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Sample records for unit cell volume

  1. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1980-06-01

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na 2 O 2 .l -1 . After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO 2 -neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 100 0 C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  2. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed...... by a discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...... been reported. The role of the different channels was discussed. A taurine leak pathway is clearly activated after cell swelling both in astrocytes and in neurones. The relations between the effect of glutamate and cell swelling were discussed. Discussion on the clearance of potassium from...

  3. Ion Channels Involved in Cell Volume Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation......This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume...

  4. Cell volume regulation: physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, I H; Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2008-01-01

    are sensed are still far from clear, significant progress has been made with respect to the nature of the sensors, transducers and effectors that convert a change in cell volume into a physiological response. In the present review, we summarize recent major developments in the field, and emphasize......Cell volume perturbation initiates a wide array of intracellular signalling cascades, leading to protective and adaptive events and, in most cases, activation of volume-regulatory osmolyte transport, water loss, and hence restoration of cell volume and cellular function. Cell volume is challenged....../hypernatremia. On the other hand, it has recently become clear that an increase or reduction in cell volume can also serve as a specific signal in the regulation of physiological processes such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, proliferation and death. Although the mechanisms by which cell volume perturbations...

  5. Relation Between the Cell Volume and the Cell Cycle Dynamics in Mammalian cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, A.C.G.; Oliveira, I.L.; Hauck, J.V.S.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to add and analyze an equation that represents the volume in a dynamical model of the mammalian cell cycle proposed by Gérard and Goldbeter (2011) [1]. The cell division occurs when the cyclinB/Cdkl complex is totally degraded (Tyson and Novak, 2011)[2] and it reaches a minimum value. At this point, the cell is divided into two newborn daughter cells and each one will contain the half of the cytoplasmic content of the mother cell. The equations of our base model are only valid if the cell volume, where the reactions occur, is constant. Whether the cell volume is not constant, that is, the rate of change of its volume with respect to time is explicitly taken into account in the mathematical model, then the equations of the original model are no longer valid. Therefore, every equations were modified from the mass conservation principle for considering a volume that changes with time. Through this approach, the cell volume affects all model variables. Two different dynamic simulation methods were accomplished: deterministic and stochastic. In the stochastic simulation, the volume affects every model's parameters which have molar unit, whereas in the deterministic one, it is incorporated into the differential equations. In deterministic simulation, the biochemical species may be in concentration units, while in stochastic simulation such species must be converted to number of molecules which are directly proportional to the cell volume. In an effort to understand the influence of the new equation a stability analysis was performed. This elucidates how the growth factor impacts the stability of the model's limit cycles. In conclusion, a more precise model, in comparison to the base model, was created for the cell cycle as it now takes into consideration the cell volume variation (paper)

  6. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...... organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review.......The ability to control cell volume is pivotal for cell function. Cell volume perturbation elicits a wide array of signaling events, leading to protective (e.g., cytoskeletal rearrangement) and adaptive (e.g., altered expression of osmolyte transporters and heat shock proteins) measures and, in most...

  7. Unit cell geometry of 3-D braided structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank K.

    1993-01-01

    The traditional approach used in modeling of composites reinforced by three-dimensional (3-D) braids is to assume a simple unit cell geometry of a 3-D braided structure with known fiber volume fraction and orientation. In this article, we first examine 3-D braiding methods in the light of braid structures, followed by the development of geometric models for 3-D braids using a unit cell approach. The unit cell geometry of 3-D braids is identified and the relationship of structural parameters such as yarn orientation angle and fiber volume fraction with the key processing parameters established. The limiting geometry has been computed by establishing the point at which yarns jam against each other. Using this factor makes it possible to identify the complete range of allowable geometric arrangements for 3-D braided preforms. This identified unit cell geometry can be translated to mechanical models which relate the geometrical properties of fabric preforms to the mechanical responses of composite systems.

  8. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  9. Mechanisms underlying KCNQ1channel cell volume sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammami, Sofia

    Cells are constantly exposed to changes in cell volume during cell metabolism, nutrient uptake, cell proliferation, cell migration and salt and water transport. In order to cope with these perturbations, potassium channels in line with chloride channels have been shown to be likely contributors...... to the process of cell volume adjustments. A great diversity of potassium channels being members of either the 6TM, 4 TM or 2 TM K+ channel gene family have been shown to be strictly regulated by small, fast changes in cell volume. However, the precise mechanism underlying the K+ channel sensitivity to cell...... volume alterations is not yet fully understood. The KCNQ1 channel belonging to the voltage gated KCNQ family is considered a precise sensor of volume changes. The goal of this thesis was to elucidate the mechanism that induces cell volume sensitivity. Until now, a number of investigators have implicitly...

  10. Cell volume change through water efflux impacts cell stiffness and stem cell fate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Ming; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Mao, Angelo; Zhou, Enhua H.; Arany, Praveen R.; Han, Yulong; Burnette, Dylan T.; Jensen, Mikkel H.; Kasza, Karen E.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Mackintosh, Frederick C.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Mooney, David J.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Weitz, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Cells alter their mechanical properties in response to their local microenvironment; this plays a role in determining cell function and can even influence stem cell fate. Here, we identify a robust and unified relationship between cell stiffness and cell volume. As a cell spreads on a substrate, its

  11. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices A--E

  12. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  13. Sensors and signal transduction pathways in vertebrate cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F

    2006-01-01

    The ability to control cell volume is fundamental for proper cell function. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the complex sequences of events by which acute cell volume perturbation alters the activity of osmolyte transport proteins in cells from vertebrate organisms...... will be discussed. In contrast to the simple pathway of osmosensing in yeast, cells from vertebrate organisms appear to exhibit multiple volume sensing systems, the specific mechanism(s) activated being cell type- and stimulus-dependent. Candidate sensors include integrins and growth factor receptors, while other...

  14. KCNQ1 channels sense small changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2003-01-01

    Many important physiological processes involve changes in cell volume, e.g. the transport of salt and water in epithelial cells and the contraction of cardiomyocytes. In this study, we show that voltage-gated KCNQ1 channels, which are strongly expressed in epithelial cells or cardiomyocytes......, and KCNQ4 channels, expressed in hair cells and the auditory tract, are tightly regulated by small cell volume changes when co-expressed with aquaporin 1 water-channels (AQP1) in Xenopus oocytes. The KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 current amplitudes precisely reflect the volume of the oocytes. By contrast, the related...... KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 channels, which are prominently expressed in neurons, are insensitive to cell volume changes. The sensitivity of the KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 channels to cell volume changes is independent of the presence of the auxiliary KCNE1-3 subunits, although modulated by KCNE1 in the case of KCNQ1...

  15. Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume following administration of Aloe barbadensis Juice Extract in Rats. ... Abstract. Aloe barbadensis is a popular house plant that has a long history of a multipurpose folk remedy. ... Keywords: osmotic fragility, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, Aloe vera ...

  16. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K + and Cl - conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca 2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchange systems

  17. Severe and fatal obstetric injury claims in relation to labor unit volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Christoffersen, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    with decreasing annual delivery volume. Face value incidence rate ratios of approved severe injuries increased with decreasing labor unit volume, but the association did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: High volume labor units appear associated with fewer approved and fewer fatal injury claims...... in labor units in 1995-2012. METHODS: Exposure information regarding the annual number of deliveries per labor unit was retrieved from the Danish National Birth Register. Outcome information was retrieved from the Danish Patient Compensation Association. Exposure was categorized in delivery volume...... quintiles as annual volume per labor unit: (10-1377), (1378-2016), (2017-2801), (2802-3861), (3862-6659). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five primary measures of outcome were used. Incidence rate ratios of (A) Submitted claims, (B) Approved claims, (C) Approved severe injury claims (120% degree of disability), (D...

  18. Endothelial cell subpopulations in vitro: cell volume, cell cycle, and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, D.B.; Drab, E.A.; Bauer, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (EC) are important clinical targets of radiation and other forms of free radical/oxidant stresses. In this study, we found that the extent of endothelial damage may be determined by the different cytotoxic responses of EC subpopulations. The following characteristics of EC subpopulations were examined: (1) cell volume; (2) cell cycle position; and (3) cytotoxic indexes for both acute cell survival and proliferative capacity after irradiation (137Cs, gamma, 0-10 Gy). EC cultured from bovine aortas were separated by centrifugal elutriation into subpopulations of different cell volumes. Through flow cytometry, we found that cell volume was related to the cell cycle phase distribution. The smallest EC were distributed in G1 phase and the larger cells were distributed in either early S, middle S, or late S + G2M phases. Cell cycle phase at the time of irradiation was not associated with acute cell loss. However, distribution in the cell cycle did relate to cell survival based on proliferative capacity (P less than 0.01). The order of increasing radioresistance was cells in G1 (D0 = 110 cGy), early S (135 cGy), middle S (145 cGy), and late S + G2M phases (180 cGy). These findings (1) suggest an age-related response to radiation in a nonmalignant differentiated cell type and (2) demonstrate EC subpopulations in culture

  19. Units of Instruction. Health Occupations Education. Volume I. [Teacher's Guide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Ten units on health occupations are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: recording vital signs; job application and interview; grooming and personal hygiene; health careers; medical careers; medical ethics; medical terminology and abbreviations; medical asepsis; basic patient care (e.g., measuring and recording fluid…

  20. An ancient relation between units of length and volume based on a sphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zapassky

    Full Text Available The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube. We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. When considered in ancient Egyptian units, the volume of a sphere, whose circumference is one royal cubit, equals half a hekat. Using the measurements of large sets of ancient containers as a database, the article demonstrates that this formula was characteristic of Egyptian and Egyptian-related pottery vessels but not of the ceramics of Mesopotamia, which had a different system of measuring length and volume units.

  1. Diagnostic imaging procedure volume in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Abernathy, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive data on 1979 and 1980 diagnostic imaging procedure volume were collected from a stratified random sample of U.S. short-term general-care hospitals and private practices of radiologists, cardiologists, obstetricians/gynecologists, orthopedic surgeons, and neurologists/neurosurgeons. Approximately 181 million imaging procedures (within the study scope) were performed in 1980. Despite the rapidly increasing use of newer imaging methods, plain film radiography (140.3 million procedures) and contrast studies (22.9 million procedures) continue to comprise the vast majority of diagnostic imaging volume. Ultrasound, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and special procedures make up less than 10% of total diagnostic imaging procedures. Comparison of the data from this study with data from an earlier study indicates that imaging procedure volume in hospitals expanded at an annual growth rate of almost 8% from 1973 to 1980

  2. K-Cl cotransporters, cell volume homeostasis, and neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Khanna, Arjun R; Alper, Seth L; Adragna, Norma C; Lauf, Peter K; Sun, Dandan; Delpire, Eric

    2015-08-01

    K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (KCCs) were originally characterized as regulators of red blood cell (RBC) volume. Since then, four distinct KCCs have been cloned, and their importance for volume regulation has been demonstrated in other cell types. Genetic models of certain KCCs, such as KCC3, and their inhibitory WNK-STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) serine-threonine kinases, have demonstrated the evolutionary necessity of these molecules for nervous system cell volume regulation, structure, and function, and their involvement in neurological disease. The recent characterization of a swelling-activated dephosphorylation mechanism that potently stimulates the KCCs has pinpointed a potentially druggable switch of KCC activity. An improved understanding of WNK/SPAK-mediated KCC cell volume regulation in the nervous system might reveal novel avenues for the treatment of multiple neurological diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  4. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States. Volume 45, Number 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-31

    Trichinosis Tuberculosis Typhoid fever Yellow fever NOTE: Although varicella is not a nationally notifiable disease, the Council of State and...plague among humans, two of which were fatal, were re- ported in the United States (two cases in Arizona, one in Colorado, and two in New Mexico ). Both...13 cases per year) were reported in the United States. Of these cases, 80% occurred in the southwestern states of New Mexico , Arizona, and

  5. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L

    2009-01-01

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca(2+) activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch...... was not affected by membrane stretch. The results indicate that (1) activation of BK channels by local membrane stretch is not mimicked by membrane stress induced by cell swelling, and (2) activation of KCNQ1 channels by cell volume increase is not mediated by local tension in the cell membrane. We conclude....... To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current...

  6. Measurement of cell volume changes by fluorescence self-quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Kiilgaard, J.F.; Litman, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    At high concentrations, certain fluorophores undergo self-quenching, i.e., fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing fluorophore concentration. Accordingly, the self-quenching properties can be used for measuring water volume changes in lipid vesicles. In cells, quantitative determination...... concentrations of the fluorophore calcein suitable for measurement of changes in cell water volume by self-quenching. The relationship between calcein fluorescence intensity, when excited at 490 nm (its excitation maximum), and calcein concentration was investigated in vitro and in various cultured cell types...... to a decrease in calcein fluorescence with high signal-to-noise ratio (>15). Similar results were obtained with the fluorophore BCECF when excited at its isosbestic wavelength (436 nm). The present results demonstrate the usefulness of fluorescence self-quenching to measure rapid changes in cell water volume....

  7. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  8. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP

  9. Sickle cell patients are characterized by a reduced glycocalyx volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Edward J.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Duits, Ashley J.; Evers, Ludo M.; Schnog, John-John B.; Biemond, Bart J.

    2008-01-01

    The glycocalyx is an important anti-inflammatory and anti-adhesive barrier at the luminal side of endothelial cells. Glycocalyx volume was significantly reduced in sickle cell patients (HbSS/HbS beta(0)-thalassemia median 0.47L, IQR 0.27-0.66, HbSC/HbS beta(+)-thalassemia 0.23L, 0.0-0.58) compared

  10. Handbook of plant cell culture. Volume 2. Crop species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.R.; Evans, D.A.; Ammirato, P.V.; Yamada, Y. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    In this volume the state-of-the-art plant cell culture techniques described in the first volume are applied to several agricultural and horticultural crops. In 21 chapters, they include maize, oats, wheat, beans, red clover and other forage legumes, asparagus, celery, cassava, sweet potato, banana, pawpaw, apple, grapes, conifers, date palm, rubber, sugarcane and tobacco. Each chapter contains (1) detailed protocols to serve as the foundation for current research, (2) a critical review of the literature, and (3) in-depth evaluations of the potential shown by plant cell culture for crop improvement. The history and economic importance of each crop are discussed. This volume also includes an essay, ''Oil from plants'', by M. Calvin.

  11. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current IClswell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The IClswell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates IClswell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect IClswell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on

  12. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current ICl swell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The ICl swell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates ICl swell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect ICl swell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on ICl

  13. Cell volume regulation in hemoglobin CC and AA erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, L.R.; Orringer, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Swelling hemoglobin CC erythrocytes stimulates a ouabain-insensitive K flux that restores original cell volume. Studies were performed with the K analog, 86 Rb. This volume regulatory pathway was characterized for its anion dependence, sensitivity to loop diuretics, and requirement for Na. The swelling-induced K flux was eliminated if intracellular chloride was replaced by nitrate and both swelling-activated K influx and efflux were partially inhibited by 1 mM furosemide or bumetanide. K influx in swollen hemoglobin CC cells was not diminished when Na in the incubation medium was replaced with choline, indicating Na independence of the swelling-induced flux. Identical experiments with hemoglobin AA cells also demonstrated a swelling-induced increase in K flux, but the magnitude and duration of this increase were considerably less than that seen with hemoglobin CC cells. The increased K flux in hemoglobin AA cells was likewise sensitive to anion replacement and to loop diuretics and did not require the presence of Na. These data indicate that a volume-activated K pathway with similar transport characteristics exists in both hemoglobin CC and AA red cells

  14. Effects on Packed Cell Volume and Parasitic Worm Load from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their packed cell volumes were estimated with centrifuge hematocrit and stool examined for parasitic worms with saline wet prep microscopy. A dose of Albendazole was administered to the study group. The data presented in Microsoft Excel spread sheet, were then analysed using SPSS version 17, T-test and Chi Square ...

  15. Ion channels involved in cell volume regulation: effects on migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death in non adherent EAT cells and adherent ELA cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  17. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  18. Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit. Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Waters Plan Protection of Aquatic Life Freshwater Aquatic ULie Protection Freshwater Freshwater 1-Hour CopudAcute Chronic Average 4-Day...2 of 3 ARARs TB~s Clean Water Act Ambient Water Quality Criteria Inland Surface Waters Plan Protection of Aquatic Life Freshwater Aquatic Life...as a drinking water source. Response: The Air Force concurs with the establishment of a 106 risk target volume as the goal of the interim

  19. Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 2: Alaska Trees and Common Shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr.

    This volume is the second in a series of atlases describing the natural distribution or range of native tree species in the United States. The 82 species maps include 32 of trees in Alaska, 6 of shrubs rarely reaching tree size, and 44 more of common shrubs. More than 20 additional maps summarize environmental factors and furnish general…

  20. Using a Virtual Manipulative Environment to Support Students' Organizational Structuring of Volume Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Jenna R.; Barrett, Jeffrey E.; Cullen, Craig J.; Rupnow, Theodore J.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Rutherford, George; Beck, Pamela S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how Grade 3 and 4 students' organizational structure for volume units develops through repeated experiences with a virtual manipulative for building prisms. Our data consist of taped clinical interviews within a micro-genetic experiment. We report on student strategy development using a virtual manipulative for…

  1. Cell volume regulation in epithelial physiology and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Hoffmann, Else Kay; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    expression of ion transporters and channels is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer, it is timely to consider this especially for epithelia. Epithelial cells are highly proliferative and epithelial cancers, carcinomas, account for about 90% of all cancers. In this review we will focus on ion...... such as cancer, transepithelial and cell volume regulatory ion transport are dys-regulated. Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. Since altered...... transporters and channels with key physiological functions in epithelia and known roles in the development of cancer in these tissues. Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be discussed....

  2. Controlling cell volume for efficient PHB production by Halomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Ran; Yao, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial morphology is decided by cytoskeleton protein MreB and cell division protein FtsZ encoded by essential genes mreB and ftsZ, respectively. Inactivating mreB and ftsZ lead to increasing cell sizes and cell lengths, respectively, yet seriously reduce cell growth ability. Here we develop a temperature-responsible plasmid expression system for compensated expression of relevant gene(s) in mreB or ftsZ disrupted recombinants H. campaniensis LS21, allowing mreB or ftsZ disrupted recombinants to grow normally at 30°C in a bioreactor for 12h so that a certain cell density can be reached, followed by 36h cell size expansions or cell shape elongations at elevated 37°C at which the mreB and ftsZ encoded plasmid pTKmf failed to replicate in the recombinants and thus lost themselves. Finally, 80% PHB yield increase was achieved via controllable morphology manipulated H. campaniensis LS21. It is concluded that controllable expanding cell volumes (widths or lengths) provides more spaces for accumulating more inclusion body polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and the resulting cell gravity precipitation benefits the final separation of cells and product during downstream. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Skin-to-skin holding in the neonatal intensive care unit influences maternal milk volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, N M; Valentine, C J; Renfro, L; Burns, P; Ferlic, L

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of early initiation of skin-to-skin (STS) holding on lactation, we compared 24-hour milk volumes of mothers of ventilated low birth weight infants in an STS group to mothers in a non-STS control group. Mean 24-hour milk volumes at 2, 3, and 4 weeks after delivery of mothers participating in STS holding were compared with those of a retrospective control group from the 12-month period immediately preceding the introduction of STS holding in the neonatal intensive care unit. A repeated-measures analysis of variance adjusting for baseline volumes (1 week after delivery) was used to evaluate the difference in milk volumes between STS and control groups. Sixteen mothers initiated STS holding during the 2-month study period. Eight mothers met study criteria by initiating STS holding during the first 4 weeks after delivery. During a 2-week period the study group had a strong linear increase in milk volume in contrast to no indicative change of the control group's milk volume. STS holding of low birth weight infants initiated in the early intensive care phase can result in a significant increase in maternal milk volume, thereby overcoming the frequently seen insufficient lactation experienced by these mothers.

  4. Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit. Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    units would be reused in the remedy. Contingency measures to be included in the remedy are potential metals removal prior to water end use, potential...onbase reuse of a portion of the water, and wellhead treatment on offbase supply wells. The contingency measures will only be implemented if necessary...94 LEGEND Ouatmar aluvi dposts agua Frmaion(cosoldatd aluval epoits W iead rdetilnsMhte omtin(neitccnlmeae ansoe9ndkeca F 70 Quvatei-lernayalvu e pk

  5. Rapid assay for cell age response to radiation by electronic volume flow cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, J.P.; Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique is described for measuring cell survival as a function of cell cycle position using flow cytometric cell sorting on the basis of electronic volume signals. Sorting of cells into different cell age compartments is demonstrated for three different cell lines commonly used in radiobiological research. Using flow cytometric DNA content analysis and [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography of the sorted cell populations, it is demonstrated that resolution of the age compartment separation is as good as or better than that reported for other cell synchronizing techniques. Variation in cell survival as a function of position in the cell cycle after a single dose of radiation as measured by volume cell sorting is similar to that determined by other cell synchrony techniques. Advantages of this method include: (1) no treatment of the cells is required, thus, this method is noncytotoxic; (2) no cell cycle progression is needed to obtain different cell age compartments; (3) the cell population can be held in complete growth medium at any desired temperature during sorting; (4) a complete radiation age - response assay can be plated in 2 h. Applications of this method are discussed, along with some technical limitations. (author)

  6. Lung protection: an intervention for tidal volume reduction in a teaching intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briva, Arturo; Gaiero, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of feedback and education regarding the use of predicted body weight to adjust tidal volume in a lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategy. Methods The study was performed from October 2014 to November 2015 (12 months) in a single university polyvalent intensive care unit. We developed a combined intervention (education and feedback), placing particular attention on the importance of adjusting tidal volumes to predicted body weight bedside. In parallel, predicted body weight was estimated from knee height and included in clinical charts. Results One hundred fifty-nine patients were included. Predicted body weight assessed by knee height instead of visual evaluation revealed that the delivered tidal volume was significantly higher than predicted. After the inclusion of predicted body weight, we observed a sustained reduction in delivered tidal volume from a mean (standard error) of 8.97 ± 0.32 to 7.49 ± 0.19mL/kg (p < 0.002). Furthermore, the protocol adherence was subsequently sustained for 12 months (delivered tidal volume 7.49 ± 0.54 versus 7.62 ± 0.20mL/kg; p = 0.103). Conclusion The lack of a reliable method to estimate the predicted body weight is a significant impairment for the application of a worldwide standard of care during mechanical ventilation. A combined intervention based on education and repeated feedbacks promoted sustained tidal volume education during the study period (12 months). PMID:27925055

  7. Volume regulation and shape bifurcation in the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hwee; Li, Bo; Si, Fangwei; Phillip, Jude M; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X

    2015-09-15

    Alterations in nuclear morphology are closely associated with essential cell functions, such as cell motility and polarization, and correlate with a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and progeria. However, the mechanics and forces that shape the nucleus are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that when an adherent cell is detached from its substratum, the nucleus undergoes a large volumetric reduction accompanied by a morphological transition from an almost smooth to a heavily folded surface. We develop a mathematical model that systematically analyzes the evolution of nuclear shape and volume. The analysis suggests that the pressure difference across the nuclear envelope, which is influenced by changes in cell volume and regulated by microtubules and actin filaments, is a major factor determining nuclear morphology. Our results show that physical and chemical properties of the extracellular microenvironment directly influence nuclear morphology and suggest that there is a direct link between the environment and gene regulation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  9. Modification of cell volume and proliferative capacity of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata cells exposed to metal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Manuela D.; Soares, Eduardo V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Metals induce morphological alterations on P. subcapitata. •Algal cell cycle consists: mother cell growth; cell division, with two nucleus divisions; release of four autospores. •Cu(II) and Cr(VI) arrest cell growth before the first nuclear division. •Cd(II) arrests cell growth after the second nuclear division but before the cytokinesis. •The approach used can be useful in the elucidation of different modes of action of pollutants. -- Abstract: The impact of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn) on growth, cell volume and cell division of the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata exposed over a period of 72 h was investigated. The algal cells were exposed to three nominal concentrations of each metal: low (closed to 72 h-EC 10 values), intermediate (closed to 72 h-EC 50 values) and high (upper than 72 h-EC 90 values). The exposure to low metal concentrations resulted in a decrease of cell volume. On the contrary, for the highest metal concentrations an increase of cell volume was observed; this effect was particularly notorious for Cd and less pronounced for Zn. Two behaviours were found when algal cells were exposed to intermediate concentrations of metals: Cu(II) and Cr(VI) induced a reduction of cell volume, while Cd(II) and Zn(II) provoked an opposite effect. The simultaneous nucleus staining and cell image analysis, allowed distinguishing three phases in P. subcapitata cell cycle: growth of mother cell; cell division, which includes two divisions of the nucleus; and, release of four autospores. The exposure of P. subcapitata cells to the highest metal concentrations resulted in the arrest of cell growth before the first nucleus division [for Cr(VI) and Cu(II)] or after the second nucleus division but before the cytokinesis (release of autospores) when exposed to Cd(II). The different impact of metals on algal cell volume and cell-cycle progression, suggests that different toxicity mechanisms underlie the action of different metals

  10. Determination of Unit Pressure Force in Material Volume in the Course of Refractory Stamping Press Moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowicz A.W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of assessment of the unit pressure force within the refractory material volume in the course press-moulding of stampings for refractory precast shapes. The force was evaluated with the use of physical simulation of deformation undergone by lead balls placed in the raw refractory mass subjected to pressing in a metal die. To determine the value of unit pressure force applied to the aggregate grains in the course of stamping press-moulding, physical model of deformation of a sphere induced by the uniaxial stress state was used.

