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Sample records for unit commitment algorithm

  1. Optimization of unit commitment based on genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡兴国; 初壮

    2002-01-01

    How to solve unit commitment and load dispatch of power system by genetic algorithms is discussed in this paper. A combination encoding scheme of binary encoding and floating number encoding and corresponding genetic operators are developed. Meanwhile a contract mapping genetic algorithm is used to enhance traditional GA' s convergence. The result of a practical example shows that this algorithm is effective.

  2. Ant Colony Search Algorithm for Solving Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Surya Kalavathi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Ant Colony Search Algorithm is proposed to solve thermal unit commitment problem. Ant colony search (ACS studies are inspired from the behavior of real ant colonies that are used to solve function or combinatorial optimization problems. In the ACSA a set of cooperating agents called ants cooperates to find good solution of unit commitment problem of thermal units. The UC problem is to determine a minimal cost turn-on and turn-off schedule of a set of electrical power generating units to meet a load demand while satisfying a set of operational constraints. This proposed approach is a tested on 10 unit power system and compared to conventional methods.

  3. Optimizing Combination of Units Commitment Based on Improved Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yifei; ZHANG Qianhua; JIA Junping

    2007-01-01

    GAs are general purpose optimization techniques based on principles inspired from the biological evolution using metaphors of mechanisms, such as natural selection, genetic recombination and survival of the fittest. By use of coding betterment, the dynamic changes of the mutation rate and the crossover probability, the dynamic choice of subsistence, the reservation of the optimal fitness value, a modified genetic algorithm for optimizing combination of units in thermal power plants is proposed.And through taking examples, test result are analyzed and compared with results of some different algorithms. Numerical results show available value for the unit commitment problem with examples.

  4. A variant of the dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2008-01-01

    in the system, the number of periods over the planning horizon and the time for solving a single-period economic dispatch problem. We have compared the DP-RSC1 algorithm with realistic power plants against the unit decommitment algorithm and the traditional priority listing method. The results show that the DP...... introduce in this paper the DP-RSC1 algorithm, which is a variant of the dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units and sequential commitment of units one by one. The time complexity of DP-RSC1 is proportional to the number of generating units...

  5. Genetic Algorithm Based Simulated Annealing Method for Solving Unit Commitment Problem in Utility System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, C. Christober Asir

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal generating unit commitment in the power system for the next H hours. Genetic Algorithms (GA's) are general-purpose optimization techniques based on principles inspired from the biological evolution using metaphors of mechanisms such as neural section, genetic recombination and survival of the fittest. In this, the unit commitment schedule is coded as a string of symbols. An initial population of parent solutions is generated at random. Here, each schedule is formed by committing all the units according to their initial status ("flat start"). Here the parents are obtained from a pre-defined set of solution's i.e. each and every solution is adjusted to meet the requirements. Then, a random recommitment is carried out with respect to the unit's minimum down times. And SA improves the status. A 66-bus utility power system with twelve generating units in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by using the Genetic Algorithm method and other conventional methods.

  6. An immune-tabu hybrid algorithm for thermal unit commitment of electric power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei LI; Hao-yu PENG; Wei-hang ZHU; De-ren SHENG; Jian-hong CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method based on an immune-tabu hybrid algorithm to solve the thermal unit commitment (TUC) problem in power plant optimization. The mathematical model of the TUC problem is established by analyzing the generating units in modern power plants. A novel immune-tabu hybrid algorithm is proposed to solve this complex problem. In the algorithm, the objective function of the TUC problem is considered as an antigen and the solutions are considered as antibodies,which are determined by the affinity computation. The code length of an antibody is shortened by encoding the continuous operating time, and the optimum searching speed is improved. Each feasible individual in the immune algorithm (IA) is used as the initial solution of the tabu search (TS) algorithm after certain generations of IA iteration. As examples, the proposed method has been applied to several thermal unit systems for a period of 24 h. The computation results demonstrate the good global optimum searching performance of the proposed immune-tabu hybrid algorithm. The presented algorithm can also be used to solve other optimization problems in fields such as the chemical industry and the power industry.

  7. Solving Unit Commitment Problem Using Modified Subgradient Method Combined with Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmühan Başaran Filik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the solving unit commitment (UC problem using Modified Subgradient Method (MSG method combined with Simulated Annealing (SA algorithm. UC problem is one of the important power system engineering hard-solving problems. The Lagrangian relaxation (LR based methods are commonly used to solve the UC problem. The main disadvantage of this group of methods is the difference between the dual and the primal solution which gives some significant problems on the quality of the feasible solution. In this paper, MSG method which does not require any convexity and differentiability assumptions is used for solving the UC problem. MSG method depending on the initial value reaches zero duality gap. SA algorithm is used in order to assign the appropriate initial value for MSG method. The major advantage of the proposed approach is that it guarantees the zero duality gap independently from the size of the problem. In order to show the advantages of this proposed approach, the four-unit Tuncbilek thermal plant and ten-unit thermal plant which is usually used in literature are chosen as test systems. Penalty function (PF method is also used to compare with our proposed method in terms of total cost and UC schedule.

  8. Metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithms for the unit commitment problem with probabilistic outages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulou, Chariklia A.; Giannakoglou, Kyriakos C. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Mechanical Engineering, Lab. of Thermal Turbomachines, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, P.O. Box 64069, Athens 157 10 (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    An efficient method for solving power generating unit commitment (UC) problems with probabilistic unit outages is proposed. It is based on a two-level evolutionary algorithm (EA) minimizing the expected total operating cost (TOC) of a system of power generating units over a scheduling period, with known failure and repair rates of each unit. To compute the cost function value of each EA population member, namely a candidate UC schedule, a Monte Carlo simulation must be carried out. Some thousands of replicates are generated according to the units' outage and repair rates and the corresponding probabilities. Each replicate is represented by a series of randomly generated availability and unavailability periods of time for each unit and the UC schedule under consideration accordingly. The expected TOC is the average of the TOCs of all Monte Carlo replicates. Therefore, the CPU cost per Monte Carlo evaluation increases noticeably and so does the CPU cost of running the EA. To reduce it, the use of a metamodel-assisted EA (MAEA) with on-line trained surrogate evaluation models or metamodels (namely, radial-basis function networks) is proposed. A novelty of this method is that the metamodels are trained on a few ''representative'' unit outage scenarios selected among the Monte Carlo replicates generated once during the optimization and, then, used to predict the expected TOC. Based on this low cost, approximate pre-evaluation, only a few top individuals within each generation undergo Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed MAEA is demonstrated on test problems and shown to drastically reduce the CPU cost, compared to EAs which are exclusively based on Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  9. Two-level, two-objective evolutionary algorithms for solving unit commitment problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulou, Chariklia A.; Giannakoglou, Kyriakos C. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Thermal Turbomachines, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, P.O. Box 64069, Athens 157 10 (Greece)

    2009-07-15

    A two-level, two-objective optimization scheme based on evolutionary algorithms (EAs) is proposed for solving power generating Unit Commitment (UC) problems by considering stochastic power demand variations. Apart from the total operating cost to cover a known power demand distribution over the scheduling horizon, which is the first objective, the risk of not fulfilling possible demand variations forms the second objective to be minimized. For this kind of problems with a high number of decision variables, conventional EAs become inefficient optimization tools, since they require a high number of evaluations before reaching the optimal solution(s). To considerably reduce the computational burden, a two-level algorithm is proposed. At the low level, a coarsened UC problem is defined and solved using EAs to locate promising solutions at low cost: a strategy for coarsening the UC problem is proposed. Promising solutions migrate upwards to be injected into the high level EA population for further refinement. In addition, at the high level, the scheduling horizon is partitioned in a small number of subperiods of time which are optimized iteratively using EAs, based on objective function(s) penalized to ensure smooth transition from/to the adjacent subperiods. Handling shorter chromosomes due to partitioning increases method's efficiency despite the need for iterating. The proposed two-level method and conventional EAs are compared on representative test problems. (author)

  10. A dynamic regrouping based sequential dynamic programming algorithm for unit commitment of combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Hakonen, Henri; Lahdelma, Risto

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the unit commitment (UC) in multi-period combined heat and power (CHP) production planning under the deregulated power market. In CHP plants (units), generation of heat and power follows joint characteristics, which implies that it is difficult to determine the relative cost...... efficiency of the plants. We introduce in this paper the DRDP-RSC algorithm, which is a dynamic regrouping based dynamic programming (DP) algorithm based on linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the units, sequential commitment of units in small groups. Relaxed states of the plants are used to reduce...... the dimension of the UC problem and dynamic regrouping is used to improve the solution quality. Numerical results based on real-life data sets show that this algorithm is efficient and optimal or near-optimal solutions with very small optimality gap are obtained....

  11. Thermal Unit Commitment Scheduling Problem in Utility System by Tabu Search Embedded Genetic Algorithm Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christober Asir Rajan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal unit commitment in the power system for the next H hours. A 66-bus utility power system in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach; extensive studies have also been performed for different IEEE test systems consist of 24, 57 and 175 buses. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by different intelligence and conventional methods.

  12. A Comparative Study of Fuzzy Logic, Genetic Algorithm, and Gradient-Genetic Algorithm Optimization Methods for Solving the Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbi Marrouchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous increase of the population and the perpetual progress of industry, the energy management presents nowadays a relevant topic that concerns researchers in electrical engineering. Indeed, in order to establish a good exploitation of the electrical grid, it is necessary to solve technical and economic problems. This can only be done through the resolution of the Unit Commitment Problem. Unit Commitment Problem allows optimizing the combination of the production units’ states and determining their production planning, in order to satisfy the expected consumption with minimal cost during a specified period which varies usually from 24 hours to one week. However, each production unit has some constraints that make this problem complex, combinatorial, and nonlinear. This paper presents a comparative study between a strategy based on hybrid gradient-genetic algorithm method and two strategies based on metaheuristic methods, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithm, in order to predict the combinations and the unit commitment scheduling of each production unit in one side and to minimize the total production cost in the other side. To test the performance of the optimization proposed strategies, strategies have been applied to the IEEE electrical network 14 busses and the obtained results are very promising.

  13. A Comparative Study of Fuzzy Logic, Genetic Algorithm, and Gradient-Genetic Algorithm Optimization Methods for Solving the Unit Commitment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Due to the continuous increase of the population and the perpetual progress of industry, the energy management presents nowadays a relevant topic that concerns researchers in electrical engineering. Indeed, in order to establish a good exploitation of the electrical grid, it is necessary to solve technical and economic problems. This can only be done through the resolution of the Unit Commitment Problem. Unit Commitment Problem allows optimizing the combination of the production units’ states...

  14. 基于广义Benders分解的启发式机组组合优化%A Generalized Benders Decomposition Based Heuristic Algorithm for Unit Commitment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖浩; 郭瑞鹏

    2012-01-01

    电力系统机组组合问题是一个高维、离散、非线性的工程优化问题。提出了一种基于Benders分解的启发式算法。该算法一方面充分利用研究时段负荷曲线的特征,将问题进行解耦,减小被研究问题的规模。另一方面,利用Benders分解算法在混合整数规划中的有效性,提高了解决问题的效率。算例表明该方法效率高、结果稳定,有较好的实用价值。%Unit commitment (UC) of power system is a high dimensional, nonlinear and mixed-integer engineering optimization problem. To solve this problem a generalized Benders decomposition based heuristic algorithm is proposed. On the one hand the characteristics of load curve in the time-interval being researched are fully utilized to decouple the problem and to decrease the scale of the problem, on the other hand using the effectiveness of Benders algorithm is solving mixed-integer programming problem the efficiency of solving the problem is improved. Results of calculation example show that the proposed algorithm is efficient and practicable.

  15. An unit commitment model for hydrothermal systems; Um modelo de unit commitment para sistemas hidrotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Thiago de Paula; Luciano, Edson Jose Rezende; Nepomuceno, Leonardo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: ra611191@feb.unesp.br, edson.joserl@uol.com.br, leo@feb.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    A model of Unit Commitment to hydrothermal systems that includes the costs of start/stop of generators is proposed. These costs has been neglected in a good part of the programming models for operation of hydrothermal systems (pre-dispatch). The impact of the representation of costs in total production costs is evaluated. The proposed model is solved by a hybrid methodology, which involves the use of genetic algorithms (to solve the entire part of the problem) and sequential quadratic programming methods. This methodology is applied to the solution of an IEEE test system. The results emphasize the importance of representation of the start/stop in the generation schedule.

  16. Fuzzy Array Approach to Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Eliasson, Bo

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the unit commitment problem of Swedish power company Sydkraft as a constraint satisfaction problem. The power system is a simplified system with nuclear, thermal, and hydro generators as well as power interchange. In this paper we focus on soft constraints, for instance `ap...... `approximately equal`, `much larger than`, and `a little`. Several authors have recognized the significance of soft or fuzzy constraints. Our specific objective is to compute a power balance by means of fuzzy array logic in order to accommodate uncertainty....

  17. Optimization of unit commitment of marine power system using improved genetic algorithm%改进型遗传算法在机组负荷优化组合中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昆; 欧阳光耀; 陈海龙

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the characteristics of the unit commitment problem in marine power system, we propose an improved genetic algorithm with-both float-point coding and binary coding. To apply the nonlinear 0-1 mixed integer programming to the optimization of the unit commitment, other items in the algorithm are modified accordingly, including the coding and decoding modes, initial population creation, constraint conditions disposal, fitness function selection, genetic operators and the control parameters modulation. In the application of this improved algorithm, not only the constraint conditions can be handled more readily, but the convergence speed and the solution precision are also improved. The application advantage is demonstrated by a 2% reduction in average oil consumption rate.%针对某舰用电站机组负荷组合的特点,提出了一种基于浮点数和二进制数统一编码的改进遗传算法,并进一步对算法中的编码解码方式、初始种群生成、约束条件处理、遗传算子映射及控制参数调节等作了改进,解决了机组优化组合的0-l混合整数非线性规划问题.改进后的算法不仅较好地处理了机组优化组合中的各种约束条件,同时改善了算法的收敛性.优化结果表明机组油耗率降幅最大可达2%,效果显著.

  18. A hybrid approach based on EP and PSO for proficient solving of Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R LAL RAJA SINGH,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Unit Commitment Problem (UCP is a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem used in the scheduling operation of power systemgenerating units subjected to demand and reserve requirement constraints for achieving minimum operating cost. The task of the UCproblem is to determine the on/off state of the generating units at every hour interval of the planning period for optimally transmitting the load and reserve among the committed units. The importance for the necessity of a more effective optimal solution to the UCP problem is increasing with the regularly varying demand. Hereby, we propose a hybrid approach which solves the unit commitment problem subjectedto necessary constraints and gives the optimal commitment of the units. The possible combination of demand and their correspondingoptimal generation schedule can be determined by the PSO algorithm. Being a global optimization technique, Evolutionary Programming(EP for solving Unit Commitment Problem, operates on a method, which encodes each unit’s operating schedule with respect to up/down time. When the demand over a time horizon is given as input to the network it successfully gives the schedule of each unit’s commitment that satisfies the demands of all the periods and results in minimum total cost. Because hybridization is dominating, this approach for solving the unit commitment problem is more effective.

  19. 基于奔德斯算法的安全约束机组组合方法%A Method for Security Constrained Unit Commitment Based on Benders Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 张粒子; 袁喆; 张黎明; 李雪

    2012-01-01

    When security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) was directly solved by mixed integer programming algorithm, the calculation efficiency would considerably decrease, and when SCUC was solved by Benders algorithm, it led to the problem that the solution efficiency would decrease due to the algorithm shock and the restriction of system scale. A new Benders algorithm-based method to solve SCUC was proposed. Based on Benders algorithm, by means of adding the link to correct the constraint of out-of-limit after the iteration of Benders master problem, the search direction of Benders cut could be controlled; by means of adding the link to identify taken-effect constraints the search space of Benders algorithm was reduced, thus the solution efficiency of SCUC optimization could be improved. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by simulation results of 6-machine 3-bus system and 54-machine 118-bus system.%针对采用混合整数规划算法直接求解安全约束机组组合,将使计算效率大幅度降低,而利用奔德斯算法求解则存在着算法振荡和受系统规模制约求解效率下降的问题,提出了一种基于奔德斯算法的安全约束机组组合新方法.该方法在奔德斯算法的基础上,通过纳入新增越限约束校正环节,控制了奔德斯割的寻优方向,通过增加起作用约束识别环节,缩小了奔德斯算法的寻优空间,进而提高了安全约束机组组合优化问题的求解效率.6机3节点和54机118节点算例验证了所提方法的有效性.

  20. New algorithm for the unit commitment based on the system marginal price%基于边际电价的短期机组组合求解新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江健健; 夏清; 沈瑜; 康重庆; 许洪强; 张元鹏

    2001-01-01

    在制定电力市场中的电力交易计划时,由于系统边际电价(SMP)的引入,机组组合问题呈现出非解析的特点。论文建立了基于系统边际电价机组组合问题的数学模型,并结合电力市场的新特点,在分析Lagrangian分解与协调算法机理的基础上,提出了一种求解基于系统边际电价的机组组合问题的新方法。与传统Lagrangian方法相比,新算法很好地解决了传统方法求解基于SMP的机组组合问题时遇到的“振荡”以及“调整死区”等问题。实际应用表明:新算法具有很好的快速收敛性以及优化效果。%he concept of system marginal price (SMP) is introduced intopower generation planning. The objective function of the unit commitment is non-analytic. This paper presents the mathematical model of the unit commitment based on SMP with a new method for solving the unit commitment by analyzing the mechanism of the Lagrangian relaxation method and its coordinating process. The method overcomes the “calculated oscillation” and “dead-zone regulation” problems arising from the analysis of the unit commitment in a deregulated environment by traditional methods. The quick convergence and excellent optimizing ability of the new method are demonstrated by a practical application.

  1. A technique for unit commitment with energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Miyagi, Tsukasa; Ahmed Yousuf, Saber; Urasaki, Naomitsu [Faculty of Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Funabashi, Toshihisa [Meidensha Corporation, Riverside Building 36-2, Nihonbashi, Hokozakicho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8515 (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    This paper introduces the scheduling method for thermal and energy storage system (ESS) unit commitment. The ESS is incorporated to achieve peak load-levelling and reduce the total cost. The thermal scheduling is implemented by the extended priority list (EPL) method. The EPL method consists of two steps, in the first step we get rapidly some initial unit commitment schedules by the priority list (PL) method. In this step, operational constraints are disregarded. In the second step, unit schedules are modified using the problem specific heuristics to fulfill operational constraints and to reduce the total cost. To calculate efficiently, heuristics are only applied to solutions which can be expected improvement. The ramp constraints for thermal unit are considered at the last of EPL method. The ESS scheduling is carried out based on the thermal unit schedule obtained by the EPL method. Several numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  2. Accelerating Computation of the Unit Commitment Problem (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M.; Barrows, C.; Jones, W.

    2013-10-01

    Production cost models (PCMs) simulate power system operation at hourly (or higher) resolution. While computation times often extend into multiple days, the sequential nature of PCM's makes parallelism difficult. We exploit the persistence of unit commitment decisions to select partition boundaries for simulation horizon decomposition and parallel computation. Partitioned simulations are benchmarked against sequential solutions for optimality and computation time.

  3. Neural networks as a tool for unit commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne-Hansen, Peter; Rønne-Hansen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Some of the fundamental problems when solving the power system unit commitment problem by means of neural networks have been attacked. It has been demonstrated for a small example that neural networks might be a viable alternative. Some of the major problems solved in this initiating phase form...

  4. Security-constrained unit commitment with flexible operating modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo

    The electricity industry throughout the world, which has long been dominated by vertically integrated utilities, is facing enormous challenges. To enhance the competition in electricity industry, vertically integrated utilities are evolving into a distributed and competitive industry in which market forces drive the price of electricity and possibly reduce the net cost of supplying electrical loads through increased competition. To excel in the competition, generation companies (GENCOs) will acquire additional generating units with flexible operating capability which allows a timely response to the continuous changes in power system conditions. This dissertation considers the short-term scheduling of generating units with flexible modes of operation in security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC). Among the units considered in this study are combined cycle units, fuel switching/blending units, photovoltaic/battery system, pumped-storage units, and cascaded hydro units. The proposed security-constrained unit commitment solution will include a detailed model of transmission system which could impact the short-term scheduling of units with flexible operation modes.

  5. Emerging solution of large-scale unit commitment problem by Stochastic Priority List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Miyagi, Tsukasa; Saber, Ahmed Yousuf; Urasaki, Naomitsu [Faculty of Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Funabashi, Toshihisa [Meidensha Corporation Riverside Building 36-2, Nihonbashi Hokozakicho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8515 (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    This paper presents a new approach for unit commitment problem using Stochastic Priority List method. In this method, rapidly some initial unit commitment schedules are generated by Priority List method and priority based stochastic window system. Excess units are added with system dependent probability distribution to avoid overlooking a desired solution during repeated search. Constraints are not considered in this stage. Then schedules are modified gradually using the problem specific heuristics to fulfill constraints. To reduce calculations, heuristics are applied only to the solutions, which can be expected to improve. Besides, sign vector is introduced to reduce economic load dispatch (ELD) overhead recalculations. This process is repeated for optimal solution. The proposed method is tested using the reported problem data set. Simulation results for the systems up to 100-unit are compared to previous reported results. Numerical results show an improvement in solution cost and time compared to the results obtained from Genetic Algorithm and others. (author)

  6. UNIT COMMITMENT: A NEW TRUNCATED METHOD OF UNIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    limits, minimum up/down times. Other ... incremental heat rate in ₦/hour for unit i ... approaches to treating thermal unit during its ... (d) Load Balance: During each interval of time, k, the .... The unit information and initial conditions are shown in.

  7. A Stochastic Unit Commitment Model for a Local CHP Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Local CHP development in Denmark has during the 90’s been characterised by large growth primarily due to government subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs. In line with the liberalisation process in the EU, Danish local CHPs of a certain size must operate on market terms from 2005. This paper...... presents a stochastic unit commitment model for a single local CHP plant (consisting of CHP unit, boiler, and heat storage facility) which takes into account varying spot prices. Further, additional technology is implemented in the model in the form of an immersion heater. Simulations are conducted using...

  8. An improved two stages dynamic programming/artificial neural network solution model to the unit commitment of thermal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasy, N.H. [College of Technological Studies, Shuwaikh (Kuwait); Elfayoumy, M.K. [Univ. of Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-11-01

    An improved two stages solution model to the unit commitment of thermal units is developed in this paper. In the first stage a pre-schedule is generated using a high quality trained artificial neural net (ANN). A dynamic programming (DP) algorithm is implemented and applied in the second stage for the final determination of the commitment states. The developed solution model avoids the complications imposed by the generation of the variable window structure, proposed by other techniques. A unified approach for the treatment of the ANN is also developed in the paper. The validity of the proposed technique is proved via numerical applications to both sample and small practical power systems. 12 refs, 9 tabs

  9. On units combination and commitment optimization for electric power production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠富; 何永秀

    2004-01-01

    Electric power system is one of the most important and complex engineering in modern society, supplying main and general power for social production and social life. Meanwhile, since it is a productive system with both high input and output, it has an obvious economic significance to improve its operating efficiency. For an example, an unit is 10 GW year. It will be discussed mainly that how to establish optimization model and its numerical algorithm for operating management of the electric power system. The idea on establishing optimization model is how to dispatch work state of units or power plants, so that total cost of fuel consumption for generation is reduced to the minimum. Here the dispatch is to decide which unit or plant to operate, which unit or plant to stop running, how much power should be generated for those operating units or plants at each given time interval.

  10. Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.

  11. EP BASED PSO METHOD FOR SOLVING PROFIT BASED MULTI AREA UNIT COMMITMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VENKATESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve the profit based multi area unit commitment problem (PBMAUCP using an evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization (EPPSO method. The objective of this paper is to maximize the profit of generation companies (GENCOs with considering system social benefit. The proposed method helps GENCOs to make a decision, how much power and reserve should be sold in markets, and how to schedule generators in order to receive the maximum profit. Joint operation of generation resources can result in significant operational cost savings. Power transfer between the areas through the tie lines depends upon the operating cost of generation at each hour and tie line transfer limits. The tie line transfer limits were considered as a set of constraints during optimization process to ensure the system security and reliability. The overall algorithm can be implemented on an IBM PC, which can process a fairly large system in a reasonable period of time. Case study of four areas with different load pattern each containing 7 units (NTPS and 26 units connected via tie lines have been taken for analysis. Numerical results showed comparing the profit of evolutionary programming-based particle swarm optimization method (EPPSO with conventional dynamic programming (DP, evolutionary programming (EP, and particle swarm optimization (PSO method. Experimental results shows that the application of this evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization method have the potential to solve profit based multi area unit commitment problem with lesser computation time.

  12. United States commitment to heavy lift launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    Observers of the United States' space program will note progress toward the development of a new launch system capable of supporting the nation's future space missions. The process of defining mission requirements, developing technically and politically acceptable solutions, making policy decisions, and developing budget support in a democratic society is protracted, but eventually yields decisions that represent the public interest. The consensus developing within the United States on a new launch capability including heavy-lift is embodied in the Joint NASA/DoD National Launch System. This launch vehicle concept has emerged after more than five years of studies by NASA, the DoD and every major industrial aerospace contractor in the U.S. In July 1991, Vice President Quayle, in his capacity as Chairman of the National Space Council stated the Nation's commitment to support of the NLS. This paper reviews progress to date, and the involvement of the four major constituencies; the Executive Branch operating through the National Space Council, the Legislative Branch, the various elements of the DoD, and NASA. The evolution of launch system "requirements", along with the form, content and rationale for the various decisions that have been made will be described and discussed.

  13. Fuzzy unit commitment solution - A novel twofold simulated annealing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Ahmed Yousuf; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi; Urasaki, Naomitsu [Faculty of Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Funabashi, Toshihisa [Meidensha Corporation, Riverside Building 36-2, Tokyo 103-8515 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    The authors propose a twofold simulated annealing (twofold-SA) method for the optimization of fuzzy unit commitment formulation in this paper. In the proposed method, simulated annealing (SA) and fuzzy logic are combined to obtain SA acceptance probabilities from fuzzy membership degrees. Fuzzy load is calculated from error statistics and an initial solution is generated by a priority list method. The initial solution is decomposed into hourly-schedules and each hourly-schedule is modified by decomposed-SA using a bit flipping operator. Fuzzy membership degrees are the selection attributes of the decomposed-SA. A new solution consists of these hourly-schedules of entire scheduling period after repair, as unit-wise constraints may not be fulfilled at the time of an individual hourly-schedule modification. This helps to detect and modify promising schedules of appropriate hours. In coupling-SA, this new solution is accepted for the next iteration if its cost is less than that of current solution. However, a higher cost new solution is accepted with the temperature dependent total cost membership function. Computation time of the proposed method is also improved by the imprecise tolerance of the fuzzy model. Besides, excess units with the system dependent probability distribution help to handle constraints efficiently and imprecise economic load dispatch (ELD) calculations are modified to save the execution time. The proposed method is tested using standard reported data sets. Numerical results show an improvement in solution cost and time compared to the results obtained from other existing methods. (author)

  14. United assembly algorithm for optical burst switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Yu(于金辉); Yijun Yang(杨教军); Yuehua Chen(陈月华); Ge Fan(范戈)

    2003-01-01

    Optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising optical switching technology. The burst assembly algorithm controls burst assembly, which significantly impacts performance of OBS network. This paper provides a new assembly algorithm, united assembly algorithm, which has more practicability than conventional algorithms. In addition, some factors impacting selections of parameters of this algorithm are discussed and the performance of this algorithm is studied by computer simulation.

  15. Incorporating Wind Power Forecast Uncertainties Into Stochastic Unit Commitment Using Neural Network-Based Prediction Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Penetration of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, into power systems significantly increases the uncertainties on system operation, stability, and reliability in smart grids. In this paper, the nonparametric neural network-based prediction intervals (PIs) are implemented for forecast uncertainty quantification. Instead of a single level PI, wind power forecast uncertainties are represented in a list of PIs. These PIs are then decomposed into quantiles of wind power. A new scenario generation method is proposed to handle wind power forecast uncertainties. For each hour, an empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) is fitted to these quantile points. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate scenarios from the ECDF. Then the wind power scenarios are incorporated into a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) model. The heuristic genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the stochastic SCUC problem. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies incorporated with interval forecasts of wind power are implemented. The results of these cases are presented and discussed together. Generation costs, and the scheduled and real-time economic dispatch reserves of different unit commitment strategies are compared. The experimental results show that the stochastic model is more robust than deterministic ones and, thus, decreases the risk in system operations of smart grids.

  16. Quantum Central Processing Unit and Quantum Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安民

    2002-01-01

    Based on a scalable and universal quantum network, quantum central processing unit, proposed in our previous paper [Chin. Phys. Left. 18 (2001)166], the whole quantum network for the known quantum algorithms,including quantum Fourier transformation, Shor's algorithm and Grover's algorithm, is obtained in a unitied way.

  17. 基于混沌群粒子优化−情景约简算法的混合电力系统机组组合模型及其求解%Unit Commitment Model and Solution in the Hybrid Power System Based on Chaos Embedded Particle Swarm Optimization-Scenario Reduction Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田廓

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale grid-integration of new energy sources such as wind power generation and so on leads to new problems in secure and stable operation of traditional power grids. For a hybrid power grid containing thermal power plants, wind farms and energy storage equipments, by means of constructing a unit commitment model and the stochastic property of wind power output uncertainty is simulated by scenario tree. Leading chaos embedded particle swarm optimization (CEPSO) into scenario reduction algorithms (SRA) the results of stochastic simulation and the ability to search the optimal solution are improved. Taking a hybrid power system composed of a wind farm and a 10-machine system as simulation example, simulation results show that the obtained unit commitment scheme can dispatch as many wind power units as possible and the operational cost of thermal generation units can be reduced to suit to the demand of energy conservation and emission reduction.%  风电等新能源发电机组的大规模并网,对传统电力系统的安全稳定运行带来了新的问题。研究了一种含有风−火−储联合运行的混合电力系统,通过构建机组组合问题模型,利用情景树方法模拟风电出力的不确定性的随机特性,将混沌群粒子优化算法引入情景约简算法,改善随机模拟结果和提高最优解的搜寻能力。算例分析结果表明,得到的机组组合方案能够尽量多调度风电机组,降低火电机组的运行成本,适应节能减排工作需要。

  18. Tight MIP formulations of the power-based unit commitment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Espana, G.A.; Gentile, C.; Ramos, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the convex hull description for the basic operation of slow- and quick-start units in power-based unit commitment (UC) problems. The basic operating constraints that are modeled for both types of units are (1) generation limits and (2) minimum up and down times. Apart from this,

  19. A Three-Stage Birandom Program for Unit Commitment with Wind Power Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Weidong; Liu, Rao; Lv, Quan; Sun, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The integration of large-scale wind power adds a significant uncertainty to power system planning and operating. The wind forecast error is decreased with the forecast horizon, particularly when it is from one day to several hours ahead. Integrating intraday unit commitment (UC) adjustment process based on updated ultra-short term wind forecast information is one way to improve the dispatching results. A novel three-stage UC decision method, in which the day-ahead UC decisions are determined in the first stage, the intraday UC adjustment decisions of subfast start units are determined in the second stage, and the UC decisions of fast-start units and dispatching decisions are determined in the third stage is presented. Accordingly, a three-stage birandom UC model is presented, in which the intraday hours-ahead forecasted wind power is formulated as a birandom variable, and the intraday UC adjustment event is formulated as a birandom event. The equilibrium chance constraint is employed to ensure the reliability requirement. A birandom simulation based hybrid genetic algorithm is designed to solve the proposed model. Some computational results indicate that the proposed model provides UC decisions with lower expected total costs. PMID:24987739

  20. Smart Grid Cost-Emission Unit Commitment via Co-Evolutionary Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the uncertainty of wind, solar and load; smart charging and discharging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs to and from various energy sources; and the coordination of wind, solar power, PHEVs and cost-emission are considered in the smart grid unit commitment (UC. First, a multi-scenario simulation is used in which a set of valid scenarios is considered for the uncertainties of wind and solar energy sources and load. Then the UC problem for the set of scenarios is decomposed into the optimization of interactive agents by multi-agent technology. Agents’ action is represented by a genetic algorithm with adaptive crossover and mutation operators. The adaptive co-evolution of agents is reached by adaptive cooperative multipliers. Finally, simulation is implemented on an example of a power system containing thermal units, a wind farm, solar power plants and PHEVs. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Thermal units, wind, solar power and PHEVs are mutually complementarily by the adaptive cooperative mechanism. The adaptive multipliers’ updating strategy can save more computational time and further improve the efficiency.

  1. Stochastic Electric Power Generation Unit Commitment in Deregulated Power Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gharehdaghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilities participating in deregulated markets observe increasing uncertainty in load (i.e., demand for electric power and prices for fuel and electricity on spot and contract markets. This study proposes a new formulation of the unit commitment problem of electric power generators in a restructured electricity market. Under these conditions, an electric power generation company will have the option to buy or sell from a power pool in addition to producing electricity on its own. The unit commitment problem is expressed as a stochastic optimization problem in which the objective is to maximize expected profits and the decisions are required to meet the standard operating constraints. Under the assumption of competitive market and price taking, it is depicted that the unit commitment schedule for a collection of N generation units can be solved by considering each unit separately. The volatility of the spot market price of electricity is represented by a stochastic model. This paper uses probabilistic dynamic programming to solve the stochastic optimization problem pertaining to unit commitment. It is shown that for a market of 150 units the proposed unit commitment can be accurately solved in a reasonable time by using the normal, Edgeworth, or Monte Carlo approximation methods.

  2. Neural Based Tabu Search method for solving unit commitment problem with cooling-banking constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Asir Christober Gnanakkan Charles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve short-term unit commitment problem (UCP using Neural Based Tabu Search (NBTS with cooling and banking constraints. The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal generating unit commitment in the power system for next H hours. A 7-unit utility power system in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach; extensive studies have also been performed for different IEEE test systems consist of 10, 26 and 34 units. Numerical results are shown to compare the superiority of the cost solutions obtained using the Tabu Search (TS method, Dynamic Programming (DP and Lagrangian Relaxation (LR methods in reaching proper unit commitment.

  3. A Comparative Study of Three Different Mathematical Methods for Solving the Unit Commitment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kurban

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unit commitment (UC problem which is an important subject in power system engineering is solved by using Lagragian relaxation (LR, penalty function (PF, and augmented Lagrangian penalty function (ALPF methods due to their higher solution quality and faster computational time than metaheuristic approaches. This problem is considered to be a nonlinear programming-(NP- hard problem because it is nonlinear, mixed-integer, and nonconvex. These three methods used for solving the problem are based on dual optimization techniques. ALPF method which combines the algorithmic aspects of both LR and PF methods is firstly used for solving the UC problem. These methods are compared to each other based on feasible schedule for each stage, feasible cost, dual cost, duality gap, duration time, and number of iterations. The numerical results show that the ALPF method gives the best duality gap, feasible and dual cost instead of worse duration time and the number of iterations. The four-unit Tuncbilek thermal plant which is located in Kutahya region in Turkey is chosen as a test system in this study. The programs used for all the analyses are coded and implemented using general algebraic modeling system (GAMS.

  4. Solving unit commitment and economic load dispatch problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solution. The IEEE 30 bus system is used to test the demonstration of the solution ... problem such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), ... representation. where σ , δ , τ is the hot startup cost, the cold startup cost and ...

  5. Fat Tail Model for Simulating Test Systems in Multiperiod Unit Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Marmolejo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of Chambers-Mallows-Stuck method for simulating stable random variables in the generation of test systems for economic analysis in power systems. A study that focused on generating test electrical systems through fat tail model for unit commitment problem in electrical power systems is presented. Usually, the instances of test systems in Unit Commitment are generated using normal distribution, but in this work, simulations data are based on a new method. For simulating, we used three original systems to obtain the demand behavior and thermal production costs. The estimation of stable parameters for the simulation of stable random variables was based on three generally accepted methods: (a regression, (b quantiles, and (c maximum likelihood, choosing one that has the best fit of the tails of the distribution. Numerical results illustrate the applicability of the proposed method by solving several unit commitment problems.

  6. Reviving the United States' Commitment to Pakistan and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Steve Young

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As President Obama is in the midst of deciding whether additional U.S.combat forces are needed in Afghanistan in addition to the 21,000 troops recently committed, he must realize that additional armed forces are only a stopgap measure in Afghanistan's downward spiral into an 'undergoverned' failed state. Similarly, as Pakistan's fragile and fractured civilian government continues to appease the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP, an umbrella organization of Pakistani Pashtun tribesmen with Taliban cultural values led by Baitullah Mehsud and others, it comes closer to the concept of a "misgoverned" failed state, possessing a small arsenal of nuclear arms. The problem for the U.S. administration is that neither of these countries can be allowed to fall further into disrepair. At the same time each requires a different and unique approach to the threat of "Talibanization" that faces each country—the control of territory within each country by Islamic radicals seeking to impose their ultraconservative interpretation of shar'ia law onto the general populace. Generally acknowledged is the belief that what has tentatively worked in Iraq, that is, the additional U.S. troops and employment of former Sunni insurgents to help fight foreign fighters associated with al-Qaida, will not work in either Afghanistan or Pakistan. While a regional approach to the conflict in these two countries is warranted, Afghanistan and Pakistan are on two different economic, social, and political playing fields. Hence, there cannot be a one-size-fits-all solution for the two countries, especially one that draws on the Iraq playbook. In addition to its internal political problems, Pakistan also faces the issue of al-Qaida and Taliban training camps positioned in its literal back yard, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA or Tribal Areas. Resolution of the War on Terror cannot come to fruition without addressing the problems that exist in the Tribal Areas. This largely

  7. A modified priority list-based MILP method for solving large-scale unit commitment problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xinda; Lu, Ning; Wu, Di; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2015-07-26

    This paper studies the typical pattern of unit commitment (UC) results in terms of generator’s cost and capacity. A method is then proposed to combine a modified priority list technique with mixed integer linear programming (MILP) for UC problem. The proposed method consists of two steps. At the first step, a portion of generators are predetermined to be online or offline within a look-ahead period (e.g., a week), based on the demand curve and generator priority order. For the generators whose on/off status is predetermined, at the second step, the corresponding binary variables are removed from the UC MILP problem over the operational planning horizon (e.g., 24 hours). With a number of binary variables removed, the resulted problem can be solved much faster using the off-the-shelf MILP solvers, based on the branch-and-bound algorithm. In the modified priority list method, scale factors are designed to adjust the tradeoff between solution speed and level of optimality. It is found that the proposed method can significantly speed up the UC problem with minor compromise in optimality by selecting appropriate scale factors.

  8. Sensitivity Factor Analysis For Unit Commitment In Loaded Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Chaudhary

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive electricity market, it is not possible to settle all contracted transactions of power because of congestion in transmission lines. Usually, the independent system operator seeks to eliminate congestion by rescheduling output power of the generators. But all generators may not have the same effect (sensitivity on the power flow of the congested lines, so this is not an economical way to reschedule output power of all generators for managing congestion. Therefore, in this paper, active power generator sensitivity factor of the generators to the congested lines have been utilized to ascertain the number of generators participating in congestion management. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm have been tested on IEEE 30 bus system

  9. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

    2010-10-01

    This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  10. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

    2010-10-01

    This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  11. Network-constrained AC unit commitment under uncertainty: A Benders' decomposition approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasri, Amin; Kazempour, Seyyedjalal; Conejo, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient solution approach based on Benders’ decomposition to solve a network-constrained ac unit commitment problem under uncertainty. The wind power production is the only source of uncertainty considered in this paper, which is modeled through a suitable set of scenario...

  12. Monte Carlo based unit commitment procedures for the deregulated market environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granelli, G.P.; Marannino, P.; Montagna, M.; Zanellini, F. [Universita di Pavia, Pavia (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica

    2006-12-15

    The unit commitment problem, originally conceived in the framework of short term operation of vertically integrated utilities, needs a thorough re-examination in the light of the ongoing transition towards the open electricity market environment. In this work the problem is re-formulated to adapt unit commitment to the viewpoint of a generation company (GENCO) which is no longer bound to satisfy its load, but is willing to maximize its profits. Moreover, with reference to the present day situation in many countries, the presence of a GENCO (the former monopolist) which is in the position of exerting the market power, requires a careful analysis to be carried out considering the different perspectives of a price taker and of the price maker GENCO. Unit commitment is thus shown to lead to a couple of distinct, yet slightly different problems. The unavoidable uncertainties in load profile and price behaviour over the time period of interest are also taken into account by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. Both the forecasted loads and prices are handled as random variables with a normal multivariate distribution. The correlation between the random input variables corresponding to successive hours of the day was considered by carrying out a statistical analysis of actual load and price data. The whole procedure was tested making use of reasonable approximations of the actual data of the thermal generation units available to come actual GENCOs operating in Italy. (author)

  13. Unit commitment with wind power generation: integrating wind forecast uncertainty and stochastic programming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Zavala, V. M.; Rocklin, M.; Lee, S.; Anitescu, M. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. of Chicago); (New York Univ.)

