers many aspects: design, manufacturing, operation, performance, maintenance and safety. Suggestions are also made as to optimum contractual arrangements for equipment service and maintenance, as well as, for the exchange of power with local utilities

  15. Physical criteria for the design and assessment of restoration schemes in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, R.N.; McQuire, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    The restoration of colliery wastes and open pit coal sites in the United Kingdom (UK) is undertaken according to a land use strategy plan and detailed specifications that have been agreed upon with the planning authorities. For two of the major land uses in the UK, agriculture and forestry, data on physical criteria (climate, site features and soils) are available to assist in the planning and design of land use strategies and specification of restoration treatments. Similar criteria could also be developed for the restoration of semi natural vegetation and habitats for landscape, wildlife, and amenity uses. Three examples are described illustrating the use of the physical criteria in the design of schemes, the specification of treatments, and the assessment of achievements

  16. Some problems connected with the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    The description of the eruption of radionuclides caused by the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident, including the effective time of the accident, quality and quantity of radio waste, is presented. A particular attention is given to the spotty structure of Chernobyl's contamination. The assumption that the spots distribution may be a consequence of the turbulent processes in the atmosphere is made

  17. EnviroAtlas - Watershed Index Online Hydrologically Connected Zone Mask for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Hydrologically Connected Zone (HCZ) Mask was determined using grid analysis to combine surface water features in the United States from three datasets: First,...

  18. Critical incidents connected to nurses’ leadership in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cantarella Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The goal of this study is to analyze nurses’ leadership in intensive care units at hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the face of positive and negative critical incidents. Method: Exploratory, descriptive study, conducted with 24 nurses by using the Critical Incident Technique as a methodological benchmark. Results: Results were grouped into 61 critical incidents distributed into categories. Researchers came to the conclusion that leadership-related situations interfere with IC nurses’ behaviors. Among these situations they found: difficulty in the communication process; conflicts in the daily exercise of nurses’ activities; people management; and the setting of high quality care targets. Final considerations: Researchers identified a mixed leadership model, leading them to the conclusion that nurses’ knowledge and practice of contemporary leadership theories/styles are crucial because they facilitate the communication process, focusing on behavioral aspects and beliefs, in addition to valuing flexibility. This positively impacts the organization’s results.

  19. ASP - Grid connections of large power generating units; ASP - Anslutning av stoerre produktionsanlaeggningar till elnaetet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Aake; Larsson, Richard [Vattenfall Power Consultants, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Grid connections of large power generating units normally require more detailed studies compared to small single units. The required R and D-level depends on the specific characteristics of the production units and the connecting grid. An inquiry for a grid connection will raise questions for the grid owner regarding transmission capability, losses, fault currents, relay protection, dynamic stability etc. Then only a few larger wind farms have been built, the experiences from these types of grid connections are limited and for that reason it can be difficult to identify issues appropriate for further studies. To ensure that electric power generating units do not have unacceptable impact on the grid, directions from the Swedish TSO (Svenska Kraftnaet) have been stated. The directions deal, for example, with power generation in specific ranges of voltage level and frequency and the possibility to remain connected to the grid when different faults occur. The requirements and the consequences of these directions are illustrated. There are three main issues that should be considered: Influence on the power flow from generating units regarding voltage level, currents, losses etc.; Different types of electric systems in generating units contribute to different levels of fault currents. For that reason the resulting fault current levels have to be studied; It is required that generating units should remain connected to the grid at different modes of operation and faults. These modes have to be verified. Load flow and dynamic studies normally demand computer models. Comprehensive models, for instance of wind farms, can bee difficult to design and normally large computer capacity is required. Therefore simplified methods to perform relevant studies are described. How to model an electric power generating unit regarding fault currents and dynamic stability is described. An inquiry for a grid connection normally brings about a discussion concerning administration. To make it

  20. A fully connected network of Bernoulli units with correlation learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, J. A.; Vilela Mendes, R.

    1996-02-01

    Biological evidence suggests that pattern recognition and associative memory in the mammalian nervous system operates through the establishment of spatio-temporal patterns of activity and not by the evolution towards an equilibrium point as in attractor neural networks. Information is carried by the space-time correlation of the activity intensities rather than by the details of individual neuron signals. Furthermore the fast recognition times that are achieved with relatively slow biological neurons seem to be associated to the chaotic nature of the basal nervous activity. To copy the biology hardware may not be technologically sound, but to look for inspiration in the efficient biological information processing methods is an idea that deserves consideration. Inspired by the mechanisms at work in the mammalian olfactory system we study a network where, in the absence of external inputs, the units have a dynamics of the Bernoulli shift type. When an external signal is presented, the pattern of excitation bursts depends on the learning history of the network. Association and pattern identification in the network operates by the selection, by the external stimulus, of distinct invariant measures in the chaotic system. The simplicity of the node dynamics, that is chosen, allows a reasonable analytical control of the network behavior.

  1. Critical incidents connected to nurses' leadership in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Elaine Cantarella; Bernardes, Andrea; Baldo, Priscila Lapaz; Maziero, Vanessa Gomes; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques; Balsanelli, Alexandre Pazetto

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze nurses' leadership in intensive care units at hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the face of positive and negative critical incidents. Exploratory, descriptive study, conducted with 24 nurses by using the Critical Incident Technique as a methodological benchmark. Results were grouped into 61 critical incidents distributed into categories. Researchers came to the conclusion that leadership-related situations interfere with IC nurses' behaviors. Among these situations they found: difficulty in the communication process; conflicts in the daily exercise of nurses' activities; people management; and the setting of high quality care targets. Researchers identified a mixed leadership model, leading them to the conclusion that nurses' knowledge and practice of contemporary leadership theories/styles are crucial because they facilitate the communication process, focusing on behavioral aspects and beliefs, in addition to valuing flexibility. This positively impacts the organization's results. Analisar a liderança do enfermeiro em Centros de Terapia Intensiva de hospitais localizados no interior do estado de São Paulo, diante de incidentes críticos positivos e negativos. Estudo exploratório, descritivo, realizado com 24 enfermeiros, que utilizou a Técnica do Incidente Crítico como referencial metodológico. Os resultados foram agrupados em 61 incidentes críticos distribuídos em categorias. Identificou-se que situações relacionadas à liderança interferem no comportamento do enfermeiro de Terapia Intensiva, dentre elas: dificuldade no processo de comunicação, conflitos existentes no dia a dia do exercício profissional, gerenciamento de pessoas e estabelecimento de metas para o alcance da assistência qualificada. Encontrou-se um modelo misto de liderança, o que permite concluir que o conhecimento e a prática dos enfermeiros acerca de teorias/estilos contemporâneos de liderança tornam-se fundamentais, pois

  2. A multiscale network analysis of protected-area connectivity for mammals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Emily S; Lookingbill, Todd R

    2010-12-01

    Protected areas must be close, or connected, enough to allow for the preservation of large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes, such as gene flow, migration, and range shifts in response to climate change. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether the network of protected areas in the United States is connected in a way that will preserve biodiversity over large temporal and spatial scales. It is also unclear whether protected-area networks that function for larger species will function for smaller species. We assessed the connectivity of protected areas in the three largest biomes in the United States. With methods from graph theory--a branch of mathematics that deals with connectivity and flow--we identified and measured networks of protected areas for three different groups of mammals. We also examined the value of using umbrella species (typically large-bodied, far-ranging mammals) in designing large-scale networks of protected areas. Although the total amount of protected land varied greatly among biomes in the United States, overall connectivity did not. In general, protected-area networks were well connected for large mammals but not for smaller mammals. Additionally, it was not possible to predict connectivity for small mammals on the basis of connectivity for large mammals, which suggests the umbrella species approach may not be an appropriate design strategy for conservation networks intended to protect many species. Our findings indicate different strategies should be used to increase the likelihood of persistence for different groups of species. Strategic linkages of existing lands should be a conservation priority for smaller mammals, whereas conservation of larger mammals would benefit most from the protection of more land. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Software for a magnetic dick drive unit connected with a computer TPA-1001-i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizarov, O.I.; Mateeva, A.; Salamatin, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    The disk drive unit with capacity 1250 K and minimal addressing part of memory 1 sector (128 10 -12-bit words) is connected with a TPA-1001-i computer. The operation regimes of the controller, functions and formats of the commands used are described as well as the software. The data transfer between the computer and magnetic disk drive unit is realized by means of programs relocatable in a binary form. These are inserted in a standard program library with modular structure. The manner of control handling and data transfer betweeen programs stored in the library on a magnetic disk drive are described. The resident program (100sub(8) words) inserted in a monitor takes into account special features of the disk drive unit being used. The algorithms of correction programs for a disk drive unit, programs for rewriting the library from papertape to disk drive unit and of the program for writing and reading the monitor are described

  4. Performance evaluation of modulation and multiple access schemes in ultraviolet optical wireless connections for two atmosphere thickness cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Nikos; Pikasis, Evangelos; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2016-08-01

    The exploitation of optical wireless communication channels in a non-line-of-sight regime is studied for point-to-point and networking configurations considering the use of light-emitting diodes. Two environments with different scattering center densities are considered, assuming operation at 265 nm. The bit error rate performance of both pulsed and multicarrier modulation schemes is examined, using numerical approaches. In the networking scenario, a central node only receives data, one node transmits useful data, and the rest of them act as interferers. The performance of the desirable node's transmissions is evaluated. The access to the medium is controlled by a code division multiple access scheme.

  5. Solar photovoltaic systems and their use as grid-connected generators in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, D K; Hacker, R J; Thornycroft, J M [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of building-integrated solar photovoltaic generators as grid-connected generators. This paper discusses the experience with this technology in Europe. Typical systems and their integration into domestic and non-domestic buildings are described. Information is provided on the energy output that can be expected from the systems and the economics of their use. The paper provides an overview of the requirements for photovoltaic systems as grid-connected generation plant in the United Kingdom. (Author)

  6. Performance Improvement for Two-Stage Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters Using a Fast DC Bus Control Scheme and a Novel Synchronous Frame Current Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingzhang Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-stage single-phase grid-connected converters are widely used in renewable energy applications. Due to the presence of a second harmonic ripple across the DC bus voltage, it is very challenging to design the DC bus voltage control scheme in single-phase grid-connected inverters. The DC bus voltage controller must filter the ripple and balance a tradeoff between low harmonic distortion and high bandwidth. This paper presents a fast DC bus voltage controller, which uses a second order digital finite impulse response (FIR notch filter in conjunction with input power feedforward scheme to ensure the steady-state and dynamic performance. To gain the input power without extra hardware, a Kalman filter is incorporated to estimate the DC bus input current. At the same time, a modulation compensation strategy is implemented to eliminate the nonlinearity of the grid current control loop, which is caused by the DC bus voltage ripple. Moreover, a novel synchronous frame current controller for single-phase systems is also introduced, and its equivalent model in stationary frame has been derived. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the effective of the proposed control scheme.

  7. Connecting Payments for Ecosystem Services and Agri-Environment Regulation: An Analysis of the Welsh Glastir Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne-Jones, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Policy debates in the European Union have increasingly emphasised "Payments for Ecosystem Services" (PES) as a model for delivering agri-environmental objectives. This paper examines the Glastir scheme, introduced in Wales in 2009, as a notable attempt to move between long standing models of European agri-environment regulation and…

  8. Design study on the efficiency of the thermal scheme of power unit of thermal power plants in hot climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlov, A.; Dorokhov, Y.; Rybakov, B.; Nenashev, A.

    2017-11-01

    At the stage of pre-proposals unit of the thermal power plants for regions with a hot climate requires a design study on the efficiency of possible options for the structure of the thermal circuit and a set of key parameters. In this paper, the thermal circuit of the condensing unit powerfully 350 MW. The main feature of the external conditions of thermal power plants in hot climates is the elevated temperature of cooling water of the turbine condensers. For example, in the Persian Gulf region as the cooling water is sea water. In the hot season of the year weighted average sea water temperature of 30.9 °C and during the cold season to 22.8 °C. From the turbine part of the steam is supplied to the distillation-desalination plant. In the hot season of the year heat scheme with pressure fresh pair of 23.54 MPa, temperature 570/560 °C and feed pump with electric drive (EDP) is characterized by a efficiency net of 0.25% higher than thermal schem with feed turbine pump (TDP). However, the supplied power unit with PED is less by 11.6 MW. Calculations of thermal schemes in all seasons of the year allowed us to determine the difference in the profit margin of units of the TDP and EDP. During the year the unit with the TDP provides the ability to obtain the profit margin by 1.55 million dollars more than the unit EDP. When using on the market subsidized price of electricity (Iran) marginal profit of a unit with TDP more at 7.25 million dollars.

  9. Value based pricing, research and development, and patient access schemes. Will the United Kingdom get it right or wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) should reward innovation it values. This will enable the NHS and the United Kingdom (UK) economy to benefit and impact positively on the Research and Development (R&D) decision making of companies. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) currently seeks to do this on behalf of the NHS. Yet the Office of Fair Trading proposals for Value Based Pricing add price setting powers--initially for the Department of Health (DH) and then for NICE. This introduces an additional substantial uncertainty that will impact on R&D and, conditional on R&D proceeding, on launch (or not) in the UK. Instead of adding to uncertainty the institutional arrangements for assessing value should seek to be predictable and science based, building on NICE's current arrangements. The real challenge is to increase understanding of the underlying cost-effectiveness of the technology itself by collecting evidence alongside use. The 2009 Pharmaceutical Price Regulation Scheme sought to help do this with Flexible Pricing (FP) and Patient Access Schemes (PASs). The PASs to date have increased access to medicines, but no schemes proposed to date have yet helped to tackle outcomes uncertainty. The 2010 Innovation Pass can also be seen as a form of 'coverage with evidence development.' The NHS is understandably concerned about the costs of running such evidence collection schemes. Enabling the NHS to deliver on such schemes will impact favourably on R&D decisions. Increasing the uncertainty in the UK NHS market through government price setting will reduce incentives for R&D and for early UK launch.

  10. MODELING OF THREE-PHASE THREE LEG TRANSFORMER DEVICES FOR ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS OF ASYMMETRICAL MODES FOR DIFFERENT SCHEMES OF WINDING CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosneaga V.A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The model is proposed for the calculation and research of steady state asymmetric modes and transients in three-phase three legs transformer devices with arbitrary diagram of windings connection, taking into account the electromagnetic coupling of the windings, located on different legs. Using as an example distribution transformer of 10/0.4 kV calculations and analysis were performed of the most characteristic steady asymmetrical modes, that occur during short circuit, phase failure, unbalanced load for the most common windings connections and, in particular, associated with the occurrence of zero sequence magnetic flow. For the considered regimes and schemes vector diagrams were constructed for currents and voltages as well as for the relative values of magnetic flow, which give a clear idea about their particular features.

  11. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  12. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor in the southwestern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett G Dickson

    Full Text Available The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate

  13. Overview of renewable energies during the first six-month period of 2013. Wind energy, Photovoltaic energy, Connection schemes (S3REnR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Illustrated by maps, graphs and tables, the first part of this document presents and comments data related to wind energy production. It addresses the status of the wind energy production stock (connected stock in June 2013, regional distribution, distribution in terms of power range, evolution of wind turbine and wind farm power), growth perspectives, and the role of wind energy production in the supply-demand balance (production and load factor, regional distribution of production and load factor, share in consumption coverage, wind energy production flow management). Using the same kind of presentation and the same issues, the second part presents and comments data related to photovoltaic energy production in France: photovoltaic stock (connected stock in June 2013, regional distribution, distribution in terms of power range), growth perspectives, and role of photovoltaic energy production in the supply-demand balance (production and load factor, production and load factor regional distribution, role in consumption coverage). The third part briefly presents data related to Regional Schemes of Connection to the renewable energy network (S3REnR) which ensure conditions of connection to the electric grid of all renewable energies

  14. NPP Cernavoda unit 2 economic viability: The challenge for an advanced financing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condu, M.; Popescu, D.

    1999-01-01

    The completion of Cernavoda Unit-2 being no doubt, the viability of the project was analyzed and strengthened. Economic justification of the decision to complete Unit-2 is described, including assessment of its safety design guides, design requirements and engineering design solutions in the light of changes in codes, guideline, standards and actual regulatory requirements. Cost-benefit analysis demonstrates the economic viability of the project

  15. Study on unitized inverter with photovoltaic grid-connected and stand-alone functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haining; Su, Jianhui; Ding, Ming [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei (China)

    2008-07-01

    The main circuit and algorithm of unitized single phase inverter are presented, in which photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected algorithm, independency sine inverter algorithm and storage battery charge administer are all integrated basing on DSP (Digital Signal Processor). The control system identifies utility failure initiatively and then switches to independency power supply automatically. The methods of charging battery are multiform. Basing on material term to use utility or solar array to charge can optimize charge efficiency, assure the capacitance of battery and prolong life-span of battery. In addition, some results are offered basing on the prototype of a 2.5kW single phase inverter. (orig.)

  16. Bonding with books: the parent-infant connection in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lynne J

    2013-01-01

    Parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience one of the most stressful events of their lives. At times, they are unable to participate fully, if at all, in the care of their infant. Parents in the NICU have a need to participate in the care of their infant to attain the parental role. Parental reading to infants in the NICU is an intervention that can connect the parent and infant and offers a way for parents to participate in caregiving. This intervention may have many benefits and may positively affect the parent-infant relationship.

  17. Leaving an emissions trading scheme : Implications for the United Kingdom and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Richard S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) may opt to leave the European Union (EU) emissions trading system (ETS) for greenhouse gases. This policy brief examines the implications. The UK is a large importer of emission permits. Thus, meeting its climate policy targets would be much more difficult without the EU ETS,

  18. Induction and Mentoring of Novice Teachers: A Scheme for the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2012-01-01

    Induction and mentoring of novice teachers have gained considerable worldwide attention. However, in the United Arab Emirates, graduates from teacher education programmes are recruited as teachers without being provided with any formal school-based support. They suffer from stress, overload, and low self-esteem and a high percentage leave…

  19. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon across southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern states produce about 50% of the watermelons in the United States (U.S.) where conditions are optimal for development of Phytophthora fruit rot prevail. Phytophthora fruit rot significantly limits watermelon production by causing serious yield losses to growers before and after harvest. ...

  20. Connecting Arctic Research Across Boundaries through the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R. H.; Myers, B.; Wiggins, H. V.; Zolkos, J.

    2017-12-01

    The complexities inherent in Arctic research demand a unique focus on making connections across the boundaries of discipline, institution, sector, geography, knowledge system, and culture. Since 1988, ARCUS has been working to bridge these gaps through communication, coordination, and collaboration. Recently, we have worked with partners to create a synthesis of the Arctic system, to explore the connectivity across the Arctic research community and how to strengthen it, to enable the community to have an effective voice in research funding policy, to implement a system for Arctic research community knowledge management, to bridge between global Sea Ice Prediction Network researchers and the science needs of coastal Alaska communities through the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook, to strengthen ties between Polar researchers and educators, and to provide essential intangible infrastructure that enables cost-effective and productive research across boundaries. Employing expertise in managing for collaboration and interdisciplinarity, ARCUS complements and enables the work of its members, who constitute the Arctic research community and its key stakeholders. As a member-driven organization, everything that ARCUS does is achieved through partnership, with strong volunteer leadership of each activity. Key organizational partners in the United States include the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, National Academy of Sciences Polar Research Board, and the North Slope Science Initiative. Internationally, ARCUS maintains strong bilateral connections with similarly focused groups in each Arctic country (and those interested in the Arctic), as well as with multinational organizations including the International Arctic Science Committee, the Association of Polar Early Career Educators, the University of the Arctic, and the Arctic Institute of North America. Currently, ARCUS is applying the best practices of the science of team science

  1. A solar PV augmented hybrid scheme for enhanced wind power generation through improved control strategy for grid connected doubly fed induction generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adikanda Parida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wind power generation scheme using a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG augmented with solar PV has been proposed. A reactive power-based rotor speed and position estimation technique with reduced machine parameter sensitivity is also proposed to improve the performance of the DFIG controller. The estimation algorithm is based on model reference adaptive system (MRAS, which uses the air gap reactive power as the adjustable variable. The overall generation reliability of the wind energy conversion system can be considerably improved as both solar and wind energy can supplement each other during lean periods of either of the sources. The rotor-side DC-link voltage and active power generation at the stator terminals of the DFIG are maintained constant with minimum storage battery capacity using single converter arrangement without grid-side converter (GSC. The proposed scheme has been simulated and experimentally validated with a practical 2.5 kW DFIG using dSPACE CP1104 module which produced satisfactory results.

  2. Improving the Distillate Prediction of a Membrane Distillation Unit in a Trigeneration Scheme by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Acevedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Neural Network (ANN has been developed to predict the distillate produced in a permeate gap membrane distillation (PGMD module with process operating conditions (temperatures at the condenser and evaporator inlets, and feed seawater flow. Real data obtained from experimental tests were used for the ANN training and further validation and testing. This PGMD module constitutes part of an isolated trigeneration pilot unit fully supplied by solar and wind energy, which also provides power and sanitary hot water (SHW for a typical single family home. PGMD production was previously estimated with published data from the MD module manufacturer by means of a new type in the framework of Trnsys® simulation within the design of the complete trigeneration scheme. The performance of the ANN model was studied and improved through a parametric study varying the number of neurons in the hidden layer, the number of experimental datasets and by using different activation functions. The ANN obtained can be easily exported to be used in simulation, control or process analysis and optimization. Here, the ANN was finally used to implement a new type to estimate the PGMD production of the unit by using the inlet parameters obtained by the complete simulation model of the trigeneration unit based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES.

  3. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions

  4. Evaluation of structural deformations of a mechanical connecting unit oxidizer supplies by thermo-mechanical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Woo [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Machine Convergence Technology, Hankyong National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A Mechanical connecting unit (MCU) used in ground facilities for a Liquid propellant rocket (LPR) acts as a bridge between the onboard system and the ground oxidizer filling system. It should be resistant to structural deformations in order to guarantee successful supply of a cryogenic oxidizer and high pressure gases without reduction of sealing capability. The MCU consists of many components and linkages and operates under harsh conditions induced by a cryogenic oxidizer, high pressure gases and other mechanical forces. Thus, the evaluation of structural deformation of the MCU considering complex conditions is expensive and time consuming. The present study efficiently evaluates the structural deformations of the key components of the MCU by Thermo-mechanical simulation (TMS) based on the superposition principle. Deformations due to the mechanical loadings including weights, pressures, and spring forces are firstly evaluated by using a non-linear flexible body simulation module (FFlex) of Multi-body dynamics (MBD) software, RecurDyn. Then, thermal deformations for the deformed geometries obtained by RecurDyn were subsequently calculated. It was conducted by using a Finite element (FE) analysis software, ANSYS. The total deformations for the onboard plate and multi-channel plate in the connecting section due to the mechanical and thermal loadings were successfully evaluated. Moreover, the outer gaps at six points between two plates were calculated and verified by comparison to the measured data. Their values and tendencies showed a good agreement. The author concluded that the TMS using MBD software considering flexible bodies and an FE simulator can efficiently evaluate structural deformations of the MCU operating under the complex load and boundary conditions.

  5. Wide-area measurement system-based supervision of protection schemes with minimum number of phasor measurement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajare, Swaroop; Rao, J Ganeswara; Naidu, O D; Pradhan, Ashok Kumar

    2017-08-13

    Cascade tripping of power lines triggered by maloperation of zone-3 relays during stressed system conditions, such as load encroachment, power swing and voltage instability, has led to many catastrophic power failures worldwide, including Indian blackouts in 2012. With the introduction of wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) into the grids, real-time monitoring of transmission network condition is possible. A phasor measurement unit (PMU) sends time-synchronized data to a phasor data concentrator, which can provide a control signal to substation devices. The latency associated with the communication system makes WAMS suitable for a slower form of protection. In this work, a method to identify the faulted line using synchronized data from strategic PMU locations is proposed. Subsequently, a supervisory signal is generated for specific relays in the system for any disturbance or stressed condition. For a given system, an approach to decide the strategic locations for PMU placement is developed, which can be used for determining the minimum number of PMUs required for application of the method. The accuracy of the scheme is tested for faults during normal and stressed conditions in a New England 39-bus system simulated using EMTDC/PSCAD software. With such a strategy, maloperation of relays can be averted in many situations and thereby blackouts/large-scale disturbances can be prevented.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Control scheme towards enhancing power quality and operational efficiency of single-phase two-stage grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Salem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high reliable grid-connected photovoltaic (PV systems with high power quality and high operation efficiency is highly required for distributed generation units. A double grid-frequency voltage ripple is found on the dc-link voltage in single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected systems due to the unbalance of the instantaneous dc input and ac output powers. This voltage ripple has undesirable effects on the power quality and operational efficiency of the whole system. Harmonic distortion in the injected current to the grid is one of the problems caused by this double grid-frequency voltage ripple. The double grid frequency ripple propagates to the PV voltage and current which disturb the extracted maximum power from the PV array. This paper introduces intelligent solutions towards mitigate the side effects of the double grid-frequency voltage ripple on the transferred power quality and the operational efficiency of single-phase two-stage grid-connected PV system. The proposed system has three control loops: MPPT control loop, dc-link voltage control loop and inverter current control loop. Solutions are introduced for all the three control loops in the system. The current controller cancels the dc-link voltage effect on the total harmonic distortion of the output current. The dc-link voltage controller is designed to generate a ripple free reference current signal that leads to enhance the quality of the output power. Also a modified MPPT controller is proposed to optimize the extracted power from the PV array. Simulation results show that higher injected power quality is achieved and higher efficiency of the overall system is realized.

  7. Optimal interpolation schemes to constrain pmPM2.5 in regional modeling over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousan, Sinan Dhia Jameel

    This thesis presents the use of data assimilation with optimal interpolation (OI) to develop atmospheric aerosol concentration estimates for the United States at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Concentration estimates are highly desirable for a wide range of applications, including visibility, climate, and human health. OI is a viable data assimilation method that can be used to improve Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model fine particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates. PM2.5 is the mass of solid and liquid particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 µm suspended in the gas phase. OI was employed by combining model estimates with satellite and surface measurements. The satellite data assimilation combined 36 x 36 km aerosol concentrations from CMAQ with aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by MODIS and AERONET over the continental United States for 2002. Posterior model concentrations generated by the OI algorithm were compared with surface PM2.5 measurements to evaluate a number of possible data assimilation parameters, including model error, observation error, and temporal averaging assumptions. Evaluation was conducted separately for six geographic U.S. regions in 2002. Variability in model error and MODIS biases limited the effectiveness of a single data assimilation system for the entire continental domain. The best combinations of four settings and three averaging schemes led to a domain-averaged improvement in fractional error from 1.2 to 0.97 and from 0.99 to 0.89 at respective IMPROVE and STN monitoring sites. For 38% of OI results, MODIS OI degraded the forward model skill due to biases and outliers in MODIS AOD. Surface data assimilation combined 36 × 36 km aerosol concentrations from the CMAQ model with surface PM2.5 measurements over the continental United States for 2002. The model error covariance matrix was constructed by using the observational method. The observation error covariance matrix included site representation that

  8. Multiscale Free Energy Simulations: An Efficient Method for Connecting Classical MD Simulations to QM or QM/MM Free Energies Using Non-Boltzmann Bennett Reweighting Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of free energy simulations (FES) is limited by two factors: (a) the need for correct sampling and (b) the accuracy of the computational method employed. Classical methods (e.g., force fields) are typically used for FES and present a myriad of challenges, with parametrization being a principle one. On the other hand, parameter-free quantum mechanical (QM) methods tend to be too computationally expensive for adequate sampling. One widely used approach is a combination of methods, where the free energy difference between the two end states is computed by, e.g., molecular mechanics (MM), and the end states are corrected by more accurate methods, such as QM or hybrid QM/MM techniques. Here we report two new approaches that significantly improve the aforementioned scheme; with a focus on how to compute corrections between, e.g., the MM and the more accurate QM calculations. First, a molecular dynamics trajectory that properly samples relevant conformational degrees of freedom is generated. Next, potential energies of each trajectory frame are generated with a QM or QM/MM Hamiltonian. Free energy differences are then calculated based on the QM or QM/MM energies using either a non-Boltzmann Bennett approach (QM-NBB) or non-Boltzmann free energy perturbation (NB-FEP). Both approaches are applied to calculate relative and absolute solvation free energies in explicit and implicit solvent environments. Solvation free energy differences (relative and absolute) between ethane and methanol in explicit solvent are used as the initial test case for QM-NBB. Next, implicit solvent methods are employed in conjunction with both QM-NBB and NB-FEP to compute absolute solvation free energies for 21 compounds. These compounds range from small molecules such as ethane and methanol to fairly large, flexible solutes, such as triacetyl glycerol. Several technical aspects were investigated. Ultimately some best practices are suggested for improving methods that seek to connect

  9. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  10. Micro grid control strategy of DFIG unit based on improved DC grid connected topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongze, Xia; Fei, Xia; Zhixiong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Aiming to the application of the DFIG connected to DC-Microgrids, an improved topology for the DFIG connected to DC-Microgrids is taken into account in this thesis. The stator side loses the support of voltage and frequency of AC point of common coupling bus. A novel control method suitable to the stator side converter (SSC) and the rotor side converter (RSC) of the topology is proposed. The independent control of stator voltage and frequency, the decoupled control of power and variable speed constant frequency of DFIG are achieved in the doubly-fed induction generator connected to DC-Microgrids. which can enhance the capacity of active power transmission of DFIG during the voltage variation.

  11. Patterns and drivers for wetland connections in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Christensen, Jay R.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem function in rivers, lakes and coastal waters depends on the functioning of upstream aquatic ecosystems, necessitating an improved understanding of watershed-scale interactions including variable surface-water flows between wetlands and streams. As surface water in the Prairie Pothole Region expands in wet years, surface-water connections occur between many depressional wetlands and streams. Minimal research has explored the spatial patterns and drivers for the abundance of these connections, despite their potential to inform resource management and regulatory programs including the U.S. Clean Water Act. In this study, wetlands were identified that did not intersect the stream network, but were shown with Landsat images (1990–2011) to become merged with the stream network as surface water expanded. Wetlands were found to spill into or consolidate with other wetlands within both small (2–10 wetlands) and large (>100 wetlands) wetland clusters, eventually intersecting a stream channel, most often via a riparian wetland. These surface-water connections occurred over a wide range of wetland distances from streams (averaging 90–1400 m in different ecoregions). Differences in the spatial abundance of wetlands that show a variable surface-water connection to a stream were best explained by smaller wetland-to-wetland distances, greater wetland abundance, and maximum surface-water extent. This analysis demonstrated that wetland arrangement and surface water expansion are important mechanisms for depressional wetlands to connect to streams and provides a first step to understanding the frequency and abundance of these surface-water connections across the Prairie Pothole Region.

  12. Connecting College Learners with Rural Entrepreneurship Opportunities: The Rural Entrepreneurship Teaching Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Barbara J.; Niehm, Linda S.; Stoel, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The Rural Entrepreneurship Teaching Unit (RETU) is designed to acquaint university retailing and hospitality majors with rural entrepreneurship opportunities. The unit is an outcome of a federal grant focused on the contribution of the local retail sector to rural community resilience. The RETU integrates knowledge regarding rural development,…

  13. Landscape connectivity for bobcat (Lynx rufus) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Laura E.; Levy, Daniel M.; Donovan, Therese M.; Mickey, Ruth M.; Howard, Alan; Vashon, Jennifer; Freeman, Mark; Royar, Kim; Kilpatrick, C. William

    2018-01-01

    Landscape connectivity is integral to the persistence of metapopulations of wide ranging carnivores and other terrestrial species. The objectives of this research were to investigate the landscape characteristics essential to use of areas by lynx and bobcats in northern New England, map a habitat availability model for each species, and explore connectivity across areas of the region likely to experience future development pressure. A Mahalanobis distance analysis was conducted on location data collected between 2005 and 2010 from 16 bobcats in western Vermont and 31 lynx in northern Maine to determine which variables were most consistent across all locations for each species using three scales based on average 1) local (15 minute) movement, 2) linear distance between daily locations, and 3) female home range size. The bobcat model providing the widest separation between used locations and random study area locations suggests that they cue into landscape features such as edge, availability of cover, and development density at different scales. The lynx model with the widest separation between random and used locations contained five variables including natural habitat, cover, and elevation—all at different scales. Shrub scrub habitat—where lynx’s preferred prey is most abundant—was represented at the daily distance moved scale. Cross validation indicated that outliers had little effect on models for either species. A habitat suitability value was calculated for each 30 m2 pixel across Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine for each species and used to map connectivity between conserved lands within selected areas across the region. Projections of future landscape change illustrated potential impacts of anthropogenic development on areas lynx and bobcat may use, and indicated where connectivity for bobcats and lynx may be lost. These projections provided a guide for conservation of landscape permeability for lynx, bobcat, and species relying on similar habitats

  14. Definition of the roentgen in connection with this unit's application for all ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poroikov, I. V.