  11. Changes in the air cell volume of artificially incubated ostrich eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 2160 images of candled, incubated ostrich eggs were digitized to determine the percentage of egg volume occupied by the air cell at different stages of incubation. The air cell on average occupied 2.5% of the volume of fresh eggs. For eggs that hatched successfully, this volume increased to an average of 24.4% ...

  12. Buckling behavior of origami unit cell facets under compressive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshad, Mohamed Ali Emhmed; Naguib, Hani E.

    2018-03-01

    Origami structures as cores for sandwich structures are designed to withstand the compressive loads and to dissipate compressive energy. The deformation of the origami panels and the unit cell facets are the primary factors behind the compressive energy dissipation in origami structures. During the loading stage, the origami structures deform through the folding and unfolding process of the unit cell facets, and also through the plastic deformation of the facets. This work presents a numerical study of the buckling behavior of different origami unit cell elements under compressive loading. The studied origami configurations were Miura and Ron-Resch-like origami structures. Finite element package was used to model the origami structures. The study investigated the buckling behavior of the unit cell facets of two types of origami structures Miura origami and Ron-Resch-Like origami structures. The simulation was conducted using ANSYS finite element software, in which the model of the unit cell represented by shell elements, and the eigenvalues buckling solver was used to predict the theoretical buckling of the unit cell elements.

  13. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  14. Stereological quantification of tumor volume, mean nuclear volume and total number of melanoma cells correlated with morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2008-01-01

    potential indicators of prognosis. Sixty patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, from 1991 to 1994 were included in the study. Total tumor volume was estimated by the Cavalieri technique, total number of tumor cells by the optical dissector principle...... showed a significant impact on both disease-free survival (p=0.001) and mortality (p=0.009). In conclusion, tumor volume and total number of cancer cells were highly reproducible but did not add additional, independent prognostic information regarding the study population.......Stereological quantification of tumor volume, total number of tumor cells and mean nuclear volume provides unbiased data, regardless of the three-dimensional shape of the melanocytic lesion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these variables are reproducible and may represent...

  15. Advanced fuel cell development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Both molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells are being developed in the United States to complement and/or supplant phosphoric acid cells for commercial and utility use. This paper described the two technologies and the programs for their development

  16. Fabrication and characteristics of unit cell for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Eom, Seung-Wook; Moon, Seong-In [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Kyongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Research and development on solid oxide fuel cells in Korea have been mainly focused on unit cell and small stack. Fuel cell system is called clean generation system which not cause NOx or SOx. It is generation efficiency come to 50-60% in contrast to 40% of combustion generation system. Among the fuel cell system, solid oxide fuel cell is constructed of ceramics, so stack construction is simple, power density is very high, and there are no corrosion problems. The object of this study is to develop various composing material for SOFC generation system, and to test unit cell performance manufactured. So we try to present a guidance for developing mass power generation system. We concentrated on development of manufacturing process for cathode, anode and electrolyte.

  17. Modulation of KCNQ4 channel activity by changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Charlotte; Klaerke, Dan A; Hoffmann, Else K

    2004-01-01

    KCNQ4 channels expressed in HEK 293 cells are sensitive to cell volume changes, being activated by swelling and inhibited by shrinkage, respectively. The KCNQ4 channels contribute significantly to the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process following cell swelling. Under isoosmotic conditions...

  18. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  19. Correlation between metabolic tumor volume and pathologic tumor volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, James D.; Chisholm, Karen M.; Daly, Megan E.; Wiegner, Ellen A.; Truong, Daniel; Iagaru, Andrei; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Graves, Edward E.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Kong, Christina; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between pathologic tumor volume and volume estimated from different tumor segmentation techniques on 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in oral cavity cancer. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue had PET–CT scans before definitive surgery. Pathologic tumor volume was estimated from surgical specimens. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was defined from PET–CT scans as the volume of tumor above a given SUV threshold. Multiple SUV thresholds were explored including absolute SUV thresholds, relative SUV thresholds, and gradient-based techniques. Results: Multiple MTV’s were associated with pathologic tumor volume; however the correlation was poor (R 2 range 0.29–0.58). The ideal SUV threshold, defined as the SUV that generates an MTV equal to pathologic tumor volume, was independently associated with maximum SUV (p = 0.0005) and tumor grade (p = 0.024). MTV defined as a function of maximum SUV and tumor grade improved the prediction of pathologic tumor volume (R 2 = 0.63). Conclusions: Common SUV thresholds fail to predict pathologic tumor volume in head and neck cancer. The optimal technique that allows for integration of PET–CT with radiation treatment planning remains to be defined. Future investigation should incorporate biomarkers such as tumor grade into definitions of MTV.

  20. United States Metric Board. A Study of Metric Measurement and Legislation. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-10

    nt1 ricchuuiisuin fk~i .e’ting rstoniary uummts to mietric units in statutes. remilat joms. anld otheri laws at- all kI %ls af Tioverninviii. on n...miles", where it appears therein, the elle apparait par celle de oquatre mille sept expression "four thousand seven hundred cents kilom~tres carr~s...kilomitres de such other distance thereof as the Gover- 25 ladite ville, ou dans tel autre rayon de 25 nor in Council determines." celle -ci que le

  1. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pasquier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp. The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading, we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  2. Membrane mechanisms and intracellular signalling in cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Dunham, Philip B.

    1995-01-01

    Volume regulation, Signal transduction, Calcium-calmodulin, Stretch-activated channels, Eicosanoids, Macromolecular crowding, Cytoskeleton, Protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation.......Volume regulation, Signal transduction, Calcium-calmodulin, Stretch-activated channels, Eicosanoids, Macromolecular crowding, Cytoskeleton, Protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation....

  3. The volume of Purkinje cells decreases in the cerebellum of acrylamide-intoxicated rats, but no cells are lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Tandrup, T; Braendgaard, H

    1994-01-01

    The effects of acrylamide intoxication on the numbers of granule and Purkinje cells and the volume of Purkinje cell perikarya have been evaluated with stereological methods. The analysis was carried out in the cerebella of rats that had received a dose of 33.3 mg/kg acrylamide, twice a week, for 7.......5 weeks. The total numbers of cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells were estimated using the optical fractionator and the mean volume of the Purkinje cell perikarya was estimated with the vertical rotator technique. The volumes of the molecular layer, the granular cell layer and the white matter were...... estimated using the Cavalieri principle. The mean weight of the cerebellum of the intoxicated rats was 7% lower than that of the control rats (2P = 0.001). The numbers of the Purkinje cells and granule cells were the same in both groups, but the mean volume of the perikarya of the Purkinje cells...

  4. Morphometry and cell volumes of diatoms from a tropical estuary of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaviKumar, M.S.; Ramaiah, N.; Tang, D.

    Cell volumes and per cell carbon contents of different diatoms (10 centric, 14 pennate and 1 dinoflagellate) collected from Dona Paula Bay in the central west coast of India have been analyzed. Morphometric information on the phytoplankton types...

  5. Timing of low tidal volume ventilation and intensive care unit mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Dale M; Yang, Ting; Dinglas, Victor D; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Shanholtz, Carl; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Brower, Roy G; Pronovost, Peter J; Colantuoni, Elizabeth

    2015-01-15

    Reducing tidal volume decreases mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the effect of the timing of low tidal volume ventilation is not well understood. To evaluate the association of intensive care unit (ICU) mortality with initial tidal volume and with tidal volume change over time. Multivariable, time-varying Cox regression analysis of a multisite, prospective study of 482 patients with ARDS with 11,558 twice-daily tidal volume assessments (evaluated in milliliter per kilogram of predicted body weight [PBW]) and daily assessment of other mortality predictors. An increase of 1 ml/kg PBW in initial tidal volume was associated with a 23% increase in ICU mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.44; P = 0.008). Moreover, a 1 ml/kg PBW increase in subsequent tidal volumes compared with the initial tidal volume was associated with a 15% increase in mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29; P = 0.019). Compared with a prototypical patient receiving 8 days with a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg PBW, the absolute increase in ICU mortality (95% CI) of receiving 10 and 8 ml/kg PBW, respectively, across all 8 days was 7.2% (3.0-13.0%) and 2.7% (1.2-4.6%). In scenarios with variation in tidal volume over the 8-day period, mortality was higher when a larger volume was used earlier. Higher tidal volumes shortly after ARDS onset were associated with a greater risk of ICU mortality compared with subsequent tidal volumes. Timely recognition of ARDS and adherence to low tidal volume ventilation is important for reducing mortality. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00300248).

  6. Learning about the Unit Cell and Crystal Lattice with Computerized Simulations and Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luealamai, Sutha; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based learning module on the unit cell of various types of crystal. The module has two components: the virtual unit cell (VUC) part and the subsequent unit cell hunter part. The VUC is a virtual reality simulation for students to actively arrive at the unit cell from exploring, from a broad view, the crystal…

  7. Cell cycle variation in x-ray survival for cells from spheroids measured by volume cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, J.P.; Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable work has been done studying the variation in cell survival as a function of cell cycle position for monolayers or single cells exposed to radiation. Little is known about the effects of multicellular growth on the relative radiation sensitivity of cells in different cell cycle stages. The authors have developed a new technique for measuring the response of cells, using volume cell sorting, which is rapid, non-toxic, and does not require cell synchronization. By combining this technique with selective spheroid dissociation,they have measured the age response of cells located at various depths in EMT6 and Colon 26 spheroids. Although cells in the inner region had mostly G1-phase DNA contents, 15-20% had S- and G2-phase DNA contents. Analysis of these cells using BrdU labeling and flow cytometric analysis with a monoclonal antibody to BrdU indicated that the inner region cells were not synthesizing DNA. Thus, the authors were able to measure the radiation response of cells arrested in G1, S and G2 cell cycle phases. Comparison of inner and outer spheroid regions, and monolayer cultures, indicates that it is improper to extrapolate age response data in standard culture conditions to the situation in spheroids

  8. Control of cell volume in the J774 macrophage by microtubule disassembly and cyclic AMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melmed, RN; Karanian, PJ; Berlin, RD

    1981-01-01

    We have explored the possibilities that cell volume is regulated by the status of microtubule assembly and cyclic AMP metabolism and may be coordinated with shape change. Treatment of J774.2 mouse macrophages with colchicine caused rapid microtubule disassembly and was associated with a striking increase (from 15-20 to more than 90 percent) in the proportion of cells with a large protuberance at one pole. This provided a simple experimental system in which shape changes occurred in virtually an entire cell population in suspension. Parallel changes in cell volume could then be quantified by isotope dilution techniques. We found that the shape change caused by colchicine was accompanied by a decrease in cell volume of approximately 20 percent. Nocodozole, but not lumicolchicine, caused identical changes in both cell shape and cell volume. The volume loss was not due to cell lysis nor to inhibition of pinocytosis. The mechanism of volume loss was also examined. Colchicine induced a small but reproducible increase in activity of the ouabain-sensitive Na(+), K(+)-dependent ATPase. However, inhibition of this enzyme/transport system by ouabain did not change cell volume nor did it block the colchicines-induced decrease in volume. One the other hand, SITS (4’acetamido, 4-isothiocyano 2,2’ disulfonic acid stilbene), an inhibitor of anion transport, inhibited the effects of colchicines, thus suggesting a role for an anion transport system in cell volume regulation. Because colchicine is known to activate adenylate cyclase in several systems and because cell shape changes are often induced by hormones that elevate cyclic AMP, we also examined the effects of cyclic AMP on cell volume. Agents that act to increase syclic AMP (cholera toxin, which activates adenylate cyclase; IBMX, and inhibitor of phosphodiesterase; and dibutyryl cyclic AMP) all caused a volume decrease comparable to that of colchicine. To define the effective metabolic pathway, we studied two mutants of J

  9. EPA RREL's mobile volume reduction unit advances soil washing at four Superfund sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaire, R.; Borst, M.

    1994-01-01

    Research testing of the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's (RREL) Volume Reduction Unit (VRU), produced data helping advance soil washing as a remedial technology for contaminated soils. Based on research at four Superfund sites, each with a different matrix of organic contaminants, EPA evaluated the soil technology and provided information to forecast realistic, full-scale remediation costs. Primarily a research tool, the VRU is RREL's mobile test unit for investigating the breadth of this technology. During a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration at Escambia Wood Treating Company Site, Pensacola, FL, the VRU treated soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-laden creosote (PAH). At Montana Pole and Treatment Plant Site, Butte, MT, the VRU treated soil containing PCP mixed with diesel oil (measured as total petroleum hydrocarbons) and a trace of dioxin. At Dover Air Force Base Site, Dover, DE, the VRU treated soil containing JP-4 jet fuel, measured as TPHC. At Sand Creek Site, Commerce City, CO, the feed soil at this site was contaminated with two pesticides: heptachlor and dieldrin. Less than 10 percent of these pesticides remained in the treated coarse soil fractions

  10. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell mini power unit for portable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, F.; Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 S. Lucia, Messina (Italy); Zerbinati, O. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Dip. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)

    2007-06-20

    This paper describes the design, realisation and test of a power unit based on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, operating at room temperature, for portable application. The device is composed of an home made air breathing fuel cell stack, a metal hydride tank for H{sub 2} supply, a dc-dc converter for power output control and a fan for stack cooling. The stack is composed by 10 cells with an active surface of 25 cm{sup 2} and produces a rated power of 15 W at 6 V and 2 A. The stack successfully runs with end-off fed hydrogen without appreciable performance degradation during the time. The final assembled system is able to generate 12 W at 9.5 V, and power a portable DVD player for 3 h in continuous. The power unit has collected about 100 h of operation without maintenance. (author)

  11. Process Improvement to Enhance Quality in a Large Volume Labor and Birth Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ashley M; Bohannon, Jessica; Porthouse, Lisa; Thompson, Heather; Vago, Tony

    The goal of the perinatal team at Mercy Hospital St. Louis is to provide a quality patient experience during labor and birth. After the move to a new labor and birth unit in 2013, the team recognized many of the routines and practices needed to be modified based on different demands. The Lean process was used to plan and implement required changes. This technique was chosen because it is based on feedback from clinicians, teamwork, strategizing, and immediate evaluation and implementation of common sense solutions. Through rapid improvement events, presence of leaders in the work environment, and daily huddles, team member engagement and communication were enhanced. The process allowed for team members to offer ideas, test these ideas, and evaluate results, all within a rapid time frame. For 9 months, frontline clinicians met monthly for a weeklong rapid improvement event to create better experiences for childbearing women and those who provide their care, using Lean concepts. At the end of each week, an implementation plan and metrics were developed to help ensure sustainment. The issues that were the focus of these process improvements included on-time initiation of scheduled cases such as induction of labor and cesarean birth, timely and efficient assessment and triage disposition, postanesthesia care and immediate newborn care completed within approximately 2 hours, transfer from the labor unit to the mother baby unit, and emergency transfers to the main operating room and intensive care unit. On-time case initiation for labor induction and cesarean birth improved, length of stay in obstetric triage decreased, postanesthesia recovery care was reorganized to be completed within the expected 2-hour standard time frame, and emergency transfers to the main hospital operating room and intensive care units were standardized and enhanced for efficiency and safety. Participants were pleased with the process improvements and quality outcomes. Working together as a team

  12. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Calloe, Kirstine; Klaerke, Dan A

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes. Slick has been shown to be regulated by cell volume changes, whereas Slack is insensitive. α-subunits of these channels form homomeric as well as heteromeric channels. It is the aim of this work to explore whether the subunit composition of the Slick/Slack heteromeric channel affects the response to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp. This work presents the first heteromeric K+ channel with a characteristic graded sensitivity to small and fast changes in cell volume. Our results show that the cell volume sensitivity of Slick/Slack heteromeric channels is dependent on the number of volume sensitive Slick α-subunits in the tetrameric channels, giving rise to graded cell volume sensitivity. Regulation of the subunit composition of a channel may constitute a novel mechanism to determine volume sensitivity of cells.

  13. Cellular volume regulation and substrate stiffness modulate the detachment dynamics of adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuehua; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    Quantitative characterizations of cell detachment are vital for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of cell adhesion. Experiments have found that cell detachment shows strong rate dependence, which is mostly attributed to the binding-unbinding kinetics of receptor-ligand bond. However, our recent study showed that the cellular volume regulation can significantly regulate the dynamics of adherent cell and cell detachment. How this cellular volume regulation contributes to the rate dependence of cell detachment remains elusive. Here, we systematically study the role of cellular volume regulation in the rate dependence of cell detachment by investigating the cell detachments of nonspecific adhesion and specific adhesion. We find that the cellular volume regulation and the bond kinetics dominate the rate dependence of cell detachment at different time scales. We further test the validity of the traditional Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) contact model and the detachment model developed by Wyart and Gennes et al (W-G model). When the cell volume is changeable, the JKR model is not appropriate for both the detachments of convex cells and concave cells. The W-G model is valid for the detachment of convex cells but is no longer applicable for the detachment of concave cells. Finally, we show that the rupture force of adherent cells is also highly sensitive to substrate stiffness, since an increase in substrate stiffness will lead to more associated bonds. These findings can provide insight into the critical role of cell volume in cell detachment and might have profound implications for other adhesion-related physiological processes.

  14. THE GERMLINE STEM CELL NICHE UNIT IN MAMMALIAN TESTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Jon M.; Brinster, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses current understanding of the germline stem cell niche unit in mammalian testes. Spermatogenesis is a classic model of tissue-specific stem cell function relying on self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). These fate decisions are influenced by a niche microenvironment composed of a growth factor milieu that is provided by several testis somatic support cell populations. Investigations over the last two decades have identified key determinants of the SSC niche including cytokines that regulate SSC functions and support cells providing these factors, adhesion molecules that influence SSC homing, and developmental heterogeneity of the niche during postnatal aging. Emerging evidence suggests that Sertoli cells are a key support cell population influencing the formation and function of niches by secreting soluble factors and possibly orchestrating contributions of other support cells. Investigations with mice have shown that niche influence on SSC proliferation differs during early postnatal development and adulthood. Moreover, there is mounting evidence of an age-related decline in niche function, which is likely influenced by systemic factors. Defining the attributes of stem cell niches is key to developing methods to utilize these cells for regenerative medicine. The SSC population and associated niche comprise a valuable model system for study that provides fundamental knowledge about the biology of tissue-specific stem cells and their capacity to sustain homeostasis of regenerating tissue lineages. While the stem cell is essential for maintenance of all self-renewing tissues and has received considerable attention, the role of niche cells is at least as important and may prove to be more receptive to modification in regenerative medicine. PMID:22535892

  15. Purinergic signalling - a possible mechanism for KCNQ1 channel response to cell volume challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J.; Meinild, A.-K.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: A number of K(+) channels are regulated by small, fast changes in cell volume. The mechanisms underlying cell volume sensitivity are not known, but one possible mechanism could be purinergic signalling. Volume activated ATP release could trigger signalling pathways that subsequently lead...... stimuli. Basal ATP release was approx. three times higher in the KCNQ1 + AQP1 and KCNQ1 injected oocytes compared to the non-injected ones. Exogenously added ATP (0.1 mm) did not have any substantial effect on volume-induced KCNQ1 currents. Nevertheless, apyrase decreased all currents by about 50...

  16. The fundamental unit of pain is the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichling, David B; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2013-12-01

    The molecular/genetic era has seen the discovery of a staggering number of molecules implicated in pain mechanisms [18,35,61,69,96,133,150,202,224]. This has stimulated pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to invest billions of dollars to develop drugs that enhance or inhibit the function of many these molecules. Unfortunately this effort has provided a remarkably small return on this investment. Inevitably, transformative progress in this field will require a better understanding of the functional links among the ever-growing ranks of "pain molecules," as well as their links with an even larger number of molecules with which they interact. Importantly, all of these molecules exist side-by-side, within a functional unit, the cell, and its adjacent matrix of extracellular molecules. To paraphrase a recent editorial in Science magazine [223], although we live in the Golden age of Genetics, the fundamental unit of biology is still arguably the cell, and the cell is the critical structural and functional setting in which the function of pain-related molecules must be understood. This review summarizes our current understanding of the nociceptor as a cell-biological unit that responds to a variety of extracellular inputs with a complex and highly organized interaction of signaling molecules. We also discuss the insights that this approach is providing into peripheral mechanisms of chronic pain and sex dependence in pain.

  17. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    injection. Total volume of the utricle, as well as total number of hair and supporting cells, were estimated on light microscopic sections. Total volume and mean volume of hair cell types I and II and supporting cells were estimated on digital transmission electron micrographs. Total volume of the utricular...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  18. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: Cell recycle example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbouquette, H G

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity.

  19. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: cell recycle example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monbouquette, H.G.

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity. (Refs. 14).

  20. Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotake, H.

    1984-01-01

    The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel cells and solar cells. Problems of recharging and life cycle are also discussed

  1. A heated vapor cell unit for DAVLL in atomic rubidium

    OpenAIRE

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm-long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field...