    2009-10-09

    We present a computational framework for integrating the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulations that account for wind power uncertainty. We first enhance the WRF model with adjoint sensitivity analysis capabilities and a sampling technique implemented in a distributed-memory parallel computing architecture. We use these capabilities through an ensemble approach to model the uncertainty of the forecast errors. The wind power realizations are exploited through a closed-loop stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulation. We discuss computational issues arising in the implementation of the framework. In addition, we validate the framework using real wind speed data obtained from a set of meteorological stations. We also build a simulated power system to demonstrate the developments.

  14. A Unit Commitment Model with Demand Response for the Integration of Renewable Energies

    OpenAIRE

    IKEDA Yuichi; Ikegami, Takashi; Kataoka, Kazuto; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The output of renewable energy fluctuates significantly depending on weather conditions. We develop a unit commitment model to analyze requirements of the forecast output and its error for renewable energies. Our model obtains the time series for the operational state of thermal power plants that would maximize the profits of an electric power utility by taking into account both the forecast of output its error for renewable energies and the demand response of consumers. We consider a power s...

  15. Column Generation for Transmission Switching of Electricity Networks with Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Philpott, Andy B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the problem of finding the minimum cost dispatch and commitment of power generation units in a transmission network with active switching.We use the term active switching to denote the use of switches to optimize network topology in an operational context. We propose a Dantzig......-Wolfe reformulation and a novel column generation framework to solve the problem efficiently. Preliminary results are presented for the IEEE-118 bus network with 19 generator units. Active switching is shown to reduce total cost by up to 15 % for a particular 24-hour period. Furthermore, the need for generator...

  16. Stochastic Unit Commitment via Progressive Hedging - Extensive Analysis of Solution Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Pinson, Pierre; Zugno, Marco

    2015-01-01

    high computational power, as stochastic models are dramatically more complex than their deterministic counterparts. This paper provides new insight into the potential of Progressive Hedging to decrease the solution time of the stochastic unit commitment problem with a relatively small trade......-off in terms of the suboptimality of the solution. Computational studies show that the run-time is at most half of what is needed to solve the original extensive formulation of the problem, when more than ten wind power scenarios are utilized. These studies demonstrate great potential for solving real...

  17. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  18. Scalable unit commitment by memory-bounded ant colony optimization with A{sup *} local search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Ahmed Yousuf; Alshareef, Abdulaziz Mohammed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-07-15

    Ant colony optimization (ACO) is successfully applied in optimization problems. Performance of the basic ACO for small problems with moderate dimension and searching space is satisfactory. As the searching space grows exponentially in the large-scale unit commitment problem, the basic ACO is not applicable for the vast size of pheromone matrix of ACO in practical time and physical computer-memory limit. However, memory-bounded methods prune the least-promising nodes to fit the system in computer memory. Therefore, the authors propose memory-bounded ant colony optimization (MACO) in this paper for the scalable (no restriction for system size) unit commitment problem. This MACO intelligently solves the limitation of computer memory, and does not permit the system to grow beyond a bound on memory. In the memory-bounded ACO implementation, A{sup *} heuristic is introduced to increase local searching ability and probabilistic nearest neighbor method is applied to estimate pheromone intensity for the forgotten value. Finally, the benchmark data sets and existing methods are used to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. (author)

  19. Commitment and dispatch of heat and power units via affinely adjustable robust optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The joint management of heat and power systems is believed to be key to the integration of renewables into energy systems with a large penetration of district heating. Determining the day-ahead unit commitment and production schedules for these systems is an optimization problem subject...... to uncertainty stemming from the unpredictability of demand and prices for heat and electricity. Furthermore, owing to the dynamic features of production and heat storage units as well as to the length and granularity of the optimization horizon (e.g., one whole day with hourly resolution), this problem...... approach. Secondly, we appraise the gain obtained by switching from linear to piecewise-linear decision rules within robust optimization. Furthermore, we give directions for selecting the parameters defining the uncertainty set (size, budget) and assess the resulting trade-off between average profit...

  20. Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Based on a Realizable Energy Delivery Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC is an important tool for independent system operators in the day-ahead electric power market. A serious issue arises that the energy realizability of the staircase generation schedules obtained in traditional SCUC cannot be guaranteed. This paper focuses on addressing this issue, and the basic idea is to formulate the power output of thermal units as piecewise-linear function. All individual unit constraints and systemwide constraints are then reformulated. The new SCUC formulation is solved within the Lagrangian relaxation (LR framework, in which a double dynamic programming method is developed to solve individual unit subproblems. Numerical testing is performed for a 6-bus system and an IEEE 118-bus system on Microsoft Visual C# .NET platform. It is shown that the energy realizability of generation schedules obtained from the new formulation is guaranteed. Comparative case study is conducted between LR and mixed integer linear programming (MILP in solving the new formulation. Numerical results show that the near-optimal solution can be obtained efficiently by the proposed LR-based method.

  1. Training product unit neural networks with genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, D. J.; Frenzel, J. F.; Thelen, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    The training of product neural networks using genetic algorithms is discussed. Two unusual neural network techniques are combined; product units are employed instead of the traditional summing units and genetic algorithms train the network rather than backpropagation. As an example, a neural netork is trained to calculate the optimum width of transistors in a CMOS switch. It is shown how local minima affect the performance of a genetic algorithm, and one method of overcoming this is presented.

  2. A fuzzy chance-constrained program for unit commitment problem considering demand response, electric vehicle and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Hu, Zhaoguang; Han, Xue

    2015-01-01

    commitment model is proposed in this paper considering demand response and electric vehicles, which can promote the exploitation of wind power. On the one hand, demand response and electric vehicles have the feasi- bility to change the load demand curve to solve the mismatch problem. On the other hand......, they can serve as reserve for wind power. To deal with the unit commitment problem, authors use a fuzzy chance- constrained program that takes into account the wind power forecasting errors. The numerical study shows that the model can promote the utilization of wind power evidently, making the power...

  3. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested for many researchers and network operators. Using Electrical Vehicles (PEVs and wind power for energy production is one of the newest proposed methods for replacing fossil fuels.One of the effective strategies for analyzing of the effects of Vehicle 2 Grid (V2G and wind power in optimal operation of generation is running of SCUC for power systems that are equipped with V2G and wind power resources. In this paper, game theory method is employed for deterministic solution of day-ahead unit commitment with considering security constraints in the simultaneous presence of V2G and wind power units. This problem for two scenarios of grid-controlled mode and consumer-controlled mode in three different days with light, medium and heavy load profiles is analyzed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the presence of V2G and wind power for decreasing of generation cost and improving operation indices of power systems.

  4. Analysis of algorithms for intensive care unit blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequette, B Wayne

    2007-11-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) blood glucose control algorithms were reviewed and analyzed in the context of linear systems theory and classical feedback control algorithms. Closed-loop performance was illustrated by applying the algorithms in simulation studies using an in silico model of an ICU patient. Steady-state and dynamic input-output analysis was used to provide insight about controller design and potential closed-loop performance. The proportional-integral-derivative, columnar insulin dosing (CID, Glucommander-like), and glucose regulation for intensive care patients (GRIP) algorithms were shown to have similar features and performance. The CID strategy is a time-varying proportional-only controller (no integral action), whereas the GRIP algorithm is a nonlinear controller with integral action. A minor modification to the GRIP algorithm was suggested to improve the closed-loop performance. Recommendations were made to guide control theorists on important ICU control topics worthy of further study.

  5. Global reorganisation of cis-regulatory units upon lineage commitment of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Pritchett, Paula; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Várnai, Csilla; Wingett, Steven W; Cairns, Jonathan; Collier, Amanda J; García-Vílchez, Raquel; Furlan-Magaril, Mayra; Osborne, Cameron S; Fraser, Peter; Rugg-Gunn, Peter J; Spivakov, Mikhail

    2017-03-23

    Long-range cis-regulatory elements such as enhancers coordinate cell-specific transcriptional programmes by engaging in DNA looping interactions with target promoters. Deciphering the interplay between the promoter connectivity and activity of cis-regulatory elements during lineage commitment is crucial for understanding developmental transcriptional control. Here, we use Promoter Capture Hi-C to generate a high-resolution atlas of chromosomal interactions involving ~22,000 gene promoters in human pluripotent and lineage-committed cells, identifying putative target genes for known and predicted enhancer elements. We reveal extensive dynamics of cis-regulatory contacts upon lineage commitment, including the acquisition and loss of promoter interactions. This spatial rewiring occurs preferentially with predicted changes in the activity of cis-regulatory elements and is associated with changes in target gene expression. Our results provide a global and integrated view of promoter interactome dynamics during lineage commitment of human pluripotent cells.

  6. The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms for General Purpose Graphics Processor Units

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares Delgado, Ademar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger Algorithms for General Purpose Graphics Processor Units Type: Talk Abstract: We present the ATLAS Trigger algorithms developed to exploit General­ Purpose Graphics Processor Units. ATLAS is a particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system has two levels, hardware-­based Level 1 and the High Level Trigger implemented in software running on a farm of commodity CPU. Performing the trigger event selection within the available farm resources presents a significant challenge that will increase future LHC upgrades. are being evaluated as a potential solution for trigger algorithms acceleration. Key factors determining the potential benefit of this new technology are the relative execution speedup, the number of GPUs required and the relative financial cost of the selected GPU. We have developed a trigger demonstrator which includes algorithms for reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the Cal...

  7. Two-Stage Robust Security-Constrained Unit Commitment with Optimizable Interval of Uncertain Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because wind power spillage is barely considered, the existing robust unit commitment cannot accurately analyze the impacts of wind power accommodation on on/off schedules and spinning reserve requirements of conventional generators and cannot consider the network security limits. In this regard, a novel double-level robust security-constrained unit commitment formulation with optimizable interval of uncertain wind power output is firstly proposed in this paper to obtain allowable interval solutions for wind power generation and provide the optimal schedules for conventional generators to cope with the uncertainty in wind power generation. The proposed double-level model is difficult to be solved because of the invalid dual transform in solution process caused by the coupling relation between the discrete and continuous variables. Therefore, a two-stage iterative solution method based on Benders Decomposition is also presented. The proposed double-level model is transformed into a single-level and two-stage robust interval unit commitment model by eliminating the coupling relation, and then this two-stage model can be solved by Benders Decomposition iteratively. Simulation studies on a modified IEEE 26-generator reliability test system connected to a wind farm are conducted to verify the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed model and solution method.

  8. GA-based Solution to Stochastic Unit Commitment Problem%基于遗传算法的随机机组组合问题求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊高峰; 聂坤凯; 刘喜苹; 蔡振华; 谢上华

    2012-01-01

    为考虑不确定性负荷对机组组合问题的影响,通过情景分析法引入一系列的情景对不确定性负荷进行建模,建立了随机机组组合问题的数学模型.采用遗传算法求解该优化问题,可自行满足情景簇约束.通过改进初始种群产生方式和变异算子,引进局部搜索算子对遗传算法进行改进,增强了算法的搜索能力.计算结果显示了随机机组组合问题的数学模型和改进遗传算法求解方法的有效性.%In order to consider the effects of uncertain electric power demand on unit commitment, the uncertainty of electric power demand is modeled by using a set of scenarios, which are introduced by scenario analysis. A mathematical formulation of the expected value model of the stochastic unit commitment (SUC) problem is established. This optimization problem is solved by using a genetic algorithm (GA) , which can automatically satisfy the bundle constraints. The performance of the algorithm is improved by introducing a new method to generate the initial population, a new mutation operator, and a local search operator. Based on numerical examples, test results show the feasibility of the mathematical model of the SUC problem and its improved GA-based solution method.

  9. A Multi-Objective Unit Commitment Model for Setting Carbon Tax to Reduce CO2 Emission: Thailand's Electricity Generation Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjarin Intalar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax policy is a cost-effective instrument for emission reduction. However, setting the carbon tax is one of the challenging task for policy makers as it will lead to higher price of emission-intensive sources especially the utility price. In a large-scale power generation system, minimizing the operational cost and the environmental impact are conflicting objectives and it is difficult to find the compromise solution. This paper proposes a methodology of finding a feasible carbon tax rate on strategic level using the operational unit commitment model. We present a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model to solve the unit commitment problem and consider the environmental impacts. The methodology of analyzing of the effect of carbon tax rates on the power generation, operating cost, and CO2 emission is also provided. The trade-off relationship between total operating cost and total CO2 emission is presented in the Pareto-optimal curve to analyze the feasible carbon tax rate that is influencing on electricity operating cost. The significant outcome of this paper is a modeling framework for the policy makers to determine the possible carbon tax that can be imposed on the electricity generation.

  10. Implementing wide baseline matching algorithms on a graphics processing unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Larson, Kurt W.; Gonzales, Antonio Ignacio; Myers, Daniel S.

    2007-10-01

    Wide baseline matching is the state of the art for object recognition and image registration problems in computer vision. Though effective, the computational expense of these algorithms limits their application to many real-world problems. The performance of wide baseline matching algorithms may be improved by using a graphical processing unit as a fast multithreaded co-processor. In this paper, we present an implementation of the difference of Gaussian feature extractor, based on the CUDA system of GPU programming developed by NVIDIA, and implemented on their hardware. For a 2000x2000 pixel image, the GPU-based method executes nearly thirteen times faster than a comparable CPU-based method, with no significant loss of accuracy.

  11. A Convex Model of Risk-Based Unit Commitment for Day-Ahead Market Clearing Considering Wind Power Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Kang, Chongqing; Xia, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The integration of wind power requires the power system to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate its forecast errors. In the market clearing process, the scheduling of flexibility relies on the manner in which the wind power uncertainty is addressed in the unit commitment (UC) model. This paper...... and are considered in both the objective functions and the constraints. The RUC model is shown to be convex and is transformed into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem using relaxation and piecewise linearization. The proposed RUC model is tested using a three-bus system and an IEEE RTS79 system...... that the risk modeling facilitates a strategic market clearing procedure with a reasonable computational expense....

  12. Continuous grasp algorithm applied to economic dispatch problem of thermal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna Neto, Julio Xavier [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Undergraduate Program at Mechatronics Engineering; Bernert, Diego Luis de Andrade; Coelho, Leandro dos Santos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana - PUCPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS], e-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br

    2010-07-01

    The economic dispatch problem (EDP) is one of the fundamental issues in power systems to obtain benefits with the stability, reliability and security. Its objective is to allocate the power demand among committed generators in the most economical manner, while all physical and operational constraints are satisfied. The cost of power generation, particularly in fossil fuel plants, is very high and economic dispatch helps in saving a significant amount of revenue. Recently, as an alternative to the conventional mathematical approaches, modern heuristic optimization techniques such as simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, neural networks, ant colony, and tabu search have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solution in EDPs. On other hand, continuous GRASP (C-GRASP) is a stochastic local search meta-heuristic for finding cost-efficient solutions to continuous global optimization problems subject to box constraints. Like a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP), a C-GRASP is a multi-start procedure where a starting solution for local improvement is constructed in a greedy randomized fashion. The C-GRASP algorithm is validated for a test system consisting of fifteen units, test system that takes into account spinning reserve and prohibited operating zones constrains. (author)

  13. Short-term bulk energy storage system scheduling for load leveling in unit commitment: modeling, optimization, and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Reza; Saboori, Hedayat

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) have experienced a very rapid growth in recent years and are expected to be a promising tool in order to improving power system reliability and being economically efficient. The ESSs possess many potential benefits in various areas in the electric power systems. One of the main benefits of an ESS, especially a bulk unit, relies on smoothing the load pattern by decreasing on-peak and increasing off-peak loads, known as load leveling. These devices require new methods and tools in order to model and optimize their effects in the power system studies. In this respect, this paper will model bulk ESSs based on the several technical characteristics, introduce the proposed model in the thermal unit commitment (UC) problem, and analyze it with respect to the various sensitive parameters. The technical limitations of the thermal units and transmission network constraints are also considered in the model. The proposed model is a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) which can be easily solved by strong commercial solvers (for instance CPLEX) and it is appropriate to be used in the practical large scale networks. The results of implementing the proposed model on a test system reveal that proper load leveling through optimum storage scheduling leads to considerable operation cost reduction with respect to the storage system characteristics.

  14. GENETIC ALGORITHM ON GENERAL PURPOSE GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT: PARALLELISM REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Umbarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm (GA is effective and robust method for solving many optimization problems. However, it may take more runs (iterations and time to get optimal solution. The execution time to find the optimal solution also depends upon the niching-technique applied to evolving population. This paper provides the information about how various authors, researchers, scientists have implemented GA on GPGPU (General purpose Graphics Processing Units with and without parallelism. Many problems have been solved on GPGPU using GA. GA is easy to parallelize because of its SIMD nature and therefore can be implemented well on GPGPU. Thus, speedup can definitely be achieved if bottleneck in GAs are identified and implemented effectively on GPGPU. Paper gives review of various applications solved using GAs on GPGPU with the future scope in the area of optimization.

  15. Optimized Laplacian image sharpening algorithm based on graphic processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tinghuai; Li, Lu; Ji, Sai; Wang, Xin; Tian, Yuan; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah

    2014-12-01

    In classical Laplacian image sharpening, all pixels are processed one by one, which leads to large amount of computation. Traditional Laplacian sharpening processed on CPU is considerably time-consuming especially for those large pictures. In this paper, we propose a parallel implementation of Laplacian sharpening based on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which is a computing platform of Graphic Processing Units (GPU), and analyze the impact of picture size on performance and the relationship between the processing time of between data transfer time and parallel computing time. Further, according to different features of different memory, an improved scheme of our method is developed, which exploits shared memory in GPU instead of global memory and further increases the efficiency. Experimental results prove that two novel algorithms outperform traditional consequentially method based on OpenCV in the aspect of computing speed.

  16. An empirical study on measuring the effect of layoff on job satisfaction and employee commitment: A case study of detergent producer unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Tajzadeh-Namin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the necessary actions in many organizations is to reduce the number of workers in an attempt to restructure business activities. However, layoff could have negative consequences since many employees may decide to leave since they lose their tolerance. The layoff must be accompanied with some supportive plans to reduce stress among the remaining workers and increase their commitment for long-term work. The present study of this paper considers the effects of layoff on job satisfaction and commitment among the remaining employees of a detergent producer unit. The results indicate that a good supportive program including wage increase, family support, health care plans, etc. could significantly improve employee long-term commitments and it leads to job satisfaction.

  17. Data Fusion Algorithms for Multiple Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Lachapelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A single low cost inertial measurement unit (IMU is often used in conjunction with GPS to increase the accuracy and improve the availability of the navigation solution for a pedestrian navigation system. This paper develops several fusion algorithms for using multiple IMUs to enhance performance. In particular, this research seeks to understand the benefits and detriments of each fusion method in the context of pedestrian navigation. Three fusion methods are proposed. First, all raw IMU measurements are mapped onto a common frame (i.e., a virtual frame and processed in a typical combined GPS-IMU Kalman filter. Second, a large stacked filter is constructed of several IMUs. This filter construction allows for relative information between the IMUs to be used as updates. Third, a federated filter is used to process each IMU as a local filter. The output of each local filter is shared with a master filter, which in turn, shares information back with the local filters. The construction of each filter is discussed and improvements are made to the virtual IMU (VIMU architecture, which is the most commonly used architecture in the literature. Since accuracy and availability are the most important characteristics of a pedestrian navigation system, the analysis of each filter’s performance focuses on these two parameters. Data was collected in two environments, one where GPS signals are moderately attenuated and another where signals are severely attenuated. Accuracy is shown as a function of architecture and the number of IMUs used.

  18. Relationships between Organizational Commitment, Core Job Characteristics, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in United States Air Force Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    fact, former Secretary of the Air Force James Roche made retaining Air Force personnel the Air Force’s number one priority and made the retention of...could therefore be used to redesign health organizations in Malaysia to promote commitment (Pearson & Chong, 1997). Although feedback was found not

  19. Control Algorithms of Propulsion Unit with Induction Motors for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALACKY, P.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the research of algorithms for controlling electronic differential and differential lock of an electrically driven vehicle. The simulation part addresses the development of algorithms suitable for the implementation into a real system of a road vehicle. The algorithms are then implemented into a vehicle, a propulsion unit of which is consists of two separate electric drives with induction motors fed by voltage inverters with own control units using advanced signal processors. Communication among control units is provided by means of SPI interface. A method of vector control is used for the control of induction motors. The developed algorithms are experimentally verified for correct function in a laboratory using a roll test stand and while driving an electrically driven vehicle on the road.

  20. 考虑需求侧低碳资源的新型模糊双目标机组组合模型%A Novel Fuzzy Bi-objective Unit Commitment Model Considering Demand Side Low-carbon Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 胡兆光; 周渝慧; 肖欣; 王一依; 丛炘玮

    2014-01-01

    提出一种可促进电力系统碳减排的新型机组组合模型。相比于传统模型,该模型在以下两方面进行了改进:一是综合考虑供应侧资源与需求响应、电动汽车、分布式可再生能源发电等低碳的需求侧资源的最优组合;二是机组调度的规则在经济目标之外充分考虑碳排放目标,提出可计及目标相对优先级的模糊双目标优化方法。另外,在求解优化模型时,对粒子群优化算法进行改进,引入了遗传算法中的“交叉”、“变异”两个算子,提高了粒子群算法的全局寻优能力。通过对10机系统进行算例分析,验证了模型与算法的有效性。%A novel unit commitment model to promote carbon reduction of a power system is proposed.Compared with traditional models,this one is improved in the following two aspects.On the one hand,low-carbon demand side resources, such as demand response,vehicle to grid and distributed renewable energy generation,are considered together with power supply resources to achieve an optimal schedule.On the other hand,a new fuzzy bi-objective optimization approach that can reflect the relevant priority between objectives is presented to strike an effective balance between economic objective and carbon emission objective.To solve the unit commitment optimization problem,the particle swarm optimization (PSO) is improved by employing crossover operator and mutation operator from the genetic algorithm,which enhances the global optimization ability of PSO.Numerical studies of a 10-unit system have verified the effectiveness of the model and the algorithm.

  1. A new approach for GenCos profit based unit commitment in day-ahead competitive electricity markets considering reserve uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamin, H.Y. [Department of Power Engineering, Hijjawi Faculty, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan); El-Dwairi, Q. [Department of Anatomy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan); Shahidehpour, S.M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology (United States)

    2007-10-15

    This paper presents a new approach for GenCos Profit Based Unit Commitment (GPBUC) in day-ahead competitive electricity markets. Generation, spinning and non-spinning reserves are considered in the proposed formulation. The estimated probability that spinning and non-spinning reserves are called and generated is also considered in the formulation to simulate the reserve uncertainty. The artificial neural network (ANN) is applied for forecasting the reserve probability considering line limits, line and generator outages, market prices, bidding strategy, load and reserves patterns. Fuel and emission constraints are included in the model. A hybrid method between Lagrangian relaxation (LR) and evolutionary programming (EP) is applied to solve the proposed GPBUC problem. The proposed approach is applied to a 36 unit test system and the results are compared with those obtained from other approaches. (author)

  2. Unit Template Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Based Control Algorithm for DSTATCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangarraju, J.; Rajagopal, V.; Jayalaxmi, A.

    2014-04-01

    This article proposes new and simplified unit templates instead of standard phase locked loop (PLL) for Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Control Algorithm (SRFT). The extraction of synchronizing components (sinθ and cosθ) for parks and inverse parks transformation using standard PLL takes more execution time. This execution time in control algorithm delays the extraction of reference source current generation. The standard PLL not only takes more execution time but also increases the reactive power burden on the Distributed Static Compensator (DSTATCOM). This work proposes a unit template based SRFT control algorithm for four-leg insulated gate bipolar transistor based voltage source converter for DSTATCOM in distribution systems. This will reduce the execution time and reactive power burden on the DSTATCOM. The proposed DSTATCOM suppress harmonics, regulates the terminal voltage along with neutral current compensation. The DSTATCOM in distribution systems with proposed control algorithm is modeled and simulated using MATLAB using SIMULINK and Simpower systems toolboxes.

  3. 基于场景树和机会约束规划的含风电场电力系统机组组合%Unit commitment with wind farms using scenario tree and chance-constrained programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张步涵; 邵剑; 吴小珊; 王魁

    2013-01-01

      为了解决风电的随机波动性给含大规模风电场电力系统机组组合问题求解带来的影响,采用马尔科夫链原理描述风速变化的规律,并将它与场景树技术相结合,对风电的不确定性进行数学建模。同时基于机会约束规划建立了含风电场机组组合问题的随机数学模型,包含外层机组启停状态优化和内层机组间负荷经济分配两层优化子问题。在求解模型时,将离散粒子群算法(DPSO)与等微增率准则相结合,对两层优化问题进行交替迭代求解;同时提出开停机调整策略改善解的特性。对一个含风电场的10常规机组系统进行算例分析,验证了所提出数学模型和求解方法的合理性和有效性。%In order to cope with the difficulties brought by the volatile and intermittent nature of wind power when solving the unit commitment problem with large-scale wind farms, the basic principles of Markov chain are adopted to describe the regularity of the change of wind speed, and used to model the uncertainty of wind power combining with scenario tree. And this paper presents a stochastic programming model based on chance-constrained programming, and the unit commitment problem is decomposed into two embedded optimization sub-problems: the unit on/off status schedule problem and the load economic dispatch problem. The two problems are solved alternately and iteratively by discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) and the equal incremental principle, and an adjusted strategy of units’ on/off status enhances the algorithm’s optimization performance. The results on a system with 10 thermal units and wind farms demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm. This work is supported by National High-tech R & D Program of China (863 Program) (No. 2011AA05A101).

  4. Optimization Solutions for Improving the Performance of the Parallel Reduction Algorithm Using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we research, analyze and develop optimization solutions for the parallel reduction function using graphics processing units (GPUs that implement the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, a modern and novel approach for improving the software performance of data processing applications and algorithms. Many of these applications and algorithms make use of the reduction function in their computational steps. After having designed the function and its algorithmic steps in CUDA, we have progressively developed and implemented optimization solutions for the reduction function. In order to confirm, test and evaluate the solutions' efficiency, we have developed a custom tailored benchmark suite. We have analyzed the obtained experimental results regarding: the comparison of the execution time and bandwidth when using graphic processing units covering the main CUDA architectures (Tesla GT200, Fermi GF100, Kepler GK104 and a central processing unit; the data type influence; the binary operator's influence.

  5. Unit commitment considering alternating current power flow constraints%交流潮流约束下的机组组合求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志远; 韩学山; 刘超男

    2012-01-01

    With the parallel development of distributed generation technology and large power grid technology, a great amount of renewable energy generation was introduced to the electrical power grid. Under this circumstance, a unit commitment model was established by considering the constraints of transmission safety using AC (alternating current) power flow. This model also involved reactive and voltage constraints, as well as safe operation limits of generators. According to the Benders decomposition, the model was decomposed into a master problem and a sub-problem. The master problem could solve the unit commitment without AC constraints, and then the sub-problem could check the AC constraints according to the result of the master problem. Benders cuts might develop from the sub problem, and the cuts would form additional associated constraints, which could connect the master problem and the sub problem. Simulation results of modified IEEE-14 buses case proved that the proposed method could effectively solve unit commitment problems with constraints of AC power flow.%针对当前大电网与分布式发电并进,可再生资源发电大量接入的电网发展格局,构建交流潮流约束下的机组组合模型,在传统考虑有功网络安全约束的基础上,引入无功电压的制约,并计及机组的安全运行极限。依据Benders分解思想,将该模型分解为主、子两个问题,主问题为单母线模型机组组合,子问题为交流潮流约束的检验,通过子问题导引的Benders割形成主、子问题之间关联的附加约束。修正的IEEE-14节点仿真结果表明,该方法能够有效解决交流潮流约束下的机组组合问题。

  6. Approximation Algorithms for the Connected Dominating Set Problem in Unit Disk Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Lu; Ming-Tian Zhou; Yong Tang; Ming-Yuan Zhao; Xin-Zheng Niu; Kun She

    2009-01-01

    The connected dominating set (CDS) problem, which consists of finding a smallest connected dominating set for graphs is an NP-hard problem in the unit disk graphs (UDGs). This paper focuses on the CDS problem in wireless networks. Investigation of some properties of independent set (IS) in UDGs shows that geometric features of nodes distribution like angle and area can be used to design efficient heuristics for the approximation algorithms. Several constant factor approximation algorithms are presented for the CDS problem in UDGs. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms perform better than some known ones.

  7. [Algorithms for early mobilization in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydahl, P; Dubb, R; Filipovic, S; Hermes, C; Jüttner, F; Kaltwasser, A; Klarmann, S; Mende, H; Nessizius, S; Rottensteiner, C

    2017-03-01

    Immobility of patients in intensive care units (ICU) can lead to long-lasting physical and cognitive decline. During the last few years, bundles for rehabilitation were developed, including early mobilization. The German guideline for positioning therapy and mobilization, in general, recommends the development of ICU-specific protocols. The aim of this narrative review is to provide guidance when developing a best practice protocol in one's own field of work. It is recommended to a) implement early mobilization as part of a bundle, including screening and management of patient's awareness, pain, anxiety, stress, delirium and family's presence, b) develop a traffic-light system of specific in- and exclusion criteria in an interprofessional process, c) use checklists to assess risks and preparation of mobilization, d) use the ICU Mobility Scale for targeting and documentation of mobilization, e) use relative safety criteria for hemodynamic and respiratory changes, and Borg Scale for subjective evaluation, f) document and evaluate systematically mobilization levels, barriers, unwanted safety events and other parameters.

  8. Model-based investigation of the electricity market. Unit commitment and power plant investments; Modellgestuetzte Untersuchung des Elektrizitaetsmarktes. Kraftwerkseinsatzplanung und -investitionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ninghong

    2013-08-08

    The German Federal Government published its energy concept in September 2010 with a description of the road into the era of renewable energies. Therefore, the future renewable energy installed in Germany is expected to consist mostly of wind and solar, which are subject to intermittency of supply and significant fluctuations. The growing portion of energy generation by fluctuating sources is turning to a big challenge for the power plant unit commitment and the investment decisions as well. In this thesis, a fundamental electricity market model with combined modeling of these two aspects is developed. This model is subsequently applied to the German electricity market to investigate what kind of power plant investments are indispensable, considering the steadily increasing portion of energy generation from fluctuating sources, to ensure a reliable energy supply in a cost-effective way in the future. In addition, current energy policy in Germany regarding the use of renewable energy and nuclear energy is analyzed.

  9. Performance enhancement for crystallization unit of a sugar plant using genetic algorithm technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, P. C.; Khanduja, Rajiv; Gupta, Mahesh

    2012-05-01

    This paper deals with the performance enhancement for crystallization unit of a sugar plant using genetic algorithm. The crystallization unit of a sugar industry has three main subsystems arranged in series. Considering exponential distribution for the probable failures and repairs, the mathematical formulation of the problem is done using probabilistic approach, and differential equations are developed on the basis of Markov birth-death process. These equations are then solved using normalizing conditions so as to determine the steady-state availability of the crystallization unit. The performance of each subsystem of crystallization unit in a sugar plant has also been optimized using genetic algorithm. Thus, the findings of the present paper will be highly useful to the plant management for the timely execution of proper maintenance decisions and, hence, to enhance the system performance.

  10. Optimal design of unit hydrographs using probability distribution and genetic algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajib Kumar Bhattacharjya

    2004-10-01

    A nonlinear optimization model is developed to transmute a unit hydrograph into a probability distribution function (PDF). The objective function is to minimize the sum of the square of the deviation between predicted and actual direct runoff hydrograph of a watershed. The predicted runoff hydrograph is estimated by using a PDF. In a unit hydrograph, the depth of rainfall excess must be unity and the ordinates must be positive. Incorporation of a PDF ensures that the depth of rainfall excess for the unit hydrograph is unity, and the ordinates are also positive. Unit hydrograph ordinates are in terms of intensity of rainfall excess on a discharge per unit catchment area basis, the unit area thus representing the unit rainfall excess. The proposed method does not have any constraint. The nonlinear optimization formulation is solved using binary-coded genetic algorithms. The number of variables to be estimated by optimization is the same as the number of probability distribution parameters; gamma and log-normal probability distributions are used. The existing nonlinear programming model for obtaining optimal unit hydrograph has also been solved using genetic algorithms, where the constrained nonlinear optimization problem is converted to an unconstrained problem using penalty parameter approach. The results obtained are compared with those obtained by the earlier LP model and are fairly similar.

  11. Optimizing the Shunting Schedule of Electric Multiple Units Depot Using an Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junchen

    2016-01-01

    The shunting schedule of electric multiple units depot (SSED) is one of the essential plans for high-speed train maintenance activities. This paper presents a 0-1 programming model to address the problem of determining an optimal SSED through automatic computing. The objective of the model is to minimize the number of shunting movements and the constraints include track occupation conflicts, shunting routes conflicts, time durations of maintenance processes, and shunting running time. An enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, an empirical study from Shanghai South EMU Depot is carried out to illustrate the model and EPSO algorithm. The optimization results indicate that the proposed method is valid for the SSED problem and that the EPSO algorithm outperforms the traditional PSO algorithm on the aspect of optimality. PMID:27436998

  12. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality.

  13. Self-Expanded Clustering Algorithm Based on Density Units with Evaluation Feedback Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yongqian; ZHAO Xiangguo; CHEN Hengyue; WANG Bin; YU Ge; WANG Guoren

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an effective clustering mode and a novel clustering result evaluating mode. Clustering mode has two limited integral parameters. Evaluating mode evaluates clustering results and gives each a mark. The higher mark the clustering result gains, the higher quality it has. By organizing two modes in different ways, we can build two clustering algorithms: SECDU(Self-Expanded Clustering Algorithm based on Density Units) and SECDUF(Self-Expanded Clustering Algorithm Based on Density Units with Evaluation Feedback Section). SECDU enumerates all value pairs of two parameters of clustering mode to process data set repeatedly and evaluates every clustering result by evaluating mode. Then SECDU output the clustering result that has the highest evaluating mark among all the ones. By applying "hill-climbing algorithm", SECDUF improves clustering efficiency greatly. Data sets that have different distribution features can be well adapted to both algorithms. SECDU and SECDUF can output high-quality clustering results. SECDUF tunes parameters of clustering mode automatically and no man's action involves through the whole process. In addition, SECDUF has a high clustering performance.

  14. A Radix-10 Digit-Recurrence Division Unit: Algorithm and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm. The previous decimal division designs do not include recent developments in the theory and practice of this type of algorithm, which were developed for radix-2^k dividers. In addition...... to the adaptation of these features, the radix-10 quotient digit is decomposed into a radix-2 digit and a radix-5 digit in such a way that only five and two times the divisor are required in the recurrence. Moreover, the most significant slice of the recurrence, which includes the selection function, is implemented...

  15. Self-Correcting HVAC Controls: Algorithms for Sensors and Dampers in Air-Handling Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2009-12-31

    This report documents the self-correction algorithms developed in the Self-Correcting Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Controls project funded jointly by the Bonneville Power Administration and the Building Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The algorithms address faults for temperature sensors, humidity sensors, and dampers in air-handling units and correction of persistent manual overrides of automated control systems. All faults considered create energy waste when left uncorrected as is frequently the case in actual systems.

  16. Parallel flow accumulation algorithms for graphical processing units with application to RUSLE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sten, Johan; Lilja, Harri; Hyväluoma, Jari; Westerholm, Jan; Aspnäs, Mats

    2016-04-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) are widely used in the modeling of surface hydrology, which typically includes the determination of flow directions and flow accumulation. The use of high-resolution DEMs increases the accuracy of flow accumulation computation, but as a drawback, the computational time may become excessively long if large areas are analyzed. In this paper we investigate the use of graphical processing units (GPUs) for efficient flow accumulation calculations. We present two new parallel flow accumulation algorithms based on dependency transfer and topological sorting and compare them to previously published flow transfer and indegree-based algorithms. We benchmark the GPU implementations against industry standards, ArcGIS and SAGA. With the flow-transfer D8 flow routing model and binary input data, a speed up of 19 is achieved compared to ArcGIS and 15 compared to SAGA. We show that on GPUs the topological sort-based flow accumulation algorithm leads on average to a speedup by a factor of 7 over the flow-transfer algorithm. Thus a total speed up of the order of 100 is achieved. We test the algorithms by applying them to the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) erosion model. For this purpose we present parallel versions of the slope, LS factor and RUSLE algorithms and show that the RUSLE erosion results for an area of 12 km x 24 km containing 72 million cells can be calculated in less than a second. Since flow accumulation is needed in many hydrological models, the developed algorithms may find use in many other applications than RUSLE modeling. The algorithm based on topological sorting is particularly promising for dynamic hydrological models where flow accumulations are repeatedly computed over an unchanged DEM.

  17. Efficient branch-and-bound algorithms for the synthesis of minimum-unit heat exchanger networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocsny, D.; Govind, R. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (US))

    1988-01-01

    Several recent schemes have been advanced in the literature for formulating the synthesis of minimum-unit heat exchanger networks as mixed-integer linear programming problems. Until now, no special-purpose algorithms have been proposed for solving the resulting models. In this work, a branch-and-bound algorithm is described, which uses Balinski's relaxation to generate a succession of linear programs, along with the transportation simplex algorithm to solve each subproblem. Careful attention is given to the structuring of constraints to take maximum advantage of the information represented by the process pinch and the problem table residuals. Computational examples are presented which show a substantial performance improvement over currently available general-purpose branch-and-bound codes. The effects of varying the branch selection rules are described.

  18. Implementation of sepsis algorithm by nurses in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pedroso Peninck

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is defined as a clinical syndrome consisting of a systemic inflammatory response associated to an infection, which may determine malfunction or failure of multiple organs. This research aims to verify the application of implementation of sepsis algorithm by nurses in the Intensive Care Unit and create an operational nursing assistance guide. This is an exploratory, descriptive study with quantitative approach. A data collection instrument based on relevant literature was elaborated, assessed, corrected and validated. The sample consisted of 20 intensive care unit nurses. We obtained satisfactory evaluations on nurses’ performance, but some issues did not reach 50% accuracy. We emphasize the importance of greater numbers of nurses getting acquainted and correctly applying the sepsis algorithm. Based on the above, an operational septic patient nursing assistance guide was created, based on the difficulties that arose vis-à-vis the variables applied in research and relevant literature.

  19. Improvement and optimal design of RGB LED backlight unit using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi-Hua; Lee, Ying-Tsun; Liao, Yi-Lin; Fu, Chung-Chin

    2010-08-01

    To reduce the cost of LCD backlight unit (BLU) and raise efficiency, a direct LED BLU consisted of double-triangular structures was proposed to control the light from RGB side emitting LEDs. A genetic algorithm was used to search the optimal parameters of the shape of the double-triangular structures and the layout of the LEDs. A switch mode constant current control driver with a PWM controlled converter switch was used to maintaining the constant current output for the variable numbers of the LEDs in this paper. From the simulation results showed that without the diffuser, the brightness uniformity on the 25-point test was 93.44% for a 22" direct LED backlight unit with a thickness of 30mm with the optimized double-triangular structure. And the experiment result showed that the brightness uniformity and color uniformity were 85.61% and 0.021 for a small size test unit.

  20. Effect of Acuros XB algorithm on monitor units for stereotactic body radiotherapy planning of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rao F; Villarreal-Barajas, Eduardo; Lau, Harold; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a curative regimen that uses hypofractionated radiation-absorbed dose to achieve a high degree of local control in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the presence of heterogeneities, the dose calculation for the lungs becomes challenging. We have evaluated the dosimetric effect of the recently introduced advanced dose-calculation algorithm, Acuros XB (AXB), for SBRT of NSCLC. A total of 97 patients with early-stage lung cancer who underwent SBRT at our cancer center during last 4 years were included. Initial clinical plans were created in Aria Eclipse version 8.9 or prior, using 6 to 10 fields with 6-MV beams, and dose was calculated using the anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) as implemented in Eclipse treatment planning system. The clinical plans were recalculated in Aria Eclipse 11.0.21 using both AAA and AXB algorithms. Both sets of plans were normalized to the same prescription point at the center of mass of the target. A secondary monitor unit (MU) calculation was performed using commercial program RadCalc for all of the fields. For the planning target volumes ranging from 19 to 375cm(3), a comparison of MUs was performed for both set of algorithms on field and plan basis. In total, variation of MUs for 677 treatment fields was investigated in terms of equivalent depth and the equivalent square of the field. Overall, MUs required by AXB to deliver the prescribed dose are on an average 2% higher than AAA. Using a 2-tailed paired t-test, the MUs from the 2 algorithms were found to be significantly different (p algorithms.