    1956-07-01

    Revision of the All-union State Standard for the roentgen is discussed. It is recommended that the roentgen be considered a unit of ionization and roentgen/sec should be called increment of ionization instead of dose rate. (J.R.D.)

  15. Black bear population and connectivity in the Sky Islands of Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. E. Lara-Diaz; C. A. Lopez-Gonzalez; H. Coronel-Arellano; A. Gonzalez-Bernal

    2013-01-01

    The Sky Island region is a mountainous region surrounded by grasslands, deserts and intermountain valleys, located between Mexico and the United States. However, different land management and human impact can have an effect on its wildlife populations. Currently, the border wall poses an immediate threat to the survival of black bears (Ursus americanus), considered an...

  16. Regional changes and global connections: monitoring climate variability and change in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry F. Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the Western United States are complex and include cold desert biomes, such as those found in Nevada; subpolar biomes found in the upper treeline zone; and tundra ecosystems, occurring above timberline. Many studies (for example, Thompson 2000) suggest that high-elevation environments, comprising glaciers, snow, permafrost, water, and the...

  17. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  18. Effect of grid disturbances on fault-ride-through behaviour of MV-connected DG-units, in especially CHP-plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coster, E.J.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    In the near future a significant amount of the consumed electrical energy will be generated by distributed generation (DG). Because of the small size these units are normally connected to the local distribution grid [1]. Connection of DG changes the operation of the distribution grid. In order to

  19. Cross-connected onsite emergency A.C. power supplies for multi-unit nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martore, J.A.; Voss, J.D.; Duncil, B.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, utility management, both at the corporate and plant operations levels, have reinforced their commitment to assuring increased plant reliability and availability. One means of achieving this objective involves an effective preventive maintenance program with technical specifications which allow implementation of certain preventive maintenance without plant shutdown. To accomplish this, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has proposed a design change for San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) units 2 and 3 to permit on emergency diesel generator for one unit to perform as an available AC power source for both units. Technical specifications for SCE's SONGS units 2 and 3, as at most nuclear power plants, currently require plant shutdown should one of the two dedicated onsite emergency AC power sources (diesel generators) become inoperable for more than 72 hours. This duration hinders root cause failure analysis, tends to limit the flexibility of preventive maintenance and precludes plant operation in the event of component failure. Therefore, this proposed diesel generator cross-connect design change offers an innovative means for averting plant shutdown should a single diesel generator become inoperable for longer than 72 hours. (orig./GL)

  20. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  1. Ecumenical movement for millennials: A generation connected but not yet united

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Pantou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the notion ‘ecumenism’ is defined as a connecting movement of reconciling diversity, and the focus is on young people, referred to as ‘millennials’ living in the present-day global village. It addresses the youth’s interests or disinterests in the ‘institutionalised’ ecumenical movement. The following aspects are reflected upon: how ecumenism speaks to the youth; how ecumenism does not speak to the youth; and how to make ecumenism great again for the youth. It discusses young people’s perspectives on the world with regard to religion and tradition, sources of authority, issues of segregation and discrimination, ‘nomadic’ and a mentality which causes that one cannot expect them to stay in one church from baptism until death. The article reflects on the youth’s disposition to human realities concerning aspects such as the ecological crisis, global inequality, religious fundamentalism, violence and oppression, and the lack of a sense of belonging. The article concludes with some initiatives of the World Council of Churches to which young people can make a contribution.

  2. The 2012 Fungal Meningitis Outbreak in the United States: Connections Between Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Lynn; Brevik, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In September of 2012 the United States found itself facing a fungal meningitis outbreak that was traced back to contaminated steroid injections. The fungus Exserohilium rostratum, which is found in soil, among other locations in the environment, was identified as the main cause of the health issues created by the contaminated steroids. As of November 7, 2012 419 cases of fungal meningitis, stroke due to presumed fungal meningitis, or other central nervous system-related infections, 10 cases of peripheral joint infections, and 31 deaths linked to the contaminated steroids had been documented. However, the life cycle and soil ecology of E. rostratum is not well understood, and such knowledge would aid human health professionals in understanding the pathogenic potential of E. rostratum. Therefore, soil scientists have a role to play in developing the most effective ways to combat human health challenges such as the 2012 fungal meningitis outbreak.

  3. A Location-Based Duplex Scheme for Cost Effective Rural Broadband Connectivity Using IEEE 802.22 Cognitive Radio Based Wireless Regional Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidoss, R.; Bhagyaveni, M. A.; Vishvaksenan, K. S.

    2014-08-01

    The search for a method of utilizing the scarce spectrum in an efficient manner is an active area of research in both academic and industrial communities. IEEE 802.22 is a standard for wireless regional area network (WRAN) based on cognitive radio (CR) that operates over underutilized portions of TV bands (54-862 MHz). Time division duplex (TDD)-based WRAN cells have such advantages as dynamic traffic allocation, traffic asymmetry to users and ease of spectrum allocation. However, these cells suffer from severe cross time slot (CTS) interference when the frames of the cells are not synchronized with adjacent WRAN cells. In this paper, we evaluate the location-based duplex (LBD) scheme for eliminating the CTS interference. The proposed LBD system is much more flexible and efficient in providing asymmetric data service and eliminating CTS interference by exploiting the advantages of both TDD and frequency division duplex (FDD) schemes. We also compare the performance of LBD systems with virtual cell concepts. Furthermore, our simulation results reveal that LBD-based systems outperform the virtual cell approach in terms of the low signal-to-interference (SIR) ratio requirement by mitigating the effects of CTS.

  4. A Technical Evaluation of Wireless Connectivity from Patient Monitors to an Anesthesia Information Management System During Intensive Care Unit Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Galvez, Jorge A; England, W Randall; Wartman, Elicia C; Scott, James H; Hamid, Michael M; Rehman, Mohamed A; Epstein, Richard H

    2016-02-01

    Surgical procedures performed at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were documented using paper anesthesia records in contrast to the operating rooms, where an anesthesia information management system (AIMS) was used for all cases. This was largely because of logistical problems related to connecting cables between the bedside monitors and our portable AIMS workstations. We implemented an AIMS for documentation in the NICU using wireless adapters to transmit data from bedside monitoring equipment to a portable AIMS workstation. Testing of the wireless AIMS during simulation in the presence of an electrosurgical generator showed no evidence of interference with data transmission. Thirty NICU surgical procedures were documented via the wireless AIMS. Two wireless cases exhibited brief periods of data loss; one case had an extended data gap because of adapter power failure. In comparison, in a control group of 30 surgical cases in which wired connections were used, there were no data gaps. The wireless AIMS provided a simple, unobtrusive, portable alternative to paper records for documenting anesthesia records during NICU bedside procedures.

  5. A Wireless Swing Angle Measurement Scheme Using Attitude Heading Reference System Sensing Units Based on Microelectromechanical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload and the jib (or base of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system.

  6. An in situ hand calibration method using a pseudo-observation scheme for low-end inertial measurement units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, You; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang

    2012-01-01

    MEMS chips have become ideal candidates for various applications since they are small sized, light weight, have low power consumption and are extremely low cost and reliable. However, the performance of MEMS sensors, especially their biases and scale factors, is highly dependent on environmental conditions such as temperature. Thus a quick and convenient calibration is needed to be conducted by users in field without any external equipment or any expert knowledge of calibration. A novel and efficient in situ hand calibration method is presented to meet these demands in this paper. The algorithm of the proposed calibration method makes use of the navigation algorithm of the loosely-coupled GPS/INS integrated systems, but replaces the GPS observations with a kind of pseudo-observations, which can be stated as follows: if an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was rotating approximately around its measurement center, the range of its position and its linear velocity both would be within a limited scope. Using a Kalman filtering algorithm, the biases and scale factors of both accelerometer triad and gyroscope triad can be calibrated together within a short period (about 30 s), requiring only motions by hands. Real test results show that the proposed method is suitable for most consumer grade MEMS IMUs due to its zero cost, easy operation and sufficient accuracy. (paper)

  7. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  8. The Text of the Instrument connected with the Agency's Assistance to the United Arab Republic in Establishing a Project for Training and Medical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-06-09

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Government of the United Arab Republic in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in establishing a project for training and medical applications of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  9. The Text of the Instrument connected with the Agency's Assistance to the United Arab Republic in Establishing a Project for Training and Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Government of the United Arab Republic in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in establishing a project for training and medical applications of atomic energy is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  10. Tradable schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we present a new approach to the numerical valuation of derivative securities. The method is based on our previous work where we formulated the theory of pricing in terms of tradables. The basic idea is to fit a finite difference scheme to exact solutions of the pricing

  11. Development of the scheme of stepwise combustion of coal in the inverter firebox of a power unit of 1000 MW power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, V. B.; Chernov, S. L.; Kirichkov, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    The desire to increase the efficiency of using the heat of burned solid fuel leads to the significant growth of the initial steam parameter at steam-turbine plants. At the maximum temperatures of fresh and secondary steam of 700-720°C, the price of connecting of steam pipelines between the boiler and turbine is up to 20% of the price of a power plant unit, which dictates the necessity to decrease their length. One of the methods to achieve this is the application of an inverter firebox. An M-shaped profile of boiler, allowing one to decrease the length of heat-resistant steam pipelines, was developed at NRU MPEI. A distinctive feature of the profile is two inclined connecting gas flues between the firebox and convective shaft, starting from the gas windows located in the lower third of the firebox height. The boiler was designed for the steam production of 2493 t/h with the parameters of fresh steam of 35 MPa and 710°C. Thermal and aerodynamic calculations made it possible to get the sizes of boiler and dimensions of heating surfaces, and they also allow one to get the values of temperatures in the characteristic points along the gas path. On the basis of the results of calculations, the coefficient of efficiency of the boiler was 93.07% and the fuel consumption was 91.13 kg/s. For this boiler, the technology of effective stepwise burning of coal in a direct-flow-vortex torch (DFVT) in a system of vertical and horizontal tangential torches in the mode of solid slag removal, previously successively used in boilers with a traditional profile and upgraded to an inverter firebox, is proposed. The layouts of the direct-flow burners and nozzles for even and odd vertical sections of the firebox and also in a horizontal section were proposed. Organization of staged air supply in the vertical direction with a high fraction of in-firebox recycle of hot gases leads to low concentration of nitrogen oxides.

  12. Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A. V.; Komarov, A. N.; Safronov, A. N.; Barsukov, I. V.

    2009-01-01

    The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power generating units of thermal power plants over to control by a centralized system for automatic frequency and power regulation and by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation is presented. The results of full-scale system tests of the control of power generating units of the Kirishskaya, Stavropol, and Perm GRES (State Regional Electric Power Plants) by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation at the United Power System of Russia on September 23-25, 2008, are reported.

  13. Communication dated 30 May 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA concerning enrichment bonds - A voluntary scheme for reliable access to nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 30 May 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA attaching a UK Non-paper entitled 'Food for Thought: Enrichment Bonds - A Voluntary Scheme for Reliable Access to Nuclear Fuel'. As requested in that letter, the letter and the attachment is now being circulated for the information of all Member States

  14. Waiting lists in the electricity sector. Method for the connection regime in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Neut Kolfschoten, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    In the past few years the Netherlands and Great Britain have seen a significant increase in the number of connection applications from both conventional and renewable generators. As there is insufficient transmission capacity to accommodate these applications a queue system was introduced. These queues are considered an obstacle for meeting the government's renewable targets and therefore in both countries a review of the current access regime was kicked off. Despite or perhaps due to their 'consensus culture' the Dutch government has decided on the way forward, whereas in Great Britain the options - including capacity auctions - are still being debated. In the Netherlands the connection queue will be abolished, every generator will be able to connect before wider system reinforcements have been carried out and constraints will be resolved by the introduction of congestion management. Although this may seem a sensible way forward as it is expected that it will result in indirect priority access for renewables, it may still be useful to consider the mixed British experience with regards to congestion management. The article describes the background to the connection queues and it provides a high-level overview of the regulatory framework and the developments and ongoing debates in the Netherlands and Great Britain [nl

  15. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  16. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  17. Contact and Connection: A Cross-Cultural Look at Parenting Styles in Bali and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestenberg-Amighi, Janet

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that a culturally approved style of nonverbal parent-infant interaction influences the unfolding parent-child relationship and the child's social development. The author, an anthropologist, compares parenting styles in the "low-contact" culture of the United States with parenting in the "high-contact"…

  18. The Connections among Immigration, Nation Building, and Adult Education English as a Second Language Instruction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception at the turn of the last century, adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the United States has been entwined with immigration processes and ideas of the nation. In spite of current uncertainty about the overhauling of federal immigration policy, increasingly anti-immigrant laws in states such as…

  19. A control approach for the operation of DG units under variations of interfacing impedance in grid-connected mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseini, S. Kazem; Pouresmaeil, E.; Hosseinnia, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    . However, the converter-based DG interface is subjected to the unexpected uncertainties, which highly influence performance of control loop of DG unit and operation of interfaced converter. The interfacing impedance seen by interfaced VSC may considerably vary in power grid, and the stability of interfaced...... converter is highly sensitive to the impacts of this impedance changes; then, DG unit cannot inject appropriate currents. To deal with the instability problem, a control method based on fractional order active sliding mode is proposed in this paper, which is less sensitive to variations of interfacing...... impedance. A fractional sliding surface, which demonstrates the desired dynamics of system is developed and then, the controller is designed in two phases as sliding and reaching phases to keep the control loop stable. Stability issues of the control method are discussed in details and the conditions...

  20. Development of new process network for gas chromatograph and analyzers connected with SCADA system and Digital Control Computers at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneanu, Cornel; Popa Nemoiu, Dragos; Nica, Dana; Bucur, Cosmin

    2007-01-01

    The continuous monitoring of gas mixture concentrations (deuterium/ hydrogen/oxygen/nitrogen) accumulated in 'Moderator Cover Gas', 'Liquid Control Zone' and 'Heat Transport D 2 O Storage Tank Cover Gas', as well as the continuous monitoring of Heavy Water into Light Water concentration in 'Boilers Steam', 'Boilers Blown Down', 'Moderator heat exchangers', and 'Recirculated Water System', sensing any leaks of Cernavoda NPP U1 led to requirement of developing a new process network for gas chromatograph and analyzers connected to the SCADA system and Digital Control Computers of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. In 2005 it was designed and implemented the process network for gas chromatograph which connected the gas chromatograph equipment to the SCADA system and Digital Control Computers of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. Later this process network for gas chromatograph has been extended to connect the AE13 and AE14 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyzers with either. The Gas Chromatograph equipment measures with best accuracy the mixture gases (deuterium/ hydrogen/oxygen/nitrogen) concentration. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) AE13 and AE14 Analyzers measure the Heavy Water into Light Water concentration in Boilers Steam, Boilers BlownDown, Moderator heat exchangers, and Recirculated Water System, monitoring and signaling any leaks. The Gas Chromatograph equipment and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) AE13 and AE14 Analyzers use the new OPC (Object Link Embedded for Process Control) technologies available in ABB's VistaNet network for interoperability with automation equipment. This new process network has interconnected the ABB chromatograph and Fourier Transform Infrared analyzers with plant Digital Control Computers using new technology. The result was an increased reliability and capability for inspection and improved system safety

  1. Estimating distribution and connectivity of recolonizing American marten in the northeastern United States using expert elicitation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, C.M.; Murdoch, J.D.; Donovan, Therese M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Bernier, C.; Katz, J.

    2018-01-01

    The American marten Martes americana is a species of conservation concern in the northeastern United States due to widespread declines from over‐harvesting and habitat loss. Little information exists on current marten distribution and how landscape characteristics shape patterns of occupancy across the region, which could help develop effective recovery strategies. The rarity of marten and lack of historical distribution records are also problematic for region‐wide conservation planning. Expert opinion can provide a source of information for estimating species–landscape relationships and is especially useful when empirical data are sparse. We created a survey to elicit expert opinion and build a model that describes marten occupancy in the northeastern United States as a function of landscape conditions. We elicited opinions from 18 marten experts that included wildlife managers, trappers and researchers. Each expert estimated occupancy probability at 30 sites in their geographic region of expertise. We, then, fit the response data with a set of 58 models that incorporated the effects of covariates related to forest characteristics, climate, anthropogenic impacts and competition at two spatial scales (1.5 and 5 km radii), and used model selection techniques to determine the best model in the set. Three top models had strong empirical support, which we model averaged based on AIC weights. The final model included effects of five covariates at the 5‐km scale: percent canopy cover (positive), percent spruce‐fir land cover (positive), winter temperature (negative), elevation (positive) and road density (negative). A receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that the model performed well based on recent occurrence records. We mapped distribution across the region and used circuit theory to estimate movement corridors between isolated core populations. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of expert‐opinion data at modeling occupancy for rare

  2. The financial crisis and recent family policy reforms in Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom : Is there a connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The turmoil created by the financial crisis and economic recession in Europe has served as an impetus for austerity measures in many countries. In this article, we ask whether these crises have also triggered reforms in family policy, and we focus on three European welfare states – Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom – countries that are often considered members of different family policy regimes. The article addresses two main research questions. The first one relates to the number, direction and magnitude of family policy reforms in these three countries since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008/2009, while in the second we discuss whether the reforms observed during this period can be seen as being related to the financial crisis and its later repercussions on the Euro-zone area, or if there are other explanations.

  3. The connection between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas in the United States: implications for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jennifer L; Junger, Michele L; Saraiya, Mona; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-08-01

    Results from studies conducted in the past several years suggest that some oropharyngeal cancers, those of the base of the tongue and the tonsils, are associated with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). In this article, the authors summarize the available evidence regarding the epidemiology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, the available HPV vaccines and the implications of these for dentistry. They also examine the differences in HPV prevalence between cancers of the oral cavity and those of the oropharynx. The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and the National Guideline Clearinghouse to identify English-language systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers published from January 2005 through May 2011. Molecular and epidemiologic evidence suggest a strong etiologic association of HPV with oropharyngeal cancers. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States has increased between 1973 and 2007, whereas that of cancers at other head and neck sites has decreased steadily. Compared with HPV-negative cancers, HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers are associated with certain sexual behaviors, occur more often among white men and people who do not use tobacco or alcohol, and may occur in a population younger by about four years (median ages, 52-56 years). Despite often having a later stage of diagnosis, people with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers have a lower risk of dying or recurrence than do those with HPV-negative cancers. The effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in preventing oropharyngeal cancers is unknown. Dental health care personnel (DHCP) should be knowledgeable about the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, the association of HPV with oropharyngeal cancers and HPV vaccines, and they should be prompt in referring patients with suggestive symptoms for evaluation. DHCP can play an important role in increasing patients' knowledge about HPV

  4. A life uncertain – My baby’s vulnerability: Mothers’ lived experience of connection with their preterm infants in a Botswana neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinah K. Ncube

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm and low–birth weight infants are often separated from their mothers when admitted to neonatal units for stabilisation of body temperature and technological support. Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of mothers regarding care of their hospitalised preterm infants in a neonatal unit in a public hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Method: This study utilised a qualitative exploratory and descriptive phenomenological study design. Mothers of hospitalised preterm infants were purposefully selected, with whom there was extensive engagement. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant (P. Results: Mothers were shocked by the sudden birth of a preterm infant and found the neonatal environment intimidating. This increased their fear and anxiety and delayed development of a relationship with their infants. Support from staff, other mothers in the neonatal unit and family members enabled the mothers to overcome their fear and to develop an emotional connection with their infants. Conclusion: On-going supportive communication with the mothers by healthcare professionals promotes their confidence and competence in caring for their preterm infants, which in turn promotes mother–infant attachment.

  5. A life uncertain - My baby's vulnerability: Mothers' lived experience of connection with their preterm infants in a Botswana neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Rosinah K; Barlow, Hilary; Mayers, Pat M

    2016-08-30

    Preterm and low-birth weight infants are often separated from their mothers when admitted to neonatal units for stabilisation of body temperature and technological support. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of mothers regarding care of their hospitalised preterm infants in a neonatal unit in a public hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. This study utilised a qualitative exploratory and descriptive phenomenological study design. Mothers of hospitalised preterm infants were purposefully selected, with whom there was extensive engagement. Two in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant (P). Mothers were shocked by the sudden birth of a preterm infant and found the neonatal environment intimidating. This increased their fear and anxiety and delayed development of a relationship with their infants. Support from staff, other mothers in the neonatal unit and family members enabled the mothers to overcome their fear and to develop an emotional connection with their infants. On-going supportive communication with the mothers by healthcare professionals promotes their confidence and competence in caring for their preterm infants, which in turn promotes mother-infant attachment.

  6. Places Connected:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    This paper argues that development assistance contributed to the globalization of the 20th century by financing truly global networks of people. By focusing on the networks financed by development assistance bound by the national histories of Denmark and Japan, I illustrate how the people who...... experiences of place, however, when it is often the same people who experience many different places? Along with many other so-called donors in the 1950s, Denmark and Japan chose to invest in the education of own and other nationals involved in development and thereby financed personal connections between...... individuals throughout the world. Development assistance , where there are two or three links only between a Bangladeshi farmer, a street child in Sao Paolo and the President of the United States, the Queen of Denmark, or a suburban house wife in Japan, who has never left the Osaka area, but mothered a United...

  7. How can conceptual schemes change teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Per-Olof

    2012-03-01

    Lundqvist, Almqvist and Östman describe a teacher's manner of teaching and the possible consequences it may have for students' meaning making. In doing this the article examines a teacher's classroom practice by systematizing the teacher's transactions with the students in terms of certain conceptual schemes, namely the epistemological moves, educational philosophies and the selective traditions of this practice. In connection to their study one may ask how conceptual schemes could change teaching. This article examines how the relationship of the conceptual schemes produced by educational researchers to educational praxis has developed from the middle of the last century to today. The relationship is described as having been transformed in three steps: (1) teacher deficit and social engineering, where conceptual schemes are little acknowledged, (2) reflecting practitioners, where conceptual schemes are mangled through teacher practice to aid the choices of already knowledgeable teachers, and (3) the mangling of the conceptual schemes by researchers through practice with the purpose of revising theory.

  8. ESCAP mobile training scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasas, F M

    1977-01-01

    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries.

  9. Generalization of binary tensor product schemes depends upon four parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, R.; Bari, M.; Mustafa, G.

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with general formulae of parametric and non parametric bivariate subdivision scheme with four parameters. By assigning specific values to those parameters we get some special cases of existing tensor product schemes as well as a new proposed scheme. The behavior of schemes produced by the general formulae is interpolating, approximating and relaxed. Approximating bivariate subdivision schemes produce some other surfaces as compared to interpolating bivariate subdivision schemes. Polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation are desirable properties of subdivision schemes. Capability of polynomial reproduction and polynomial generation is strongly connected with smoothness, sum rules, convergence and approximation order. We also calculate the polynomial generation and polynomial reproduction of 9-point bivariate approximating subdivision scheme. Comparison of polynomial reproduction, polynomial generation and continuity of existing and proposed schemes has also been established. Some numerical examples are also presented to show the behavior of bivariate schemes. (author)

  10. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  11. Facilitate generation connections on Orkney by automatic distribution network management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the capability and limitations of the Orkney Network under a variety of conditions of demand, generation connections, network configuration, and reactive compensation). A conceptual active management scheme (AMS) suitable for the conditions on Orkney is developed and evaluated. Details are given of a proposed framework for the design and evaluation of future active management schemes, logic control sequences for managed generation units, and a proposed evaluation method for the active management scheme. Implications of introducing the proposed AMS are examined, and the commercial aspects of an AMS and system security are considered. The existing Orkney network is described; and an overview of the SHEPDL (Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution Ltd.) SCADA system is presented with a discussion of AMS identification, selection, and development.

  12. Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in Connection with the Application of Safeguards under a Co-Operation Agreement between the Two Governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in connection with the application of safeguards under the Agreement for Co-operation between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Norway Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy signed on 4 May 1967, as amended, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The protocol entered into force on 25 September 1973 pursuant to Section 4.

  13. Agreement of 17 February 1989 between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The document reproduces the full text of the Agreement of 17 February 1989 between the United States of America and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty) on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within United States Protocol I Territories for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices

  14. The Text of the Agreement of 6 September 1976 between The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-10-15

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol which is an integral part thereof, between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  15. The Text of the Agreement of 6 September 1976 between The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol which is an integral part thereof, between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  16. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  17. A super soliton connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurses, M.; Oguz, O.

    1985-07-01

    Integrable super non-linear classical partial differential equations are considered. A super s1(2,R) algebra valued connection 1-form is constructed. It is shown that curvature 2-form of this super connection vanishes by virtue of the integrable super equations of motion. A super extension of the AKNS scheme is presented and a class of super extension of the Lax hierarchy and super non-linear Schroedinger equation are found. O(N) extension and the Baecklund transformations of the above super equations are also considered. (author)

  18. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  19. Economic performance of grid-connected photovoltaics in California and Texas (United States): The influence of renewable energy and climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, Deepak; Moore, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Various public policies in the United States are providing financial incentives for installation and generation of electricity from renewable resources. This article examines the influence of investment subsidies, greenhouse gas (GHG) prices, and renewable energy credit (REC) prices on the economic performance of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. Our model integrates PV output, capacity-factor-based dispatch, and cost-benefit financial components to evaluate new PV installations in California and Texas. Relative to the base case, the benefit–cost ratio increases between 5–53% in California and 5–38% in Texas for the policy-derived cases of GHG and REC prices. The economic performance of PV is higher in California due to higher grid electricity prices and the profile of displaced marginal fuels. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the electricity and GHG prices required to achieve profitability. A key element of the economic analysis demonstrates the importance of assessing the marginal fuels displaced by the PV system, not the average mix of displaced fuels, in terms of accurately monetizing the GHG abatement embodied in the displaced fuels. In California, for example, the discounted benefits derived from pollution abatement under the marginal displacement approach were 1.6–3.0 times higher than under the three average fuel mix cases. - Highlight: ► The effect of public policies on the economic performance of PV systems is analyzed. ► A PV output model, a dispatch model, and a cost-benefit model are integrated. ► The PV installations generally do not achieve positive profitability. ► A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the prices required to achieve profitability. ► The marginal fuels displaced by the PV system, not the average fuels, are relevant.

  20. Connecting Grammaticalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens; Heltoft, Lars; Schøsler, Lene

    morphological, topological and constructional paradigms often connect to form complex paradigms. The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms. Drawing primarily on data from Germanic, Romance and Slavic...

  1. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  2. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  3. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    and geometry over the field with one element. It also permits the construction of important Arakelov theoretical objects, such as the completion \\Spec Z of Spec Z. In this thesis, we prove a projective bundle theorem for the eld with one element and compute the Chow rings of the generalized schemes Sp\\ec ZN......Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry......, appearing in the construction of \\Spec Z....

  4. Development of a mathematical model simulating the multiply connected automatic control system of a coal-fired power unit equipped with a direct-injection dust feed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.A. Shorokhov; A.P. Smol' nikov; D.A. Kurochkin; N.N. Komarova; A.S. Mar' yasov; A.R. Gudovich; S.N. Bartosh [ZAO SibKOTES, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Matters relating to development and identification of a mathematical model for simulating a power unit and its individual systems are discussed. Results obtained from a large series of the active experiments on an operating power unit are presented.

  5. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  6. Regional scheme for the connection to the grid of renewable energies: for the Hauts-de-France region, for the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, for the Picardy region, the Alsace region, the Aquitaine region, the Auvergne region, the Lower-Normandy region, the Burgundy region, the Brittany region, the Centre-Val-de-Loire region, the Champagne-Ardennes region, the Franche-Comte region, the Upper Normandy region, the Ile-de-France region, the Languedoc-Roussillon region, the Lorraine region, the Midi-Pyrenees region, the Provence-Alps-Cote d'Azur region, the Pays-de-la-Loire region, the Poitou-Charentes region, the Rhone-Alps region. Technical and financial status of the scheme implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document gathers reports related to all French regions. Each one addresses the elaboration of the concerned regional scheme of connection of renewable energies to the distribution network (French acronym: S3REnR) which aims at anticipating and planning evolutions of electrical networks which are necessary for the integration of renewable energies. Illustrated by maps, tables and graphs, these reports propose indications of energy production locations, an identification of planned works, a presentation of the concerned region, of its existing grid and projects, an overview of the scheme content (initial status, results of consultations, adopted strategies, planned works), and an overview of the scheme implementation status

  7. Making Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Cheng Lu; Dongsheng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Effective teaching includes enabling learners to make connections within mathematics. It is easy to accord with this statement, but how often is it a reality in the mathematics classroom? This article describes an approach in "connecting equivalent" fractions and whole number operations. The authors illustrate how a teacher can combine a common…

  8. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  10. Perceptions of the Religion--Health Connection among African Americans in the Southeastern United States: Sex, Age, and Urban/Rural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Schulz, Emily; Wynn, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive literature reviews suggest that religiousness is positively associated with health. Much less understood is the particular nature of the religion-health connection. Religion and the church play a central role in the lives of many African Americans. This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine perceptions of the religion-health…

  11. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit......Purpose – The rise of CSR followed a demand for CSR standards and guidelines. In a sector already characterized by a large number of standards, the authors seek to ask what CSR schemes apply to agribusiness, and how they can be systematically compared and analysed. Design....../methodology/approach – Following a deductive-inductive approach the authors develop a model to compare and analyse CSR schemes based on existing studies and on coding qualitative data on 216 CSR schemes. Findings – The authors confirm that CSR standards and guidelines have entered agribusiness and identify a complex landscape...

  12. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  13. Protocol additional to the agreement between the United Republic of Tanzania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Republic of Tanzania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 16 June 2004. It was signed on 23 September 2004 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 7 February 2005, the date on which the Agency received from the United Republic of Tanzania written notification that the United Republic of Tanzania's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  14. Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the United Arab Emirates and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Arab Emirates and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 3 March 2009. It was signed in Vienna on 8 April 2009. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 20 December 2010, the date on which the Agency received from the United Arab Emirates written notification that the United Arab Emirates' statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met [es

  15. Protocol additional to the agreement between the United Republic of Tanzania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-07

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Republic of Tanzania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 16 June 2004. It was signed on 23 September 2004 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 7 February 2005, the date on which the Agency received from the United Republic of Tanzania written notification that the United Republic of Tanzania's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met.

  16. Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the United Arab Emirates and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Arab Emirates and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 3 March 2009. It was signed in Vienna on 8 April 2009. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 20 December 2010, the date on which the Agency received from the United Arab Emirates written notification that the United Arab Emirates' statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  17. Agreement between the United Arab Emirates and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the United Arab Emirates and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Safeguards Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 28 November 2002. It was signed in Abu Dhabi on 15 December 2002. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Safeguards Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 9 October 2003, the date upon which the Agency received from the United Arab Emirates written notification that the United Arab Emirates' statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  18. Evaluating statistical cloud schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Grützun, Verena; Quaas, Johannes; Morcrette , Cyril J.; Ament, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Statistical cloud schemes with prognostic probability distribution functions have become more important in atmospheric modeling, especially since they are in principle scale adaptive and capture cloud physics in more detail. While in theory the schemes have a great potential, their accuracy is still questionable. High-resolution three-dimensional observational data of water vapor and cloud water, which could be used for testing them, are missing. We explore the potential of ground-based re...