  2. Effectiveness of 131I nor-cholesterol uptake per unit volume of adrenal adenoma in the diagnosis of aldosteronoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tamotsu; Tomita, Hiroko; Sakaguchi, Chiharu

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of adrenal adenomas for patients with primary aldosteronism is sometimes difficult only by referring to the visualization pattern in adrenocortical scintigraphy without regards to standard scintigraphy or suppression scintigraphy with dexamethasone. We studied if quantitative evaluation of the standard scintigraphy without dexamethasone suppression can be useful to diagnose aldosteronomas. Twenty-nine patients who had undergone adrenalectomy with different clinical manifestations (16 patients with primary aldosteronism, 6 patients with Cushing's syndrome and 7 patients without hormonal abnormality) were included in the study. Volume of the adrenocortical adenomas, 131 I nor-cholesterol uptake of the adrenocortical adenomas, and 131 I nor-cholesterol uptake per unit volume of the adrenocortical adenomas were compared between the 3 groups. The volume of adrenocortical adenomas in the patients with primary aldosteronism was significantly lower than those in the other two groups (Cushing's syndrome p 131 I nor-cholesterol uptake of adrenocortical adenoma. The 131 I nor-cholesterol uptake per unit volume of adrenocortical adenomas was significantly higher in the patients with primary aldosteronism than those in the other two groups (Cushing's syndrome p 131 I nor-cholesterol uptake per unit volume of adenoma obtained from adrenocortical scintigraphy without dexamethasone suppression can be useful in the diagnosis of aldosteronoma. (author)

  3. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  4. Volumization of the Brow at the Time of Blepharoplasty: Treating the Eyebrow Fat Pad as an Independent Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrcek, Ivan; Chou, Eva; Somogyi, Marie; Shore, John W

    Loss of volume in the sub-brow fat pad with associated descent of the eyebrow is a common anatomical finding resulting in both functional and aesthetic consequences. A variety of techniques have been described to address brow position at the time of blepharoplasty. To our knowledge, none of these techniques treat the sub-brow fat pad as an isolated unit. Doing so enables the surgeon to stabilize and volumize the brow without resultant tension on the blepharoplasty wound. The authors describe a technique for addressing volume loss in the eyebrow with associated brow descent that treats the sub-brow fat pad as an isolated unit. A retrospective review of all patients undergoing brow ptosis repair by a single surgeon (J.W.S.) over an 11-month period was performed. Eighteen patients and 33 brows underwent the technique described. Patients were followed for an average of 11 weeks (range: 4 weeks to 20 weeks). All patients preoperatively displayed both visually significant dermatochalasis and brow descent below the orbital rim. Evaluation of pre- and postoperative photos demonstrates successful volumization of the brow with skin redraping without focal dimpling or undue tension on the eyelid wound. Performing a dissection that allows the sub-brow fat pad to be elevated in isolation from the overlying orbicularis and underlying periosteum allows for volumization and of the brow without compromising closure. This technique is a safe and effective means of volumizing the brow and treating secondary brow descent.

  5. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States : calendar year 1999. Volume 2 : vessel company summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Vessel Company Summary, : Volume 2, is one of three publications for : the annual revision of the WTLUS, which : provides a summary of the vessel : companies detailed in the WTLUS, Vessel : Characteristics, Volume 3. The names of : the vessel com...

  6. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States : calendar year 2008. Volume 2 : vessel company summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-16

    The Vessel Company Summary, Volume 2, : is one of three publications for the annual : revision of the WTLUS, which provides a summary : of the vessel companies detailed in the : WTLUS, Vessel Characteristics, Volume 3. : The names of the vessel compa...

  7. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  8. Concurrent gradients of ribbon volume and AMPA-receptor patch volume in cochlear afferent synapses on gerbil inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lichun; Engler, Sina; Koepcke, Lena; Steenken, Friederike; Köppl, Christine

    2018-07-01

    The Mongolian gerbil is a classic animal model for age-related hearing loss. As a prerequisite for studying age-related changes, we characterized cochlear afferent synaptic morphology in young adult gerbils, using immunolabeling and quantitative analysis of confocal microscopic images. Cochlear wholemounts were triple-labeled with a hair-cell marker, a marker of presynaptic ribbons, and a marker of postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Seven cochlear positions covering an equivalent frequency range from 0.5 - 32 kHz were evaluated. The spatial positions of synapses were determined in a coordinate system with reference to their individual inner hair cell. Synapse numbers confirmed previous reports for gerbils (on average, 20-22 afferents per inner hair cell). The volumes of presynaptic ribbons and postsynaptic glutamate receptor patches were positively correlated: larger ribbons associated with larger receptor patches and smaller ribbons with smaller patches. Furthermore, the volumes of both presynaptic ribbons and postsynaptic receptor patches co-varied along the modiolar-pillar and the longitudinal axes of their hair cell. The gradients in ribbon volume are consistent with previous findings in cat, guinea pig, mouse and rat and further support a role in differentiating the physiological properties of type I afferents. However, the positive correlation between the volumes of pre- and postsynaptic elements in the gerbil is different to the opposing gradients found in the mouse, suggesting species-specific differences in the postsynaptic AMPA receptors that are unrelated to the fundamental classes of type I afferents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. REDUCED GANGLION CELL VOLUME ON OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN PATIENTS WITH GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Hema L; Nguyen, Brian; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Saunders, Luke J; Muftuoglu, Ilkay Kilic; You, Qisheng; Freeman, William R

    2017-11-07

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is the sequelae of macular degeneration. Automated inner retinal analysis using optical coherence tomography is flawed because segmentation software is calibrated for normal eyes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether ganglion cell layer (GCL) volume is reduced in GA using manual analysis. Nineteen eyes with subfoveal GA and 22 controls were selected for morphometric analyses. Heidelberg scanning laser ophthalmoscope optical coherence tomography images of the optic nerve and macula were obtained, and the Viewing Module was used to manually calibrate retinal layer segmentation. Retinal layer volumes in the central 3-mm and surrounding 6-mm diameter were measured. Linear mixed models were used for statistics. The GCL volume in the central 3 mm of the macula is less (P = 0.003), and the retinal nerve fiber layer volume is more (P = 0.02) in patients with GA when compared with controls. Ganglion cell layer volume positively correlated with outer nuclear layer volume (P = 0.020). The patients with geographic atrophy have a small significant loss of the GCL. Ganglion cell death may precede axonal loss, and increased macular retinal nerve fiber layer volumes are not indicative of GCL volume. Residual ganglion cell stimulation by interneurons may enable vision in patients with GA.

  10. Effect, Feasibility, and Clinical Relevance of Cell Enrichment in Large Volume Fat Grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Lykke Sørensen, Celine; Vester-Glowinski, Peter Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Large volume fat grafting is limited by unpredictable volume loss; therefore, methods of improving graft retention have been developed. Fat graft enrichment with either stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells or adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) has been investigated in several animal...... and human studies, and significantly improved graft retention has been reported. Improvement of graft retention and the feasibility of these techniques are equally important in evaluating the clinical relevance of cell enrichment. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed to identify studies on fat graft...... enrichment that used either SVF cells or ASCs, and only studies reporting volume assessment were included. A total of 38 articles (15 human and 23 animal) were included to investigate the effects of cell enrichment on graft retention as well as the feasibility and clinical relevance of cell-enriched fat...

  11. Cell Volume Regulation and Signaling in 3T3-L1 Pre-adipocytes and Adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Kathrine; Larsen, Susanne; Novak, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Caveolae have been implicated in sensing of cell volume perturbations, yet evidence is still limited and findings contradictory. Here, we investigated the possible role of caveolae in cell volume regulation and volume sensitive signaling in an adipocyte system with high (3T3-L1 adipocytes......); intermediate (3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes); and low (cholesterol-depleted 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes) caveolae levels. Using large-angle light scattering, we show that compared to pre-adipocytes, differentiated adipocytes exhibit several-fold increased rates of volume restoration following osmotic cell swelling (RVD......) and osmotic cell shrinkage (RVI), accompanied by increased swelling-activated taurine efflux. However, caveolin-1 distribution was not detectably altered after osmotic swelling or shrinkage, and caveolae integrity, as studied by cholesterol depletion or expression of dominant negative Cav-1, was not required...

  12. Quantitative analysis of rat adipose tissue cell recovery, and non-fat cell volume, in primary cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Rotondo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background White adipose tissue (WAT is a complex, diffuse, multifunctional organ which contains adipocytes, and a large proportion of fat, but also other cell types, active in defense, regeneration and signalling functions. Studies with adipocytes often require their isolation from WAT by breaking up the matrix of collagen fibres; however, it is unclear to what extent adipocyte number in primary cultures correlates with their number in intact WAT, since recovery and viability are often unknown. Experimental Design Epididymal WAT of four young adult rats was used to isolate adipocytes with collagenase. Careful recording of lipid content of tissue, and all fraction volumes and weights, allowed us to trace the amount of initial WAT fat remaining in the cell preparation. Functionality was estimated by incubation with glucose and measurement of glucose uptake and lactate, glycerol and NEFA excretion rates up to 48 h. Non-adipocyte cells were also recovered and their sizes (and those of adipocytes were measured. The presence of non-nucleated cells (erythrocytes was also estimated. Results Cell numbers and sizes were correlated from all fractions to intact WAT. Tracing the lipid content, the recovery of adipocytes in the final, metabolically active, preparation was in the range of 70–75%. Cells showed even higher metabolic activity in the second than in the first day of incubation. Adipocytes were 7%, erythrocytes 66% and other stromal (nucleated cells 27% of total WAT cells. However, their overall volumes were 90%, 0.05%, and 0.2% of WAT. Non-fat volume of adipocytes was 1.3% of WAT. Conclusions The methodology presented here allows for a direct quantitative reference to the original tissue of studies using isolated cells. We have also found that the “live cell mass” of adipose tissue is very small: about 13 µL/g for adipocytes and 2 µL/g stromal, plus about 1 µL/g blood (the rats were killed by exsanguination. These data translate (with

  13. Comparison of twin-cell centrifugal partition chromatographic columns with different cell volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Johannes; Audo, Gregoire; Minceva, Mirjana

    2015-08-07

    Two twin-cell centrifugal partition chromatographic columns (SCPC 250 and SCPE-250-BIO, Armen Instrument, France) with the same column volume but different cell size and number were compared in terms of stationary phase retention and column efficiency. The columns were tested with two types of solvent systems: a commonly used organic solvent based biphasic system from the ARIZONA solvent system family and a polymer/salt based aqueous two phase system (ATPS). The efficiency of the columns was evaluated by pulse injection experiments of two benzenediols (pyrocatechol and hydroquinone) in the case of the ARIZONA system and a protein mixture (myoglobin and lysozyme) in the case of the ATPS. As result of high stationary phase retention, the column with the lower number of larger twin-cells (SCPE-250-BIO) is suitable for protein separations using ATPS. On the other hand, due to higher column efficiency, the column with the greater number of smaller cells (SCPC 250) is superior for batch elution separations performed with standard liquid-liquid chromatography organic solvent based biphasic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell volume homeostatic mechanisms: effectors and signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2011-01-01

    . Later work addressed the mechanisms through which cellular signalling pathways regulate the volume regulatory effectors or flux pathways. These studies were facilitated by the molecular identification of most of the relevant channels and transporters, and more recently also by the increased...

  15. No Correlation Between Work-Hours and Operative Volumes--A Comparison Between United States and Danish Operative Volumes Achieved During Surgical Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week. We hypothesize that there is no direct correlation between work-hours and operative volume achieved during surgical residency. To test the hypothesis, we compare Danish and US operative volumes achieved during surgical residency training. Retrospective comparative study. The data from the US population was extracted from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education database for General Surgery residents from 2012 to 2013. For Danish residents, a questionnaire with case categories matching the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education categories were sent to all Danish surgeons graduating the national surgical residency program in 2012 or 2013, 54 in total. In all, 30 graduated residents (55%) responded to the Danish survey. We found no significant differences in mean total major procedures (1002.4 vs 976.9, p = 0.28) performed during residency training, but comparing average major procedures per year, the US residents achieve significantly more (132.3 vs 195.4, p work-hours and operative volumes achievable. Factors other than work-hours seem to effect on operative volumes achieved during training. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of gas membrane separation cascades using conventional separation cell and two-unit separation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masayoshi; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ozaki, Osamu; Miyauchi, Terukatsu.

    1978-01-01

    The adoption of two-unit separation cells in radioactive rare gas membrane separation equipment enhances the separation factor, but increases the required membrane area and compressive power. An analytical economic evaluation was undertaken to compare the conventional separation cell with the two-unit separation cells, adopting as parameters the number of cascade stages, the membrane area and the operating power requirements. This paper describes the models used for evaluating the separation performance and the economics of cascade embodying these different concepts of separation cell taken up for study, and the results obtained for the individual concepts are mutually compared. It proved that, in respect of the number required of cascade stages, of operating power requirements and of the annual expenditure, better performance could always be expected of the two-unit separation cells as compared with the conventional separation cell, at least in the range of parameters adopted in this study. As regards the minimum membrane area, the conventional separation cell and the series-type separation cell yielded almost the same values, with the parallel-type separation cell falling somewhat behind. (auth.)

  17. Zeroing in on red blood cell unit expiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyalil, Fathima; Irwin, Greg; Ross, Bryony; Manolis, Michael; Enjeti, Anoop K

    2017-12-01

    Expiry of red blood cell (RBC) units is a significant contributor to wastage of precious voluntary donations. Effective strategies aimed at optimal resource utilization are required to minimize wastage. This retrospective study analyzed the strategic measures implemented to reduce expiry of RBC units in an Australian tertiary regional hospital. The measures, which included inventory rearrangement, effective stock rotation, and the number of emergency courier services required during a 24-month period, were evaluated. There was no wastage of RBC units due to expiry over the 12 months after policy changes. Before these changes, approximately half of RBC wastage (261/511) was due to expiry. The total number of transfusions remained constant in this period and there was no increase in the use of emergency couriers. Policy changes implemented were decreasing the RBC inventory level by one-third and effective stock rotation and using a computerized system to link the transfusion services across the area. Effective stock rotation resulted in a reduction in older blood (>28 days) received in the main laboratory rotated from peripheral hospitals, down from 6%-41% to 0%-2.5%. Age-related expiry of blood products is preventable and can be significantly reduced by improving practices in the pathology service. This study provides proof of principle for "zero tolerance for RBC unit expiry" across a large networked blood banking service. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  18. Defining a Hospital Volume Threshold for Minimally Invasive Pancreaticoduodenectomy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed Abdelgadir; Thomas, Samantha; Youngwirth, Linda; Pappas, Theodore; Roman, Sanziana A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance There is increasing interest in expanding use of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD). This procedure is complex, with data suggesting a significant association between hospital volume and outcomes. Objective To determine whether there is an MIPD hospital volume threshold for which patient outcomes could be optimized. Design, Setting, and Participants Adult patients undergoing MIPD were identified from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample from 2000 to 2012. Multivariable models with restricted cubic splines were used to identify a hospital volume threshold by plotting annual hospital volume against the adjusted odds of postoperative complications. The current analysis was conducted on August 16, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures Incidence of any complication. Results Of the 865 patients who underwent MIPD, 474 (55%) were male and the median patient age was 67 years (interquartile range, 59-74 years). Among the patients, 747 (86%) had cancer and 91 (11%) had benign conditions/pancreatitis. Overall, 410 patients (47%) had postoperative complications and 31 (4%) died in-hospital. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, increasing hospital volume was associated with reduced complications (overall association P < .001); the likelihood of experiencing a complication declined as hospital volume increased up to 22 cases per year (95% CI, 21-23). Median hospital volume was 6 cases per year (range, 1-60). Most patients (n = 717; 83%) underwent the procedure at low-volume (≤22 cases per year) hospitals. After adjustment for patient mix, undergoing MIPD at low- vs high-volume hospitals was significantly associated with increased odds for postoperative complications (odds ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.03-2.94; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance Hospital volume is significantly associated with improved outcomes from MIPD, with a threshold of 22 cases per year. Most patients undergo MIPD at low-volume

  19. Trends in US minority red blood cell unit donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; Vassallo, Ralph; Ziman, Alyssa; Shaz, Beth

    2017-05-01

    To provide the appropriately diverse blood supply necessary to support alloimmunized and chronically transfused patients, minority donation recruitment programs have been implemented. This study investigated temporal changes in minority red blood cell (RBC) donation patterns in the United States. Data on donor race and ethnicity from 2006 through 2015, including the number of unique donors, collections, RBCs successfully donated, and average annual number of RBC donations per donor (donor fraction), were collected from eight US blood collectors. Minority donors were stratified into the following groups: Asian, black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, white, multiracial/other, and no answer/not sure. Over the 10-year period, white donors annually constituted the majority of unique donors (range, 70.7%-73.9%), had the greatest proportion of collections (range, 76.1%-79.8%), and donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (range, 76.3%-80.2%). These donors also had the highest annual donor fraction (range, 1.82-1.91 units per donor). Black or African American donors annually constituted between 4.9 and 5.2% of all donors during the study period and donated between 4.0 and 4.3% of all RBC units. Linear regression analysis revealed decreasing numbers of donors, collections, and donated RBC units from white donors over time. Although the US population has diversified, and minority recruitment programs have been implemented, white donors constitute the majority of RBC donors and donations. Focused and effective efforts are needed to increase the proportion of minority donors. © 2017 AABB.

  20. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  1. Mechanical behavior of regular open-cell porous biomaterials made of diamond lattice unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S M; Campoli, G; Amin Yavari, S; Sajadi, B; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-06-01

    Cellular structures with highly controlled micro-architectures are promising materials for orthopedic applications that require bone-substituting biomaterials or implants. The availability of additive manufacturing techniques has enabled manufacturing of biomaterials made of one or multiple types of unit cells. The diamond lattice unit cell is one of the relatively new types of unit cells that are used in manufacturing of regular porous biomaterials. As opposed to many other types of unit cells, there is currently no analytical solution that could be used for prediction of the mechanical properties of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cells. In this paper, we present new analytical solutions and closed-form relationships for predicting the elastic modulus, Poisson׳s ratio, critical buckling load, and yield (plateau) stress of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cell. The mechanical properties predicted using the analytical solutions are compared with those obtained using finite element models. A number of solid and porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) specimens were manufactured using selective laser melting. A series of experiments were then performed to determine the mechanical properties of the matrix material and cellular structures. The experimentally measured mechanical properties were compared with those obtained using analytical solutions and finite element (FE) models. It has been shown that, for small apparent density values, the mechanical properties obtained using analytical and numerical solutions are in agreement with each other and with experimental observations. The properties estimated using an analytical solution based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory markedly deviated from experimental results for large apparent density values. The mechanical properties estimated using FE models and another analytical solution based on the Timoshenko beam theory better matched the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Antisense oligonucleotides suppress cell-volume-induced activation of chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwentner, M; Nagl, U O; Wöll, E; Schmarda, A; Ritter, M; Paulmichl, M

    1995-08-01

    Cell volume regulation is an essential feature of most cells. After swelling in hypotonic media, the simultaneous activation of potassium and chloride channels is believed to be the initial, time-determining step in cell volume regulation. The activation of both pathways is functionally linked and enables the cells to lose ions and water, subsequently leading to cell shrinkage and readjustment of the initial volume. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts efficiently regulate their volume after swelling and bear chloride channels that are activated by decreasing extracellular osmolarity. The chloride current elicited in these cells after swelling is reminiscent of the current found in oocytes expressing an outwardly rectifying chloride current termed ICln. Introduction of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides complementary to the first 30 nucleotides of the coding region of the ICln channel into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts suppresses the activation of the swelling-induced chloride current. The experiments directly demonstrate an unambiguous link between a volume-activated chloride current and a cloned protein involved in chloride transport.

  3. Regulation of Cytoplasmic and Vacuolar Volumes by Plant Cells in Suspension Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Poole, Ronald J

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative microscopical measurements have been made of the proportion of cell volume occupied by cytoplasm in a cell suspension culture derived from cotyledons of bush bean (cv. Contender). On a 7-day culture cycle, the content of cytoplasm varies from 25% at the time of transfer to 45% at the...

  4. An optimal control problem for controlling the cell volume in dehydration and rehydration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenghung Huang; Tetsung Chen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Dept. of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering, Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-08-01

    An optimal control algorithm utilizing the conjugate gradient method (CGM) of minimization is applied successfully in the present study in determining the optimal boundary control function for a diffusion-limited cell model based on the desired cell volume. The validity of the present optimal control analysis is examined by means of numerical experiments. Different desired cell volume for dehydration, rehydration and their combination are given in three test cases with different weighting coefficients and the corresponding optimal control functions are determined. The results show that the optimal boundary control functions can be obtained with an arbitrary initial guess within one second CPU time on a Pentium III-600 MHz PC. (Author)

  5. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  6. The Relationship between the Introvert and Extravert Dichotomy and Small Unit Recruiting Volume Production within the Watertown Recruiting Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-22

    RECRUITING COMPANY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the...including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and...Unit Recruiting Volume Production Within The Watertown Recruiting Company 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  7. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR.

  8. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR

  9. Large-volume static compression using nano-polycrystalline diamond for opposed anvils in compact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuchi, T; Sasaki, S; Ohno, Y; Osakabe, T; Odake, S; Kagi, H

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend the pressure regime of intrinsically low-sensitivity methods of measurement, such as neutron scattering and NMR, sample volume to be compressed in compact opposed-anvil cells is desired to be significantly increased. We hereby conducted a series of experiments using two types of compact cells equipped with enforced loading mechanisms. Super-hard nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) anvils were carefully prepared for large-volume compression in these cells. These anvils are harder, larger and stronger than single crystal diamond anvils, so that they could play an ideal role to accept the larger forces. Supported and unsupported anvil geometries were separately tested to evaluate this expectation. In spite of insufficient support to the anvils, pressures to 14 GPa were generated for the sample volume of > 0.1 mm 3 , without damaging the NPD anvils. These results demonstrate a large future potential of compact cells equipped with NPD anvils and enforced loading mechanism.

  10. Ouabain-Induced Cytoplasmic Vesicles and Their Role in Cell Volume Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Russo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular swelling is controlled by an active mechanism of cell volume regulation driven by a Na+/K+-dependent ATPase and by aquaporins which translocate water along the osmotic gradient. Na+/K+-pump may be blocked by ouabain, a digitalic derivative, by inhibition of ATP, or by drastic ion alterations of extracellular fluid. However, it has been observed that some tissues are still able to control their volume despite the presence of ouabain, suggesting the existence of other mechanisms of cell volume control. In 1977, by correlating electron microscopy observation with ion and water composition of liver slices incubated in different metabolic conditions in the presence or absence of ouabain, we observed that hepatocytes were able to control their volume extruding water and recovering ion composition in the presence of ouabain. In particular, hepatocytes were able to sequester ions and water in intracellular vesicles and then secrete them at the bile canaliculus pole. We named this “vesicular mechanism of cell volume control.” Afterward, this mechanism has been confirmed by us and other laboratories in several mammalian tissues. This review summarizes evidences regarding this mechanism, problems that are still pending, and questions that need to be answered. Finally, we shortly review the importance of cell volume control in some human pathological conditions.

  11. Frequency distribution of the reduced unit cells of centred lattices from the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2012-03-01

    In crystallography, a centred conventional lattice unit cell has its corresponding reduced primitive unit cell. This study presents the frequency distribution of the reduced unit cells of all centred lattice entries of the Protein Data Bank (as of 23 August 2011) in four unit-cell-dimension-based groups and seven interaxial-angle-based subgroups. This frequency distribution is an added layer of support during space-group assignment in new crystals. In addition, some interesting patterns of distribution are discussed as well as how some reduced unit cells could be wrongly accepted as primitive lattices in a different crystal system.