  1. An improved unit decommitment algorithm for combined heat and power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Lahdelma, R.; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    heat and power must be done in coordination. We present an improved unit decommitment (IUD) algorithm that starts with an improved initial solution with less heat surplus so that the relative cost-efficiency of the plants can be determined more accurately. Then the subsequent decommitment procedures...... and a linear relaxation of the ON/OFF states of the plants. We compare the IUD algorithm with realistic test data against a generic unit decommitment (UD) algorithm. Numerical results show that IUD is an overall improvement of UD. The solution quality of IUD is better than that of UD for almost all of tested...... cases. The maximum improvement is 11.3% and the maximum degradation is only 0.04% (only two sub-cases out of 216 sub-cases) with an average improvement of 0.3-0.5%, for different planning horizons. Moreover, IUD is more efficient (1.1-3 times faster on average) than UD. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights...

  2. ACTION OF UNIFORM SEARCH ALGORITHM WHEN SELECTING LANGUAGE UNITS IN THE PROCESS OF SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekipelova Irina Mikhaylovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of action of uniform search algorithm when selecting by human of language units for speech produce. The process is connected with a speech optimization phenomenon. This makes it possible to shorten the time of cogitation something that human want to say, and to achieve the maximum precision in thoughts expression. The algorithm of uniform search works at consciousness and subconsciousness levels. It favours the forming of automatism produce and perception of speech. Realization of human's cognitive potential in the process of communication starts up complicated mechanism of self-organization and self-regulation of language. In turn, it results in optimization of language system, servicing needs not only human's self-actualization but realization of communication in society. The method of problem-oriented search is used for researching of optimization mechanisms, which are distinctive to speech producing and stabilization of language.

  3. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  4. An explicit algorithm for fully flexible unit cell simulation with recursive thermostat chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Cho, Maenghyo

    2008-10-28

    Through the combination of the recursive multiple thermostat (RMT) Nose-Poincare and Parrinello-Rahman methods, the recursive multiple thermostat chained fully flexible unit cell (RMT-NsigmaT) molecular dynamics method is proposed for isothermal-isobaric simulation. The RMT method is known to have the advantage of achieving the ergodicity that is required for canonical sampling of the harmonic oscillator. Thus, an explicit time integration algorithm is developed for RMT-NsigmaT. We examine the ergodicity for various parameters of RMT-NsigmaT using bulk and thin film structures with different numbers of copper atoms and thicknesses in various environments. Through the numerical simulations, we conclude that the RMT-NsigmaT method is advantageous in the cases of lower temperatures.

  5. Performance assessment of different pulse reconstruction algorithms for the ATHENA X-ray Integral Field Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peille, Philippe; Ceballos, Maria Teresa; Cobo, Beatriz; Wilms, Joern; Bandler, Simon; Smith, Stephen J.; Dauser, Thomas; Brand, Thorsten; den Hartog, Roland; de Plaa, Jelle; Barret, Didier; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Barcons, Xavier; Pointecouteau, Etienne

    2016-07-01

    The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) microcalorimeter, on-board Athena, with its focal plane comprising 3840 Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) operating at 90 mK, will provide unprecedented spectral-imaging capability in the 0.2-12 keV energy range. It will rely on the on-board digital processing of current pulses induced by the heat deposited in the TES absorber, as to recover the energy of each individual events. Assessing the capabilities of the pulse reconstruction is required to understand the overall scientific performance of the X-IFU, notably in terms of energy resolution degradation with both increasing energies and count rates. Using synthetic data streams generated by the X-IFU End-to-End simulator, we present here a comprehensive benchmark of various pulse reconstruction techniques, ranging from standard optimal filtering to more advanced algorithms based on noise covariance matrices. Beside deriving the spectral resolution achieved by the different algorithms, a first assessment of the computing power and ground calibration needs is presented. Overall, all methods show similar performances, with the reconstruction based on noise covariance matrices showing the best improvement with respect to the standard optimal filtering technique. Due to prohibitive calibration needs, this method might however not be applicable to the X-IFU and the best compromise currently appears to be the so-called resistance space analysis which also features very promising high count rate capabilities.

  6. ACTION OF UNIFORM SEARCH ALGORITHM WHEN SELECTING LANGUAGE UNITS IN THE PROCESS OF SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Михайловна Некипелова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of action of uniform search algorithm when selecting by human of language units for speech produce. The process is connected with a speech optimization phenomenon. This makes it possible to shorten the time of cogitation something that human want to say, and to achieve the maximum precision in thoughts expression. The algorithm of uniform search works at consciousness  and subconsciousness levels. It favours the forming of automatism produce and perception of speech. Realization of human's cognitive potential in the process of communication starts up complicated mechanism of self-organization and self-regulation of language. In turn, it results in optimization of language system, servicing needs not only human's self-actualization but realization of communication in society. The method of problem-oriented search is used for researching of optimization mechanisms, which are distinctive to speech producing and stabilization of language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-50

  7. 安全约束机组组合理论与应用的发展和展望%Review and Prospects of the Security Constrained Unit Commitment Theory and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏清; 钟海旺; 康重庆

    2013-01-01

    安全约束机组组合作为编制发电计划的核心环节,在国外电力市场中已经得到广泛的应用.随着中国电网全面推进精益化的调度管理和节能发电调度的实施,电网运行部门对安全经济运行的要求日益提高,安全约束机组组合的研究和应用也越来越受到重视.总结了安全约束机组组合的模式、数学模型和主要求解方法;在综述国内外最新研究动态和工业应用现状的基础上,展望了未来有待进一步研究的内容.希望本文的工作能够为推动中国发电计划领域的研究和应用提供重要参考.%Security constrained unit commitment (SCUC),as the key procedure of generation scheduling,has been widely used in electricity markets abroad.With the promotion of lean management in power dispatch and the implementation of energy conservation based power generation dispatch,the system operator has an increasingly demanding requirement on the secure and economic operations.Therefore,the research and applications of SCUC have been paid more and more attention.This paper summarized the patterns,mathematical models and major algorithms of SCUC.Based on the survey of the state-of-the-art of SCUC research and industrial applications in China and abroad,the potential research topics were proposed.Hopefully,this paper could be an important reference for the theoretical study and industrial applications of generation scheduling in China.

  8. A Fuzzy Commitment Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Al-saggaf, Alawi A

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempt has been made to explain a fuzzy commitment scheme. In the conventional Commitment schemes, both committed string m and valid opening key are required to enable the sender to prove the commitment. However there could be many instances where the transmission involves noise or minor errors arising purely because of the factors over which neither the sender nor the receiver have any control. The fuzzy commitment scheme presented in this paper is to accept the opening key that is close to the original one in suitable distance metric, but not necessarily identical. The concept itself is illustrated with the help of simple situation.

  9. Organizational Commitment in Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Arbabisarjou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As increase in nursing shortages, absenteeism and turn over, organizational commitment is extensively important for retention of nurses. Organizational committed staff has higher efficiency; thus, more tendency to stay and less absenteeism are their characteristics. Being aware of nursing staff’s organizational commitment provides adequate information to authorities to make- decision and lead in adopting proper methods to determine the effectiveness of the Health Centers in the country. Hence, the present study carried out to examine the amount of nurses’ organizational commitment. Materials and Methods: The nurses were 200 subjects who participated in this descriptive- analytical study. They were engaged in teaching hospitals in Zahedan in 2016. Data were collected from 200 nurses in major hospitals. Samples were selected by a random sampling method. Questionnaires, including Demographic data, Organizational Commitment Questionnaires. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21.0 using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, variance analysis and t-test. Findings: The results showed nurses’ average age was 30.05±6.56. The female subjects were 162. The average level of organizational commitment among nurses was 74.24±8.36, emotional commitment was 25.58±3.26. The component, and continued commitment was 24.36±4.05 and 24.30±3.48 for normative commitment. There was no relationship between the age and organizational commitment, emotional and continuing commitment, but their relation was significant with normative commitment. Conclusion: The result of the present study indicated that the grade of the organizational commitment of participating nurses in was moderate, in this study. An organization requires to the staff foe gaining to its goals, who do their duty along love and enthusiasm and are committed to this organization. Proper ground should be established in order to make and maintain these features in the staff.

  10. Career Commitment, Competencies, and Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Kerry David; Carson, Paula Phillips

    1998-01-01

    Nursing department employees (n=75) completed the Career Commitment Measure and other measures. Emotional intelligence was positively related to career commitment but not organizational commitment. Both types of commitment were positively related to organizational citizenship. (SK)

  11. Optical network unit placement in Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) access network by Moth-Flame optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Puja; Prakash, Shashi

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN) or Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) is the integration of wireless access network and optical network. This hybrid multi-domain network adopts the advantages of wireless and optical domains and serves the demand of technology savvy users. FiWi exhibits the properties of cost effectiveness, robustness, flexibility, high capacity, reliability and is self organized. Optical Network Unit (ONU) placement problem in FiWi contributes in simplifying the network design and enhances the performance in terms of cost efficiency and increased throughput. Several individual-based algorithms, such as Simulated Annealing (SA), Tabu Search, etc. have been suggested for ONU placement, but these algorithms suffer from premature convergence (trapping in a local optima). The present research work undertakes the deployment of FiWi and proposes a novel nature-inspired heuristic paradigm called Moth-Flame optimization (MFO) algorithm for multiple optical network units' placement. MFO is a population based algorithm. Population-based algorithms are better in handling local optima avoidance. The simulation results are compared with the existing Greedy and Simulated Annealing algorithms to optimize the position of ONUs. To the best of our knowledge, MFO algorithm has been used for the first time in this domain, moreover it has been able to provide very promising and competitive results. The performance of MFO algorithm has been analyzed by varying the 'b' parameter. MFO algorithm results in faster convergence than the existing strategies of Greedy and SA and returns a lower value of overall cost function. The results exhibit the dependence of the objective function on the distribution of wireless users also.

  12. A Greedy reassignment algorithm for the PBS minimum monitor unit constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuting; Kooy, Hanne; Craft, David; Depauw, Nicolas; Flanz, Jacob; Clasie, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) treatment plans are made of numerous unique spots of different weights. These weights are optimized by the treatment planning systems, and sometimes fall below the deliverable threshold set by the treatment delivery system. The purpose of this work is to investigate a Greedy reassignment algorithm to mitigate the effects of these low weight pencil beams. The algorithm is applied during post-processing to the optimized plan to generate deliverable plans for the treatment delivery system. The Greedy reassignment method developed in this work deletes the smallest weight spot in the entire field and reassigns its weight to its nearest neighbor(s) and repeats until all spots are above the minimum monitor unit (MU) constraint. Its performance was evaluated using plans collected from 190 patients (496 fields) treated at our facility. The Greedy reassignment method was compared against two other post-processing methods. The evaluation criteria was the γ-index pass rate that compares the pre-processed and post-processed dose distributions. A planning metric was developed to predict the impact of post-processing on treatment plans for various treatment planning, machine, and dose tolerance parameters. For fields with a pass rate of 90  ±  1% the planning metric has a standard deviation equal to 18% of the centroid value showing that the planning metric and γ-index pass rate are correlated for the Greedy reassignment algorithm. Using a 3rd order polynomial fit to the data, the Greedy reassignment method has 1.8 times better planning metric at 90% pass rate compared to other post-processing methods. As the planning metric and pass rate are correlated, the planning metric could provide an aid for implementing parameters during treatment planning, or even during facility design, in order to yield acceptable pass rates. More facilities are starting to implement PBS and some have spot sizes (one standard deviation) smaller than 5

  13. Optimal placement of distributed generation units in distribution systems via an enhanced multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan CHENG; Min-you CHEN; Rong-jong WAI; Fang-zong WANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal placement of distributed generation (DG) units in distribution systems via an enhanced multi-objective particle swarm optimization (EMOPSO) algorithm. To pursue a better simulation of the reality and provide the designer with diverse alternative options, a multi-objective optimization model with technical and operational con-straints is constructed to minimize the total power loss and the voltage fluctuation of the power system simultaneously. To enhance the convergence of MOPSO, special techniques including a dynamic inertia weight and acceleration coefficients have been inte-grated as well as a mutation operator. Besides, to promote the diversity of Pareto-optimal solutions, an improved non-dominated crowding distance sorting technique has been introduced and applied to the selection of particles for the next iteration. After verifying its effectiveness and competitiveness with a set of well-known benchmark functions, the EMOPSO algorithm is em-ployed to achieve the optimal placement of DG units in the IEEE 33-bus system. Simulation results indicate that the EMOPSO algorithm enables the identification of a set of Pareto-optimal solutions with good tradeoff between power loss and voltage sta-bility. Compared with other representative methods, the present results reveal the advantages of optimizing capacities and loca-tions of DG units simultaneously, and exemplify the validity of the EMOPSO algorithm applied for optimally placing DG units.

  14. Effect of a Culture-Based Screening Algorithm on Tuberculosis Incidence in Immigrants and Refugees Bound for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Posey, Drew L.; Cetron, Martin S.; Painter, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Before 2007, U.S.-bound immigrants and refugees were screened for tuberculosis (TB) by a smear-based algorithm that could not diagnose smear-negative and culture-positive TB. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began to implement a culture-based algorithm. Objective To evaluate the effect of the culture-based algorithm on preventing the importation of TB to the United States by immigrants and refugees from foreign countries. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Setting Panel physician sites for overseas medical examination. Patients Immigrants and refugees with TB. Measurements Comparison of the increase of smear-negative and culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm with the decline of reported TB cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Results Of the 3 212 421 arrivals of immigrants and refugees from 2007 to 2012, 1 650 961 (51.4%) were screened by the smear-based algorithm and 1 561 460 (48.6%) were screened by the culture-based algorithm. Among the 4032 TB cases diagnosed by the culture-based algorithm, 2195 (54.4%) were smear-negative and culture-positive. Before implementation (2002 to 2006), the annual number of reported TB cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival was relatively constant (range, 1424 to 1626 cases; mean, 1504 cases) but decreased from 1511 to 940 cases during implementation (2007 to 2012). During the same period, the annual number of smear-negative and culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among U.S.-bound immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm increased from 4 in 2007 to 629 in 2012. Limitation This analysis did not control for the decline in new arrivals of nonimmigrant visitors to the United States and the decrease of incidence of TB in their countries of origin. Conclusion Implementation of the culture-based algorithm in U

  15. Staff nurse commitment, work relationships, and turnover intentions: a latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellatly, Ian R; Cowden, Tracy L; Cummings, Greta G

    2014-01-01

    The three-component model of organization commitment has typically been studied using a variable-centered rather than a person-centered approach, preventing a more complete understanding of how these forms of commitment are felt and expressed as a whole. Latent profile analysis was used to identify qualitatively distinct categories or profiles of staff nurses' commitment. Then, associations of the profiles with perceived work unit relations and turnover intentions were examined. Three hundred thirty-six registered nurses provided data on affective, normative, and continuance commitment, perceived work unit relations, and turnover intentions. Latent profile analysis of the nurses' commitment scores revealed six distinct profile groups. Work unit relations and turnover intentions were compared in the six profile-defined groups. Staff nurses with profiles characterized by high affective commitment and/or high normative commitment in relation to other components experienced stronger work unit relations and reported lower turnover intentions. Profiles characterized by high continuance commitment relative to other components or by low overall commitment experienced poorer work unit relations, and the turnover risk was higher. High continuance commitment in combination with high affective and normative commitment was experienced differently than high continuance commitment in combination with low affective and normative commitment. Healthcare organizations often foster commitment by using continuance commitment-enhancing strategies (e.g., offer high salaries and attractive benefits) that may inadvertently introduce behavioral risk. This work suggests the importance of changing the context in which continuance commitment occurs by strengthening the other two components.

  16. Calibrating collective commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R; Marik,; Muller, J; Pechoucek, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we aim to formally model the strongest motivational attitude occurring in teamwork, collective commitment. First, building on our previous work, a logical framework is sketched in which social commitments and collective intentions are formalized. Then, different versions of collective

  17. Nutrition algorithms and bedside nutrient delivery practices in pediatric intensive care units: an international multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Enid E; Bechard, Lori J; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2014-06-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) delivery is associated with improved outcomes in critically ill patients. We aimed to describe EN practices, including details of algorithms and individual bedside practices, in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Available EN algorithm details from 31 international PICUs were obtained. Daily nutrient intake data from 524 mechanically ventilated patients, 1 month to 18 years old, were prospectively documented, including EN delivery, adjunct therapies, and energy prescription. Practices associated with higher percentage adequacy of EN delivery were determined by regression analysis. Nine EN algorithms were available. All algorithms defined advancement and EN intolerance; 7 of 9 defined intolerance by gastric residual volume; 3 of 9 recommended nutrition screening and fasting guidelines. Few elements were in agreement with the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. Of the 341 patients who received EN exclusively 32.9% received ≥66.6% of prescribed energy on day 7. Percentage adequacy of EN delivered was inversely associated with days to EN initiation (-8.92; P algorithms, promotility agents, or postpyloric feeding. A minority of PICUs employ EN algorithms; recommendations were variable and not in agreement with national guidelines. Optimal EN delivery was achieved in less than one-third of our cohort. EN adjunct therapies were not associated with increased EN delivery. Studies aimed at promoting early EN and decreasing interruptions may optimize energy delivery in the PICU.

  18. Managing by commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N

    2003-06-01

    What makes a great manager great? Despite differences in their personal attributes, successful managers all excel in the making, honoring, and remaking of commitments. Managerial commitments take many forms, from capital investments to personnel decisions to public statements, but each exerts both immediate and enduring influence on a company. A leader's commitments shape a business's identity, define its strengths and weaknesses, establish its opportunities and limitations, and set its direction. Executives can all too easily forget that commitments are extraordinarily powerful. Caught up in the present, managers often take actions that, while beneficial in the near term, impose lasting constraints on their operations and organizations. When market or competitive conditions change, they can find themselves unable to respond effectively. Managers who understand the nature and power of their commitments can wield them more effectively throughout a company's life cycle. Entrepreneurs can avoid taking actions that imprint a new venture with a dysfunctional character. Managers in established enterprises can buttress past commitments that retain their currency and learn to recognize when commitments have become roadblocks to needed changes. The manager can then replace those roadblocks with new, rejuvenating commitments. That doesn't mean you should try to anticipate all the long-run consequences of every commitment--and it certainly doesn't mean you should shy away from making commitments. But it does mean that before making important decisions about, say, operating processes or partnerships, you should always ask yourself: Is this a process or relationship that we can live with in the future? Am I locking us into a course that we'll come to regret?

  19. Managerial strategy and nursing commitment in Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, A M; Lok, P

    1995-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of managerial strategy and nursing commitment in Australian hospitals. The general principles of managerial strategy and employee response were illustrated and the meaning of commitment and resistance were defined. Data were collected by questionnaire survey and interviews. The result demonstrated that the middle manager/nurse unit manager played an important role in generating nursing commitment in the workplace. Trust and identification were the most relevant components of nursing commitment. However, the study also found that there was still a high degree of distrust between senior management and nurses. Change strategies which nurse managers could apply to promote greater organizational commitment in nursing are discussed.

  20. Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Home Current issue contents Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment From Caring to Commitment ... Caring to Commitment During her sister’s battle with Alzheimer’s, Anne Murphy stayed by her side and continues ...

  1. 风电-火电-抽水蓄能联合优化机组组合模型%Unit Commitment Model for Combined Optimization of Wind Power-Thermal Power-Pumped Storage Hydro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 潘毅; 杨军峰; 周劼英; 周京阳; 朱泽磊; 李强

    2015-01-01

    大规模间歇式能源出力的不确定性给电网的安全经济运行提出新的挑战,研究间歇式能源接入下的多源联合优化机组组合模型对提高电网运行的安全性和促进间歇式能源的消纳具有重要意义。基于对风电不确定性及抽水蓄能运行机理分析,采用置信区间法进行风电不确定性建模,并提出新的系统调节能力约束,从而建立了考虑风电不确定性影响及抽蓄水头变化影响的联合优化机组组合模型。采用6节点系统验证模型的有效性,研究了抽蓄容量及置信区间选择对发电成本、机组组合及其可靠性的影响。结果显示,风电、火电装机不变的情况下,要保证机组组合的可靠性达99%以上,抽蓄发电装机占比分别为5.6%和10.5%时,与无抽蓄时相比可以分别减少16和17个开机时段,发电成本可以分别降低4.6%和6.8%。通过算例的论证,表明该机组组合模型能够实现多元能源的协调优化和给定置信区间内的风电的有效消纳。%The uncertainty of large-scale intermittent energy poses new challenges to grid operation, it is important to study unit commitment model for combined optimization of multi-source with intermittent energy to improve operation security and promote the utilization of intermittent energy. Based on analysis of the uncertainty of wind power and operational mechanism of pumped storage, this paper used confidence interval method to model the uncertainty, and proposed new constraints about system adjustment ability to establish unit commitment model considering wind power’s uncertainty and changes in pumped storage water head. This paper used a 6-node system to verify effectiveness of the model, and studied the impacts of pumped storage capacity and confidence interval on generation cost, unit commitment and its reliability. When the installed capacity of both wind and thermal power is fixed and the reliability of unit

  2. A Multi-agent Artificial Immune Network Algorithm for the Tray Efficiency Estimation of Distillation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史旭华; 钱锋

    2012-01-01

    Based on the immune mechanics and multi-agent technology, a multi-agent artificial immune network (Maopt-aiNet) algorithm is introduced. Maopt-aiNet makes use of the agent ability of sensing and acting to overcome premature problem, and combines the global and local search in the searching process. The performance of the proposed method is examined with 6 benchmark problems and compared with other well-known intelligent algorithms. The experiments show that Maopt-aiNet outperforms the other algorithms in these benchmark functions. Furthermore, Maopt-aiNet is applied to determine the Murphree efficiency of distillation column and satisfactory results are obtained.

  3. 规模化电动汽车和风电协同调度的机组组合问题研究%Unit commitment considering coordinated dispatch of large scale electric vehicles and wind power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪春; 吴可; 张祥文; 孙海顺; 张聪; 许晓慧

    2015-01-01

    基于电动汽车通过集中控制器与电网交互的模式,考虑集中控制器所辖区域电动汽车负荷每个调度时段的可控特性,提出将集中控制器充电负荷作为机组组合模型的控制变量。通过蒙特卡洛抽样模拟电动汽车并网场景,计算集中控制器的可调度上限值和下限值,建立了规模化电动汽车与风电协同调度的机组组合模型。算例分析结果表明了应用提出的机组组合模型提高风电消纳能力和降低系统运行成本的有效性。%Assuming that all electric vehicles integrated to the grid are managed by aggregators, this paper proposes that the charging load of each EV aggregator can be dispatched within the unit commitment model taking the controllability of the charging of EVs at each dispatched time period into consideration. This can be accomplished by assessing the upper and lower limit of charging load of each EV aggregator based on the grid connected EVs scenarios simulation using Monte Carlo method. A unit commitment (UC) model is proposed for optimal coordination of wind power generation and charging load of EV aggregators. Cases study show that with the proposed UC model the wind abandon can be decreased as well as the cost of operation effectively.

  4. Comparative analysis of the speed performance of texture analysis algorithms on a graphic processing unit (GPU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Martinez, J.; Orjuela-Vargas, S. A.; Philips, W.

    2013-03-01

    This paper compares the speed performance of a set of classic image algorithms for evaluating texture in images by using CUDA programming. We include a summary of the general program mode of CUDA. We select a set of texture algorithms, based on statistical analysis, that allow the use of repetitive functions, such as the Coocurrence Matrix, Haralick features and local binary patterns techniques. The memory allocation time between the host and device memory is not taken into account. The results of this approach show a comparison of the texture algorithms in terms of speed when executed on CPU and GPU processors. The comparison shows that the algorithms can be accelerated more than 40 times when implemented using CUDA environment.

  5. Organizational commitment: Does religiosity matter?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrukh, Muhammad; Wei Ying, Chong; Abdallah Ahmed, Nazar Omer

    2016-01-01

    .... Findings and contribution: The findings showed a positive relationship between religiosity, affective and normative commitment while no association was found between religiosity and continuance commitment...

  6. Modeling words with subword units in an articulatorily constrained speech recognition algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J.

    1997-11-20

    The goal of speech recognition is to find the most probable word given the acoustic evidence, i.e. a string of VQ codes or acoustic features. Speech recognition algorithms typically take advantage of the fact that the probability of a word, given a sequence of VQ codes, can be calculated.

  7. The United States cover-up of Japanese wartime medical atrocities: complicity committed in the national interest and two proposals for contemporary action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2006-01-01

    To monopolize the scientific data gained by Japanese physicians and researchers from vivisections and other barbarous experiments performed on living humans in biological warfare programs such as Unit 731, immediately after the war the United States (US) government secretly granted those involved immunity from war crimes prosecution, withdrew vital information from the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and publicly denounced otherwise irrefutable evidence from other sources such as the Russian Khabarovsk trial. Acting in "the national interest" and for the security of the US, authorities in the US tramped justice and morality, and engaged in what the English common law tradition clearly defines as "complicity after the fact." To repair this historical injustice, the US government should issue an official apology and offer appropriate compensation for having covered up Japanese medical war crimes for six decades. To help prevent similar acts of aiding principal offender(s) in the future, international declarations or codes of human rights and medical ethics should include a clause banning any kind of complicity in any unethical medicine-whether before or after the fact-by any state or group for whatever reasons.

  8. Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

  9. Commitment to Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Renilde

    1995-01-01

    This reprint from a 1985 issue of "The NAMTA Journal" discusses the ideas of Maria Montessori and Erich Fromm in relation to world peace and the role of education in promoting peace. Also examines the nature of conflict, war, and peace, and the need to commit oneself to peace. (MDM)

  10. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  11. Commitments by hostage posting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raub, W.; Baurmann, M.; Lahno, B.

    2009-01-01

    We survey research on incurring commitments by voluntary hostage posting as a mechanism of cooperation. The Trust Game is employed as a paradigmatic example of cooperation problems. We sketch a very simple game-theoretic model that shows how voluntary hostage posting can bind the trustee and thus in

  12. Commitment to Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Renilde

    1995-01-01

    This reprint from a 1985 issue of "The NAMTA Journal" discusses the ideas of Maria Montessori and Erich Fromm in relation to world peace and the role of education in promoting peace. Also examines the nature of conflict, war, and peace, and the need to commit oneself to peace. (MDM)

  13. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Amber Leighann

    2010-01-01

    Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

  14. From controlled to committed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, J C

    1996-02-01

    Most of us agree that people are our most important resource. Yet we spend a minimal amount of time learning more about human behavior, communication, and how our attitudes and behavior impact employee performance. Instead we rely on traditional methods of negative reinforcement in an attempt to control our areas of responsibility. While these methods can render some short-term success, managers and organizations that succeed during these times of change and fierce competition will be those that take the time to understand and capture the power of a committed workforce. The committed workforce is energized, not simply compliant, as a result of having basic human needs for achievement satisfied, belonging to a group, and receiving recognition for its contributions. Committed workers typically describe the manager as one who has the ability to give them a great degree of control over their area of influence. We all know that we don't change our leadership style like we change clothes. Old habits die hard. it takes a personal commitment and lots of practice to rid outselves of habits and behavior that no longer serve our departments and facilities. This commitment, however, is crucial to survival. As managers, we must cope with increasing ambiguity and uncertainty in the workplace. To survive these challenges, we must improve our interpersonal skills and ability to successfully bring out the best in others. I believe that success will continue for managers who not only increase their knowledge and technical ability, but who also inspire their workers to move forward with a collective sense of enthusiasm and purpose.

  15. A Prototype Hail Detection Algorithm and Hail Climatology Developed with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Dan; Heymsfeld, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 SMMR, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua AMSR-E sensor. This lead to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations include geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. Since 1998, NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the AMSU-A/B and the MHS on several operational satellites: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 hours, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental U.S. for a 12-year period (2000-2011). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40 percent of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology that is based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-11 that is stratified in several ways, including total hail occurrence by month (March through September), total annual, and over the diurnal cycle. Independent comparisons are made compared to similar data sets derived from other

  16. Factors Contributing to Personal Commitment in Chinese Interethnic Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmiao Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interethnic relationships are increasingly common in many societies, yet interethnic couples have a higher divorce rate compared to intraethnic couples. Given these facts and the dearth of research, this study aimed to identify factors that contribute to couples’ commitment in interethnic relationships. This study investigated the personal commitment of Chinese interethnic couples in the United Kingdom and the United States. Specifically, whether love, dyadic adjustment and “couple cultural identity” (i.e. acculturation to the partner and couple’s similarity on individualism/collectivism would predict personal commitment and whether each variable would account for unique variance in personal commitment of the participants. Thirty-seven Chinese/non-Chinese heterosexual couples participated in the study and significant relationships between love and personal commitment, dyadic adjustment and personal commitment were found. Also, couple cultural identity was important for women’s personal commitment. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling showed that partners in interethnic relationships defined personal commitment in different ways with men emphasizing love and dyadic adjustment, and women emphasizing love and acculturation to their partner. The discovery of the importance of couple cultural identity in contributing to personal commitment, besides love and dyadic adjustment, helps researchers to gain a greater understanding of such relationships and to extend the research on interethnic relationships.

  17. Comparing winner determination algorithms for mixed multi-unit combinatorial auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottens, B.; Endriss, U.; Padgham, L.; Parkes, D.; Müller, J.; Parsons, S.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed multi-unit combinatorial auctions are combinatorial auctions in which the auctioneer and the bidders negotiate over transformations rather than over simple goods. By proposing a transformation a bidder is offering to produce a certain set of output goods after having received the specified inp

  18. Optimal Deadline Scheduling with Commitment

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shiyao; He, Ting

    2011-01-01

    We consider an online preemptive scheduling problem where jobs with deadlines arrive sporadically. A commitment requirement is imposed such that the scheduler has to either accept or decline a job immediately upon arrival. The scheduler's decision to accept an arriving job constitutes a contract with the customer; if the accepted job is not completed by its deadline as promised, the scheduler loses the value of the corresponding job and has to pay an additional penalty depending on the amount of unfinished workload. The objective of the online scheduler is to maximize the overall profit, i.e., the total value of the admitted jobs completed before their deadlines less the penalty paid for the admitted jobs that miss their deadlines. We show that the maximum competitive ratio is $3-2\\sqrt{2}$ and propose a simple online algorithm to achieve this competitive ratio. The optimal scheduling includes a threshold admission and a greedy scheduling policies. The proposed algorithm has direct applications to the chargin...

  19. Impact of Energy Storage System on the Unit Commitment Problem with Volatile Wind Power%储能系统对含风电的机组组合问题影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢毓广; 江晓东

    2011-01-01

    分析了储能系统对含风电的机组组合问题的影响,为提高电力系统运行的灵活性和降低风电波动性对机组组合问题的影响,在含风电的机组组合问题中引入储能系统.将含风电和储能系统的机组组合问题描述为混合整数凸规划形式,采用分支定界结合内点法进行求解.采用最优优先搜索和深度优先搜索相结合的搜索策略提高分支定界的搜索效率.通过10机系统算例分析,表明储能系统的引入可明显地降低风电波动性对机组组合问题的不利影响.%This paper presents a simulation method that can assess the impact of energy storage system (ESS) on the unit commitment (UC) problem with volatile wind power. In order to achieve the higher system flexibility and reduce the impact of volatility of wind power, ESS is incorporated into the UC problem with wind power. The UC problem with wind power and ESS is formulated as the mixed-integer convex program, which is optimized by branch and bound combined with interior point method. During the branch and bound process, best first search and depth first search are combined to expedite the computation. Numerical simulations on a ten-unit system show that the introduction' of ESS is effective to reduce the impact of volatility of wind power on the UC problem.

  20. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...... sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability...

  1. The Commitment Objective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milton; Kotler; President

    2007-01-01

    "So,tell me about Action Selling,"Matt said."It starts with Commitment Objectives?""All right,"Joe began,"first you tell me if this sounds familiar:You've made an initial appointment with a great prospect-call him Mr.Wright.You're heard his company has had some problems with its current vendor,and you figure they're ready to make a change.You're pumped.

  2. Robust relativistic bit commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.

  3. A new algorithm for detection of apnea in infants in neonatal intensive care units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoshik; Vergales, Brooke; Paget-Brown, Alix; Rusin, Craig; Moorman, Randall; Kattwinkel, John; Delos, John

    2011-03-01

    Apnea is a very common problem for premature infants: apnea of prematurity (AOP) occurs in >50% of babies whose birth weight is less than 1500 g, and AOP is found in almost all babies who are apnea, and also give many false alarms. We have created a new algorithm for detection of apnea. Respiration is monitored by continuous measurement of chest impedance (CI). However, the pulsing of the heart also causes fluctuations in CI. We developed a new adaptive filtering system to remove heart activity from CI, thereby giving much more reliable measurements of respiration. The new approach is to rescale the impedance measurement to heartbeat-time, sampling 30 times per interbeat interval. We take the Fourier transform of the rescaled signal, bandstop filter at 1 per beat to remove fluctuations due to heartbeats, and then take the inverse transform. The filtered signal retains all properties except the impedance changes due to cardiac filling and emptying. We convert the variance of CI into an estimated likelihood of apnea. This work is supported by NICHD 5RCZHD064488.

  4. Concatenated coding systems employing a unit-memory convolutional code and a byte-oriented decoding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L.-N.

    1977-01-01

    Concatenated coding systems utilizing a convolutional code as the inner code and a Reed-Solomon code as the outer code are considered. In order to obtain very reliable communications over a very noisy channel with relatively modest coding complexity, it is proposed to concatenate a byte-oriented unit-memory convolutional code with an RS outer code whose symbol size is one byte. It is further proposed to utilize a real-time minimal-byte-error probability decoding algorithm, together with feedback from the outer decoder, in the decoder for the inner convolutional code. The performance of the proposed concatenated coding system is studied, and the improvement over conventional concatenated systems due to each additional feature is isolated.

  5. An Algorithm of Traffic Perception of DDoS Attacks against SOA Based on Time United Conditional Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DDoS attacks can prevent legitimate users from accessing the service by consuming resource of the target nodes, whose availability of network and service is exposed to a significant threat. Therefore, DDoS traffic perception is the premise and foundation of the whole system security. In this paper the method of DDoS traffic perception for SOA network based on time united conditional entropy was proposed. According to many-to-one relationship mapping between the source IP address and destination IP addresses of DDoS attacks, traffic characteristics of services are analyzed based on conditional entropy. The algorithm is provided with perception ability of DDoS attacks on SOA services by introducing time dimension. Simulation results show that the novel method can realize DDoS traffic perception with analyzing abrupt variation of conditional entropy in time dimension.

  6. Compute-unified device architecture implementation of a block-matching algorithm for multiple graphical processing unit cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanes, Francesc; Cadennes, Marie; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2011-07-01

    We describe and evaluate a fast implementation of a classical block-matching motion estimation algorithm for multiple graphical processing units (GPUs) using the compute unified device architecture computing engine. The implemented block-matching algorithm uses summed absolute difference error criterion and full grid search (FS) for finding optimal block displacement. In this evaluation, we compared the execution time of a GPU and CPU implementation for images of various sizes, using integer and noninteger search grids. The results show that use of a GPU card can shorten computation time by a factor of 200 times for integer and 1000 times for a noninteger search grid. The additional speedup for a noninteger search grid comes from the fact that GPU has built-in hardware for image interpolation. Further, when using multiple GPU cards, the presented evaluation shows the importance of the data splitting method across multiple cards, but an almost linear speedup with a number of cards is achievable. In addition, we compared the execution time of the proposed FS GPU implementation with two existing, highly optimized nonfull grid search CPU-based motion estimations methods, namely implementation of the Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical flow algorithm in OpenCV and simplified unsymmetrical multi-hexagon search in H.264/AVC standard. In these comparisons, FS GPU implementation still showed modest improvement even though the computational complexity of FS GPU implementation is substantially higher than non-FS CPU implementation. We also demonstrated that for an image sequence of 720 × 480 pixels in resolution commonly used in video surveillance, the proposed GPU implementation is sufficiently fast for real-time motion estimation at 30 frames-per-second using two NVIDIA C1060 Tesla GPU cards.

  7. An unit cost adjusting heuristic algorithm for the integrated planning and scheduling of a two-stage supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The stable relationship of one-supplier-one-customer is replaced by a dynamic relationship of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market gradually, and efficient scheduling techniques are important tools of the dynamic supply chain relationship establishing process. This paper studies the optimization of the integrated planning and scheduling problem of a two-stage supply chain with multiple manufacturers and multiple retailers to obtain a minimum supply chain operating cost, whose manufacturers have different production capacities, holding and producing cost rates, transportation costs to retailers.Design/methodology/approach: As a complex task allocation and scheduling problem, this paper sets up an INLP model for it and designs a Unit Cost Adjusting (UCA heuristic algorithm that adjust the suppliers’ supplying quantity according to their unit costs step by step to solve the model.Findings: Relying on the contrasting analysis between the UCA and the Lingo solvers for optimizing many numerical experiments, results show that the INLP model and the UCA algorithm can obtain its near optimal solution of the two-stage supply chain’s planning and scheduling problem within very short CPU time.Research limitations/implications: The proposed UCA heuristic can easily help managers to optimizing the two-stage supply chain scheduling problems which doesn’t include the delivery time and batch of orders. For two-stage supply chains are the most common form of actual commercial relationships, so to make some modification and study on the UCA heuristic should be able to optimize the integrated planning and scheduling problems of a supply chain with more reality constraints.Originality/value: This research proposes an innovative UCA heuristic for optimizing the integrated planning and scheduling problem of two-stage supply chains with the constraints of suppliers’ production capacity and the orders’ delivering time, and has a great

  8. Graphics-processor-unit-based parallelization of optimized baseline wander filtering algorithms for long-term electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, Thomas; Wyss-Balmer, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Wildhaber, Reto A; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Vogel, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    Long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) often suffers from relevant noise. Baseline wander in particular is pronounced in ECG recordings using dry or esophageal electrodes, which are dedicated for prolonged registration. While analog high-pass filters introduce phase distortions, reliable offline filtering of the baseline wander implies a computational burden that has to be put in relation to the increase in signal-to-baseline ratio (SBR). Here, we present a graphics processor unit (GPU)-based parallelization method to speed up offline baseline wander filter algorithms, namely the wavelet, finite, and infinite impulse response, moving mean, and moving median filter. Individual filter parameters were optimized with respect to the SBR increase based on ECGs from the Physionet database superimposed to autoregressive modeled, real baseline wander. A Monte-Carlo simulation showed that for low input SBR the moving median filter outperforms any other method but negatively affects ECG wave detection. In contrast, the infinite impulse response filter is preferred in case of high input SBR. However, the parallelized wavelet filter is processed 500 and four times faster than these two algorithms on the GPU, respectively, and offers superior baseline wander suppression in low SBR situations. Using a signal segment of 64 mega samples that is filtered as entire unit, wavelet filtering of a seven-day high-resolution ECG is computed within less than 3 s. Taking the high filtering speed into account, the GPU wavelet filter is the most efficient method to remove baseline wander present in long-term ECGs, with which computational burden can be strongly reduced.

  9. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  10. Genetic Algorithm Supported by Graphical Processing Unit Improves the Exploration of Effective Connectivity in Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Wing Chi Chan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain regions of human subjects exhibit certain levels of associated activation upon specific environmental stimuli. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI detects regional signals, based on which we could infer the direct or indirect neuronal connectivity between the regions. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is an appropriate mathematical approach for analyzing the effective connectivity using fMRI data. A maximum likelihood (ML discrepancy function is minimized against some constrained coefficients of a path model. The minimization is an iterative process. The computing time is very long as the number of iterations increases geometrically with the number of path coefficients. Using regular Quad-Core Central Processing Unit (CPU platform, duration up to three months is required for the iterations from 0 to 30 path coefficients. This study demonstrates the application of Graphical Processing Unit (GPU with the parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA that replaces the Powell minimization in the standard program code of the analysis software package. It was found in the same example that GA under GPU reduced the duration to 20 hours and provided more accurate solution when compared with standard program code under CPU.

  11. A novel algorithm for reducing false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Chandan; Sharma, Sonal; Jalali, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Alarm fatigue in intensive care units (ICU) is one of the top healthcare issues in the US. False alarms in ICU will decrease the quality of care and staff response time over the alarms. Normally, false alarm will cause desensitization of the clinical staff which leads to warnings and misleading, if the triggered alarm is true. In this study, we have proposed a multi-model ensemble approach to reduce the false alarm rate in monitoring systems. We have used 750 patient records from PhysioNet database. At First arrhythmia based features from electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) features were extracted from the records. Next, the dataset has been separated into two subsets on the basis of available features information. The first dataset (DS1) is the combination of ECG physiological, ABP and PPG features. Their correlation coefficient and p-values criteria have been applied for relevant alarm-wise feature-set selection, and random forest classifier was used for model development and validation. The threshold based approach was used on second dataset (DS2) which is the combination of arrhythmia, ABP and PPG features. The developed ensemble model is able to achieve sensitivity 83.33-100 % (average 95.56 %) being true alarms and suppress false alarms rate 66.67-89% (average 77.25%). The predictability of classifier shows the advantage to deal with unbalanced set of information, therefore overall model performance has reached to 83.96% accuracy.