  19. Gamma spectrometry; level schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Bocquet, J.P.; Monnand, E.; Schussler, F.

    1977-01-01

    The research presented dealt with: a new beta emitter, isomer of 131 Sn; the 136 I levels fed through the radioactive decay of 136 Te (20.9s); the A=145 chain (β decay of Ba, La and Ce, and level schemes for 145 La, 145 Ce, 145 Pr); the A=47 chain (La and Ce, β decay, and the level schemes of 147 Ce and 147 Pr) [fr

  20. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  1. About Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attention attracted by connectomics, one can lose sight of the very real questions concerning What are connections? In the neuroimaging community, structural connectivity is ground truth and underlying constraint on functional or effective connectivity. It is referenced to underlying anatomy; but, as increasingly remarked, there is a large gap between the wealth of human brain mapping and the relatively scant data on actual anatomical connectivity. Moreover, connections have typically been discussed as pairwise, point x projecting to point y (or: to points y and z, or more recently, in graph theoretical terms, as nodes or regions and the interconnecting edges. This is a convenient shorthand, but tends not to capture the richness and nuance of basic anatomical properties as identified in the classic tradition of tracer studies. The present short review accordingly revisits connectional weights, heterogeneity, reciprocity, topography, and hierarchical organization, drawing on concrete examples. The emphasis is on presynaptic long-distance connections, motivated by the intention to probe current assumptions and promote discussions about further progress and synthesis.

  2. ONU Power Saving Scheme for EPON System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Hiroaki; Tano, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Masaki; Kozaki, Seiji; Yamanaka, Hideaki

    PON (Passive Optical Network) achieves FTTH (Fiber To The Home) economically, by sharing an optical fiber among plural subscribers. Recently, global climate change has been recognized as a serious near term problem. Power saving techniques for electronic devices are important. In PON system, the ONU (Optical Network Unit) power saving scheme has been studied and defined in XG-PON. In this paper, we propose an ONU power saving scheme for EPON. Then, we present an analysis of the power reduction effect and the data transmission delay caused by the ONU power saving scheme. According to the analysis, we propose an efficient provisioning method for the ONU power saving scheme which is applicable to both of XG-PON and EPON.

  3. Additive Difference Schemes for Filtration Problems in Multilayer Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ayrjan, E A; Pavlush, M; Fedorov, A V

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper difference schemes for solution of the plane filtration problem in multilayer systems are analyzed within the framework of difference schemes general theory. Attention is paid to splitting the schemes on physical processes of filtration along water-carring layers and vertical motion between layers. Some absolutely stable additive difference schemes are obtained the realization of which needs no software modification. Parallel algorithm connected with the solving of the filtration problem in every water-carring layer on a single processor is constructed. Program realization on the multi-processor system SPP2000 at JINR is discussed.

  4. Internet Connectivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Internet Connectivity. BSNL, SIFY, HCL in Guwahati; only BSNL elsewhere in NE (local player in Shillong). Service poor; All vendors lease BW from BSNL.

  5. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.

  6. HR Connect

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HR Connect is the USAID HR personnel system which allows HR professionals to process HR actions related to employee's personal and position information. This system...

  7. The Sexual Harassment-Suicide Connection in the U.S. Military: Contextual Effects of Hostile Work Environment and Trusted Unit Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James

    2017-10-03

    Sexual harassment has been associated with suicidal behaviors, and with the rise in suicides in the U.S. military, sexual harassment's role in suicide has been of growing interest. Lacking are studies that examine group- or unit-level variables in the relationship of sexual harassment to suicidal behaviors (thoughts, plans, and attempts). In this study, survey data from soldiers (12,567 soldiers in 180 company-sized units) who completed the Unit Risk Inventory administered during calendar year 2010 were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. At the individual level, sexual harassment was associated with a fivefold increase for risk of suicide. Reporting that leaders could be trusted was associated with a decreased suicide risk by about one-third. There was no statistically significant interaction between sexual harassment and trusted leaders in predicting the suicidal behaviors. At the group level, units or companies having higher levels of sexual harassment also had soldiers three times more at risk for suicide. A cross-leveling effect was also observed: Among units having higher levels of sexual harassment, the negative correlation (buffering effect of unit leaders on suicidal behaviors) was diminished. Implications of findings for preventing sexual harassment and suicide risk are discussed. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. Modified Grid-Connected CSI for Hybrid PV/Wind Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Amorndechaphon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of a power conditioning unit for hybrid PV/wind power generation system is proposed. The proposed power conditioner is based on the current source inverter (CSI topology. All energy sources are connected in parallel with a DC-bus through the modified wave-shaping circuits. To achieve the unity power factor at the utility grid, the DC-link current can be controlled via the wave-shaping circuits with the sinusoidal PWM scheme. In this work, the carrier-based PWM scheme is also proposed to minimize the utility current THD. The power rating of the proposed system can be increased by connecting more PV/wind modules through their wave-shaping circuits in parallel with the other modules. The details of the operating principles, the system configurations, and the design considerations are described. The effectiveness of the proposed CSI is demonstrated by simulation results.

  9. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    , namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  10. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  11. Establishing Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed ...... and human rights can be understood as serving a constitutionalising function aimed at stabilising and facilitating connectivity. This allows for an understanding of colonialism and contemporary global governance as functional, but not as normative, equivalents.......Global law settings are characterised by a structural pre-eminence of connectivity norms, a type of norm which differs from coherency or possibility norms. The centrality of connectivity norms emerges from the function of global law, which is to increase the probability of transfers of condensed...... social components, such as economic capital and products, religious doctrines and scientific knowledge, from one legally structured context to another within world society. This was the case from colonialism and colonial law to contemporary global supply chains and human rights. Both colonial law...

  12. Project of a Regional Scheme of Connection to the Grid of Renewable Energies in the Hauts-de-France. RTE report on lessons learned from the public prior consultation phase. Elaborated in application of articles L121-16 and R121-24 of the Code of the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This document first recalls the main objectives of the regional scheme: a continuing implementation of energy transition, a transformation of electric power grids, and a better connection for the production of renewable energies. Then, it describes means implemented by RTE to inform and to mobilise the public for this consultation: publication of a prior notification, creation of a visual identity, involvement of media and social networks, mobilisation of various relays (local authorities, economic actors, professional bodies, associations, and so on). It describes the consultation arrangement: means of expression for the public, and consultation supports. It reports various quantitative (participants) and qualitative (addressed themes) of the consultation. It proposes a thematic analysis of exchanges with the public during the two meetings held in Lille and Amiens: envisaged works, production means, consultation, the environment, costs and financing, objective of production for renewable energies (3.000 MW). The last part highlights the main lessons learned from the consultation and measures to be implemented to take these lessons into account as far as consultation, the environment, costs and financing, and renewable production are concerned. Appendices notably contain a compilation of exchanges with the public, press articles, and reports of public meetings

  13. Agreement between the United Republic of Tanzania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) between the United Republic of Tanzania and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Safeguards Agreement on 24 February 1992, It was signed on 28 July 1992 in Vienna and on 26 August 1992 in Geneva. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 1 February 2005. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  14. New analytic unitarization schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudell, J.-R.; Predazzi, E.; Selyugin, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    We consider two well-known classes of unitarization of Born amplitudes of hadron elastic scattering. The standard class, which saturates at the black-disk limit includes the standard eikonal representation, while the other class, which goes beyond the black-disk limit to reach the full unitarity circle, includes the U matrix. It is shown that the basic properties of these schemes are independent of the functional form used for the unitarization, and that U matrix and eikonal schemes can be extended to have similar properties. A common form of unitarization is proposed interpolating between both classes. The correspondence with different nonlinear equations are also briefly examined.

  15. Comparative evaluation of remote maintenance schemes for fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utoh, Hiroyasu, E-mail: uto.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp; Tobita, Kenji; Someya, Youji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Various remote maintenance schemes for DEMO were comparatively assessed based on requirements for DEMO remote maintenance. • The banana shape segment transport using all vertical maintenance ports would be more probable DEMO reactor maintenance scheme. • The key engineering issues are in-vessel transferring mechanism of segment, pipe connection and conducting shell design for plasma vertical stability. - Abstract: Maintenance schemes are one of the critical issues in DEMO design, significantly affecting the configuration of in-vessel components, the size of toroidal field (TF) coil, the arrangement of poloidal field (PF) coils, reactor building, hot cell and so forth. Therefore, the maintenance schemes should satisfy many design requirements and criteria to assure reliable and safe plant operation and to attain reasonable plant availability. The plant availability depends on reliability of remote maintenance scheme, inspection of pipe connection and plasma operation. In this paper, various remote maintenance schemes for DEMO were comparatively assessed based on requirements for DEMO remote maintenance. From the view points of the reliability of inspection on hot cell, TF coil size, stored energy of PF coil and portability of segment, the banana shape segment transport using all vertical maintenance ports would be more probable DEMO reactor maintenance scheme, and it has key engineering issues such as in-vessel transferring mechanism of segment, pipe connection and conducting shell design for plasma vertical stability.

  16. Comparative evaluation of remote maintenance schemes for fusion DEMO reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utoh, Hiroyasu; Tobita, Kenji; Someya, Youji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Various remote maintenance schemes for DEMO were comparatively assessed based on requirements for DEMO remote maintenance. • The banana shape segment transport using all vertical maintenance ports would be more probable DEMO reactor maintenance scheme. • The key engineering issues are in-vessel transferring mechanism of segment, pipe connection and conducting shell design for plasma vertical stability. - Abstract: Maintenance schemes are one of the critical issues in DEMO design, significantly affecting the configuration of in-vessel components, the size of toroidal field (TF) coil, the arrangement of poloidal field (PF) coils, reactor building, hot cell and so forth. Therefore, the maintenance schemes should satisfy many design requirements and criteria to assure reliable and safe plant operation and to attain reasonable plant availability. The plant availability depends on reliability of remote maintenance scheme, inspection of pipe connection and plasma operation. In this paper, various remote maintenance schemes for DEMO were comparatively assessed based on requirements for DEMO remote maintenance. From the view points of the reliability of inspection on hot cell, TF coil size, stored energy of PF coil and portability of segment, the banana shape segment transport using all vertical maintenance ports would be more probable DEMO reactor maintenance scheme, and it has key engineering issues such as in-vessel transferring mechanism of segment, pipe connection and conducting shell design for plasma vertical stability.

  17. Flocking of Second-Order Multiagent Systems With Connectivity Preservation Based on Algebraic Connectivity Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hao; Wei, Yue; Chen, Jie; Xin, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The problem of flocking of second-order multiagent systems with connectivity preservation is investigated in this paper. First, for estimating the algebraic connectivity as well as the corresponding eigenvector, a new decentralized inverse power iteration scheme is formulated. Then, based on the estimation of the algebraic connectivity, a set of distributed gradient-based flocking control protocols is built with a new class of generalized hybrid potential fields which could guarantee collision avoidance, desired distance stabilization, and the connectivity of the underlying communication network simultaneously. What is important is that the proposed control scheme allows the existing edges to be broken without violation of connectivity constraints, and thus yields more flexibility of motions and reduces the communication cost for the multiagent system. In the end, nontrivial comparative simulations and experimental results are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results and highlight the advantages of the proposed estimation scheme and control algorithm.

  18. Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The Connected Traveler framework seeks to boost the energy efficiency of personal travel and the overall transportation system by maximizing the accuracy of predicted traveler behavior in response to real-time feedback and incentives. It is anticipated that this approach will establish a feedback loop that 'learns' traveler preferences and customizes incentives to meet or exceed energy efficiency targets by empowering individual travelers with information needed to make energy-efficient choices and reducing the complexity required to validate transportation system energy savings. This handout provides an overview of NREL's Connected Traveler project, including graphics, milestones, and contact information.

  19. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  20. Contract saving schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O'Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contractual saving schemes for housing are institutionalised savings programmes normally linked to rights to loans for home purchase. They are diverse types as they have been developed differently in each national context, but normally fall into categories of open, closed, compulsory, and ‘free

  1. Alternative reprocessing schemes evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper reviews the parameters which determine the inaccessibility of the plutonium in reprocessing plants. Among the various parameters, the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials, the various processing schemes and the confinement are considered. The emphasis is placed on that latter parameter, and the advantages of an increased confinement in the socalled PIPEX reprocessing plant type are presented

  2. Introduction to association schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper gives an introduction to the theory of association schemes, following Bose-Mesner (1959), Biggs (1974), Delsarte (1973), Bannai-Ito (1984) and Brouwer-Cohen-Neumaier (1989). Apart from definitions and many examples, also several proofs and some problems are included. The paragraphs

  3. Reaction schemes of immunoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaage, M.; Barbet, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors apply a general theory for multiple equilibria to the reaction schemes of immunoanalysis, competition and sandwich. This approach allows the manufacturer to optimize the system and provide the user with interpolation functions for the standard curve and its first derivative as well, thus giving access to variance [fr

  4. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  5. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Myat, Aung; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units

  6. Making connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marion Duimel

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Verbinding maken; senioren en internet. More and more older people are finding their way to the Internet. Many people aged over 50 who have only recently gone online say that a new world has opened up for them. By connecting to the Internet they have the feeling that they

  7. CMS Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcas, J.; Bockelman, B.; Gardner, R., Jr.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jayatilaka, B.; Aftab Khan, F.; Lannon, K.; Larson, K.; Letts, J.; Marra Da Silva, J.; Mascheroni, M.; Mason, D.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Tiradani, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment collects and analyzes large amounts of data coming from high energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This involves a huge amount of real and simulated data processing that needs to be handled in batch-oriented platforms. The CMS Global Pool of computing resources provide +100K dedicated CPU cores and another 50K to 100K CPU cores from opportunistic resources for these kind of tasks and even though production and event processing analysis workflows are already managed by existing tools, there is still a lack of support to submit final stage condor-like analysis jobs familiar to Tier-3 or local Computing Facilities users into these distributed resources in an integrated (with other CMS services) and friendly way. CMS Connect is a set of computing tools and services designed to augment existing services in the CMS Physics community focusing on these kind of condor analysis jobs. It is based on the CI-Connect platform developed by the Open Science Grid and uses the CMS GlideInWMS infrastructure to transparently plug CMS global grid resources into a virtual pool accessed via a single submission machine. This paper describes the specific developments and deployment of CMS Connect beyond the CI-Connect platform in order to integrate the service with CMS specific needs, including specific Site submission, accounting of jobs and automated reporting to standard CMS monitoring resources in an effortless way to their users.

  8. From regionally predictable to locally complex population structure in a freshwater top predator: River systems are not always the unit of connectivity in Northern Pike Esox lucius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Jacobsen, Lene; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary genetic diversity is the product of both historical and contemporary forces, such as climatic and geological processes affecting range distribution and continuously moulded by evolutionary forces selection, gene flow and genetic drift. Predatory freshwater fishes, such as Northern Pike...... structure from local to regional scales is relatively poorly described, in spite of its significance to developing conservation measures. We analysed microsatellite variation in a total of 1185 North European pike from 46 samples collected across both local and regional scales, as well as over time......, to address two overarching questions: Is pike population structure associated with local and/or regional connectivity patterns, and which factors likely have the main influence on the contemporary distribution of genetic diversity? To answer this, we combined estimators of population diversity and structure...

  9. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... by drawing on and operationalizing violent, male networks — from struggle activists' networks, to vigilante groups and gangs, to the police. The fact that they were women helped them to tap into and exploit these networks. At the same time, they were restricted by their sex, as their ability to navigate...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  10. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  11. Reggeon, Pomeron and annihilation processes in the dual unitarization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias de Deus, J.

    1976-07-01

    In the framework of the dual unitarization scheme the connection between particle production in processes dominated by Reggeon, Pomeron and Annihilation diagrams is discussed and critical tests of the scheme are suggested. The simple relation for average multiplicities anti nsup(R) = 1/2 anti nsup(P) = 1/3 anti nsup(A) and other relations for inclusive cross-sections and higher moments of the particle distribution are shown to be in reasonable agreement with data. (author)

  12. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  13. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  14. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  15. Cost-based droop scheme for DC microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    voltage level, less on optimized operation and control of generation sources. The latter theme is perused in this paper, where cost-based droop scheme is proposed for distributed generators (DGs) in DC microgrids. Unlike traditional proportional power sharing based droop scheme, the proposed scheme......-connected operation. Most importantly, the proposed scheme can reduce overall total generation cost in DC microgrids without centralized controller and communication links. The performance of the proposed scheme has been verified under different load conditions.......DC microgrids are gaining interest due to higher efficiencies of DC distribution compared with AC. The benefits of DC systems have been widely researched for data centers, IT facilities and residential applications. The research focus, however, has been more on system architecture and optimal...

  16. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 11 June 1998. It was signed in Vienna on 22 September 1998. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 30 April 2004, the date on which the Agency received written notification that the European Atomic Energy Community and the United Kingdom had met their respective internal requirements for entry into force

  17. The Performance-based Funding Scheme of Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha KETTUNEN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of the performance-based funding scheme of the Finnish universities that was adopted at the beginning of 2013. The political decision-makers expect that the funding scheme will create incentives for the universities to improve performance, but these funding schemes have largely failed in many other countries, primarily because public funding is only a small share of the total funding of universities. This study is interesting because Finnish universities have no tuition fees, unlike in many other countries, and the state allocates funding based on the objectives achieved. The empirical evidence of the graduation rates indicates that graduation rates increased when a new scheme was adopted, especially among male students, who have more room for improvement than female students. The new performance-based funding scheme allocates the funding according to the output-based indicators and limits the scope of strategic planning and the autonomy of the university. The performance-based funding scheme is transformed to the strategy map of the balanced scorecard. The new funding scheme steers universities in many respects but leaves the research and teaching skills to the discretion of the universities. The new scheme has also diminished the importance of the performance agreements between the university and the Ministry. The scheme increases the incentives for universities to improve the processes and structures in order to attain as much public funding as possible. It is optimal for the central administration of the university to allocate resources to faculties and other organisational units following the criteria of the performance-based funding scheme. The new funding scheme has made the universities compete with each other, because the total funding to the universities is allocated to each university according to the funding scheme. There is a tendency that the funding schemes are occasionally

  18. Autonomous economic operation of grid connected DC microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an autonomous power sharing scheme for economic operation of grid-connected DC microgrid. Autonomous economic operation approach has already been tested for standalone AC microgrids to reduce the overall generation cost and proven a simple and easier to realize compared...... with the centralized management approach. In this paper, the same concept has been extended to grid-connected DC microgrid. The proposed economic droop scheme takes into consideration the power generation cost of Distributed Generators (DGs) and utility grid tariff and adaptively tunes their respective droop curves...... secondary control. The performance of the proposed scheme has been verified for the example grid-connected DC microgrid....

  19. Cosmic Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    2003-01-01

    A National Research Council study on connecting quarks with the cosmos has recently posed a number of the more important open questions at the interface between particle physics and cosmology. These questions include the nature of dark matter and dark energy, how the Universe began, modifications to gravity, the effects of neutrinos on the Universe, how cosmic accelerators work, and whether there are new states of matter at high density and pressure. These questions are discussed in the context of the talks presented at this Summer Institute.

  20. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  1. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  2. Scheme of stepmotor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Karyshev, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    A 6-cycle scheme of step motor is described. The block-diagram and the basic circuit of the step motor control are presented. The step motor control comprises a pulse shaper, electronic commutator and power amplifiers. The step motor supply from 6-cycle electronic commutator provides for higher reliability and accuracy than from 3-cycle commutator. The control of step motor work is realised by the program given by the external source of control signals. Time-dependent diagrams for step motor control are presented. The specifications of the step-motor is given

  3. Reception in Chile of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency: Brief analysis of the center of main interests of the debtor as a new connecting factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Daniel Levy Morchio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyze the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-border Insolvency and its incorporation into national law by means of the entry into force of the new Law of Insolvency and Re-entrepreneurship, paying special attention to the concept of center of main interests of the debtor, as a new factor of connection between jurisdictions. For this, we will begin with the situation of cross-border insolvency in Chile prior to the new law, will analyze the origin, structure and objectives of the model law and the way in which was introduced in Chile, to finally study the concept of center of main interests of the debtor.

  4. Acceptability of financial incentives or quasi-mandatory schemes to increase uptake of immunisations in preschool children in the United Kingdom: Qualitative study with parents and service delivery staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Rebekah Jayne; Adams, Jean; Shucksmith, Janet

    2016-04-27

    Since the 1990 s strenuous attempts have been made to rebuild trust in childhood immunisations. This study aimed to understand if financial incentives (FI) or quasi-mandatory schemes (QMS), e.g. mandating immunisations for entry to universal services such as day care or school, might be acceptable interventions to increase immunisations uptake for preschool children. Parents and carers of preschool children (n=91); health and other professionals (n=18); and those responsible for developing and commissioning immunisation services (n=6) took part in the study. Qualitative methods were employed to explore the acceptability of FI/QMS with stakeholders. Framework analysis was used to develop a coding framework that was applied to the whole dataset. Interpretations of the emergent themes were verified between researchers and presented to the project's Parent Reference Group to ensure coherence and relevance. (1) FI: parents and professionals felt introducing FI was inappropriate. It was acknowledged FI may encourage families living in disadvantage to prioritise immunisation, but unintended consequences could outweigh any advantage. FI essentially changes behaviour into a cash transaction which many equated to bribery that could inadvertently create inequalities. (2) QMS: parents and professionals highlighted the positives of introducing QMS, stating it felt natural, fair and less likely to create inequality. Despite QMS' potential to positively impact on uptake there were concerns about the implementation and workability of such schemes. FI for preschool immunisation may not be acceptable, within a UK context. Introducing FI could have detrimental effects on uptake if it were associated with bribery and coercion. Quasi-mandatory schemes, mandating immunisation for universal service entry, was the most acceptable option and could contribute to the normalising of immunisation. Future work would be needed to assess how this could be successfully implemented and if it did

  5. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  6. A full quantum network scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hai-Qiang; Wei Ke-Jin; Yang Jian-Hui; Li Rui-Xue; Zhu Wu

    2014-01-01

    We present a full quantum network scheme using a modified BB84 protocol. Unlike other quantum network schemes, it allows quantum keys to be distributed between two arbitrary users with the help of an intermediary detecting user. Moreover, it has good expansibility and prevents all potential attacks using loopholes in a detector, so it is more practical to apply. Because the fiber birefringence effects are automatically compensated, the scheme is distinctly stable in principle and in experiment. The simple components for every user make our scheme easier for many applications. The experimental results demonstrate the stability and feasibility of this scheme. (general)

  7. Implementation of integration strategies between primary care units and a regional general hospital in Brazil to update and connect health care professionals: a quasi-experimental study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Mario Maia; Mafra, Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes; Abdo, Alexandre Hannud; Colugnati, Fernando Antonio Basile; Dalla, Marcello Dala Bernardina; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Abrahamsohn, Ises; Rodrigues, Aline Pacífico; Delgado, Ana Violeta Ferreira de Almeida; Dos Prazeres, Glauber Alves; Teixeira, José Carlos; Possa, Silvio

    2016-08-12

    Better communication among field health care teams and points of care, together with investments focused on improving teamwork, individual management, and clinical skills, are strategies for achieving better outcomes in patient-oriented care. This research aims to implement and evaluate interventions focused on improving communication and knowledge among health teams based on points of care in a regional public health outreach network, assessing the following hypotheses: 1) A better-working communication process between hospitals and primary health care providers can improve the sharing of information on patients as well as patients' outcomes. 2) A skill-upgrading education tool offered to health providers at their work sites can improve patients' care and outcomes. A quasi-experimental study protocol with a mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) was developed to evaluate communication tools for health care professionals based in primary care units and in a general hospital in the southern region of São Paulo City, Brazil. The usefulness and implementation processes of the integration strategies will be evaluated, considering: 1) An Internet-based communication platform that facilitates continuity and integrality of care to patients, and 2) A tailored updating distance-learning course on ambulatory care sensitive conditions for clinical skills improvements. The observational study will evaluate a non-randomized cohort of adult patients, with historical controls. Hospitalized patients diagnosed with an ambulatory care sensitive condition will be selected and followed for 1 year after hospital discharge. Data will be collected using validated questionnaires and from patients' medical records. Health care professionals will be evaluated related to their use of education and communication tools and their demographic and psychological profiles. The primary outcome measured will be the patients' 30-day hospital readmission rates. A sample size of 560

  8. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  9. Modified Aggressive Packet Combining Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2010-06-01

    In this letter, a few schemes are presented to improve the performance of aggressive packet combining scheme (APC). To combat error in computer/data communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Several modifications to improve the performance of ARQ are suggested by recent research and are found in literature. The important modifications are majority packet combining scheme (MjPC proposed by Wicker), packet combining scheme (PC proposed by Chakraborty), modified packet combining scheme (MPC proposed by Bhunia), and packet reversed packet combining (PRPC proposed by Bhunia) scheme. These modifications are appropriate for improving throughput of conventional ARQ protocols. Leung proposed an idea of APC for error control in wireless networks with the basic objective of error control in uplink wireless data network. We suggest a few modifications of APC to improve its performance in terms of higher throughput, lower delay and higher error correction capability. (author)

  10. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  11. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Keywords. Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction .... the load should be within the safe range of operation specified by the ... A split capacitor damping scheme is adopted here as shown in ...... spectroscopy testing on the Advanced Technology Devel-.

  12. Connected feedback vertex set in planar graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, Alexander; Sitters, René

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of finding a minimum tree spanning the faces of a given planar graph. We show that a constant factor approximation follows from the unconnected version if the minimum degree is 3. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme for both the connected and unconnected

  13. Lectures on Hilbert schemes of points on surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Hiraku

    1999-01-01

    This beautifully written book deals with one shining example: the Hilbert schemes of points on algebraic surfaces ... The topics are carefully and tastefully chosen ... The young person will profit from reading this book. --Mathematical Reviews The Hilbert scheme of a surface X describes collections of n (not necessarily distinct) points on X. More precisely, it is the moduli space for 0-dimensional subschemes of X of length n. Recently it was realized that Hilbert schemes originally studied in algebraic geometry are closely related to several branches of mathematics, such as singularities, symplectic geometry, representation theory--even theoretical physics. The discussion in the book reflects this feature of Hilbert schemes. One example of the modern, broader interest in the subject is a construction of the representation of the infinite-dimensional Heisenberg algebra, i.e., Fock space. This representation has been studied extensively in the literature in connection with affine Lie algebras, conformal field...

  14. Central Connections of the Lacrimal Functional Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, Catherine; Buckley, Roger J; Bron, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    To study the contribution of each eye to the reflex tear response, after unilateral and bilateral topical anesthesia. A closed-eye, modified Schirmer test was performed bilaterally in 8 normal subjects, in a controlled environment chamber set to 23°C, 45% relative humidity, and 0.08 m/s airflow. Eye drops were instilled into each eye 10 minutes before the Schirmer test. Experiments were as follows: 1) bilateral saline (control), 2) unilateral anesthesia (ipsilateral anesthetic; contralateral saline), and 3) bilateral anesthesia. There was no difference in between-eye wetting lengths in the saline control eyes (P = 0.394) or the bilaterally anesthetized eyes (P = 0.171). The wetting length was reduced in both eyes after bilateral anesthesia compared with saline controls (P = 0.001; P ≤ 0.0005). After unilateral anesthesia, the wetting length was reduced in the anesthetized eye compared with its saline control by 51.4% (P ≤ 0.0005) and compared with its fellow, unanesthetized eye (P = 0.005). The fellow eye value was also reduced compared with its saline control (P = 0.06). The wetting length was reduced by topical anesthesia, when instilled bilaterally and ipsilaterally. The latter response implies an ipsilateral, reflex sensory drive to lacrimal secretion. In the unanesthetized fellow eye, the reduction compared with its saline control was not quite significant. This implies a relative lack of central, sensory, reflex cross-innervation, although the possibility cannot entirely be ruled out. These results are relevant to the possibility of reflex lacrimal compensation from a normal fellow eye, in cases of unilateral corneal anesthesia.

  15. Central connections of the lacrimal functional unit

    OpenAIRE

    Willshire, Catherine; Buckley, Roger; Bron, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To study the contribution of each eye to the reflex tear response, after unilateral and bilateral topical\\ud anaesthesia.\\ud Method A closed eye, modified Schirmer test was performed bilaterally in 8 normal subjects, in a controlled\\ud environment chamber set to 23°C, 45% relative humidity and 0.08m/s airflow. Eye drops were instilled into\\ud each eye 10 minutes before the Schirmer test. Experiments were: a) bilateral saline (control) b) unilateral\\ud anaesthesia (ipsilateral anaesthe...

  16. Dynamic droop scheme considering effect of intermittent renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Zhe; Deng, Fujin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic droop control scheme for islanded microgrids dominated by intermittent renewable energy sources, which is able to perform desirable power sharing in the presence of renewable energy source fluctuation. First, allowable maximum power points of wind generator and PV...... flexibility and effectiveness in the presence of the renewable energy sources fluctuation....... controller of each DG unit is activated through local logic variable inferred by wind speed and solar insolation information. Simulation results are given for validating the droop control scheme. The proposed dynamic droop scheme preserves the advantage of conventional droop control method, and provides...

  17. Connection of position sensing circuit of regulating body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janosek, B.

    1988-01-01

    The source of position pulses is connected to the evaluation unit to which is also connected a display which in turn is connected to a numerical selection unit connected via a power output to the action drive unit. A feedback member is connected between the evaluation unit and the numerical selection unit. Changes in the position of the regulating body produces voltage in the position sensor proportional to the actual value of this change. Voltage pulses are led via a measuring amplifier to the evaluation unit. After amplification the pulses are compared with the value on the numerical selection unit connected in the feedback branch to the measuring amplifier which evaluates differential values of pulses shown on the display in form of instantaneous and required values. The required value is selected via the numerical unit. (J.B.). 1 fig

  18. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    . The first example covers countries with regional power markets that also regionalise their support schemes, the second countries with separate national power markets that regionalise their support schemes. The main findings indicate that the almost ideal situation exists if the region prior to regionalising...

  19. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a new nonlinear backward differentiation schemes for the numerical solution of nonlinear initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations. The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give ...

  20. Art and the Cosmic Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Whitney H.; Aiello, Monica Petty; Macdonald, Reeves; Asplund, Shari

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary unit described in this article utilizes "Art and the Cosmic Connection," a free program conceived of by artists Monica and Tyler Aiello and developed by the artists, scientists, and educators through NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs, to inspire learners to explore mysterious worlds in our solar…

  1. Support schemes and market design in international offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    International offshore grids can combine the grid connection of offshore wind parks with the possibility for international power trading in the future. This paper investigates the choice of support scheme and power market design in international offshore grids and derives resulting incentives...... support. For a stable investment framework in the near future, a tendering/feed-in tariff may be the best choice. It avoids exposing wind farms to balancing with multiple countries. In the long run, also other support scheme options may be of interest....

  2. hybrid modulation scheme fo rid modulation scheme fo dulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    control technique is done through simulations and ex control technique .... HYBRID MODULATION SCHEME FOR CASCADED H-BRIDGE INVERTER CELLS. C. I. Odeh ..... and OR operations. Referring to ... MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  3. Solar unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V

    1982-01-01

    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  4. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...