  12. Empirical evaluation of cell critical volume dose vs. cell response function for pink mutations in tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Microdosimetric spectra for 0.43, 1.8, and 14.7 MeV neutrons, and for 215 kVp x rays and 1250 keV gammas were used in conjunction with relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for pink mutations in Tradescantia to obtain an effectiveness function (i.e., a cell critical volume dose vs. cell response function). This effectiveness function (or hit size weighting function) provides the probability of inducing a biological effect of interest (in the present study, pink mutations in Tradescantia) as a function of lineal energy density y. In a preliminary analysis the critical value of y above which pink mutations are seen was 4.5 keV/μm, and the value of y at which the probability reaches unity was 115 keV/μm. Idealized but approximate event size distributions for mono-LET particles ranging from 10 to 5000 keV/μm were generated, and these distributions were weighted by the effectiveness function to determine the pink mutation frequencies. Results are compared with measured pink mutation frequencies for 11 keV/μm ( 12 C) and 31 keV/μm ( 20 Ne) ions

  13. Hydrogen and fuel cells in the United States Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacobucci, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years, the United States Congress has shown increasing interest in the development of hydrogen fuel and fuel cells for transportation, stationary, and mobile applications The high efficiency of fuel cell systems could address some of the concern over increasing dependence on imported petroleum. Further, lower emissions could help promote air quality goals However, many questions remain, including the affordability, safety, overall fuel-cycle efficiency and emissions. These questions, especially those related to cost, have led Members of Congress to enact legislation to speed the development and commercialization of the technologies. This paper discusses congressional action on hydrogen and fuel cells. It provides an overview of the U.S. Congress, and outlines the role of the appropriations process. It then provides a history of federal hydrogen fuel research and development (R and D), both in terms of legislative and executive initiatives, and it describes pending legislation current as of this writing, including bills on energy policy, transportation policy, tax policy, and appropriations. Finally, the paper presents some of the issues that the pending legislation may raise for industry. (author)

  14. Allometric relations of total volumes of prolactin cells and corticotropic cells to body length in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei: effects of environmental salinity, stress and ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, J. M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S. E.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the allometric relations of the total volumes occupied by prolactin (PRL) and corticotropic (ACTH) cells (PRL volume and ACTH volume, respectively) to body length and a study of the immunocytochemical staining intensity of PRL and ACTH cells were used to determine the differences in

  15. 5373 Volume 11 No. 6 October 2011 TRUST, CELL PHONES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khanjan Mehta

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... entrepreneurship, social networks and cell phones that is crucial for the establishment ... relationships to each other and to individuals and organizations related to their area of ..... www.rurdev.usda.gov/RBS/pub/cir1sec3.pdf.

  16. Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Guziel, K.A.; Tompkins, M.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects

  17. Unit-cell refinement from powder diffraction scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawley, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for the refinement of the crystal unit cell from a powder diffraction scan is presented. In this procedure knowledge of the crystal structure is not required, and at the end of the refinement a list of indexed intensities is produced. This list may well be usable as the starting point for the application of direct methods. The problems of least-squares ill-conditioning due to overlapping reflections are overcome by constraints. An example using decafluorocyclohexene, C 6 F 10 , shows the quality of fit obtained in a case which may even be a false minimum. The method should become more relevant as powder scans of improved resolution become available, through the use of pulsed neutron sources. (Auth.)

  18. Relation of mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution width with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Ozgur; Müderris, Togay; Sevil, Ergün; Kutlar, Gökhan

    2015-04-01

    Mean platelet volume is the measurement of the average size of platelets in the blood, and red blood cell distribution width is the variability of the size of red blood cells in circulation. This study aimed to investigate if there was any relationship between mean platelet volume, red blood cell distribution, and epistaxis. Prospective controlled trial. The study included 90 patients admitted to Ankara Atatürk Hospital and Samsun Medicana Hospital with complaints of recurrent epistaxis, and a control group of 90 healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from all patients and control group subjects. Mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution parameters were examined and compared between the two groups. The mean platelet volume levels were determined as 8.86 ± 0.1 in the control group and 8.36 ± 0.1 in the patient group. The difference between the two groups with respect to mean platelet volume was statistically significant (P epistaxis. These findings could be beneficial in new investigations into epistaxis mechanisms. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement.

  20. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement

  1. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume I. The Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Freeman, R.F. III.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 20 power plants located on the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  2. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.F. III; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  3. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Introduction to Data Files, United States: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    One product of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program, a component of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), is a data-base of interest to scientists and professionals in the academic, business, industrial, and governmental communities. This database contains individual records for water and sediment samples taken during the reconnaissance survey of the entire United States, excluding Hawaii. The purpose of this report is to describe the NURE HSSR data by highlighting its key characteristics and providing user guides to the data. A companion report, ''A Technical History of the NURE HSSR Program,'' summarizes those aspects of the HSSR Program which are likely to be important in helping users understand the database. Each record on the database contains varying information on general field or site characteristics and analytical results for elemental concentrations in the sample; the database is potentially valuable for describing the geochemistry of specified locations and addressing issues or questions in other areas such as water quality, geoexploration, and hydrologic studies. This report is organized in twelve volumes. This first volume presents a brief history of the NURE HSSR program, a description of the data files produced by ISP, a Users' Dictionary for the Analysis File and graphs showing the distribution of elemental concentrations for sediments at the US level. Volumes 2 through 12 are comprised of Data Summary Tables displaying the percentile distribution of the elemental concentrations on the file. Volume 2 contains data for the individual states. Volumes 3 through 12 contain data for the 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangles, organized into eleven regional files; the data for the two regional files for Alaska (North and South) are bound together as Volume 12

  4. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Appendix. Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    Volume ten contains the following appendices: overview of improved oil recovery methods which covers enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods; the benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and list of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  5. Uncertainty analysis of light water reactor unit fuel pin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamerow, S.; Ivanov, K., E-mail: sln107@PSU.EDU, E-mail: kni1@PSU.EDU [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States); Moreno, C. Arenas, E-mail: cristina.arenas@UPC.EDU [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The study explored the calculation of uncertainty based on available covariance data and computational tools. Uncertainty due to temperature changes and different fuel compositions are the main focus of this analysis. Selected unit fuel pin cells were analyzed according to the OECD LWR UAM benchmark specifications. Criticality and uncertainty analyses were performed using TSUNAMI-1D sequence in SCALE 6.0. It was found that uncertainties increase with increasing temperature while k{sub eff} decreases. This increase in the uncertainty is due to the increase in sensitivity of the largest contributor of uncertainty, namely nuclide reaction {sup 238}U (n, gamma). The sensitivity grew larger as the capture cross-section of {sup 238}U expanded due to Doppler broadening. In addition, three different compositions (UOx, MOx, and UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of fuel cells were analyzed. It showed a remarkable increase in uncertainty in k{sub eff} for the case of the MOx fuel cell and UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} fuel cell. The increase in the uncertainty of k{sub eff} in UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} fuel was nearly twice of that in MOx fuel and almost four times the amount in UOx fuel. The components of the uncertainties in k{sub eff} in each case were examined and it was found that the neutron-nuclide reaction of {sup 238}U, mainly (n,n'), contributed the most to the uncertainties in the cases of MOx and UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. At higher energy, the covariance coefficient matrix of {sup 238}U (n,n') to {sup 238}U (n,n') and {sup 238}U (n,n') cross-section showed very large values. Further, examination of the UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} case found that the {sup 238}U (n,n') became the dominant contributor to the uncertainty because most of the thermal neutrons in the cell were absorbed by Gadolinium in UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} case and thus shifting the neutron spectrum to higher energy. For the MOx case on other hand, {sup 239}Pu has a very strong absorption cross-section at low energy

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T.

    1995-10-01

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T. [eds.; Musicki, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144.

  8. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Uncertainty Analysis-Exploration of Core Melt Progression Uncertain Parameters-Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysi s (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression wit h the MELCOR code. Volume I of the 1F1 UA discusses the physical modeling details and time history results of the UA. Volume II of the 1F1 UA discusses the statistical viewpoint. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The goal of this work was to perform a focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures - of - merit (e.g., hydrogen production, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure) and in doing so assess the applicability of traditional sensitivity analysis techniques .

  9. Medical review practices for driver licensing volume 3: guidelines and processes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This is the third of three reports examining driver medical review practices in the United States and how : they fulfill the basic functions of identifying, assessing, and rendering licensing decisions on medically or : functionally at-risk drivers. ...

  10. Application of Nuclear Volume Measurements to Comprehend the Cell Cycle in Root-Knot Nematode-Induced Giant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dijair Antonino de Souza Junior

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes induce galls that contain giant-feeding cells harboring multiple enlarged nuclei within the roots of host plants. It is recognized that the cell cycle plays an essential role in the set-up of a peculiar nuclear organization that seemingly steers nematode feeding site induction and development. Functional studies of a large set of cell cycle genes in transgenic lines of the model host Arabidopsis thaliana have contributed to better understand the role of the cell cycle components and their implication in the establishment of functional galls. Mitotic activity mainly occurs during the initial stages of gall development and is followed by an intense endoreduplication phase imperative to produce giant-feeding cells, essential to form vigorous galls. Transgenic lines overexpressing particular cell cycle genes can provoke severe nuclei phenotype changes mainly at later stages of feeding site development. This can result in chaotic nuclear phenotypes affecting their volume. These aberrant nuclear organizations are hampering gall development and nematode maturation. Herein we report on two nuclear volume assessment methods which provide information on the complex changes occurring in nuclei during giant cell development. Although we observed that the data obtained with AMIRA tend to be more detailed than Volumest (Image J, both approaches proved to be highly versatile, allowing to access 3D morphological changes in nuclei of complex tissues and organs. The protocol presented here is based on standard confocal optical sectioning and 3-D image analysis and can be applied to study any volume and shape of cellular organelles in various complex biological specimens. Our results suggest that an increase in giant cell nuclear volume is not solely linked to increasing ploidy levels, but might result from the accumulation of mitotic defects.

  11. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program 1989. Program Technical Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Nebel Limb Radiances Under Sunlit Conditions in the 50-120 KM Altitude Range 61 Estimating Solar Flare Proton Fluences Dr. Hugh Nutley From 1850 with...MCD spectrum. The y axis units are, therefore, absorbance/ Tesla . The sensitivity of the apparatus was estimated to be 0.01 absorbance unit with 1000...the roof and walls, is placed. As a final step the excavated soil is used to cover the structure leaving the entrance and exit ramps open. The

  12. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Callø, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes....... Slick has been shown to be regulated by cell volume changes, whereas Slack is insensitive. α-subunits of these channels form homomeric as well as heteromeric channels. It is the aim of this work to explore whether the subunit composition of the Slick/Slack heteromeric channel affects the response...... to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents...

  13. Comparing Generic Drug Markets in Europe and the United States: Prices, Volumes, and Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Olivier J; Kanavos, Panos G; McKEE, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: Our study indicates that there are opportunities for cost savings in generic drug markets in Europe and the United States. Regulators should make it easier for generic drugs to reach the market. Regulators and payers should apply measures to stimulate price competition among generic drugmakers and to increase generic drug use. To meaningfully evaluate policy options, it is important to analyze historical context and understand why similar initiatives failed previously. Rising drug prices are putting pressure on health care budgets. Policymakers are assessing how they can save money through generic drugs. We compared generic drug prices and market shares in 13 European countries, using data from 2013, to assess the amount of variation that exists between countries. To place these results in context, we reviewed evidence from recent studies on the prices and use of generics in Europe and the United States. We also surveyed peer-reviewed studies, gray literature, and books published since 2000 to (1) outline existing generic drug policies in European countries and the United States; (2) identify ways to increase generic drug use and to promote price competition among generic drug companies; and (3) explore barriers to implementing reform of generic drug policies, using a historical example from the United States as a case study. The prices and market shares of generics vary widely across Europe. For example, prices charged by manufacturers in Switzerland are, on average, more than 2.5 times those in Germany and more than 6 times those in the United Kingdom, based on the results of a commonly used price index. The proportion of prescriptions filled with generics ranges from 17% in Switzerland to 83% in the United Kingdom. By comparison, the United States has historically had low generic drug prices and high rates of generic drug use (84% in 2013), but has in recent years experienced sharp price increases for some off-patent products. There are policy

  14. Association between tumour volume and recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, F.N.; Adil, A.; Ghaffar, S.; Ahmed, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic significance of computerized tomography derived tumour volume for squamous cell cancers of the head and neck, treated primarily by surgery. Methods: The retrospective review study comprised 72 patients with head and neck malignancies who were treated primarily by surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, with/without adjuvant. It was done from May 2007 to November 2008. Each patient was followed up for a minimum of one year to check for recurrence. For statistical analysis SPSS 17 was used. Frequencies, cross-tabulations with chi square tests to find associations, binary logistic regression analysis, Cox regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve tests were run on the data. Results: Overall, the median tumour volume for patients with recurrent disease was 52 cm/sup 3/ compared to 22 cm/sup 3/ for those who did not have a recurrence. It was found that large tumour volume was associated with a significantly higher chance of recurrence (p = 0.009). Laryngeal cancers with volumes greater than 46 cm/sup 3/ and oral cancers with volumes greater than 23.1 cm/sup 3/ were associated with poor prognosis. Conclusions: The primary tumour volume can represent an important prognostic factor for treatment outcome. Patients with larger primary tumour volumes should be treated more aggressively. (author)

  15. Target volume determination in radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer-facts and questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, L.; Bujko, K.

    2003-01-01

    Although the precise target volume definition in conformal radiotherapy is required by ICRU Report 50 and 62, this task in radiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is often controversial and strict accordance with ICRU requirements is hard to achieve. The Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) definition depends mainly on the imaging method used. We discuss the use of new imaging modalities, like PET, in GTV definition. The Clinical Target Volume (CTV) definition remains a separate, and still unresolved problem, especially in the part concerning the Elective Nodal Irradiation (ENI). Nowadays, there is no unified attitude among radiation oncologists regarding the necessity and extent of ENI. The common use of combined treatment modalities and the tendency to dose escalation, both increasing the potential toxicity, result in the more frequent use of involved-fields techniques. Problems relating to margins during Planning Target Volume (PTV) of lung cancer irradiation are also discussed. Another issue is the Interclinician variability in target volumes definition, especially when there is data indicating that the GTV, as defined by 3 D-treatment planning in NSCLC radiotherapy, may be highly prognostic for survival. We postulate that special attention should be paid to detailed precision of target volume determination in departmental and trial protocols. Careful analysis of patterns of failures from ongoing protocols will enable us to formulate the guidelines for target volume definition in radiotherapy for lung cancer. (author)

  16. Experimental and numerical studies on pressure drop in reverse electrodialysis: Effect of unit cell configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Kook; Choi, Kyung Soo [Advanced Combustion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Soo; Hwang, Kyo Sik; Han, Ji Hyung; Kim, Han Ki; Jeong, Nam Jo [Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Experimental and numerical studies on pressure drop in Reverse electrodialysis (RED) were performed. In this study, a module with 200 unit cells is considered for the demonstration of bench-scale RED module and two different unit cell configurations are utilized. Pressure drop through the module is measured by varying flow rates. For evaluating the hydrodynamic characteristics in the unit cell, a numerical simulation is also conducted and the simplified method using a porous media model is employed to simulate the channel filled with spacer. Due to the insertion of spacer and narrow channel, great pressure loss occurs along the unit cell. Based on estimated pressure data, high pressure difference between seawater and fresh water channel takes place locally in the unit cell configuration with crossflow direction, leading to a leakage problem through the membrane and finally degradation in the output power. Consequently, it is confirmed that the unit cell configuration is one of the important design parameters in a RED module.

  17. Scale-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations: Volume 5, North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Suto, T.

    1996-10-01

    ANSI/ANS 8.1 requires that calculational methods for away-from- reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experiment. This report summarizes part of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial PWRs. Codes and data in the SCALE-4 code system were used. This volume documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. The KENO V.a criticality calculations for the North Anna 1 Cycle 5 beginning-of-cycle model yielded a value for k eff of 1. 0040±0.0005

  18. Indian Point Nuclear Generating Plant Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-286): Final environmental statement: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This document contains nine appendices to Volume I, The Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Plant Unit Number Three. Topics covered include thermal discharges to the Hudson River; supplemental information relating to biological models; radiation effects on aquatic biota; conditions, assumptions, and parameters used in calculating radioactive releases; meteorology for radiological dispersion calculations; life history information of important fish species in the Hudson River near Indian Point; additional information on cooling towers considered as alternatives; data and calculations for assessment of predicted electrical demand; and comments on draft environmental statement

  19. Modeling Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar Motwani

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). To accomplish this, technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs will need to be addressed. This report covers various approaches being pursued to model degradation issues in SOECs. An electrochemical model for degradation of SOECs is presented. The model is based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. It is shown that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential,, within the electrolyte. The within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just near the oxygen electrode/electrolyte interface, leading to oxygen electrode delamination. These predictions are in accordance with the reported literature on the subject. Development of high pressures may be avoided by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte. By combining equilibrium thermodynamics, non-equilibrium (diffusion) modeling, and first-principles, atomic scale calculations were performed to understand the degradation mechanisms and provide practical recommendations on how to inhibit and/or completely mitigate them.

  20. Characteristics and Energy Use of Volume Servers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shehabi, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, L. -B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lim, B. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Tsao, A. [Navigant Consulting Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Servers’ field energy use remains poorly understood, given heterogeneous computing loads, configurable hardware and software, and operation over a wide range of management practices. This paper explores various characteristics of 1- and 2-socket volume servers that affect energy consumption, and quantifies the difference in power demand between higher-performing SPEC and ENERGY STAR servers and our best understanding of a typical server operating today. We first establish general characteristics of the U.S. installed base of volume servers from existing IDC data and the literature, before presenting information on server hardware configurations from data collection events at a major online retail website. We then compare cumulative distribution functions of server idle power across three separate datasets and explain the differences between them via examination of the hardware characteristics to which power draw is most sensitive. We find that idle server power demand is significantly higher than ENERGY STAR benchmarks and the industry-released energy use documented in SPEC, and that SPEC server configurations—and likely the associated power-scaling trends—are atypical of volume servers. Next, we examine recent trends in server power draw among high-performing servers across their full load range to consider how representative these trends are of all volume servers before inputting weighted average idle power load values into a recently published model of national server energy use. Finally, we present results from two surveys of IT managers (n=216) and IT vendors (n=178) that illustrate the prevalence of more-efficient equipment and operational practices in server rooms and closets; these findings highlight opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. server stock.

  1. Effect of Vitamin C on the packed cell volume of trypanosome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was interested in using nutrient in the amelioration of trypanosomiasis which is one of the most endemic diseases of livestock. The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Vitamin C on the Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of Trypanosoma brucei infected rats. Twenty albino rats (Rattus novegicus) were used.

  2. Effect of Light and Darkness on Packed Cell Volume in the Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to identify and characterize the circadian oscillation of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) within a 24-hour time frame in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. 56 adult Sprague-Dawley rats consists of 28 male and 28 female rats were used. Male animals weighed 150-170g while the females weighed 130140g.

  3. High speed analysis of high pressure combustion in a constant volume cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Manski, S.S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dias, V.

    2005-01-01

    A combustion process with N2, O2 and C2H4 as fuel used in an opticallyaccessible, high pressure, high temperature, constant volume cell forresearch on diesel fuel spray formation, is studied. The flame frontspeed Vf,HS is determined using high speed imaging. The pressure traceof the combustion

  4. Cell cycle-dependent activity of the volume- and Ca2+-activated anion currents in Ehrlich lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Bergdahl, Andreas; Christophersen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the volume-regulated anion current (VRAC) and other anion currents in control or modulation of cell cycle progression; however, the precise involvement of anion channels in this process is unclear. Here, Cl- currents in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites (ELA) cells were monitored...... during cell cycle progression, under three conditions: (i) after osmotic swelling (i.e., VRAC), (ii) after an increase in the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration (i.e., the Ca2+-activated Cl- current, CaCC), and (iii) under steady-state isotonic conditions. The maximal swelling-activated VRAC current......+ in the pipette), was unaltered from G0 to G1, but decreased in early S phase. A novel high-affinity anion channel inhibitor, the acidic di-aryl-urea NS3728, which inhibited both VRAC and CaCC, attenuated ELA cell growth, suggesting a possible mechanistic link between cell cycle progression and cell cycle...

  5. Automated assembling of single fuel cell units for use in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Barz, C.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    The manufacturing of PEMFC stacks (POLYMER ELEKTROLYT MEMBRAN Fuel Cell) is nowadays still done by hand. Over hundreds of identical single components have to be placed accurate together for the construction of a fuel cell stack. Beside logistic problems, higher total costs and disadvantages in weight the high number of components produce a higher statistic interference because of faulty erection or material defects and summation of manufacturing tolerances. The saving of costs is about 20 - 25 %. Furthermore, the total weight of the fuel cells will be reduced because of a new sealing technology. Overall a one minute cycle time has to be aimed per cell at the manufacturing of these single components. The change of the existing sealing concept to a bonded sealing is one of the important requisites to get an automated manufacturing of single cell units. One of the important steps for an automated gluing process is the checking of the glue application by using of an image processing system. After bonding the single fuel cell the sealing and electrical function can be checked, so that only functional and high qualitative cells can get into further manufacturing processes.

  6. Does the intracellular ionic concentration or the cell water content (cell volume) determine the activity of TonEBP in NIH3T3 cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Schou, Kenneth; Friis, Martin Barfred

    2008-01-01

    of the present investigation was to investigate whether cell shrinkage or high intracellular ionic concentration induced the activation of TonEBP. We designed a model system for isotonically shrinking cells over a prolonged period of time. Cells swelled in hypotonic medium and performed a regulatory volume...... decrease (RVD). Upon return to the original isotonic medium, cells shrank initially followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI). To maintain cell shrinkage, the RVI process was inhibited as follows: Ethyl-isopropyl-amiloride (EIPA) inhibited the Na(+)/H(+) antiport, Bumetanide inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)/2......Cl(-) co-transporter, and Gadolinium inhibited shrinkage-activated Na(+) channels. Cells remained shrunken for at least 4 hours (isotonically shrunken cells). The activity of TonEBP was investigated with a Luciferase assay after isotonic shrinkage and after shrinkage in a high NaCl hypertonic medium...

  7. Information as Power: An Anthology of Selected United States Army War College Student Papers. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    some efforts along this path recently when it worked with the Walt Disney Company to produce a seven minute film and hundreds of still images... Disney Parks and Resorts Partners with Departments 53. of State and Homeland Security to Welcome International Visitors to the United States

  8. Super Unit Cells in Aperture-Based Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Tanasković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important class of electromagnetic metamaterials are aperture-based metasurfaces. Examples include extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnets with negative refractive index. We analyze a generalization of such metamaterials where a simple aperture is now replaced by a compound object formed by superposition of two or more primitive objects (e.g., rectangles, circles, and ellipses. Thus obtained “super unit cell” shows far richer behavior than the subobjects that comprise it. We show that nonlocalities introduced by overlapping simple subobjects can be used to produce large deviations of spectral dispersion even for small additive modifications of the basic geometry. Technologically, some super cells may be fabricated by simple spatial shifting of the existing photolithographic masks. In our investigation we applied analytical calculations and ab initio finite element modeling to prove the possibility to tailor the dispersion including resonances for plasmonic nanocomposites by adjusting the local geometry and exploiting localized interactions at a subwavelength level. Any desired form could be defined using simple primitive objects, making the situation a geometrical analog of the case of series expansion of a function. Thus an additional degree of tunability of metamaterials is obtained. The obtained designer structures can be applied in different fields like waveguiding and sensing.

  9. Calcitonin, phosphate, and the osteocyte--osteoblast bone cell unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, R.V.; Matthews, J.L.; Martin, J.H.; Kennedy, J.W. III; Davis, W.L.; Roycroft, J.H. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    In this report we have attempted to correlate the morphological and chemical changes that occur in the long bone (tibia) of rats with the hypocalcemia that is produced following calcitonin injection or release from its gland of origin. By varying the supply of phosphate available to the rat, it has been possible to demonstrate that changes produced by CT both in bone and in plasma calcium concentrations were dependent upon an adequate supply of this ion. It is, therefore, postulated that the hypocalcemia produced by calcitonin is secondary to the formation of a calcium phosphate complex in and around osteocytes and lining cells. It is suggested that this complex, which is normally prevented from transforming to apatite crystal by the presence of an inhibitor, reduces the availability of calcium for rapid transport to the ECF. The reduction in calcium flux from bone to ECF results in a rapid and transient hypocalcemia. Regardless of the status of this postulate, we have at least demonstrated that the osteocyte-osteoblast unit of compact bone reacts rapidly to calcitonin in a process requiring phosphate in a sequence of events which can be closely correlated to the hypocalcemic action of the hormone.