  12. The Fold of Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raastrup Kristensen, Anders; Pedersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes. First, a rereading of Douglas McGregor’s An uneasy look at performance appraisal serves to show how McGregor’s conceptualization of commitment as a question of integrating personal goals with organizational purpose has helped shape founding the modern understanding...... of corporate community representation. Second, we suggest that French philosopher Gilles Deleuze’s concepts of fold, desire and interests can be useful in comprehending this modern form of corporate representation already present in McGregor’s text....

  13. [Acceptance and commitment therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, D; Fond, G

    2015-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a third generation of cognitive-behavioral therapies. The point is to help patients to improve their psychological flexibility in order to accept unavoidable private events. Thus, they have the opportunity to invest energy in committed actions rather than struggle against their psychological events. (i) To present the ACT basic concepts and (ii) to propose a systematic review of the literature about effectiveness of this kind of psychotherapy. (i) The core concepts of ACT come from Monestès (2011), Schoendorff (2011), and Harris (2012); (ii) we conducted a systematic review of the literature using the PRISMA's criteria. The research paradigm was « acceptance and commitment therapy AND randomized controlled trial ». The bases of the MEDLINE, Cochrane and Web of science have been checked. Overall, 61 articles have been found, of which, after reading the abstracts, 40 corresponded to the subject of our study. (I) Psychological flexibility is established through six core ACT processes (cognitive defusion, acceptance, being present, values, committed action, self as context), while the therapist emphasizes on experiential approach. (II) Emerging research shows that ACT is efficacious in the psychological treatment of a wide range of psychiatric problems, including psychosis, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, eating disorders. ACT has also shown a utility in other areas of medicine: the management chronic pain, drug-dependence, smoking cessation, the management of epilepsy, diabetic self-management, the management of work stress, the management of tinnitus, and the management of multiple sclerosis. Meta-analysis of controlled outcome studies reported an average effect size (Cohen's d) of 0.66 at post-treatment (n=704) and 0.65 (n=580) at follow-up (on average 19.2 weeks later). In studies involving

  14. 基于模糊决策方法的含风电场电力系统机组组合%Fuzzy Decision-Making Based Unit Commitment of Power Grid Integrated With Wind Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群; 张刘冬; 殷明慧; 张小莲; 邹云

    2013-01-01

    Combining confidence interval based uncertainty analysis on wind power with fuzzy decision-making, a fuzzy unit commitment model of power grid integrated with wind farms, in which the risk of wind power prediction uncertainty is taken into account, is proposed. In the proposed model the fuzzy decision-making is utilized to minimize both generation cost of units and loss-of-load risk of power grid to remedy the defect in existing models that the foundation for the selection of the confidence interval is not given. Besides, in the proposed model an uncertainty model for wind power prediction, which conforms to actual situation, is adopted to ensure the practicality of the proposed model. The proposed model is solved by mixed integer linear programming (MILP). The advantages and validity of the proposed model are verified by simulation results of IEEE RTS 26 test system connected with a wind farm.%结合基于置信区间的风电功率不确定性分析方法和模糊决策方法,提出了计及风电功率预测不确定性风险的含风电场的电力系统模糊机组组合模型。该模型采用模糊决策方法实现了机组发电成本和系统失负荷风险最小的目标,解决了已有模型中未给出置信区间选取依据的不足。此外,该模型采用贴合实际的风电预测不确定模型,保证了该模型的实用性。采用混合整数线性规划(mixed integer linear programming,MILP)方法对所提出的模型进行求解。通过对含风电场的IEEE RTS 26测试系统进行仿真,验证了该模型的有效性和优越性。

  15. Effect of a culture-based screening algorithm on tuberculosis incidence in immigrants and refugees bound for the United States: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yecai; Posey, Drew L; Cetron, Martin S; Painter, John A

    2015-03-17

    Before 2007, immigrants and refugees bound for the United States were screened for tuberculosis (TB) by a smear-based algorithm that could not diagnose smear-negative/culture-positive TB. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented a culture-based algorithm. To evaluate the effect of the culture-based algorithm on preventing the importation of TB to the United States by immigrants and refugees from foreign countries. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Panel physician sites for overseas medical examination. Immigrants and refugees with TB. Comparison of the increase of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees by the culture-based algorithm with the decline of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Of the 3 212 421 arrivals of immigrants and refugees from 2007 to 2012, a total of 1 650 961 (51.4%) were screened by the smear-based algorithm and 1 561 460 (48.6%) were screened by the culture-based algorithm. Among the 4032 TB cases diagnosed by the culture-based algorithm, 2195 (54.4%) were smear-negative/culture-positive. Before implementation (2002 to 2006), the annual number of reported cases among foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival was relatively constant (range, 1424 to 1626 cases; mean, 1504 cases) but decreased from 1511 to 940 cases during implementation (2007 to 2012). During the same period, the annual number of smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases diagnosed overseas among immigrants and refugees bound for the United States by the culture-based algorithm increased from 4 to 629. This analysis did not control for the decline in new arrivals of nonimmigrant visitors to the United States and the decrease of incidence of TB in their countries of origin. Implementation of the culture-based algorithm may have substantially reduced the incidence of TB among newly arrived, foreign-born persons in

  16. Committed equivalent organ doses and committed effective doses from intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed equivalent doses to individual organs for intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu m AMAD particles of 359 nuclides by infants aged 3 months, by children aged 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and by adults. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on the way committed doses increase with the integration period is given in NRPB-M289. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  17. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  18. Intelligent Derivation Algorithm for Physical Units and Its Application%物理量单位的智能导出算法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鲤江; 郑云巧; 孙晓梦

    2013-01-01

    Derivation of units of physical quantities are important and indispensable part of the physics homework.An intelligent derivation algorithm for physical quantities units is proposed,that computer automatically derived units of unknown physical quantities from the arithmetic expression of known physical quantities.Convert division expressions to multiplication expressions by unit index symbol transform,uniform units of the same dimension through unit conversion,evaluate index algebraic sum for the same unit to get final derived units of unknown physical quantities.Performing unit conversion to the rest units toward the units with the largest number or SI units in the same dimension is auto-matically finished by database call technology.Experimental results on arithmetic expressions with numbers and units show that the operation results of the algorithm are correct with correct rate of 100%.%推导物理量的单位是物理作业中不可缺少的重要环节。提出一种物理量单位的智能导出算法,即计算机根据物理量的运算式自动推导出待求物理量的单位。实验结果表明,物理量单位导出及换算算法的结果正确,对算术运算式中的物理量单位导出及换算的正确率为100%,且物理量数值的运算正确。

  19. 75 FR 45693 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearing Concerning China's Compliance With WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... multilateral commitments and any bilateral commitments made to the United States. In accordance with section... agreements. The Protocol and Working Party Report can be found on the Department of Commerce Webpage, http...

  20. Matching with Commitments

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Kevin; Tripathi, Pushkar

    2012-01-01

    We consider the following stochastic optimization problem first introduced by Chen et al. in \\cite{chen}. We are given a vertex set of a random graph where each possible edge is present with probability p_e. We do not know which edges are actually present unless we scan/probe an edge. However whenever we probe an edge and find it to be present, we are constrained to picking the edge and both its end points are deleted from the graph. We wish to find the maximum matching in this model. We compare our results against the optimal omniscient algorithm that knows the edges of the graph and present a 0.573 factor algorithm using a novel sampling technique. We also prove that no algorithm can attain a factor better than 0.898 in this model.

  1. GPUDePiCt: A Parallel Implementation of a Clustering Algorithm for Computing Degenerate Primers on Graphics Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cickovski, Trevor; Flor, Tiffany; Irving-Sachs, Galen; Novikov, Philip; Parda, James; Narasimhan, Giri

    2015-01-01

    In order to make multiple copies of a target sequence in the laboratory, the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) requires the design of "primers", which are short fragments of nucleotides complementary to the flanking regions of the target sequence. If the same primer is to amplify multiple closely related target sequences, then it is necessary to make the primers "degenerate", which would allow it to hybridize to target sequences with a limited amount of variability that may have been caused by mutations. However, the PCR technique can only allow a limited amount of degeneracy, and therefore the design of degenerate primers requires the identification of reasonably well-conserved regions in the input sequences. We take an existing algorithm for designing degenerate primers that is based on clustering and parallelize it in a web-accessible software package GPUDePiCt, using a shared memory model and the computing power of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). We test our implementation on large sets of aligned sequences from the human genome and show a multi-fold speedup for clustering using our hybrid GPU/CPU implementation over a pure CPU approach for these sequences, which consist of more than 7,500 nucleotides. We also demonstrate that this speedup is consistent over larger numbers and longer lengths of aligned sequences.

  2. Muscle-tendon units localization and activation level analysis based on high-density surface EMG array and NMF algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengjun; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Some skeletal muscles can be subdivided into smaller segments called muscle-tendon units (MTUs). The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to locate the active region of the corresponding MTUs within a single skeletal muscle and to analyze the activation level varieties of different MTUs during a dynamic motion task. Approach. Biceps brachii and gastrocnemius were selected as targeted muscles and three dynamic motion tasks were designed and studied. Eight healthy male subjects participated in the data collection experiments, and 128-channel surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were collected with a high-density sEMG electrode grid (a grid consists of 8 rows and 16 columns). Then the sEMG envelopes matrix was factorized into a matrix of weighting vectors and a matrix of time-varying coefficients by nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm. Main results. The experimental results demonstrated that the weightings vectors, which represent invariant pattern of muscle activity across all channels, could be used to estimate the location of MTUs and the time-varying coefficients could be used to depict the variation of MTUs activation level during dynamic motion task. Significance. The proposed method provides one way to analyze in-depth the functional state of MTUs during dynamic tasks and thus can be employed on multiple noteworthy sEMG-based applications such as muscle force estimation, muscle fatigue research and the control of myoelectric prostheses. This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant 61431017 and 61271138.

  3. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  4. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  5. Statistical secrecy and multibit commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Pedersen, Torben P.; Pfitzmann, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    nothing about it. One definition is based on the L1-norm distance between probability distributions, the other on information theory. We prove that the two definitions are essentially equivalent. We also show that statistical counterparts of definitions of computational secrecy are essentially equivalent......We present and compare definitions of "statistically hiding" protocols, and we propose a novel statistically hiding commitment scheme. Informally, a protocol statistically hides a secret if a computationally unlimited adversary who conducts the protocol with the owner of the secret learns almost...... to our main definitions. Commitment schemes are an important cryptologic primitive. Their purpose is to commit one party to a certain value, while hiding this value from the other party until some later time. We present a statistically hiding commitment scheme allowing commitment to many bits...

  6. Committing to Green

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This year the fifth anniversary since China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002. Almost 10 years ago,in 1997,thefirst draft of the global warming pact was completed by 149 state and regional representatives at the Third Plenary Session of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  7. Methods and Algorithms for Economic MPC in Power Production Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil

    in real-time. A generator can represent a producer of electricity, a consumer of electricity, or possibly both. Examples of generators are heat pumps, electric vehicles, wind turbines, virtual power plants, solar cells, and conventional fuel-fired thermal power plants. Although this thesis is mainly......This thesis concerns methods and algorithms for power production planning in contemporary and future power systems. Power production planning is a task that involves decisions across different time scales and planning horizons. Hours-ahead to days-ahead planning is handled by solving a mixed......-integer linear program for unit commitment and economic dispatch of the system power generators. We focus on a minutes-ahead planning horizon, where unit commitment decisions are fixed. Economic model predictive control (EMPC) is employed to determine an optimal dispatch for a portfolio of power generators...

  8. 坦克分队 WTA 问题的改进人$蜂群算法%An Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Tank Unit WTA Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常天庆; 陈军伟; 张雷; 杨国振

    2015-01-01

    针对目前智能算法初期收敛速度难以满足坦克分队武器目标分配(Weapon-Target Assignment,WTA)要求的问题,提出了一种改进人工蜂群算法。该算法结合 NEH 启发式算法和随机方法对种群进行初始化,利用变邻域搜索和模拟退火方法改进了采蜜蜂算法,并简化了跟随蜂算法,提出了一种全局最优限制算法。最后,结合不同规模的 WTA 问题,给出了该算法参数的确定方法。仿真结果表明:改进人工蜂群算法相比于其他算法在初始种群质量和算法初期收敛速度方面具有明显优势,特别适合求解坦克分队 WTA 问题。%Aiming at the problem that it is difficult for the current intelligent algorithms to meet the re-quirement of tank unit Weapon-Target Assignment (WTA)for faster convergence speed on the early stage,an improved Artificial Bee Colony (ABC)algorithm is proposed.This algorithm adopts a combina-tion method of NEH heuristic algorithm and random method for population initialization,uses variable neighborhood search and simulated annealing method for improving employed bees algorithm and simplify-ing unemployed bees algorithm,and introduces a global optimal limit algorithm.At last,combining dif-ferent scale of WTA problem,the method used to determine algorithm parameters are given.The simula-tion results reveal that the improved ABC has a significant advantage on the quality of the initial popula-tion and the convergence speed on the early stage over other algorithms,and it is particularly suitable for tank unit WTA problem.

  9. Virtual machine migration in an over-committed cloud

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2012-04-01

    While early emphasis of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) clouds was on providing resource elasticity to end users, providers are increasingly interested in over-committing their resources to maximize the utilization and returns of their capital investments. In principle, over-committing resources hedges that users - on average - only need a small portion of their leased resources. When such hedge fails (i.e., resource demand far exceeds available physical capacity), providers must mitigate this provider-induced overload, typically by migrating virtual machines (VMs) to underutilized physical machines. Recent works on VM placement and migration assume the availability of target physical machines [1], [2]. However, in an over-committed cloud data center, this is not the case. VM migration can even trigger cascading overloads if performed haphazardly. In this paper, we design a new VM migration algorithm (called Scattered) that minimizes VM migrations in over-committed data centers. Compared to a traditional implementation, our algorithm can balance host utilization across all time epochs. Using real-world data traces from an enterprise cloud, we show that our migration algorithm reduces the risk of overload, minimizes the number of needed migrations, and has minimal impact on communication cost between VMs. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. IDENTITY THEFT COMMITTED THROUGH INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cristian MOISE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, starting with the presentation of some aspects regarding management of identity in cyberspace, it is carried out the analysis of the offence of identity theft committed through Internet. The term “identity theft” describes the criminal acts through which the offender obtains and uses in a fraudulent manner the identity of other person. These criminal acts may be carried out through the use of information and communication technology, too. The cases of identity theft committed t...

  11. NATO: Revisiting American Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    been short sighted. Kurt Volker , 4 former U.S. ambassador to NATO, posits that it was this decision by the United States in 2001 to set aside...ineffective with “virtually no prospect that their soldiers would fire a shot in anger.”10 This situation in turn reduces the overall morale of the force...Potomac Books, 2011), 5. 3 Ibid., 47. 4 Kurt Volker , “Reaffirming Transatlantic Unity”, Policy Review, Hoover Institution, March 30, 2012. 5

  12. Committed warming inferred from observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten; Pincus, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lifetime of CO2, the thermal inertia of the oceans, and the temporary impacts of short-lived aerosols and reactive greenhouse gases, the Earth’s climate is not equilibrated with anthropogenic forcing. As a result, even if fossil-fuel emissions were to suddenly cease, some level of committed warming is expected due to past emissions as studied previously using climate models. Here, we provide an observational-based quantification of this committed warming using the instrument record of global-mean warming, recently improved estimates of Earth’s energy imbalance, and estimates of radiative forcing from the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Compared with pre-industrial levels, we find a committed warming of 1.5 K (0.9-3.6, 5th-95th percentile) at equilibrium, and of 1.3 K (0.9-2.3) within this century. However, when assuming that ocean carbon uptake cancels remnant greenhouse gas-induced warming on centennial timescales, committed warming is reduced to 1.1 K (0.7-1.8). In the latter case there is a 13% risk that committed warming already exceeds the 1.5 K target set in Paris. Regular updates of these observationally constrained committed warming estimates, although simplistic, can provide transparent guidance as uncertainty regarding transient climate sensitivity inevitably narrows and the understanding of the limitations of the framework is advanced.

  13. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive.

  14. Using commitment to improve environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, Anne Marike

    2009-01-01

    The making of commitments is often used as an intervention aimed at increasing pro-environmental behavior. Research shows that when people commit to changing their environmental behaviors, they tend to adhere to their commitments. In this dissertation it is investigated whether commitment making is

  15. Our commitment to quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Office of Science Education and Technical Information (OSETI) provides leadership in leveraging the Department of Energy`s (DOE) unique scientific and technical resources to enhance the United States (U.S.) global competitiveness and the development of a diverse, well-educated, scientifically literate workforce. The Office provides scientific and technical information management policy, guidance, and services, as well as education program assistance, to a wide range of customers to help the Department contribute to the Nation`s welfare. OSETI was established in July 1993 within the Science and Technology cluster. The Office has two subcomponents, the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Office of Science Education Programs (OSEP), located in Washington, D.C. (see organization chart on page 5). OSTI, the larger of the two offices, has 164 full-time equivalent (FTE) federal staff and 100 contractor employees, while OSEP has 21 federal and 5 contractor employees.

  16. Job Insecurity and Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Furåker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relationship between job insecurity and organizational commitment. Our analysis includes both ‘subjective’ and ‘objective’ measures of job insecurity and it also distinguishes between a cognitive and affective component of the subjective dimension. As to organizational commitment, we make a distinction between value commitment and readiness to remain with the employing organization. The empirical basis for the analysis is survey data collected in Sweden in 2010-2011. Some of the outcomes are just as expected: perceived risk of losing one’s job is associated with lower value commitment and less willingness to stay with the organization, while the opposite pattern appears for satisfaction with job security. Other results are more noteworthy: increases in unemployment, temporary employment contracts and worry about losing one’s job are linked to higher value commitment. Being anxious about job loss is also positively related to willingness to stay. These results indicate that insecurity can make people more appreciative of their current work and workplace.

  17. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel

  18. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasifiction combined sycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel

  19. Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerns William P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Envenomation by crotaline snakes (rattlesnake, cottonmouth, copperhead is a complex, potentially lethal condition affecting thousands of people in the United States each year. Treatment of crotaline envenomation is not standardized, and significant variation in practice exists. Methods A geographically diverse panel of experts was convened for the purpose of deriving an evidence-informed unified treatment algorithm. Research staff analyzed the extant medical literature and performed targeted analyses of existing databases to inform specific clinical decisions. A trained external facilitator used modified Delphi and structured consensus methodology to achieve consensus on the final treatment algorithm. Results A unified treatment algorithm was produced and endorsed by all nine expert panel members. This algorithm provides guidance about clinical and laboratory observations, indications for and dosing of antivenom, adjunctive therapies, post-stabilization care, and management of complications from envenomation and therapy. Conclusions Clinical manifestations and ideal treatment of crotaline snakebite differ greatly, and can result in severe complications. Using a modified Delphi method, we provide evidence-informed treatment guidelines in an attempt to reduce variation in care and possibly improve clinical outcomes.

  20. Conscientious commitment to women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Bernard M; Cook, Rebecca J

    2011-05-01

    Conscientious commitment, the reverse of conscientious objection, inspires healthcare providers to overcome barriers to delivery of reproductive services to protect and advance women's health. History shows social reformers experiencing religious condemnation and imprisonment for promoting means of birth control, until access became popularly accepted. Voluntary sterilization generally followed this pattern to acceptance, but overcoming resistance to voluntary abortion calls for courage and remains challenging. The challenge is aggravated by religious doctrines that view treatment of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and emergency contraception not by reference to women's healthcare needs, but through the lens of abortion. However, modern legal systems increasingly reject this myopic approach. Providers' conscientious commitment is to deliver treatments directed to women's healthcare needs, giving priority to patient care over adherence to conservative religious doctrines or religious self-interest. The development of in vitro fertilization to address childlessness further illustrates the inspiration of conscientious commitment over conservative objections.

  1. Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed Generator Units with Droop Control and Virtual Impedance Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    ) consideration of virtual impedance parameters and (ii) higher accuracy in reactive power flow calculation. The improved power flow analysis algorithm proposed in this paper is validated by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. Case studies have been carried out...

  2. Treating Inpatients with Comorbid Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders: A Comparison of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Connie L.; Zettle, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Inpatients involuntarily committed to a chemical dependency unit and exhibiting a co-occurring depressive disorder received either individual sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU) within the context of an ongoing 12-step program. Results indicated significant, but equivalent, reductions in levels of…

  3. Treating Inpatients with Comorbid Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders: A Comparison of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Connie L.; Zettle, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Inpatients involuntarily committed to a chemical dependency unit and exhibiting a co-occurring depressive disorder received either individual sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU) within the context of an ongoing 12-step program. Results indicated significant, but equivalent, reductions in levels of…

  4. Strategic effects of future environmental policy commitments: climate change, solar radiation management and correlated air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jingwen; Silva, Emilson Caputo Delfino

    2015-03-15

    We study the effects of environmental policy commitments in a futuristic world in which solar radiation management (SRM) can be utilized to reduce climate change damages. Carbon and sulfur dioxide emissions (correlated pollutants) can be reduced through tradable permits. We show that if nations simultaneously commit to carbon permit policies, national SRM levels rise with carbon quotas. Alternatively, if they simultaneously commit to SRM policies, the global temperature falls with each unit increase in the global SRM level. A nation always wishes to be a leader in policymaking, but prefers carbon to SRM policymaking. The globe prefers SRM policy commitments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on the relationship between emotional intelligence, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Chehrazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a casual structure model between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior by using organizational commitment as mediator variable. The study is accomplished among 324 employees of united bus company in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed that emotional intelligence influenced on organizational citizenship behavior and commitment. The study also confirms that organizational commitment influenced on organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, the study has confirmed that there were significant relationships between emotional intelligence and its dimensions with organizational citizenship behavior and organizational commitment of employees.

  6. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  7. Faculty Organizational Commitment and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Janet; Ott, Molly; Bell, Alli

    2012-01-01

    Building on a theoretical framework that links characteristics of individuals and their work settings to organizational commitment (OC) and citizenship behavior, this study considers why faculty may be disengaging from institutional service. Analyses of survey data collected from a state system of higher education suggest that job characteristics,…

  8. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  10. Committed to the Public Interest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    While politicians are often seen as being motivated by narrow self-interest, this article offers an alternative view. The relationship between two pro-social dimensions – Commitment to the Public Interest (CPI) and User Orientation (UO) – and behavioural outcomes among local councillors is analyzed...

  11. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  12. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  13. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  14. School Climate and Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larry Don

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between school climate and teacher commitment. The study focused on elementary schools in Northeast Alabama. Thirty-four elementary schools consisting of 522 teachers took part in the study. The teachers completed two survey instruments: the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment…

  15. Physical Education Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hayri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical education teachers' organizational commitment levels. The sample consisted of 204 physical education teachers working in the city center of Konya in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The respondents were randomly selected in this research. Data collected for this research by using the Scale for…

  16. Atypical Employment Relationships and Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torka, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, simultaneously maintaining flexible working practices and commitment is an important topic for HR managers since they both can contribute to organisational success. However, many HRM researchers and practitioners are unsure whether these can go together as job security is often seen as a n

  17. The Relationships between Collegiate DECA Commitment, Mentoring and College Students' Perceived Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between student's Collegiate DECA commitment, psychological capital, mentoring, and perceived career commitment. Proposed relationships were supported with several psychological theories and frameworks including Organizational Commitment, Psychological Capital, and Social Identity Theory. Data was…

  18. Committed effective doses at various times after intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed effective doses at nine times after intake from intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu 1 AMAD particles by adults. Data are given for various chemical forms of 359 nuclides. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on committed equivalent doses to organs is given in NRPB-M288. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  19. Effects of Gender on Engineering Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anne M.

    Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.

  20. Algorithm and program for precise determination of unit-cell parameters of single crystal taking into account the sample eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, A. P.; Smirnova, E. S.; Verin, I. A.; Bolotina, N. B.

    2017-07-01

    A technique has been developed to refine the unit-cell parameters of single crystals with minimization of the influence of instrumental errors on the result. The corresponding computational procedure HuberUB is added to the software package of Huber-5042 diffractometer with a point detector and closedcycle helium cryostat Displex DE-202. The parameters of unit cell, its orientation, the goniometer zero angles, the sample eccentricity, the distances in the goniometer, and the radiation wavelength were refined by the nonlinear least-squares method, which allows imposition of constraints on the unit-cell parameters, depending on the crystal symmetry. The technique is approved on a LuB12 single crystal. The unit-cell parameters are determined in a temperature range of 20-295 K, with an absolute error not larger than 0.0004 Å (the relative error is of 5 × 10-5). The estimates of the unit-cell parameters obtained by the proposed method are evidenced to be unbiased. Some specific features of the behavior of parameters in the ranges of 120-140 and 20-50 K are revealed, which correlate with the anomalies of the physical properties of the crystal.

  1. Algorithms for short-term production planning of cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotzauer, E.

    1998-03-01

    A cogeneration plant, feeding its output water into a district-heating network, may include several types of energy producing units. The most important being the Co-generation unit, which produces both heat and electricity. Most plants also have a Heat water storage. Finding the optimal production of both heat and electricity and the optimal use of the storage is a challenging mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. The calculations may be divided into two sub-problems. The unit commitment problem is the problem to determine when a unit should be producing (on) or not (off). To solve the economic dispatch problem is to find the optimal production plan given which units are producing in each time interval. Together the solution of these two problems form the solution of the short-term production-planning problem. In this thesis a general approach for the mathematical modeling of a co-generation plant is presented. The model objective function is nonlinear, with nonlinear constraints. Internal plant temperatures, mass flows, storage losses, minimal up and down times and time dependent start-up costs are considered. The demand for heat, the forward temperature from the plant, the return temperature to the plant and the price of electricity are assumed to be known quantities. The net electric power produced is sold for the estimated current market price of electricity. The unit commitment problem is solved with an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation. The dual search direction is computed by the sub gradient method and the step length by the Polyak rule II. A heuristic method for the generation of primal feasible solutions is developed. The economic dispatch problem is solved using a combination of dynamic programming and general-purpose solvers. Algorithms to find starting values for the problem are developed. The model and the algorithms are implemented in MATLAB, illustrated with numerical examples and analyzed with numerical tests

  2. ERP系统中物料清单到单损耗表的转换算法%Transformation Algorithm from BOM to Unit Consumption in ERP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 李松涛

    2011-01-01

    结合一个实际的海关联网监管项目,实现了物料清单(BOM)到单损耗表的转换.转换过程采用深度优先算法,在遍历的基础上构造树状BOM结构,并最终按照转换规则生成单损耗表.算法使用面向对象技术,实现了数据的封装,该算法在实际项目中得到了验证.%The conversion between bill of material (BOM) and table for unit consumption is realized in a practical project of custom supervision network. The depth-first search (DFS) algorithm is adopted and the tree structure BOM is formed based on traversal. According to conversion rules,the table of unit consumption is generated. The data is encapsulated by using object-oriented techniques This algorithm is verified and applied in project.

  3. A fusion algorithm for infrared and visible images based on adaptive dual-channel unit-linking PCNN in NSCT domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tianzhu; Yan, Li; Gao, Rongrong

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a novel fusion algorithm based on the adaptive dual-channel unit-linking pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for infrared and visible images fusion in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain is proposed. The flexible multi-resolution and directional expansion for images of NSCT are associated with global coupling and pulse synchronization characteristic of dual-PCNN. Compared with other dual-PCNN models, the proposed model possesses fewer parameters and is not difficult to implement adaptive, which is more suitable for image fusion. Firstly, the source images were multi-scale and multi-directional decomposed by NSCT. Then, to make dual-channel PCNN adaptive, the average gradient of each pixel was presented as the linking strength, and the time matrix was presented to determine the iteration number adaptively. In this fusion scheme, a novel sum modified-Laplacian of low-frequency subband and a modified spatial frequency of high-frequency subband were input to motivate the adaptive dual-channel unit-linking PCNN, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve image fusion performance, accomplish notable target information and high contrast, simultaneously preserve rich details information, and excel other typical current methods in both objective evaluation criteria and visual effect.

  4. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  5. Antecedents and Consequences of Affective Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Odekerken-Schröder, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the impact of three psychological antecedents (position involvement, volitional choice and informational complexity) on affective commitment in a financial service setting. Furthermore, this study addresses the consequences of affective commitment on

  6. Social commitment robots and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kerstin; Guse, Lorna; Mordoch, Elaine; Osterreicher, Angela

    2012-03-01

    In 2010, approximately 500,000 Canadians suffered from a dementia-related illness. The number of sufferers is estimated to double in about 25 years. Due to this growing demographic, dementia (most frequently caused by Alzheimer's disease) will increasingly have a significant impact on our aging community and their caregivers. Dementia is associated with challenging behaviours such as agitation, wandering, and aggression. Care providers must find innovative strategies that facilitate the quality of life for this population; moreover, such strategies must value the individual person. Social commitment robots - designed specifically with communication and therapeutic purposes - provide one means towards attaining this goal. This paper describes a study in which Paro (a robotic baby harp seal) was used as part of a summer training program for students. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the integration of social commitment robots may be clinically valuable for older, agitated persons living with dementia in long-term care settings.

  7. A brief review on quantum bit commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Álvaro J.; Loura, Ricardo; Paunković, Nikola; Silva, Nuno A.; Muga, Nelson J.; Mateus, Paulo; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.

    2014-08-01

    In classical cryptography, the bit commitment scheme is one of the most important primitives. We review the state of the art of bit commitment protocols, emphasizing its main achievements and applications. Next, we present a practical quantum bit commitment scheme, whose security relies on current technological limitations, such as the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We demonstrate the feasibility of our practical quantum bit commitment protocol and that it can be securely implemented with nowadays technology.

  8. Pragmatic commitments to naturalized epistemology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong Hangqing; Cheng Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    This essay explores numerous and complicated naturalized epistemology against the background of pragmatism.We distinguish three programmes of naturalized epistemology:strong,moderate,and weak.By considering commitments of pragmatism on which different programmes depend,we point out the close-knit relationship between pragmatism and naturalized epistemology.We also illustrate the essential origin of today's controversy over naturalized epistemology and predict the uptrend of naturalized epistemology.

  9. The relevance of ontological commitments

    CERN Document Server

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    In this introductory note, I describe my particular view of the notion of ontological commitments as honest and pragmatic working hypotheses that assume the existence (out there) of certain entities represented by the symbols in our theory. I argue that this is not naive, in the sense that it does not entail the belief that the hypotheses could ever be proved to be true (or false), but it is nevertheless justified by the success and predictive power of the theory that contains the concepts assumed to exist. I also claim that the ontological commitments one holds (even if tacitly so) have a great influence on what kind of science is produced, how it is used, and how it is understood. Not only I justify this claim, but I also propose a sketch of a possible falsification of it. As a natural conclusion, I defend the importance of identifying, clarifying and making explicit one's ontological commitments if fruitful scientific discussions are to be had. Finally, I compare my point of view with that of some philosop...

  10. The dimensionality of professional commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Bagraim

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dimensionality of professional commitment amongst a sample of 240 South African actuaries. Data were obtained, via a mailed questionnaire, from members of the South African Actuarial Society employed in the financial services industry. Statistical analysis conducted on the data showed that the 3-component model first proposed by Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993 is appropriate for understanding professional commitment amongst South African professionals. The analysis also showed that South African actuaries are highly committed to their profession. Opsomming Hierdie artikel ondersoek die dimensionaliteit van professionele toewyding by ‘n steekproef van 240 Suid-Afrikaanse aktuarisse. Die data is verkry deur ‘n posvraelys aan lede van die Suid-Afrikaanse Aktuariële Vereniging wat in die finansiële dienstesektor werksaam was. Statistiese ontledings wat uitgevoer is op die data dui aan dat die driekomponentmodel, aanvanklik voorgestel deur Meyer, Allen en Smith (1993, geskik is om professionele toewyding by Suid-Afrikaanse beroepslui te verstaan. Die ontleding dui verder aan dat Suid-Afrikaanse aktuarisse hoogs toegewyd is aan hulle professie.

  11. Spermatogenesis: The Commitment to Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis requires a stem cell pool, a period of amplification of cell numbers, the completion of reduction division to haploid cells (meiosis), and the morphological transformation of the haploid cells into spermatozoa (spermiogenesis). The net result of these processes is the production of massive numbers of spermatozoa over the reproductive lifetime of the animal. One study that utilized homogenization-resistant spermatids as the standard determined that human daily sperm production (dsp) was at 45 million per day per testis (60). For each human that means ∼1,000 sperm are produced per second. A key to this level of gamete production is the organization and architecture of the mammalian testes that results in continuous sperm production. The seemingly complex repetitious relationship of cells termed the "cycle of the seminiferous epithelium" is driven by the continuous commitment of undifferentiated spermatogonia to meiosis and the period of time required to form spermatozoa. This commitment termed the A to A1 transition requires the action of retinoic acid (RA) on the undifferentiated spermatogonia or prospermatogonia. In stages VII to IX of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, Sertoli cells and germ cells are influenced by pulses of RA. These pulses of RA move along the seminiferous tubules coincident with the spermatogenic wave, presumably undergoing constant synthesis and degradation. The RA pulse then serves as a trigger to commit undifferentiated progenitor cells to the rigidly timed pathway into meiosis and spermatid differentiation.

  12. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are...

  13. Commitment among Arab Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Adital Tirosh; Azaiza, Faisal

    1998-01-01

    Examines 662 Arab adolescents' commitments to their own self-development, family, Arab people, and village along with the order in which these commitments are structured. Reveals that the two prevalent patterns of adolescent commitment, individualistic and collectivistic, demonstrate the adolescents' struggle with these value systems and the…

  14. Organizational and Client Commitment among Contracted Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M.; Morrow, Paula C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines affective commitment to employing and client organizations among long-term contracted employees, a new and growing employment classification. Drawing on organizational commitment and social exchange literatures, we propose two categories of antecedents of employee commitment to client organizations. We tested our hypotheses…

  15. Professionalism as a Form of Work Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Paula C.; Goetz, Joe F., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluated concept of professionalism as a form of work commitment using a modified version of Hall's (1968) multidimensional measure of professionalism on 325 accountants in public practice. Examined three forms of work commitment--job involvement, organizational commitment, and work ethic endorsement--and four professional behaviors. Suggests the…

  16. Automated treatment planning for a dedicated multi-source intracranial radiosurgery treatment unit using projected gradient and grassfire algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, Kimia; Ghaffari, Hamid R; Aleman, Dionne M; Jaffray, David A; Ruschin, Mark

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a framework to the inverse problem for radiosurgery treatment planning on the Gamma Knife(®) Perfexion™ (PFX) for intracranial targets. The approach taken in the present study consists of two parts. First, a hybrid grassfire and sphere-packing algorithm is used to obtain shot positions (isocenters) based on the geometry of the target to be treated. For the selected isocenters, a sector duration optimization (SDO) model is used to optimize the duration of radiation delivery from each collimator size from each individual source bank. The SDO model is solved using a projected gradient algorithm. This approach has been retrospectively tested on seven manually planned clinical cases (comprising 11 lesions) including acoustic neuromas and brain metastases. In terms of conformity and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, the quality of plans achieved with the inverse planning approach were, on average, improved compared to the manually generated plans. The mean difference in conformity index between inverse and forward plans was -0.12 (range: -0.27 to +0.03) and +0.08 (range: 0.00-0.17) for classic and Paddick definitions, respectively, favoring the inverse plans. The mean difference in volume receiving the prescribed dose (V(100)) between forward and inverse plans was 0.2% (range: -2.4% to +2.0%). After plan renormalization for equivalent coverage (i.e., V(100)), the mean difference in dose to 1 mm(3) of brainstem between forward and inverse plans was -0.24 Gy (range: -2.40 to +2.02 Gy) favoring the inverse plans. Beam-on time varied with the number of isocenters but for the most optimal plans was on average 33 min longer than manual plans (range: -17 to +91 min) when normalized to a calibration dose rate of 3.5 Gy/min. In terms of algorithm performance, the isocenter selection for all the presented plans was performed in less than 3 s, while the SDO was performed in an average of 215 min. PFX inverse planning can be performed using

  17. Automated treatment planning for a dedicated multi-source intracranial radiosurgery treatment unit using projected gradient and grassfire algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghobadi, Kimia; Ghaffari, Hamid R.; Aleman, Dionne M.; Jaffray, David A.; Ruschin, Mark [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a framework to the inverse problem for radiosurgery treatment planning on the Gamma Knife{sup Registered-Sign} Perfexion Trade-Mark-Sign (PFX) for intracranial targets. Methods: The approach taken in the present study consists of two parts. First, a hybrid grassfire and sphere-packing algorithm is used to obtain shot positions (isocenters) based on the geometry of the target to be treated. For the selected isocenters, a sector duration optimization (SDO) model is used to optimize the duration of radiation delivery from each collimator size from each individual source bank. The SDO model is solved using a projected gradient algorithm. This approach has been retrospectively tested on seven manually planned clinical cases (comprising 11 lesions) including acoustic neuromas and brain metastases. Results: In terms of conformity and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, the quality of plans achieved with the inverse planning approach were, on average, improved compared to the manually generated plans. The mean difference in conformity index between inverse and forward plans was -0.12 (range: -0.27 to +0.03) and +0.08 (range: 0.00-0.17) for classic and Paddick definitions, respectively, favoring the inverse plans. The mean difference in volume receiving the prescribed dose (V{sub 100}) between forward and inverse plans was 0.2% (range: -2.4% to +2.0%). After plan renormalization for equivalent coverage (i.e., V{sub 100}), the mean difference in dose to 1 mm{sup 3} of brainstem between forward and inverse plans was -0.24 Gy (range: -2.40 to +2.02 Gy) favoring the inverse plans. Beam-on time varied with the number of isocenters but for the most optimal plans was on average 33 min longer than manual plans (range: -17 to +91 min) when normalized to a calibration dose rate of 3.5 Gy/min. In terms of algorithm performance, the isocenter selection for all the presented plans was performed in less than 3 s, while the SDO was performed in an

  18. Using a Genetic Algorithm to Model Broadband Regional Waveforms for Crustal Structure in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Joydeep; Sheehan, Anne F.; Tiampo, Kristy; Rundle, John

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we analyze regional seismograms to obtain the crustal structure in the eastern Great Basin and western Colorado plateau. Adopting a for- ward-modeling approach, we develop a genetic algorithm (GA) based parameter search technique to constrain the one-dimensional crustal structure in these regions. The data are broadband three-component seismograms recorded at the 1994-95 IRIS PASSCAL Colorado Plateau to Great Basin experiment (CPGB) stations and supplemented by data from U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN) stations in Utah and Nevada. We use the southwestern Wyoming mine collapse event (M(sub b) = 5.2) that occurred on 3 February 1995 as the seismic source. We model the regional seismograms using a four-layer crustal model with constant layer parameters. Timing of teleseismic receiver functions at CPGB stations are added as an additional constraint in the modeling. GA allows us to efficiently search the model space. A carefully chosen fitness function and a windowing scheme are added to the algorithm to prevent search stagnation. The technique is tested with synthetic data, both with and without random Gaussian noise added to it. Several separate model searches are carried out to estimate the variability of the model parameters. The average Colorado plateau crustal structure is characterized by a 40-km-thick crust with velocity increases at depths of about 10 and 25 km and a fast lower crust while the Great Basin has approximately 35- km-thick crust and a 2.9-km-thick sedimentary layer.

  19. An empirical investigation on relationship between social capital and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alikhani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social capital and organizational commitment. The study considers the relationship between social capital with three components of organizational commitment; namely, affective commitment, continuous and normative commitment. The study has been applied among a sample of 292 regular employees who worked for an Iranian bank located in city of Tehran, Iran. The implementation of Pearson correlation has indicated that there were positive and meaningful relationships between social capital and affective commitment (r = 0.197, Sig. = 0.01, continuous (r = 0.308, Sig. = 0.01 and normative commitment (r = 0.423, Sig. = 0.01. In addition, the study has detected that women had more commitment on their organization than men did. The proposed study of this paper has also considered a regression model where organizational commitment is dependent variable and trust and communication are considered as independent variables. According to the results of regression analysis, an increase of one unit in trust and social capital communication will increase organizational commitment by 0.189 and 0.204, respectively.

  20. The impact of selected organizational variables and managerial leadership on radiation therapists' organizational commitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akroyd, Duane [Department of Adult and Community College Education, College of Education, Campus Box 7801, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)], E-mail: duane_akroyd@ncsu.edu; Legg, Jeff [Department of Radiologic Sciences, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); Jackowski, Melissa B. [Division of Radiologic Sciences, University of North Carolina School of Medicine 27599 (United States); Adams, Robert D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine 27599 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of selected organizational factors and the leadership behavior of supervisors on radiation therapists' commitment to their organizations. The population for this study consists of all full time clinical radiation therapists registered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) in the United States. A random sample of 800 radiation therapists was obtained from the ARRT for this study. Questionnaires were mailed to all participants and measured organizational variables; managerial leadership variable and three components of organizational commitment (affective, continuance and normative). It was determined that organizational support, and leadership behavior of supervisors each had a significant and positive affect on normative and affective commitment of radiation therapists and each of the models predicted over 40% of the variance in radiation therapists organizational commitment. This study examined radiation therapists' commitment to their organizations and found that affective (emotional attachment to the organization) and normative (feelings of obligation to the organization) commitments were more important than continuance commitment (awareness of the costs of leaving the organization). This study can help radiation oncology administrators and physicians to understand the values their radiation therapy employees hold that are predictive of their commitment to the organization. A crucial result of the study is the importance of the perceived support of the organization and the leadership skills of managers/supervisors on radiation therapists' commitment to the organization.