  5. A novel grain cluster-based homogenization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjahjanto, D D; Eisenlohr, P; Roters, F

    2010-01-01

    An efficient homogenization scheme, termed the relaxed grain cluster (RGC), for elasto-plastic deformations of polycrystals is presented. The scheme is based on a generalization of the grain cluster concept. A volume element consisting of eight (= 2 × 2 × 2) hexahedral grains is considered. The kinematics of the RGC scheme is formulated within a finite deformation framework, where the relaxation of the local deformation gradient of each individual grain is connected to the overall deformation gradient by the, so-called, interface relaxation vectors. The set of relaxation vectors is determined by the minimization of the constitutive energy (or work) density of the overall cluster. An additional energy density associated with the mismatch at the grain boundaries due to relaxations is incorporated as a penalty term into the energy minimization formulation. Effectively, this penalty term represents the kinematical condition of deformation compatibility at the grain boundaries. Simulations have been performed for a dual-phase grain cluster loaded in uniaxial tension. The results of the simulations are presented and discussed in terms of the effective stress–strain response and the overall deformation anisotropy as functions of the penalty energy parameters. In addition, the prediction of the RGC scheme is compared with predictions using other averaging schemes, as well as to the result of direct finite element (FE) simulation. The comparison indicates that the present RGC scheme is able to approximate FE simulation results of relatively fine discretization at about three orders of magnitude lower computational cost

  6. Flicker Mitigation of Grid Connected Wind Turbines Using STATCOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    to the point of common coupling (PCC) to relieve the flicker produced by grid connected wind turbines and the corresponding control scheme is described in detail. Simulation results show that STATCOM is an effective measure to mitigate the flicker level during continuous operation of grid connected wind......Grid connected wind turbines may produce flicker during continuous operation. In this paper flicker emission of grid connected wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators is investigated during continuous operation. A STATCOM using PWM voltage source converter (VSC) is connected in shunt...

  7. DISSECTING HABITAT CONNECTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    abstractConnectivity is increasingly recognized as an important element of a successful reserve design. Connectivity matters in reserve design to the extent that it promotes or hinders the viability of target populations. While conceptually straightforward, connectivity i...

  8. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  9. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  10. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  11. Optimum RA reactor fuelling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.; Nikolic, V.

    1965-10-01

    Ideal reactor refueling scheme can be achieved only by continuous fuel elements movement in the core, which is not possible, and thus approximations are applied. One of the possible approximations is discontinuous movement of fuel elements groups in radial direction. This enables higher burnup especially if axial exchange is possible. Analysis of refueling schemes in the RA reactor core and schemes with mixing the fresh and used fuel elements show that 30% higher burnup can be achieved by applying mixing, and even 40% if reactivity due to decrease in experimental space is taken into account. Up to now, mean burnup of 4400 MWd/t has been achieved, and the proposed fueling scheme with reduction of experimental space could achieve mean burnup of 6300 MWd/t which means about 25 Mwd/t per fuel channel [sr

  12. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  13. Numerical schemes for explosion hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, internal or external explosions can cause confinement breaches and radioactive materials release in the environment. Hence, modeling such phenomena is crucial for safety matters. Blast waves resulting from explosions are modeled by the system of Euler equations for compressible flows, whereas Navier-Stokes equations with reactive source terms and level set techniques are used to simulate the propagation of flame front during the deflagration phase. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the creation of efficient numerical schemes to solve these complex models. The work presented here focuses on two major aspects: first, the development of consistent schemes for the Euler equations, then the buildup of reliable schemes for the front propagation. In both cases, explicit in time schemes are used, but we also introduce a pressure correction scheme for the Euler equations. Staggered discretization is used in space. It is based on the internal energy formulation of the Euler system, which insures its positivity and avoids tedious discretization of the total energy over staggered grids. A discrete kinetic energy balance is derived from the scheme and a source term is added in the discrete internal energy balance equation to preserve the exact total energy balance at the limit. High order methods of MUSCL type are used in the discrete convective operators, based solely on material velocity. They lead to positivity of density and internal energy under CFL conditions. This ensures that the total energy cannot grow and we can furthermore derive a discrete entropy inequality. Under stability assumptions of the discrete L8 and BV norms of the scheme's solutions one can prove that a sequence of converging discrete solutions necessarily converges towards the weak solution of the Euler system. Besides it satisfies a weak entropy inequality at the limit. Concerning the front propagation, we transform the flame front evolution equation (the so called

  14. Power system services provided by inverter connected distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For the last few years there has been a significant increase of DER units in Denmark, of those units more and more are connected to the power system using inverters. These inverter connected units have the potential to support the electrical power system with various power system services. One...

  15. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  16. How Governance Regimes Shape the Implementation of Water Reuse Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Frijns

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The governance dimensions of water reuse scheme development and operation, such as policies and regulatory frameworks, and public involvement and stakeholder collaboration, can serve to both facilitate and constrain wider adoption of water reuse practices. This paper explores the significance and underlying structure of the key governance challenges facing the water reuse sector in Europe. It presents empirical evidence from interviews and focus group sessions conducted at four water reuse schemes: an indirect potable reuse scheme at Torreele (Belgium, the urban reuse of treated municipal wastewater at the London Olympic Park (United Kingdom and at Sabadell (Spain, and the reuse of agro-industrial effluent for irrigation at Capitanata (Italy. The findings underscore the importance of clarity in policy arrangements around water reuse, as well as of the financial competitiveness of reuse projects compared to alternative water supply options. Operators of water reuse schemes expressed a preference for water quality standards, which focus on appropriateness for use rather than over-emphasise the waters’ origin so that unnecessary treatment and costs can be avoided. Positive public support was widely acknowledged as an important factor in the success or failure of water reuse schemes. We conclude that constructive institutional relationships underpin many of the challenges faced by reuse scheme operators and that greater emphasis should be given to building confidence and gaining trust in water service providers through early identification of how governance regimes shape the viability of new schemes.

  17. Practicing (Dis)connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The paper addresses the reciprocal notions of mobility and mobilisation in medical imaging practice, in view of the contingent and multiple character of the knowledge-practices involving such images – and their interpretation – within and across situated settings. Based on an ethnographically......’s development of in-house examination protocols as a consequence of its having replaced an older, pre-existing MRI scanner with a new model. This re-domestication of MRI as occasioned by the replacement scanner offers a range of sociomaterial and sociotechnical contingencies in the practice to come to light...... of the epistemic underpinnings which render, and condition, how connections are mediated across extended settings of practice (in the MRI unit, at interdisciplinary case conferences, and at other hospitals, etc.). This relational view allows for the heterogeneity entailed in the domestication of the MRI scanner...

  18. Unconditionally energy stable numerical schemes for phase-field vesicle membrane model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-González, F.; Tierra, G.

    2018-02-01

    Numerical schemes to simulate the deformation of vesicles membranes via minimizing the bending energy have been widely studied in recent times due to its connection with many biological motivated problems. In this work we propose a new unconditionally energy stable numerical scheme for a vesicle membrane model that satisfies exactly the conservation of volume constraint and penalizes the surface area constraint. Moreover, we extend these ideas to present an unconditionally energy stable splitting scheme decoupling the interaction of the vesicle with a surrounding fluid. Finally, the well behavior of the proposed schemes are illustrated through several computational experiments.

  19. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  20. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: es@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  1. Scheme-Independent Predictions in QCD: Commensurate Scale Relations and Physical Renormalization Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1998-01-01

    Commensurate scale relations are perturbative QCD predictions which relate observable to observable at fixed relative scale, such as the ''generalized Crewther relation'', which connects the Bjorken and Gross-Llewellyn Smith deep inelastic scattering sum rules to measurements of the e + e - annihilation cross section. All non-conformal effects are absorbed by fixing the ratio of the respective momentum transfer and energy scales. In the case of fixed-point theories, commensurate scale relations relate both the ratio of couplings and the ratio of scales as the fixed point is approached. The relations between the observables are independent of the choice of intermediate renormalization scheme or other theoretical conventions. Commensurate scale relations also provide an extension of the standard minimal subtraction scheme, which is analytic in the quark masses, has non-ambiguous scale-setting properties, and inherits the physical properties of the effective charge α V (Q 2 ) defined from the heavy quark potential. The application of the analytic scheme to the calculation of quark-mass-dependent QCD corrections to the Z width is also reviewed

  2. A Hybrid Data Compression Scheme for Improved VNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozheng (Jane Zhang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Network Computing (VNC has emerged as a promising technology in distributed computing environment since its invention in the late nineties. Successful application of VNC requires rapid data transfer from one machine to another over a TCP/IP network connection. However transfer of screen data consumes much network bandwidth and current data encoding schemes for VNC are far from being ideal. This paper seeks to improve screen data compression techniques to enable VNC over slow connections and present a reasonable speed and image quality. In this paper, a hybrid technique is proposed for improving coding efficiency. The algorithm first divides a screen image into pre-defined regions and applies encoding schemes to each area according to the region characteristics. Second, correlation of screen data in consecutive frames is exploited where multiple occurrences of similar image contents are detected. The improved results are demonstrated in a dynamic environment with various screen image types and desktop manipulation.

  3. Analyses of resource reservation schemes for optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanska, Michaela; Scholtz, Lubomir; Ladanyi, Libor; Mullerova, Jarmila

    2017-12-01

    With growing demands of Internet Protocol services for transmission capacity and speed, the Optical Burst Switching presents the solution for future high-speed optical networks. Optical Burst Switching is a technology for transmitting large amounts of data bursts through a transparent optical switching network. To successfully transmit bursts over OBS network and reach the destination node, resource reservation schemes have to be implemented to allocate resources and configure optical switches for that burst at each node. The one-way resource reservation schemes and the performance evaluation of reservation schemes are presented. The OBS network model is performed using OMNeT++ simulation environment. During the reservation of network resources, the optical cross-connect based on semiconductor optical amplifier is used as the core node. Optical switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers are a promising technology for high-speed optical communication networks.

  4. Proposal of Wireless Traffic Control Schemes for Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraguri, Takefumi; Ichikawa, Takeo; Iizuka, Masataka; Kubota, Shuji

    This paper proposes two traffic control schemes to support the communication quality of multimedia streaming services such as VoIP and audio/video over IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow of the multimedia streaming service and load balancing between access points (APs) of the wireless LAN by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed schemes are implemented on a Linux machine which is called the wireless traffic controller (WTC). The WTC connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network to which the APs are attached. We evaluated the performance of the proposed WTC and confirmed that the communication quality of the multimedia streaming would be greatly improved by using this technique.

  5. Towards a multigrid scheme in SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutbrod, F.

    1992-12-01

    The task of constructing a viable updating multigrid scheme for SU(2) lattice gauge theory is discussed in connection with the classical eigenvalue problem. For a nonlocal overrelaxation Monte Carlo update step, the central numerical problem is the search for the minimum of a quadratic approximation to the action under nonlocal constraints. Here approximate eigenfunctions are essential to reduce the numerical work, and these eigenfunctions are to be constructed with multigrid techniques. A simple implementation on asymmetric lattices is described, where the grids are restricted to 3-dimensional hyperplanes. The scheme is shown to be moderately successful in the early stages of the updating history (starting from a cold configuration). The main results of another, less asymmetric scheme are presented briefly. (orig.)

  6. Environmental impact assessment of different design schemes of an industrial ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Aditi; Lou, Helen H.; Yaws, Carl L.; Hopper, Jack R.; Pike, Ralph W.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial ecosystem is an important approach for sustainable development. In an industrial ecosystem, a group of industries are inter-connected through mass and energy exchanges for mutual benefits. However, some mass and energy exchange activities may cause unexpected environmental impacts. Therefore, it is vital to evaluate the environmental impacts of the symbiosis in order to provide a clear guidance for the decision-makers and stakeholders. The agro-chemical complex in the Lower Mississippi River Corridor with thirteen chemical and petrochemical industries emits huge amount of carbon dioxide. A bi-level design methodology is used to reconfigure this complex for utilizing surplus carbon dioxide. By using a superstructure-based approach, a new design scheme for this industrial ecosystem is proposed. In this paper, an LCA-type environmental impact assessment of different design schemes for this complex is conducted using the software TRACI, a tool developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). This analysis compares various environmental impacts of different designs and identifies the potential trade-offs in different environmental impact categories. This information provides deep insight about the environmental sustainability of industrial ecosystems and facilitates the development of the most eco-effective symbiosis for recycle, reuse and resource conservation. (author)

  7. A Hybrid Data Compression Scheme for Improved VNC

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaozheng (Jane) Zhang; Hirofumi Takahashi

    2007-01-01

    Virtual Network Computing (VNC) has emerged as a promising technology in distributed computing environment since its invention in the late nineties. Successful application of VNC requires rapid data transfer from one machine to another over a TCP/IP network connection. However transfer of screen data consumes much network bandwidth and current data encoding schemes for VNC are far from being ideal. This paper seeks to improve screen data compression techniques to enable VNC over slow connecti...

  8. bayelsa, in search of a sustainable health financing scheme

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-19

    Aug 19, 2016 ... Before 2000 less than 0.14% of national budget was allocated to patient .... impact on patient care and these receive very meagre ... But they severed relationship when ..... the customer care unit of the scheme had no vehicle.

  9. Reassessment and proposal of synchronization scheme for grid connected static converters under disturbed utility; Nueva evaluación y propuesta de un esquema de sincronización para la conexión a la red de convertidores estáticos de potencia en presencia de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Buja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by casting new light to the existing Phase Lock Loop (PLL schemes used to synchronize the static converters with the grid under utility disturbances. Two approaches are pursued to detect the fundamental harmonic of the positive-sequence component of the grid voltages in presence of the disturbances. Arithmetical approaches improve the operation of the basic PLL circuit by making robust the PLL algorithm. Structural approaches improve the operation of the basic PLL circuit by adding a block intended to cope with the disturbances. This paper considers the structural approach and shows that it works by either post processing the detected grid quantities or preprocessing the grid voltages. Afterwards, the paper proposes an improved PLL scheme termed as double processing (DP PLL scheme since it includes preprocessing and post processing functionalities. By properly designing the scheme parameters, it is proved that the proposed scheme exhibits superior robustness against the utility disturbances. El artículo realiza una descripción de los principales esquemas de lazos de enganche de fases (PLL según sus siglas en inglés usados para sincronizar convertidores estáticos de potencia en una red eléctrica en presencia de perturbaciones eléctricas. Se profundiza en dos esquemas principales para la detección de la componente de secuencia positiva del armónico fundamental. Un enfoque aritmético mejora la operación del esquema PLL básico haciéndolo más  robusto. Un enfoque estructural mejora la operación del esquema PLL básico por la acción de un bloque auxiliar que elimina el efecto perturbador presente en la red eléctrica. Este artículo considera el enfoque estructural y muestra cómo funciona  tanto la detención de las variables eléctricas post procesadas o el preprocesamiento de la tensión de la red. Posteriormente se propone un esquema de PLL mejorado llamado lazo de enganche de fase con doble procesamiento. Se

  10. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  12. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  14. Signal multiplexing scheme for LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujo, C.I.; Mohan, Shyam; Joshi, Gopal; Singh, S.K.; Karande, Jitendra

    2004-01-01

    For the proper operation of the LINAC some signals, RF (radio frequency) as well as LF (low frequency) have to be available at the Master Control Station (MCS). These signals are needed to control, calibrate and characterize the RF fields in the resonators. This can be achieved by proper multiplexing of various signals locally and then routing the selected signals to the MCS. A multiplexing scheme has been designed and implemented, which will allow the signals from the selected cavity to the MCS. High isolation between channels and low insertion loss for a given signal are important issues while selecting the multiplexing scheme. (author)

  15. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Alberto; Tarable, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The s...

  16. Minimum cost connection networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we consider the allocation of costs in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to have connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection...... demands. We use a few axioms to characterize allocation rules that truthfully implement cost minimizing networks satisfying all connection demands in a game where: (1) a central planner announces an allocation rule and a cost estimation rule; (2) every agent reports her own connection demand as well...... as all connection costs; (3) the central planner selects a cost minimizing network satisfying reported connection demands based on the estimated costs; and, (4) the planner allocates the true costs of the selected network. It turns out that an allocation rule satisfies the axioms if and only if relative...

  17. Impact of Beamforming on the Path Connectivity in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le The Dung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of using directional antennas and beamforming schemes on the connectivity of cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs. Specifically, considering that secondary users use two kinds of directional antennas, i.e., uniform linear array (ULA and uniform circular array (UCA antennas, and two different beamforming schemes, i.e., randomized beamforming and center-directed to communicate with each other, we study the connectivity of all combination pairs of directional antennas and beamforming schemes and compare their performances to those of omnidirectional antennas. The results obtained in this paper show that, compared with omnidirectional transmission, beamforming transmission only benefits the connectivity when the density of secondary user is moderate. Moreover, the combination of UCA and randomized beamforming scheme gives the highest path connectivity in all evaluating scenarios. Finally, the number of antenna elements and degree of path loss greatly affect path connectivity in CRAHNs.

  18. GRAP, Gamma-Ray Level-Scheme Assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklyn, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: An interactive program for allocating gamma-rays to an energy level scheme. Procedure allows for searching for new candidate levels of the form: 1) L1 + G(A) + G(B) = L2; 2) G(A) + G(B) = G(C); 3) G(A) + G(B) = C (C is a user defined number); 4) L1 + G(A) + G(B) + G(C) = L2. Procedure indicates intensity balance of feed and decay of each energy level. Provides for optimization of a level energy (and associated error). Overall procedure allows for pre-defining of certain gamma-rays as belonging to particular regions of the level scheme, for example, high energy transition levels, or due to beta- decay. 2 - Method of solution: Search for cases in which the energy difference between two energy levels is equal to a gamma-ray energy within user-defined limits. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of gamma-rays: 999; Maximum gamma ray energy: 32000 units; Minimum gamma ray energy: 10 units; Maximum gamma-ray intensity: 32000 units; Minimum gamma-ray intensity: 0.001 units; Maximum number of levels: 255; Maximum level energy: 32000 units; Minimum level energy: 10 units; Maximum error on energy, intensity: 32 units; Minimum error on energy, intensity: 0.001 units; Maximum number of combinations: 6400 (ca); Maximum number of gamma-ray types : 127

  19. On 165Ho level scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisson, Claire; Ardisson, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A 165 Ho level scheme was constructed which led to the interpretation of sixty γ rays belonging to the decay of 165 Dy. A new 702.9keV level was identified to be the 5/2 - member of the 1/2 ) 7541{ Nilsson orbit. )] [fr

  20. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min; Ma, Guancong; Wu, Ying; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2014-01-01

    the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost

  1. New practicable Siberian Snake schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-07-01

    Siberian Snake schemes can be inserted in ring accelerators for making the spin tune almost independent of energy. Two such schemes are here suggested which lend particularly well to practical application over a wide energy range. Being composed of horizontal and vertical bending magnets, the proposed snakes are designed to have a small maximum beam excursion in one plane. By applying in this plane a bending correction that varies with energy, they can be operated at fixed geometry in the other plane where most of the bending occurs, thus avoiding complicated magnet motion or excessively large magnet apertures that would otherwise be needed for large energy variations. The first of the proposed schemes employs a pair of standard-type Siberian Snakes, i.e. of the usual 1st and 2nd kind which rotate the spin about the longitudinal and the transverse horizontal axis, respectively. The second scheme employs a pair of novel-type snakes which rotate the spin about either one of the horizontal axes that are at 45 0 to the beam direction. In obvious reference to these axes, they are called left-pointed and right-pointed snakes. (orig.)

  2. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ho Shin

    2014-01-01

    efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB and 1.74tlog2⁡m bit-per-pixel (bpp, respectively.

  3. On the security of two remote user authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee-Won; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The telecare medical information systems (TMISs) support convenient and rapid health-care services. A secure and efficient authentication scheme for TMIS provides safeguarding patients' electronic patient records (EPRs) and helps health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed a password based user authentication scheme using smart cards for TMIS, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various malicious attacks. However, we point out that their scheme is still vulnerable to lost smart card and cannot provide forward secrecy. Subsequently, Das and Goswami proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. They simulated their scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted automated validation of Internet security protocols and applications (AVISPA) tool to ensure that their scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. However, we show that their scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attacks and cannot provide forward secrecy property. The proposed cryptanalysis discourages any use of the two schemes under investigation in practice and reveals some subtleties and challenges in designing this type of schemes.

  4. The new social housing scheme in Nigeria: How beneficial for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian government recently inaugurated a Special Committee on National Social Housing Scheme (NSHS) with a presidential mandate to provide housing for its less privileged citizens. In the pilot phase of the scheme, the committee was to build 18,000 units of houses across the country before the end of 2006.

  5. Social Impacts of the Marking Scheme in Public Housing in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yung

    2012-01-01

    To improve environmental hygiene in public housing estates in Hong Kong, the Housing Department launched the Marking Scheme for Tenancy Enforcement in Public Housing Estates in 2003. The marking scheme operates as a penalty-point system where sitting tenants will be expelled from their public housing units if they receive penalty points up to a…

  6. Connected vehicle standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles have the potential to transform the way Americans travel by : allowing cars, buses, trucks, trains, traffic signals, smart phones, and other devices to : communicate through a safe, interoperable wireless network. A connected vehic...

  7. Shape Analysis of Planar Multiply-Connected Objects Using Conformal Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok Ming Lui; Wei Zeng; Shing-Tung Yau; Xianfeng Gu

    2014-07-01

    Shape analysis is a central problem in the field of computer vision. In 2D shape analysis, classification and recognition of objects from their observed silhouettes are extremely crucial but difficult. It usually involves an efficient representation of 2D shape space with a metric, so that its mathematical structure can be used for further analysis. Although the study of 2D simply-connected shapes has been subject to a corpus of literatures, the analysis of multiply-connected shapes is comparatively less studied. In this work, we propose a representation for general 2D multiply-connected domains with arbitrary topologies using conformal welding. A metric can be defined on the proposed representation space, which gives a metric to measure dissimilarities between objects. The main idea is to map the exterior and interior of the domain conformally to unit disks and circle domains (unit disk with several inner disks removed), using holomorphic 1-forms. A set of diffeomorphisms of the unit circle S(1) can be obtained, which together with the conformal modules are used to define the shape signature. A shape distance between shape signatures can be defined to measure dissimilarities between shapes. We prove theoretically that the proposed shape signature uniquely determines the multiply-connected objects under suitable normalization. We also introduce a reconstruction algorithm to obtain shapes from their signatures. This completes our framework and allows us to move back and forth between shapes and signatures. With that, a morphing algorithm between shapes can be developed through the interpolation of the Beltrami coefficients associated with the signatures. Experiments have been carried out on shapes extracted from real images. Results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed algorithm as a stable shape representation scheme.

  8. Comparison of nutrient profiling schemes for restricting the marketing of food and drink to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinsden, H; Lobstein, T

    2013-08-01

    The food and beverage industry have made voluntary pledges to reduce children's exposure to the marketing of energy-dense foods and beverages, and in 2012 announced the replacement of company-specific nutrient profiling schemes with uniform sets of criteria from 2013 (in the USA) and 2014 (in the European Union [EU]). To compare the proposed USA and EU nutrient profiling schemes and three government-led schemes, paying particular attention to the differences in sugar criteria. Food and beverage products permitted to be advertised in the USA under pre-2013 criteria were examined using five nutrient profiling schemes: the forthcoming USA and EU schemes and three government-approved schemes: the US Interagency Working Group (IWG) proposals, the United Kingdom Office of Communications (OfCom) regulations and the Danish Forum co-regulatory Code. Under the new USA and EU nutrient profiling schemes, 88 (49%) and 73 (41%) of a total of 178 products would be permitted to be advertised, respectively. The US IWG permitted 25 (14%) products; the Ofcom regulations permitted 65 (37%) and the Danish Code permitted 13 (7%). Government-led schemes are significantly more restrictive than industry-led schemes, primarily due to their tougher sugar criteria. The Danish Forum (93%) and USA IWG scheme (86%) are the most restrictive of the five examined. Further harmonization of nutrient profiling schemes is needed to reduce children's exposure to the promotion of energy-dense foods. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  9. Nonlinear adaptive control of grid-connected three-phase inverters for renewable energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdian-Dehkordi, N.; Namvar, M.; Karimi, H.; Piya, P.; Karimi-Ghartemani, M.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) units are often interfaced to the main grid using power electronic converters including voltage-source converters (VSCs). A VSC offers dc/ac power conversion, high controllability, and fast dynamic response. Because of nonlinearities, uncertainties, and system parameters' changes involved in the nature of a grid-connected renewable DG system, conventional linear control methods cannot completely and efficiently address all control objectives. In this paper, a nonlinear adaptive control scheme based on adaptive backstepping strategy is presented to control the operation of a grid-connected renewable DG unit. As compared to the popular vector control technique, the proposed controller offers smoother transient responses, and lower level of current distortions. The Lyapunov approach is used to establish global asymptotic stability of the proposed control system. Linearisation technique is employed to develop guidelines for parameters tuning of the controller. Extensive time-domain digital simulations are performed and presented to verify the performance of the proposed controller when employed in a VSC to control the operation of a two-stage DG unit and also that of a single-stage solar photovoltaic system. Desirable and superior performance of the proposed controller is observed.

  10. Connecting to Everyday Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    construction and reproduction of cultural heritage creating novel connections between self and others and between past, present and future. We present experiences from a current research project, the Digital Natives exhibition, in which social media was designed as an integral part of the exhibition to connect...... focusing on the connections between audiences practices and the museum exhibition....

  11. Technical guide to the connection of generation to the distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, K.; Hedgecock, J.; Gregory, R.; Warham, T.

    2003-07-01

    This guide provides a 'route map' of the processes of getting a generation scheme connected to the network and is intended to help developers of any form of distributed generation connected to the UK's local electricity networks, eg: renewable energy schemes; waste-to-energy schemes; on-site generation and combined heat and power (CHP) schemes; and peak lopping schemes using back-up generators. Where necessary, the guide distinguishes between arrangements that apply in Scotland and those that apply in England and Wales. The guide aims to: provide background information about the electricity industry; highlight common technical issues that arise during connection negotiation and their implications for distribution network operators (DNOs) and developers; examine the main factors affecting connection costs and timescales for achieving connections; and identify the different types of contracts relating to connection. The report considers the connection process, the connection application process and timescales, costs and charges, competition in connection, the structure of the UK electricity industry, the statutory framework, the effects of distributed generation of the distribution system, earthing and protection design, safety issues and DNO network information. It includes a glossary, checklists, useful contact details and information about standards and other useful documents.

  12. Design of Current-Controller with PR-regulator for LCL-Filter Based Grid-Connected Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guohong; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2010-01-01

    In the application of LCL-filter based converters, the structure and parameters of current-controller is very important for the system stability and output current quality. This paper presents a filter-capacitor current feedback control scheme for grid-connected converter. The controller...... is consisted of a proportional-resonance regulator and a proportional regulator. Unlike the existing control strategy with unit capacitor current feedback, the proposed method applies the proportional regulator to the feedback path, which can decouple these two regulators, and simplify the tuning process...... of the control strategy and the proposed current controller design method are verified by the simulation results of a 50kVA grid-connected inverter....

  13. Multifunctional centrifugal grinding unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevostyanov, V. S.; Uralskij, V. I.; Uralskij, A. V.; Sinitsa, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents scientific and engineering developments of multifunctional centrifugal grinding unit in which the selective effect of grinding bodies on the crushing material is realized, depending on its physical and mechanical characteristics and various schemes for organizing the technological process

  14. Consistent forcing scheme in the cascaded lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Linlin; Luo, Kai Hong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we give an alternative derivation for the cascaded lattice Boltzmann method (CLBM) within a general multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) framework by introducing a shift matrix. When the shift matrix is a unit matrix, the CLBM degrades into an MRT LBM. Based on this, a consistent forcing scheme is developed for the CLBM. The consistency of the nonslip rule, the second-order convergence rate in space, and the property of isotropy for the consistent forcing scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulations of several canonical problems. Several existing forcing schemes previously used in the CLBM are also examined. The study clarifies the relation between MRT LBM and CLBM under a general framework.

  15. Consistent forcing scheme in the cascaded lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Linlin; Luo, Kai Hong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we give an alternative derivation for the cascaded lattice Boltzmann method (CLBM) within a general multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) framework by introducing a shift matrix. When the shift matrix is a unit matrix, the CLBM degrades into an MRT LBM. Based on this, a consistent forcing scheme is developed for the CLBM. The consistency of the nonslip rule, the second-order convergence rate in space, and the property of isotropy for the consistent forcing scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulations of several canonical problems. Several existing forcing schemes previously used in the CLBM are also examined. The study clarifies the relation between MRT LBM and CLBM under a general framework.

  16. Economic Droop Scheme for Decentralized Power Management in DC Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an autonomous and economic droop control scheme for DC microgrid application. In this method, a cost-effective power sharing technique among various types of DG units is properly adopted. The droop settings are determined based on an algorithm to individually manage the power management without any complicated optimization methods commonly applied in the centralized control method. In the proposed scheme, the system retains all the advantages of the traditional droop method while minimizes the generation costs of the DC microgrid. In the proposed method, all DGs are classified in a sorting rule based on their total generation cost and the reference voltage of their droop equations is then determined. The proposed scheme is applied to a typical DC microgrid consisting of four different types of DGs and a controllable load. The simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

  17. Money Laundering Detection Framework to Link the Disparate and Evolving Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Murad Mehmet; Miguel Fuentes Buchholtz

    2013-01-01

    Money launderers hide traces of their transactions with the involvement of entities that participate in sophisticated schemes. Money laundering detection requires unraveling concealed connections among multiple but seemingly unrelated human money laundering networks, ties among actors of those schemes, and amounts of funds transferred among those entities. The link among small networks, either financial or social, is the primary factor that facilitates money laundering. Hence, the analysis of...

  18. Real-time-service-based Distributed Scheduling Scheme for IEEE 802.16j Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Feng Huang; Shih-Jung Wu

    2013-01-01

    Supporting Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for diverse multimedia services is the primary concern for IEEE802.16j networks. A scheduling scheme that satisfies the QoS requirements has become more important for wireless communications. We proposed an adaptive nontransparent-based distributed scheduling scheme (ANDS) for IEEE 802.16j networks. ANDS comprises three major components: Priority Assignment, Resource Allocation, Preserved Bandwidth Adjustment. Different service-type connections p...

  19. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    , Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project...

  20. [PICS: pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morénas, J

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme (PICS) is a structure containing 34 participating authorities located worldwide (October 2008). It has been created in 1995 on the basis of the pharmaceutical inspection convention (PIC) settled by the European free trade association (EFTA) in1970. This scheme has different goals as to be an international recognised body in the field of good manufacturing practices (GMP), for training inspectors (by the way of an annual seminar and experts circles related notably to active pharmaceutical ingredients [API], quality risk management, computerized systems, useful for the writing of inspection's aide-memoires). PICS is also leading to high standards for GMP inspectorates (through regular crossed audits) and being a room for exchanges on technical matters between inspectors but also between inspectors and pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  2. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular...

  3. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  4. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...... effects remained largely implicit. The requirements classification contributed to constraining the requirements-engineering process by supporting the software engineers in maintaining some level of control over the process. This way, the requirements classification provided the software engineers...

  5. New schemes for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Y.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors propose new schemes for realizing the v/sub p/xB accelerator, by using no plasma system for producing the strong longitudinal waves. The first method is to use a grating for obtaining extended interaction of an electron beam moving along the grating surface with light beam incident also along the surface. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely to the grating grooves for producing strong electric field, and the electron beam propagates in parallel to the light beam. The static magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the grating surface. In the present system, the beam interacts synchronously with the p-polarized wave which has the electric field be parallel to the grating surface. Another conventional scheme is to use a delay circuit. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely between a pair of array of conductor fins or slots. The phase velocity of the spatial harmonics in the y-direction (right angle to the array of slots) is slower than the speed of light. With the aid of powerful laser light or microwave source, it should be possible to miniaturise linacs by using the v/sub p/xB effect and schemes proposed here

  6. A Memory Efficient Network Encryption Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fotouh, Mohamed Abo; Diepold, Klaus

    In this paper, we studied the two widely used encryption schemes in network applications. Shortcomings have been found in both schemes, as these schemes consume either more memory to gain high throughput or low memory with low throughput. The need has aroused for a scheme that has low memory requirements and in the same time possesses high speed, as the number of the internet users increases each day. We used the SSM model [1], to construct an encryption scheme based on the AES. The proposed scheme possesses high throughput together with low memory requirements.