  10. Outcomes of PCI in Relation to Procedural Characteristics and Operator Volumes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaroff, Alexander C; Zakroysky, Pearl; Dai, David; Wojdyla, Daniel; Sherwood, Matthew W; Roe, Matthew T; Wang, Tracy Y; Peterson, Eric D; Gurm, Hitinder S; Cohen, Mauricio G; Messenger, John C; Rao, Sunil V

    2017-06-20

    Professional guidelines have reduced the recommended minimum number to an average of 50 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures performed annually by each operator. Operator volume patterns and associated outcomes since this change are unknown. The authors describe herein PCI operator procedure volumes; characteristics of low-, intermediate-, and high-volume operators; and the relationship between operator volume and clinical outcomes in a large, contemporary, nationwide sample. Using data from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry collected between July 1, 2009, and March 31, 2015, we examined operator annual PCI volume. We divided operators into low- (100 PCIs per year) volume groups, and determined the adjusted association between annual PCI volume and in-hospital outcomes, including mortality. The median annual number of procedures performed per operator was 59; 44% of operators performed PCI procedures per year. Low-volume operators more frequently performed emergency and primary PCI procedures and practiced at hospitals with lower annual PCI volumes. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was 1.86% for low-volume operators, 1.73% for intermediate-volume operators, and 1.48% for high-volume operators. The adjusted risk of in-hospital mortality was higher for PCI procedures performed by low- and intermediate-volume operators compared with those performed by high-volume operators (adjusted odds ratio: 1.16 for low versus high; adjusted odds ratio: 1.05 for intermediate vs. high volume) as was the risk for new dialysis post PCI. No volume relationship was observed for post-PCI bleeding. Many PCI operators in the United States are performing fewer than the recommended number of PCI procedures annually. Although absolute risk differences are small and may be partially explained by unmeasured differences in case mix between operators, there remains an inverse relationship between PCI operator volume and in-hospital mortality that persisted in risk

  11. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  13. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 7. Armstrong Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    media (Remel, Lenexa, KS). This media is a product used to transport and identify U. urealyticum. U. urealyticum possess an enzyme, urease , capable of...Ureaplasma is composed of organisms which possess urease . This enzyme allows for the hydrolyzation of urea. Ureaplasma were initially isolated from...also relieved. Immobilizing cells introduces mass transfer resistance due either to the immobilization matrix or the cell layers . This resistance

  14. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1983). Technical Report. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    investigators suggested that cells from human breast tumors and the non- tumerous breast of the same individual gave a characteristic laser-Raman line that...could not be observed in cells from breasts of non- tumerous patients (8). However, other investigators were unable to confirm these findings. II...and cancerous breast tissue (8). Whether our experi- ments offer a possible method for evaluation of normal and cancerous tissues requires many

  15. Minimal volume regulation after shrinkage of red blood cells from five species of reptiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Karina; Berenbrink, Michael; Koldkjær, Pia

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from most vertebrates restore volume upon hypertonic shrinkage and the mechanisms underlying this regulatory volume increase (RVI) have been studied extensively in these cells. Despite the phylogenetically interesting position of reptiles, very little is known about their red...... cell function. The present study demonstrates that oxygenated RBCs in all major groups of reptiles exhibit no or a very reduced RVI upon ~ 25% calculated hyperosmotic shrinkage. Thus, RBCs from the snakes Crotalus durissus and Python regius, the turtle Trachemys scripta and the alligator Alligator...... was not characterized. It seems, therefore, that the RVI response based on NHE activation was lost among the early sauropsids that gave rise to modern reptiles and birds, while it was retained in mammals. An RVI response has then reappeared in birds, but based on activation of the NKCC. Alternatively, the absence...

  16. Volume-activated trimethylamine oxide efflux in red blood cells of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomoa, D L; Musch, M W; MacLean, A V; Goldstein, L

    2001-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the pathway of swelling-activated trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) efflux and its regulation in spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) red blood cells and compare the characteristics of this efflux pathway with the volume-activated osmolyte (taurine) channel present in erythrocytes of fishes. The characteristics of the TMAO efflux pathway were similar to those of the taurine efflux pathway. The swelling-activated effluxes of both TMAO and taurine were significantly inhibited by known anion transport inhibitors (DIDS and niflumic acid) and by the general channel inhibitor quinine. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea activated both TMAO and taurine effluxes similarly. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea also stimulated the activity of tyrosine kinases p72syk and p56lyn, although the stimulations by the latter two treatments were less than by hypotonicity. The volume activations of both TMAO and taurine effluxes were inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, suggesting that activation of tyrosine kinases may play a role in activating the osmolyte effluxes. These results indicate that the volume-activated TMAO efflux occurs via the organic osmolyte (taurine) channel and may be regulated by the volume activation of tyrosine kinases.

  17. Performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell using Nafion composites with high volume fraction of titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, B. R.; Isidoro, R. A.; Santiago, E. I.; Fonseca, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports on the performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at 130 °C with Nafion-titania composite electrolytes prepared by sol-gel technique and containing high volume fractions of the ceramic phase. It is found that for high volume fractions of titania (>10 vol%) the ethanol uptake of composites is largely reduced while the proton conductivity at high-temperatures is weakly dependent on the titania content. Such tradeoff between alcohol uptake and conductivity resulted in a boost of DEFC performance at high temperatures using Nafion-titania composites with high fraction of the inorganic phase.

  18. MX Siting Investigation Geotechnical Evaluation Conterminous United States. Volume II. Intermediate Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-21

    as any earth material which is not rippable by SURFACE ROCK AND ROCK OFTHEGconventional excavation methods. Where available, seismic WITHIN A NOMINAL...calcareous concretions. The unit is considered to be rippable but only marginally where resistant oil shale is encountered (Armstrong, oral communication...1977). The remaining suitable area is underlain by generally rippable -_..rtiary to Cretaceous sediinentary formations of minor extent. The most notable

  19. Performance of current intensive care unit ventilators during pressure and volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Andrew D; Sulemanji, Demet; Chipman, Daniel; Villar, Jesús; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2011-07-01

    Intensive-care mechanical ventilators regularly enter the market, but the gas-delivery capabilities of many have never been assessed. We evaluated 6 intensive-care ventilators in the pressure support (PS), pressure assist/control (PA/C), and volume assist/control (VA/C) modes, with lung-model mechanics combinations of compliance and resistance of 60 mL/cm H(2)O and 10 cm H(2)O/L/s, 60 mL/cm H(2)O and 5 cm H(2)O/L/s, and 30 mL/cm H(2)O and 10 cm H(2)O/L/s, and inspiratory muscle effort of 5 and 10 cm H(2)O. PS and PA/C were set to 15 cm H(2)O, and PEEP to 5 and 15 cm H(2)O in all modes. During VA/C, tidal volume was set at 500 mL and inspiratory time was set at 0.8 second. Rise time and termination criteria were set at the manufacturers' defaults, and to an optimal level during PS and PA/C. There were marked differences in ventilator performance in all 3 modes. VA/C had the greatest difficulty meeting lung model demand and the greatest variability across all tested scenarios and ventilators. From high to low inspiratory muscle effort, pressure-to-trigger, time for pressure to return to baseline, and triggering pressure-time product decreased in all modes. With increasing resistance and decreasing compliance, tidal volume, pressure-to-trigger, time-to-trigger, time for pressure to return to baseline, time to 90% of peak pressure, and pressure-time product decreased. There were large differences between the default and optimal settings for all the variables in PS and PA/C. Performance was not affected by PEEP. Most of the tested ventilators performed at an acceptable level during the majority of evaluations, but some ventilators performed inadequately during specific settings. Bedside clinical evaluation is needed.

  20. Cell volume changes regulate slick (Slo2.1), but not slack (Slo2.2) K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Maria A; Stople, Kathleen; Hammami Bomholtz, Sofia; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klaerke, Dan A

    2014-01-01

    Slick (Slo2.1) and Slack (Slo2.2) channels belong to the family of high-conductance K+ channels and have been found widely distributed in the CNS. Both channels are activated by Na+ and Cl- and, in addition, Slick channels are regulated by ATP. Therefore, the roles of these channels in regulation of cell excitability as well as ion transport processes, like regulation of cell volume, have been hypothesized. It is the aim of this work to evaluate the sensitivity of Slick and Slack channels to small, fast changes in cell volume and to explore mechanisms, which may explain this type of regulation. For this purpose Slick and Slack channels were co-expressed with aquaporin 1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and cell volume changes of around 5% were induced by exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media. Whole-cell currents were measured by two electrode voltage clamp. Our results show that Slick channels are dramatically stimulated (196% of control) by cell swelling and inhibited (57% of control) by a decrease in cell volume. In contrast, Slack channels are totally insensitive to similar cell volume changes. The mechanism underlining the strong volume sensitivity of Slick channels needs to be further explored, however we were able to show that it does not depend on an intact actin cytoskeleton, ATP release or vesicle fusion. In conclusion, Slick channels, in contrast to the similar Slack channels, are the only high-conductance K+ channels strongly sensitive to small changes in cell volume.

  1. Cell volume changes regulate slick (Slo2.1, but not slack (Slo2.2 K+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Tejada

    Full Text Available Slick (Slo2.1 and Slack (Slo2.2 channels belong to the family of high-conductance K+ channels and have been found widely distributed in the CNS. Both channels are activated by Na+ and Cl- and, in addition, Slick channels are regulated by ATP. Therefore, the roles of these channels in regulation of cell excitability as well as ion transport processes, like regulation of cell volume, have been hypothesized. It is the aim of this work to evaluate the sensitivity of Slick and Slack channels to small, fast changes in cell volume and to explore mechanisms, which may explain this type of regulation. For this purpose Slick and Slack channels were co-expressed with aquaporin 1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and cell volume changes of around 5% were induced by exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media. Whole-cell currents were measured by two electrode voltage clamp. Our results show that Slick channels are dramatically stimulated (196% of control by cell swelling and inhibited (57% of control by a decrease in cell volume. In contrast, Slack channels are totally insensitive to similar cell volume changes. The mechanism underlining the strong volume sensitivity of Slick channels needs to be further explored, however we were able to show that it does not depend on an intact actin cytoskeleton, ATP release or vesicle fusion. In conclusion, Slick channels, in contrast to the similar Slack channels, are the only high-conductance K+ channels strongly sensitive to small changes in cell volume.

  2. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1988. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    Prof. William M. Grissom Modeling in a Pintle Injector Spray 210-9MG-069 13 Multiple Scattering in Solid Fuel Dr. William Sutton (1985) Rocket Plumes...Part II) 210-9MG-054 40 Sodium as an Electrode for Choroaluminate Dr. Tammy J. Melton Melts 210-9MG-098 xxi 41 Report Not Available at this Time Dr...Bone-Marrow by Lymphokine Dr. Parsottam J. Patel (1986) Activated Killer Cells (LAK-Cells) 760-6MG-131 134 Transcutaneous Oxygen Delivery Dr. William Z

  3. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1988. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    Size Distributions and Combustion Prof. William M. Grissom Modeling in a Pintle Injector Spray 210-9MG-069 13 Multiple Scattering in Solid Fuel Dr...Nitrite (Part II) 210-9MG-054 40 Sodium as an Electrode for Chloroaluminate Dr. Tammy J. Melton Melts 210-9MG-098 xxi 41 Report Not Available at this...Patel (1986) Activated Killer Cells (LAK-Cells) 760-6MG-131 134 Transcutaneous Oxygen Delivery Dr. William Z. Plachy 210-9MG-042 135 Report Not

  4. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1988. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    Combustion Prof. William M. Grissom Modeling in a Pintle Injector Spray 210-9MG-069 13 Multiple Scattering in Solid Fuel Dr. William Sutton (1985...054 40 Sodium as an Electrode for Chloroaluminate Dr. Tammy J. Melton Melts 210-9MG-098 xxi 41 Report Not Available at this Time Dr. Patricia L...Activated Killer Cells (LAK-Cells) 760-6MG-131 134 Transcutaneous Oxygen Delivery Dr. William Z. Plachy 210-9MG-042 135 Report Not Acceptable at this Time

  5. Hierarchical imaging: a new concept for targeted imaging of large volumes from cells to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Irene; Spomer, Waldemar; Hofmann, Andreas; Thaler, Marlene; Hillmer, Stefan; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2016-12-12

    Imaging large volumes such as entire cells or small model organisms at nanoscale resolution seemed an unrealistic, rather tedious task so far. Now, technical advances have lead to several electron microscopy (EM) large volume imaging techniques. One is array tomography, where ribbons of ultrathin serial sections are deposited on solid substrates like silicon wafers or glass coverslips. To ensure reliable retrieval of multiple ribbons from the boat of a diamond knife we introduce a substrate holder with 7 axes of translation or rotation specifically designed for that purpose. With this device we are able to deposit hundreds of sections in an ordered way in an area of 22 × 22 mm, the size of a coverslip. Imaging such arrays in a standard wide field fluorescence microscope produces reconstructions with 200 nm lateral resolution and 100 nm (the section thickness) resolution in z. By hierarchical imaging cascades in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), using a new software platform, we can address volumes from single cells to complete organs. In our first example, a cell population isolated from zebrafish spleen, we characterize different cell types according to their organelle inventory by segmenting 3D reconstructions of complete cells imaged with nanoscale resolution. In addition, by screening large numbers of cells at decreased resolution we can define the percentage at which different cell types are present in our preparation. With the second example, the root tip of cress, we illustrate how combining information from intermediate resolution data with high resolution data from selected regions of interest can drastically reduce the amount of data that has to be recorded. By imaging only the interesting parts of a sample considerably less data need to be stored, handled and eventually analysed. Our custom-designed substrate holder allows reproducible generation of section libraries, which can then be imaged in a hierarchical way. We demonstrate, that EM

  6. Medical Department, United States Army. Surgery in World War II. Neurosurgery. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1958-01-01

    116 Photomicrograph showing petechial hemorrhages in cortex ------------------- 378 117 Photomicrograph showing nerve cell changes in caudate nucleus...headache unrelieved by ordinary medication or when there were signs of increasing intracranial hypertension; and (4) diagnosis of persistent fever ...hemorrhage at various points along the track of the bullet, was almost. invariably present for some days, or even for weeks, after injury. Fever was also

  7. Geophysics Under Pressure: Large-Volume Presses Versus the Diamond-Anvil Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    Prior to 1970, the legacy of Harvard physicist Percy Bridgman dominated high-pressure geophysics. Massive presses with large-volume devices, including piston-cylinder, opposed-anvil, and multi-anvil configurations, were widely used in both science and industry to achieve a range of crustal and upper mantle temperatures and pressures. George Kennedy of UCLA was a particularly influential advocate of large-volume apparatus for geophysical research prior to his death in 1980. The high-pressure scene began to change in 1959 with the invention of the diamond-anvil cell, which was designed simultaneously and independently by John Jamieson at the University of Chicago and Alvin Van Valkenburg at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC. The compact, inexpensive diamond cell achieved record static pressures and had the advantage of optical access to the high-pressure environment. Nevertheless, members of the geophysical community, who favored the substantial sample volumes, geothermally relevant temperature range, and satisfying bulk of large-volume presses, initially viewed the diamond cell with indifference or even contempt. Several factors led to a gradual shift in emphasis from large-volume presses to diamond-anvil cells in geophysical research during the 1960s and 1970s. These factors include (1) their relatively low cost at time of fiscal restraint, (2) Alvin Van Valkenburg's new position as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation in 1964 (when George Kennedy's proposal for a Nation High-Pressure Laboratory was rejected), (3) the development of lasers and micro-analytical spectroscopic techniques suitable for analyzing samples in a diamond cell, and (4) the attainment of record pressures (e.g., 100 GPa in 1975 by Mao and Bell at the Geophysical Laboratory). Today, a more balanced collaborative approach has been adopted by the geophysics and mineral physics community. Many high-pressure laboratories operate a new generation of less expensive

  8. Rhombicuboctahedron unit cell based scaffolds for bone regeneration: geometry optimization with a mechanobiology - driven algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Fiorentino, Michele; Uva, Antonio E; Laghetti, Luca N; Monno, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    In a context more and more oriented towards customized medical solutions, we propose a mechanobiology-driven algorithm to determine the optimal geometry of scaffolds for bone regeneration that is the most suited to specific boundary and loading conditions. In spite of the huge number of articles investigating different unit cells for porous biomaterials, no studies are reported in the literature that optimize the geometric parameters of such unit cells based on mechanobiological criteria. Parametric finite element models of scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell were developed and incorporated into an optimization algorithm that combines them with a computational mechanobiological model. The algorithm perturbs iteratively the geometry of the unit cell until the best scaffold geometry is identified, i.e. the geometry that allows to maximize the formation of bone. Performances of scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell were compared with those of other scaffolds with hexahedron unit cells. We found that scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell are particularly suited for supporting medium-low loads, while, for higher loads, scaffolds with hexahedron unit cells are preferable. The proposed algorithm can guide the orthopaedic/surgeon in the choice of the best scaffold to be implanted in a patient-specific anatomic region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Data integrity review of Three Mile Island Unit 2. Hydrogen burn data. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.K.; Nelson, R.A.; Nalezny, C.L.; Averill, R.H.

    1983-09-01

    About 10 hours after the March 28, 1979 loss-of-coolant accident began at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), a hydrogen burn occurred inside the Reactor Building. This report reviews and presents data from 16 channels of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), 2 steam generator pressure transmitters, 16 Reactor Building pressure switches, 2 channels of Reactor Building pressure measurements, and measurements of Reactor Building hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen concentrations with regard to their usefulness for determining the extent of the burn and the resulting pressure and temperature excursions inside the building

  10. A Unit-Cell Model for Predicting the Elastic Constants of 3D Four Directional Cylindrical Braided Composite Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wenfeng; Liu, Ye; Huang, Xinrong; Liu, Yinghua; Zhu, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the elastic constants of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts were predicted using analytical and numerical methods. First, the motion rule of yarn carrier of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts was analyzed, and the horizontal projection of yarn motion trajectory was obtained. Then, the geometry models of unit-cells with different braiding angles and fiber volume contents were built up, and the meso-scale models of 3D cylindrical braided composite shafts were obtained. Finally, the effects of braiding angles and fiber volume contents on the elastic constants of 3D braided composite shafts were analyzed theoretically and numerically. These results play a crucial role in investigating the mechanical properties of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts.

  11. Effect, Feasibility, and Clinical Relevance of Cell Enrichment in Large Volume Fat Grafting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Lykke Sørensen, Celine; Vester-Glowinski, Peter Viktor; Herly, Mikkel; Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    2017-07-01

    Large volume fat grafting is limited by unpredictable volume loss; therefore, methods of improving graft retention have been developed. Fat graft enrichment with either stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells or adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) has been investigated in several animal and human studies, and significantly improved graft retention has been reported. Improvement of graft retention and the feasibility of these techniques are equally important in evaluating the clinical relevance of cell enrichment. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed to identify studies on fat graft enrichment that used either SVF cells or ASCs, and only studies reporting volume assessment were included. A total of 38 articles (15 human and 23 animal) were included to investigate the effects of cell enrichment on graft retention as well as the feasibility and clinical relevance of cell-enriched fat grafting. Improvements in graft retention, the SVF to fat (SVF:fat) ratio, and the ASC concentration used for enrichment were emphasized. We proposed an increased retention rate greater than 1.5-fold relative to nonenriched grafts and a maximum SVF:fat ratio of 1:1 as the thresholds for clinical relevance and feasibility, respectively. Nine studies fulfilled these criteria, whereof 6 used ASCs for enrichment. We found no convincing evidence of a clinically relevant effect of SVF enrichment in humans. ASC enrichment has shown promising results in enhancing graft retention, but additional clinical trials are needed to substantiate this claim and also determine the optimal concentration of SVF cells/ASCs for enrichment. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N; Yartsev, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S 2 in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S 2 and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S 2 for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S 2 reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S 2 can be reconstructed from the tumor volume variation curves measured

  13. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  14. Streaming Model Based Volume Ray Casting Implementation for Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusub Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactive high quality volume rendering is becoming increasingly more important as the amount of more complex volumetric data steadily grows. While a number of volumetric rendering techniques have been widely used, ray casting has been recognized as an effective approach for generating high quality visualization. However, for most users, the use of ray casting has been limited to datasets that are very small because of its high demands on computational power and memory bandwidth. However the recent introduction of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell B.E. processor, which consists of 9 heterogeneous cores designed to handle extremely demanding computations with large streams of data, provides an opportunity to put the ray casting into practical use. In this paper, we introduce an efficient parallel implementation of volume ray casting on the Cell B.E. The implementation is designed to take full advantage of the computational power and memory bandwidth of the Cell B.E. using an intricate orchestration of the ray casting computation on the available heterogeneous resources. Specifically, we introduce streaming model based schemes and techniques to efficiently implement acceleration techniques for ray casting on Cell B.E. In addition to ensuring effective SIMD utilization, our method provides two key benefits: there is no cost for empty space skipping and there is no memory bottleneck on moving volumetric data for processing. Our experimental results show that we can interactively render practical datasets on a single Cell B.E. processor.

  15. Influence of flotation cell volume and solids mass on kinetics of sulfide ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plawski Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on the influence of flotation cell capacity and mass of solids in the suspension on the flotation kinetics of sulfide copper ore. A sample of copper ore that was collected from the Polkowice Mine of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. in Poland was used in the experiments. It was determined that neither the volume of flotation cell nor the mass of solids had influence on the type of kinetics equation of flotation. Copper-bearing minerals floated according to the second-order equation, while the remaining components according to the first-order equation. The kinetic rate constants and maximum recovery of the studied components decreased with increasing solids mass in the flotation cell, regardless of the capacity of the cell. The best results were obtained for tests using a 1.0 dm3 cell, while the less favorable kinetics results were observed in the test with the smallest cell of 0.75 dm3 volume. The obtained results can be helpful in choosing the most appropriate methodology of upgrading the sulfide copper ore from Poland in order to obtain the best kinetics results.

  16. United States Air Force College Science and Engineering Program. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    acids, enzymes, and viruses. My work on the nucleic acid content of the virus particles 3of Agaricus bisporus, cloning of DNA which is complementary to...cells which contain no pBR322 can be eleminated from any system simply by growing the bacteria in the presence of this antibiotic. b. With this in mind...particle has its own growing chains, and when the chains get long enough they meet with the chains of other particles. Consequently, the chains may

  17. United States Air Force Graduate Student Summer Support Program (1987). Program Technical Report. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    radiation in order to determine any effects on ROI production. Also, we wanted to learn whether or not Green Heme Protein isolated from whole blood...demonstrate that cells can take up nanoparticles and produce measurable results. In a separate assay, Green Heme Protein demonstrated some peroxidase...as- sume the properties that characterizes a mathematical object in some special situation, and use them to deduce a defintion of that object that

  18. United States Air Force Research Initiation Program for 1987. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    University of - 7 N. Carolina A&T State Univ. - I Dillard University - 1 N. Carolina-Greensboro, Univ - I Drury College - 1 Northwestern University - 1...Specialty: Educational Psychology Specialty: Management Science Dr. Michael Matthews Dr. Charles Lance (1986) Drury College University of Georgia...Molecular Biology of the Cell, pp 611-668, 918-947, Garland Publishing Company, Inc. New York, 1983. 2. Anderson, Colin , Manual for the Examination of

  19. Psychological stress moderates the relationship between running volume and CD4+ T cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, K E; Sunesara, I; Tull, M T; Marshall, G D

    2016-01-01

    Endurance-based exercise training can lead to alterations in components of the immune system, but it is unknown how psychological stress (another potent immunomodulator) may impact these changes. The purpose of this study was to determine the moderating role of psychological stress on exercise-induced immune changes. Twenty-nine recreational runners were recruited for this study four weeks before completing a marathon. Each subject reported: weekly training volume (miles/wk) for the week prior to the study visit; completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ); and donated blood for assessment of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and mitogen-induced cytokine production. Participants ran an average of 30 (±13.4) miles (1 mile=1.6 km) per week. Average values (SD) for immune biomarkers were: regulatory T cells (Treg), 3.2% (±1.2%); type 1 regulatory cells (Tr1), 27.1% (±8.3%); T helper 3 (Th3), 1.8% (±0.7%); interferon gamma (IFNγ), 3.1 pg/ml (±1.0); interleukin (IL)-4, 1.4 pg/ml (±1.1); IFNγ/IL-4, 8.6 (±1.2); IL-10, 512 pg/ml (±288). There was a significant relationship between running volume and both Treg cell numbers (slope of the regression line (β)=0.05, p less than 0.001) and IL-10 production β=-10.6, p=0.002), and there was a trending relationship between running volume and Tr1 cell numbers (β=-0.2%, p=0.064). Perceived stress was a trending moderator of the running volume-Treg relationship, whereas worry was a significant moderator of the running volume-IFNγ and running volume-IFNγ/IL-4 relationships. These data indicate that various forms of psychological stress can impact endurance exercise-based changes in certain immune biomarkers. These changes may reflect an increased susceptibility to clinical risks in some individuals.