  1. An Algorithm of Traffic Perception of DDoS Attacks against SOA Based on Time United Conditional Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Yuntao Zhao; Hengchi Liu; Yongxin Feng

    2016-01-01

    DDoS attacks can prevent legitimate users from accessing the service by consuming resource of the target nodes, whose availability of network and service is exposed to a significant threat. Therefore, DDoS traffic perception is the premise and foundation of the whole system security. In this paper the method of DDoS traffic perception for SOA network based on time united conditional entropy was proposed. According to many-to-one relationship mapping between the source IP address and destinati...

  2. The role of professional and team commitment in nurse-physician collaboration: A dual identity model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Guberti, Monica; Borgognoni, Patrizia; Prandi, Carmen; Spaggiari, Ivana; Vezzani, Emanuela; Iemmi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Nurse-physician collaboration involves healthcare operators from different professions working together. The dual identity model predicts that nurse-physician interprofessional collaboration could improve if these operators feel they belong to both their professional category and care unit. This study tested this prediction by analyzing the effect of professional and team commitments on interprofessional collaboration between nurses and physicians in a hospital based in Northern Italy. A cross-section questionnaire survey was administered to 270 nurses and 95 physicians. Results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is positively affected by team commitment, while professional commitment had no effect. In accordance with the dual identity model, results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is higher when: (i) both professional and team commitment is high, and (ii) when team commitment is high and professional commitment is low. These results support dual identity model predictions and suggest that interprofessional collaboration can be increased by bolstering both team and professional commitment of nurses and physicians.

  3. A graphics processing unit (GPU)-based real-time spherizing algorithm%基于GPU的实时球面化算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建彪; 陈国华; 张爱军; 周厉颖

    2013-01-01

    分析了球面映射算法速度过慢的原因,针对传统插值计算中普遍存在的速度与精度相互制约的问题,改进了现有的基于立体投影的半球面纹理映射模型,提出了基于GPU的球面化算法,使用CUDA并行编程实现双线性插值的并行计算.球面化实验表明该算法在保证输出精度的前提下,可获得10倍左右的加速比,显著提高了计算速度,可用于实时性较高的应用场合.%The cause of the low speed of a sphere mapping algorithm has been analyzed. In order to reduce the interaction between speed and accuracy, which is common in traditional interpolation methods with existing sphere mapping algorithms, an improved hemisphere texture mapping model based on stereoscopic projection has been proposed , and a graphics processing unit ( GPU ) -based spherizing algorithm has been put forward, in which CUDA parallel programming was utilized to complete the parallel computing of bilinear interpolation. The experiments showed that the computing speed could be significantly increased with the new method, whilst ensuring output accuracy. The method gave a speedup factor of almost 10, and it could be employed in fast real-time applications.

  4. Commitment to self-rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Self-administered rewards are ubiquitous. They serve as incentives for personal accomplish¬ments and are widely recommended as tools for overcoming self-control problems. However, it seems puzzling why self-rewards can work: the prospect of a reward has a motivating force only if the threat of self-denial of the reward after low performance is credible. We explain how a rational forward-looking individual may achieve commitment to self-rewards, by applying Köszegi and Rabin's (2006) model of ...

  5. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  6. String matching algorithm research based on graphic processing unit%基于GPU的串匹配算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆丹; 戴正华; 冯圣中; 孙凝晖

    2006-01-01

    BF算法是串匹配算法中最基础的算法,但它是串行算法,不适合图形处理器(Graphic Processing Unit,GPU)的体系结构.结合GPU的特殊体系结构,通过数据存取方式和计算策略的改进,充分利用了GPU的并行处理能力,从而基于GPU实现了BF算法.实验结果表明基于GPU的并行算法能够取得较好的加速比,同时也给出了在现有GPU架构上有效实现通用计算的瓶颈.

  7. DEM-based topographic unit diversity index and its algorithm%基于DEM的地形单元多样性指数及其算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田瑞云; 王玉宽; 傅斌; 刘援

    2013-01-01

    在阐述地形信息表达研究进展的基础上,提出基于DEM地形单元多样性指数的概念和算法.地形单元多样性指数综合了高程、坡度、坡位、坡向、汇流量和水域信息等要素.其算法集成地形位置指数和地形湿度指数算法,采用图层叠加分析,设定分类、分级指标,进行重分类组合,划分地形单元类型,利用窗口分析法计算地形单元多样性指数.以四川省为试验区,利用精度为100 m的DEM数据和水域分布数据进行模拟计算,地形单元划分为13种典型类型,统计窗口半径设为900m,计算出的多样性指数值小于0.5的区域仅占总面积的11%,大于0.75的区域达57%,符合实验区地形特征,并对算法进行了可行性分析和验证.结果表明,该算法提取的地形单元多样性指数可以有效反映地表形态的多样性特征及其变化.该研究结果为进一步探讨基于DEM地表形态信息的概念体系,以及从微观到宏观的地形信息空间分析研究创造了条件.%In this paper, based on review of the studies on methods and techniques of terrain information description, topographic unit diversity index (TUDI), a new concept and quantification method, was proposed. The diversity index integrates several terrain parameters, e.g., elevation, slope, slope position, slope aspect, water confluences and distributions information. By combining the algorithms of the topographic position index and the topographic wetness index, using layer overlay analysis method and appropriate indicators for classification and grading, TUDI algorithm re-classifies the types of topographic units, and then calculate the TUDI using the neighborhood statistics and analysis method. The results of the experiment in Sichuan Province as a test region using DEM (100 m× 100 m) and waters distribution data (1:250,000, 2005) show that TUDI is a comprehensive index, revealing the complexity and variations of the true surface. In the

  8. The Query-commit Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Molinaro, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In the query-commit problem we are given a graph where edges have distinct probabilities of existing. It is possible to query the edges of the graph, and if the queried edge exists then its endpoints are irrevocably matched. The goal is to find a querying strategy which maximizes the expected size of the matching obtained. This stochastic matching setup is motivated by applications in kidney exchanges and online dating. In this paper we address the query-commit problem from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. First, we show that a simple class of edges can be queried without compromising the optimality of the strategy. This property is then used to obtain in polynomial time an optimal querying strategy when the input graph is sparse. Next we turn our attentions to the kidney exchange application, focusing on instances modeled over real data from existing exchange programs. We prove that, as the number of nodes grows, almost every instance admits a strategy which matches almost all nodes. This resu...

  9. Investment and Consumption without Commitment

    CERN Document Server

    Ekeland, Ivar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the Merton portfolio management problem in the context of non-exponential discounting. This gives rise to time-inconsistency of the decision-maker. If the decision-maker at time t=0 can commit his/her successors, he/she can choose the policy that is optimal from his/her point of view, and constrain the others to abide by it, although they do not see it as optimal for them. If there is no commitment mechanism, one must seek a subgame-perfect equilibrium strategy between the successive decision-makers. In the line of the earlier work by Ekeland and Lazrak we give a precise definition of equilibrium strategies in the context of the portfolio management problem, with finite horizon, we characterize it by a system of partial differential equations, and we show existence in the case when the utility is CRRA and the terminal time T is small. We also investigate the infinite-horizon case and we give two different explicit solutions in the case when the utility is CRRA (in contrast with t...

  10. Algorithm for Screening Phasor Measurement Unit Data for Power System Events and Categories and Common Characteristics for Events Seen in Phasor Measurement Unit Relative Phase-Angle Differences and Frequency Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, A.; Santoso, S.; Muljadi, E.

    2013-08-01

    A network of multiple phasor measurement units (PMU) was created, set up, and maintained at the University of Texas at Austin to obtain actual power system measurements for power system analysis. Power system analysis in this report covers a variety of time ranges, such as short- term analysis for power system disturbances and their effects on power system behavior and long- term power system behavior using modal analysis. The first objective of this report is to screen the PMU data for events. The second objective of the report is to identify and describe common characteristics extracted from power system events as measured by PMUs. The numerical characteristics for each category and how these characteristics are used to create selection rules for the algorithm are also described. Trends in PMU data related to different levels and fluctuations in wind power output are also examined.

  11. Sport Commitment and Purchase Intentions of Intercollegiate Boxing Coaches and Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamar Reams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzed the sport commitment and purchase intentions of club level intercollegiate boxers and coaches. Participants at United States Intercollegiate Boxing Association (USIBA member institutions (N = 155 completed an online survey answering questions regarding their sport commitment and future equipment purchase intentions. Multivariate analysis discovered significant sport commitment differences among boxers and coaches, Wilk’s Λ = .838, F (7, 125 = 3.46, p <.05; with coaches being slightly more committed (M = 4.56, SD = .56 and personally invested than their boxing counterparts (M = 4.56, SD = .52. For the second research question, an analysis of covariance (using sport commitment as the covariate was conducted to analyze potential differences across coaches and boxers on equipment purchase intentions. No significant differences among boxers and coaches were found, F (1, 92 = .400, p = .529. Discussion within the manuscript includes academic implications and pragmatic recommendations.

  12. An examination of the role of perceived support and employee commitment in employee-customer encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Bentein, Kathleen; Michon, Richard; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Tremblay, Michel; Fils, Jean-François

    2007-07-01

    The authors examined the relationships between perceived organizational support, organizational commitment, commitment to customers, and service quality in a fast-food firm. The research design matched customer responses with individual employees' attitudes, making this study a true test of the service provider-customer encounter. On the basis of a sample of matched employee-customer data (N = 133), hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that perceived organizational support had both a unit-level and an employee-level effect on 1 dimension of service quality: helping behavior. Contrary to affective organizational commitment, affective commitment to customers enhanced service quality. The 2 sub-dimensions of continuance commitment to the organization--perceived high sacrifice and perceived lack of alternatives--exerted effects opposite in sign: The former fostered service quality, whereas the latter reduced it. The implications of these findings are discussed within the context of research on employee-customer encounters.

  13. 发输电检修与机组组合联合决策的Benders分解方法%Benders Decomposition Algorithm to Coordination of Generation and Transmission Maintenance Scheduling With Unit Commitment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李本新; 韩学山

    2015-01-01

    电力系统中,设备状态检修技术的日益推广,必将引起发、输电设备的检修与机组起停的方式间产生矛盾和冲突,由此,对二者联合优化决策就显得非常必要.对此,在深入剖析检修决策与运行决策间关联机理的基础上,提出发、输电检修与机组组合联合决策的Benders分解方法.其主要贡献体现在:将大规模复杂优化问题分解为主问题、潮流子问题以及辅助问题,并通过Benders割约束在各问题间有效传递信息,构建分解与协调的总体框架;采用辅助问题对输电设备检修与机组运行间的关联机制进行判别,降低问题寻优的维度;采用基于模式识别思想对潮流子问题进行有效筛选,使潮流子问题数显著减少.最后以IEEE 118节点系统算例说明了该方法的有效性以及实用性.

  14. Multi­-Threaded Algorithms for General purpose Graphics Processor Units in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Conde Mui\\~no, Patricia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    General purpose Graphics Processor Units (GPGPU) are being evaluated for possible future inclusion in an upgraded ATLAS High Level Trigger farm. We have developed a demonstrator including GPGPU implementations of Inner Detector and Muon tracking and Calorimeter clustering within the ATLAS software framework. ATLAS is a general purpose particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system consists of two levels, with level 1 implemented in hardware and the High Level Trigger implemented in software running on a farm of commodity CPU. The High Level Trigger reduces the trigger rate from the 100 kHz level 1 acceptance rate to 1 kHz for recording, requiring an average per­-event processing time of ~250 ms for this task. The selection in the high level trigger is based on reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the Calorimeter. Performing this reconstruction within the available farm resources presents a significant ...

  15. Power plant units load economic dispatch based on partial derivative acceleration fruit fly optimization algorithm%偏导加速果蝇优化算法的电厂机组负荷分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣淼; 王庆; 陈杨; 夏长红; 张勇

    2015-01-01

    As for defects in accuracy and convergence rate of the fruit fly optimization algorithm in power plant units load economic dispatch,a partial derivative acceleration fruit fly optimization algorithm was proposed,with the fruit fly optimization algorithm as first optimization algorithm and partial derivative descent algorithm as second optimization algorithm.The case analysis of power plant units load economic dispatch shows that partial derivative acceleration fruit fly optimization algorithm,maintaining the simplicity in principle and calculation,has great advantage of accuracy,convergence property and robustness compared with fruit fly optimization algorithm,PSO algorithm,GA algorithm.%针对果蝇优化算法等进化算法在电厂机组负荷分配问题中准确性和收敛速度的缺陷,将果蝇优化算法作为一次优化算法,所得结果作为偏导下降算法的输入,即偏导下降算法作为二次优化算法,提出一种偏导加速果蝇优化算法。电厂机组负荷分配实例分析表明:偏导加速果蝇优化算法保持了果蝇优化算法原理简明、计算简洁的特点,且在求解准确性、收敛快速性、稳定性上均优于果蝇优化算法、PSO 算法和 GA 算法。

  16. Workplace Performance, Worker Commitment and Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; McHardy, Jolian; McNabb, Robert; Taylor, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee level data drawn from the 2004 UK Workplace and Employee Relations Survey, we explore the determinants of a measure of worker commitment and loyalty (CLI) and whether CLI influences workplace performance. Factors influencing employee commitment and loyalty include age and gender, whilst workplace level characteristics of importance include human resource practices. With respect to the effects of employee commitment and loyalty upon the workplace, higher CLI is ...

  17. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Distinctive Features

    OpenAIRE

    Flaxman, Paul E.; Blackledge, J. T.; Bond, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    What are the distinctive theoretical and practical features of acceptance and commitment therapy? Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern behaviour therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness interventions alongside commitment and behaviour change strategies to enhance psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility refers to the ability to contact the present moment and change or persist in behaviour that serves one’s personally chosen values. Divided into two secti...

  18. Commitment and Trust in Young Adult Friendships

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Wieselquist

    2007-01-01

    Given the importance of maintaining mutuality in interdependent relationships, the goal of the present research was to determine if interpersonal trust serves as a gauge of partners’ commitment within young adults’ close friendships. It was hypothesized that individuals trust their friends to the degree that their friends are committed to their relationship, and that individuals’ perceptions of their friends’ commitment mediates this association. A correlational design was employed and measur...

  19. Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  20. Disaggregated Futures-Only Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures-Only Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  1. Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O. Gubbins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74% participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse’s family commitment, work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule, and job and career satisfaction. Married participants’ mean age was 48 (SD = 18 years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74% completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males (p = 0.02 but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment (p < 0.01, when controlled for age, gender, number of dependents, work status, and practice setting. Higher work challenge was associated with higher career satisfaction. Higher job related stress was associated with lower job satisfaction. High work challenge and work load may negatively impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated.

  2. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Act 7 Ask for Commitment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duane Sparks

    2008-01-01

    <正>"If you ask for commitment and don’t get it,what you’ll get instead will be either a stall or an objection,"he said."Handling those has always been the toughest part of my job,"Matt admitted."This is the point where every other sales system I know sort of kicks me outside the boundaries of the process and says,‘Here are some gimmicks to fall back on.’How does Action Selling want me to deal with stalls and objections?""To begin with,stop thinking of them as different names for the same thing,"Joe replied."Action Selling says that stalls and objections are two entirely different animals,and they call for A stall means the customer is not quite sold yet but has no

  4. The Factors of Strategic Leadership on Commitment: An Empirical Banking in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliansyah Noor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at obtaining information related to possibility whether organizational commitment is affected by training, organization culture, and ethical practice. The data which had been analyzed by multi regression analysis after all variables had been put into principal factor analysis. In this research employees were chosen as a unit analysis and 120 samples selected randomly.The result of this study shows that organization commitment is positively affected by training, organization culture and ethical practice. Implications of organization commitment might have been effected by training, organization culture and ethical practice as a strategic leadership.

  5. Competition with Variety Seeking and Habitual Consumption: Price Commitment or Quality Commitment?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liyang Xiong; Guan Liu; Shi Jiang

    2017-01-01

    .... With price commitment, firms supply lower quality levels in period 1 and higher quality levels in period 2, while, with quality commitment, firms charge higher prices in period 1 and lower prices in period 2...

  6. A novel quasi-oppositional harmony search algorithm for AGC optimization of three-area multi-unit power system after deregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar Shiva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses a decentralized, well tested three-area multi-unit power system for its automatic generation control (AGC after deregulation which is characterized by price-based market operation. To match with the actual deregulated environment, as prevailing in the real one, the market structure is kept generic enough enabling to capture all possibilities occurring in real-time day-to-day power environment. In accordance to the modifications, as done in the investigated three-area power system model, the concerned objective is to intensify the deregulated AGC operation followed by load disturbances. At the present platform, three different classes of case study results are postulated for the studied test system. The first two illustrate the behavior of unilateral and bilateral based power contract transactions while the third one considers the contract violation case as it exists in present time. The contractual agreement, instituted by DISCO participation matrix, is initialized to address the power transaction contracts. In this work, a novel quasi-oppositional harmony search (QOHS algorithm is explored and presented its significances in deregulated AGC operation. In the second phase of investigation, fast acting Sugeno fuzzy logic technique is explored for on-line, off-nominal operating conditions. For analysis purpose, both the qualitative and the quantitative aspects of the proposed QOHS are presented in reference to genetic algorithm (GA. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis is also performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed QOHS based controller. Simulation work reveals that the proposed QOHS may be, effectively, worked out to order to improve the deregulated AGC performance. It is also being observed that the proposed QOHS outperforms the GA in sense of deregulated AGC operation of power system.

  7. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. identification of new candidate commitment sources in the sport commitment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Scanlan, Larry A; Klunchoo, Tatiana J; Chow, Graig M

    2013-10-01

    Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players' open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.

  8. Effects of Ethical Climate on Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment, and Job Satisfaction of Auditor in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the ethical climate on the organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction of Malaysian auditors. Using a survey questionnaire comprising instruments about the ethical climate, organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction, 263 usable responses were received. To achieve the objectives, mean scores, standard deviations, correlations and multiple regressions were performed. The study re...

  9. Surgeon commitment to trauma care decreases missed injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ko; Lin, Chia-Ju; Chan, Hon-Man; Lee, Wei-Che; Chen, Chao-Wen; Lin, Hsing-Lin; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Cheng, Yuan-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Missed injuries sustain an important issue concerning patient safety and quality of care. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of surgeon commitment to trauma care on missed injuries. We hypothesised that surgeons committed to the trauma service has less missed injuries than surgeons not committed to the trauma service would have. By retrospective analysis of 976 adult patients admitted to the trauma intensive care unit (ICU) at an urban, university-based trauma centre. Missed injuries were compared between two groups; in group 1 the patients were evaluated and treated by the surgeons who were committed to the trauma service and in group 2 the patients were evaluated and treated by surgeons practicing mainly in other specialties. Patients had significantly lower rates of missed major or life-threatening injuries when treated by group 1 surgeons. Logistic regression model revealed significant factors associated with missed major or life-threatening injuries including ISS and groups in which patients were treated by different group surgeons. Physicians will perform better when they are trained and interested in a specific area than those not trained, or even not having any particular interest in that specific area. Surgeons committed to the trauma service had less missed injuries in severely injured patients, and it is vital to improve patient safety and quality of care for trauma patients. Staff training and education for assessing severely injured patients and creating an open culture with detection and reduction of the potential for error are important and effective strategies in decreasing missed injuries and improving patient safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Requesting a Commitment to Change: Conditions that Produce Behavioral or Attitudinal Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Githa Kanisin; MacVicar, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    There is a lack of clarity in the conceptualization of "commitment" underlying the commitment to change (CTC) procedure used by organizers of continuing education in the health professions. This article highlights the two distinct conceptualizations of commitment that have emerged in the literature outside health care education and practice. The…

  11. Factors associated with the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff in organizational change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenroos, Eija [Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Radiography and Radiotherapy, Mannerheimintie 172, 00300 Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: eija.gronroos@metropolia.fi; Pajukari, Arja [MHS, Hus-Roentgen, PL 809, 00029 Hus (Finland)], E-mail: arja.pajukari@hus.fi; Matinheikki-Kokko, Kaija [Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Mannerheimintie 172, 00300 Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to examine factors associated with the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff. The associations studied are (1) organizational change, (2) work-related factors, (3) psychosocial work environment, and (4) intention to leave. Method: The follow-up study was performed between 2005 and 2007 in co-operation with 10 radiography departments of two Finnish municipalities. In 2005 the response rate was 60% (n = 97/163) and in 2007 it was 49% (n = 73/150). Results: The goal commitment had dropped during the organizational change from 3.96 in 2005 to 3.60 in 2007 (scale 1-5) (p = 0.001). Best predictors for the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff were having children (OR 4.4) and perceiving functional environment clearly (OR 2.6). Correlation between the goal commitment and intention to leave of the staff was -0.32 (p = 0.01). Conclusion: From the viewpoint of the commitment of the radiography departments' staff, the trend of uniting quite independent health care units into larger entities seems not to be beneficial. This study reveals that commitment to one's work unit is most of all a question of stability and job security. This is a fact the leadership of the radiography departments should take into account, appreciate and support to assure the tenure and productivity of their workforce.

  12. Predicting the Social Commitments of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Ellen; O'Ryan, Leslie W.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the nature of social beliefs and commitments during the college years in relation to developmental orientations as measured by the Dakota Inventory of Student Orientations. Results support Creative-Reflective scale scores as predictive of commitment to the more humanitarian issues such as race and women's rights, whereas…

  13. Analyzing Teaching Commitment: Theoretical and Empirical Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Alexander K., Jr.

    Classical commitment studies are either sociologically oriented or based in the psychological empirical research tradition. A review of the literature reveals agreement on the multidimensionality and the contextual complexity of commitment, two principles which guide the hypotheses of the present study. This study uses the Administrator and…

  14. Identity Style, Parental Authority, and Identity Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The role that parental authority patterns and social-cognitive identity styles may play in establishing identity commitments was investigated. The results indicated that family authority and identity style variables combined accounted for 50% of the variation in strength of identity commitment. As hypothesized, the relationship between parental…

  15. Identity Style, Parental Authority, and Identity Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The role that parental authority patterns and social-cognitive identity styles may play in establishing identity commitments was investigated. The results indicated that family authority and identity style variables combined accounted for 50% of the variation in strength of identity commitment. As hypothesized, the relationship between parental…

  16. Religious and professional commitment in pastoral ministry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilderman, J.B.A.M.; Felling, A.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution, we clarify the pastoral commitment of Dutch Roman-Catholic pastors by describing it as the interplay of religious and professional commitment, which we analyze both analytically and empirically. Our main research question regards an empirical and theological inquiry into the re

  17. Mentor Commitment in Formal Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the role of mentor commitment relative to protege perceptions of relationship quality within formal mentoring programs. Based on a matched sample of 91 mentors and proteges, the results indicated that mentor commitment related positively to protege reports of relationship quality. This relationship was stronger for male…

  18. The Influence of Culture on Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Razak, Nordin; Darmawan, I. Gusti Ngurah; Keeves, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Culture is believed to be an important factor that influences various aspects of human life, such as behaviour, thinking, perceptions and attitudes. This article examines the similarities and differences in the influence of culture on teacher commitment in three types of Malaysian primary schools. Since commitment to teaching has rarely been…

  19. Education on the Internet: Anonymity vs. Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Hubert L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that learning a skill requires the kind of commitment which is undermined by the Press (the Public) and the Internet, citing Soren Kierkegaard's "The Present Age", and states that learning by apprenticeship is impossible in cyberspace. Includes: aesthetic sphere--commitment to the enjoyment of sheer information; ethical…

  20. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  1. Study on efficiency of time computation in x-ray imaging simulation base on Monte Carlo algorithm using graphics processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiani, Tia Dwi; Suprijadi, Haryanto, Freddy

    2016-03-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) is one of the powerful techniques for simulation in x-ray imaging. MC method can simulate the radiation transport within matter with high accuracy and provides a natural way to simulate radiation transport in complex systems. One of the codes based on MC algorithm that are widely used for radiographic images simulation is MC-GPU, a codes developed by Andrea Basal. This study was aimed to investigate the time computation of x-ray imaging simulation in GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) compared to a standard CPU (Central Processing Unit). Furthermore, the effect of physical parameters to the quality of radiographic images and the comparison of image quality resulted from simulation in the GPU and CPU are evaluated in this paper. The simulations were run in CPU which was simulated in serial condition, and in two GPU with 384 cores and 2304 cores. In simulation using GPU, each cores calculates one photon, so, a large number of photon were calculated simultaneously. Results show that the time simulations on GPU were significantly accelerated compared to CPU. The simulations on the 2304 core of GPU were performed about 64 -114 times faster than on CPU, while the simulation on the 384 core of GPU were performed about 20 - 31 times faster than in a single core of CPU. Another result shows that optimum quality of images from the simulation was gained at the history start from 108 and the energy from 60 Kev to 90 Kev. Analyzed by statistical approach, the quality of GPU and CPU images are relatively the same.

  2. Decision to commit crime: rational or nonrational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D. Walters

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to prove the necessity to take into account the influence of emotions on decision making to describe a combined model of the decision making process which unites rational and irrational components of choice in crime commitment. Methods dialectic systemic historicallegal formaljuridical methods summarization. Results the paper gives a complex analysis of the criminal decisionmaking process and reveals the factors increasing the probability of antisocial actions. The value of the combined cognitiveemotive model is that emotions can give more significant information to the decisionmaker than reasoning. Scientific novelty the author proposes a theory of decision making which says that a person chooses to act or not to act under hedonistic or moral emotions while the irrelevant emotions are increased and the relevant ones are suppressed by cognitive and situational factors serving as a basis for criminal decision making. Practical significance studying the role of emotions in the criminal and noncriminal decision making will significantly contribute to the development of criminology. The research results will be useful for researchers and lawenforcement bodies as well as for all those who are interested in the issues of crime control and prevention.

  3. Prosodic form and parsing commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, S M; Murray, W S

    1996-03-01

    This paper examines the question of whether there are effects of prosody on the syntactic parsing of temporarily ambiguous sentences containing complement verbs. It reports the results of five experiments employing cross-modal response tasks where the visually presented target word was either an ¿appropriate' or an ¿inappropriate' continuation in terms of the prosodic form of the preceeding auditory sentence fragment. Two experiments employing cross-modal naming only showed indications of sensitivity to syntactic and appropriateness manipulations when coupled with a simultaneous appropriateness judgment task. In contrast, the experiments employing cross-modal lexical decision showed greater sensitivity to syntactic and appropriateness effects. However, while the results from these studies replicated our earlier auditory parsing results and provided support for the suggestion that there are differences in visual and auditory parsing processes and for a ¿constituent-based, ' ¿minimal commitment' type auditory parser, none of the studies demonstrated an effect of prosodic form on the parsing process.

  4. The roles of want to commitment and have to commitment in explaining physical activity behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Jeanne M; Gill, Diane L; Adams, Claire E

    2011-03-01

    Several theories and models have been proposed to explain decisions in changing and adopting behavior but few address the intricacies of behavioral maintenance. The current study assesses the utility of the Investment Model, which identifies satisfaction, investments, and involvement alternatives as predictors of commitment and continued behavior, in predicting physical activity behavior. Participants (N = 267) completed questionnaires about physical activity and commitment. Structural equation modeling assessed relationships among 2 types of exercise commitment (want to or enthusiastic commitment, have to or obligatory commitment), 3 commitment determinants (satisfaction, investments, and alternatives), and physical activity (minutes of physical activity, stage of behavior change). Want to commitment, but not have to commitment, was related to stage of exercise behavior change and time spent in physical activity. Satisfaction and investments were positively related to want to commitment; whereas, satisfaction, investments, and alternatives were positively related to have to commitment. The model explained 68% and 23% of the variance in time spent in physical activity and stage of behavior change, respectively. This study provides support for the application of the Investment Model to physical activity and suggests that want to commitment may be important for explaining and predicting sustained physical activity behavior.

  5. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Meaningful work can yield benefits for organisations and lead to positive work outcomes such as satisfied, engaged and committed employees, individual and organisational fulfilment, productivity, retention and loyalty.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment.Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa.Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  6. Evaluation of Different MODIS AOD Retrieval Algorithms for PM2.5 Estimation in the Western, Midwestern and Southeastern United States with Implications for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Burrows, E. C.; Coffield, S.; Crane, B.

    2016-12-01

    This study was part of the research activities of the Center for Applied Atmospheric Research and Education (CAARE) funded by the NASA MUREP Institutional Research Opportunity (MIRO) Program. Satellite measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) have been shown to be correlated with ground measurements of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), which in turn has been linked to respiratory and heart diseases. The strength of the correlation between AOD and PM2.5 varies for different AOD retrieval algorithms and geographic regions. We evaluated several Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) AOD products from different satellites (Aqua vs. Terra), retrieval algorithms (Dark Target vs. Deep Blue), Collections (5.1 vs. 6) and spatial resolutions (10-km vs. 3-km) for cities in the Western, Midwestern and Southeastern United States. We developed and validated PM2.5 prediction models using remotely sensed AOD data, which were improved by incorporating meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and wind direction) from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS-2). Adding these meteorological data significantly improved the predictive power of all the PM2.5 models, and especially in the Western U.S. Temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were the most significant meteorological variables throughout the year in the Western U.S. Wind speed was the most significant meteorological variable for the cold season while temperature was the most significant variable for the warm season in the Midwestern and Southeastern U.S. Finally, our study re-establishes the connection between PM2.5 and public health concerns including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (asthma, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, heart attack, and stroke). Using PM2.5 data and health data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), our

  7. 75 FR 82095 - Purchase of Irrevocable Commitments Before Standard Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Doc No: 2010-32827] PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION Purchase of Irrevocable Commitments Before... taking further regulatory action or providing specific guidance on purchase of irrevocable commitments... a request for public comment on purchase of irrevocable commitments before standard termination...

  8. Relationship between organizational culture and commitment of employees in health care centers in west of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Yadollah; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh; Soltanian, Alireza; Behzadifar, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Presence of committed personnel in each organization not only reduces their absenteeism, delays, and displacements but also leads to a dramatic increase in performance and efficiency of an organization, mental freshness of employees, better manifestation of noble objectives, and organizational mission as well as fulfillment of personal goals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment of employees in administrative units of health care centers in the cities of Hamedan Province based on the Denison model in 2015. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 177 employees in administrative units of health care centers in the cities of Hamedan Province were selected by a multistage stratified sampling method. The data collection instruments included the standardized Denison organizational culture survey and organizational commitment questionnaire by Meyer and Allen. Data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS version 21 using descriptive statistics and Pearson product-moment coefficient. Results Among the 12 indicators of organizational culture, the highest mean scores were assigned to empowerment (16.74), organizational learning (16.41), vision (16.4), and strategic direction (16.35); respectively. Furthermore, the indicators of capability development (14.2), core values (15.31), team orientation (15.45), and goals (15.46) received the lowest mean scores in this respect. Among the four dimensions of organizational culture, the highest mean score was related to “mission” in organizational culture and the lowest score was associated with “involvement.” Meyer and Allen’s organizational commitment model also had three components in which affective commitment in this study obtained the highest score (26.63) and continuance commitment received the lowest score (24.73). In this study, there was a significant correlation between all the components of organizational culture and

  9. The Influence of Transformational Leadership on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment,and Employee Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnis Atmojo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research has four main objectives; first, to prove and analyze the influence of transformational leadership towards employee job satis faction; Second, to prove and analyze the influence of transformational leadership towards organizational commitment; Third, to prove and analyze the influence of transformationalleadership towards employee performance; Fourth, to prove and analyze the influence of organization commitment towards the employee performance. This research involved 146 members of middle management as our research sample namely Head of Department, Plantation Manager, Plant Manager, Head of Bureau/Division, Head Assistant, Head of Strategic Business Unit (SBU, Chief Engineer and Head of Hospital Service. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM was used to test and analyze relationship among the research variables. Research findings are transformational leadership significantly influences job satisfaction, transformational leadership significantly influences the organization commitment. The job satisfaction is shown to have significant influence on employee performance, and organization commitment significantly influences the employee performance.

  10. The Influence of Transformational Leadership on Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment,and Employee Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnis Atmojo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research has four main objectives; first, to prove and analyze the influence of transformational leadership towards employee job satis faction; Second, to prove and analyze the influence of transformationalleadership towards organizational commitment; Third, to prove and analyze the influence of transformational leadership towards employee performance; Fourth, to prove and analyze the influence of organization commitment towards the employee performance. This research involved 146 members of middle management as our research sample namely Head of Department, Plantation Manager, Plant Manager, Head of Bureau/Division, Head Assistant, Head of Strategic Business Unit (SBU, Chief Engineer and Head of Hospital Service. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM was used to test and analyze relationship among the research variables. Research findings are transformationalleadership significantly influences job satisfaction, transformational leadership significantly influences the organization commitment. The job satisfaction is shown to have significant influence on employee performance, and organization commitment significantly influences the employee performance.

  11. Algorithm of graphics processing units based on cosmological calculations%基于宇宙计算的图形处理器算法实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭祖华; 贾积身; 马世霞

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of survey telescopes would yield measurements of billions of galaxies,which would cause ineffi-cient,high cost when using CPU.To address this problem,this paper proposed using the graphics processing units (GPUs)in processing the universe computing problems.Firstly,it studied two cosmological calculations,the two-point angular correlation function and the aperture mass statistic.Then,it implemented the two algorithms on the GPU by constructing code,and using CUDA.Finally,it compared the calculation speeds with comparable code run on the CPU.Experimental results indicate that the calculation speeds,using GPUs,has been significantly improved comparing with using CPUs.%下一代观测望远镜将会产生数以亿计的星系测量数据值,这将导致使用中央处理器处理数据时效率低下、成本较高。为了解决这一问题,提出了基于宇宙计算的图形处理器算法。研究了两点式角相关函数以及孔径质量统计这两种宇宙学的计算方法,构建算法代码,并使用统一计算设备架构在图形处理器上实现了这两种算法;比较了算法在中央处理器和图形处理器上使用的运行速度。实验结果表明,与中央处理器相比,使用图形处理器的计算速度得到了显著提高。

  12. Organisational commitment and responses to planned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12Key words: organisational change, organisational commitment, personal valence, organisational .... and acceptance of the goals and values of the organisation, a willingness to put in ...... Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1(4): 287–310.

  13. Commitment and Trust in Young Adult Friendships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wieselquist

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of maintaining mutuality in interdependent relationships, the goal of the present research was to determine if interpersonal trust serves as a gauge of partners’ commitment within young adults’ close friendships. It was hypothesized that individuals trust their friends to the degree that their friends are committed to their relationship, and that individuals’ perceptions of their friends’ commitment mediates this association. A correlational design was employed and measures were obtained from both members of 60 same-sex friendship dyads. A multilevel modeling approach was used to perform a mediational analysis of model variables; the hypotheses were confirmed. Furthermore, it was revealed that friends demonstrate a moderate degree of mutual commitment in their relationships. Potential avenues for future research regarding the development and consequences of trust in close friendships are discussed.

  14. Green Supplier Network Manufacturer Commitment Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online form expressing interest in committing to be a Green Supplier; this form expresses your intent to participate in a confidential Green Suppliers Network assessment, implement recommended environmental improvements and complete a NIST MEP follow-up.

  15. The Braid-Based Bit Commitment Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-cheng; CAO Zhen-fu; CAO Feng; QIAN Hai-feng

    2006-01-01

    With recent advances of quantum computation, new threats have closed in upon to the classical public key cryptosystems. In order to build more secure bit commitment schemes, this paper gave a survey of the new coming braid-based cryptography and then brought forward the first braid-based bit commitment protocol. The security proof manifests that the proposed protocol is computationally binding and information-theoretically hiding.Furthermore, the proposed protocol is also invulnerable to currently known quantum attacks.

  16. Commitment escalation to a failing family business

    OpenAIRE

    Chirico, Francesco; Salvato, Carlo; Byrne, Barbara; Akhter, Naveed; Arriaga Múzquiz, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The overarching intent of this manuscript is to heighten awareness to the concept of commitment escalation as it bears on a failing family business. Specifically, drawing on the concept of emotional ownership, together with self-justification arguments, we a) identify factors considered to be most forceful in contributing to the presence of commitment escalation and thus, resistance to change in a failing family business (i.e., emotional ownership, feeling of responsibility, investment of cap...

  17. COMMITMENT A Psychological Tie and Moral Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Notes on the Concept of Commitment,” American Journal of Sociology 66, no. 1 (1960): 32-40. JSTOR (http://www.jstor.org.aufric.idm.oclc.org/stable...American Journal of Sociology LXI (January, 1956): 289-98. - Thomas C. Schelling, "An Essay on Bargaining," American Economic Review XLVI (June... Sociology 66, no. 1 (1960): 32-40. - B. Buchannan, “Building Organizational Commitment: The Socialization of Mangers in Work Organizations

  18. Linking transformational leadership and organisation commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Rua, Orlando Manuel Lima; Araújo, João

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyse the impacts of transformational leadership on organisational commitment. To this effect we developed a case study following a quantitative methodological approach. The research was conducted at the Serralves Foundation (Porto, Portugal) to empirically test the proposed research model and its hypothesis. The empirical results confirm that transformational leadership are not significantly influenced by commitment. As the main limitation of this...

  19. Increasing Medical Practice Team Commitment: Twenty-Five Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Employee commitment is one of the most important principles of practice man- agement. Yet commitment is delicate; it must be carefully earned, and it can easily deteriorate. This article explores practical strategies the medical practice manager can use to assess, foster, and increase employee commitment. It de- fines commitment and how commitment is manifested in employee attitudes and behavior. It provides a 10-question guide medical practice managers can use to assess employee commitment, and a four-part roadmap that will inspire commitment through leadership. This article also offers 25 hands-on strate- gies to increase employee commitment, and more than a dozen questions to guide difficult conversations with employees when their commitment level to the medical practice is low or unclear. Finally, this article suggest four drivers of employee commitment and a five-part strategy medical practice managers can use to model commitment through their own leadership.

  20. Comparison of the ESTRO formalism for monitor unit calculation with a Clarkson based algorithm of a treatment planning system and a traditional "full-scatter" methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, Martin; Aquilina, Dorothy; Bhikha, Tilluck; Georg, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    The ESTRO formalism for monitor unit (MU) calculations was evaluated and implemented to replace a previous methodology based on dosimetric data measured in a full-scatter phantom. This traditional method relies on data normalised at the depth of dose maximum (Zm), as well as on the utilisation of the BJR 25 table for the conversion of rectangular fields into equivalent square fields. The treatment planning system (TPS) was subsequently updated to reflect the new beam data normalised at a depth ZR of 10 cm. Comparisons were then carried out between the ESTRO formalism, the Clarkson-based dose calculation algorithm on the TPS (with beam data normalised at Zm and ZR), and the traditional "full-scatter" methodology. All methodologies, except for the "full-scatter" methodology, separated head-scatter from phantom-scatter effects and none of the methodologies; except for the ESTRO formalism, utilised wedge depth dose information for calculations. The accuracy of MU calculations was verified against measurements in a homogeneous phantom for square and rectangular open and wedged fields, as well as blocked open and wedged fields, at 5, 10, and 20 cm depths, under fixed SSD and isocentric geometries for 6 and 10 MV. Overall, the ESTRO Formalism showed the most accurate performance, with the root mean square (RMS) error with respect to measurements remaining below 1% even for the most complex beam set-ups investigated. The RMS error for the TPS deteriorated with the introduction of a wedge, with a worse RMS error for the beam data normalised at Zm (4% at 6 MV and 1.6% at 10 MV) than at ZR (1.-9% at 6 MV and 1.1% at 10 MV). The further addition of blocking had only a marginal impact on the accuracy of this methodology. The "full-scatter" methodology showed a loss in accuracy for calculations involving either wedges or blocking, and performed worst for blocked wedged fields (RMS errors of 7.1% at 6 MV and 5% at 10 MV). The origins of these discrepancies were quantified and the

  1. Antecedents and Outcomes of Organisational Commitment among Malaysian Engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran Muthuveloo; Raduan C. Rose

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the major factors contributing to organizational commitment among engineers in Malaysia. It identifies the effects of certain antecedents on organizational commitment and evaluates the impact of organizational commitment to organizational outcomes. From the literature review, a theoretical foundation for the study was compiled and two hypotheses were established. Firstly, positive employee perception leads to higher organizational commitment. Secondly, higher organizationa...

  2. Sustaining Teacher Commitment: The Role of Professional Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Charles S.; Goldring, Ellen B.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed elementary teachers in magnet and non-magnet schools regarding: level of commitment, whether choosing to teach in a school created more commitment than being assigned, and indicators of professionalism related to commitment. Forming a community of learners significantly enhanced teacher commitment. In all situations, teachers who felt a…

  3. How high-commitment HRM relates to engagement and commitment: the moderating role of task proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.; Kalshoven, K.