  7. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui-Ran; Luo Ming-Xing; Peng Dai-Yuan; Wang Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks . (paper)

  8. Network connectivity value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Arnaud; Boulanger, Vincent; Bruciamacchie, Max; Chauchard, Sandrine; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Stenger, Anne

    2017-04-21

    In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected. The results show that the network equilibrium depends on the size of the reception zone, while the network connectivity depends on the environmental compatibility between the ecological areas. Through shadow prices, we find that securing connectivity in partially connected networks is more expensive than in fully connected networks, but should be undertaken when the opportunity costs are significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks based on channel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhuo; Zhong, Sheng; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  10. Relationship of Occlusal Schemes with the Occurrence of Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina H. Sugiaman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Masticatory system is a complex functional unit of the body responsible for mastication, speech, and deglutition process. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD is used to describe all functional disturbances of the masticatory system. The etiology of TMD is multifactorial, such as occlusal disharmony and emotional stress. The relationship between occlusion and TMD has been highly debated in dentistry, one of the occlusal factors is the occlusal scheme. Occlusal schemes are defined as bilateral canine guidance, unilateral canine guidance, group function and balanced occlusion. However, studies about the relationship of occlusal schemes and the occurrence of the TMD are still limited and remained controversial. Objective: To investigate the relationship of occlusal schemes witht he occurrence of TMD. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, Uniiversitas Indonesia. A total of 127 students were included in this study. Subjects were examined based on Clinical Helkimo Index and divided into TMD and non-TMD groups. Subjects were categorized as non-TMD groups if the value of the clinical Helkimo index was 0 and as TMD group when the value ranged between 1-25. Results: Balanced occlusion schemes has a greater risk of TMD occurrence with odds ratio value 5.6 and 95% confidence interval 1.188 to 26.331 (p=0.021. Conclusion: Balanced occlusion has a significant relationship with the occurrence of TMD.

  11. The business case for connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dennis; Hirschheim, Rudy

    1991-01-01

    Information systems that provide competitive advantages to organizations can be broadly classified into those that improve the effectiveness of a business function and those that improve the reach of information in the organization. The latter, organizational connectivity systems, can be categorized as intraorganizational and interorganizational systems. Intraorganization systems provide connectivity to function areas within the business, while interorganizational systems support the exchange of business data between independent business units. These system are not confined to a single entity but span organizational boundaries which can be national or international in scope. A series of case studies was undertaken in an effort to better understand the issues and problems associated with providing an increased flow of information within and outside of an organization. Ten issues emerged from this study. In summary, it is necessary for firms to first consider how effective their internal communications systems are before launching projects that tie the organization to external systems.

  12. Fast rerouting schemes for protected mobile IP over MPLS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chih-Chao; Chang, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Huan; Chen, Kim-Joan

    2005-10-01

    Fast rerouting is a critical traffic engineering operation in the MPLS networks. To implement the Mobile IP service over the MPLS network, one can collaborate with the fast rerouting operation to enhance the availability and survivability. MPLS can protect critical LSP tunnel between Home Agent (HA) and Foreign Agent (FA) using the fast rerouting scheme. In this paper, we propose a simple but efficient algorithm to address the triangle routing problem for the Mobile IP over the MPLS networks. We consider this routing issue as a link weighting and capacity assignment (LW-CA) problem. The derived solution is used to plan the fast restoration mechanism to protect the link or node failure. In this paper, we first model the LW-CA problem as a mixed integer optimization problem. Our goal is to minimize the call blocking probability on the most congested working truck for the mobile IP connections. Many existing network topologies are used to evaluate the performance of our scheme. Results show that our proposed scheme can obtain the best performance in terms of the smallest blocking probability compared to other schemes.

  13. BVS: A Lightweight Forward and Backward Secure Scheme for PMU Communications in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart grid, phaser measurement units (PMUs can upload readings to utility centers via supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA or energy management system (EMS to enable intelligent controlling and scheduling. It is critical to maintain the secrecy of readings so as to protect customers' privacy, together with integrity and source authentication for the reliability and stability of power scheduling. In particular, appealing security scheme needs to perform well in PMUs that usually have computational resource constraints, thus designed security protocols have to remain lightweight in terms of computation and storage. In this paper, we propose a family of schemes to solve this problem. They are public key based scheme (PKS, password based scheme (PWS and billed value-based scheme (BVS. BVS can achieve forward and backward security and only relies on hash functions. Security analysis justifies that the proposed schemes, especially BVS, can attain the security goals with low computation and storage cost.

  14. Decoupling schemes for the SSC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-05-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  15. Renormalization scheme-invariant perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, A.

    1983-01-01

    A complete solution to the problem of the renormalization scheme dependence of perturbative approximants to physical quantities is presented. An equation is derived which determines any physical quantity implicitly as a function of only scheme independent variables. (orig.)

  16. Wireless Broadband Access and Accounting Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two wireless broadband access and accounting schemes. In both schemes, the accounting system adopts RADIUS protocol, but the access system adopts SSH and SSL protocols respectively.

  17. Control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units within a microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrasa, Majid; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Mehrjerdi, Hasan; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Catalão, João P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units is proposed. • Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors. • The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components is considered. • Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid. - Abstract: This paper describes a control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation (DG) units based on renewable energy sources, during islanding and grid-connected modes. The Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of DG units during integration and power sharing with loads and/or power grid, which is an appropriate tool to analyze and define a stable operating condition for DG units in microgrid technology. The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components of DG units in ac-side, and dc-link voltage variations in dc-side of interfaced converters, are considered properly in the control loop of DG units, which is the main contribution and novelty of this control technique over other control strategies. By using the proposed control technique, DG units can provide the continuous injection of active power from DG sources to the local loads and/or utility grid. Moreover, by setting appropriate reference current components in the control loop of DG units, reactive power and harmonic current components of loads can be supplied during the islanding and grid-connected modes with a fast dynamic response. Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid during dynamic and steady-state operating conditions

  18. Joint support schemes for renewable generation and barriers for implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    expansion with lower prices that will affect existing conventional producers. Supporting that development will be opposed by producers whereas consumers will support such a strategy. However, the investment will be influenced by decisions of producers and the option of securing connection to other markets...... the 2020 RES targets. The countries might also find themselves competing for investment in a market with limited capital available. In both cases, the cost-efficiency of the renewable support policies will be reduced from a coordinated solution. We suggest possible policy solutions for joint support......EU has opened for using joint support schemes as support for promoting renewable energy to meet the 2020 targets. Countries are supporting renewable investment by many different types of support schemes and with different levels of support. The potential coordination benefits with more efficient...

  19. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  20. Tightly Secure Signatures From Lossy Identification Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla , Michel; Fouque , Pierre-Alain; Lyubashevsky , Vadim; Tibouchi , Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present three digital signature schemes with tight security reductions in the random oracle model. Our first signature scheme is a particularly efficient version of the short exponent discrete log-based scheme of Girault et al. (J Cryptol 19(4):463–487, 2006). Our scheme has a tight reduction to the decisional short discrete logarithm problem, while still maintaining the non-tight reduction to the computational version of the problem upon which the or...

  1. The text of the Agreement of 22 September 1982 between Chile and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The full text of the agreement of 22 September 1982 between Chile and the Agency for the application of safeguards to nuclear material supplied from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is presented

  2. Comparative study of numerical schemes of TVD3, UNO3-ACM and optimized compact scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck-Joo; Hwang, Chang-Jeon; Ko, Duck-Kon; Kim, Jae-Wook

    1995-01-01

    Three different schemes are employed to solve the benchmark problem. The first one is a conventional TVD-MUSCL (Monotone Upwind Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme. The second scheme is a UNO3-ACM (Uniformly Non-Oscillatory Artificial Compression Method) scheme. The third scheme is an optimized compact finite difference scheme modified by us: the 4th order Runge Kutta time stepping, the 4th order pentadiagonal compact spatial discretization with the maximum resolution characteristics. The problems of category 1 are solved by using the second (UNO3-ACM) and third (Optimized Compact) schemes. The problems of category 2 are solved by using the first (TVD3) and second (UNO3-ACM) schemes. The problem of category 5 is solved by using the first (TVD3) scheme. It can be concluded from the present calculations that the Optimized Compact scheme and the UN03-ACM show good resolutions for category 1 and category 2 respectively.

  3. Effects of Distributed Generation on Overcurrent Relay Coordination and an Adaptive Protection Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilik, Semih C.; Arsoy, Aysen B.

    2017-07-01

    Integration of distributed generation (DG) such as renewable energy sources to electrical network becomes more prevalent in recent years. Grid connection of DG has effects on load flow directions, voltage profile, short circuit power and especially protection selectivity. Applying traditional overcurrent protection scheme is inconvenient when system reliability and sustainability are considered. If a fault happens in DG connected network, short circuit contribution of DG, creates additional branch element feeding the fault current; compels to consider directional overcurrent (OC) protection scheme. Protection coordination might get lost for changing working conditions when DG sources are connected. Directional overcurrent relay parameters are determined for downstream and upstream relays when different combinations of DG connected singular or plural, on radial test system. With the help of proposed flow chart, relay parameters are updated and coordination between relays kept sustained for different working conditions in DigSILENT PowerFactory program.

  4. Optimal Sales Schemes for Network Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parakhonyak, Alexei; Vikander, Nick

    consumers simultaneously, serve them all sequentially, or employ any intermediate scheme. We show that the optimal sales scheme is purely sequential, where each consumer observes all previous sales before choosing whether to buy himself. A sequential scheme maximizes the amount of information available...

  5. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    ABSTRACT. Various Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) schemes have been used to combat errors that befall in- formation transmitted in digital communication systems. Such schemes include simple ARQ, mixed mode ARQ and Hybrid ARQ (HARQ). In this study we introduce extended ARQ schemes and derive.

  6. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission

  7. An ensemble training scheme for machine-learning classification of Hyperion satellite imagery with independent hyperspectral libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    A training scheme is proposed for the real-time classification of soil and vegetation (landscape) components in EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral images. First, an auto-contractive map is used to compute connectivity of reflectance values for spectral bands (N=200) from independent laboratory spectral library components. Second, a minimum spanning tree is used to identify optimal grouping of training components from connectivity values. Third, the reflectance values for optimal landscape component signatures are sorted. Fourth, empirical distribution functions (EDF) are computed for each landscape component. Fifth, the Monte-Carlo technique is used to generate realizations (N=30) for each landscape EDF. The correspondence of component realizations to original signatures validates the stochastic procedure. Presentation of the realizations to the self-organizing map (SOM) is done using three different map sizes: 14x10, 28x20, and 40 x 30. In each case, the SOM training proceeds first with a rough phase (20 iterations using a Gaussian neighborhood with an initial and final radius of 11 units and 3 units) and then fine phase (400 iterations using a Gaussian neighborhood with an initial and final radius of 3 units and 1 unit). The initial and final learning rates of 0.5 and 0.05 decay linearly down to 10-5, and the Gaussian neighborhood function decreases exponentially (decay rate of 10-3 iteration-1) providing reasonable convergence. Following training of the three networks, each corresponding SOM is used to independently classify the original spectral library signatures. In comparing the different SOM networks, the 28x20 map size is chosen for independent reproducibility and processing speed. The corresponding universal distance matrix reveals separation of the seven component classes for this map size thereby supporting it use as a Hyperion classifier.

  8. Handbook of networking & connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    McClain, Gary R

    1994-01-01

    Handbook of Networking & Connectivity focuses on connectivity standards in use, including hardware and software options. The book serves as a guide for solving specific problems that arise in designing and maintaining organizational networks.The selection first tackles open systems interconnection, guide to digital communications, and implementing TCP/IP in an SNA environment. Discussions focus on elimination of the SNA backbone, routing SNA over internets, connectionless versus connection-oriented networks, internet concepts, application program interfaces, basic principles of layering, proto

  9. 78 FR 55684 - ConnectED Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... tools move everything from homework assignments to testing into the cloud. The workshop will explore possible strategies to connect virtually all of our students to next-generation broadband in a timely, cost-effective way. It will also share promising practices, from NTIA's Broadband Technology Opportunities...

  10. The Connected Traveler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley

    2017-04-24

    The Connected Traveler project is a multi-disciplinary undertaking that seeks to validate potential for transformative transportation system energy savings by incentivizing energy efficient travel behavior.

  11. Connections: All Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Plateau, and more... Connections Newsletter December 2016 December 2016 Science-themed gifts available at

  12. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  13. Quantum Secure Communication Scheme with W State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Zhang Quan; Tang Chaojng

    2007-01-01

    We present a quantum secure communication scheme using three-qubit W state. It is unnecessary for the present scheme to use alternative measurement or Bell basis measurement. Compared with the quantum secure direct communication scheme proposed by Cao et al. [H.J. Cao and H.S. Song, Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 (2006) 290], in our scheme, the detection probability for an eavesdropper's attack increases from 8.3% to 25%. We also show that our scheme is secure for a noise quantum channel.

  14. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  15. The generalized scheme-independent Crewther relation in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Ming; Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2017-07-01

    The Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) provides a systematic way to set the renormalization scales order-by-order for any perturbative QCD calculable processes. The resulting predictions are independent of the choice of renormalization scheme, a requirement of renormalization group invariance. The Crewther relation, which was originally derived as a consequence of conformally invariant field theory, provides a remarkable connection between two observables when the β function vanishes: one can show that the product of the Bjorken sum rule for spin-dependent deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering times the Adler function, defined from the cross section for electron-positron annihilation into hadrons, has no pQCD radiative corrections. The ;Generalized Crewther Relation; relates these two observables for physical QCD with nonzero β function; specifically, it connects the non-singlet Adler function (Dns) to the Bjorken sum rule coefficient for polarized deep-inelastic electron scattering (CBjp) at leading twist. A scheme-dependent ΔCSB-term appears in the analysis in order to compensate for the conformal symmetry breaking (CSB) terms from perturbative QCD. In conventional analyses, this normally leads to unphysical dependence in both the choice of the renormalization scheme and the choice of the initial scale at any finite order. However, by applying PMC scale-setting, we can fix the scales of the QCD coupling unambiguously at every order of pQCD. The result is that both Dns and the inverse coefficient CBjp-1 have identical pQCD coefficients, which also exactly match the coefficients of the corresponding conformal theory. Thus one obtains a new generalized Crewther relation for QCD which connects two effective charges, αˆd (Q) =∑i≥1 αˆg1 i (Qi), at their respective physical scales. This identity is independent of the choice of the renormalization scheme at any finite order, and the dependence on the choice of the initial scale is negligible. Similar

  16. Archives: Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Archives: Mathematics Connection. Journal Home > Archives: Mathematics Connection. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 9 of 9 Items. 2011 ...

  17. Connective Tissue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of connective tissue. Over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. There are different types: Genetic disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each ...

  18. Generalized connectivity of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.

  19. Handbook of Brain Connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jirsa, Viktor K

    2007-01-01

    Our contemporary understanding of brain function is deeply rooted in the ideas of the nonlinear dynamics of distributed networks. Cognition and motor coordination seem to arise from the interactions of local neuronal networks, which themselves are connected in large scales across the entire brain. The spatial architectures between various scales inevitably influence the dynamics of the brain and thereby its function. But how can we integrate brain connectivity amongst these structural and functional domains? Our Handbook provides an account of the current knowledge on the measurement, analysis and theory of the anatomical and functional connectivity of the brain. All contributors are leading experts in various fields concerning structural and functional brain connectivity. In the first part of the Handbook, the chapters focus on an introduction and discussion of the principles underlying connected neural systems. The second part introduces the currently available non-invasive technologies for measuring struct...

  20. Modeling Structural Brain Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø

    The human brain consists of a gigantic complex network of interconnected neurons. Together all these connections determine who we are, how we react and how we interpret the world. Knowledge about how the brain is connected can further our understanding of the brain’s structural organization, help...... improve diagnosis, and potentially allow better treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. Tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool to estimate this “structural connectivity” of the brain non-invasively and in vivo. During the last decade, brain connectivity...... has increasingly been analyzed using graph theoretic measures adopted from network science and this characterization of the brain’s structural connectivity has been shown to be useful for the classification of populations, such as healthy and diseased subjects. The structural connectivity of the brain...

  1. Waiting lists in the electricity sector. Method for the connection regime in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; Wachtlijsten in de elektriciteitssector. De aanpak van het aansluitregime in Nederland en Groot-Brittannie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Neut Kolfschoten, M.E.

    2008-01-15

    In the past few years the Netherlands and Great Britain have seen a significant increase in the number of connection applications from both conventional and renewable generators. As there is insufficient transmission capacity to accommodate these applications a queue system was introduced. These queues are considered an obstacle for meeting the government's renewable targets and therefore in both countries a review of the current access regime was kicked off. Despite or perhaps due to their 'consensus culture' the Dutch government has decided on the way forward, whereas in Great Britain the options - including capacity auctions - are still being debated. In the Netherlands the connection queue will be abolished, every generator will be able to connect before wider system reinforcements have been carried out and constraints will be resolved by the introduction of congestion management. Although this may seem a sensible way forward as it is expected that it will result in indirect priority access for renewables, it may still be useful to consider the mixed British experience with regards to congestion management. The article describes the background to the connection queues and it provides a high-level overview of the regulatory framework and the developments and ongoing debates in the Netherlands and Great Britain. [Dutch] De laatste jaren is in Nederland en Groot-Brittannie het aantal aanvragen voor aansluitingen door zowel conventionele producenten als producenten van duurzame energie enorm toegenomen. Hierdoor is er een tekort aan capaciteit op het hoogspanningsnet ontstaan waardoor de invoering van wachtlijsten noodzakelijk werd. Deze wachtlijsten staan mogelijk het behalen van duurzame energie doelstellingen in de weg en mede om die reden wordt er in beide landen gekeken hoe het aansluitregime kan worden aangepast. Ondanks - of misschien dankzij het poldermodel is er in Nederland wat betreft het aansluitregime inmiddels een duidelijke keuze

  2. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  3. Study of connected system of automatic control of load and operation efficiency of a steam boiler with extremal controller on a simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanin, V. R.; Starostin, A. A.; Repin, A. I.; Popov, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    The problems of operation effectiveness increase of steam boilers are considered. To maintain the optimum fuel combustion modes, it is proposed to use an extremal controller (EC) determining the value of airflow rate, at which the boiler generating the desired amount of heat will consume a minimum amount of fuel. EC sets the determined value of airflow rate to airflow rate controller (ARC). The test results of numerical simulation dynamic nonlinear model of steam boiler with the connected system of automatic control of load and combustion efficiency using EC are presented. The model is created in the Simulink modeling package of MATLAB software and can be used to optimize the combustion modes. Based on the modeling results, the conclusion was drawn about the possibility in principle of simultaneously boiler load control and optimizing by EC the combustion modes when changing the fuel combustion heat and the boiler characteristics and its operating mode. It is shown that it is possible to automatically control the operation efficiency of steam boilers when using EC without applying the standard flue gas analyzers. The article considers the numerical simulation dynamic model of steam boiler with the schemes of control of fuel consumption and airflow rate, the steam pressure and EC; the purpose of using EC in the scheme with linear controllers and the requirements to the quality of its operation; the results of operation of boiler control schemes without EC with estimation of influence of roughness of thermal mode maps on the nature of static and dynamic connection of the control units of fuel consumption and airflow rate; the phase trajectories and the diagrams of transient processes occurring in the control scheme with EC with stepped changing the fuel quality and boiler characteristics; analysis of modeling results and prospects for using EC in the control schemes of boilers.

  4. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  5. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  6. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  7. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2009-01-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

  8. Yellow light for green scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2004-01-01

    The article asserts that there could be an investment boom for wind, hydro and bio power in a common Norwegian-Swedish market scheme for green certificates. The Swedish authorities are ready, and the Norwegian government is preparing a report to the Norwegian Parliament. What are the ambitions of Norway, and will hydro power be included? A green certificate market common to more countries have never before been established and requires the solution of many challenging problems. In Sweden, certificate support is expected to promote primarily bioenergy, wind power and small-scale hydro power. In Norway there is an evident potential for wind power, and more hydro power can be developed if desired

  9. Pomeranchuk conjecture and symmetry schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Morales, A.; Ruegg, H. [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1963-01-15

    Pomeranchuk has conjectured that the cross-sections for charge-exchange processes vanish asymptotically as the energy tends to infinity. (By ''charge'' it is meant any internal quantum number, like electric charge, hypercharge, .. . ). It has been stated by several people that this conjecture implies equalities among the total cross-sections whenever any symmetry scheme is invoked for the strong interactions. But to our knowledge no explicit general proof of this statement has been given so far. We want to give this proof for any compact Lie group. We also prove, under certain assumptions, that the equality of the total cross-sections implies that s{sup -l} times the charge-exchange forward scattering absorptive amplitudes tend to zero as s -> ∞.

  10. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Mexican States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the United Mexican States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 9 March 2004. It was signed on 29 March 2004 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 4 March 2011, the date on which the Agency received from the United Mexican States written notification that Mexico's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCHEME AND EXERGY ANALYSIS OF THE EGS WITH THE POSSIBILITY OF THE SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY AND "DEEP COLD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ia Gubarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of energy conservation is the use of an expander-generator sets, that convert pressurized natural gas into electricity. In applying the expander-generator set for using gas pressure power generation gas flow necessary to heat, as as a result of expansion of the gas in an expander and a corresponding lowering of the temperature, the formation of condensate and hydrates in gas pipelines and fittings, piping and, as a consequence, their blockage or obstruction. In connection with this gas before detander-generating set to be heated so that at its exit gas temperature was at least 0 0C. A scheme in which the heater is replaced by adsorption drying, which makes it possible to use an expander-generator set at low temperatures without the risk of it or after it, mist and hydrates. Gas adsorption drying - process is selective absorption of the surface pores of the solid adsorbent of water molecules from the gas, and then extract them from the pores by applying external influences. The process of adsorption drying gas can achieve dew point – 90 0C. Including this unit, or equivalent, in the scheme with the DHA, get simultaneous generation of electricity and "deep cold". Area of application "deep cold" is very broads. Along with all energy and chemical industries, he is in demand in the food industry, plants for the production of beer and soft drinks. Chill needed for freezing and for subsequent storage products in refrigeration terminals and warehouses. This article contains diagrams of the adsorption unit, unit the receipt of "deep cold", a description of their work and exergy analysis of the developed scheme.

  12. Power Enhancement of Partial Shaded PV Array by Optimizing the Electrical Connection of Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mengyao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maximum output power (Pmax generated from photovoltaic (PV array will be apparently reduced if the array is partially shaded. In order to enhance Pmax generated from partial shaded PV array, several interconnection schemes of array are proposed. Among these schemes, the totally cross tied (TCT scheme and the recently proposed static scheme are widely discussed. It was reported that Pmax produced with static scheme is equal to the TCT scheme even under worst conditions. However, in these simulations the illumination of every single module is assumed to be uniform, but in urban environments the illumination of modules on the edge of shadow is more likely to be non-uniform. In this paper, first, a comprehensive circuit-level simulation, which is implemented in PSpice, has been done to investigate performance of PV array with both TCT scheme and static scheme under different partial shading conditions. And the results show that Pmax generated from static scheme is higher than that form TCT scheme if the illumination of every single module is uniform, however if some modules are partially shaded, the Pmax with static scheme is more likely less than that with TCT scheme. Then, the electrical connection of a module is improved for the purpose of enhancing Pmax under partial shading conditions in which some modules in the array are partially shaded. And the simulation results show that Pmax is apparently increased by employing the improved modules.

  13. Matroids and quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A secret-sharing scheme is a cryptographic protocol to distribute a secret state in an encoded form among a group of players such that only authorized subsets of the players can reconstruct the secret. Classically, efficient secret-sharing schemes have been shown to be induced by matroids. Furthermore, access structures of such schemes can be characterized by an excluded minor relation. No such relations are known for quantum secret-sharing schemes. In this paper we take the first steps toward a matroidal characterization of quantum-secret-sharing schemes. In addition to providing a new perspective on quantum-secret-sharing schemes, this characterization has important benefits. While previous work has shown how to construct quantum-secret-sharing schemes for general access structures, these schemes are not claimed to be efficient. In this context the present results prove to be useful; they enable us to construct efficient quantum-secret-sharing schemes for many general access structures. More precisely, we show that an identically self-dual matroid that is representable over a finite field induces a pure-state quantum-secret-sharing scheme with information rate 1.

  14. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  15. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  16. Quality control scheme for thyroid related hormones measured by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.S.

    1989-09-01

    A regional quality control scheme for thyroid related hormones measured by radioimmunoassay is being established in the Middle East. The scheme started in January 1985, with eight laboratories which were all from Iraq. At the present nineteen laboratories from Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (Dubai) are now participating in the scheme. The scheme was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All participants received monthly three freeze dried quality control samples for assay. Results for T3, T4 and TSH received from participants are analysed statistically batch by batch and returned to the participants. Laboratories reporting quite marked bias results were contacted to check the assay performance for that particular batch and to define the weak points. Clinical interpretation for certain well defined samples were reported. A regular case study report is recently introduced to the scheme and will be distributed regularly as one of the guidelines in establishing a trouble shooting programme throughout the scheme. The overall mean between the laboratory performance showed a good result for the T4, moderate but acceptable for T3 and poor for TSH. The statistical analysis of the results based on the concept of a ''target'' value is derived from the believed correct value the ''Median''. The overall mean bias values (ignoring signs) for respectively low, normal and high concentration samples were for T4 18.0 ± 12.5, 11.2 ± 6.4 and 11.2 ± 6.4, for T3 28.8 ± 23.5, 11.2 ± 8.4 and 13.4 ± 9.0 and for TSH 46.3 ± 50.1, 37.2 ± 28.5 and 19.1 ± 12.1. The scheme proved to be effective not only in improving the overall performance but also it helped to develop awareness of the need for internal quality control programmes and gave confidence in the results of the participants. The scheme will continue and will be expanded to involve more laboratories in the region. Refs, fig and tabs

  17. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  18. The 3D Elevation Program national indexing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Heidemann, Hans Karl; Stoker, Jason M.; Eldridge, Diane F.

    2017-11-02

    The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquires high-resolution elevation data for the Nation. This program has been operating under an opportunity-oriented approach, acquiring light detection and ranging (lidar) projects of varying sizes scattered across the United States. As a result, the national 3DEP elevation layer is subject to data gaps or unnecessary overlap between adjacent collections. To mitigate this problem, 3DEP is adopting a strategic, systematic approach to national data acquisition that will create efficiencies in efforts to achieve nationwide elevation data coverage and help capture additional Federal and non-Federal investments resulting from advance awareness of proposed acquisitions and partnership opportunities. The 3DEP Working Group, an interagency group managed by the USGS, has agreed that all future 3DEP collections within the lower 48 States should be coordinated by using a 1-kilometer by 1-kilometer tiling scheme for the conterminous United States. Fiscal Year 2018 is being considered a transition year, and in Fiscal Year 2019 the national indexing scheme will be fully implemented, so that all 3DEP-supported projects will be acquired and delivered in the national indexing scheme and projected into the Albers Equal Area projection. 

  19. Connected motorcycle system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This project characterized the performance of Connected Vehicle Systems (CVS) on motorcycles based on two key components: global positioning and wireless communication systems. Considering that Global Positioning System (GPS) and 5.9 GHz Dedicated Sh...

  20. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  1. Connected vehicle applications : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  2. IDRC Connect User Guide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kristina Kamichaitis

    Once an account has been created by IDRC staff, you will receive .... content label in the table to access additional information. Table 3: ... One of the primary functions of IDRC Connect is to enable efficient and automated submission of final.

  3. Connected vehicles and cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Connected vehicles are a next-generation technology in vehicles and in infrastructure that will make travel safer, cleaner, and more efficient. The advanced wireless technology enables vehicles to share and communicate information with each other and...

  4. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  5. IDRC Connect User Guide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kristina Kamichaitis

    IDRC Extranet home page, which is an umbrella for a number of applications available to IDRC external users. ... IDRC Connect is not formatted for mobile users. ..... Thesis. • Training Material. • Website. • Working Paper. • Workshop Report.

  6. Children's schemes for anticipating the validity of nets for solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken

    2017-09-01

    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were interviewed on two occasions about their anticipation of whether or not given nets for the cube- and square-based pyramid would fold to form the target solid. Vergnaud's ( Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 17(2), 167-181, 1998, Human Development, 52, 83-94, 2009) four characteristics of schemes were used as a theoretical lens to analyse the data. Successful schemes depended on the interaction of operational invariants, such as strategic choice of the base, rules for action, particularly rotation of shapes, and anticipations of composites of polygons in the net forming arrangements of faces in the solid. Inferences were rare. These data suggest that students need teacher support to make inferences, in order to create transferable schemes.

  7. Suspension scheme for fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butts, C.E.; Gray, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is presented of a nuclear fuel pin suspension arrangement comprising, in combination, a rod; a first beam member connected to said rod at one end; a plurality of parallel-spaced slidable fuel support plates attached to said first beam member, the longitudinal axis of first beam member being perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of each of said fuel support plates, a first coupling means disposed along the length of the first beam member for permitting slidable fuel support plates parallel movement with respect to the longitudinal axis of said first beam member, a second coupling means located at one end of each of slidable fuel plates for slidably engaging first coupling means of first beam member, a second beam member connected to the other end of each of parallel-spaced slidable fuel support plates and providing an extension, second beam member being provided with a third coupling means disposed along the length of second beam member at one end thereof; and a plurality of fuel pins provided with a fourth coupling means located at one end of each fuel pin for slidably engaging third coupling means of second beam member to permit each fuel pin parallel movement with respect to the longitudinal axis of second beam member. (U.S.)

  8. A multi-agent based distributed energy management scheme for smart grid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Bharat Menon; Srinivasan, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    A multi-agent system based distributed EMS (energy management system) is proposed in this paper to perform optimal energy allocation and management for grids comprising of renewables, storage and distributed generation. The reliable and efficient operation of smart grids is slackened due to the presence of intermittent renewables. As the load demand and renewables are uncertain throughout the day, an energy management system is essential to ensure grid stability and achieve reductions in operation costs and CO_2 emissions. The main objectives of the proposed algorithm is to maintain power balance in the system and to ensure long cycle life for storage units by controlling their SOC (state of charge). The proposed EMS scheme is tested and validated on a practical test system, which replicates a small-scale smart grid with a variety of distributed sources, storage devices, loads, power electronic converters, and SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system. This system is also connected to the utility grid and the power exchange is controlled with the help of a battery system through a fuzzy based decision-making framework. The proposed algorithm is also extensively verified and tested using a series of sensitivity analyses and benchmarking with existing algorithms. - Highlights: • An agent-based decentralized algorithm is proposed to perform energy management. • The multi-agent system approach eliminates the possibility of single point failures. • Adaptive fuzzy systems make the decision making more reliable, flexible and robust. • The algorithm is extensively tested and validated using sensitivity and verification analyses.

  9. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail: katerina.chrysalidis@cern.ch; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  10. Secure RAID Schemes for Distributed Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wentao; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2016-01-01

    We propose secure RAID, i.e., low-complexity schemes to store information in a distributed manner that is resilient to node failures and resistant to node eavesdropping. We generalize the concept of systematic encoding to secure RAID and show that systematic schemes have significant advantages in the efficiencies of encoding, decoding and random access. For the practical high rate regime, we construct three XOR-based systematic secure RAID schemes with optimal or almost optimal encoding and ...

  11. Evaluation of frame aggregation schemes for the p-persistent based next generation WLANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ashar; Anna, Kiran; Bassiouni, Mostafa A.

    2010-04-01

    The next Generation IEEE 802.11n is designed to improve the throughput of the existing standard 802.11. It aims to achieve this by increasing the data rate from 54 Mbps to 600 Mbps with the help of physical layer enhancements. Therefore, the Medium Access Layer (MAC) requires improvements to fully utilize the capabilities of the enhanced 802.11n physical layer. In this paper, we present the performance evaluation results of two frame aggregation schemes viz., MAC Protocol Data Unit Aggregation (A-MPDU) and MAC Service Data Unit Aggregation (A-MSDU) and study their performance impact when the two schemes are incorporated in a p-persistent based 802.11n. The simulation results have shown that the two schemes achieve consistent performance improvement over the standard non-aggregation scheme.