  20. Study of advanced fission power reactor development for the United States. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This volume summarizes the results and conclusions of an assessment of five advanced fission power reactor concepts in the context of potential nuclear power economies developed over the time period 1975 to 2020. The study was based on the premise that the LMFBR program has been determined to be the highest priority fission reactor program and it will proceed essentially as planned. Accepting this fact, the overall objective of the study was to provide evaluations of advanced fission reactor systems for input to evaluating the levels of research and development funding for fission power. Evaluation of the reactor systems included the following categories: (1) power plant performance, (2) fuel resource utilization; (3) fuel-cycle requirements; (4) economics; (5) environmental impact; (6) risk to the public; and (7) R and D requirements to achieve commercial status. The specific major objectives of the study were twofold: (1) to parametrically assess the impact of various reactor types for various levels of power demand through the year 2020 on fissile fuel utilization, economics, and the environment, based on varying but reasonable assumptions on the rates of installation; and (2) to qualitatively assess the practicality of the advanced reactor concepts, and their research and development. The reactor concepts examined were limited to the following: advanced high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) systems including the thorium/U-233 fuel cycle, gas turbine, and binary cycle (BIHTGR); gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR); molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR); light water breeder reactor (LWBR); and CANDU heavy water reactor

  1. Study of advanced fission power reactor development for the United States. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the results of a multi-phase research study which had as its objective the comparative study of various advanced fission reactors and evaluation of alternate strategies for their development in the USA through the year 2020. By direction from NSF, ''advanced'' reactors were defined as those which met the dual requirements of (1) offering a significant improvement in fissile fuel utilization as compared to light-water reactors and (2) currently receiving U.S. Government funding. (A detailed study of the LMFBR was specifically excluded, but cursory baseline data were obtained from ERDA sources.) Included initially were the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR), Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), and Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Subsequently, the CANDU Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) was included for comparison due to increased interest in its potential. This volume presents the reasoning process and analytical methods utilized to arrive at the conclusions for the overall study

  2. Flow-through electroporation based on constant voltage for large-volume transfection of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Zhan, Yihong; Wang, Hsiang-Yu; Witting, Scott R; Cornetta, Kenneth G; Lu, Chang

    2010-05-21

    Genetic modification of cells is a critical step involved in many cell therapy and gene therapy protocols. In these applications, cell samples of large volume (10(8)-10(9)cells) are often processed for transfection. This poses new challenges for current transfection methods and practices. Here we present a novel flow-through electroporation method for delivery of genes into cells at high flow rates (up to approximately 20 mL/min) based on disposable microfluidic chips, a syringe pump, and a low-cost direct current (DC) power supply that provides a constant voltage. By eliminating pulse generators used in conventional electroporation, we dramatically lowered the cost of the apparatus and improved the stability and consistency of the electroporation field for long-time operation. We tested the delivery of pEFGP-C1 plasmids encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells in the devices of various dimensions and geometries. Cells were mixed with plasmids and then flowed through a fluidic channel continuously while a constant voltage was established across the device. Together with the applied voltage, the geometry and dimensions of the fluidic channel determined the electrical parameters of the electroporation. With the optimal design, approximately 75% of the viable CHO cells were transfected after the procedure. We also generalize the guidelines for scaling up these flow-through electroporation devices. We envision that this technique will serve as a generic and low-cost tool for a variety of clinical applications requiring large volume of transfected cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  4. Role of BK channels in the apoptotic volume decrease in native eel intestinal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Giordano, Maria Elena; Calisi, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    High conductance Ca(+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) have previously been demonstrated in the eel intestine. They are specifically activated following a hypotonic stress and sustain Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD). The aim of the present work was to address the possible role...... enterocytes that BK channels, which are involved in RVD in these cells, plays also a crucial role in the AVD process and in the progression of apoptosis....

  5. Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade: the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Andrew L.; Tlusty, Michael F.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Kaufman, Les; Morris, James A.; Bruckner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

  6. On the Effect of Unit-Cell Parameters in Predicting the Elastic Response of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of unit-cell geometrical parameters in predicting elastic properties of a typical wood plastic composite (WPC. The ultimate goal was obtaining the optimal values of representative volume element (RVE parameters to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of the WPC. For each unit cell, defined by a given combination of the above geometrical parameters, finite element simulation in ABAQUS was carried out, and the corresponding stress-strain curve was obtained. A uniaxial test according to ASTM D638-02a type V was performed on the composite specimen. Modulus of elasticity was determined using hyperbolic tangent function, and the results were compared to the sets of finite element analyses. Main effects of RVE parameters and their interactions were demonstrated and discussed, specially regarding the inclusion of two adjacent wood particles within one unit cell of the material. Regression analysis was performed to mathematically model the RVE parameter effects and their interactions over the modulus of elasticity response. The model was finally employed in an optimization analysis to arrive at an optimal set of RVE parameters that minimizes the difference between the predicted and experimental moduli of elasticity.

  7. Peripheral Lymphoid Volume Expansion and Maintenance Are Controlled by Gut Microbiota via RALDH+ Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongde; Li, Jianjian; Zheng, Wencheng; Zhao, Guang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xiaofei; Guo, Yaqian; Qin, Chuan; Shi, Yan

    2016-02-16

    Lymphocyte homing to draining lymph nodes is critical for the initiation of immune responses. Secondary lymphoid organs of germ-free mice are underdeveloped. How gut commensal microbes remotely regulate cellularity and volume of secondary lymphoid organs remains unknown. We report here that, driven by commensal fungi, a wave of CD45(+)CD103(+)RALDH(+) cells migrates to the peripheral lymph nodes after birth. The arrival of these cells introduces high amounts of retinoic acid, mediates the neonatal to adult addressin switch on endothelial cells, and directs the homing of lymphocytes to both gut-associated lymphoid tissues and peripheral lymph nodes. In adult mice, a small number of these RALDH(+) cells might serve to maintain the volume of secondary lymphoid organs. Homing deficiency of these cells was associated with lymph node attrition in vitamin-A-deficient mice, suggesting a perpetual dependence on retinoic acid signaling for structural and functional maintenance of peripheral immune organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  9. Quantification of Tumor Volume Changes During Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Jana; Ford, Eric; Redmond, Kristin; Zhou, Jessica; Wong, John; Song, Danny Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation for lung cancer is limited by normal tissue toxicity. We evaluated sequential computed tomography (CT) scans to assess the possibility of adaptively reducing treatment volumes by quantifying the tumor volume reduction occurring during a course of radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients underwent RT for Stage I-III non-small-cell lung cancer with conventional fractionation; 15 received concurrent chemotherapy. Two repeat CT scans were performed at a nominal dose of 30 Gy and 50 Gy. Respiration-correlated four-dimensional CT scans were used for evaluation of respiratory effects in 17 patients. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on simulation and all individual phases of the repeat CT scans. Parenchymal tumor was evaluated unless the nodal volume was larger or was the primary. Subsequent image sets were spatially co-registered with the simulation data for evaluation. Results: The median GTV reduction was 24.7% (range, -0.3% to 61.7%; p 100 cm 3 vs. 3 , and hilar and/or mediastinal involvement vs. purely parenchymal or pleural lesions. A tendency toward a greater volume reduction with increasing dose was seen, although this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated significant alterations in the GTV seen on repeat CT scans during RT. These observations raise the possibility of using an adaptive approach toward RT of non-small-cell lung cancer to minimize the dose to normal structures and more safely increase the dose directed at the target tissues.

  10. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsch Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  11. Unusually large unit cell of lipid bicontinuous cubic phase: towards nature's length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojun; Leal, Cecilia

    Lipid bicontinuous cubic phases are of great interest for drug delivery, protein crystallization, biosensing, and templates for directing hard material assembly. Structural modulations of lipid mesophases regarding phase identity and unit cell size are often necessary to augment loading and gain pore size control. One important example is the need for unit cells large enough to guide the crystallization of bigger proteins without distortion of the templating phase. In nature, bicontinuous cubic constructs achieve unit cell dimensions as high as 300 nm. However, the largest unit cell of lipid mesophases synthesized in the lab is an order of magnitude lower. In fact, it has been predicted theoretically that lipid bicontinuous cubic phases of unit cell dimensions exceeding 30 nm could not exist, as high membrane fluctuations would damp liquid crystalline order. Here we report non-equilibrium assembly methods of synthesizing metastable bicontinuous cubic phases with unit cell dimensions as high as 70 nm. The phases are stable for very long periods and become increasingly ordered as time goes by without changes to unit cell dimensions. We acknowledge the funding source as a NIH.

  12. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  13. White cell labeling: 20 ML VS 4 ML of blood volume-case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Some times, it becomes difficult to draw 20 mL blood from a patient with bad veins. On two occasions, we could collect only about 4 mL of blood, that too with a great deal of struggle, and then we carried out the routine labelling procedure. A labelling efficiency of 98.2% and 95.6% was achieved. The white cell scan was negative in one patient, but positive in the next one. In a third patient, a comparison of labelling efficiency was done between 5 and 20 mLs of blood volumes separately and the results were found to be identical, 98.5% and 98.4%, respectively. As we have achieved the usual pattern of white cell scan with as low as 4-5 mL of blood, it appears that enough number of white cells is present even in the 4-5 mL of blood that is capable of generating a white cell scan and so, it seems rational to reduce the blood volume from 20 mL to 4 or 5 mL. However, further studies are warranted before adopting this modification. The procedure appears to carry the following advantages: ease of blood collection, handling and re-injection and less risk to the patient

  14. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and its precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P; Jakobsen, A

    1991-01-01

    Using modern stereology, this study was carried out to obtain base-line data concerning three-dimensional, mean nuclear size in precancerous and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Unbiased estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vv) were obtained by point-sampling of nu......Using modern stereology, this study was carried out to obtain base-line data concerning three-dimensional, mean nuclear size in precancerous and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Unbiased estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vv) were obtained by point......-sampling of nuclear intercepts in 51 pre-treatment biopsies from patients with invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Vertical sections from 27 specimens with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I through III were also investigated, along with 10 CIN III associated with microinvasion (CIN III + M......). On average, nuclear vv was larger in SCC than in CIN III and CIN III + M together (2 P = 8.9 . 10(-5). A conspicuous overlap of nuclear vv existed between all investigated lesional groups. The reproducibility of estimates of nuclear vv in biopsies with SCC was acceptable (r = 0.85 and r = 0.84 in intra...

  15. Unit cell parameters of wurtzite InP nanowires determined by x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegner, D; Wintersberger, E; Kawaguchi, K; Wallentin, J; Borgström, M T; Stangl, J

    2011-10-21

    High resolution x-ray diffraction is used to study the structural properties of the wurtzite polytype of InP nanowires. Wurtzite InP nanowires are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy using S-doping. From the evaluation of the Bragg peak position we determine the lattice parameters of the wurtzite InP nanowires. The unit cell dimensions are found to differ from the ones expected from geometric conversion of the cubic bulk InP lattice constant. The atomic distances along the c direction are increased whereas the atomic spacing in the a direction is reduced in comparison to the corresponding distances in the zinc-blende phase. Using core/shell nanowires with a thin core and thick nominally intrinsic shells we are able to determine the lattice parameters of wurtzite InP with a negligible influence of the S-doping due to the much larger volume in the shell. The determined material properties will enable the ab initio calculation of electronic and optical properties of wurtzite InP nanowires.

  16. Empirical Derivation of Correction Factors for Human Spiral Ganglion Cell Nucleus and Nucleolus Count Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Mark E; Linthicum, Fred H

    2016-01-01

    Profile count method for estimating cell number in sectioned tissue applies a correction factor for double count (resulting from transection during sectioning) of count units selected to represent the cell. For human spiral ganglion cell counts, we attempted to address apparent confusion between published correction factors for nucleus and nucleolus count units that are identical despite the role of count unit diameter in a commonly used correction factor formula. We examined a portion of human cochlea to empirically derive correction factors for the 2 count units, using 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double counts. The Neurotology and House Histological Temporal Bone Laboratory at University of California at Los Angeles. Using a fully sectioned and stained human temporal bone, we identified and generated digital images of sections of the modiolar region of the lower first turn of cochlea, identified count units with a light microscope, labeled them on corresponding digital sections, and used 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double-counted count units. For 25 consecutive sections, we determined that double-count correction factors for nucleus count unit (0.91) and nucleolus count unit (0.92) matched the published factors. We discovered that nuclei and, therefore, spiral ganglion cells were undercounted by 6.3% when using nucleolus count units. We determined that correction factors for count units must include an element for undercounting spiral ganglion cells as well as the double-count element. We recommend a correction factor of 0.91 for the nucleus count unit and 0.98 for the nucleolus count unit when using 20-µm sections. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  17. Mimetic Theory for Cell-Centered Lagrangian Finite Volume Formulation on General Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burton, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christon, Mark A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-19

    A finite volume cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving large deformation problems is constructed based on the hypo-elastic model and using the mimetic theory. Rigorous analysis in the context of gas and solid dynamics, and arbitrary polygonal meshes, is presented to demonstrate the ability of cell-centered schemes in mimicking the continuum properties and principles at the discrete level. A new mimetic formulation based gradient evaluation technique and physics-based, frame independent and symmetry preserving slope limiters are proposed. Furthermore, a physically consistent dissipation model is employed which is both robust and inexpensive to implement. The cell-centered scheme along with these additional new features are applied to solve solids undergoing elasto-plastic deformation.

  18. Relationship Between State-Level Google Online Search Volume and Cancer Incidence in the United States: Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles A; Barz Leahy, Allison; Li, Yimei; Schapira, Marilyn M; Bailey, L Charles; Merchant, Raina M

    2018-01-08

    In the United States, cancer is common, with high morbidity and mortality; cancer incidence varies between states. Online searches reflect public awareness, which could be driven by the underlying regional cancer epidemiology. The objective of our study was to characterize the relationship between cancer incidence and online Google search volumes in the United States for 6 common cancers. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association of search activity with cancer-related public events and celebrity news coverage. We performed a population-based, retrospective study of state-level cancer incidence from 2004 through 2013 reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for breast, prostate, colon, lung, and uterine cancers and leukemia compared to Google Trends (GT) relative search volume (RSV), a metric designed by Google to allow interest in search topics to be compared between regions. Participants included persons in the United States who searched for cancer terms on Google. The primary measures were the correlation between annual state-level cancer incidence and RSV as determined by Spearman correlation and linear regression with RSV and year as independent variables and cancer incidence as the dependent variable. Temporal associations between search activity and events raising public awareness such as cancer awareness months and cancer-related celebrity news were described. At the state level, RSV was significantly correlated to incidence for breast (r=.18, P=.001), prostate (r=-.27, P<.001), lung (r=.33, P<.001), and uterine cancers (r=.39, P<.001) and leukemia (r=.13, P=.003) but not colon cancer (r=-.02, P=.66). After adjusting for time, state-level RSV was positively correlated to cancer incidence for all cancers: breast (P<.001, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.19), prostate (P=.38, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.22), lung (P<.001, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.46), colon (P<.001, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.17), and uterine cancers (P<.001, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.12) and leukemia (P<.001, 95

  19. SU-E-T-429: Uncertainties of Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate uncertainties of cell surviving fraction reconstructed from tumor-volume variation curves during radiation therapy using sensitivity analysis based on linear perturbation theory. Methods: The time dependent tumor-volume functions V(t) have been calculated using a twolevel cell population model which is based on the separation of entire tumor cell population in two subpopulations: oxygenated viable and lethally damaged cells. The sensitivity function is defined as S(t)=[δV(t)/V(t)]/[δx/x] where δV(t)/V(t) is the time dependent relative variation of the volume V(t) and δx/x is the relative variation of the radiobiological parameter x. The sensitivity analysis was performed using direct perturbation method where the radiobiological parameter x was changed by a certain error and the tumor-volume was recalculated to evaluate the corresponding tumor-volume variation. Tumor volume variation curves and sensitivity functions have been computed for different values of cell surviving fractions from the practically important interval S 2 =0.1-0.7 using the two-level cell population model. Results: The sensitivity functions of tumor-volume to cell surviving fractions achieved a relatively large value of 2.7 for S 2 =0.7 and then approached zero as S 2 is approaching zero Assuming a systematic error of 3-4% we obtain that the relative error in S 2 is less that 20% in the range S2=0.4-0.7. This Resultis important because the large values of S 2 are associated with poor treatment outcome should be measured with relatively small uncertainties. For the very small values of S2<0.3, the relative error can be larger than 20%; however, the absolute error does not increase significantly. Conclusion: Tumor-volume curves measured during radiotherapy can be used for evaluation of cell surviving fractions usually observed in radiation therapy with conventional fractionation

  20. Variation in critical care unit admission rates and outcomes for patients with acute coronary syndromes or heart failure among high- and low-volume cardiac hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Sean; Bakal, Jeffrey A; Lin, Meng; Kaul, Padma; McAlister, Finlay A; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2015-02-27

    Little is known about cross-hospital differences in critical care units admission rates and related resource utilization and outcomes among patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or heart failure (HF). Using a population-based sample of 16,078 patients admitted to a critical care unit with a primary diagnosis of ACS (n=14,610) or HF (n=1467) between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2013 in Alberta, Canada, we stratified hospitals into high (>250), medium (200 to 250), or low (<200) volume based on their annual volume of all ACS and HF hospitalization. The percentage of hospitalized patients admitted to critical care units varied across low, medium, and high-volume hospitals for both ACS and HF as follows: 77.9%, 81.3%, and 76.3% (P<0.001), and 18.0%, 16.3%, and 13.0% (P<0.001), respectively. Compared to low-volume units, critical care patients with ACS and HF admitted to high-volume hospitals had shorter mean critical care stays (56.6 versus 95.6 hours, P<0.001), more critical care procedures (1.9 versus 1.2 per patient, <0.001), and higher resource-intensive weighting (2.8 versus 1.5, P<0.001). No differences in in-hospital mortality (5.5% versus 6.2%, adjusted odds ratio 0.93; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.41) were observed between high- and low-volume hospitals; however, 30-day cardiovascular readmissions (4.6% versus 6.8%, odds ratio 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.99) and cardiovascular emergency-room visits (6.6% versus 9.5%, odds ratio 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.94) were lower in high-volume compared to low-volume hospitals. Outcomes stratified by ACS or HF admission diagnosis were similar. Cardiac patients hospitalized in low-volume hospitals were more frequently admitted to critical care units and had longer hospitals stays despite lower resource-intensive weighting. These findings may provide opportunities to standardize critical care utilization for ACS and HF patients across high- and low-volume hospitals. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American

  1. Cell and Tissue Organization in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems Volume 1 Signaling in Cell Organization, Fate, and Activity, Part A Cell Structure and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning.  The present volume is devoted to cellular events that allow adaptation to environmental conditions, particularly mechanotransduction. It begins with cell organization and a survey of cell types in the vasculatur...

  2. TRICE - A program for reconstructing 3D reciprocal space and determining unit-cell parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaodong; Hovmoeller, Anders; Hovmoeller, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A program system-Trice-for reconstructing the 3D reciprocal lattice from an electron diffraction tilt series is described. The unit-cell parameters can be determined from electron diffraction patterns directly by Trice. The unit cell can be checked and the lattice type and crystal system can be determined from the 3D reciprocal lattice. Trice can be applied to all crystal systems and lattice types

  3. An ancillary method in urine cytology: Nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio for discrimination between benign and malignant urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, Kiyoshi; Kojima, Keiko; Hoshiai, Keita; Kumagai, Naoya; Kijima, Hiroshi; Kurose, Akira

    2016-06-01

    The essential of urine cytology for the diagnosis and the follow-up of urothelial neoplasia has been widely recognized. However, there are some cases in which a definitive diagnosis cannot be made due to difficulty in discriminating between benign and malignant. This study evaluated the practicality of nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) for the discrimination. Using Papanicolaou-stained slides, 253 benign urothelial cells and 282 malignant urothelial cells were selected and divided into a benign urothelial cell and an urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell groups. Three suspicious cases and four cases in which discrimination between benign and malignant was difficult were prepared for verification test. Subject cells were decolorized and stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole for detection of the nuclei and the nucleoli. Z-stack method was performed to analyze. When the cutoff point of 1.514% discriminating benign urothelial cells and UC cells from nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) was utilized, the sensitivity was 56.0%, the specificity was 88.5%, the positive predictive value was 84.5%, and the negative predictive value was 64.4%. Nuclear and nucleolar volume, number of the nucleoli, and nucleolar/nuclear volume ratio (%) were significantly higher in the UC cell group than in the benign urothelial cell group (P benign and malignant urothelial cells, providing possible additional information in urine cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:483-491. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Daniell Cell, Ohm's Law and the Emergence of the International System of Units

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40s and flourished in the following decades, but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell. Each company had their own resistance standard. In 1862 the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873 they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the...

  5. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  6. Assessment of interpatient heterogeneity in tumor radiosensitivity for nonsmall cell lung cancer using tumor-volume variation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V., E-mail: chvetsov2@gmail.com; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Mayr, Nina [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195-6043 (United States); Yartsev, Slav [London Regional Cancer Program, London Health Sciences Centre, 790 Commissioners Road East, London, Ontario 46A 4L6 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In our previous work, the authors showed that a distribution of cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients could be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. In this research study, the authors show that this algorithm can be applied to other tumors, specifically in nonsmall cell lung cancer. This new application includes larger patient volumes and includes comparison of data sets obtained at independent institutions. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage computed tomography. Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} and clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T{sub 1/2} have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population model of tumor response and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Nonsmall cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractionsS{sub 2} for nonsmall cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Conclusions: The data obtained

  7. Comparison the effect of two ways of tube feeding including bolus and continuous infusion on gastric residual volume and diarrhea in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriari M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Proper nutritional support is one of the important caring aspects in patients who were hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Although the several studies have been done concerning the selection of proper nutrition method for patients, but there is no agreement on this issue. The aim of current study was the compare the effect of two ways of tube feeding including bolus and continuous infusion on gastric residual volume and diarrhea in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit.  Materials and Method: The current clinical trial was conducted on patients who were hospitalized in intensive care unit in Alzahra hospital in Isfahan, 2013. Fifty patients were selected through convenient sampling and were randomly assigned into two groups of 25 people of intervention and control. Nutrition was done through infusion pump in intervention group and by bolus in control group. Gastric residual volume and diarrhea was assessed each four hours for four days. Data were gathered through checklist and were analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential statistics including independent T-test, Fisher's exact test and repeated measures ANOVA.  Results: The results showed that the mean of gastric residual volume in control group was more than the intervention group on the third day (p=0.04. Also, the mean of gastric residual volume did not show significant difference at different times in intervention group, but the mean of gastric residual volume was significantly increased in control group at different times (p=0.04. Fisher's exact test showed no significant difference between two groups concerning the diarrhea frequency.  Conclusion: In nutritional support with continuous infusion method, gastric residual volume was not increased and gastric emptying rate was not diminished. Therefore, this method can be used as an appropriate nutritional support in intensive care unit.