    2014-01-01

    In a multisource field study, we examine the relationship between employee perceptions of high-commitment human resource management (HRM), task proficiency, work engagement, and organizational commitment. Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we first propose that work engagement mediates

  4. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  5. Influence of Teacher Empowerment on Teachers' Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogler, Ronit; Somech, Anit

    2004-01-01

    The present study focuses on the relationship between teacher empowerment and teachers' organizational commitment, professional commitment (PC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). It examines which subscales of teacher empowerment can best predict these outcomes. The data were collected through a questionnaire returned by a sample of…

  6. A modal approach to intentions, commitments and obligations: Intention plus commitment yields obligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, R.; Dignum, F.P.M.; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Kuiper, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we introduce some new operators that make it possible to reason about decisions and commitments to do actions. In our framework, a decision leads to an intention to do an action. The decision in itself does not change the state of the world; a commitment to actually perform the intende

  7. Perceived Sacrifice and Few Alternatives Commitments: The Motivational Underpinnings of Continuance Commitment's Subdimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Panaccio, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Using work on self-concepts and Conservation of Resources theory, the present research examined the motivational underpinnings of continuance commitment's subcomponents of perceived sacrifice and few alternatives. Study 1 (N=208) found job scope to be positively related to perceived sacrifice commitment, and negatively related to few alternatives…

  8. Organizational identification and commitment: correlates of sense of belonging and affective commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Jiménez García, Gemma

    2012-03-01

    The general purpose of this work is to analyze the overlap between organizational identification and commitment. Specifically, our study focuses on the analysis of the differences and similarities between sense of belonging (a dimension of organizational identification) and affective commitment (a dimension of organizational commitment). In order to do this, we analyzed their discriminant validity and raised their relationship with variables that previous research had showed like precedent and subsequent variables of them: value congruence, perceived support, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to continue in the organization. A total of 292 people at one organization completed surveys measuring the variables previously described. The results showed that sense of belonging and affective commitment are different concepts and they have different relationships with relation to precedent and subsequent variables. Affective commitment seems to be more useful than sense of belonging to predict organizational citizenship behavior aimed at the organization and intention to continue. Some practical implications are described.

  9. The price of commitment in online stochastic vehicle routing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hentenryck, Pascal [BROWN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers online stochastic multiple vehicle routing with time windows in which requests arrive dynamically and the goal is to maximize the number of serviced customers. Early work has focused on very flexible routing settings where the decision to assign a vehicle to a customer is delayed until a vehicle is actually deployed to the customer. Motivated by real applications that require stability in the decision making, this paper considers a setting where the decision to assign a customer request to a vehicle must be taken when that request is accepted. Experimental results suggest that this constraint severely degrades the performance of existing algorithms. However, the paper shows how the use of stochastic information for vehicle assignment and request acceptance improves decision quality considerably. Moreover, the use of resource augmentation quantifies precisely the cost of commitment in online vehicle routing.

  10. Delivery Commitments in Stochastic Service Networks: Case of Automobile Service

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Dulluri; Ganesh Muthusamy

    2013-01-01

    Service firms have become highly competitive in terms of providing the delivery. The delivery quality in terms of delivery commitments. Delivery commitments impact the customer in deciding for the service. Computing the delivery commitments in stochastic service systems is a real challenge. Delivery commitment forms a key parameter in formulating the service level agreements in B2B markets. In our current work we propose a queuing theoretic approach for computing the delivery commitments. The...

  11. Delivery Commitments in Stochastic Service Networks: Case of Automobile Service

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Dulluri; Ganesh Muthusamy

    2013-01-01

    Service firms have become highly competitive in terms of providing the delivery. The delivery quality in terms of delivery commitments. Delivery commitments impact the customer in deciding for the service. Computing the delivery commitments in stochastic service systems is a real challenge. Delivery commitment forms a key parameter in formulating the service level agreements in B2B markets. In our current work we propose a queuing theoretic approach for computing the delivery commitments. The...

  12. Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Today's investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. Recent international discussions have focused on the importance of providing more certainty about future climate policy stringency. The design of commitment periods can play a role in creating this environment. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

  13. Optimism as modifier of escalation of commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliusson, Asgeir

    2006-10-01

    To study whether optimism-pessimism modifies escalation of commitment, 52 undergraduates were told that they had made an unsuccessful investment, then they chose to continue or discontinue this investment. Optimism about future returns was induced in one group by varying the probability of a successful outcome from an initial low to medium, pessimism was induced in another group by varying this probability from an initial high to medium. Supporting the assumption of the manipulation, the results showed that optimistic participants preferred to continue investments whereas pessimistic participants preferred not to. As predicted, when the sunk cost increased, optimism led to escalation of commitment, whereas pessimism led to de-escalation of commitment. These effects were strengthened when probability of a successful outcome was ambiguous.

  14. Contractor and Government: Teamwork and Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gerald D.

    1984-01-01

    The assigned topic, "Contractor and Government: Teamwork and Commitment," is a subject about vitally interested. The successes of the U.S. space program were built on such teamwork and commitment. It seems only a short time ago that man's role in space was an unknown quantity. In rapid succession, however, the flights of Shepard, Glenn, and Armstrong demonstrated man's capability to live and travel in space. Consequently, we no longer live with the same awe of space. The success of these joint industry-NASA efforts in achieving our Nation's space goals testifies to the validity of our team's past commitment, management expertise, communications techniques, and teamwork over a period of 25 years. Today, however, We are at the beginning of a new era in space.

  15. Bayer MaterialScience Is Committed to PC Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Bayer MaterialScience' Business Unit Polycarbonates is firmly committed to its customers in China and the wider Asia Pacific region. On May 22nd, at the Chinaplas 2007 exhibition in Guangzhou, Bayer MaterialScience announced further steps of its strategy aimed at improving its responsiveness to customer needs.

  16. Intelligence, democracy, and international environmental commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Anastassia; Salahodjaev, Raufhon

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of nations' commitment to environmental protection at the international level by focusing on the role of national intelligence and the level of democracy. The national intelligence is measured by nation's IQ scores. The findings based on a sample of 152 nations provide strong evidence that intelligence has statistically significant impact on ratification of international environmental agreements, and the countries with IQ 10-points above global average are 23% more likely to sign multilateral environmental agreements than others. The findings also demonstrate that it is the combination of high-level of intelligence of nations and democracy, that likely result in international environmental commitments.

  17. Type A behavior pattern and escalating commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, J; Williams, S

    1993-10-01

    Subjects (N = 98) were randomly assigned to high- and low-responsibility conditions in a commitment-escalation experiment. Global Type A behavior pattern and the underlying dimension of achievement strivings were positively related to the desire to continue the same course of action in the high prior-responsibility condition but not in the low prior-responsibility condition. These findings are discussed in terms of future research into the judgment processes of people with Type A personality and the possible role of escalating commitment in disorders experienced by people with Type A personality.

  18. Evolution of mitigation commitments. Some key issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C.; Pershing, J. [LTO/EED, International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France); Morlot, J.C.; Willems, S. [Global and Structural Policies Division, Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    This paper considers the challenges facing climate change policy makers from different perspectives. In so doing, it reviews some of the decision criteria that might guide policy decisions, as well as practical options on the form that different mitigation commitments might take. Taking a broad, longer-term view of the climate problem provides insights on what criteria might be used to eventually shape decisions about future commitments. The paper draws from previous IEA and OECD papers, from information presented and discussions in previous Annex I Expert Group meetings and from other sources in the open literature.

  19. 用于飞轮储能单元的神经元自适应比例-积分-微分控制算法%Neuron Adaptive PID Control Algorithm With Application to Flywheel Energy Storage System Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 杜晓强; 宋永端

    2014-01-01

    提出了一种应用于飞轮储能系统的神经元自适应比例-积分-微分(proportional integral differential,PID)控制算法。该算法基于传统的双闭环调速系统与神经网络理论,实现对飞轮驱动电机的控制,使飞轮驱动电机能够根据系统要求,驱动飞轮储能单元储存或释放能量。运用李亚普诺夫稳定性理论证明了该控制算法的稳定性和有效性,并给出了其稳定性条件。经过仿真验证,该算法可以有效地实现对飞轮储能单元的充放电控制,其控制参数可以随着系统的运行自适应调节,飞轮储能单元的控制精度和鲁棒性也有所提高。%A neural adaptive proportional integral differential (PID) control algorithm applied to flywheel energy storage system is proposed. Based on traditional doubly closed-loop governing system and neural network theory the proposed algorithm implements the control of driving motor of flywheel to make the motor driving the flywheel energy storage unit to store up or release energy according to the demand of power grid. Both stability and validity of the proposed control algorithm are proved by Lyapunov theory, and the stability conditions of the proposed control algorithm are given. Simulation results show that using the proposed control algorithm the energy storage or release of flywheel energy storage unit can be controlled effectively, and the control parameters of flywheel energy storage unit can be adaptively adjusted according to power grid operation, and both control accuracy and robustness of flywheel energy storage unit can be improved.

  20. Algorithm design

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinberg, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Algorithm Design introduces algorithms by looking at the real-world problems that motivate them. The book teaches students a range of design and analysis techniques for problems that arise in computing applications. The text encourages an understanding of the algorithm design process and an appreciation of the role of algorithms in the broader field of computer science.

  1. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  2. Formalizing the Relationship Between Commitment and Basic Cryptographic Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive which offers the functionality of both digital signature and encryption with lower combined computational cost. On the other hand, commitment scheme allows an entity to commit to a value, where the entity reveals the committed value later during a decommit phase. In this paper, we explore the connection between commitment schemes, public key encryption, digital signatures and signcryption. We establish formal relationship between commitment and the other primitives. Our main result is that we show signcryption can be used as a commitment scheme with appropriate security notions. We show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is IND-CCA2 secure, then the hiding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Similarly, we show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is unforgeable, then the relaxed biding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Moreover, we prove that if the underlying signcryption scheme is NM-CCA2, then the commitment scheme is non-malleable.

  3. Validating Teacher Commitment Scale Using a Malaysian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mee Thien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to validate an integrative Teacher Commitment scale using rigorous scale validation procedures. An adapted questionnaire with 17 items was administered to 600 primary school teachers in Penang, Malaysia. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA with SPSS 19.0 and AMOS 19.0, respectively. The results support Teacher Commitment as a multidimensional construct with its four underlying dimensions: Commitment to Student, Commitment to Teaching, Commitment to School, and Commitment to Profession. A validated Teacher Commitment scale with 13 items measured can be proposed to be used as an evaluative tool to assess the level to which teachers are committed to their students’ learning, teaching, school, and profession. The Teacher Commitment scale would also facilitate the identifications of factors that influence teachers’ quality of work life and school effectiveness. The practical implications, school cultural influence, and methodological limitations are discussed.

  4. Building commitment in a sports class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Christian

    is not something you have, or are, but something you do, and commitment is not an individual property but a relationship in which athletes relate to talent developers to become talents. If that is so talent development may not be as much about spotting and selecting as about forging relationships and building...

  5. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  6. Influencing Organizational Commitment through Office Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Paula C.; McElroy, James C.; Scheibe, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the effects of office redesign on work-related outcomes has been largely a theoretical and yielded mixed and conflicting findings. Expanding on individual reactions to office design changes as specified by social interference theory, we propose that office redesign affects organizational commitment and this relationship is…

  7. Sex, Love, and the Committed Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Carl A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Six responses are presented to the question of relationship of love, sex, and commitment as revised by Sager in the Spring 1976 issue of this journal. Theoretical and historical perspectives as well as issues of coupling, eroticism, sexual dysfunction and therapy, and psychosexual development are discussed. (HLM)

  8. Planning and commitment in cultural heritage projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarveld, Marlijn; Smit, Marnix; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the study is to generate insights into the planning process for reusing cultural heritage within urban redevelopment projects and identifies barriers to and drivers for stakeholder commitment. Design/methodology/approach – Characteristics of five Dutch urban redevelopment

  9. Sport commitment in adolescent soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Belando Pedreño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to contribute to the postulates of the self-determination theory, the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by Vallerand, and social goals. A structural regression model was estimated to analyze the relations between social goals (responsibility and relationships, praise for autonomous behavior, satisfaction of the basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation in commitment to sport. A sample of 264 young Spanish soccer players aged between 14 and 16 (M =14.74, SD =.77 participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling results showed that the social responsibility goal, the social relationship goal and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived competence. Furthermore, the relationship goal also predicted the need for relatedness. Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence and relatedness predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation positively predicted future commitment to sport. These results highlighted the importance of social goals, praise for autonomous behavior and psychological mediators in encouraging greater commitment in young soccer players. Future research should focus on the coach’s role in generating greater commitment to sport through the development of intervention methodologies based on social goals.

  10. Evolution of collective commitment during teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we aim to describe dynamic aspects of social and collective attitudes in teams of agents involved in Cooperative Problem Solving (CPS). Particular attention is given to the strongest motivational attitude, collective commitment, and its evolution during team action. First, building on

  11. Evolution of collective commitment during teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R

    In this paper we aim to describe dynamic aspects of social and collective attitudes in teams of agents involved in Cooperative Problem Solving (CPS). Particular attention is given to the strongest motivational attitude, collective commitment, and its evolution during team action. First, building on

  12. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  13. Identification of Determinants of Organizational Commitment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria today, workplace is enveloped by the fear of downsizing, trouncing of job security ... downsizing; telecommunity, merger and acquisition, globalizations and diversity, .... The affective element means emotional commitment of an employee to the .... studies have discovered several antecedents and consequences of ...

  14. Planning and commitment in cultural heritage projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarveld, Marlijn; Smit, Marnix; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the study is to generate insights into the planning process for reusing cultural heritage within urban redevelopment projects and identifies barriers to and drivers for stakeholder commitment. Design/methodology/approach – Characteristics of five Dutch urban redevelopment pr

  15. Planning and commitment in cultural heritage projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarveld, M.Y.; Smit, M.; Dewulf, G.P.M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the study is to generate insights into the planning process for reusing cultural heritage within urban redevelopment projects and identifies barriers to and drivers for stakeholder commitment. Design/methodology/approach – Characteristics of five Dutch urban redevelopment

  16. Job insecurity, organisational commitment and work engagement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commitment as a unidimensional construct based on employees' emotional attachment to the ..... as increased stress, anxiety and depression. ..... employee outcomes: the moderating role of emotional intelligence and the leader- .... Do its antecedents vary according to gender, economic sector and the measure used?',.

  17. Cohabitation and Marital Stability: Quality or Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Elizabeth; Colella, Ugo

    1992-01-01

    Used data from National Survey of Families and Households to examine cohabitation. Couples who cohabited before marriage reported lower quality marriages, lower commitment to institution of marriage, more individualistic views of marriage (wives only), and greater likelihood of divorce than couples who did not cohabit. Effects were generally…

  18. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  19. Competency management : Balancing between commitment and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, H.; Hoogh, de A.H.B.; Muijen, van J.J.; Koopman, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between commitment and control approaches and the use of competency management by adopting the theory of planned behavior. Questionnaires were filled out by 43 human resource experts working in different organizations. We expected components of the theory of

  20. New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers different options for quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments from the standpoint of their technical compatibility with emissions trading. These are dynamic targets, binding targets with price caps, non-binding targets, sector-wide targets/mechanisms, action targets, allowances and endowments, and long-term permits. This paper considers these options from the standpoint of their compatibility with emissions trading.

  1. Employee Commitment to Organizations: A Conceptual Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    35 Exhibit 3 Hypothesized Antecedents and Outcomes of Organizacional Commitment (adopted from Steers, 1977a) Personal characteristics...characteristics Retention tics _Job effort W exencl- I IIf r - Exhibit 4 Comparison of Within versus Between Organization Comitment Scores Organizational State...Naval Training Analysis and Evaluation Group Orlando, FL 32813 Commanding Officer ATTN: TIC , Bldg. 2068 Naval Training Equipment Center Orlando, FL

  2. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  3. Organizational Commitment among Public Service Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brian S.; Worchel, Stephen; Woehr, David J.

    1998-01-01

    A study that examined factors associated with organizational commitment among 64 blue-collar workers found that the following were positively and significantly related: promotion satisfaction, job characteristics, communication, leadership satisfaction, job satisfaction, intrinsic and extrinsic exchange, and intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.…

  4. Organizational Commitment among Public Service Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brian S.; Worchel, Stephen; Woehr, David J.

    1998-01-01

    A study that examined factors associated with organizational commitment among 64 blue-collar workers found that the following were positively and significantly related: promotion satisfaction, job characteristics, communication, leadership satisfaction, job satisfaction, intrinsic and extrinsic exchange, and intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.…

  5. Quantum algorithmic information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Svozil, Karl

    1995-01-01

    The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...

  6. Validation of a Step Detection Algorithm during Straight Walking and Turning in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Older Adults Using an Inertial Measurement Unit at the Lower Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh H. Pham

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionInertial measurement units (IMUs positioned on various body locations allow detailed gait analysis even under unconstrained conditions. From a medical perspective, the assessment of vulnerable populations is of particular relevance, especially in the daily-life environment. Gait analysis algorithms need thorough validation, as many chronic diseases show specific and even unique gait patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to validate an acceleration-based step detection algorithm for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and older adults in both a lab-based and home-like environment.MethodsIn this prospective observational study, data were captured from a single 6-degrees of freedom IMU (APDM (3DOF accelerometer and 3DOF gyroscope worn on the lower back. Detection of heel strike (HS and toe off (TO on a treadmill was validated against an optoelectronic system (Vicon (11 PD patients and 12 older adults. A second independent validation study in the home-like environment was performed against video observation (20 PD patients and 12 older adults and included step counting during turning and non-turning, defined with a previously published algorithm.ResultsA continuous wavelet transform (cwt-based algorithm was developed for step detection with very high agreement with the optoelectronic system. HS detection in PD patients/older adults, respectively, reached 99/99% accuracy. Similar results were obtained for TO (99/100%. In HS detection, Bland–Altman plots showed a mean difference of 0.002 s [95% confidence interval (CI −0.09 to 0.10] between the algorithm and the optoelectronic system. The Bland–Altman plot for TO detection showed mean differences of 0.00 s (95% CI −0.12 to 0.12. In the home-like assessment, the algorithm for detection of occurrence of steps during turning reached 90% (PD patients/90% (older adults sensitivity, 83/88% specificity, and 88/89% accuracy. The detection of steps during non-turning phases

  7. 78 FR 2672 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP078595XX, AP078595XA, AP078595XB AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...

  8. 78 FR 2673 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087730XX, AP087730XA AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION:...

  9. 78 FR 59688 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP088292XX & AP088292XA AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION:...

  10. Parameter Discrimination of a Combined Cycle Unit Based on the Genetic Algorithm%基于遗传算法的联合循环机组模型参数辨识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇晓智; 王卫; 司派友; 黄葆华

    2012-01-01

    针对将联合循环机组模型引入电力系统稳定性分析程序的实际需求,在对常规联合循环机组数学模型分析的基础上,提出了适用于电力系统稳定性分析的联合循环机组模型.将遗传算法应用于模型参数辨识过程中,开发了基于Delphi平台的联合循环机组模型辨识软件.应用实例表明:模型的仿真结果与实测信号相一致,证明了所提模型和辨识算法的有效性,为后续联合循环机组的一次调频和动态特性分析奠定了基础.%In the light of the actual demand of introducing a model for combined cycle units into an electric power system stability analytic programme, presented was a combined cycle unit model applicable for the stability analysis of an electric power system on the basis of an analysis of the mathematical model for conventional combined cycle units. The authors have applied the genetic algorithm in the model parameter discrimination process and developed a software for discriminating a model for combined cycle units based on Delphi platform. The application cases show that the simulation results by using the model are in agreement with the actually measured signals, proving that the model under discussion and the discrimination algorithm are effective, thus laying a foundation for subsequent primary frequency modulation and dynamic characteristics analysis of a combined cycle unit.

  11. Impact Of Leadership Styles On Employee Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Clinebell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research study examines the relationship between transformational, transactional and passive/avoidant leadership styles and three dimensions of organizational commitment – affective, continuance, and normative in two subsidiaries of one multinational organization. The research findings revealed that transformational leadership has the strongest impact on affective commitment, although transactional leadership also affects affective commitment. Transformational leadership also has a significant positive affect on normative commitment. Transactional leadership has a significant positive affect on continuance commitment and positive/avoidant leadership has a significant negative affect on affective commitment.

  12. Non-interactive and Reusable Non-malleable Commitment Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Groth, Jens

    2003-01-01

    We consider non-malleable (NM) and universally composable (UC) commitment schemes in the common reference string (CRS) model. We show how to construct non-interactive NM commitments that remain non-malleable even if the adversary has access to an arbitrary number of commitments from honest players...... version based on the strong RSA assumption. For UC commitments, we show that existence of a UC commitment scheme in the CRS model (interactive or not) implies key exchange and - for a uniform reference string - even implies oblivious transfer. This indicates that UC commitment is a strictly stronger...

  13. Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems: Editorial, Commentaries, and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Editorial: Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems Haris Dindo / James Marshall / Giovanni Pezzulo 23 General Problems of Unified Theories of Cognition, and Another Conceptual Commitment of LIDA Benjamin Angerer / Stefan Schneider 26 LIDA, Committed to Consciousness Antonio Chella 28 The Radical Interactionism Conceptual Commitment Olivier L. Georgeon / David W. Aha 31 Commitments of the Soar Cognitive Architecture John E. Laird 36 Conceptual Commitments of AGI Projects Pei Wang 39 Will (dis)Embodied LIDA Agents be Socially Interactive? Travis J. Wiltshire / Emilio J. C. Lobato / Florian G. Jentsch / Stephen M. Fiore 42 Author's Response to Commentaries Steve Strain / Stan Franklin 48

  14. Supplier Commitment and Production Decisions Under a Forecast-Commitment Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Junqueira Durango-Cohen; Candace Arai Yano

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing firms in capital-intensive industries face inherent demand volatility for their products and the inability to change their capacity quickly. To cope with these challenges, manufacturers often enter into contracts with their customers that offer greater certainty of supply in return for more predictable orders. In this paper, we study a "forecast-commitment" contract in which the customer provides a forecast, the supplier makes a production commitment to the customer based on the...

  15. Dating and commitment choices as a function of ethnicity among American college students in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebert, Martin S; Nugent, Dusty; Hershberger, Scott L; Kasdan, Margo

    2004-06-01

    The incidence of interracial and interethnic dating and marriage in the United States has increased. This investigation examined dating and commitment choices as a function of ethnicity and sex among groups of Euro-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and African-American college students. A convenience sample of college students comprising 329 heterosexual subjects (134 men, 195 women) was surveyed regarding their partner preferences for dating, visiting parents, marriage, and bearing children. It was hypothesized that subjects would consider dating partners from different ethnic groups, but when making a commitment to marriage and children would prefer members of their own group. This hypothesis was supported in half of the groups: Euro-American men, African-American men, Asian-American women, and African-American women. A discussion of dating and commitment choices among ethnic and sex groups is presented and discussed.

  16. Commitment to personal values and guilt feelings in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Alberto, Laura; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Vara, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Caregivers' commitment to personal values is linked to caregivers' well-being, although the effects of personal values on caregivers' guilt have not been explored to date. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between caregivers´ commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Participants were 179 dementia family caregivers. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to describe sociodemographic variables and assess stressors, caregivers' commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Commitment to values was conceptualized as two factors (commitment to own values and commitment to family values) and 12 specific individual values (e.g. education, family or caregiving role). Hierarchical regressions were performed controlling for sociodemographic variables and stressors, and introducing the two commitment factors (in a first regression) or the commitment to individual/specific values (in a second regression) as predictors of guilt. In terms of the commitment to values factors, the analyzed regression model explained 21% of the variance of guilt feelings. Only the factor commitment to family values contributed significantly to the model, explaining 7% of variance. With regard to the regression analyzing the contribution of specific values to caregivers' guilt, commitment to the caregiving role and with leisure contributed negatively and significantly to the explanation of caregivers' guilt. Commitment to work contributed positively to guilt feelings. The full model explained 30% of guilt feelings variance. The specific values explained 16% of the variance. Our findings suggest that commitment to personal values is a relevant variable to understand guilt feelings in caregivers.

  17. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  18. Competition with Variety Seeking and Habitual Consumption: Price Commitment or Quality Commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates price and quality competition in a market where consumers seek variety and habit formation. Variety seeking is modeled as a decrease in the willingness to pay for product purchased on the previous occasion while habitual consumption may increase future marginal utility. We compare two competing strategies: price commitment and quality commitment. With a three-stage Hotelling-type model, we show that variety seeking intensifies while habitual consumption softens the competition. With price commitment, firms supply lower quality levels in period 1 and higher quality levels in period 2, while, with quality commitment, firms charge higher prices in period 1 and lower prices in period 2. However, the habitual consumption brings the opposite effect. In addition, with quality commitment variety seeking leads to a lower profit and a higher consumer surplus, while habitual consumption leads to the opposite results. On the other side, with price commitment these behaviors have no effect on the consumer surplus, although they still lower down the firm profits. Finally, we also identify conditions under which one strategy outperforms the other.

  19. The roles of parties with different commitments under the Kyoto Protocol and implications for NAFTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauteux, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Climate Change Bureau

    2002-07-01

    A government perspective on climate change negotiations was presented with particular reference to Canada's cleaner energy exports, the Kyoto mechanism and the second commitment period. The author emphasized the importance of cleaner energy exports for Canada, although progress is likely to be slow in this area because of the opposition among other Parties. Whatever approach the United States takes to trading, it must be compatible with the Kyoto Protocol. Eligibility for trading in North America was discussed with reference to what effect Canada's ratification of the Protocol would have on energy exports. It was noted that if Canada ratifies, it could be both a buyer and a seller, whereas the United States could only buy and Mexico could only sell. The author also suggested that developing countries or major emitters should take on commitments in order to provide greater compatibility in the North American context, especially if the United States rejoined the Kyoto Protocol.

  20. Commitment bias : mistaken partner selection or ancient wisdom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Back, Istvan H.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence across the social and behavioral sciences points to psychological mechanisms that facilitate the formation and maintenance of interpersonal commitment. In addition, evolutionary simulation studies suggest that a tendency for increased, seemingly irrational commitment is an important trait o

  1. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  2. The potential contribution of sinks to meeting Kyoto Protocol commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missfeldt, F.; Haites, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the climate convention makes provision for sink enhancement activities to contribute to meeting the greenhouse gas emissions limitation commitments of industrialised countries. This paper analyses the potential contribution of sink enhancement activities to meeting commitments...

  3. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  4. Regulation of Murine Natural Killer Cell Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Huntington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells can derive from the same precursors as B and T cells, however to achieve lineage specificity, several transcription factors need to be activated or annulled. While a few important transcription factors have identified for NK genesis the mechanisms of how this is achieved is far from resolved. Adding to the complexity of this, NK cells are found and potentially develop in diverse locations in vivo and it remains to be addressed if a common NK cell precursor seeds diverse niches and how transcription factors may differentially regulate NK cell commitment in distinct microenvironments. Here we will summarise some recent findings in NK cell commitment and discuss how a NK cell transcriptional network might be organised, while addressing some misconceptions and anomalies along the way.

  5. Observing joint action: Coordination creates commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that interpersonal coordination enhances pro-social attitudes and behavior. Here, we extend this research by investigating whether the degree of coordination observed in a joint action enhances the perception of individuals' commitment to the joint action. In four experiments, participants viewed videos of joint actions. In the low coordination condition, two agents made independent individual contributions to a joint action. In the high coordination condition, the individual contributions were tightly linked. Participants judged whether and for how long the observed agents would resist a tempting outside option and remain engaged in the joint action. The results showed that participants were more likely to expect agents to resist outside options when observing joint actions with a high degree of coordination. This indicates that observing interpersonal coordination is sufficient to enhance the perception of commitment to joint action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Common Preposition Errors Committed by Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yousefi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.

  7. Religious Belief, Motivation and Moral Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra khazaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two different approaches followed by moral philosophers regarding the motivational role of moral belief. Having restricted the motivating reasons to belief, the internalists consider the relationship between belief and ethical commitment necessary and believe that moral judgmentis inherentlymotivating. While theexternalists by regarding the belief and desire as reasons for action,they believe that the relationship between belief and actin is not necessary. Therefore, the weakness of will is possible, that is, the agent can acts against his best judgment. Now we put religious belief instead of moral judgment and ask about the motivational role of religious beliefs , that is , what is the relationship between religious beliefs and moral commitment? Are religious beliefs sufficient for moral action? Are they inherently motivating? Considering the impact of religious beliefs on committing ethical acts as necessary or contingent may have various and valuable consequences for the believers in different religions. The purpose of this article is to investigate such psychological relationship between religion and moralityand to seek the motivating influence of religious beliefs. The article tries to analyze the relation between the religious belief and ethical commitment and responds to this question that whether religious beliefs are the necessary and sufficientcondition for committing moral action , or they are just necessary conditions or neither necessary nor sufficient.If they are essential, what other elements can be complementary to religious beliefs? In other words, what other elements can substitute religious belief? To answer these questions, the present study will firstly investigate the stimulating influence of ethical beliefs and then will analyze the two approaches of internalism and externalism in ethics and finally will conclude that the approach of externalism is much closer to the reality. The article then will explain the

  8. Religious Belief, Motivation and Moral Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra khazaei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two different approaches followed by moral philosophers regarding the motivational role of moral belief. Having restricted the motivating reasons to belief, the internalists consider the relationship between belief and ethical commitment necessary and believe that moral judgmentis inherentlymotivating. While theexternalists by regarding the belief and desire as reasons for action,they believe that the relationship between belief and actin is not necessary. Therefore, the weakness of will is possible, that is, the agent can acts against his best judgment. Now we put religious belief instead of moral judgment and ask about the motivational role of religious beliefs , that is , what is the relationship between religious beliefs and moral commitment? Are religious beliefs sufficient for moral action? Are they inherently motivating? Considering the impact of religious beliefs on committing ethical acts as necessary or contingent may have various and valuable consequences for the believers in different religions. The purpose of this article is to investigate such psychological relationship between religion and moralityand to seek the motivating influence of religious beliefs. The article tries to analyze the relation between the religious belief and ethical commitment and responds to this question that whether religious beliefs are the necessary and sufficientcondition for committing moral action , or they are just necessary conditions or neither necessary nor sufficient.If they are essential, what other elements can be complementary to religious beliefs? In other words, what other elements can substitute religious belief? To answer these questions, the present study will firstly investigate the stimulating influence of ethical beliefs and then will analyze the two approaches of internalism and externalism in ethics and finally will conclude that the approach of externalism is much closer to the reality. The article then will explain the

  9. Safe Commits for Transactional Featherweight Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong Tran, Thi Mai; Steffen, Martin

    Transactions are a high-level alternative for low-level concurrency-control mechanisms such as locks, semaphores, monitors. A recent proposal for integrating transactional features into programming languages is Transactional Featherweight Java (TFJ), extending Featherweight Java by adding transactions. With support for nested and multi-threaded transactions, its transactional model is rather expressive. In particular, the constructs governing transactions - to start and to commit a transaction - can be used freely with a non-lexical scope. On the downside, this flexibility also allows for an incorrect use of these constructs, e.g., trying to perform a commit outside any transaction. To catch those kinds of errors, we introduce a static type and effect system for the safe use of transactions for TFJ. We prove the soundness of our type system by subject reduction.

  10. Requirements as Goals and Commitments Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amit K.; Mylopoulos, John; Dalpiaz, Fabiano; Giorgini, Paolo; Singh, Munindar P.

    In traditional software engineering research and practice, requirements are classified either as functional or non-functional. Functional requirements consist of all functions the system-to-be ought to support, and have been modeled in terms of box-and-arrow diagrams in the spirit of SADT. Non-functional requirements include desired software qualities for the system-to-be and have been described either in natural language or in terms of metrics. This orthodoxy was challenged in the mid-90 s by a host of proposals that had a common theme: all requirements are initially stakeholder goals and ought to be elicited, modeled and analyzed as such. Through systematic processes, these goals can be refined into specifications of functions the system-to-be needs to deliver, while actions assigned to external actors need to be executed. This view is dominating Requirements Engineering (RE) research and is beginning to have an impact on RE practice. We propose a next step along this line of research, by adopting the concept of conditional commitment as companion concept to that of goal. Goals are intentional entities that capture the needs and wants of stakeholders. Commitments, on the other hand, are social concepts that define the willingness and capability of an actor A to fulfill a predicate ϕ for the benefit of actor B, provided B (in return) fulfills predicate ψ for the benefit of actor A. In our conceptualization, goals are mapped to collections of commitments rather than functions, qualities, or actor assignments. We motivate the importance of the concept of commitment for RE through examples and discussion. We also contrast our proposal with state-of-the-art requirements modeling and analysis frameworks, such as KAOS, MAP, i * and Tropos.

  11. Divorced Men More Likely to Commit Suicide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林灿

    2000-01-01

    国人有句俗话:家和万事兴。看来。此言的外延意义非常丰富。本文告诉我们:Divorced Men More Likely to Commit Suicide。文章里出现了一句:do not have the same support networks,其中的same support networks生动形象。汉译却不易。】

  12. Credit And Growth Under Limited Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Azariadis, Costas; Kaas, Leo

    2008-01-01

    We consider a linear growth model with idiosyncratic productivity shocks in which producers cannot commit to repay their loans. Borrowing constraints are determined endogenously by the borrowers incentives to repay, assuming that defaulters lose a share of output and are excluded from future trade in the credit market. We characterize necessary and sufficient conditions for the enforceability of a first-best equilibrium growth path. Weak property rights, impatient producers, and small produc...

  13. Quantum Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, D.; Williams, C.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes several new quantum algorithms. These include a polynomial time algorithm that uses a quantum fast Fourier transform to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hamiltonian operator, and that can be applied in cases for which all know classical algorithms require exponential time.

  14. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    1993-01-01

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri

  15. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  16. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…

  17. Job Stress and Organizational Commitment among Mentoring Coordinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Orly; Court, Deborah; Petal, Pnina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the impact of job stress on the organizational commitment of a random, representative sample of coordinators in the Israeli educational mentoring organization PMP. Organizational commitment, including affective, continuance and normative commitment, refers to worker relations in the organization, and how…

  18. Predictors of Career Commitment: A Test of Three Theoretical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John

    1990-01-01

    Three theories of commitment were tested by surveying 92 nursing students 3 times during their first year. The social exchange approach and unmet expectations about nursing careers influenced commitment during the latter eight months. The circumstances surrounding the decision to enter nurse training (behavioral approach) predicted commitment only…

  19. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from 415 primary teachers…

  20. 48 CFR 970.5226-3 - Community commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Community commitment. 970... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5226-3 Community commitment. As prescribed in 48 CFR 970.2673-2, insert the following clause: Community Commitment (DEC 2000) It is the policy of the DOE to...

  1. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  2. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  3. Commitment: Functions, Formation, and the Securing of Romantic Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M; Rhoades, Galena K; Whitton, Sarah W

    2010-12-01

    In this theoretical paper, we review central concepts in the psychological literature on relationship commitment to provide a foundation to discuss two themes related to long-term romantic relationships and marriages. First, we describe and discuss the role that commitment plays in stabilizing romantic attachment. Second, we use empirical research on cohabitation to highlight how the formation of commitment can be undermined by what are now common trajectories of couple development. The first topic underscores an increasingly important role for commitment in an age of companionate marriage. The second topic draws attention to dynamics that can affect the strength of romantic commitments, especially in marriage.

  4. Florida's outpatient commitment law: a lesson in failed reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrila, John; Christy, Annette

    2008-01-01

    An involuntary outpatient commitment law became effective in Florida in January 2005. However, only 71 orders for outpatient commitment have been issued in three years, even though during that period 41,997 adults had two or more 72-hour involuntary emergency examinations under Florida's civil commitment law. This column describes the criteria for outpatient commitment in the Florida statute and discusses possible reasons for its low rate of use, including additional statutory criteria that make filing a petition for outpatient commitment difficult, lack of community treatment resources, and lack of enforcement mechanisms.

  5. Research Survey of String Matching Algorithm Based on Graphic Processing Unit%基于GPU的串匹配算法研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙延维; 张慧

    2012-01-01

    String matching is an exquisite classic matter.After analysing and looking back to the study condition of GPU string matching at home and abroad,we bring out some new researching point concerning algorithm of GPU string matching in this paper,especially the idea of dynamically realizing the compiler explanation on GPU.%串匹配是一个非常经典的问题,本文通过回顾和分析GPU的串匹配算法的国内外研究近况,提出了GPU的串匹配算法的一些新的研究方向,特别是将一些编译解释性的工作放在GPU上实现的思想。

  6. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Multiple DG Units for the Enhancement of Voltage Profile and Loss Minimization in Transmission Systems Using Nature Inspired Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power grid becomes smarter nowadays along with technological development. The benefits of smart grid can be enhanced through the integration of renewable energy sources. In this paper, several studies have been made to reconfigure a conventional network into a smart grid. Amongst all the renewable sources, solar power takes the prominent position due to its availability in abundance. Proposed methodology presented in this paper is aimed at minimizing network power losses and at improving the voltage stability within the frame work of system operation and security constraints in a transmission system. Locations and capacities of DGs have a significant impact on the system losses in a transmission system. In this paper, combined nature inspired algorithms are presented for optimal location and sizing of DGs. This paper proposes a two-step optimization technique in order to integrate DG. In a first step, the best size of DG is determined through PSO metaheuristics and the results obtained through PSO is tested for reverse power flow by negative load approach to find possible bus locations. Then, optimal location is found by Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF and weak (WK bus methods and the results are compared. In a second step, optimal sizing of DGs is determined by PSO, GSA, and hybrid PSOGSA algorithms. Apart from optimal sizing and siting of DGs, different scenarios with number of DGs (3, 4, and 5 and PQ capacities of DGs (P alone, Q alone, and  P and Q both are also analyzed and the results are analyzed in this paper. A detailed performance analysis is carried out on IEEE 30-bus system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  7. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Multiple DG Units for the Enhancement of Voltage Profile and Loss Minimization in Transmission Systems Using Nature Inspired Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Ambika; Ramachandran, Rajeswari

    2016-01-01

    Power grid becomes smarter nowadays along with technological development. The benefits of smart grid can be enhanced through the integration of renewable energy sources. In this paper, several studies have been made to reconfigure a conventional network into a smart grid. Amongst all the renewable sources, solar power takes the prominent position due to its availability in abundance. Proposed methodology presented in this paper is aimed at minimizing network power losses and at improving the voltage stability within the frame work of system operation and security constraints in a transmission system. Locations and capacities of DGs have a significant impact on the system losses in a transmission system. In this paper, combined nature inspired algorithms are presented for optimal location and sizing of DGs. This paper proposes a two-step optimization technique in order to integrate DG. In a first step, the best size of DG is determined through PSO metaheuristics and the results obtained through PSO is tested for reverse power flow by negative load approach to find possible bus locations. Then, optimal location is found by Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF) and weak (WK) bus methods and the results are compared. In a second step, optimal sizing of DGs is determined by PSO, GSA, and hybrid PSOGSA algorithms. Apart from optimal sizing and siting of DGs, different scenarios with number of DGs (3, 4, and 5) and PQ capacities of DGs (P alone, Q alone, and P and Q both) are also analyzed and the results are analyzed in this paper. A detailed performance analysis is carried out on IEEE 30-bus system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  8. 基于音高旋律元的柔和乐曲的自动作曲算法%Automated Composition Algorithm for Gentle Music Based on Pitch Melody Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹西征; 毛文涛; 乔锟; 程小丽; 蔡会娟; 温辉明

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种以柔和为导向、以音高旋律元 (Pitch melody unit,PMU)为基本操作单位的自动作曲算法.首先根据柔和乐曲的旋律特征构建了算法的规则模型.然后定义了一阶音高旋律元和二阶音高旋律元,构建了音高旋律元转换表(Pitch melody unit transition tables,PMUTTs)自动生成的模型,以表达相邻音高旋律元的链接概率,为旋律计算提供基本数据.分别定义了用来自动生成新的音高旋律元、乐节、乐句、乐曲的4个旋律计算的算子,以自动生成乐曲.实验结果表明,与以音符为基本单位的马尔可夫作曲方法相比,以音高旋律元为基本单位进行作曲可以提高旋律的逻辑严密性和美感度.%In this paper, an automated music composition algorithm for gentle music is proposed based on pitch melody unit (PMU) which is the minimal operation unit. Firstly, several algorithmic rule models are constructed according to the melody characteristic of gentle music. Secondly, the 1st-order and 2nd-order PMUs are defined, and a model is further constructed to automatically generate pitch melody unit transition tables (PMUTTs) which are the expression of link probability of two adjacent PMUs. Then, the basic data for melody computing are obtained. Thirdly, four operators of melody computing are defined to generate a new PMU, phrase, sentence, and music, respectively. Finally, the gentle music can be produced automatically. Experimental results demonstrate that this PMU-based approach can make the obtained melody more logical and aesthetic than the Markov model approach which is based on operating notes.