  12. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Lajos

    2014-03-23

    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  13. Quick connect fastener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A quick connect fastener and method of use is presented wherein the quick connect fastener is suitable for replacing available bolts and screws, the quick connect fastener being capable of installation by simply pushing a threaded portion of the connector into a member receptacle hole, the inventive apparatus being comprised of an externally threaded fastener having a threaded portion slidably mounted upon a stud or bolt shaft, wherein the externally threaded fastener portion is expandable by a preloaded spring member. The fastener, upon contact with the member receptacle hole, has the capacity of presenting cylindrical threads of a reduced diameter for insertion purposes and once inserted into the receiving threads of the receptacle member hole, are expandable for engagement of the receptacle hole threads forming a quick connect of the fastener and the member to be fastened, the quick connect fastener can be further secured by rotation after insertion, even to the point of locking engagement, the quick connect fastener being disengagable only by reverse rotation of the mated thread engagement.

  14. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  15. Improving Interoperability by Incorporating UnitsML Into Markup Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ismet; Dragoset, Robert A; Olsen, Karen J; Schaefer, Reinhold; Kramer, Gary W

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of analytical data over time is a challenge. Years ago, data were recorded on paper that was pasted directly into a laboratory notebook. The digital age has made maintaining the integrity of data harder. Nowadays, digitized analytical data are often separated from information about how the sample was collected and prepared for analysis and how the data were acquired. The data are stored on digital media, while the related information about the data may be written in a paper notebook or stored separately in other digital files. Sometimes the connection between this "scientific meta-data" and the analytical data is lost, rendering the spectrum or chromatogram useless. We have been working with ASTM Subcommittee E13.15 on Analytical Data to create the Analytical Information Markup Language or AnIML-a new way to interchange and store spectroscopy and chromatography data based on XML (Extensible Markup Language). XML is a language for describing what data are by enclosing them in computer-useable tags. Recording the units associated with the analytical data and metadata is an essential issue for any data representation scheme that must be addressed by all domain-specific markup languages. As scientific markup languages proliferate, it is very desirable to have a single scheme for handling units to facilitate moving information between different data domains. At NIST, we have been developing a general markup language just for units that we call UnitsML. This presentation will describe how UnitsML is used and how it is being incorporated into AnIML.

  16. Fault Ride-Through of a Grid-connected Photovoltaic System with Quasi Z Source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Durra, Ahmed; Fayyad, Yara; Muyeen, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents fault ride-through schemes for a three-phase quasi Z source single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter that is connected to the grid after the distribution network. The quasi Z source inverter employs a unique LC network to couple the inverter main circuit to the input of the PV...... the grid side so that the grid fault ride-through requirements can be fulfilled. Scheme A involves control modification in the system; Schemes B and C involve hardware modification in the circuit topology by adding a chopper circuit across the DC link in Scheme B and across the quasi Z source inverter...

  17. A new access scheme in OFDMA systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xue-lin; YAN Wei; TIAN Hui; ZHANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic random access scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems. The key features of the proposed scheme are:it is a combination of both the distributed and the centralized schemes, it can accommodate several delay sensitivity classes,and it can adjust the number of random access channels in a media access control (MAC) frame and the access probability according to the outcome of Mobile Terminals access attempts in previous MAC frames. For floating populated packet-based networks, the proposed scheme possibly leads to high average user satisfaction.

  18. A Spatial Domain Quantum Watermarking Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhan-Hong; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian; Xu Shu-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial domain quantum watermarking scheme. For a quantum watermarking scheme, a feasible quantum circuit is a key to achieve it. This paper gives a feasible quantum circuit for the presented scheme. In order to give the quantum circuit, a new quantum multi-control rotation gate, which can be achieved with quantum basic gates, is designed. With this quantum circuit, our scheme can arbitrarily control the embedding position of watermark images on carrier images with the aid of auxiliary qubits. Besides reversely acting the given quantum circuit, the paper gives another watermark extracting algorithm based on quantum measurements. Moreover, this paper also gives a new quantum image scrambling method and its quantum circuit. Differ from other quantum watermarking schemes, all given quantum circuits can be implemented with basic quantum gates. Moreover, the scheme is a spatial domain watermarking scheme, and is not based on any transform algorithm on quantum images. Meanwhile, it can make sure the watermark be secure even though the watermark has been found. With the given quantum circuit, this paper implements simulation experiments for the presented scheme. The experimental result shows that the scheme does well in the visual quality and the embedding capacity. (paper)

  19. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  20. Intel Xeon Phi accelerated Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Goddard microphysics scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, J.; Huang, B.; Huang, A. H.-L.

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. The WRF development is a done in collaboration around the globe. Furthermore, the WRF is used by academic atmospheric scientists, weather forecasters at the operational centers and so on. The WRF contains several physics components. The most time consuming one is the microphysics. One microphysics scheme is the Goddard cloud microphysics scheme. It is a sophisticated cloud microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The Goddard microphysics scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. Compared to the earlier microphysics schemes, the Goddard scheme incorporates a large number of improvements. Thus, we have optimized the Goddard scheme code. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Goddard microphysics scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The Intel MIC is capable of executing a full operating system and entire programs rather than just kernels as the GPU does. The MIC coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is one familiar to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. Those optimization techniques are discussed in this paper. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of Goddard microphysics scheme on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 4.7×. In addition, the optimizations reduced the Goddard microphysics scheme's share of the total WRF processing time from 20.0 to 7.5%. Furthermore, the same optimizations

  1. Optimal Load-Tracking Operation of Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cells through Set Point Scheduling and Combined L1-MPC Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwei Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An optimal load-tracking operation strategy for a grid-connected tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is studied based on the steady-state analysis of the system thermodynamics and electrochemistry. Control of the SOFC is achieved by a two-level hierarchical control system. In the upper level, optimal setpoints of output voltage and the current corresponding to unit load demand is obtained through a nonlinear optimization by minimizing the SOFC’s internal power waste. In the lower level, a combined L1-MPC control strategy is designed to achieve fast set point tracking under system nonlinearities, while maintaining a constant fuel utilization factor. To prevent fuel starvation during the transient state resulting from the output power surging, a fuel flow constraint is imposed on the MPC with direct electron balance calculation. The proposed control schemes are testified on the grid-connected SOFC model.

  2. Study on Control Scheme for the Inverters in Low Voltage Microgrid with Nonlinear Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqiang; Lu, Wenzhou; Wu, Lei

    2017-05-01

    There are a lot of nonlinear loads in real low voltage microgrid system. It will cause serious output voltage and grid current harmonic distortions problems in island and grid-connected modes, respectively. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a droop control scheme with quasi-proportion and resonant (quasi-PR) controller based on αβ stationary reference frame to make microgrid smoothly switch between grid-connected and island modes without changing control method. Moreover, in island mode, not only stable output voltage and frequency, but also reduced output voltage harmonics with added nonlinear loads can be achieved; In grid-connected mode, not only constant power, but also reduced grid current harmonics can be achieved. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  3. Conceptual scheme of a hybrid mesocatalytic fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    To test the practical realization of the mesocatalytic method for energy production a preliminary engineering analysis and calculation of the separate units of the conceptual scheme of the hybrid mesocatalytic reactor was made. The construction and efficiency of the most characteristic separate blocks of the conceptual scheme for muon-catalyzed fusion are examined. The muon catalysis cycle in a dt mixture was assessed. The kinetics and energetics of muon production through a pion-forming target and a converter were evaluated. Concomitant questions, particularly the removal of helium from hydrogen, are discussed. Fusion chamber requirements were calculated and problems of heat removal were assessed. Blanket construction and efficiency were examined. The efficiency of different methods for power generation were comparatively reviewed including hybrid thermonuclear, electronuclear nuclear, and hybrid mesocatalytic methods. Energy balances and economic restrictions were examined

  4. A New UK 2006 National Kidney Allocation Scheme for deceased heart-beating donor kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel J; Fuggle, Susan V; Mumford, Lisa; Bradley, J Andrew; Forsythe, John L R; Rudge, Chris J

    2010-02-27

    In 2004, it was agreed that a new allocation scheme for kidneys from deceased heart-beating donors was required in the United Kingdom to address observed inequities in access to transplant. The 2006 National Kidney Allocation Scheme (2006 NKAS) was developed to meet agreed objectives and preparatory work included a review of the criteria for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching and simulation evidence about the effectiveness of alternative schemes. ALGORITHM FOR 2006 NKAS: The 2006 NKAS gives absolute priority to all 000 HLA-A, -B, -DR-mismatched patients and well-matched pediatric patients (inequity of access will take a number of years to address fully.

  5. Constructing an Urban Population Model for Medical Insurance Scheme Using Microsimulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linping Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China launched a pilot project of medical insurance reform in 79 cities in 2007 to cover urban nonworking residents. An urban population model was created in this paper for China’s medical insurance scheme using microsimulation model techniques. The model made it clear for the policy makers the population distributions of different groups of people, the potential urban residents entering the medical insurance scheme. The income trends of units of individuals and families were also obtained. These factors are essential in making the challenging policy decisions when considering to balance the long-term financial sustainability of the medical insurance scheme.

  6. Money Laundering Detection Framework to Link the Disparate and Evolving Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Mehmet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Money launderers hide traces of their transactions with the involvement of entities that participate in sophisticated schemes. Money laundering detection requires unraveling concealed connections among multiple but seemingly unrelated human money laundering networks, ties among actors of those schemes, and amounts of funds transferred among those entities. The link among small networks, either financial or social, is the primary factor that facilitates money laundering. Hence, the analysis of relations among money laundering networks is required to present the full structure of complex schemes. We propose a framework that uses sequence matching, case-based analysis, social network analysis, and complex event processing to detect money laundering. Our framework captures an ongoing single scheme as an event, and associations among such ongoing sequence of events to capture complex relationships among evolving money laundering schemes. The framework can detect associated multiple money laundering networks even in the absence of some evidence. We validated the accuracy of detecting evolving money laundering schemes using a multi-phases test methodology. Our test used data generated from real-life cases, and extrapolated to generate more data from real-life schemes generator that we implemented.

  7. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  8. Decentralized Control Strategy for Optimal Energy Management in Grid-Connected and Islanded DC Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decentralized control technique to minimize the total operation cost of a DC microgrid in both grid-connected and islanded modes. In this study, a cost-based droop control scheme based on the hourly bids of all participant distributed generators (DGs and the hourly energy price of the utility is presented. An economic power sharing technique among various types of DG units is adopted to appropriately minimize the daily total operation cost of DC microgrid without a microgrid central controller. The DC microgrid may include non-dispatchable DG units (such as photovoltaic systems and dispatchable generation units. Unlike other energy management techniques, the proposed method suffers neither from forecasting errors for both load demand and renewable energy power prediction modules, nor from complicated optimization techniques. In the proposed method, all DGs and the utility are classified in a sorting rule based on their hourly bids and open market price, and then the droop parameters are determined. The simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The results show that the proposed strategy is able to be implemented in various operation conditions of DC microgrid with resistance to uncertainties.

  9. Anonymous Credential Schemes with Encrypted Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guajardo Merchan, J.; Mennink, B.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    In anonymous credential schemes, users obtain credentials on certain attributes from an issuer, and later show these credentials to a relying party anonymously and without fully disclosing the attributes. In this paper, we introduce the notion of (anonymous) credential schemes with encrypted

  10. Community healthcare financing scheme: findings among residents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... none were active participants as 2(0.6%) were indifferent. There was a statistically significant relationship, Fischers <0.0001 between sex and the scheme's knowledge. Conclusion: Knowledge of the scheme was poor among majority of the respondents and none were active participants. Bribery and corruption was the ...

  11. Improved Load Shedding Scheme considering Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Nitsas, Antonios; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme...

  12. A generalized scheme for designing multistable continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a generalized scheme is proposed for designing multistable continuous dynamical systems. The scheme is based on the concept of partial synchronization of states and the concept of constants of motion. The most important observation is that by coupling two mdimensional dynamical systems, multistable ...

  13. Consolidation of the health insurance scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    In the last issue of Echo, we highlighted CERN’s obligation to guarantee a social security scheme for all employees, pensioners and their families. In that issue we talked about the first component: pensions. This time we shall discuss the other component: the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS).

  14. A hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A two-stage hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis lesion images is proposed. These images are basically composed of three classes: normal skin, lesion and background. The scheme combines conventional tools to separate the skin from the background in the first stage, and the lesion from...

  15. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the <, =, >

  16. Mixed ultrasoft/norm-conserved pseudopotential scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt

    1996-01-01

    A variant of the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme, where the norm conservation is released for only one or a few angular channels, is presented. Within this scheme some difficulties of the truly ultrasoft pseudopotentials are overcome without sacrificing the pseudopotential softness. (...

  17. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  18. Birkhoffian Symplectic Scheme for a Quantum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Hongling

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a classical system of ordinary differential equations is built to describe a kind of n-dimensional quantum systems. The absorption spectrum and the density of the states for the system are defined from the points of quantum view and classical view. From the Birkhoffian form of the equations, a Birkhoffian symplectic scheme is derived for solving n-dimensional equations by using the generating function method. Besides the Birkhoffian structure-preserving, the new scheme is proven to preserve the discrete local energy conservation law of the system with zero vector f. Some numerical experiments for a 3-dimensional example show that the new scheme can simulate the general Birkhoffian system better than the implicit midpoint scheme, which is well known to be symplectic scheme for Hamiltonian system. (general)

  19. Autonomous droop scheme with reduced generation cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Droop scheme has been widely applied to the control of Distributed Generators (DGs) in microgrids for proportional power sharing based on their ratings. For standalone microgrid, where centralized management system is not viable, the proportional power sharing based droop might not suit well since...... DGs are usually of different types unlike synchronous generators. This paper presents an autonomous droop scheme that takes into consideration the operating cost, efficiency and emission penalty of each DG since all these factors directly or indirectly contributes to the Total Generation Cost (TGC......) of the overall microgrid. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme has retained its simplicity, which certainly is a feature preferred by the industry. The overall performance of the proposed scheme has been verified through simulation and experiment....

  20. Connectivity and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.

  1. Exact analysis of Packet Reversed Packet Combining Scheme and Modified Packet Combining Scheme; and a combined scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2007-07-01

    Packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme for the detection and correction of errors at the receiver. Although it permits a higher throughput when compared to other basic ARQ protocols, packet combining (PC) scheme fails to correct errors when errors occur in the same bit locations of copies. In a previous work, a scheme known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme that will correct errors which occur at the same bit location of erroneous copies, was studied however PRPC does not handle a situation where a packet has more than 1 error bit. The Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme that can correct double or higher bit errors was studied elsewhere. Both PRPC and MPC schemes are believed to offer higher throughput in previous studies, however neither adequate investigation nor exact analysis was done to substantiate this claim of higher throughput. In this work, an exact analysis of both PRPC and MPC is carried out and the results reported. A combined protocol (PRPC and MPC) is proposed and the analysis shows that it is capable of offering even higher throughput and better error correction capability at high bit error rate (BER) and larger packet size. (author)

  2. Analysis of central and upwind compact schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, T.K.; Ganeriwal, G.; De, S.

    2003-01-01

    Central and upwind compact schemes for spatial discretization have been analyzed with respect to accuracy in spectral space, numerical stability and dispersion relation preservation. A von Neumann matrix spectral analysis is developed here to analyze spatial discretization schemes for any explicit and implicit schemes to investigate the full domain simultaneously. This allows one to evaluate various boundary closures and their effects on the domain interior. The same method can be used for stability analysis performed for the semi-discrete initial boundary value problems (IBVP). This analysis tells one about the stability for every resolved length scale. Some well-known compact schemes that were found to be G-K-S and time stable are shown here to be unstable for selective length scales by this analysis. This is attributed to boundary closure and we suggest special boundary treatment to remove this shortcoming. To demonstrate the asymptotic stability of the resultant schemes, numerical solution of the wave equation is compared with analytical solution. Furthermore, some of these schemes are used to solve two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation and a computational acoustic problem to check their ability to solve problems for long time. It is found that those schemes, that were found unstable for the wave equation, are unsuitable for solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. In contrast, the proposed compact schemes with improved boundary closure and an explicit higher-order upwind scheme produced correct results. The numerical solution for the acoustic problem is compared with the exact solution and the quality of the match shows that the used compact scheme has the requisite DRP property

  3. Connecting textual segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...

  4. Best connected rectangular arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Shekhawat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be found quite often in the literature that many well-known architects have employed either the golden rectangle or the Fibonacci rectangle in their works. On contrary, it is rare to find any specific reason for using them so often. Recently, Shekhawat (2015 proved that the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci rectangle are one of the best connected rectangular arrangements and this may be one of the reasons for their high presence in architectural designs. In this work we present an algorithm that generates n-4 best connected rectangular arrangements so that the proposed solutions can be further used by architects for their designs.

  5. Secure Connectivity Probability of Multi‐hop Clustered Randomize‐and‐Forward Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates secure cluster‐aided multi‐hop randomize‐and‐forward networks. We present a hop‐by‐hop multi‐hop transmission scheme with relay selection, which evaluates for each cluster the relays that can securely receive the message. We propose an analytical model to derive the secure connectivity probability (SCP of the hop‐by‐hop transmission scheme. For comparison, we also analyze SCPs of traditional end‐to‐end transmission schemes with two relay‐selection policies. We perform simulations, and our analytical results verify that the proposed hop‐by‐hop scheme is superior to end‐to‐end schemes, especially with a large number of hops or high eavesdropper channel quality. Numerical results also show that the proposed hop‐by‐hop scheme achieves near‐optimal performance in terms of the SCP.

  6. Connections among quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, P.F.; Hardegree, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the major areas of work in quantum event logics: manuals (Foulis and Randall) and semi-Boolean algebras (Abbott). The two theories are compared, and the connection between quantum event logics and quantum propositional logics is made explicit. In addition, the work on manuals provides us with many examples of results stated in Part I. (author)

  7. Connectivity measures: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Burel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 879-890 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Conservation biology * Habitat fragmentation * Landscape connectivity * Measures * Species extinction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2008

  8. Clip, connect, clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujima, Jun; Lunzer, Aran; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    using three mechanisms: clipping of input and result elements from existing applications to form cells on a spreadsheet; connecting these cells using formulas, thus enabling result transfer between applications; and cloning cells so that multiple requests can be handled side by side. We demonstrate...

  9. A Connective Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Our increasingly hurried lifestyle, changes in family structure, and intense economic pressures place stress on children and families. Waldorf education provides an educational environment that alleviates this stress through a connective pedagogy that encompasses continuity of people, curriculum, and instruction; a reverence and respect for the…

  10. Connected vehicle application : safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) data transmissions. Applications...

  11. Mathematics Connection: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum to promote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seek to enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of the educational system are welcome ...

  12. Making the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    Enrollment marketing is not just about enrollment; it is about creating relationships and serving one's community or target audience for many years. In this article, the author states that the first step in building such relationships is making a connection, and that is what effective marketing is all about. Administrators, teachers and critical…

  13. Connecting numeric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caremoli, C.; Erhard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Computerized simulation uses calculation codes whose validation is reliable. Reactor simulators should take greater advantage of latest computer technology impact, in particular in the field of parallel processing. Instead of creating more global simulation codes whose validation might be a problem, connecting several existing codes should be a promising solution. (D.L.). 3 figs

  14. From connection to customer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milatz, H.; Soeters, R.

    2001-01-01

    Energy companies can no longer be certain that a customer today will remain a customer tomorrow. They have to work hard to achieve that. They are going from thinking in terms of connections to pampering their customers. Good Customer Relationship Management is a way to achieve a competitive advantage. The whole organisation has to adapt, particularly the customer orientation of employees

  15. Mapping functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Joseph R. Ferrari; Todd R. Lookingbill; Robert H. Gardner; Kurt H. Riitters; Katarzyna Ostapowicz

    2009-01-01

    An objective and reliable assessment of wildlife movement is important in theoretical and applied ecology. The identification and mapping of landscape elements that may enhance functional connectivity is usually a subjective process based on visual interpretations of species movement patterns. New methods based on mathematical morphology provide a generic, flexible,...

  16. IDRC Connect User Guide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kristina Kamichaitis

    2 Jul 2015 ... IDRC Connect contribuye a la aplicación de la Política de Acceso abierto de IDRC facilitando ..... Tesis. • Material de capacitación. • Sitio web. • Documento de trabajo ..... incluir planes de estudios, metodologías y manuales.

  17. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  18. Ponzi scheme diffusion in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anding; Fu, Peihua; Zhang, Qinghe; Chen, Zhenyue

    2017-08-01

    Ponzi schemes taking the form of Internet-based financial schemes have been negatively affecting China's economy for the last two years. Because there is currently a lack of modeling research on Ponzi scheme diffusion within social networks yet, we develop a potential-investor-divestor (PID) model to investigate the diffusion dynamics of Ponzi scheme in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks. Our simulation study of artificial and real Facebook social networks shows that the structure of investor networks does indeed affect the characteristics of dynamics. Both the average degree of distribution and the power-law degree of distribution will reduce the spreading critical threshold and will speed up the rate of diffusion. A high speed of diffusion is the key to alleviating the interest burden and improving the financial outcomes for the Ponzi scheme operator. The zero-crossing point of fund flux function we introduce proves to be a feasible index for reflecting the fast-worsening situation of fiscal instability and predicting the forthcoming collapse. The faster the scheme diffuses, the higher a peak it will reach and the sooner it will collapse. We should keep a vigilant eye on the harm of Ponzi scheme diffusion through modern social networks.

  19. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  20. Mechanical strainer unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeling, J.B.; Netkowicz, R.J.; Schnall, I.H.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanical strainer unit is connected to a flanged conduit which originates in and extends out of a suppression chamber in a nuclear reactor. The strainer includes a plurality of centrally apertured plates positioned along a common central axis and in parallel and spaced relationship. The plates have a plurality of bores radially spaced about the central axis. Spacer means such as washers are positioned between adjacent plates to maintain the plates is spaced relationship and form communicating passages of a predetermined size to the central apertures. Connecting means such as bolts or studs extend through the aligned bores to maintain the unit in assembled relationship and secure the unit to the pipe. By employing perforated plates and blocking off certain of the communicating passages, a dual straining effect can be achieved

  1. Coordinated Control Scheme for Ancillary Services from Offshore Wind Power Plants to AC and DC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach of providing ancillary services to AC and DC grids from offshore wind power plants (OWPPs), connected through multi-terminal HVDC network. A coordinated control scheme where OWPP’s AC grid frequency modulated according to DC grid voltage variations is used...... to detect and provide the ancillary service requirements of both AC and DC grids, is proposed in this paper. In particular, control strategies for onshore frequency control, fault ridethrough support in the onshore grid, and DC grid voltage control are considered. The proposed control scheme involves only...

  2. Anonymous authentication and location privacy preserving schemes for LTE-A networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Jabr Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evaluation Advanced (LTE-A is the third generation partnership project for cellular network that allows subscribers to roam into networks (i.e., the Internet and wireless connections using spacial purpose base-stations, such as wireless access points and home node B. In such LTE-A based networks, neither base-stations, nor the Internet and wireless connections are trusted because base-stations are operated by un-trusted subscribers. Attackers may exploit these vulnerabilities to violate the privacy of the LTE-A subscribers. On the other hand, the tradeoff between privacy and authentication is another challenge in such networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two anonymous authentication schemes based on one-time pseudonymes and Schnorr Zero Knowledge Protocols. Instead of the international mobile subscriber identity, these schemes enable the user equipment, base-stations and mobility management entity to mutually authenticate each others and update the location of the user equipment without evolving the home subscriber server. The security analysis demonstrate that the proposed schemes thwart security and privacy attacks, such as malicious, international mobile subscriber identity catching, and tracking attacks. Additionally, our proposed schemes preserve the location privacy of user equipment since no entity except the mobility management entity and Gate-Way Mobile Location Center can link between the pseudonymes and the international mobile subscriber identity. Also attackers have no knowledge about international mobile subscriber identity. Hence, the proposed schemes achieve backward/forward secrecy. Furthermore, the performance evaluation shows that the proposed handover schemes impose a small overhead on the mobile nodes and it has smaller computation and communication overheads than those in other schemes.

  3. A Novel Three Phase to Seven Phase Conversion Technique Using Transformer Winding Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabrez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel multiphase transformer connection scheme which converts three phase balanced AC input to seven phase balanced AC output. Generalized theory to convert a three phase utility supply into any number of phases is presented. Based on the proposed generalized principle, a three phase to seven phase power converting transformer design is presented with connection scheme, analysis and simulation and experimental results of the proposed three phase to seven phase conversion transformer. The proposed transformer in this paper is analyzed and compared with the connection scheme for seven phase available in the literature. The connection scheme is found to have higher power density, lower core area and lower core requirement as compared to the available connection scheme of the same rating. Impedance mismatching between different phases of the transformer is observed in the three phase to seven phase transformer available in the literature. As this mismatching introduces error in study of per phase equivalent circuit diagrams as well as imbalance in voltage and currents. The present design also addresses the impedance mismatching issue and reduces mismatching in the proposed transformer design. A prototype of the proposed system is developed and waveforms are presented. The proposed design is verified using simulation and validated using experimental approach.

  4. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    The auxiliary power system of many generating stations consists of offsite power supply system and onsite power supply system, including emergency diesel generators (EDG) to provide secure power to auxiliary loads. If a normal power supply fails to supply power, then the power source is transferred to a standby power supply. In the case of nuclear power plants (NPP), the unit auxiliary transformer (UAT) and standby auxiliary transformer (SAT) - or station service transformer - are installed and powered from 2 offsite power circuits to meet regulatory requirements. The transfer methods of a motor bus from a normal source to a standby source used in power generating stations are fast bus transfer, in-phase transfer, or residual transfer. Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, un-interruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS (Un-interruptible Power Supply) is discussed and elaborated

  5. Multidimensional flux-limited advection schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuburn, J.

    1996-01-01

    A general method for building multidimensional shape preserving advection schemes using flux limiters is presented. The method works for advected passive scalars in either compressible or incompressible flow and on arbitrary grids. With a minor modification it can be applied to the equation for fluid density. Schemes using the simplest form of the flux limiter can cause distortion of the advected profile, particularly sideways spreading, depending on the orientation of the flow relative to the grid. This is partly because the simple limiter is too restrictive. However, some straightforward refinements lead to a shape-preserving scheme that gives satisfactory results, with negligible grid-flow angle-dependent distortion

  6. Vector domain decomposition schemes for parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new class of domain decomposition schemes for finding approximate solutions of timedependent problems for partial differential equations is proposed and studied. A boundary value problem for a second-order parabolic equation is used as a model problem. The general approach to the construction of domain decomposition schemes is based on partition of unity. Specifically, a vector problem is set up for solving problems in individual subdomains. Stability conditions for vector regionally additive schemes of first- and second-order accuracy are obtained.

  7. The new WAGR data acquisition scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.E.; Leng, J.H.; Smith, I.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1976-06-01

    The existing WAGR data acquisition equipment was inadequate to meet the requirements introduced by the installation of two additional experimental loops and was in any case due for replacement. A completely new scheme was planned and implemented based on mini-computers, which while preserving all the useful features of the old scheme provided additional flexibility and improved data display. Both the initial objectives of the design and the final implementation are discussed without introducing detailed descriptions of hardware or the programming techniques employed. Although the scheme solves a specific problem the general principles are more widely applicable and could readily be adapted to other data checking and display problems. (author)

  8. Kinematic reversal schemes for the geomagnetic dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Fluctuations in the distribution of cyclonic convective cells, in the earth's core, can reverse the sign of the geomagnetic field. Two kinematic reversal schemes are discussed. In the first scheme, a field maintained by cyclones concentrated at low latitude is reversed by a burst of cyclones at high latitude. Conversely, in the second scheme, a field maintained predominantly by cyclones in high latitudes is reversed by a fluctuation consisting of a burst of cyclonic convection at low latitude. The precise fluid motions which produce the geomagnetic field are not known. However, it appears that, whatever the details are, a fluctuation in the distribution of cyclonic cells over latitude can cause a geomagnetic reversal.

  9. Autonomous Droop Scheme With Reduced Generation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    ) of the microgrid. To reduce this TGC without relying on fast communication links, an autonomous droop scheme is proposed here, whose resulting power sharing is decided by the individual DG generation costs. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme retains its simplicity and it is hence more....... This objective might, however, not suit microgrids well since DGs are usually of different types, unlike synchronous generators. Other factors like cost, efficiency, and emission penalty of each DG at different loading must be considered since they contribute directly to the total generation cost (TGC...

  10. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  11. DSRC versus 4G-LTE for Connected Vehicle Applications: A Study on Field Experiments of Vehicular Communication Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC and 4G-LTE are two widely used candidate schemes for Connected Vehicle (CV applications. It is thus of great necessity to compare these two most viable communication standards and clarify which one can meet the requirements of most V2X scenarios with respect to road safety, traffic efficiency, and infotainment. To the best of our knowledge, almost all the existing studies on comparing the feasibility of DRSC or LTE in V2X applications use software-based simulations, which may not represent realistic constraints. In this paper, a Connected Vehicle test-bed is established, which integrates the DSRC roadside units, 4G-LTE cellular communication stations, and vehicular on-board terminals. Three Connected Vehicle application scenarios are set as Collision Avoidance, Traffic Text Message Broadcast, and Multimedia File Download, respectively. A software tool is developed to record GPS positions/velocities of the test vehicles and record certain wireless communication performance indicators. The experiments have been carried out under different conditions. According to our results, 4G-LTE is more preferred for the nonsafety applications, such as traffic information transmission, file download, or Internet accessing, which does not necessarily require the high-speed real-time communication, while for the safety applications, such as Collision Avoidance or electronic traffic sign, DSRC outperforms the 4G-LTE.

  12. A Novel Certificateless Signature Scheme for Smart Objects in the Internet-of-Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuo-Hui; Su, Chunhua; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Chiu, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Rapid advances in wireless communications and pervasive computing technologies have resulted in increasing interest and popularity of Internet-of-Things (IoT) architecture, ubiquitously providing intelligence and convenience to our daily life. In IoT-based network environments, smart objects are embedded everywhere as ubiquitous things connected in a pervasive manner. Ensuring security for interactions between these smart things is significantly more important, and a topic of ongoing interest. In this paper, we present a certificateless signature scheme for smart objects in IoT-based pervasive computing environments. We evaluate the utility of the proposed scheme in IoT-oriented testbeds, i.e., Arduino Uno and Raspberry PI 2. Experiment results present the practicability of the proposed scheme. Moreover, we revisit the scheme of Wang et al. (2015) and revealed that a malicious super type I adversary can easily forge a legitimate signature to cheat any receiver as he/she wishes in the scheme. The superiority of the proposed certificateless signature scheme over relevant studies is demonstrated in terms of the summarized security and performance comparisons. PMID:28468313

  13. SDN-Based Mobile Data Offloading Scheme Using a Femtocell and WiFi Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Woo Ahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the many applications running on smartphones, the load of mobile data traffic on cellular networks is increasing rapidly. A femtocell is a solution to increase the cellular network capacity and coverage. However, because it uses the same frequency bands as a macrocell, interference problems have prevented its widespread adoption. In this paper, we propose a scheme for traffic offloading between femtocells and WiFi networks utilizing software-defined networking (SDN technology. In the proposed offloading scheme, the SDN technology allows a terminal to maintain existing sessions after offloading through a centralized control of the SDN-based equipment. We also propose an offloading target selection scheme based on available bandwidth estimation and an association control mechanism to reduce the femtocell load while ensuring quality of service (QoS in terms of throughput. Experimental results on an actual testbed showed that the proposed offloading scheme provides seamless connectivity and reduces the femtocell load by up to 46% with the aid of the proposed target selection scheme, while ensuring QoS after offloading. We also observed that the proposed target selection scheme offloads 28% more traffic to WiFi networks compared to received signal strength indicator-based target selection in a low background traffic environment.