  8. Postoperative radiation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and target volume delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yingming Zhu,* Minghuan Li,* Li Kong, Jinming Yu Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and patients who are treated with surgery alone, without neoadjuvant therapies, experience frequent relapses. Whether postoperative therapies could reduce the recurrence or improve overall survival is still controversial for these patients. The purpose of our review is to figure out the value of postoperative adjuvant therapy and address the disputes about target volume delineation according to published data. Based on the evidence of increased morbidity and disadvantages on patient survival caused by postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy (RT alone provided by studies in the early 1990s, the use of postoperative adjuvant therapies in cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has diminished substantially and has been replaced gradually by neoadjuvant chemoradiation. With advances in surgery and RT, accumulating evidence has recently rekindled interest in the delivery of postoperative RT or chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage T3/T4 or N1 (lymph node positive carcinomas after radical surgery. However, due to complications with the standard radiation field, a nonconforming modified field has been adopted in most studies. Therefore, we analyze different field applications and provide suggestions on the optimization of the radiation field based on the major sites of relapse and the surgical non-clearance area. For upper and middle thoracic esophageal carcinomas, the bilateral supraclavicular and superior mediastinal areas remain common sites of recurrence and should be encompassed within the clinical target volume. In contrast, a consensus has yet to be reached regarding lower thoracic esophageal carcinomas; the

  9. Convergence of Cell Based Finite Volume Discretizations for Problems of Control in the Conduction Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Gregersen, Misha Marie; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a convergence analysis of a cell-based finite volume (FV) discretization scheme applied to a problem of control in the coefficients of a generalized Laplace equation modelling, for example, a steady state heat conduction. Such problems arise in applications dealing with geometric optimal......, whereas the convergence of the coefficients happens only with respect to the "volumetric" Lebesgue measure. Additionally, depending on whether the stationarity conditions are stated for the discretized or the original continuous problem, two distinct concepts of stationarity at a discrete level arise. We...... provide characterizations of limit points, with respect to FV mesh size, of globally optimal solutions and two types of stationary points to the discretized problems. We illustrate the practical behaviour of our cell-based FV discretization algorithm on a numerical example....

  10. Volume doubling time and growth rate of renal cell carcinoma determined by helical CT: a single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Chan Kyo; Choi, Dongil; Park, Byung Kwan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the volume doubling time (VDT) and growth rate of renal cell carcinomas (RCC) on a serial computed tomography (CT) scan. Thirty pathologically proven RCCs were reviewed with helical CT. Each tumor underwent at least two CT scans. Tumor volume was determined using an area measuring tool and the summation-of-areas technique. Growth rate was evaluated in terms of diameter and volume changes. VDT and volume growth rate were compared in relation to several factors (initial diameter, initial volume, diameter growth rate, volume growth rate, tumor grade, tumor subtype, sex or age). Mean VDT of RCCs was 505 days. Mean diameter and volume growth rate were 0.59 cm/year and 19.1 cm 3 /year, respectively. For volume and diameter growth rate, tumors ≤4 cm showed lower rates than those >4 cm (P 0.05). Volume growth rate was moderately to strongly positively correlated with initial diameter, initial volume and diameter growth rate (P < 0.05). In conclusion, small RCCs grew at a slow rate both diametrically and volumetrically. More accurate assessment of tumor growth rate and VDT may be helpful to understand the natural history of RCC. (orig.)

  11. User's guide for PRISM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 1: Volume 1, Program for inspectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit One (ANO-1). This document, Volume 1, describes how the PRA information available in Version 1.0 of PRISIM is useful for planning inspections. Using PRISIM, inspectors can quickly access PRA information and use that information to update risk analysis results, reflecting a plant's status at any particular time. Both volumes are stand-alone documents, and each volume presents several sample computer sessions designed to lead the user through a variety of PRISIM applications used to obtain PRA-related information for monitoring and controlling plant risk

  12. User's guide for PRISM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 1: Volume 1, Program for inspectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit One (ANO-1). This document, Volume 1, describes how the PRA information available in Version 1.0 of PRISIM is useful for planning inspections. Using PRISIM, inspectors can quickly access PRA information and use that information to update risk analysis results, reflecting a plant's status at any particular time. Both volumes are stand-alone documents, and each volume presents several sample computer sessions designed to lead the user through a variety of PRISIM applications used to obtain PRA-related information for monitoring and controlling plant risk.

  13. Electrochemical characterization of a polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Schaltz, Erik; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    This work constitutes detailed EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) measurements on a PBIbased HT-PEM unit cell. By means of EIS the fuel cell is characterized in several modes of operation by varying the current density, temperature and the stoichiometry of the reactant gases. Using...

  14. Quasi bound states in the continuum with few unit cells of photonic crystal slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2017-01-01

    cell structures. They are explained by a viewpoint of BICs originating from the tight-binding of individual resonances of each unit cell as in semiconductors. Combined with a reciprocal-space matching technique, the microcavities based on quasi-BICs can achieve a Q-factor as high as defect-based Ph...

  15. Storage characteristics of multiple-donor pooled red blood cells compared to single-donor red blood cell units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Aabhas; Chowdhury, Raquibul; Hillyer, Christopher D; Mitchell, W Beau; Shaz, Beth H

    2016-12-01

    Each unit of blood donated is processed and stored individually resulting in variability in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) collected, RBC properties, and the 24-hour posttransfusion RBC survivability. As a result, each unit differs in its ability to deliver oxygen and potentially its effects on the recipient. The goal of this study was to investigate the storage of pooled RBCs from multiple donors in comparison to control standard RBC units. Two units of irradiated, leukoreduced RBCs of same ABO, D, E, C, and K antigen phenotype were collected from each of five donors using apheresis. One unit from each donor was pooled in a 2-L bag and remaining units were used as controls. After being pooled, RBCs were separated in five bags and stored at 4°C along with the controls. Quality indexes were measured on Days 2, 14, and 28 for all the units. Adenosine triphosphate assays for both pooled and controls showed a slight decrease from Day 2 to Day 28 (pooled/control from 5.22/5.24 to 4.35/4.33 µmol/g hemoglobin [Hb]). 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate was successfully rejuvenated for all RBC units on Day 28 (pooled 11.46 µmol/g Hb; control 11.86 µmol/g Hb). The results showed a nonsignificant difference between pooled and control units, with a general trend of lower standard deviation for pooled units when compared to controls. Pooled units have reduced unit-to-unit variability. Future exploration of their immunogenicity is required before using pooled units for transfusion. © 2016 AABB.

  16. Hemorrhagic shock impairs myocardial cell volume regulation and membrane integrity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro myocardial slice technique was used to quantitate alterations in cell volume regulation and membrane integrity after 2 h or hemorrhagic shock. After in vitro incubation in Krebs-Ringer-phosphate medium containing trace [ 14 C]inulin, values (ml H 2 O/g dry wt) for control nonshocked myocardial slices were 4.03 /plus minus/ 0.11 (SE) for total water, 2.16 /plus minus/ 0.07 for inulin impermeable space, and 1.76 /plus minus/ 0.15 for inulin diffusible space. Shocked myocardial slices showed impaired response to cold incubation. After 2 h of in vivo shock, total tissue water, inulin diffusible space, and inulin impermeable space increased significantly for subendocardium, whereas changes in subepicardium parameters were minimal. Shock-induced cellular swelling was accompanied by an increased total tissue sodium, but no change in tissue potassium. Calcium entry blockade in vivo significantly reduced subendocardial total tissue water as compared with shock-untreated dogs. In addition, calcium entry blockade reduced shock-induced increases in inulin diffusible space. In vitro myocardial slice studies confirm alterations in subendocardial membrane integrity after 2 h of in vivo hemorrhagic shock. Shock-induced abnormalities in myocardial cell volume regulation are reduced by calcium entry blockade in vivo

  17. Assessment of red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume in children with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün Bezgin, Selin; Çakabay, Taliye; Odaman Al, Işık

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume and epistaxis in children. Between January 2015 and July 2016, 105 children who were referred to our clinic with epistaxis and 100 sex- and age-matched controls were retrospectively analyzed. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) values were determined in both groups. RDW values were found significantly (P epistaxis than in the control group (11.95 ± 1.31 vs. 12.74 ± 1.21). MPV was 7.49 ± 1.33 in the group with epistaxis and 7.23 ± 1.06 in the control group, and there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). We found no difference between MPV values of both groups and significantly lower RDW values in children with epistaxis. Decreased RDW values were considered as an accompanying marker rather than a result of epistaxis. In addition, it may be thought that low RDW values may increase the bleeding tendency by disrupting the thrombotic activities. Further studies are needed to validate the relation of these parameters with epistaxis and its mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Yartsev, S [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} can be reconstructed from the tumor volume

  19. Potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 interacts with Vav2 to synchronize the cell volume decrease response with cell protrusion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Salin-Cantegrel

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3 causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC, a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with defective midline crossing of commissural axons in the brain. Conversely, KCC3 over-expression in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer is associated with enhanced tumor cell malignancy and invasiveness. We identified a highly conserved proline-rich sequence within the C-terminus of the cotransporter which when mutated leads to loss of the KCC3-dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD response in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Using SH3 domain arrays, we found that this poly-proline motif is a binding site for SH3-domain containing proteins in vitro. This approach identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Vav2 as a candidate partner for KCC3. KCC3/Vav2 physical interaction was confirmed using GST-pull down assays and immuno-based experiments. In cultured cervical cancer cells, KCC3 co-localized with the active form of Vav2 in swelling-induced actin-rich protruding sites and within lamellipodia of spreading and migrating cells. These data provide evidence of a molecular and functional link between the potassium-chloride co-transporters and the Rho GTPase-dependent actin remodeling machinery in RVD, cell spreading and cell protrusion dynamics, thus providing new insights into KCC3's involvement in cancer cell malignancy and in corpus callosum agenesis in HMSN/ACC.

  20. International stem cell collaboration: how disparate policies between the United States and the United Kingdom impact research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Flynn, Jesse M; Solnick, Rachel E; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2011-03-08

    As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors. While the UK exhibited a higher proportion of international publications than the US, this difference was consistent with overall trends in international scientific collaboration. The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most

  1. Cell volume and geometric parameters determination in living cells using confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: David Hevia, Aida Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta Alonso-Gervós, Isabel Quirós-González, Henar M Cimadevilla, Carmen Gómez-Cordovés, Rosa M Sainz & Juan C Mayo ### Abstract The protocol reported here describes a simple, easy, fast and reproducible method aimed to know the geometric parameters of living cells based on confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with 3D reconstruction software. Briefly, the method is based on intrinsic fluorescence properties of acridine orange (AO), a...

  2. Spatial and temporal single-cell volume estimation by a fluorescence imaging technique with application to astrocytes in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Siamak; Allansson, Louise; Gustavsson, Tomas; Blomstrand, Fredrik; Hansson, Elisabeth; Olsson, Torsten

    1999-05-01

    Cell volume changes are often associated with important physiological and pathological processes in the cell. These changes may be the means by which the cell interacts with its surrounding. Astroglial cells change their volume and shape under several circumstances that affect the central nervous system. Following an incidence of brain damage, such as a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, one of the first events seen is swelling of the astroglial cells. In order to study this and other similar phenomena, it is desirable to develop technical instrumentation and analysis methods capable of detecting and characterizing dynamic cell shape changes in a quantitative and robust way. We have developed a technique to monitor and to quantify the spatial and temporal volume changes in a single cell in primary culture. The technique is based on two- and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging. The temporal information is obtained from a sequence of microscope images, which are analyzed in real time. The spatial data is collected in a sequence of images from the microscope, which is automatically focused up and down through the specimen. The analysis of spatial data is performed off-line and consists of photobleaching compensation, focus restoration, filtering, segmentation and spatial volume estimation.

  3. Importance of unit cells in accurate evaluation of the characteristics of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzyan, Hassan; Sadeghpour, Narges [Isfahan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-08-01

    Effects of the size of the unit cell on energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies of graphene at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone are studied in the absence and presence of an electric field using density functional theory (DFT) methods (LDA and DFT-PBE functionals with Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) and Troullier-Martins (TM) norm-conserving pseudopotentials). Two types of unit cells containing n{sub c}=4-28 carbon atoms are considered. Results show that stability of graphene increases with increasing size of the unit cell. Energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies all converge above n{sub c}=24 for all functional-pseudopotentials used. Except for the LDA-GTH calculations, application of an electric field of 0.4 and 0.9 V/nm strengths does not change the trends with the size of the unit cell but instead slightly decreases the binding energy of graphene. Results of this study show that the choice of unit cell size and type is critical for calculation of reliable characteristics of graphene.

  4. The Daniell cell, Ohm's law, and the emergence of the International System of Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40 s and flourished in the following decades but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell, but each telegraphy company had their own resistance standard. In 1862, the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873, they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as 109 emu units of resistance and the volt as 108 emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the Joule). As it was, the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By introducing another unit X (where X could be any of the practical electrical units), Giorgi demonstrated that a self-consistent MKSX system was tenable without the need for multiplying factors. Ultimately, the ampere was selected as the fourth unit. It took nearly 60 years, but in 1960, Giorgi's proposal was incorporated as the core of the newly inaugurated International System of Units (SI). This article surveys the physics, physicists, and events that contributed to those developments.

  5. The association between brain volumes, delirium duration, and cognitive outcomes in intensive care unit survivors: the VISIONS cohort magnetic resonance imaging study*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Max L; Morandi, Alessandro; Krauskopf, Erin; Pandharipande, Pratik; Girard, Timothy D; Jackson, James C; Thompson, Jennifer; Shintani, Ayumi K; Geevarghese, Sunil; Miller, Russell R; Canonico, Angelo; Merkle, Kristen; Cannistraci, Christopher J; Rogers, Baxter P; Gatenby, J Chris; Heckers, Stephan; Gore, John C; Hopkins, Ramona O; Ely, E Wesley

    2012-07-01

    Delirium duration is predictive of long-term cognitive impairment in intensive care unit survivors. Hypothesizing that a neuroanatomical basis may exist for the relationship between delirium and long-term cognitive impairment, we conducted this exploratory investigation of the associations between delirium duration, brain volumes, and long-term cognitive impairment. A prospective cohort of medical and surgical intensive care unit survivors with respiratory failure or shock. Quantitative high resolution 3-Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate brain volumes at discharge and 3-month follow-up. Delirium was evaluated using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit; cognitive outcomes were tested at 3- and 12-month follow-up. Linear regression was used to examine associations between delirium duration and brain volumes, and between brain volumes and cognitive outcomes. A total of 47 patients completed the magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Patients with longer duration of delirium displayed greater brain atrophy as measured by a larger ventricle-to-brain ratio at hospital discharge (0.76, 95% confidence intervals [0.10, 1.41]; p = .03) and at 3-month follow-up (0.62 [0.02, 1.21], p = .05). Longer duration of delirium was associated with smaller superior frontal lobe (-2.11 cm(3) [-3.89, -0.32]; p = .03) and hippocampal volumes at discharge (-0.58 cm(3) [-0.85, -0.31], p Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status score -11.17 [-21.12, -1.22], p = .04). Smaller superior frontal lobes, thalamus, and cerebellar volumes at 3 months were associated with worse executive functioning and visual attention at 12 months. These preliminary data show that longer duration of delirium is associated with smaller brain volumes up to 3 months after discharge, and that smaller brain volumes are associated with long-term cognitive impairment up to 12 months. We cannot, however, rule out that smaller preexisting brain volumes explain

  6. Tumor-Volume Simulation During Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Using a Four-Level Cell Population Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V.; Dong Lei; Palta, Jantinder R.; Amdur, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a fast computational radiobiologic model for quantitative analysis of tumor volume during fractionated radiotherapy. The tumor-volume model can be useful for optimizing image-guidance protocols and four-dimensional treatment simulations in proton therapy that is highly sensitive to physiologic changes. Methods: The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of total cell number and (2) tumor-cell population is separated into four subpopulations: oxygenated viable cells, oxygenated lethally damaged cells, hypoxic viable cells, and hypoxic lethally damaged cells. An exponential decay model is used for disintegration and removal of oxygenated lethally damaged cells from the tumor. Results: We tested our model on daily volumetric imaging data available for 14 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with an integrated computed tomography/linear accelerator system. A simulation based on the averaged values of radiobiologic parameters was able to describe eight cases during the entire treatment and four cases partially (50% of treatment time) with a maximum 20% error. The largest discrepancies between the model and clinical data were obtained for small tumors, which may be explained by larger errors in the manual tumor volume delineation procedure. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the change in gross tumor volume for head-and-neck cancer can be adequately described by a relatively simple radiobiologic model. In future research, we propose to study the variation of model parameters by fitting to clinical data for a cohort of patients with head-and-neck cancer and other tumors. The potential impact of other processes, like concurrent chemotherapy, on tumor volume should be evaluated.

  7. Hyperosmotically induced volume change and calcium signaling in intervertebral disk cells: the role of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Scott; Erickson, Geoffrey R; Guilak, Farshid

    2002-11-01

    Loading of the spine alters the osmotic environment in the intervertebral disk (IVD) as interstitial water is expressed from the tissue. Cells from the three zones of the IVD, the anulus fibrosus (AF), transition zone (TZ), and nucleus pulposus (NP), respond to osmotic stress with altered biosynthesis through a pathway that may involve calcium (Ca(2+)) as a second messenger. We examined the hypothesis that IVD cells respond to hyperosmotic stress by increasing the concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) through a mechanism involving F-actin. In response to hyperosmotic stress, control cells from all zones decreased in volume and cells from the AF and TZ exhibited [Ca(2+)](i) transients, while cells from the NP did not. Extracellular Ca(2+) was necessary to initiate [Ca(2+)](i) transients. Stabilization of F-actin with phalloidin prevented the Ca(2+) response in AF and TZ cells and decreased the rate of volume change in cells from all zones, coupled with an increase in the elastic moduli and apparent viscosity. Conversely, actin breakdown with cytochalasin D facilitated Ca(2+) signaling while decreasing the elastic moduli and apparent viscosity for NP cells. These results suggest that hyperosmotic stress induces volume change in IVD cells and may initiate [Ca(2+)](i) transients through an actin-dependent mechanism.

  8. Using stochastic cell division and death to probe minimal units of cellular replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chib, Savita; Das, Suman; Venkatesan, Soumya; Sai Narain Seshasayee, Aswin; Thattai, Mukund

    2018-03-01

    The invariant cell initiation mass measured in bacterial growth experiments has been interpreted as a minimal unit of cellular replication. Here we argue that the existence of such minimal units induces a coupling between the rates of stochastic cell division and death. To probe this coupling we tracked live and dead cells in Escherichia coli populations treated with a ribosome-targeting antibiotic. We find that the growth exponent from macroscopic cell growth or decay measurements can be represented as the difference of microscopic first-order cell division and death rates. The boundary between cell growth and decay, at which the number of live cells remains constant over time, occurs at the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antibiotic. This state appears macroscopically static but is microscopically dynamic: division and death rates exactly cancel at MIC but each is remarkably high, reaching 60% of the antibiotic-free division rate. A stochastic model of cells as collections of minimal replicating units we term ‘widgets’ reproduces both steady-state and transient features of our experiments. Sub-cellular fluctuations of widget numbers stochastically drive each new daughter cell to one of two alternate fates, division or death. First-order division or death rates emerge as eigenvalues of a stationary Markov process, and can be expressed in terms of the widget’s molecular properties. High division and death rates at MIC arise due to low mean and high relative fluctuations of widget number. Isolating cells at the threshold of irreversible death might allow molecular characterization of this minimal replication unit.

  9. Fluorescence Exclusion: A Simple Method to Assess Projected Surface, Volume and Morphology of Red Blood Cells Stored in Blood Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Roussel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBC ability to circulate is closely related to their surface area-to-volume ratio. A decrease in this ratio induces a decrease in RBC deformability that can lead to their retention and elimination in the spleen. We recently showed that a subpopulation of “small RBC” with reduced projected surface area accumulated upon storage in blood bank concentrates, but data on the volume of these altered RBC are lacking. So far, single cell measurement of RBC volume has remained a challenging task achieved by a few sophisticated methods some being subject to potential artifacts. We aimed to develop a reproducible and ergonomic method to assess simultaneously RBC volume and morphology at the single cell level. We adapted the fluorescence exclusion measurement of volume in nucleated cells to the measurement of RBC volume. This method requires no pre-treatment of the cell and can be performed in physiological or experimental buffer. In addition to RBC volume assessment, brightfield images enabling a precise definition of the morphology and the measurement of projected surface area can be generated simultaneously. We first verified that fluorescence exclusion is precise, reproducible and can quantify volume modifications following morphological changes induced by heating or incubation in non-physiological medium. We then used the method to characterize RBC stored for 42 days in SAG-M in blood bank conditions. Simultaneous determination of the volume, projected surface area and morphology allowed to evaluate the surface area-to-volume ratio of individual RBC upon storage. We observed a similar surface area-to-volume ratio in discocytes (D and echinocytes I (EI, which decreased in EII (7% and EIII (24%, sphero-echinocytes (SE; 41% and spherocytes (S; 47%. If RBC dimensions determine indeed the ability of RBC to cross the spleen, these modifications are expected to induce the rapid splenic entrapment of the most morphologically altered RBC

  10. Analysis of red cell mass and plasma volume in patients with polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, K.; Vassileva, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Polycythemia vera (PV) was first described in 1892. The primary objective during the evaluation of erythrocytosis is to ascertain the presence or absence of PV. Because of prognostic and treatment differences, PV must be distinguished from relative polycythemia and secondary erythrocytosis. A retrospective analysis of RCM and plasma volume data are presented with special attention to different methods of RCM interpretation. A total 104 patients was studied (26 women and 78 men). Measurements of RCM and plasma volume were performed using chromium-51 labeled red cells. Results were expressed in millilitres by using the actual patient weight and using body surface area. There was a high prevalence of overweight or obesity in our population. However adipose tissue is relatively avascular, can lack precision of measurement of RCM in obese individuals. Pearson et al. showed that the results from 98% of males and 99% of females fall between ± 25% of the mean value at any given surface area. Using these limits as the reference range, we accepted the diagnosis of absolute erythrocytosis when an individual measured RCM is more than 25% above their predicted value

  11. Variation of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume after Moderate Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217±32 min/week who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC, reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR; RBC distribution width (RDW, mean platelet volume (MPV. No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease.

  12. Fracture criterion for brittle materials based on statistical cells of finite volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cords, H.; Kleist, G.; Zimmermann, R.