  9. A Motion Algorithm of Three-Bond Unit in the Monte Carlo Simulation of Comb Polymer%梳型高分子Monte Carlo模拟中三键交联单元运动的算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文彬; 韩兆让; 王宏; 田卫星; 陈仲

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种用于梳型高分子中三键交联单元运动的新算法,用新算法统计了梳型高分子的静态和动态性质,并与Larson等人的单位置键长涨落算法进行了比较.经检验证明,梳型高分子的静态性质——均方回转半径对应分子量的双对数函数呈直线关系,与Rouault与Shiokawa的模拟结果吻合;梳型高分子的3个动态性质——质量中心扩散均方值、链节运动自相关函数与链节相对于质量中心运动相关函数随时间变化的趋势符合Rouse-Zimm理论;在三维格子模型中新算法可使梳型高分子链中含三键交联单元的运动效率提高1倍以上.%A motion algorithm for three-bond units in comb polymer was proposed. The static and dynamic properties of comb polymer were calculated using this algorithm, and the algorithm was compared with the bond fluctuation model proposed by Larson etc. The results show that the gyration radius of the comb polymer and the molecular weight are lg-lg type linearity, the trend of the mean-square center-of mass displacement, mean-square displacement and the mean-square center-of-mass displacement of comb polymer changing with time are coincided with the Rouse-Zimm theory, the simulation efficiency of the comb polymer is obviously improved more than one time in three-dimensional lattice model. The problem that the three-bond units of comb polymer can not move in Lason's method in two-dimensional lattice model was solved using the new algorithm.

  10. Toward a Theory of Organizational Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    A0D-AI03 358 OREGON UNIV EUGENE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AND--ETC F/0 5/1 TOWARD A THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT.(U) AUG A1 R T MOWDAY, R...M STEERS, L W PORTER N00014-81-K 0026 UNCLASSIFIED TR-8 ML EhEE"hE hhEEE~EE7hhhh LEVEr / 00 Gradate choo of anagmen Univrsit of rego -VI Euee0reo 70...Oregon Eugene , OR 97403 Dr. Gerald R. Stoffer Aerospace Psychologist LT, Medical Service Corp. Code N-712 HAVTRAEQUIPCEN Orlando, FL 32813 Dr

  11. A study on relationship between social entrepreneurship and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Hemmati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, organizational commitment has been a major concern in different types of business activities including banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social entrepreneurship and organizational commitment. The proposed study of this paper adapts a standard questionnaire developed by Meyer and Allen [Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1, 61-89]. Cronbach alpha has been calculated for affective commitment, employee engagement and normative commitment as 0.77, 0.79 and 0.61, respectively. The results of survey indicate that affective commitment, employee engagement and normative commitment have positively influenced organizational commitment, significantly. In addition, Freedman test has indicated that normative commitment is number one priority with mean rank of 2.85 followed by affective commitment with mean rank of 2.47 and employee engagement with the mean rank of 2.26.

  12. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE, RETENTION STRATEGY OF PROFESSIONALS AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN A REMOTE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildes Raimunda Pitombo Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of the strategic people management, the strategy of retention of professional and of obtaining of organizational commitment, by taking up basis the case of Caulim da Amazônia S.A. – CADAM/Pará Pigmentos S.A. – PPSA and seeking to answer the question: what are the characteristics of the strategic management of people, focusing on retention strategy of professional and obtaining of organizational commitment in their peculiarities of remote organizational structure? The research subjects are directors, managers, HR professionals, supervisors and coordinators of units Ipixuna, Monte Dourado and Barcarena, located in northern region of Brazil, for a total of thirty-six respondents. The results show, at the interfaces of the three units, traits that unite people in all these places and around the same purpose: to retain talented professionals. One could say that, it becomes possible to identify the peculiarities that leads to commitment of people with the organizational objectives, these organizational structures, from the strategic approach of people management. The retention of professionals is conditioned on adaptive capacity of these professionals and their families in these regions.

  13. Implementation of Membrane Algorithms on GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane algorithms are a new class of parallel algorithms, which attempt to incorporate some components of membrane computing models for designing efficient optimization algorithms, such as the structure of the models and the way of communication between cells. Although the importance of the parallelism of such algorithms has been well recognized, membrane algorithms were usually implemented on the serial computing device central processing unit (CPU, which makes the algorithms unable to work in an efficient way. In this work, we consider the implementation of membrane algorithms on the parallel computing device graphics processing unit (GPU. In such implementation, all cells of membrane algorithms can work simultaneously. Experimental results on two classical intractable problems, the point set matching problem and TSP, show that the GPU implementation of membrane algorithms is much more efficient than CPU implementation in terms of runtime, especially for solving problems with a high complexity.

  14. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementation of image processing algorithms to improve system performance of the Control, Acquisition, Processing, and Image Display System (CAPIDS) of the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, S N Swetadri; Ionita, Ciprian N; Titus, A H; Cartwright, A N; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2012-02-23

    We present the image processing upgrades implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in the Control, Acquisition, Processing, and Image Display System (CAPIDS) for the custom Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) detector. Most of the image processing currently implemented in the CAPIDS system is pixel independent; that is, the operation on each pixel is the same and the operation on one does not depend upon the result from the operation on the other, allowing the entire image to be processed in parallel. GPU hardware was developed for this kind of massive parallel processing implementation. Thus for an algorithm which has a high amount of parallelism, a GPU implementation is much faster than a CPU implementation. The image processing algorithm upgrades implemented on the CAPIDS system include flat field correction, temporal filtering, image subtraction, roadmap mask generation and display window and leveling. A comparison between the previous and the upgraded version of CAPIDS has been presented, to demonstrate how the improvement is achieved. By performing the image processing on a GPU, significant improvements (with respect to timing or frame rate) have been achieved, including stable operation of the system at 30 fps during a fluoroscopy run, a DSA run, a roadmap procedure and automatic image windowing and leveling during each frame.

  15. Graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation of image processing algorithms to improve system performance of the control acquisition, processing, and image display system (CAPIDS) of the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Titus, A. H.; Cartwright, A. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2012-03-01

    We present the image processing upgrades implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in the Control, Acquisition, Processing, and Image Display System (CAPIDS) for the custom Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) detector. Most of the image processing currently implemented in the CAPIDS system is pixel independent; that is, the operation on each pixel is the same and the operation on one does not depend upon the result from the operation on the other, allowing the entire image to be processed in parallel. GPU hardware was developed for this kind of massive parallel processing implementation. Thus for an algorithm which has a high amount of parallelism, a GPU implementation is much faster than a CPU implementation. The image processing algorithm upgrades implemented on the CAPIDS system include flat field correction, temporal filtering, image subtraction, roadmap mask generation and display window and leveling. A comparison between the previous and the upgraded version of CAPIDS has been presented, to demonstrate how the improvement is achieved. By performing the image processing on a GPU, significant improvements (with respect to timing or frame rate) have been achieved, including stable operation of the system at 30 fps during a fluoroscopy run, a DSA run, a roadmap procedure and automatic image windowing and leveling during each frame.

  16. A DDC-based capacity controller of a direct expansion (DX) air conditioning (A/C) unit for simultaneous indoor air temperature and humidity control - Pt. 1: Control algorithms and preliminary controllability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng [Institute of Air Conditioning, China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China); Deng, Shiming [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2007-01-15

    For residential buildings located in the subtropics, direct expansion (DX) air conditioning (A/C) units are commonly used. Most DX A/C units are currently equipped with single-speed compressors and supply fans, relying on on-off cycling compressors as a low-cost approach to maintain only indoor air dry-bulb temperature, resulting in either space overcooling or an uncontrolled equilibrium indoor relative humidity (RH) level. With the rapid development of A/C industry, the use of variable-speed compressor and supply fan has become more and more prevalent and practical. This paper, the first part of a two-part series, reports on the development of a novel direct digital control (DDC)-based capacity controller for a DX A/C unit having variable-speed compressor and supply fan to simultaneously control indoor air temperature and RH in a conditioned space served by the DX A/C unit. The controller is the first of its kind as a composite parameter, sensible heat ratio (SHR), is used as a controlled parameter. The core element of the capacity controller, a numerical calculation algorithm (NCA) is firstly presented. This is followed by reporting the results of preliminary controllability tests of the DDC-based capacity controller, which suggested that the controller developed could achieve a reasonable control accuracy, but with room for improvement with respect to control sensitivity. Part II of the two-part series reports on the further development of the controller to improve its control sensitivity, and the results of associated controllability tests. (author)

  17. A Literature Review on Organizational Commitment – A Comprehensive Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayani Ghosh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper encapsulates the evolution of the concept of organizational commitment, and its constructs. It focuses and analyses the literature findings of organizational commitments over the last five decades. It categorizes the approaches into six broad eras, each era being an extension and modification over the preceding ones. This review paper brings to the fore the theories that have emerged in the body of knowledge regarding commitment in organizations in a chronological order, starting from the side bet theory to the more recent multiple commitment approach. The gaps in the theories proposed have been identified and reviewed critically. It is difficult to conceptualize and measure organizational commitment as it encompasses a vast and highly diverse body of knowledge. Due to this it becomes difficult to interpret and conclude from the existing bodies of literature. The paper also highlights the importance of recognizing the individual/employee‟s perspective towards organizational commitment.

  18. Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2013-11-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.

  19. The effects of professional ethics and commitment on audit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Nasrabadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effects of professional ethics and commitments on audit quality. The population of this survey includes all audit managers who were active in auditing official statements of different firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange in 2014. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 152 randomly selected managers. In our survey, professional ethics consists of four items including confidentiality and impartiality, professional competence, accountability and individual values while organizational commitment consists of three items including emotional commitment, continues commitment and fundamental commitment. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression models, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between professional ethics as well as commitment and audit quality.

  20. ANTECEDENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF BANKING SECTOR EMPLOYEES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to check the association of factors like work environment, job security,pay satisfaction and participation in decision making; with organizational commitment of theemployees, working in the banking sector of Pakistan. Two hundred and fifteen (215 responses toquestionnaire-based survey were collected from managerial and non-managerial employees, andanalyzed. The analysis showed positive correlations between the dependent and independentvariables. The relation between job security and organizational commitment was the most significant,indicating that a secure job can yield higher level of commitment. Work environment also had asignificant relation with organizational commitment, showing that a healthy and friendly workenvironment may enhance an employee’s commitment towards his work and organization. Paysatisfaction and participation in decision-making had low correlations with organizationalcommitment. Age and tenure seemed to affect the commitment of employees, with highercommitment shown for higher age and tenure; whereas gender did not show significant change incommitment level of employees.

  1. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder.

  3. How Providing Mentoring Relates to Career Success and Organizational Commitment: A Study in the General Managerial Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozionelos, Nikos; Bozionelos, Giorgos; Kostopoulos, Konstantinos; Polychroniou, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the relationship of mentoring provided with career success and organizational commitment in the general managerial population. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 194 native British who were employed in a variety of jobs, professions and industries in the United Kingdom. Findings: Mentoring…

  4. 77 FR 70161 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million... long-term loan or financial guarantee in excess of $100 million (as calculated in accordance with....S. manufactured aircraft under operating lease from the United States to South Korea and...

  5. Doctoral Students in Music Education: Occupational Identity, Career Intent and Commitment, and Confidence for Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine music education doctoral students' shifting occupational identity beliefs, career intent and commitment, and overall confidence for teaching in higher education. A total of 124 music education doctoral students, enrolled at 29 institutions of higher education in the United States, completed a onetime,…

  6. 78 FR 33090 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087980XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to...

  7. 78 FR 75344 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP088400XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to...

  8. BENEFICIAL COALITIONS: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Winkler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently, knowledge is considered as the most strategic resource of organizations. The literature on the subject often raises the issues of commitment. The purpose of the article was to discuss the associations between knowledge management and employee commitment. The article presents the stages of knowledge management and describes the category of commitment, taking account of several criteria. In the opinion of the authors, from the point of view of knowledge management particular importance can be attained to the way qualifications, skills, predispositions and knowledge of employees will be used, which, in turn, depends on "quality" of their commitment (its type, intensity, dimension and direction in achieving organizational goals.

  9. The Optimal Depletion of Exhaustible Resource under Different Commitment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wei; Wu Kangping

    2012-01-01

    There are few papers in the literature focusing on the issue of the optimal depletion of exhaustible resources in the framework of variable time preference. This paper attempts to analyze the pure consumption of exhaustible resource under hy- perbolic time preference, and to discuss the optimal depletion rate and the effect of the protection of the exhaustible resource under different commitment abilities. The results of model show that the case of the hyperbolic discount with the full commitment of the govemment is equivalent to the case of constant discount of the social planner problem. In that case, the optimal depletion rate and the initial consumption of exhaustible resource are the slowest. On the contrary, they are the highest and the myopic behaviors lead to excessive consumption of exhaustible resources inevitably without commitment. Otherwise, in the case of partial commit- ment, the results are between the cases of full commitment and of no commitment. Therefore, with the hyperbolic time preference, the optimal depletion rate of resource depends on the commitment ability. Higher commitment ability leads to lower effective rate of time preference, and consequently, lower depletion rate and lower initial depletion value. The improvement of commitment ability can decrease the impatience and myopia behaviors, and contribute to the protection of the exhaustible resources.

  10. Functional Flexibility in Women's Commitment-Skepticism Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available If a woman overestimates her romantic partner's commitment, the cost to her fitness—reproduction without an investing partner—can be considerable. Error Management Theory predicts that women have an evolved bias to be skeptical of men's commitment in a relationship, which reduces the likelihood of making a costly false positive error. However, because error probabilities are inversely related, this commitment-skepticism bias simultaneously increases the likelihood of missed opportunities, or false negatives. False positives when gauging a partner's commitment are the more costly error for women, but missing an opportunity to secure a genuinely high-quality mate can also be quite costly. We predicted and found that women's mating cognitions are functionally flexible, such that women do not exhibit the commitment-skepticism bias when faced with behavioral evidence that a male partner is willing to commit (Study 1. This suggests that relationship-enhancing behaviors are one contextual cue that may lessen the bias. However, not all relationship-enhancing behaviors are equally diagnostic of a person's true commitment intent. When comparing men and women's commitment thresholds, we found that women require more behavioral evidence than men do to feel certain of their partner's commitment to them (Study 2.

  11. [The publication and its commitment to the society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Publishing a research is one of the most important achievements for a researcher, since it is one of the tools to evaluate his scientific work. This achievement has a three-dimensional commitment: the personal commitment, the commitment with the population from which the data were obtained, and the commitment to the institution where he works. Therefore, publishing in the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social should be a priority and an honor for a researcher of this Institution, since he is working with it to provide solutions to medical problems that affect their beneficiaries.

  12. 48 CFR 2801.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... JUSTICE General DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting... the authority to ratify unauthorized commitments to the chief of the contracting office, except...

  13. Escalation of commitment with transparent future outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Niklas; Gärling, Tommy; Bonini, Nicolao

    2005-01-01

    A frequent case of irrational decision making is the tendency to escalate commitment to a chosen course of action after unsuccessful prior investments of money, effort, or time (sunk costs). In previous research it is argued that escalation does not occur when future outcomes and alternative investments are transparent. Inconsistent with this argument, in an experiment in which undergraduates were presented fictitious investment problems with sunk costs, escalation was demonstrated when full information was given about investment alternatives and estimates of future returns. Thus, it is indicated that people may escalate despite knowing that it will not make them economically better off. A more comprehensive understanding of escalation requires disentangling people's noneconomic reasons for escalation.

  14. Nanotechnology to drive stem cell commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Eriberto; Carraro, Amedeo; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Sbricoli, Luca; Guazzo, Riccardo; Stellini, Edoardo; Roman, Marco; Pinton, Paolo; Sivolella, Stefano; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    Stem cells (SCs) are undifferentiated cells responsible for the growth, homeostasis and repair of many tissues. The maintenance and survival of SCs is strongly influenced by several stimuli from the local microenvironment. The majority of signaling molecules interact with SCs at the nanoscale level. Therefore, scaffolds with surface nanostructures have potential applications for SCs and in the field of regenerative medicine. Although some strategies have already reached the field of cell biology, strategies based on modification at nanoscale level are new players in the fields of SCs and tissue regeneration. The introduction of the possibility to perform such modifications to these fields is probably due to increasing improvements in nanomaterials for biomedical applications, as well as new insights into SC biology. The aim of the present review is to exhibit the most recent applications of nanostructured materials that drive the commitment of adult SCs for potential clinical applications.

  15. Complicating food security: Definitions, discourses, commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ramp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food security is now commonly seen as one of the defining global issues of the century, intertwined with population and consumption shifts, climate change, environmental degradation, water scarcity, and the geopolitics attending globalization. Some analysts suggest that food security threats are so urgent that philosophical scruples must be set aside in order to concentrate all resources on developing and implementing radical strategies to avert a looming civilizational crisis. This article suggests that definitions of food security invoke commitments and have consequences, and that continued critical and conceptual attention to the language employed in food security research and policy is warranted.

  16. Language Support for Declarative Future Commitments

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, William

    2011-01-01

    Sequential programming and work-flow programming are two useful, but radically different, ways of describing computational processing. Of the two, it is sequential programming that we teach all programmers and support by programming languages, whether in procedural, objectoriented, or functional paradigms. We teach workflow as a secondary style of problem decomposition for use in special situations, like distributed or networked processing. Both styles offer complementary advantages, but the fact that they employ radically different models for ownership of continuations interferes with our ability to integrate them in a way that allows them to be taught and used in a single programming language. This paper describes a programming language construct, declarative future commitments, that permit better integration of the two.

  17. American 'committed' drama in Slovene theatres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is essentially to demonstrate that the delayed stagings of American 'committed' plays, written in the thirties and produced in Slovene theatres immediately after World War Two in the late forties and fifties, were often miscontextualized and partly misinterpreted by the literary critics of the period. This was only in the early post-war years largely due to the need to serve the then ruling ideology and to comply with the criteria of Marxist aesthetisc, especially that of a radical social criticism. However, the later stagings particularly of Arthur Miller's and also Tennessee Williams's plays, did not see the same phenomenon, for it was they that assured the popularity of the American post-war drama on Slovene stages and, even more importantly, helped Slovene theatre to come off age in the sixties.

  18. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Affective Commitment Predictors in a Group of Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Maria Santa

    Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have long been identified as relevant factors for the well-being of individuals within an organization and the success of the organization itself. As the well-being can be, in principle, considered as emergent from the influence of a number of factors, the main goal of a theory of organizations is to identify these factors and the role they can play. In this regard job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been often identified with structural factors allowing an organization to be considered as a system, or a wholistic entity, rather than a simple aggregate of individuals. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that job satisfaction has a significant, direct effect on determining individuals' attachment to an organization and a significant but indirect effect on their intention to leave a company. However, a complete assessment of the role of these factors in establishing and keeping the emergence of an organization is still lacking, due to shortage of measuring instruments and to practical difficulties in interviewing organization members. The present study aims to give a further contribution to what is currently known about the relationship between job satisfaction and affective commitment by using a group of professionals, all at management level. A questionnaire to measure these constructs, following a pilot study, was designed and administered to 1042 participants who were all professionals and had the title of industrial manager or director. The factors relating to job satisfaction and the predictive value of these factors (to predict an employee's emotional involvement with their organization) were simultaneously tested by a confirmative factorial model. The results were generalized with a multi-sample procedure by using models of structural equations. This procedure was used to check whether these factors could be considered or not as causes producing the measured affective commitment. The results

  19. Handbook of Memetic Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Cotta, Carlos; Moscato, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Memetic Algorithms (MAs) are computational intelligence structures combining multiple and various operators in order to address optimization problems.  The combination and interaction amongst operators evolves and promotes the diffusion of the most successful units and generates an algorithmic behavior which can handle complex objective functions and hard fitness landscapes.   “Handbook of Memetic Algorithms” organizes, in a structured way, all the the most important results in the field of MAs since their earliest definition until now.  A broad review including various algorithmic solutions as well as successful applications is included in this book. Each class of optimization problems, such as constrained optimization, multi-objective optimization, continuous vs combinatorial problems, uncertainties, are analysed separately and, for each problem,  memetic recipes for tackling the difficulties are given with some successful examples. Although this book contains chapters written by multiple authors, ...

  20. Algorithmic Adventures

    CERN Document Server

    Hromkovic, Juraj

    2009-01-01

    Explores the science of computing. This book starts with the development of computer science, algorithms and programming, and then explains and shows how to exploit the concepts of infinity, computability, computational complexity, nondeterminism and randomness.

  1. PARTICULARITIES OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN THE SPECIFIC CULTURE OF THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea-Valentin BUȘU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture and organizational commitment represent two of the most important concepts to be considered în an well-functioning organization, having a direct influence over employees` lives in that company. Organizational culture, a scientific concept appeared in the field literature at the end of 1980`, in an increasingly unstable business environment, could be defined as a defined series of collective attitudes, ideas, beliefs, symbols and meanings, values and ideologies, rules and norms, feelings or behaviors, as a model and structure of stable practices shared by all the members of that organization and which, by being implemented, come to merge with the structure of organization and its control systems, with the purpose of producing behavioral norms, this way keeping  the unit of organization. In the same time, organizational commitment represents the feeling of membership, of belonging felt by the employee toward the company he/she works in, reflecting the degree to which those characteristics and organizational perspectives are internalized and adopted in his behavior by the subject. Commitment could be also seen as a model of thinking of an employee taking into consideration the level to which personal values and goals are congruent with those of the company. On the other hand, behavioral commitment refers to the process of one employee becoming committed or even stacked into the organization and the way he manage the situation. Our motivation for choosing the theme of this research lays on one hand in the desire to understand the construct of organizational culture and the organizational development, field which I`m interested in,  and on the other hand because the lack of similar research regarding the Romanian companies. The research We have made revealed that there are many studies linking the two concepts with the organizational development in companies from other countries, but only two studies realized in our country

  2. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  3. The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayir, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: It can be said that one of the key factors ensuring teachers adaptation to developments is teachers' level of commitment to their schools. In this commitment, the teacher is expected to internalize the organizational objectives. The teacher's perception of organizational support is important for him to internalize the…

  4. The Relationship between Career Growth and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.; Morrow, Paula C.; Liu, Rongzhi

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between employees' career growth and organizational commitment. Career growth was conceptualized by four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed and remuneration growth, while organizational commitment was conceptualized using Meyer and Allen's (1997) three component…

  5. Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Pala, Adem; Kumartasli, Mehmet; Günel, Ilker; Duyan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational…

  6. Impact of Satisfaction and Commitment on Teachers' Organizational Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesen, Harun; Basim, Nejat H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on teachers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a structural equation model. The study was employed to a group of teachers and their supervisors. The results indicated that job satisfaction and commitment to the school had an impact on OCBs of the teachers…

  7. 10 CFR 603.215 - Recipient's commitment and cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cost sharing. The purpose of cost sharing is to ensure that the recipient incurs real risk that gives... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recipient's commitment and cost sharing. 603.215 Section... AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 603.215 Recipient's commitment and cost...

  8. Generational Differences as a Determinant of Women's Perspectives on Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Marcella D.; Kirk, Amy Manning; Bruhn, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Differences between 116 graduate and undergraduate women, representing 4 generations (i.e., Baby Boomers, Transitionals, Generation Xers, and Millennials), were studied to categorize earliest awareness and definitions of commitment in relationships. More than 63% of participants in each generation viewed relationship commitment in terms of…

  9. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of commitment development in psychology students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the development of study- and work-related commitments in 28 psychology students during their bachelor years. Based on seven measurements of exploration and commitments (over a period of three-and-a-half years) We found the theoretically expected information-oriented, normative and d

  10. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of commitment development in psychology students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E.S.

    We investigated the development of study- and work-related commitments in 28 psychology students during their bachelor years. Based on seven measurements of exploration and commitments (over a period of three-and-a-half years) We found the theoretically expected information-oriented, normative and

  11. Additively Homomorphic UC commitments with Optimal Amortized Overhead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; David, Bernardo Machado

    2015-01-01

    We propose the first UC secure commitment scheme with (amortized) computational complexity linear in the size of the string committed to. After a preprocessing phase based on oblivious transfer, that only needs to be done once and for all, our scheme only requires a pseudorandom generator...

  12. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Problem Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to familiarize clinicians with the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for problem anger by describing the application of ACT to a case of a 45-year-old man struggling with anger. ACT is an approach and set of intervention technologies that support acceptance and mindfulness processes linked with commitment and…

  13. Balancing organizational and professional commitments in Professional Service Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Becker, Karen

    2015-01-01

    financial investment firms. Our findings suggest that in professional service firms, HR practices encourage high levels of organizational commitment primarily and most often through their influence on professional commitment and that HR practices related to flexible work design are essential in creating...

  14. Unconditionally Secure and Universally Composable Commitments from Physical Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Scafuro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We present a constant-round unconditional black-box compiler that transforms any ideal (i.e., statistically-hiding and statistically-binding) straight-line extractable commitment scheme, into an extractable and equivocal commitment scheme, therefore yielding to UC-security [9]. We exemplify the u...

  15. Coming to Terms with Organizational Identification and Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, George; Tompkins, Phillip K.

    1987-01-01

    Notes that "identification" and "commitment" appear frequently in organizational studies as ways of describing the individual's connection with the organization and argues that the concepts are distinct but interrelated. Sees identification as the substance of individual-organization relationships and commitment as the form.…

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Measure of Fear of Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serling, Deborah A.; Betz, Nancy E.

    1990-01-01

    Examined utility of fear of commitment in understanding differences between career undecidedness versus more complicated and chronic career indecisiveness in three studies targeting undecided and decided college students (N=707). Found fear of commitment related to state and trait anxiety, self-esteem, and was significantly higher in undecided…

  17. Employee Retention. Building Organizational Commitment. Recommendations for Nonprofit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula BEUDEAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides recommendations onbuilding commitment which can be used by thenonprofit agencies that experience high personnelturnover. The recommendations are based on thetheories and research concerning retention andorganizational commitment. The study focuseson the organizational actions needed to buildcommitment and to retain employees.

  18. The Five Commitments: A Philosophical Framework Manifested through Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Kori

    2013-01-01

    The philosophical framework known as the Five Commitments was recently approved by the Governing Board of the Brigham Young University-Public School Partnership. The Five Commitments consist of: Civic Preparation and Engagement; Engaged Learning Through Nurturing Pedagogy; Equitable Access to Academic Knowledge and Achievement; Stewardship in…

  19. Organisational Commitments and Teaching Styles among Academics in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Jing, Li-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This research pioneered the investigation of the predictive power of organisational commitments for academics' teaching styles. Participants were 370 faculty members from 15 higher educational institutions in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. Results showed that academics' organisational commitments as measured by the Organisational…

  20. The Application of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Problem Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifert, Georg H.; Forsyth, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to familiarize clinicians with the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for problem anger by describing the application of ACT to a case of a 45-year-old man struggling with anger. ACT is an approach and set of intervention technologies that support acceptance and mindfulness processes linked with commitment and…

  1. Using internal marketing to improve organizational commitment and service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yafang; Wu, Shih-Wang

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the structural relationships among internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality and to practically apply the findings. Internal marketing is a way to assist hospitals in improving the quality of the services that they provide while executing highly labour-intensive tasks. Through internal marketing, a hospital can enhance the organizational commitment of its employees to attain higher service quality. This research uses a cross-sectional study to survey nursing staff perceptions about internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality. The results of the survey are evaluated using equation models. The sample includes three regional hospitals in Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed and 288 valid questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 82.3%. The survey process lasted from 1 February to 9 March 2007. The data were analysed with SPSS 12.0, including descriptive statistics based on demographics. In addition, the influence of demographics on internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality is examined using one-way anova. The findings reveal that internal marketing plays a critical role in explaining employee perceptions of organizational commitment and service quality. Organizational commitment is the mediator between internal marketing and service quality. The results indicate that internal marketing has an impact on both organizational commitment and service quality. Internal marketing should be emphasized to influence frontline nursing staff, thereby helping to create better organizational commitment and service quality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Organisational Commitments and Teaching Styles among Academics in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Jing, Li-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This research pioneered the investigation of the predictive power of organisational commitments for academics' teaching styles. Participants were 370 faculty members from 15 higher educational institutions in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. Results showed that academics' organisational commitments as measured by the Organisational…

  3. A Longitudinal Investigation of Commitment Dynamics in Cohabiting Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 120 cohabiting, opposite-sex couples over 8 months to test hypotheses derived from commitment theory about how two types of commitment (dedication and constraint) operate during cohabitation. In nearly half the couples, there were large differences between partners in terms of dedication. These differences were…

  4. Transferability of Skills and Education and Thai Academics' Organisational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungruang, Parisa; Donohue, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined the links between perceived transferability of education or perceived transferability of skills and organisational commitment. This paper reports on a study examining the relationships between transferability of education and transferability of skills, and the three components of organisational commitment (affective,…

  5. Teachers: Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anari, Nahid Naderi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction, between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment, and between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among high-school English teachers. Furthermore, the study aims to examine the role of gender and age in…

  6. Commitment, enjoyment and motivation in young soccer competitive players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, Alexandre; Palou, Pere; Gili, Margarita; Ponseti, Xavier; Borras, Pere A; Vidal, Josep; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Villamarín, Francisco; Sousa, Catarina

    2010-11-01

    Building upon Deci's and Ryan (1985) Self-determination theory as well as the sportive behavioral correlates of the model of Commitment (Scanlan et al., 1976), this study tries to establish the relationship between motivation and commitment in youth sport. For this purpose 454 young competitive soccer players answered the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire (SCQ) during the regular season. The SMS measures the three dimensions of the Motivational continuum (the Amotivation, the Extrinsic Motivation and the Intrinsic Motivation). The SCQ measures the Sportive Commitment and its composing factors such as the Enjoyment, the Alternatives to the sport, and the Social Pressure. Our findings provided a clear pattern of the influence of motivation in sport enjoyment and commitment, outlining the positive contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to enjoyment and commitment. Amotivation, contributes positively to alternatives to sport and negatively to enjoyment and commitment, It should be noted that extrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to enjoyment whereas intrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to commitment.

  7. Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad

    2014-10-27

    A new commitment scheme based on position-verification and non-local quantum correlations is presented here for the first time in literature. The only credential for unconditional security is the position of committer and non-local correlations generated; neither receiver has any pre-shared data with the committer nor does receiver require trusted and authenticated quantum/classical channels between him and the committer. In the proposed scheme, receiver trusts the commitment only if the scheme itself verifies position of the committer and validates her commitment through non-local quantum correlations in a single round. The position-based commitment scheme bounds committer to reveal valid commitment within allocated time and guarantees that the receiver will not be able to get information about commitment unless committer reveals. The scheme works for the commitment of both bits and qubits and is equally secure against committer/receiver as well as against any third party who may have interests in destroying the commitment. Our proposed scheme is unconditionally secure in general and evades Mayers and Lo-Chau attacks in particular.

  8. Multi-Prover Commitments Against Non-Signaling Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehr, S.; Fillinger, M.J.; Gennaro, R.; Robshaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the concept of two-prover (and more generally: multi-prover) commitments, as introduced in the late eighties in the seminal work by Ben-Or \\etal. As was recently shown by Cr{\\'e}peau \\etal., the security of known two-prover commitment schemes not only relies on the explicit assumption

  9. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  10. Leader-member exchange and affective organizational commitment: the contribution of supervisor's organizational embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Robert; Karagonlar, Gokhan; Stinglhamber, Florence; Neves, Pedro; Becker, Thomas E; Gonzalez-Morales, M Gloria; Steiger-Mueller, Meta

    2010-11-01

    In order to account for wide variation in the relationship between leader-member exchange and employees' affective organizational commitment, we propose a concept termed supervisor's organizational embodiment (SOE), which involves the extent to which employees identify their supervisor with the organization. With samples of 251 social service employees in the United States (Study 1) and 346 employees in multiple Portuguese organizations (Study 2), we found that as SOE increased, the association between leader-member exchange and affective organizational commitment became greater. This interaction carried through to in-role and extra-role performance. With regard to antecedents, we found in Study 1 that supervisor's self-reported identification with the organization increased supervisor's expression of positive statements about the organization, which in turn increased subordinates' SOE.

  11. Switzerland Committed to Innovation. The Swiss Network of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade von Bremen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Switzerland showed its commitment to innovation in health care since the early 80th, implementing agencies and government units with the mission to promote and to appropriately govern innovation. The Swiss Network of Technology Assessment (SNHTA was founded in 1998.

    The aim is the promotion and implementation of Health Technology Assessment projects in Switzerland by providing a neutral forum for the identification and the pursuit of common interests. This includes the coordination, exchange and dissemination of experiences of HTA projects and the implementation of the results. The collaboration in international projects is a priority. Ultimately SNHTA has the goal to improve efficacy, cost effectiveness and social accountability. An inventory survey amongst the members confirmed a high level of diverse specialised competencies, mainly employed within the institution. Only 20% of the HTA specific competencies are used for external activities.

    The need for integration of all partners in the field of innovation in a network has been recognised by the Swiss government. This lead to the creation of a webplatform in which all players involved in the business of medical technologies are involved.

    This platform (swiss medtech, includes patients, insurers, industry, universities and professional organisations. The joined activities include agreements on intellectual property and the integrated patient care chain. New ways to connect players in innovation are needed to face the challenge of increasing costs and diminishing resources.

  12. The Effect of Nurse-Physician Collaboration on Job Satisfaction, Team Commitment, and Turnover Intention in Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; D'Aloja, Ernesto; Campagna, Marcello

    2016-10-01

    Voluntary turnover in nursing can lead to nursing shortages that affect both individuals and the entire hospital unit. We investigated the relationship between group- and individual-level variables by examining the association of nurses' job satisfaction and team commitment at the individual level, and nurse-physician collaboration at the group level, with individuals' intention to leave the unit at the individual level. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,024 nurses on 72 units in 3 Italian hospitals. At the individual level, affective commitment partially mediated the relationship between job satisfaction and nursing turnover intention. Moreover, a cross-level interaction was found. Nurses with high levels of job satisfaction showed high levels of identification with their team, and this relationship was stronger when the group perception of nurse-physician collaboration was high. Results suggested that managerial strategies to promote nurse-physician collaboration may be important to increase nurses' affective commitment to the team. At the individual level, job satisfaction and team affective commitment are important factors for retaining staff, and at the group level, good work collaboration with physicians is instrumental in developing nurses' affective identification with the team. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Beyond neutrality and/or political commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyne Koren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution souhaite problématiser la question du devoir d’objectivité du chercheur, analyste de discours médiatiques sur le conflit israélo-palestinien. Il ne s’agit pas de contester la validité de la posture “neutre”, mais de la revisiter et de l’amender dans les cas où les corpus analysés ont des questions de vie et de mort pour objet. On soutiendra que cet amendement est rendu nécessaire pour des raisons éthiques et non pas politiques : les mots certes ne tuent pas, mais il peuvent contribuer à la légitimation de la diabolisation et de la violence mortifère ou de l’incitation à la haine. L’auteur tentera de justifier l’hypothèse suivante : l’objectivité ou au contraire l’engagement politique ne sont pas les seules options en matière de positionnement scientifique ; il en existe une troisième : l’engagement éthique explicite, justifié par un savoir scientifique.The aim of this contribution is to revisit the question of the duty of objectivity of the researcher, analyst of media discourses on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It is not to contest the validity of a “neutral” posture, but rather to reexamine it and to amend it in particular cases where matters of life and death are analyzed. The author shows that this amendment is necessary not for political but for ethical reasons: even if words do not kill, they can however legitimate a vilifying image of one side, while rendering acceptable deadly violence of the other and incitement to hatred.The author will try to justify the following hypothesis: objectivity or, on the contrary, political commitment, are not the only options in matter of scientific position. There exists a third option, namely an explicit ethical commitment of the researcher, supported by scientific knowledge.

  14. Peak load demand forecasting using two-level discrete wavelet decomposition and neural network algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnoon, Pituk; Chalermyanont, Kusumal; Limsakul, Chusak

    2010-02-01

    This paper proposed the discrete transform and neural network algorithms to obtain the monthly peak load demand in mid term load forecasting. The mother wavelet daubechies2 (db2) is employed to decomposed, high pass filter and low pass filter signals from the original signal before using feed forward back propagation neural network to determine the forecasting results. The historical data records in 1997-2007 of Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) is used as reference. In this study, historical information of peak load demand(MW), mean temperature(Tmean), consumer price index (CPI), and industrial index (economic:IDI) are used as feature inputs of the network. The experimental results show that the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is approximately 4.32%. This forecasting results can be used for fuel planning and unit commitment of the power system in the future.

  15. Nurses' perception of ethical climate and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Jalali, Tayebe; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Haghdoost, Aliakbar

    2014-05-01

    The high turnover of nurses has become a universal issue. The manner in which nurses view their organization's ethical climate has direct bearing on their organizational commitment. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between nurses' perception of ethical climate and organizational commitment in teaching hospitals in the southeastern region of Iran. A descriptive analytical design was used in this study. The sample consisted of 275 nurses working in four teaching hospitals in the southeastern region of Iran. The instruments used in this study included a demographic questionnaire, Ethical Climate Questionnaire, and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson's correlation, t-test, and descriptive statistic through Statistical Package for Social Science, version 16. The result of this research indicated a positive correlation among professionalism, caring, rules, independence climate, and organizational commitment. Therefore, findings of this study are a guideline for researchers and managers alike who endeavor to improve organizational commitment.

  16. Psychopathy, criminal responsibility, and civil commitment as a sexual predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopp, R F; Slain, A J

    2000-01-01

    Recent judicial decisions regarding commitment under sexual predator statutes and commentary addressing the legal significance of psychopathy provide an interesting opportunity to reflect upon the exculpatory significance of psychopathy and the appropriate relationship between criminal conviction and police power civil commitment. This paper examines the legal significance of psychopathy for the purposes of criminal responsibility and of civil commitment under sexual predator statutes. By examining the significance of psychopathy for each of these legal institutions, it clarifies our understanding of the legal significance of psychopathy and of the relationship between these institutions. This process illuminates the defensible functions and boundaries of each institution and clarifies the nature of the impairment that should qualify an individual for confinement by each. This analysis interprets criminal conviction and police power commitment, including sexual predator commitment, as integrated institutions of social control intended to provide a coherent approach to psychopaths as well as to others who require state intervention under the police power.

  17. On the Complexity of Additively Homomorphic UC Commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifiletti, Roberto; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Frederiksen, Tore Kasper

    2016-01-01

    as the commitment protocol by Garay \\emph{et al.} from Eurocrypt 2014. A main technical improvement over the scheme mentioned above, and other schemes based on using error correcting codes for UC commitment, we develop a new technique which allows to based the extraction property on erasure decoding as opposed...... transfer functionality. Based on this we prove our scheme secure in the Universal Composability (UC) framework against a static and malicious adversary corrupting any number of parties. On a practical note, our scheme improves significantly on the non- homomorphic scheme of Cascudo \\emph{et al.} Based...... on their observations in regards to efficiency of using linear error correcting codes for commit- ments we conjecture that our commitment scheme might in practice be more efficient than all existing constructions of UC commitment, even non-homomorphic constructions and even constructions in the random oracle model...

  18. Ideological commitment and posttraumatic stress in former Tamil child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Raundalen, Magne; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on the impact of present ideological commitment on posttraumatic stress symptoms in former child soldiers living in exile. Eighteen men and two women (aged 25-37), who had joined different Tamil armed groups in Sri Lanka between the ages of 13 and 17 years, participated. The Impact of Event Scale was used to measure posttraumatic symptoms. Qualitative methods were used to investigate the participants' ideological commitment. Participants reported being exposed to many potentially traumatizing events, and had high scores on the Impact of Event Scale. Twenty-five percent of the sample showed strong ideological commitment to the "cause". Ideological commitment at the present seemed to predict better mental health when exposure was less intense and overwhelming. Time had a negative impact on ideological commitment.

  19. Trust, Commitment and Competitive Advantage in SMEs Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Daud Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of small businesses into international markets has intensified. However, despite the growing presence of small businesses in international markets, studies into their international behavior, particularly regarding the effect of international relationships on international outcomes, remain limited. This study investigates the cross-border relationships of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs by examining the effects of the dimensions of the key relationship on the competitive advantage and performance of SMEs in export markets. These dimensions include trust and commitment. Results indicate that trust is significantly related to commitment and export performance. Commitment is positively related to competitive advantage but not to export performance. Trust affects competitive advantage through commitment. The effect of commitment on export performance is mediated by competitive advantage. The methodology and results are presented. The conclusion, implications, and limitations of this study are also discussed.

  20. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi A. Al-Saggaf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS, in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message. The efficiency of our scheme offers different security assurance, and the trusted third party is not involved in the exchange of commitment.The characteristic of our scheme makes it useful for biometrics systems. If the biometrics template is compromised, then there is no way to use it directly again even in secure biometrics systems. This paper combines biometrics and OFCS to achieve biometric protection scheme using smart cards with renewability of protected biometrics template property.