  14. A Novel Certificateless Signature Scheme for Smart Objects in the Internet-of-Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hui Yeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in wireless communications and pervasive computing technologies have resulted in increasing interest and popularity of Internet-of-Things (IoT architecture, ubiquitously providing intelligence and convenience to our daily life. In IoT-based network environments, smart objects are embedded everywhere as ubiquitous things connected in a pervasive manner. Ensuring security for interactions between these smart things is significantly more important, and a topic of ongoing interest. In this paper, we present a certificateless signature scheme for smart objects in IoT-based pervasive computing environments. We evaluate the utility of the proposed scheme in IoT-oriented testbeds, i.e., Arduino Uno and Raspberry PI 2. Experiment results present the practicability of the proposed scheme. Moreover, we revisit the scheme of Wang et al. (2015 and revealed that a malicious super type I adversary can easily forge a legitimate signature to cheat any receiver as he/she wishes in the scheme. The superiority of the proposed certificateless signature scheme over relevant studies is demonstrated in terms of the summarized security and performance comparisons.

  15. A Novel Certificateless Signature Scheme for Smart Objects in the Internet-of-Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuo-Hui; Su, Chunhua; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Chiu, Wayne

    2017-05-01

    Rapid advances in wireless communications and pervasive computing technologies have resulted in increasing interest and popularity of Internet-of-Things (IoT) architecture, ubiquitously providing intelligence and convenience to our daily life. In IoT-based network environments, smart objects are embedded everywhere as ubiquitous things connected in a pervasive manner. Ensuring security for interactions between these smart things is significantly more important, and a topic of ongoing interest. In this paper, we present a certificateless signature scheme for smart objects in IoT-based pervasive computing environments. We evaluate the utility of the proposed scheme in IoT-oriented testbeds, i.e., Arduino Uno and Raspberry PI 2. Experiment results present the practicability of the proposed scheme. Moreover, we revisit the scheme of Wang et al. (2015) and revealed that a malicious super type I adversary can easily forge a legitimate signature to cheat any receiver as he/she wishes in the scheme. The superiority of the proposed certificateless signature scheme over relevant studies is demonstrated in terms of the summarized security and performance comparisons.

  16. Energy auditing in connection with subsidy schemes for energy saving investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broend, Evald

    1979-07-01

    A review of the energy situation in Denmark is presented. Government subsidies for investments aiding projects aimed at reducing process energy consumption are discussed. The law serves as an incentive for the implementation of energy saving measures which would not otherwise be carried out because they would not be sufficiently economic. Subsidies of up to 40% of the amount invested are available. The special form of energy auditing carried out on the part of society concerning industrial energy consumption and some idea of how energy auditing is practiced in the individual enterprise are discussed.

  17. A survey of Strong Convergent Schemes for the Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We considered strong convergent stochastic schemes for the simulation of stochastic differential equations. The stochastic Taylor's expansion, which is the main tool used for the derivation of strong convergent schemes; the Euler Maruyama, Milstein scheme, stochastic multistep schemes, Implicit and Explicit schemes were ...

  18. Setting aside transactions from pyramid schemes as impeachable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These schemes, which are often referred to as pyramid or Ponzi schemes, are unsustainable operations and give rise to problems in the law of insolvency. Investors in these schemes are often left empty-handed upon the scheme's eventual collapse and insolvency. Investors who received pay-outs from the scheme find ...

  19. Betatron tune correction schemes in nuclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchepunov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms of the betatron tune corrections in Nuclotron with sextupolar and octupolar magnets are considered. Second order effects caused by chromaticity correctors are taken into account and sextupolar compensation schemes are proposed to suppress them. 6 refs.; 1 tab

  20. A Directed Signature Scheme and its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Sunder; Kumar, Manoj

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a directed signature scheme with the property that the signature can be verified only with the help of signer or signature receiver. We also propose its applications to share verification of signatures and to threshold cryptosystems.

  1. Nigeria's first national social protection scheme | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-06-14

    Jun 14, 2017 ... Women and children at an IDP Camp in DRC ... The cash transfer was provided through the Nigerian Ekiti State Social Security Scheme, ... national policy conference to discuss the findings with media and policy stakeholders.

  2. Verifiable Secret Redistribution for Threshold Sharing Schemes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Theodore M; Wang, Chenxi; Wing, Jeannette M

    2002-01-01

    .... Our protocol guards against dynamic adversaries. We observe that existing protocols either cannot be readily extended to allow redistribution between different threshold schemes, or have vulnerabilities that allow faulty old shareholders...

  3. Boson expansion theory in the seniority scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Li, C.; Pedrocchi, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    A boson expansion formalism in the seniority scheme is presented and its relation with number-conserving quasiparticle calculations is elucidated. Accuracy and convergence are demonstrated numerically. A comparative discussion with other related approaches is given

  4. Designing optimal sampling schemes for field visits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of a statistical method for deriving optimal spatial sampling schemes. The research focuses on ground verification of minerals derived from hyperspectral data. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) and spectral feature fitting (SFF...

  5. Design of an IoT Enabled Local Network Based Home Monitoring System with a Priority Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tiwari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet of things (IoT is a concept where all devices get connected to the internet to exchange information. IoT can be utilized in order to make a home environment interactive and smart. The required connectivity can be provided by either making all the devices Wi-Fi capable, which is costly, or by setting a local wireless sensor network (WSN which later connects to internet. In this work various devices and sensors are designed and connected in a wireless sensor network within a home environment which generates a sensor dependent data packet. These data packets are then sent to the cloud through a master node. The master sends the data using a proposed priority scheme so that the critical information can be sent early. Simulations were performed to show that under the proposed scheme the loss of critical sensors information is reduced by around 75%.

  6. Connecting the Production Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichen, Alex Yu; Mouritsen, Jan

    &OP process itself is a fluid object, but there is still possibility to organise the messy Production. There are connections between the Production multiple and the managerial technology fluid. The fluid enacted the multiplicity of Production thus making it more difficult to be organised because there were...... in opposite directions. They are all part of the fluid object. There is no single chain of circulating references that makes the object a matter of fact. Accounting fluidity means that references drift back and forth and enact new realities also connected to the chain. In this setting future research may......This paper is about objects. It follows post ANT trajectories and finds that objects are multiple and fluid. Extant classic ANT inspired accounting research largely sees accounting inscriptions as immutable mobiles. Although multiplicity of objects upon which accounting acts has been explored...

  7. Secret Sharing Schemes and Advanced Encryption Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    25 4.7 Computational Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 Side-Channel Effect on Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ) 31...improvements, and to build upon them to discuss the side-channel effects on the Advanced Encryption Standard ( AES ). The following questions are asked...secret sharing scheme? • Can the improvements to the current secret sharing scheme prove to be beneficial in strengthening/weakening AES encryption

  8. Cost Comparison Among Provable Data Possession Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    of Acronyms and Abbreviations AE authenticated encryption AWS Amazon Web Services CIO Chief Information Officer DISA Defense Information Systems Agency...the number of possible challenges, H be a cryptographic hash function, AE be an authenticated encryption scheme, f be a keyed pseudo-random function...key kenc R←− Kenc for symmetric encryption scheme Enc, and a random HMAC key kmac R←− Kmac. The secret key is sk = 〈kenc, kmac〉 and public key is pk

  9. A Classification Scheme for Production System Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Daniel Grud Hellerup; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing companies often have difficulties developing production platforms, partly due to the complexity of many production systems and difficulty determining which processes constitute a platform. Understanding production processes is an important step to identifying candidate processes...... for a production platform based on existing production systems. Reviewing a number of existing classifications and taxonomies, a consolidated classification scheme for processes in production of discrete products has been outlined. The classification scheme helps ensure consistency during mapping of existing...

  10. A scheme for the hadron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, P.

    1978-03-01

    A theoretically self-consistent dual scheme is proposed for the hadron spectrum, which follows naturally from basic requirements and phenomenology. All resonance properties and couplings are calculable in terms of a limited number of input parameters. A first application to ππ→ππ explains the linear trajectory and small daughter couplings. The Zweig rule and the decoupling of baryonium from mesons are expected to be consequences of the scheme. (Auth.)

  11. A Practical Voter-Verifiable Election Scheme.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaum, D; Ryan, PYA; Schneider, SA

    2005-01-01

    We present an election scheme designed to allow voters to verify that their vote is accurately included in the count. The scheme provides a high degree of transparency whilst ensuring the secrecy of votes. Assurance is derived from close auditing of all the steps of the vote recording and counting process with minimal dependence on the system components. Thus, assurance arises from verification of the election rather than having to place trust in the correct behaviour of components of the vot...

  12. Sellafield site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This Emergency Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. This manual covers the general principles of the total emergency scheme and those detailed procedures which are not specific to any single department. (U.K.)

  13. Signature scheme based on bilinear pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Rui Y.; Geng, Yong J.

    2013-03-01

    An identity-based signature scheme is proposed by using bilinear pairs technology. The scheme uses user's identity information as public key such as email address, IP address, telephone number so that it erases the cost of forming and managing public key infrastructure and avoids the problem of user private generating center generating forgery signature by using CL-PKC framework to generate user's private key.

  14. An Optimization Scheme for ProdMod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    A general purpose dynamic optimization scheme has been devised in conjunction with the ProdMod simulator. The optimization scheme is suitable for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) complex operations, and able to handle different types of optimizations such as linear, nonlinear, etc. The optimization is performed in the stand-alone FORTRAN based optimization deliver, while the optimizer is interfaced with the ProdMod simulator for flow of information between the two

  15. Employee-referral schemes and discrimination law

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, M.

    2015-01-01

    Employee-referral schemes (‘introduce a friend’) are in common usage in recruitment. They carry a potential to discriminate by perpetuating an already unbalanced workforce (say, by gender and ethnicity). With this, or course, comes the risk of litigation and bad publicity as well as any inherent inefficiencies associated with discrimination. This article is threefold. First, it examines the present state of the law. Second, it is based on a survey of employers who use these schemes. Third, it...

  16. Basis scheme of personnel training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.; Odehnal, J.

    1998-01-01

    Basic scheme of the training system for NPP personnel of CEZ-EDU personnel training system is described in detail. This includes: specific training both basic and periodic, and professional training meaning specialized and continuous training. The following schemes are shown: licence acquisition and authorisation for PWR-440 Control Room Personnel; upgrade training for job positions of Control Room personnel; maintaining and refresh training; module training for certificate acquisition of servicing shift and operating personnel

  17. Navigators’ Behavior in Traffic Separation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of decision support in the navigational ship conduct process is a Traffic Separation Scheme. TSSs are established in areas with high traffic density, often near the shore and in port approaches. The main purpose of these schemes is to improve maritime safety by channeling vessel traffic into streams. Traffic regulations as well as ships behavior in real conditions in chosen TSSs have been analyzed in order to develop decision support algorithms.

  18. Evaluation of 604 Connect

    OpenAIRE

    Ladner, S.; Ihnat, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Vancouver Community Network (VCN) is a not-for-profit Internet Service Provider (ISP), based on the “freenet” model of public Internet access. As a VolNet delivery agency, VCN committed to providing participating organizations with the following: (1) A communications protocol, (2) Internet Access, (3) Computer Equipment, (4) Training, and (5) Technical Support. In April 1999, VCN began receiving applications from non-profit organizations for its 604 Connect program, so named for the 604 t...

  19. Sparse Parallel MRI Based on Accelerated Operator Splitting Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nian; Xie, Weisi; Su, Zhenghang; Wang, Shanshan; Liang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the sparsity which is implicit in MR images has been successfully exploited for fast MR imaging with incomplete acquisitions. In this paper, two novel algorithms are proposed to solve the sparse parallel MR imaging problem, which consists of l 1 regularization and fidelity terms. The two algorithms combine forward-backward operator splitting and Barzilai-Borwein schemes. Theoretically, the presented algorithms overcome the nondifferentiable property in l 1 regularization term. Meanwhile, they are able to treat a general matrix operator that may not be diagonalized by fast Fourier transform and to ensure that a well-conditioned optimization system of equations is simply solved. In addition, we build connections between the proposed algorithms and the state-of-the-art existing methods and prove their convergence with a constant stepsize in Appendix. Numerical results and comparisons with the advanced methods demonstrate the efficiency of proposed algorithms.

  20. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  1. Cutter Connectivity Bandwidth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how much bandwidth is required for cutters to meet emerging data transfer requirements. The Cutter Connectivity Business Solutions Team with guidance front the Commandant's 5 Innovation Council sponsored this study. Today, many Coast Guard administrative and business functions are being conducted via electronic means. Although our larger cutters can establish part-time connectivity using commercial satellite communications (SATCOM) while underway, there are numerous complaints regarding poor application performance. Additionally, smaller cutters do not have any standard means of underway connectivity. The R&D study shows the most important factor affecting web performance and enterprise applications onboard cutters was latency. Latency describes the time it takes the signal to reach the satellite and come back down through space. The latency due to use of higher orbit satellites is causing poor application performance and inefficient use of expensive SATCOM links. To improve performance, the CC must, (1) reduce latency by using alternate communications links such as low-earth orbit satellites, (2) tailor applications to the SATCOM link and/or (3) optimize protocols used for data communication to minimize time required by present applications to establish communications between the user and the host systems.

  2. A Classification Scheme for Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Berry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no established classification scheme for literary characters in narrative theory short of generic categories like protagonist vs. antagonist or round vs. flat. This is so despite the ubiquity of stock characters that recur across media, cultures, and historical time periods. We present here a proposal of a systematic psychological scheme for classifying characters from the literary and dramatic fields based on a modification of the Thomas-Kilmann (TK Conflict Mode Instrument used in applied studies of personality. The TK scheme classifies personality along the two orthogonal dimensions of assertiveness and cooperativeness. To examine the validity of a modified version of this scheme, we had 142 participants provide personality ratings for 40 characters using two of the Big Five personality traits as well as assertiveness and cooperativeness from the TK scheme. The results showed that assertiveness and cooperativeness were orthogonal dimensions, thereby supporting the validity of using a modified version of TK’s two-dimensional scheme for classifying characters.

  3. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qin; Guo Ying; Huang Duan

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of fingerprint identification technology, its security and privacy have been paid much attention. Only the security and privacy of biological information are insured, the biological technology can be better accepted and used by the public. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum bit (qbit)-based scheme to solve the security and privacy problem existing in the traditional fingerprint identification system. By exploiting the properties of quantm mechanics, our proposed scheme, cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme, can achieve the unconditional security guaranteed in an information-theoretical sense. Moreover, this novel quantum scheme can invalidate most of the attacks aimed at the fingerprint identification system. In addition, the proposed scheme is applicable to the requirement of remote communication with no need to worry about its security and privacy during the transmission. This is an absolute advantage when comparing with other traditional methods. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the communication security and the privacy of users’ information for the fingerprint identification. (paper)

  5. Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Li; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu; Pan Jianwei

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we generalize the quantum-secret-sharing scheme of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999)] into arbitrary multiparties. Explicit expressions for the shared secret bit is given. It is shown that in the Hillery-Buzek-Berthiaume quantum-secret-sharing scheme the secret information is shared in the parity of binary strings formed by the measured outcomes of the participants. In addition, we have increased the efficiency of the quantum-secret-sharing scheme by generalizing two techniques from quantum key distribution. The favored-measuring-basis quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Lo-Chau-Ardehali technique [H. K. Lo, H. F. Chau, and M. Ardehali, e-print quant-ph/0011056] where all the participants choose their measuring-basis asymmetrically, and the measuring-basis-encrypted quantum-secret-sharing scheme is developed from the Hwang-Koh-Han technique [W. Y. Hwang, I. G. Koh, and Y. D. Han, Phys. Lett. A 244, 489 (1998)] where all participants choose their measuring basis according to a control key. Both schemes are asymptotically 100% in efficiency, hence nearly all the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in a quantum-secret-sharing process are used to generate shared secret information

  6. A Downlink and Uplink Alignment Scheme for Power Saving in IEEE 802.16 Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenhui Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the problem of power saving mechanism (PSM that sleep intervals of uplink (UL connections do not synchronize with sleep intervals of downlink (DL connections. That is, the energy of a mobile station (MS is not really saved if the DL connections are in the sleep mode while the UL connections are in normal mode, and vice versa. To avoid the asynchronism of power saving (PS between UL and DL connections, we invent a mechanism of DL connections regulating UL connections, called DL and UL Alignment (DUAL scheme, to improve the energy efficiency for PS. Considering that the buffer size of MS is limited, DUAL uses the mean packet arrival rate of UL λu and a relatively safe threshold of buffer size QT as the parameters to estimate the maximum allowable waiting time to align the UL with the DL connections. To analyze the performance of DUAL, a system model of PS is proposed to evaluate the performance of DUAL under different conditions. The correctness of performance analysis of DUAL is validated by using simulation with realistic parameters. Numerical experiments show that DUAL improves the energy conservation significantly when UL traffic is greater than DL traffic.

  7. Connection conditions and the spectral family under singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, Izumi; Fueloep, Tamas; Cheon, Taksu

    2003-01-01

    To describe a quantum system whose potential is divergent at one point, one must provide proper connection conditions for the wavefunctions at the singularity. Generalizing the scheme used for point interactions in one dimension, we present a set of connection conditions which are well defined even if the wavefunctions and/or their derivatives are divergent at the singularity. Our generalized scheme covers the entire U(2) family of quantizations (self-adjoint Hamiltonians) admitted for the singular system. We use this scheme to examine the spectra of the Coulomb potential V(x)=-e 2 vertical bar x vertical bar and the harmonic oscillator with square inverse potential V(x)=(mω 2 /2)x 2 +g/x 2 , and thereby provide a general perspective for these models which have previously been treated with restrictive connection conditions resulting in conflicting spectra. We further show that, for any parity invariant singular potential V(-x)=V(x), the spectrum is determined solely by the eigenvalues of the characteristic matrix U element of U(2)

  8. Modeling Phosphorous Losses from Seasonal Manure Application Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nutrient loading, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters is a common and significant problem throughout the United States. While pollution remediation efforts are continuously improving, the most effective treatment remains to limit the source. Appropriate timing of fertilizer application to reduce nutrient losses is currently a hotly debated topic in the Northeastern United States; winter spreading of manure is under special scrutiny. We plan to evaluate the loss of phosphorous to surface waters from agricultural systems under varying seasonal fertilization schemes in an effort to determine the impacts of fertilizers applied throughout the year. The Cayuga Lake basin, located in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, is a watershed dominated by agriculture where a wide array of land management strategies can be found. The evaluation will be conducted on the Fall Creek Watershed, a large sub basin in the Cayuga Lake Watershed. The Fall Creek Watershed covers approximately 33,000 ha in central New York State with approximately 50% of this land being used for agriculture. We plan to use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model a number of seasonal fertilization regimes such as summer only spreading and year round spreading (including winter applications), as well as others. We will use the model to quantify the phosphorous load to surface waters from these different fertilization schemes and determine the impacts of manure applied at different times throughout the year. More detailed knowledge about how seasonal fertilization schemes impact phosphorous losses will provide more information to stakeholders concerning the impacts of agriculture on surface water quality. Our results will help farmers and extensionists make more informed decisions about appropriate timing of manure application for reduced phosphorous losses and surface water degradation as well as aid law makers in improving policy surrounding manure application.

  9. A Modified Droop Control Method for Parallel-Connected Current Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Baoze; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel control method was proposed for current source inverters under the grid-connected working mode. The control scheme is based on a modified droop control method, with an additional current reference signal that will be generated instead of the voltage reference. Hence......, there is only a current control loop with droop control in the whole control scheme without voltage control loop. So it is very suitable for grid-connected current source inverter which will simplify the design of the control scheme and combine the advantage of droop control. The parallel configuration...... is widely used to acquire high power demand, but the circulating current problem is a key issue that should be considered. In this paper, a simulation based on parallel current source inverters using the proposed control scheme is provided. Simulation results showed that a good circulating current...

  10. Chapter 2. The production units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (History, Technological scheme, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1980-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, milestones of commissioning, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant, Impact of operation on the environment, Plant of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

  11. Spectral distributions of mixed configurations of identical nucleons in the seniority scheme II. Configuration-seniority scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesne, C.; Spitz, S.

    1978-01-01

    Configuration-seniority spectral distributions as well as fixed seniority and fixed total seniority and parity distributions are studied in detail for mixed configurations of identitical nucleons. The decomposition of any (1+2) -body Hamiltonian into irreducible tensors with respect to the unitary and symplectic groups in each subshell is obtained. Group theoretical methods based on the Wigner-Eckart theorem for the higher unitary groups are used to get analytical expressions for the partial widths of configuration-seniority distributions. During this derivation, various isoscalar factors for the chain SU (2Ω) is contained inSp (2Ω) are determined. Numerical calculations of centroid energies, partial widths, and mixing parameters are performed in the Sn and Pb nuclei with a surface delta and a gaussian interactions. Average ordinary and total seniority breaking is studied. Total seniority space truncations in the ground state region are discussed in the Pb nuclei in connections with various approximation schemes

  12. Spreading Sequence System for Full Connectivity Relay Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck M. (Inventor); Yang, Jie (Inventor); Pham, Khanh D. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Fully connected uplink and downlink fully connected relay network systems using pseudo-noise spreading and despreading sequences subjected to maximizing the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. The relay network systems comprise one or more transmitting units, relays, and receiving units connected via a communication network. The transmitting units, relays, and receiving units each may include a computer for performing the methods and steps described herein and transceivers for transmitting and/or receiving signals. The computer encodes and/or decodes communication signals via optimum adaptive PN sequences found by employing Cholesky decompositions and singular value decompositions (SVD). The PN sequences employ channel state information (CSI) to more effectively and more securely computing the optimal sequences.

  13. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-01-01

    We explore a new approach for structural connectivity based segmentations of subcortical brain regions. Connectivity based segmentations are usually based on fibre connections from a seed region to predefined target regions. We present a method for finding significantly connected voxels based...... on the distribution of connection strengths. Paths from seed voxels to all voxels in a target region are obtained from a shortest-path tractography. For each seed voxel we approximate the distribution with a histogram of path scores. We hypothesise that the majority of estimated connections are false-positives...... and that their connection strength is distributed differently from true-positive connections. Therefore, an empirical null-distribution is defined for each target region as the average normalized histogram over all voxels in the seed region. Single histograms are then tested against the corresponding null...

  14. A Power System Emergency Control Scheme in the Presence of High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar

    developed in this project may also constitute the lower level of a hierarchical control strategy, which can be activated in case of losing the communication with the control center. Modern power protection relays often provide several protection schemes inside of one common package. However, they normally...... from distant units to the incidence place. In this thesis, localization of both load-frequency control an load shedding are fulfilled using locally measured voltage drop data in the decentralized control strategy. The proposed load shedding scheme is coordinated with existing plant protection relays......, which are normally installed on the conventional synchronous machines. Considering the frequency-time characteristic of plant protection relays in the load curtailing plan makes the proposed scheme preventive against successive outage of generation units by them, which worsen the stability of power...

  15. Multiobjective Synergistic Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles under Different Grid-Connected Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote grid’s wind power absorptive capacity and to overcome the adverse impacts of wind power on the stable operation of power system, this paper establishes benefit contrastive analysis models of wind power and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs under the optimization goal of minimum coal consumption and pollutant emission considering multigrid connected modes. Then, a two-step adaptive solving algorithm is put forward to get the optimal system operation scheme with the highest membership degree based on the improved ε constraints method and fuzzy decision theory. Thirdly, the IEEE36 nodes 10-unit system is used as the simulation system. Finally, the sensitive analysis for PHEV’s grid connected number is made. The result shows the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective to solve the model. PHEV’s grid connection could achieve load shifting effect and promote wind power grid connection. Especially, the optimization goals reach the optimum in fully optimal charging mode. As PHEV’s number increases, both abandoned wind and thermal power generation cost would decrease and the peak and valley difference of load curve would gradually be reduced.

  16. A New Pricing Scheme for Controlling Energy Storage Devices in Future Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure is one of the main anticipated benefits of the deployment of smart grid technology. Advancement in energy storage technology and two-way communication in the electric network are indispensable components to achieve such a vision, while efficient pricing schemes and appropriate storage management are also essential. In this paper, we propose a universal pricing scheme which permits one to indirectly control the energy storage devices in the grid to achieve a more desirable aggregate demand profile that meets a particular target of the grid operator such as energy generation cost minimization and carbon emission reduction. Such a pricing scheme can potentially be applied to control the behavior of energy storage devices installed for integration of intermittent renewable energy sources that have permission to grid connection and will have broader applications as an increasing number of novel and low-cost energy storage technologies emerge.

  17. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  18. Going smarter in the connection of distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaya, Karim L.; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores and quantifies the benefits of connecting more distributed generation (DG) with and without the use of smart connections in Great Britain. We examine the impacts on different parties (Distribution Network Operators, wider society and generators). As illustration we use a specific case study. Alternative connection scenarios are proposed (with partial and full interruptible capacity quota under a mix of generation with different technology-specific curtailment levels) for integrating DG units in a constrained area of the East of England covered by the Flexible Plug and Play project. The smart (interruptible) connection option is the preferred option across all the scenarios (higher NPV/MW). The analysis of the distribution of benefits between the different parties suggests that generators capture most of the benefits while DNOs and wider society capture much less benefit. A smart connection incentive, which recreates the benefits to DNOs from an earlier losses incentive, is proposed. By contrast with other societally desirable metrics which are usually incentivised or penalised, there is currently no direct connection between more DG MWs connected and DNO incentive payments. Our proposed smart connection incentive, by charging DG for smarter connection may help to distribute more efficiently the benefits for connecting more DG. - Highlights: • Three different dimensions of going smarter to connect DG are discussed. • Benefits for connecting DG in a constrained area (FPP project) are estimated. • Different DG connection scenarios are evaluated. • Generators benefit the most and wider society the least. • A smart connection incentive may help to reallocate the benefits of DG more efficiently.

  19. An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the European Union (EU) Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) is provided. In particular, the status of the electricity generation capacity as well as the RES mixture in the Member States is described. Moreover, the different support schemes such as, investment support, feed-in tariffs (FiTs), tradable green certificates, and fiscal and financial measures which the Member States have adopted for the promotion of RES technologies are discussed in detail. Some Member States are implementing a single support scheme for the promotion of RES for power generation (RES-E), e.g., seven Member States use FiTs, or implement a hybrid support scheme by combining all or some of the four categories of the RES-E supporting schemes. Although, these support schemes have increased the penetration of the RES-E technologies in the Member States, still there is a long way in order to achieve the 2020 target. The reason for this may be that the way these schemes have been used so far, i.e., either as single support schemes or in combination of FiTs or tradable green certificates with investment support and fiscal and financial measures, has been ineffective. A more effective combination could be a hybrid scheme consisting of FiTs with tradable green certificates measures, as in the case of Italy and United Kingdom, that will increase the RES-E penetration and eliminate the possible technical problems which will arise from this increased penetration and have an effect in the stability of the power system.

  20. Control scheme for power modulation of a free piston Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Manmohan

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to a control scheme for power modulation of a free-piston Stirling engine-linear alternator power generator system. The present invention includes connecting an autotransformer in series with a tuning capacitance between a linear alternator and a utility grid to maintain a constant displacement to piston stroke ratio and their relative phase angle over a wide range of operating conditions.

  1. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tourneux, J.

    1989-01-01

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na 3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed [fr

  2. The CONNECT project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, Yaniv; Alexander, Daniel C; Jones, Derek K

    2013-01-01

    Of Neuroimagers for the Non-invasive Exploration of brain Connectivity and Tracts) project aimed to combine tractography and micro-structural measures of the living human brain in order to obtain a better estimate of the connectome, while also striving to extend validation of these measurements. This paper...... summarizes the project and describes the perspective of using micro-structural measures to study the connectome.......In recent years, diffusion MRI has become an extremely important tool for studying the morphology of living brain tissue, as it provides unique insights into both its macrostructure and microstructure. Recent applications of diffusion MRI aimed to characterize the structural connectome using...

  3. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

    in the structure of fibrous collagen and myofibers at high-resolution. The results demonstrate that the collagen composition in the extra cellular matrix of Gadus morhua fish muscle is much more complex than previously anticipated, as it contains type III, IV, V  and VI collagen in addition to type I. The vascular....... Consequently, functional structures, ensuring "tissue maintenance" must form a major role of connective tissue, in addition that is to the force transmitting structures one typically finds in muscle. Vascular structures have also been shown to change their mechanical properties with age and it has been shown...

  4. Conformally connected universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, M.; Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    A well-known difficulty associated with the conformal method for the solution of the general relativistic Hamiltonian constraint is the appearance of an aphysical ''bag of gold'' singularity at the nodal surface of the conformal factor. This happens whenever the background Ricci scalar is too large. Using a simple model, it is demonstrated that some of these singular solutions do have a physical meaning, and that these can be considered as initial data for Universe containing black holes, which are connected, in a conformally nonsingular way with each other. The relation between the ADM mass and the horizon area in this solution supports the cosmic censorship conjecture. (author)

  5. Universal Service Obligations: The Role of Subsidization Schemes and the Consequences of Accounting Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, F.; Poudou, J.C.; Roland, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper (i) highlights the role that unit subsidies can play in the compensation scheme of a Universal Service Obligation (USO), and (ii) shows that welfare may be reduced when regulation requires accounting separation of network activities for vertically integrated USO providers. This suggests that accounting separation should be avoided when a USO is implemented. (authors)

  6. A Dual Key-Based Activation Scheme for Secure LoRaWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Internet of Things (IoT era, we are experiencing rapid technological progress. Billions of devices are connected to each other, and our homes, cities, hospitals, and schools are getting smarter and smarter. However, to realize the IoT, several challenging issues such as connecting resource-constrained devices to the Internet must be resolved. Recently introduced Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN technologies have been devised to resolve this issue. Among many LPWAN candidates, the Long Range (LoRa is one of the most promising technologies. The Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN is a communication protocol for LoRa that provides basic security mechanisms. However, some security loopholes exist in LoRaWAN’s key update and session key generation. In this paper, we propose a dual key-based activation scheme for LoRaWAN. It resolves the problem of key updates not being fully supported. In addition, our scheme facilitates each layer in generating its own session key directly, which ensures the independence of all layers. Real-world experimental results compared with the original scheme show that the proposed scheme is totally feasible in terms of delay and battery consumption.

  7. A Key Pre-Distribution Scheme Based on µ-PBIBD for Enhancing Resilience in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Ma, Chunguang; Yu, Haitao; Bian, Xuefen

    2018-05-12

    Many key pre-distribution (KPD) schemes based on combinatorial design were proposed for secure communication of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Due to complexity of constructing the combinatorial design, it is infeasible to generate key rings using the corresponding combinatorial design in large scale deployment of WSNs. In this paper, we present a definition of new combinatorial design, termed “µ-partially balanced incomplete block design (µ-PBIBD)”, which is a refinement of partially balanced incomplete block design (PBIBD), and then describe a 2-D construction of µ-PBIBD which is mapped to KPD in WSNs. Our approach is of simple construction which provides a strong key connectivity and a poor network resilience. To improve the network resilience of KPD based on 2-D µ-PBIBD, we propose a KPD scheme based on 3-D Ex-µ-PBIBD which is a construction of µ-PBIBD from 2-D space to 3-D space. Ex-µ-PBIBD KPD scheme improves network scalability and resilience while has better key connectivity. Theoretical analysis and comparison with the related schemes show that key pre-distribution scheme based on Ex-µ-PBIBD provides high network resilience and better key scalability, while it achieves a trade-off between network resilience and network connectivity.

  8. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Topics English Español Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF ... they? Points To Remember About Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue There are more than 200 heritable disorders that ...

  9. Financial incentive schemes in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillam S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care

  10. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  11. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  12. LHCb connects its pipes

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Two weeks ago the first beryllium section of the LHCb beam vacuum chamber was installed. This three-day operation, after requiring lengthy preparation work, demanded patience and precision as the first of four sections of the beampipe was connected to the vertex locator (VeLo) vacuum vessel. The AT-VAC Group with the collaboration of PH/LBD, including Gloria Corti, Tatsuya Nakada, Patrice Mermet, Delios Ramos, Frans Mul, Bruno Versollato, Bernard Corajod, and Raymond Veness. (Not pictured: Adriana Rossi and Laurent Bouvet) This first installed section is composed of a nearly two-metre long conical tube of one-millimetre thick beryllium and of a thin spherical-shaped window, 800 millimeter diameter, made of an aluminum alloy, and has the appearance of a mushroom lying on its side. The window is connected to the conical part of the beampipe through an aluminum alloy bellow, which is needed to allow for mechanical alignment once the assembly is installed. Beryllium was chosen as the material for 12 m of the 19...

  13. Connective tissue activation. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.J.; Donakowski, C.; Anderson, B.; Meyers, S.; Castor, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    The platelet-derived connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP-III) has been shown to be an important factor stimulating the metabolism and proliferation of human connective tissue cell strains, including synovial tissue cells. The quantities of CTAP-III affecting the cellular changes and the amounts in various biologic fluids and tissues are small. The objectives of this study were to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for CTAP-III and to ascertain the specificities of the anti-CTAP-III sera reagents. The antisera were shown not to cross-react with a number of polypeptide hormones. However, two other platelet proteins β-thromboglobulin and low affinity platelet factor-4, competed equally as well as CTAP-III for anti-CTAP-III antibodies in the RIA system. Thus, the three platelet proteins are similar or identical with respect to those portions of the molecules constituting the reactive antigenic determinants. The levels of material in normal human platelet-free plasma that inhibited anti-CTAP-III- 125 I-CTAP-III complex formation were determined to be 34+-13 (S.D.) ng/ml. (Auth.)

  14. A fast resonance interference treatment scheme with subgroup method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, L.; He, Q.; Wu, H.; Zu, T.; Shen, W.

    2015-01-01

    A fast Resonance Interference Factor (RIF) scheme is proposed to treat the resonance interference effects between different resonance nuclides. This scheme utilizes the conventional subgroup method to evaluate the self-shielded cross sections of the dominant resonance nuclide in the heterogeneous system and the hyper-fine energy group method to represent the resonance interference effects in a simplified homogeneous model. In this paper, the newly implemented scheme is compared to the background iteration scheme, the Resonance Nuclide Group (RNG) scheme and the conventional RIF scheme. The numerical results show that the errors of the effective self-shielded cross sections are significantly reduced by the fast RIF scheme compared with the background iteration scheme and the RNG scheme. Besides, the fast RIF scheme consumes less computation time than the conventional RIF schemes. The speed-up ratio is ~4.5 for MOX pin cell problems. (author)

  15. Connectivity-oriented urban projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philibert Petit, E.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is about connections in the built environment, networked connections for the mobility of people at the smallest scale of the urban realm: the pedestrian scale. It deals with applications of the new science of networks as a tool for observation and assessment of connectivity in the urban

  16. Airport industry connectivity report: 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, T.; Lieshout, R.; Burghouwt, G.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an update of the 'Airport Industry Connectivity Report 2004-2014'. It's focused on more recent developments and charting how Europe’s connectivity has evolved over the past 12 months. Airport connectivity is an increasingly discussed topic in European policy circles. With good reason.

  17. How update schemes influence crowd simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Michael J; Köster, Gerta

    2014-01-01

    Time discretization is a key modeling aspect of dynamic computer simulations. In current pedestrian motion models based on discrete events, e.g. cellular automata and the Optimal Steps Model, fixed-order sequential updates and shuffle updates are prevalent. We propose to use event-driven updates that process events in the order they occur, and thus better match natural movement. In addition, we present a parallel update with collision detection and resolution for situations where computational speed is crucial. Two simulation studies serve to demonstrate the practical impact of the choice of update scheme. Not only do density-speed relations differ, but there is a statistically significant effect on evacuation times. Fixed-order sequential and random shuffle updates with a short update period come close to event-driven updates. The parallel update scheme overestimates evacuation times. All schemes can be employed for arbitrary simulation models with discrete events, such as car traffic or animal behavior. (paper)

  18. Asynchronous discrete event schemes for PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D.; Geiger, S.; Lord, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    A new class of asynchronous discrete-event simulation schemes for advection-diffusion-reaction equations is introduced, based on the principle of allowing quanta of mass to pass through faces of a (regular, structured) Cartesian finite volume grid. The timescales of these events are linked to the flux on the face. The resulting schemes are self-adaptive, and local in both time and space. Experiments are performed on realistic physical systems related to porous media flow applications, including a large 3D advection diffusion equation and advection diffusion reaction systems. The results are compared to highly accurate reference solutions where the temporal evolution is computed with exponential integrator schemes using the same finite volume discretisation. This allows a reliable estimation of the solution error. Our results indicate a first order convergence of the error as a control parameter is decreased, and we outline a framework for analysis.

  19. An adaptive Cartesian control scheme for manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    A adaptive control scheme for direct control of manipulator end-effectors to achieve trajectory tracking in Cartesian space is developed. The control structure is obtained from linear multivariable theory and is composed of simple feedforward and feedback controllers and an auxiliary input. The direct adaptation laws are derived from model reference adaptive control theory and are not based on parameter estimation of the robot model. The utilization of feedforward control and the inclusion of auxiliary input are novel features of the present scheme and result in improved dynamic performance over existing adaptive control schemes. The adaptive controller does not require the complex mathematical model of the robot dynamics or any knowledge of the robot parameters or the payload, and is computationally fast for online implementation with high sampling rates.

  20. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  1. Quantum Watermarking Scheme Based on INEQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-04-01

    Quantum watermarking technology protects copyright by embedding invisible quantum signal in quantum multimedia data. In this paper, a watermarking scheme based on INEQR was presented. Firstly, the watermark image is extended to achieve the requirement of embedding carrier image. Secondly, the swap and XOR operation is used on the processed pixels. Since there is only one bit per pixel, XOR operation can achieve the effect of simple encryption. Thirdly, both the watermark image extraction and embedding operations are described, where the key image, swap operation and LSB algorithm are used. When the embedding is made, the binary image key is changed. It means that the watermark has been embedded. Of course, if the watermark image is extracted, the key's state need detected. When key's state is |1>, this extraction operation is carried out. Finally, for validation of the proposed scheme, both the Signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the security of the scheme are analyzed.

  2. Improvement of One Quantum Encryption Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhengjun; Liu, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    Zhou et al. proposed a quantum encryption scheme based on quantum computation in 2006 [N. Zhou et al., Physica A362 (2006) 305]. Each qubit of the ciphertext is constrained to two pairs of conjugate states. So, its implementation is feasible with the existing technology. But it is inefficient since it entails six key bits to encrypt one message bit, and the resulting ciphertext for one message bit consists of three qubits. In addition, its security cannot be directly reduced to the well-known BB84 protocol. In this paper, we improve it using the technique developed in BB84 protocol. The new scheme entails only two key bits to encrypt one message bit. The resulting ciphertext is just composed of two qubits. It saves about a half cost without the loss of security. Moreover, the new scheme is probabilistic instead of deterministic.

  3. A universal encoding scheme for MIMO transmission using a single active element for PSK modulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Papadias, C.B.; Kalis, A.

    2009-01-01

    A universal scheme for encoding multiple symbol streams using a single driven element (and consequently a single radio frequency (RF) frontend) surrounded by parasitic elements (PE) loaded with variable reactive loads, is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is based on creating a MIMO sys...

  4. A simple angular transmit diversity scheme using a single RF frontend for PSK modulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama Nafeth Saleem; Papadias, Constantinos B.; Kalis, Antonis

    2009-01-01

    array (SPA) with a single transceiver, and an array area of 0.0625 square wavelengths. The scheme which requires no channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, provides mainly a diversity gain to combat against multipath fading. The performance/capacity of the proposed diversity scheme...

  5. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdan, Slobodan; Azapagic, Adisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: → The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. → Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. → The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. → Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. → A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  6. Pressure correction schemes for compressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheriji, W.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of semi-implicit fractional step schemes, for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations; these schemes are part of the class of the pressure correction methods. The chosen spatial discretization is staggered: non conforming mixed finite elements (Crouzeix-Raviart or Rannacher-Turek) or the classic MA C scheme. An upwind finite volume discretization of the mass balance guarantees the positivity of the density. The positivity of the internal energy is obtained by discretizing the internal energy balance by an upwind finite volume scheme and b y coupling the discrete internal energy balance with the pressure correction step. A special finite volume discretization on dual cells is performed for the convection term in the momentum balance equation, and a renormalisation step for the pressure is added to the algorithm; this ensures the control in time of the integral of the total energy over the domain. All these a priori estimates imply the existence of a discrete solution by a topological degree argument. The application of this scheme to Euler equations raises an additional difficulty. Indeed, obtaining correct shocks requires the scheme to be consistent with the total energy balance, property which we obtain as follows. First of all, a local discrete kinetic energy balance is established; it contains source terms winch we somehow compensate in the internal energy balance. The kinetic and internal energy equations are associated with the dual and primal meshes respectively, and thus cannot be added to obtain a total energy balance; its continuous counterpart is however recovered at the limit: if we suppose that a sequence of discrete solutions converges when the space and time steps tend to 0, we indeed show, in 1D at least, that the limit satisfies a weak form of the equation. These theoretical results are comforted by numerical tests. Similar results are obtained for the baro-tropic Navier-Stokes equations. (author)

  7. Data-Parallel Mesh Connected Components Labeling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Cyrus; Childs, Hank; Gaither, Kelly

    2011-04-10

    We present a data-parallel algorithm for identifying and labeling the connected sub-meshes within a domain-decomposed 3D mesh. The identification task is challenging in a distributed-memory parallel setting because connectivity is transitive and the cells composing each sub-mesh may span many or all processors. Our algorithm employs a multi-stage application of the Union-find algorithm and a spatial partitioning scheme to efficiently merge information across processors and produce a global labeling of connected sub-meshes. Marking each vertex with its corresponding sub-mesh label allows us to isolate mesh features based on topology, enabling new analysis capabilities. We briefly discuss two specific applications of the algorithm and present results from a weak scaling study. We demonstrate the algorithm at concurrency levels up to 2197 cores and analyze meshes containing up to 68 billion cells.

  8. EPU correction scheme study at the CLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertwistle, Drew, E-mail: drew.bertwistle@lightsource.ca; Baribeau, C.; Dallin, L.; Chen, S.; Vogt, J.; Wurtz, W. [Canadian Light Source Inc. 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Light Source (CLS) Quantum Materials Spectroscopy Center (QMSC) beamline will employ a novel double period (55 mm, 180 mm) elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) to produce photons of arbitrary polarization in the soft X-ray regime. The long period and high field of the 180 mm period EPU will have a strong dynamic focusing effect on the storage ring electron beam. We have considered two partial correction schemes, a 4 m long planar array of BESSY-II style current strips, and soft iron L-shims. In this paper we briefly consider the implementation of these correction schemes.

  9. Verification of an objective analysis scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cats, G.J.; Haan, B.J. de; Hafkenscheid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    An intermittent data assimilation scheme has been used to produce wind and precipitation fields during the 10 days after the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 25 April 1986. The wind fields are analyses, the precipitation fields have been generated by the forecast model part of the scheme. The precipitation fields are of fair quality. The quality of the wind fields has been monitored by the ensuing trajectories. These were found to describe the arrival times of radioactive air in good agreement with most observational data, taken all over Europe. The wind analyses are therefore considered to be reliable. 25 refs.; 13 figs

  10. Optimal powering schemes for legged robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Paul; Bednarz, David; Czerniak, Gregory P.; Cheok, Ka C.

    2010-04-01

    Legged Robots have tremendous mobility, but they can also be very inefficient. These inefficiencies can be due to suboptimal control schemes, among other things. If your goal is to get from point A to point B in the least amount of time, your control scheme will be different from if your goal is to get there using the least amount of energy. In this paper, we seek a balance between these extremes by looking at both efficiency and speed. We model a walking robot as a rimless wheel, and, using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (PMP), we find an "on-off" control for the model, and describe the switching curve between these control extremes.

  11. System Protection Schemes in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana

    outages in the southern part of the 132-kV system introduce further stress in the power system, eventually leading to a voltage collapse. The local System Protection Scheme against voltage collapse is designed as a response-based scheme, which is dependent on local indication of reactive and active power...... effective measures, because they are associated with large reactive power losses in the transmission system. Ordered reduction of wind generation is considered an effective measure to maintain voltage stability in the system. Reactive power in the system is released due to tripping of a significant amount...... system. In that way, the power system capability could be extended beyond normal limits....

  12. Group Buying Schemes : A Sustainable Business Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Köpp, Sebastian; Mukhachou, Aliaksei; Schwaninger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Die Autoren gehen der Frage nach, ob "Group Buying Schemes" wie beispielsweise von den Unternehmen Groupon und Dein Deal angeboten, ein nachhaltiges Geschäftsmodell sind. Anhand der Fallstudie Groupon wird mit einem System Dynamics Modell festgestellt, dass das Geschäftsmodell geändert werden muss, wenn die Unternehmung auf Dauer lebensfähig sein soll. The authors examine if group buying schemes are a sustainable business model. By means of the Groupon case study and using a System Dynami...

  13. New Imaging Operation Scheme at VLTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubois, Xavier

    2018-04-01

    After PIONIER and GRAVITY, MATISSE will soon complete the set of 4 telescope beam combiners at VLTI. Together with recent developments in the image reconstruction algorithms, the VLTI aims to develop its operation scheme to allow optimized and adaptive UV plane coverage. The combination of spectro-imaging instruments, optimized operation framework and image reconstruction algorithms should lead to an increase of the reliability and quantity of the interferometric images. In this contribution, I will present the status of this new scheme as well as possible synergies with other instruments.

  14. Hilbert schemes of points and Heisenberg algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsrud, G.; Goettsche, L.

    2000-01-01

    Let X [n] be the Hilbert scheme of n points on a smooth projective surface X over the complex numbers. In these lectures we describe the action of the Heisenberg algebra on the direct sum of the cohomologies of all the X [n] , which has been constructed by Nakajima. In the second half of the lectures we study the relation of the Heisenberg algebra action and the ring structures of the cohomologies of the X [n] , following recent work of Lehn. In particular we study the Chern and Segre classes of tautological vector bundles on the Hilbert schemes X [n] . (author)

  15. Security problem on arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong Woon; Chang, Ku-Young; Hong, Dowon

    2011-01-01

    Many arbitrated quantum signature schemes implemented with the help of a trusted third party have been developed up to now. In order to guarantee unconditional security, most of them take advantage of the optimal quantum one-time encryption based on Pauli operators. However, in this paper we point out that the previous schemes provide security only against a total break attack and show in fact that there exists an existential forgery attack that can validly modify the transmitted pair of message and signature. In addition, we also provide a simple method to recover security against the proposed attack.

  16. Optimal sampling schemes applied in geology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Methodology 6 Results 7 Background and Research Question for Study 2 8 Study Area and Data 9 Methodology 10 Results 11 Conclusions Debba (CSIR) Optimal Sampling Schemes applied in Geology UP 2010 2 / 47 Outline 1 Introduction to hyperspectral remote... sensing 2 Objective of Study 1 3 Study Area 4 Data used 5 Methodology 6 Results 7 Background and Research Question for Study 2 8 Study Area and Data 9 Methodology 10 Results 11 Conclusions Debba (CSIR) Optimal Sampling Schemes applied in Geology...

  17. Quadratically convergent MCSCF scheme using Fock operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, G.

    1981-01-01

    A quadratically convergent formulation of the MCSCF method using Fock operators is presented. Among its advantages the present formulation is quadratically convergent unlike the earlier ones based on Fock operators. In contrast to other quadratically convergent schemes as well as the one based on generalized Brillouin's theorem, this method leads easily to a hybrid scheme where the weakly coupled orbitals (such as the core) are handled purely by Fock equations, while the rest of the orbitals are treated by a quadratically convergent approach with a truncated virtual space obtained by the use of the corresponding Fock equations

  18. Security problem on arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Woon [Emerging Technology R and D Center, SK Telecom, Kyunggi 463-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Ku-Young; Hong, Dowon [Cryptography Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Many arbitrated quantum signature schemes implemented with the help of a trusted third party have been developed up to now. In order to guarantee unconditional security, most of them take advantage of the optimal quantum one-time encryption based on Pauli operators. However, in this paper we point out that the previous schemes provide security only against a total break attack and show in fact that there exists an existential forgery attack that can validly modify the transmitted pair of message and signature. In addition, we also provide a simple method to recover security against the proposed attack.

  19. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  20. Embodied phosphorus and the global connections of United States agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Graham K.; Bennett, Elena M.; Carpenter, Stephen R.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is intricately linked to food security and water quality. Globalization of agricultural systems and changing diets clearly alter these relationships, yet their specific influence on non-renewable P reserves is less certain. We assessed P fertilizer used for production of food crops, livestock and biofuels in the US agricultural system, explicitly comparing the domestic P use required for US food consumption to the P use embodied in the production of US food imports and exports. By far the largest demand for P fertilizer throughout the US agricultural system was for feed and livestock production (56% of total P fertilizer use, including that for traded commodities). As little as 8% of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P) was consumed in US diets in the same year, while larger fractions may have been retained in agricultural soils (28%), associated with different post-harvest losses (40%) or with biofuel refining (10%). One quarter of all P fertilizer used in the US was linked to export production, primarily crops, driving a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P). However, US meat consumption relied considerably on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports. Changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer required for US food consumption by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). US export-oriented agriculture, domestic post-harvest P losses and global demand for meat may ultimately have an important influence on the lifespan of US phosphate rock reserves.

  1. Connecting United States Air Force Core Values to Mission Accomplishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-04

    Ariely. “The Dishonesty of Honest People: A Theory of Self- Concept Maintenance.” Journal of Marketing Research XLV, no. December (2008): 633– 644. http...From Air Force Academy in Cheating Scandal." Chronicle Of Higher Education 53, no. 36 (May 11, 2007): 46. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed

  2. Uniting the Disparate: Connecting Best Practices and Educational Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Pamela K.

    2008-01-01

    Pamela K. Coke observes two high school English teachers who carry out practical assessments that supply them with an understanding of student achievement. The strategies used, such as Socratic seminar, book club meetings, and sticky notes, provide constructive information about what students are able to do and help identify ways such practices…

  3. PS-CARA: Context-Aware Resource Allocation Scheme for Mobile Public Safety Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Kaleem

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The fifth-generation (5G communications systems are expecting to support users with diverse quality-of-service (QoS requirements. Beside these requirements, the task with utmost importance is to support the emergency communication services during natural or man-made disasters. Most of the conventional base stations are not properly functional during a disaster situation, so deployment of emergency base stations such as mobile personal cell (mPC is crucial. An mPC having moving capability can move in the disaster area to provide emergency communication services. However, mPC deployment causes severe co-channel interference to the users in its vicinity. The problem in the existing resource allocation schemes is its support for static environment, that does not fit well for mPC. So, a resource allocation scheme for mPC users is desired that can dynamically allocate resources based on users’ location and its connection establishment priority. In this paper, we propose a public safety users priority-based context-aware resource allocation (PS-CARA scheme for users sum-rate maximization in disaster environment. Simulations results demonstrate that the proposed PS-CARA scheme can increase the user average and edge rate around 10.3% and 32.8% , respectively because of context information availability and by prioritizing the public safety users. The simulation results ensure that call blocking probability is also reduced considerably under the PS-CARA scheme.

  4. Unit area control in California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Hallin

    1951-01-01

    There is a definite distinction between the basic concept of unit area control and the specific techniques or treatments used for specific units. Unit area control as a term was first used in connection with a cutting trial in the sugar pine-fir type; consequently, many foresters think the term refers merely to the technique used in sugar pine management, This is not...

  5. Connecting Architecture and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgeher, Georg; Weinreich, Rainer

    Software architectures are still typically defined and described independently from implementation. To avoid architectural erosion and drift, architectural representation needs to be continuously updated and synchronized with system implementation. Existing approaches for architecture representation like informal architecture documentation, UML diagrams, and Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provide only limited support for connecting architecture descriptions and implementations. Architecture management tools like Lattix, SonarJ, and Sotoarc and UML-tools tackle this problem by extracting architecture information directly from code. This approach works for low-level architectural abstractions like classes and interfaces in object-oriented systems but fails to support architectural abstractions not found in programming languages. In this paper we present an approach for linking and continuously synchronizing a formalized architecture representation to an implementation. The approach is a synthesis of functionality provided by code-centric architecture management and UML tools and higher-level architecture analysis approaches like ADLs.

  6. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  7. Research on comprehensive decision-making of PV power station connecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Erxiong; Xin, Chaoshan; Ma, Botao; Cheng, Kai

    2018-04-01

    In allusion to the incomplete indexes system and not making decision on the subjectivity and objectivity of PV power station connecting system, based on the combination of improved Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation (CRITIC) as well as grey correlation degree analysis (GCDA) is comprehensively proposed to select the appropriate system connecting scheme of PV power station. Firstly, indexes of PV power station connecting system are divided the recursion order hierarchy and calculated subjective weight by the improved AHP. Then, CRITIC is adopted to determine the objective weight of each index through the comparison intensity and conflict between indexes. The last the improved GCDA is applied to screen the optimal scheme, so as to, from the subjective and objective angle, select the connecting system. Comprehensive decision of Xinjiang PV power station is conducted and reasonable analysis results are attained. The research results might provide scientific basis for investment decision.

  8. STARTER-GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Levin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a starter-generator system for an auxiliary power unit of an aircraft. A feature of the presented system is the use of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. The main problem of the system is the generation of electric energy of an aircraft on the basis of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets is the absence of the possibility of regulating the voltage and frequency of electrical energy, in this connection, a semiconductor converter that ensures the conversion of generated electric energy with significant mass-dimensions characteristics.The article proposes an approach to designing a starter-generator system with a parallel connection of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. This approach makes it possible to significantly reduce the part of the electrical energy that needs to be converted, as a consequence, the semiconductor converter has significantly smaller mass-and-batch characteristics.In the article the modes of generation of electric energy and the starter mode of operation of the starter-generator system are considered in detail, the circuit realization of the semiconductor converter is shown. A scheme for replacing one phase of the system for generating electric energy and calculating electric parameters is presented.The possibility of creating a highly efficient starter-generator system based on a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter for an auxiliary power plant of aircrafts is shown. Structural and basic schemes for constructing a system for generating electrical energy are proposed. The approach to the choice of rational circuit solutions is substantiated, basic estimates of the electrical parameters of the system are obtained. The possibility of achieving a specific mass of a semiconductor converter for synchronous

  9. Power Hardware In The Loop Validation of Fault Ride Through of VSC HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the power hardware in the loop (PHIL) validation of a feed forward DC voltage control scheme for the fault ride through (FTR) of voltage source converter (VSC) high voltage DC (HVDC) connected offshore wind power plants (WPPs). In the proposed FRT scheme, the WPP collector...... network AC voltage is actively controlled by considering both the DC voltage error and the AC current from the WPP AC collector system which ensures fast and robust FRT of the VSC HVDC connected offshore WPPs. The PHIL tests were carried out in order to verify the efficacy of the proposed feed forward DC...... voltage control scheme for enhancing the FRT capability of the VSC HVDC connected WPPs. The PHIL test results have demonstrated the proper control coordination between the offshore WPP and the WPP side VSC and the efficient FRT of the VSC HVDC connected WPPs....

  10. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  11. Analysis of Program Obfuscation Schemes with Variable Encoding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuhide; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Program analysis techniques have improved steadily over the past several decades, and software obfuscation schemes have come to be used in many commercial programs. A software obfuscation scheme transforms an original program or a binary file into an obfuscated program that is more complicated and difficult to analyze, while preserving its functionality. However, the security of obfuscation schemes has not been properly evaluated. In this paper, we analyze obfuscation schemes in order to clarify the advantages of our scheme, the XOR-encoding scheme. First, we more clearly define five types of attack models that we defined previously, and define quantitative resistance to these attacks. Then, we compare the security, functionality and efficiency of three obfuscation schemes with encoding variables: (1) Sato et al.'s scheme with linear transformation, (2) our previous scheme with affine transformation, and (3) the XOR-encoding scheme. We show that the XOR-encoding scheme is superior with regard to the following two points: (1) the XOR-encoding scheme is more secure against a data-dependency attack and a brute force attack than our previous scheme, and is as secure against an information-collecting attack and an inverse transformation attack as our previous scheme, (2) the XOR-encoding scheme does not restrict the calculable ranges of programs and the loss of efficiency is less than in our previous scheme.

  12. Investigation of schemes for incorporating generator Q limits in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Handling generator Q limits is one such important feature needed in any practical load flow method. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of two classes of schemes intended to handle this aspect i.e. the bus type switching scheme and the sensitivity scheme. We propose two new sensitivity based schemes ...

  13. SU-C-207B-03: A Geometrical Constrained Chan-Vese Based Tumor Segmentation Scheme for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L; Zhou, Z; Wang, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation of tumor in PET is challenging when part of tumor is connected with normal organs/tissues with no difference in intensity. Conventional segmentation methods, such as thresholding or region growing, cannot generate satisfactory results in this case. We proposed a geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based scheme to segment tumor in PET for this special case by considering the similarity between two adjacent slices. Methods: The proposed scheme performs segmentation in a slice-by-slice fashion where an accurate segmentation of one slice is used as the guidance for segmentation of rest slices. For a slice that the tumor is not directly connected to organs/tissues with similar intensity values, a conventional clustering-based segmentation method under user’s guidance is used to obtain an exact tumor contour. This is set as the initial contour and the Chan-Vese algorithm is applied for segmenting the tumor in the next adjacent slice by adding constraints of tumor size, position and shape information. This procedure is repeated until the last slice of PET containing tumor. The proposed geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based algorithm was implemented in Matlab and its performance was tested on several cervical cancer patients where cervix and bladder are connected with similar activity values. The positive predictive values (PPV) are calculated to characterize the segmentation accuracy of the proposed scheme. Results: Tumors were accurately segmented by the proposed method even when they are connected with bladder in the image with no difference in intensity. The average PPVs were 0.9571±0.0355 and 0.9894±0.0271 for 17 slices and 11 slices of PET from two patients, respectively. Conclusion: We have developed a new scheme to segment tumor in PET images for the special case that the tumor is quite similar to or connected to normal organs/tissues in the image. The proposed scheme can provide a reliable way for segmenting tumors.

  14. SU-C-207B-03: A Geometrical Constrained Chan-Vese Based Tumor Segmentation Scheme for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L; Zhou, Z; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation of tumor in PET is challenging when part of tumor is connected with normal organs/tissues with no difference in intensity. Conventional segmentation methods, such as thresholding or region growing, cannot generate satisfactory results in this case. We proposed a geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based scheme to segment tumor in PET for this special case by considering the similarity between two adjacent slices. Methods: The proposed scheme performs segmentation in a slice-by-slice fashion where an accurate segmentation of one slice is used as the guidance for segmentation of rest slices. For a slice that the tumor is not directly connected to organs/tissues with similar intensity values, a conventional clustering-based segmentation method under user’s guidance is used to obtain an exact tumor contour. This is set as the initial contour and the Chan-Vese algorithm is applied for segmenting the tumor in the next adjacent slice by adding constraints of tumor size, position and shape information. This procedure is repeated until the last slice of PET containing tumor. The proposed geometrical constrained Chan-Vese based algorithm was implemented in Matlab and its performance was tested on several cervical cancer patients where cervix and bladder are connected with similar activity values. The positive predictive values (PPV) are calculated to characterize the segmentation accuracy of the proposed scheme. Results: Tumors were accurately segmented by the proposed method even when they are connected with bladder in the image with no difference in intensity. The average PPVs were 0.9571±0.0355 and 0.9894±0.0271 for 17 slices and 11 slices of PET from two patients, respectively. Conclusion: We have developed a new scheme to segment tumor in PET images for the special case that the tumor is quite similar to or connected to normal organs/tissues in the image. The proposed scheme can provide a reliable way for segmenting tumors.

  15. A Study on an Energy Conservation and Interconnection Scheme between WSN and Internet Based on the 6LoWPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runtong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN, which has broad application prospects, consists of small nodes with sensing, computation, and communications capabilities. IPv6 is used over low power WPAN (wireless personal area network which is run by 6LoWPAN technology on the LoWPAN devices. In order to establish seamless connection of two heterogeneous networks, that is, WSN and IPv6 network, this paper proposes an improved energy conservation and interconnection scheme (ECIS based on the analysis of the current schemes. Detailed design of each functional component in the new scheme is proposed, and an expansion of the SSCS module in NS2 802.15.4 simulator is examined. Comprehensive experiments on the simulation platform show that the newly proposed scheme is advantageous over existing results.

  16. Development of Dalaelven hydro power scheme in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokko, Voitto; Hjerthen, Peter; Ingfaelt, Hans; Loewen, Karl-Erik; Sjoegren, Arne

    2015-01-01

    The Dalaelven hydro scheme is located in central Sweden. Fortum has in the scheme 50 dams and 35 hydro power plants producing 4 TWh energy with a capacity of 970 MW. The main reservoirs are Lake Siljan and Traengsletsjoen with Traengslet dam, the highest earth-filled dam in Sweden. Development of the hydro scheme started 1878 with construction of four power plants for industry until 1930. From 1931 to 1974 15 power plants were built for increasing electricity consumption. De-regulation of the energy market in 1990's and EU environmental targets in 2000's resulted in the rehabilitation of ten power plants between 1990 and 2014 with increased annual energy production of 377 GWh (29%) and capacity 124 MW (59%). This energy decreases the annual CO 2 emissions with 125918 tons in comparison to production of the same amount of energy by coal. In several cases the rehabilitation was made in new power houses, allowing the development of the layout and technology of civil structures, and use of state-of-art equipment. Sweden uses the green certificate system, and 235 GWh of the energy received this certificate. Other environmental benefits come from use of the environmentally friendly Kaplan turbines and construction of some new fish pass. There are further plans to increase the spillway capacity of Traengslet dam and to rehabilitate eight power plant units. The possibilities of obtaining the Environmental licences for the rehabilitations has became challenging in the past years and green certificates are nowadays agreed only for increased energy. (authors)

  17. Novel Directional Protection Scheme for the FREEDM Smart Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitish

    This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

  18. Sources of funding for community schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    There is an increasing level of interest amongst community groups in the UK to become involved in the development of renewable energy schemes. Often however these community groups have only limited funds of their own, so any additional funds that can be identified to help fund their renewable energy scheme can be very useful. There are a range of funding sources available that provide grants or loans for which community groups are eligible to apply. Few of these funding sources are targeted towards renewable energy specifically, nevertheless the funds may be applicable to renewable energy schemes under appropriate circumstances. To date, however, few of these funds have been accessed by community groups for renewable energy initiatives. One of the reasons for this low take-up of funds on offer could be that the funding sources may be difficult and time-consuming to identify, especially where the energy component of the fund is not readily apparent. This directory draws together details about many of the principal funding sources available in the UK that may consider providing funds to community groups wanting to develop a renewable energy scheme. (author)

  19. The QKD network: model and routing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jinhai

    2017-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) technology can establish unconditional secure keys between two communicating parties. Although this technology has some inherent constraints, such as the distance and point-to-point mode limits, building a QKD network with multiple point-to-point QKD devices can overcome these constraints. Considering the development level of current technology, the trust relaying QKD network is the first choice to build a practical QKD network. However, the previous research didn't address a routing method on the trust relaying QKD network in detail. This paper focuses on the routing issues, builds a model of the trust relaying QKD network for easily analysing and understanding this network, and proposes a dynamical routing scheme for this network. From the viewpoint of designing a dynamical routing scheme in classical network, the proposed scheme consists of three components: a Hello protocol helping share the network topology information, a routing algorithm to select a set of suitable paths and establish the routing table and a link state update mechanism helping keep the routing table newly. Experiments and evaluation demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the proposed routing scheme.

  20. SYNTHESIS OF VISCOELASTIC MATERIAL MODELS (SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principles of structural viscoelastic schemes construction for materials with linear viscoelastic properties in accordance with the given experimental data on creep tests are analyzed. It is shown that there can be only four types of materials with linear visco-elastic properties.