  1. Some questions about complicity in the committing crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turanjanin Veljko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author in this work elaborates some problems about complicity in the committing a crimes. Criminal act is the act committed mostly by one person. But, today, there is more and more felonies which who are committing by several peoples, or groups of people. Therefore, the sanction must be more rigorous. In this article, author discussed about a one side of the complicity, accordingly, about a assistance in committing a crimes. Through analyses theoretical postulates in Codex trans aspects of some other authors till jurisprudence, the author concludes that this subject matter is very good elaborate, and, there is no many problems in practice. The author propose a harmonization of solutions on some aspects between the countries in the ambience, and demand more severe regard from court. The assistance in committing crime is the easiest shape of the complicity, but no less remarkable.

  2. Exploring commitment, professional identity, and support for student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Andrew James; Kinman, Gail; Leggetter, Sandra; Teoh, Kevin; Guppy, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Problems with the recruitment and retention of nurses globally mean that insight into the factors that might increase retention in qualified staff and students is crucial. Despite clear links between work commitment and retention, there is little research exploring commitment in student nurses and midwives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study designed to provide insight into commitment using semi-structured interviews conducted with nine pre-registration students and a qualitative survey completed by 171 pre-registration students. Thematic analysis of the data emphasised the impact of placement experiences on commitment via interpersonal relationships. Students typically emphasised their professional identity as the basis for commitment, although many participants also highlighted a lack of acceptance by qualified practitioners, which reduced it. There was evidence that suggested that practitioner workload may impact the student experience due to challenges in making sufficient time to provide support. Implications for retention strategies are discussed.

  3. Commitment to Cooperation and Peer Punishment: Its Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Sasaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have generally weighed the effect of peer punishment and pool punishment for sanctioning free riders separately. However, these sanctioning mechanisms often pose a puzzling tradeoff between efficiency and stability in detecting and punishing free riders. Here, we combine the key aspects of these qualitatively different mechanisms in terms of evolutionary game theory. Based on the dilemmatic donation game, we introduce a strategy of commitment to both cooperation and peer punishment. To make the commitment credible, we assume that those willing to commit have to make a certain deposit. The deposit will be refunded as long as the committers faithfully cooperate in the donation game and punish free riders and non-committers. It turns out that the deposit-based commitment offers both the efficiency of peer punishment and the stability of pool punishment and that the replicator dynamics lead to transitions of different systems: pool punishment to commitment to peer punishment.

  4. 图形处理器上CSB+-树索引的并行构建算法%Parallel Algorithm to Construct CSB+-Tree Indexing on Graphic Processing Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 奚建清; 黄东平; 贾连印; 苗德成

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the operation efficiency of cache sensitive B +-tree (CSB +-tree)indexing,this pa-per deals with the parallel construction and query performance of CSB +-tree on graphic processing unit (GPU).In the investigation,first,the mapping relationship between each key in internal nodes and the corresponding leaf node of the index tree is analyzed,a lock-free parallel algorithm that once for all builds the CSB +-tree internal node keys is proposed,and the index tree is constructed at the maximum parallel speed.Moreover,dynamic arrays su-pporting the arbitrary expansion of CSB +-tree index data on GPU are designed to implement the dynamic allocation of memory space on GPU,and padding bits are added to the boundary of the internal nodes to reduce the number of branches,thus improving the query efficiency of CSB +-tree.Experimental results indicate that the proposed algo-rithm is 31.0 and 1.4 times faster respectively than the parallel algorithms based on single node and tree layer.%为提高缓存敏感CSB +-树索引的操作效率,在图形处理器(GPU)上研究CSB +-树的并行构建和查询性能.通过分析索引树内部节点的每一键与对应叶子节点的映射关系,提出了一种一次性并行构建CSB +-树所有内部节点键值的无锁并行算法,以最大并行度来快速构建索引树.该算法通过设计GPU平台上支持CSB +-树的索引数据任意伸缩的动态数组来解决GPU上不能动态分配显存空间的问题,通过在索引内部节点的边界增加填充位来减少线程块的线程分支数,从而提高CSB +-树的查询效率.实验结果表明,文中所提算法的运行时间比基于单个节点和基于树层的并行算法分别提高了31.0和1.4倍.

  5. A Concurrency Control Method Based on Commitment Ordering in Mobile Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Karami, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Disconnection of mobile clients from server, in an unclear time and for an unknown duration, due to mobility of mobile clients, is the most important challenges for concurrency control in mobile database with client-server model. Applying pessimistic common classic methods of concurrency control (like 2pl) in mobile database leads to long duration blocking and increasing waiting time of transactions. Because of high rate of aborting transactions, optimistic methods aren`t appropriate in mobile database. In this article, OPCOT concurrency control algorithm is introduced based on optimistic concurrency control method. Reducing communications between mobile client and server, decreasing blocking rate and deadlock of transactions, and increasing concurrency degree are the most important motivation of using optimistic method as the basis method of OPCOT algorithm. To reduce abortion rate of transactions, in execution time of transactions` operators a timestamp is assigned to them. In other to checking commitment o...

  6. 任意寿命分布单元表决系统备件需求量的解析算法%Analytical algorithm of spare demand for voting system of any life distribution units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘任洋; 李庆民; 王慎; 李华

    2016-01-01

    The voting structure is widely used in reliability design of equipment.For the computation of spare demand for the voting system is difficult and inaccurate,a method to calculate spare demand for the voting system is proposed based on life distribution equivalence.First,non exponential units are converted to exponen-tial units by R-equivalence.Then the voting system of exponential units is converted to Gamma system and the parameter calculation formulas for the equivalent system are presented.With constrains of availability index,the spare demand results are obtained based on the additive property of Gamma distribution.Finally,in the actual example com-pared with simulation results,the analytical algorithm put forward in this paper owns high precision for exponential units and can also meet precision demands under high availability for non exponential ones.%表决结构广泛存在于装备的可靠性设计中。针对表决系统备件需求计算困难、不准确的问题,提出了一种基于寿命分布等效的表决系统备件需求量计算方法。首先通过 R-等效方法将系统中的非指数单元转化为指数单元;而后将多指数单元表决系统等效为伽马系统并给出等效伽马系统参数的经验计算公式;在此基础上以可用度为保障约束指标,利用伽马分布的可加性得到备件计算结果;最后在实际算例中,通过与仿真结果的比较表明,此解析算法对于指数单元具有较高精度,对于非指数单元,在可用度较高的情况下亦能满足精度要求。

  7. Dispersion in unit disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    We present two new approximation algorithms with (improved) constant ratios for selecting $n$ points in $n$ unit disks such that the minimum pairwise distance among the points is maximized. (I) A very simple $O(n \\log{n})$-time algorithm with ratio 0.5110 for disjoint unit disks. In combination with an algorithm of Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, it yields a $O(n^2)$-time algorithm with ratio of 0.4487 for dispersion in $n$ not necessarily disjoint unit disks. (II) A more sophisticated LP-based algorithm with ratio 0.6495 for disjoint unit disks that uses a linear number of variables and constraints, and runs in polynomial time. The algorithm introduces a novel technique which combines linear programming and projections for approximating distances. The previous best approximation ratio for disjoint unit disks was 1/2. Our results give a partial answer to an open question raised by Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, who asked whether 1/2 could be improved.

  8. WHO reaffirms commitment to women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwin, S

    1998-04-11

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has reiterated its goal of reducing maternal mortality by 50% by 2000, and celebrated the 10th anniversary of its Safe Motherhood Initiative on April 7. The initiative is a coalition formed by the WHO, UNICEF, the World Bank, the UN Population Fund, and other nongovernmental organizations to encourage countries to look at the position of women in society and improve their health care. About 1600 women die every day due to complications in pregnancy and childbirth, mostly in Asia and Africa. Of all the health statistics monitored by the WHO, maternal mortality is the one with the largest discrepancy between developed and developing countries; the level of maternal mortality in the developing world is almost 18 times higher than that in the developed world and up to one third of all deaths among women of reproductive age in many developing countries are the result of complications of pregnancy or childbirth. The WHO claims that providing care from conception to delivery, including family planning and neonatal care, would cost only about $3 per woman, an important social and economic investment. China, Sri Lanka, Iran, and Cuba have had considerable success in reducing their levels of maternal mortality through a combination of commitment to the initiative and improved health care.

  9. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MÍNGUET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  10. Facility's employment practices reflect affirmative action commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, J W; Madden, M J

    1984-04-01

    The U.S. bishops' statements on racism over the last 40 years have addressed the structural as well as the personal aspects of racial discrimination. They have noted its persistence, described it as a moral and religious problem, and called for aggressive action among Catholics to combat it. "Meaningful equality" for blacks, however, remains a distant dream, the U.S. Supreme Court noted in a recent case involving institutional discrimination, because of the basically disadvantaged position into which blacks are born. As statistics on health, education, work, and standard of living illustrate, the socioeconomic opportunities available to blacks are markedly lower than those available to white Americans. Despite these odds, efforts to improve blacks' chances of contributing to society--through affirmative action programs--have achieved striking results in industry. Hospitals, as major workplaces, likewise should focus greater attention on developing and extending minority employment and advancement programs. Catholic health care facilities especially should evaluate their commitments to affirmative action. Increased efforts to eliminate discrimination in all aspects of a hospital's relationships with the business community as well as with its own employees will cause them to be recognized as symbols of justice not only in the workplace but also in society.

  11. CERN Confirms commitment to Open Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Library Information desk.At a meeting on the Wednesday before Easter, the Executive Committee endorsed a policy of open access to all the laboratory's results, as expressed in the document ‘Continuing CERN action on Open Access' (http://cds.cern.ch/record/828991/files/open-2005-006.pdf), released by its Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) earlier in the month. "This underlines CERN's commitment to sharing the excitement of fundamental research with as wide an audience as possible", said Guido Altarelli, current SIPB chairman. Open Access to scientific knowledge is today the goal of an increasing component of the worldwide scientific community. It is a concept, made possible by new electronic tools, which would bring enormous benefits to all readers by giving them free access to research results. CERN has implicitly supported such moves from its very beginning. Its Convention (http://cds.cern.ch/record/330625/files/cm-p00046871.pdf), adopted in 1953, requires openness, stipulating that "......

  12. Relationship of High School Principal Organizational Commitment and Campus Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, David Allen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship of Texas high school principals' organizational commitment and the academic performance of the high schools served by the principals. Three components of principal organizational commitment--affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment--were assessed using the…

  13. Combinatorial algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, T C

    2002-01-01

    Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discusses binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. 153 black-and-white illus. 23 tables.Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable, widely used text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discussed are binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. New to this edition: Chapter 9

  14. Autodriver algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bourmistrova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The autodriver algorithm is an intelligent method to eliminate the need of steering by a driver on a well-defined road. The proposed method performs best on a four-wheel steering (4WS vehicle, though it is also applicable to two-wheel-steering (TWS vehicles. The algorithm is based on coinciding the actual vehicle center of rotation and road center of curvature, by adjusting the kinematic center of rotation. The road center of curvature is assumed prior information for a given road, while the dynamic center of rotation is the output of dynamic equations of motion of the vehicle using steering angle and velocity measurements as inputs. We use kinematic condition of steering to set the steering angles in such a way that the kinematic center of rotation of the vehicle sits at a desired point. At low speeds the ideal and actual paths of the vehicle are very close. With increase of forward speed the road and tire characteristics, along with the motion dynamics of the vehicle cause the vehicle to turn about time-varying points. By adjusting the steering angles, our algorithm controls the dynamic turning center of the vehicle so that it coincides with the road curvature center, hence keeping the vehicle on a given road autonomously. The position and orientation errors are used as feedback signals in a closed loop control to adjust the steering angles. The application of the presented autodriver algorithm demonstrates reliable performance under different driving conditions.

  15. The Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Trust of Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Alijanpour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between organizational trust and organizational commitment in staff. Eighty-four persons from 101 staff of department of Sports and Youth in the province of Mazandaran responded to two questionnaires of “Organizational Trust Inventory (OTI” developed by Shockley-Zalaba, Ellis, and Winograd (2000 and “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ” developed by Allen and Meyer (1990. The reliability analysis of questionnaires for OTI, and OCQ were reported ɑ = 0.92 and ɑ = 0.82, respectively based on Cronbach's alpha measure. Results revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between organizational trust and organizational commitment (r = 0.573, p = 0.001, affective commitment (r = 0.54, p = 0.001, task commitment is (r = 0.345, p = 0.001. But the positive relationship between organizational trust and continuous commitment (r = 0.202 wasn’t significant (p = 0.066. In conclusion, it is suggested that managers should create trust of staff in order to increase its organizational commitment.

  16. IMPACT OF COMMITMENT TO BUSINESS ETHICS TO NONFINANCIAL BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the relationship between commitment to business ethics and nonfinancial business performance. Data of commitment to business ethics and nonfinancial business performance were collected from 100 participants through a questionnaire survey. The survey was conducted in 2015 in Croatian large and medium sized companies. The questionnaire for assessing commitment to business ethics contained nine different dimensions while the nonfinancial business performance contained three dimensions: client satisfaction, human resource management plus innovativeness and efficiency of business processes. Multiple regression methods were applied in the analysis. The empirical results of three multiple linear regression models show that certain dimension of commitment to business ethics had a positive influence on the nonfinancial performance of the companies. Motivation and rewarding policy for ethical behavior and responding to unethical behavior, as a dimension of commitment to business ethics, has distinctive effects on all three nonfinancial performance dimensions. It was also found that selecting suppliers based on the standards of ethics and compliance has a positive and strong influence on client satisfaction while using ethical criteria in the performance and efficiency evaluation of employees has a positive and significant influence on innovativeness and efficiency of business processes. This research leads to the conclusion that some dimensions of commitment to business ethics can be important predictors of nonfinancial business performance. Therefore, results of the research could be considered as valid motivation for further improvement of commitment to ethics in the business environment.

  17. Concept analysis of professional commitment in Iranian nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafaragaee, Fateme; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehrdad, Neda; Rafii, Forough

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Professional commitment has been widely discussed during the last decade. There is no comprehensive definition about “professional commitment in Iranian nurses.” Hence, this study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the concept of professional commitment in Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: Hybrid model was used in three phases. Firstly, in the theoretical phase, data were retrieved from the CINHAl, MEDLINE, PubMed, OVID, Google scholar, and SID databases. The literature search used the keywords “professional commitment” and “nursing.” The final sample included 27 papers published in English between 2001 and 2011.Secondly, in the fieldwork phase, deep interviews with five clinical nurses were carried out, and thirdly, in the final analytical phase, the obtained data from theoretical and fieldwork phases were combined and a comprehensive analysis was conducted. Results: Loyalty and tendency to remain in the profession and responsibility to the professional issues were extracted in theoretical phase. Commitment to promote caring abilities, satisfying of being a nurse, and belonging to the nursing profession were obtained in fieldwork phase. Finally, two main themes including “commitment to offering the best nursing care” and “commitment to promotion of the nursing profession” were extracted. Conclusion: Nursing is a humanistic profession; it has some particular characteristics due to the profession’s nature. In this paper, a definition composed of two main dimensions of professional commitment in nursing has been introduced. PMID:23922592

  18. Internet Pornography Consumption and Relationship Commitment of Filipino Married Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racidon P. Bernarte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet pornography has many adverse effects, especially to the relationship commitment. The use of pornography directly correlates to a decrease in sexual intimacy. Hence, this might lead to weakening of the relationship of their partner. To find out the relevance of the claim, the researchers aimed to explore the relationship of Internet pornography consumption to the relationship commitment of married individuals in the Philippines. Different factors such as level of satisfaction, investment, quality of alternatives, relationship stability and viewing habits were also considered in determining the relationship of watching online pornography and the relationship commitment of Filipino married individuals. The study used the descriptive-correlational design. A self-administered survey was distributed to 400.It is revealed that Internet pornography consumption has an adverse effect on the relationship commitment of married Filipino couples. Furthermore, watching porn online weakened the relationship commitment that leads to an unstable relationship. This investigation found out that internet pornography consumption has a nominal negative effect on the relationship commitment of Filipino married individuals. It is proven on this study that internet pornography consumption can weaken the relationship commitment of married individuals thus, it promotes knowledge about numerous effect of it, negatively and even positively. This paper also contributes to pornography related researches on the country which can give further awareness about the said area.

  19. Economic Dispatch Using Modified Bat Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Latif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic dispatch is an important non-linear optimization task in power systems. In this process, the total power demand is distributed amongst the generating units such that each unit satisfies its generation limit constraints and the cost of power production is minimized. This paper presents an over view of three optimization algorithms namely real coded genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and a relatively new optimization technique called bat algorithm. This study will further propose modifications to the original bat. Simulations are carried out for two test cases. First is a six-generator power system with a simplified convex objective function. The second test case is a five-generator system with a non-convex objective function. Finally the results of the modified algorithm are compared with the results of genetic algorithm, particle swarm and the original bat algorithm. The results demonstrate the improvement in the Bat Algorithm.

  20. The interplay between organizational commitment and personal values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Omar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of employee’s commitment is capturing the attention of managers and researchers. Besides being one of the most effective alternatives for achieving the organizational goals, the importance of organizational commitment (OC lies in its ability to influence the efficiency and the wellbeing of members of an organization. The article examines the relationships between personal values and components of OC. Participants were selected from twelve Argentinean organizations. Subjects completed a questionnaire of personal data, and two scales to measure individualism- collectivism (vertical and horizontal, and organizational commitment, respectively. All subjects were classified into eight subgroups, after dichotomizing by median each dimensions of values (HI: horizontal individualism; VI: vertical individualism; HC: horizontal collectivism, and HV: vertical collectivism. The four most representative subgroups (N= 162 were selected, that is, who exhibited high scores in one of the four dimensions and lows in the remaining three. In such subgroups were calculated analysis of variance, post-hoc comparison tests, and correlation analysis. The more significant findings can be summarized in the following items: a collectivists (HC or VC show a higher level of affective commitment, while individualists relate to their companies through normative or continuance commitment; b women and senior employees exhibit greater levels of affective and normative commitment; c managers, employees with higher academic degree, and employees of large companies, feel attached to their organizations through normative commitment; d continuance commitment seems to work differently than affective and normative commitment because it has no associations with any of the socio-demographic variables studied. Strengths and limitations of the study are discussed, and suggestions are made for future research. 

  1. Subcubic Control Flow Analysis Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Van Horn, David

    We give the first direct subcubic algorithm for performing control flow analysis of higher-order functional programs. Despite the long held belief that inclusion-based flow analysis could not surpass the ``cubic bottleneck, '' we apply known set compression techniques to obtain an algorithm...... that runs in time O(n^3/log n) on a unit cost random-access memory model machine. Moreover, we refine the initial flow analysis into two more precise analyses incorporating notions of reachability. We give subcubic algorithms for these more precise analyses and relate them to an existing analysis from...

  2. United States Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions are businesses and organizations that have made a public commitment to reduce food loss and waste in their own operations in the United States by 50 percent by the year 2030.

  3. Employee organizational commitment and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kevin M; Tung, Amy; Yu, Yanjie

    2017-09-15

    There is widespread evidence of the purported benefits of employee organizational commitment (EOC) and its impact on both individual and organizational performance. This study contributes to this literature by providing a unique insight into this relationship, focusing on the interrelationship between EOC with hospital performance and the role of the provision of adequate facilities in eliciting EOC. The aim of this study was to introduce and empirically examine a new theoretical model in which it is argued that the performance of hospitals with regard to the provision of adequate facilities (medical facilities, support facilities, and staff resources) influences the level of EOC, which in turn influences hospital performance with regard to patient care and operational effectiveness. To examine the interrelationships between the provision of adequate facilities, EOC, and hospital performance, the study utilizes a survey of hospital managers. The findings support the theoretical model, with the provision of support facilities and staff resources positively indirectly associated with both patient care and operational effectiveness through their impact on EOC. The findings highlight the importance of providing adequate facilities and EOC within hospitals and suggest that CEOs and general managers should try to enhance the provision of such resources in an attempt to elicit EOC within their hospitals. The findings suggest that managers should try to enhance their provision of adequate facilities in order to elicit EOC and enhance hospital performance. With regard to medical facilities, they should consider and incorporate the latest technology and up-to-date equipment. They should also provide adequate staff resources, including appropriate numbers of beds, nurses, and doctors, to prevent "fatigue" (West, 2001, p. 41) and provide adequate support facilities.

  4. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue.

  5. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3-7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7-25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%-80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%-18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015-2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes.

  6. AN EFFICIENT BIT COMMITMENT SCHEME BASED ON FACTORING ASSUMPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Ming; Yang Yixian

    2001-01-01

    Recently, many bit commitment schemes have been presented. This paper presents a new practical bit commitment scheme based on Schnorr's one-time knowledge proof scheme,where the use of cut-and-choose method and many random exam candidates in the protocols are replaced by a single challenge number. Therefore the proposed bit commitment scheme is more efficient and practical than the previous schemes In addition, the security of the proposed scheme under factoring assumption is proved, thus the cryptographic basis of the proposed scheme is clarified.

  7. The measurement artifact in the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caught, K; Shadur, M A; Rodwell, J J

    2000-12-01

    This study empirically examined the debate in the literature regarding the dimensionality of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. The sample comprised 803 employees from organizations in the information technology and hospitality industries. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire appears to have a two-factor structure, with one factor consisting of positively worded items and the other factor, negatively worded items. Scores on both factors correlated significantly with job satisfaction, suggesting that both factors appear to be measuring a similar aspect of organizational commitment and that they present as two factors given as measurement artifacts of the item wording.

  8. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  9. Conceptual Approach to the Organizational Trust Building in Commitment Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Emre CİVELEK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trust is a psychological factor that is the premise of social relations. The trust level in a country is connected with the culture and forms the social capital. Organizational trust may be defined that the employees don’t require protecting themselves against the policies of organization which would affect them. Organizational commitment is defined that the employees internalize the organization values and creating the will of staying in the organization. The trust is considered as the most important premise of commitment. In this study the conceptual approach is developed how the organizational trust would be built in the commitment perspective.

  10. China Firmly Committed to Low Carbon Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The creation of a "low carbon" economy that will provide jobs and clean up industry is now a crucial policy objective for countries trying to spend their way out of the world economic downturn. A recent report by HSBC calculates that the United States is allocating 12 per cent of its fiscal stimulus to the green economy and China, 34per cent.

  11. Islamic Counselling Model to Increase Religious Commitment (Study of Students at the University UIN Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenti Hikmawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to test the effectiveness of Islamic counseling model for helping the students to tight their religious commitment. The religious commitment is covered in three major Islamic teachings: Iman (faith, Islam (surrender to Allah, and lhsan (state of being observed by Allah. The model of Islamic counseling aims to tight students' religious commitment must to be applied immediately because the preface study reveals some students' religious commitment were not strong enough, their behavior and thinking symptoms tend to not appropriate yet with Islam norm among their association and conception toward the truth of God. To achieve the aim, the study was carried out with three steps: (1 designing a model of counseling; (2 trying out field study, using pretest-post test control group experimental design with 140 students of Islamic Religion Education, the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching, State Islamic University, Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung. Of 140 students, 70 students are from the classes: A (32 people, B (38 people, involved in control group and the test; 37 people from class C, and 33 students from class D involved in the experiment group, and; (3 designing a final model by revising the model tried-out. The variable involved three major Islamic dimensions: the iman, Islam, and ihsan of the students. The model was designed based on the theory put forward by Musfir bin Said Az-Zalmmi, that is, an integrated counseling model. The model combines and employs the ideas from other concepts into a tightly united concept, called Islamic concept. Upon completing analysis, it was found that the new concept is significantly effective to enhance students' religious commitment. A Model of Islamic Counseling (MIC is an alternative-counseling model that can be employed for teenagers/ students to enhance their religious commitment. The study recommends that: (1 MIC can be applied to fifth semester students in the Faculty of Tarbiyah State Islamic

  12. Impact of organizational justice on satisfaction, commitment and turnover intention: Can fair treatment by organizations make a difference in their workers’ attitudes and behaviors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri S. Rai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of organizational justice on specific attitudes and behaviors such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. The data were collected from 511 staff members from ten health and rehabilitation centers in a southern state in the United States. Pearson Correlations and Hierarchical Regression were used to analyze data. The findings revealed that distributive justice influenced job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Procedural justice is only associated with organizational commitment. Informational justice affected only job satisfaction. Interpersonal justice was not related to any attitude or behavior included in this study. These findings suggest that if organizations want to improve job satisfaction and organizational commitment while reducing turnover intention, they need to pay more attention to developing programs and policies as well as leadership styles that encourage fairness.

  13. Age-specific radiation dose commitment factors for a one-year chronic intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenes, G.R.; Soldat, J.K.

    1977-11-01

    During the licensing process for nuclear facilities, radiation doses and dose commitments must be calculated for people in the environs of a nuclear facility. These radiation doses are determined by examining characteristics of population groups, pathways to people, and radionuclides found in those pathways. The pertinent characteristics, which are important in the sense of contributing a significant portion of the total dose, must then be analyzed in depth. Dose factors are generally available for adults, see Reference 1 for example, however numerous improvements in data on decay schemes and half-lives have been made in recent years. In addition, it is advisable to define parameters for calculation of the radiation dose for ages other than adults since the population surrounding nuclear facilities will be composed of various age groups. Further, since infants, children, and teens may have higher rates of intake per unit body mass, it is conceivable that the maximally exposed individual may not be an adult. Thus, it was necessary to develop new radiation-dose commitment factors for various age groups. Dose commitment factors presented in this report have been calculated for a 50-year time period for four age groups.

  14. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 90/Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious.

  15. The trust-commitment challenge in service quality-loyalty relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Antonio Carrizo; Silva, Pedro Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and empirically test a model to examine service quality, satisfaction, trust and commitment as loyalty antecedents in a private healthcare service. The approach was tested using structural equation modelling, involving 175 patients from a private Portuguese healthcare unit, using a revised Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS) scale for service quality evaluation. The scale used to evaluate service quality is valid and meaningful. Service quality proved to be a multidimensional construct and relevant to build satisfaction. The path satisfaction→trust→loyalty was validated, whereas the path satisfaction→commitment→loyalty was not statistically supported. The revised SQAS scale showed good internal consistency in healthcare context. Further trust-commitment antecedents must be examined in a private healthcare landscape to generalise the findings. Healthcare quality managers must explore the service quality dimensions to generate satisfaction among their patients. Developing trust generates positive patient attitudes and loyalty. This study explores using the SQAS scale in a private healthcare context. The authors provide further evidence that service quality is an antecedent and different from satisfaction. All the measures used proved to be valid and reliable. Trust and commitment play different roles in their relationship with loyalty.

  16. Algorithmic Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    layered set of accounts to help build our understanding of how individuals relate to their devices, search systems, and social network sites. This work extends critical analyses of the power of algorithms in implicating the social self by offering narrative accounts from multiple perspectives. It also......This paper takes an actor network theory approach to explore some of the ways that algorithms co-construct identity and relational meaning in contemporary use of social media. Based on intensive interviews with participants as well as activity logging and data tracking, the author presents a richly...... contributes an innovative method for blending actor network theory with symbolic interaction to grapple with the complexity of everyday sensemaking practices within networked global information flows....

  17. 48 CFR 1501.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to present its claim to the General Accounting Office in accordance with the instructions contained... commitments, whether oral or written and without regard to dollar value. Examples of unauthorized...

  18. 48 CFR 2401.602-3 - Ratification of unauthorized commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development... commitment (see FAR 1.602-3(c)(5)) shall not be required when the value of the payment is equal to, or less...

  19. Commitment and the emigration intentions of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-11

    Mar 11, 2013 ... This work is licensed under the .... This implies that high commitment to a country should reduce .... rotation were conducted on the intention to quit items and .... found that positive managerial strategy can generate greater.

  20. Relationships among perceived career support, affective commitment, and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, June M L

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to test the predictive effects of perceived career support and affective commitment on work engagement. It was hypothesized that perceived career support would relate positively to work engagement and this relationship would be transmitted through affective commitment. Survey data were collected from 115 full-time employees enrolled as part-time graduate students in a large public university in Malaysia. Multiple regression analysis yielded results indicating that the relationship between perceived career support and work engagement was mediated by affective commitment. This finding suggests that employers can promote employee work engagement by ensuring employees perceive their organization to be supportive of their career and increasing employees' level of affective commitment.

  1. The Management Team: A Structure or a Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegall, Hugh H.

    1980-01-01

    More important than the structure, formation or organizational plan of the school district's management team are the commitments of team members, particularly the superintendent and board members, to both the spirit and purposes of team management. (Author)

  2. RELIGIOUSITY COMMITMENT DALAM MEMODERASI HUBUNGAN BRAND AWARENESS TERHADAP NIAT PEMBELIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fakhruddin Mudzakkir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui 1. Pengaruh brand awareness terhadap niat pembelian pada toko roti merk Islami, 2. Pengaruh religousity commitment terhadap niat pembelian pada toko roti merk Islami, 3. Peranan religousity commitment sebagai variabel moderator yang dapat memperkuat pengaruh brand awareness terhadap niat pembelian pada toko roti merk Islami. Jenis penelitian adalah survey. Populasinya adalah konsumen yang melakukan  pembelian pada 3 toko roti Merk Islami di Kota/Kabupaten Malang, yaitu Toko Roti Amanah, Toko Roti As Sunnah, dan Toko Roti Madinah. Teknik pengambilan sampelnya adalah accidental sampling. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis Moderated Regression Analysis. Hasil analisis menunjukkan variabel brand awareness  dan religousity commitment berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap niat pembelian. Religousity commitment tidak dapat berperan sebagai variabel moderasi terhadap hubungan brand awareness terhadap niat pembelian merk produk Islam

  3. Becoming Selfless: A Grounded Theory of Commitment to Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Nino L. Agoncillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of commitment to service in the community of educational partners in the Philippines. Educational partners are lay people who assist religious organizations in the field of education, and in the Philippines, about 96 percent of educational partners are in Lasallian schools and organizations. Educational partners are young professionals, volunteers between the ages of 24-39 who strive to live the teachings of St. John Baptist De La Salle. The volunteers aim to generate a spirit of service, a sense of mission to the youth. By using a classic Grounded Theory approach, the theory of becoming selfless was generated. The theory explains the stages educational partners undergo when resolving their organizational commitment to service. Organizational commitment is the psychological attachment, involvement and identification of the individual to the organization. Becoming selfless provides a theoretical focal point to better understand the complexity of commitment.

  4. A study on relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khalili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between organizational culture and organization commitment. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring organizational commitment originally developed by Meyer and Allen (1991 [Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1, 61-89.] and the other one for organizational culture developed by Denison and Spreitzer (1991 [Denison, D. R., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1991. Organizational culture and organizational development: A competing values approach. Research in organizational change and development, 5(1, 1-21.]. The study is accomplished among selected full time employees who work for an Iranian bank named Bank Saderat Iran. Using Pearson correlation test as well as linear regression methods, the study has determined that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between all components of organizational commitment and organizational culture.

  5. Wide-area Backup Protection Algorithm Based on Multi-source Data of Protection Elements and Phasor Measurement Units%基于保护元件与PMU数据多源的广域后备保护算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童晓阳; 王睿; 孙明蔚

    2012-01-01

    为了提高广域后备保护的准确性与容错性,提出了一种同时利用传统保护元件和相量测量单元(PMU)数据的广域后备保护算法。将实时获得的广域保护动作加权,得到综合判断值,然后采用高斯函数获得对应的故障概率。同时,根据统计数据,由正序电压幅值、线路两侧正序电流相角差,计算得到PMU数据对应的故障概率,再将两种故障概率加权综合。在理论上定量地分析了广域保护容错的极限位数。在IEEE 14节点系统上的多组案例实验结果表明,该算法对多个保护误动与拒动有较高的容错性,并且能够检测多重故障。%In order to improve the correctness and fault-tolerance of wide-area backup protection, a novel wide-area protection algorithm using traditional protection components and phasor measurement unit (PMU) data is proposed. Firstly, the online obtained protection components are weighed to get the comprehensive judgment value. Then a Gaussian function is used to get the fault probability. At the same time, using the amplitude of positive sequence voltage and phase angle difference of positive- sequence currents within a line, the probability from PMU is also obtained. These two probabilities are weighted comprehensive to find the fault component. The limit digit number of wide-area backup protection is analyzed theoretically. The simulation tests based on IEEE 14-bus system illustrate the effectiveness and high fault-tolerance capability of the algorithm with the mis-operation and refuse-operation of multiple protections, as well as the detection of multiple faults.

  6. Is There any Relationship between Narcissistic Personality and Organizational Commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Cihangiroglu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating whether there is a correlation between organizational commitment and narcissistic personalty traits. METHOD: In order to measure the GATA Occupation High School of Health Subordinate Officiers’ narcissistic personality traits Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI scala was used. In order to measure students’ organizational commitment Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used. 229 questionnaire forms were distributed to the Occupation High School of Health Subordinate Officiers’ students, and 220 (%96 of them were returned. Totally 220 students were evaluated. FINDINGS: When students’ narcissistic scores were evaluated out of 16, it was found out that the highest narcissistic personality score (8,98 was taken by second year students, the highest score for organizational commitment (3,70 was taken by first year students, “exploitativeness” which is one of the sub-levels of narcissisim was observed at the highest level with an average of 0,73 out 1 full score, “entitlement” sub level was observed at the lowest level (0,29, “affective commitment” one of the sub-levels of commitment, had the highest average (3,84, “normative commitment” had the second highest average (3,71 and finally “continuance commitment” was observed at the lowest level (3,55. Statistically, there is no significant relationship found between narcissistic personality and organizational commitment. However, there is a significant relationship found between narcissistic personality and continuity commitment. There is a significant and opposite relationship found between organizational commitment and continuity commitment with superiority. There is similar relationship found between exploitation and continuity commitment. CONCLUSION: With respect to these findings, it is suggested that “Health Technicians” candidates’, who will be one of the indispensable constituents of health services

  7. On the Equilibrium of Price Commitment Games with Mixed Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    村田, 省三

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the commitment game of Hamilton and Sultsky (1990), and point out that the simultaneous move Nash equilibria must be. This equilibria does not deleted by some dominant strategy. The experimental evidence obtained in Fonseca et al (2006) is not contradiction. Furthermore, we prove the non existence of mixed equilibria in the commitment game of Hamilton and Sultsky (1990) in the case of price setting duopoly basic games where the best reply curve of each player has po...

  8. Voluntary "involuntary" commitment--the briar-patch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1980-01-01

    Szasz and others have pointed out that many so-called voluntary admissions to mental hospitals have various elements of coercion involved, and are thus not truly voluntary. The author contends that the converse situation is also true, that many patients admitted under involuntary commitment papers arrange for their own commitments. Reasons for such choices are discussed in the context of a review of the literature and several case histories.

  9. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42...

  10. Unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment really is impossible

    CERN Document Server

    Bub, J

    2001-01-01

    Unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment has been shown to be impossible by Mayers (PRL 78, 3414 (1997)) and Lo and Chau (PRL 78, 3410 (1997)) but the claim is repeatedly challenged. The bit commitment theorem is reviewed here and the central conceptual point, that an 'Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen' attack or cheating strategy can always be applied, is clarified. The question of whether following such a cheating strategy can ever be disadvantageous to the cheater is considered and answered in the negative.

  11. Smoking Cessation through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuk Bal; Soner Cakmak; Ertan Yilmaz; Lut Tamam; Mahmut Onur Karaytug

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most common addictions with devastating biopsychosocial consequences. Both medical treatment and pschotherapy are utilized in smoking cessation. Acceptance and commitment therapy holds the notion that smoking cessation rates are determined not so much by the negative affect and withdrawal symptoms per se, but by the avoidant and inflexible responding style. Acceptance and commitment therapy, through targeting the avoidance of internal stimuli and concomitant inflexible...

  12. Josep Renau and the restoration of a committed beauty.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabañas Bravo, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Besides the question about the link between beauty and commitment, the paper analyses and proposes the restoration of both the existential and creative trajectory of Josep Renau (Valencia, 1907-Berlin, 1982), as one of the greatest Spanish modern painters without any doubt, but also a most singular, versatile and committed one. He was dedicated to painting, muralist painting, illustration, graphics and posters design or photomontage. His very intense development, in a sort of progression in r...

  13. A Fuzzy Commitment Scheme with McEliece's Cipher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo Brat Ojha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to explain a fuzzy commitment scheme with McEliece scheme. The efficiency and security of this cryptosystem is comparatively better than any other cryptosystem. This scheme is one of the interesting candidates for post quantum cryptography. Hence our interest to deal with this system with fuzzy commitment scheme. The concept itself is illustrated with the help of a simple situation and the validation of mathematical experimental verification is provided.

  14. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42...

  15. Smoking Cessation through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuk Bal; Soner Cakmak; Ertan Yilmaz; Lut Tamam; Mahmut Onur Karaytug

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most common addictions with devastating biopsychosocial consequences. Both medical treatment and pschotherapy are utilized in smoking cessation. Acceptance and commitment therapy holds the notion that smoking cessation rates are determined not so much by the negative affect and withdrawal symptoms per se, but by the avoidant and inflexible responding style. Acceptance and commitment therapy, through targeting the avoidance of internal stimuli and concomitant inflexible...

  16. Causation at Different Levels: Tracking the Commitments of Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter; Kertész, Gergely

    2011-01-01

    This paper tracks the commitments of mechanistic explanations focusing on the relation between activities at different levels. It is pointed out that the mechanistic approach is inherently committed to identifying causal connections at higher levels with causal connections at lower levels. For th...... their autonomy at the same time than standard reductive accounts are, and that what mechanistic explanations are able to do at best is showing that downward causation does not exist....

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CYNICISM AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Hilmiye Yüksel; Semiha Şahin

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the levels of organizational cynicism and commitment of the primary and secondary school teachers, the relationship between both variables and the effect of organizational cynicism on organizational commitment. Two-scale questionnaires were used and applied to a population of 316 teachers who work in Akhisar in Manisa. According to research results: organizational cynicism’s cognitive and behavioural dimensions are medium whereas it is lower in ...

  18. Human Resource Management Practices, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of human resource management (HRM) practices, job satisfaction and organizational commitment intentions of employees working in Turkish private organizations. A total of 200 employees participated in the study. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between HRM practices (recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and benefits, performance appraisals) and job satisfaction and organizational commitment....

  19. Carbon choices determine US cities committed to futures below sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Benjamin H; Kulp, Scott; Levermann, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Anthropogenic carbon emissions lock in long-term sea-level rise that greatly exceeds projections for this century, posing profound challenges for coastal development and cultural legacies. Analysis based on previously published relationships linking emissions to warming and warming to rise indicates that unabated carbon emissions up to the year 2100 would commit an eventual global sea-level rise of 4.3-9.9 m. Based on detailed topographic and population data, local high tide lines, and regional long-term sea-level commitment for different carbon emissions and ice sheet stability scenarios, we compute the current population living on endangered land at municipal, state, and national levels within the United States. For unabated climate change, we find that land that is home to more than 20 million people is implicated and is widely distributed among different states and coasts. The total area includes 1,185-1,825 municipalities where land that is home to more than half of the current population would be affected, among them at least 21 cities exceeding 100,000 residents. Under aggressive carbon cuts, more than half of these municipalities would avoid this commitment if the West Antarctic Ice Sheet remains stable. Similarly, more than half of the US population-weighted area under threat could be spared. We provide lists of implicated cities and state populations for different emissions scenarios and with and without a certain collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Although past anthropogenic emissions already have caused sea-level commitment that will force coastal cities to adapt, future emissions will determine which areas we can continue to occupy or may have to abandon.

  20. Acceptance and commitment therapy improves exercise tolerance in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena; Jensen, Dennis; Cassoff, Jamie; Gu, Fei; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2015-06-01

    To test the efficacy of an acute intervention derived from acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for increasing high-intensity constant work rate (CWR) cycle exercise tolerance in a group of low-active women age 18-45 yr. The secondary goals were to examine whether ACT would reduce perceived effort and improve in-task affect during exercise and increase postexercise enjoyment. In a randomized controlled trial, 39 women were randomized to either the experimental (using ACT-based cognitive techniques and listening to music during the CWR exercise tests) or a control group (listening to music during the CWR exercise tests). Before (CWR-1) and after the intervention (CWR-2), participants completed a CWR cycle exercise test at 80% of maximal incremental work rate (Wmax) until volitional exhaustion. On average, ACT (n = 18) and control (n = 21) groups were matched for age, body mass index, weekly leisure activity scores, and Wmax (all P > 0.05). Exercise tolerance time (ETT) increased by 15% from CWR-1 to CWR-2 for the ACT group (392.05 ± 146.4 vs 459.39 ± 209.3 s; mean ± SD) and decreased by 8% (384.71 ± 120.1 vs 353.86 ± 127.9 s) for the control group (P = 0.008). RPE were lower (e.g., by 1.5 Borg 6-20 scale units at 55% of ETT, P ≤ 0.01) during CWR-2 in the ACT versus that in the control group. By contrast, ACT had no effect on in-task affect. Exercise enjoyment was higher after CWR-2 in the ACT group versus that in the control group (P effective intervention for enhancing the established health benefits of high-intensity exercise need to be provided.