    1986-06-01

    An analytical consideration of the Weibull Statistical Analysis of brittle materials established the necessity of including one additional material constant for a more comprehensive description of the failure behaviour. The Weibull analysis is restricted to infinitesimal volume elements in consequence of the differential calculus applied. It was found that infinitesimally small elements are in conflict with the basic statistical assumption and that the differential calculus is not needed in fact since nowadays most of the stress analyses are based on finite element calculations, and these are most suitable for a subsequent statistical analysis of strength. The size of a finite statistical cell has been introduced as the third material parameter. It should represent the minimum volume containing all statistical features of the material such as distribution of pores, flaws and grains. The new approach also contains a unique treatment of failure under multiaxial stresses. The quantity responsible for failure under multiaxial stresses is introduced as a modified strain energy. Sixteen different tensile specimens including CT-specimens have been investigated experimentally and analyzed with the probabilistic fracture criterion. As a result it can be stated that the failure rates of all types of specimens made from three different grades of graphite are predictable. The accuracy of the prediction is one standard deviation. (orig.) [de

  13. Acquired cisplatin resistance in human ovarian A2780 cancer cells correlates with shift in taurine homeostasis and ability to volume regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of cancer and develops through reduced drug accumulation and an increased ability to avoid drug-induced cell damage, cell shrinkage, and hence initiation of apoptosis. Uptake and release of the semiessential amino acid taurine contribute...... to cell volume homeostasis, and taurine has been reported to have antiapoptotic effects. Here we find that volume-sensitive taurine release in cisplatin-sensitive [wild-type (WT)] human ovarian cancer A2780 cells is reduced in the presence of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor bromenol lactone, the 5......-induced cell death in RES A2780 cells correlates with an increased accumulation of taurine, due to an increased taurine uptake and a concomitant impairment of the volume-sensitive taurine release pathway, as well an inability to reduce cell volume after osmotic cell swelling. Downregulation of volume...

  14. Relationship between haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in cattle blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paa-Kobina Turkson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A convention that has been adopted in medicine is to estimate haemoglobin (HB concentration as a third of packed cell volume (PCV or vice versa. The present research set out to determine whether a proportional relationship exists between PCV and Hb concentration in cattle blood samples, and to assess the validity of the convention of estimating Hb concentration as a third of PCV. A total of 440 cattle in Ghana from four breeds (Ndama, 110; West African Short Horn, 110; Zebu, 110 and Sanga, 110 were bled for haematological analysis, specifically packed cell volume, using the microhaematocrit technique and haemoglobin concentration using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. Means, standard deviations, standard errors of mean and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Trendline analyses generated linear regression equations from scatterplots. For all the cattle, a significant and consistent relationship (r = 0.74 was found between Hb concentration and PCV (%. This was expressed as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.28 PCV + 3.11. When the Hb concentration was estimated by calculating it as a third of PCV, the relationship was expressed in linear regression as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.83 calculated Hb + 3.11. The difference in the means of determined (12.2 g/dL and calculated (10.9 g/dL Hb concentrations for all cattle was significant (p < 0.001, whereas the difference in the means of determined Hb and corrected calculated Hb was not significant. In conclusion, a simplified relationship of Hb (g/dL = (0.3 PCV + 3 may provide a better estimate of Hb concentration from the PCV of cattle.

  15. Evaluation of the impact of banking umbilical cord blood units with high cell dose for ethnically diverse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritesky, Gretta; Wadsworth, Kimberly; Duffy, Merry; Buck, Kelly; Dehn, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood units provide an important stem cell source for transplantation, particularly for patients of ethnic diversity who may not have suitably matched available, adult-unrelated donors. However, with the cost of cord blood unit acquisition from public banks significantly higher than that for adult-unrelated donors, attention is focused on decreasing cost yet still providing cord blood units to patients in need. Historical practices of banking units with low total nucleated cell counts, including units with approximately 90 × 10 7 total nucleated cells, indicates that most banked cord blood units have much lower total nucleated cell counts than are required for transplant. The objective of this study was to determine the impact on the ability to identify suitable cord blood units for transplantation if the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking were increased from 90 × 10 7 to 124 or 149 × 10 7 . We analyzed ethnically diverse patients (median age, 3 years) who underwent transplantation of a single cord blood unit in 2005 to 2016. A cord blood unit search was evaluated to identify units with equal or greater human leukocyte antigen matching and a greater total nucleated cell count than that of the transplanted cord blood unit (the replacement cord blood unit). If the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking increased to 124 or 149 × 10 7 , then from 75 to 80% of patients would still have at least 1 replacement cord blood unit in the current (2016) cord blood unit inventory. The best replacement cord blood units were often found among cords with the same ethnic background as the patient. The current data suggest that, if the minimum total nucleated cell count were increased for banking, then it would likely lead to an inventory of more desirable cord blood units while having minimal impact on the identification of suitable cord blood units for transplantation. © 2017 AABB.

  16. Culture of human cells in experimental units for spaceflight impacts on their behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Moscheni, Claudia; Maier, Jeanette Am; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Because space missions produce pathophysiological alterations such as cardiovascular disorders and bone demineralization which are very common on Earth, biomedical research in space is a frontier that holds important promises not only to counterbalance space-associated disorders in astronauts but also to ameliorate the health of Earth-bound population. Experiments in space are complex to design. Cells must be cultured in closed cell culture systems (from now defined experimental units (EUs)), which are biocompatible, functional, safe to minimize any potential hazard to the crew, and with a high degree of automation. Therefore, to perform experiments in orbit, it is relevant to know how closely culture in the EUs reflects cellular behavior under normal growth conditions. We compared the performances in these units of three different human cell types, which were recently space flown, i.e. bone mesenchymal stem cells, micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells. Endothelial cells are only slightly and transiently affected by culture in the EUs, whereas these devices accelerate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward osteogenic differentiation, in part by increasing the amounts of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that cell culture conditions in the EUs do not exactly mimic what happens in a culture dish and that more efforts are necessary to optimize these devices for biomedical experiments in space. Impact statement Cell cultures represent valuable preclinical models to decipher pathogenic circuitries. This is true also for biomedical research in space. A lot has been learnt about cell adaptation and reaction from the experiments performed on many different cell types flown to space. Obviously, cell culture in space has to meet specific requirements for the safety of the crew and to comply with the unique environmental challenges. For these reasons, specific devices for cell culture in space have been developed. It is important to clarify whether these

  17. Mean platelet volume and red cell distribution width levels in initial evaluation of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoglu M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Asoglu,1 Mehmet Aslan,2 Okan Imre,1 Yuksel Kivrak,3 Oznur Akil,1 Emin Savik,4 Hasan Buyukaslan,5 Ulker Fedai,1 Abdurrahman Altındag6 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, 4Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, 5Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey Background: As the relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied in recent years, activated platelets lead to certain biochemical changes, which occur in the brain in patients with mental disorders. However, data relating to the mean platelet volume (MPV in patients with panic disorder (PD are both limited and controversial. Herein, we aimed to evaluate, for the first time, the red cell distribution width (RDW levels combined with MPV levels in patients with PD.Patients and methods: Between January 2012 and June 2015, data of 30 treatment-naïve patients (16 females, 14 males; mean age: 37±10 years; range: 18–59 years who were diagnosed with PD and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (10 females, 15 males; mean age: 36±13 years; range: 18–59 years (control group were retrospectively analyzed. The white blood cell count (WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were measured in both groups.Results: The mean WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were 9,173.03±2,400.31/mm3, 8.19±1.13 fl, and 12.47±1.14%, respectively, in the PD group. These values were found to be 7,090.24±1,032.61, 6.85±0.67, and 11.63±0.85, respectively, in the healthy controls. The WBC, MPV, and RDW levels were significantly higher in the patients with PD compared to the healthy controls (P=0.001, P=0.001, and P=0

  18. User's guide for PRISIM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One--Unit 1: Volume 2, Program for regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One--Unit One (ANA-1). This document, Volume 2, describes how the PRA information available in Version 2.0 of PRISIM is useful as an evaluation tool for regulatory activities. Using PRISIM is useful as an evaluation tool for regulatory activities. Using PRISIM, regulators can both access PRA information and modify the information to assess the impact these changes may have on plant safety. Each volume is a stand-alone document.

  19. A simplistic analytical unit cell based model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X H; Kuang, J J; Lu, T J; Han, F S; Kim, T

    2013-01-01

    We present a simplistic yet accurate analytical model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams saturated in a low conducting fluid (air). The model is derived analytically based on a realistic representative unit cell (a tetrakaidecahedron) under the assumption of one-dimensional heat conduction along highly tortuous-conducting ligaments at high porosity ranges (ε ⩾ 0.9). Good agreement with existing experimental data suggests that heat conduction along highly conducting and tortuous ligaments predominantly defines the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell metal foams with negligible conduction in parallel through the fluid phase. (paper)

  20. Accuracy of formulas used to predict post-transfusion packed cell volume rise in anemic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jacqueline L; Diehl, Shenandoah; Seshadri, Ravi; Serrano, Sergi

    2012-08-01

    To assess the accuracy of published formulas used to guide packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusions in anemic dogs and to compare the predicted rise in packed cell volume (PCV) to the actual post-transfusion rise in PCV. Prospective observational study from April 2009 through July 2009. A small animal emergency and specialty hospital. Thirty-one anemic client-owned dogs that received pRBC transfusions for treatment of anemia. None Four formulas were evaluated to determine their predictive ability with respect to rise in PCV following transfusion with pRBC. Post-transfusion rise in PCV were compared to calculated rise in PCV using 4 different formulas. Bias and limits of agreement were investigated using Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy of existing formulas to predict rise in PCV following transfusion varied significantly. Formula 1 (volume to be transfused [VT] [mL] = 1 mL × % PCV rise × kg body weight [BW]) overestimated the expected rise in PCV (mean difference, 6.30), while formula 2 (VT [mL] = 2 mL ×% PCV rise × kg BW) underestimated the rise in PCV (mean difference, -3.01). Formula 3 (VT [mL] = 90 mL × kg BW × [(desired PCV - Patient PCV)/PCV of donor blood]) and formula 4 (VT [mL] = 1.5 mL ×% PCV rise × kg BW) performed well (mean difference 0.23 and 0.09, respectively) in predicting rise in PCV following pRBC transfusion. Agreement between 2 formulas, "VT (mL) = kg BW × blood volume (90 mL) × [(desired PCV - recipient PCV)/Donor PCV]" and "VT (mL) = 1.5 ×desired rise in PCV × kg BW," was found when they were compared to the actual rise in PCV following pRBC transfusion in anemic dogs. Further research is warranted to determine whether these formulas perform similarly well for other species. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  1. Replacement of the moderator cell unit of JRR-3's cold neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazawa, Tomoya; Nagahori, Kazuhisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2006-10-01

    The moderator cell of the JRR-3's cold neutron source (CNS) facility, converts thermal neutrons into cold neutrons by passing through liquid cold hydrogen. The cold neutrons are used for material and life science research such as the neutron scattering. The CNS has been operated since the start of JRR-3's in 1990. The moderator cell containing liquid hydrogen is made of stainless steel. The material irradiation lifetime is limited to 7 years due to irradiation brittleness. The first replacement was done by using a spare part made in France. This replacement work of 2006 was carried out by using the domestic moderator cell unit. The following technologies were developed for the moderator cell unit production. 1) Technical development of black treatment on moderator cell surface to increase radiation heat. 2) Development of bending technology of concentric triple tubes consisting from inside tube, Outside tube and Vacuum insulation tube. 3) Development of manufacturing technique of the moderator cell with complicated shapes. According to detail planed work procedures, replacement work was carried out. As results, the working days were reduced to 80% of old ones. The radiation dose was also reduced due to reduction of working days. It was verified by measurement of neutrons characteristics that the replaced moderator cell has the same performance as that of the old moderator cell. The domestic manufacturing of the moderator cell was succeeded. As results, the replacement cost was reduced by development of domestic production technology. (author)

  2. Meats Units for Agricultural Science I and Advanced Livestock Production and Marketing Courses. Instructor's Guide. Volume 18, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; McCaskey, Michael J.

    These two units are designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. The first unit, on meat identification, is to be taught as part of the first year of instruction in agricultural science, while the second unit, advanced meats, was prepared for use with 11th- and 12th-grade students in…

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  4. Evaluation of low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume in an apheresis donor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barbara J; Hopkins, Julie A; Arceo, Sarah M; Leitman, Susan F

    2009-09-01

    Apheresis donors are routinely evaluated with a complete blood count (CBC). Low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (or=12.5 g/dL) could be due to iron deficiency or hemoglobinopathy. The etiology of a low MCV in a healthy apheresis donor population was assessed. Predonation samples for CBC were obtained from 1162 consecutive apheresis donors. Donors with a MCV of less than 80 fL were evaluated by CBC, iron studies (ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, percentage of transferrin saturation), and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin value below the reference range. Beta chain Hb variants were determined by Hb electrophoresis. Alpha thalassemia trait was presumed if the red blood cell (RBC) count was elevated, no variant Hbs were detected, and the iron studies were within normal ranges. In a 19-month period, 33 of 1162 apheresis donors had low MCV values. Iron deficiency was present in 64%; 49% had isolated iron deficiency and 15% had iron deficiency plus hemoglobinopathy. Hemoglobinopathy without concomitant iron deficiency was found in the remaining 36%. Iron deficiency is present in the majority of apheresis donors with repeatedly low MCV values and Hb levels of 12.5 g/dL or more. Hemoglobinopathy is also commonly present but may not be easily recognized in the setting of iron deficiency. The MCV is a useful screening tool to detect iron deficiency and hemoglobinopathy. Low MCV values should be investigated to determine if iron replacement therapy is indicated.

  5. Cell dispensing in low-volume range with the immediate drop-on-demand technology (I-DOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Lena; Büttner, Evy; Laske, Christopher; Traube, Andrea; Brode, Tobias; Traube, Andreas Florian; Bauernhansl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Handling and dosing of cells comprise the most critical step in the microfabrication of cell-based assay systems for screening and toxicity testing. Therefore, the immediate drop-on-demand technology (I-DOT) was developed to provide a flexible noncontact liquid handling system enabling dispensing of cells and liquid without the risk of cross-contamination down to a precise volume in the nanoliter range. Liquid is dispensed from a source plate within nozzles at the bottom by a short compressed air pulse that is given through a quick release valve into the well, thus exceeding the capillary pressure in the nozzle. Droplets of a defined volume can be spotted directly onto microplates or other cell culture devices. We present a study on the performance and biological impact of this technology by applying the cell line MCF-7, human fibroblasts, and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). For all cell types tested, viability after dispensing is comparable to the control and exhibits similar proliferation rates in the absence of apoptotic cells, and the differentiation potential of hMSCs is not impaired. The immediate drop-on-demand technology enables accurate cell dosage and offers promising potential for single-cell applications. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Fuel Cells in Distributed Power Market Applications in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastler, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews results from EPRI market analysis, which examined the technical and economic market potential of fuel cells in distributed power markets in the United States. A methodology and approach for developing realistic quantitative estimates of market potential in competitive electricity markets is presented. Market size estimates for phosphoric acid, polymer exchange membrane, high temperature fuel cells (carbonate and solid oxide systems) and ultra-high efficient fuel cell hybrids are estimated. Market potentials are reviewed for fuel cells systems ranging in size from 3 kW up to 20-30 MW in scale and underlying assumptions are provided. The results and implications are discussed in relation to the changing U.S. electric utility market structures. Results will be of value to energy companies and to fuel cell developers seeking to understand revenue sales estimates, market size, and most profitable segments for fuel cells in the competitive US electric markets. (author)

  7. Heat shock protein 70 inhibits shrinkage-induced programmed cell death via mechanisms independent of effects on cell volume-regulatory membrane transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylandsted, J; Jäättelä, M; Hoffmann, E K

    2004-01-01

    Cell shrinkage is a ubiquitous feature of programmed cell death (PCD), but whether it is an obligatory signalling event in PCD is unclear. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) potently counteracts PCD in many cells, by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. In the present investigation, we found...... that severe hypertonic stress greatly diminished the viability of murine fibrosarcoma cells (WEHI-902) and immortalized murine embryonic fibroblasts (iMEFs). This effect was attenuated markedly by Hsp70 over-expression. To determine whether the protective effect of Hsp70 was mediated via an effect on volume...... regulatory ion transport, we compared regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and increase (RVI) in control WEHI-902 cells and after increasing Hsp70 levels by heat shock or over-expression (WEHI-912). Hsp70 levels affected neither RVD, RVI nor the relative contributions of the Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE1) and Na...

  8. Improved reproducibility of unit-cell parameters in macromolecular cryocrystallography by limiting dehydration during crystal mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Christopher; Burks, Geoffry; Siegert, Thomas; Juers, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    In macromolecular cryocrystallography unit-cell parameters can have low reproducibility, limiting the effectiveness of combining data sets from multiple crystals and inhibiting the development of defined repeatable cooling protocols. Here, potential sources of unit-cell variation are investigated and crystal dehydration during loop-mounting is found to be an important factor. The amount of water lost by the unit cell depends on the crystal size, the loop size, the ambient relative humidity and the transfer distance to the cooling medium. To limit water loss during crystal mounting, a threefold strategy has been implemented. Firstly, crystal manipulations are performed in a humid environment similar to the humidity of the crystal-growth or soaking solution. Secondly, the looped crystal is transferred to a vial containing a small amount of the crystal soaking solution. Upon loop transfer, the vial is sealed, which allows transport of the crystal at its equilibrated humidity. Thirdly, the crystal loop is directly mounted from the vial into the cold gas stream. This strategy minimizes the exposure of the crystal to relatively low humidity ambient air, improves the reproducibility of low-temperature unit-cell parameters and offers some new approaches to crystal handling and cryoprotection.

  9. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  10. Experimental broadband absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-09-09

    We design silicon membranes with nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells that maximize broadband absorption. We fabricate the optimized design and measure the optical absorption. We demonstrate an experimental broadband absorption about 3.5 times higher than an equally-thick thin film.

  11. Development of a unit cell model for interim performance assessment of vitrified low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1995-09-01

    The unit cell modeling approach has been developed and used in analysis of some design options for a vitrified low level waste disposal facility. The unit cell modeling approach is likely to be useful in interim performance assessment for the facility. The present unit cell model will probably need to be refitted in terms of some model parameters for the latter purpose. Two present disposal facility concepts differ in the length of a capillary barrier proposed to limit effective recharge through the top of the facility. Results of the study summarized herein suggest design of a capillary barrier which can reduce a recharge rate of 0.1 cm/yr by one or two orders of magnitude seems feasible for both concepts. A benchmark comparison of the unit cell model against a full facility model shows comparable predictive accuracy in less than one percent of the computer time. Results suggest that model parameters include capillary barrier performance, inter-canister spacing, rate of moisture withdrawal due to glass corrosion, contaminant inventory, and the well interceptor factor. It is also important that variations of waste form hydraulic parameters suggest that transport through the waste form is dominated by diffusion

  12. Identification of two distinct chromosome 12-derived amplification units in neuroblastoma cell line NGP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roy, N.; Forus, A.; Myklebost, O.; Cheng, N. C.; Versteeg, R.; Speleman, F.

    1995-01-01

    The neuroblastoma cell line NGP contains two homogeneously staining regions (hsr). One of these hsrs contains MYCN sequences. Reverse painting experiments demonstrated that the second HSR consisted of two chromosome 12-derived amplification units, located at 12q14-15 and 12q24. Southern blot and

  13. Role of volume-regulated and calcium-activated anion channels in cell volume homeostasis, cancer and drug resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Sauter, Daniel Rafael Peter

    2015-01-01

    to be an essential component of both VRAC and VSOAC. Reduced VRAC and VSOAC activities are seen in drug resistant cancer cells. ANO1 is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed on the plasma membrane of e.g. secretory epithelia. ANO1 is amplified and highly expressed in a large number of carcinomas. The gene...... functions as well as their role in cancer and drug resistance....

  14. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 2. Surry Power Plants, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 1 and 2 of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant was carried out for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1973 through 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The two primary methods used for temperature monitoring employ a fixed thermographs network and boat measurements. Review of data indicates that both the application and formulation of the hydrothermal monitoring program are inadequate to fully characterize the operation of the plant and the behavior of the thermal plume. Furthermore, there are no existing data that can be used to adequately verify or disprove the validity of the various Surry plume predictions. The ecological analysis includes validation of impacts predicted in the Final Environmental Statement using the operational monitoring data. Phytoplankton cell concentrations, chlorophyll a, and carbon-14 measurements were used to monitor changes in the primary producers. Densities of consumers (i.e., zooplankton, benthos, and fish) were sed to monitor changes in the primary producers. Models based on operating data were constructed to determine whether changes were occurring at each trophic level. Analysis of the monitoring data suggests that the thermal discharges at Surry are having a negative effect on the phytoplankton and zooplankton but are enhancing the benthic and nekton populations in the discharge area

  15. Possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S F; Hoffmann, E K

    2002-01-01

    effects on F-actin. The subsequent F-actin depolymerization, however, appeared MLCK- and PKC-dependent, and the initial swelling-induced F-actin depolymerization was MLCK-dependent; both effects were apparently secondary to kinase-mediated effects on cell volume changes. NHE1 in EATC is activated both....... Moreover, Rho kinase inhibition did not significantly affect NHE1 activation, neither by shrinkage nor by CL-A. Implications for the possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation are discussed....

  16. Survival of alpha particle irradiated cells as a function of the shape and size of the sensitive volume (nucleus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Roeske, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microdosimetry is the study of the stochastic variation of energy deposited within sub-cellular targets. As such, the size and shape of the critical target (i.e. cell nucleus) are essential when considering microdosimetric quantities. In this work, a microdosimetric analysis examines the expected cell survival as a function of the size and shape of the cell nucleus under conditions of irradiation emitting alpha particles. The results indicate that, in general, cell survival is relatively insensitive to changes in the shape of the cell nucleus when the volume is held constant. However, cell survival is a strong function of the variation in the size of the target. These results are useful when analysing the results of cell survival experiments for alpha particle emitters. (Author)

  17. Cell volumes of marine phytoplankton from globally distributed coastal data sets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harrison, P.J; Zingone, A.; Mickelson, M.J; Lehtinen, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Kraberg, A.C; Sun, J; McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Jakobsen, H.H.

    volumes are the single largest source of uncertainty in community phytoplankton carbon estimates and greatly exceeds the uncertainty associated with the different volume to carbon estimates. Small diatoms have 10 times more carbon density than large...

  18. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  19. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D 2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude

  20. Interconnection between the geometry and the structure of unit cells of substances in inorganic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, A.A.; Kuz'micheva, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Regularity of interconnection between the geometry and the structure of elementary cells of inorganic compounds is investigated. Structural motives on the basis of NaCl structure for all phases of rare earth chalcogenides are built. It is shown that compounds (phases of variable content), detected on 23 (out of 48 possible) state diagrams of rare earths chalcogen binary systems are closely bound both from the viewpoint of geometric dimensions of elementary cells and structural motives. It is shown that using ion representations the number of formula units in the cell of a new rare earth chalcogenide can be calculated and its structural motif can be built

  1. The effect of γ radiation on a change in the volume of Protozoa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowska, A.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of various doses of γ radiation on changes in the volume of Spirostomum ambiguum and on the time of return of the volume of this protozoan to the initial state. It was found that γ rays brought about a decrease in the volume of the animal, depending in a linear relation on the dose, while the return of the volume to the initial state is negatively correlated with the received dose. (author)

  2. Predictive value of PET response combined with baseline metabolic tumor volume in peripheral T-cell lymphoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottereau, Anne-Segolene; El-Galaly, Tarec C; Becker, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas with poor outcomes with current therapy. We investigated if response assessed with Positron Emission Tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) combined with baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) co...

  3. Modulation of the androgenetic response in diverse skin cell types: the pilosebaceous unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurvarra, F.; Kerner, N.; Hagelin, K.

    2009-01-01

    Androgens play a central role in diverse morphogenetic processes of the skin. Hair growth and follicular cycle are regulated in part by androgens. Androgens also play a key function, together with other receptors such as the PPARs receptors family, on the proliferation and differentiation of the sebaceous gland that forms part of the pilosebaceous unit and influences hair growth and skin well-being. UV radiation may affect androgens regulation of skin homeostasis. Objectives: to study the modulation of androgenetic response related to UV radiation on the pilosebaceous unit, in two skin conditions: androgenetic alopecia and acne, both affecting skin and constituting major concerns for affected individuals. Methods: primary cultures of cells and established cell lines from the pilosebaceous unit: dermal papillae cells, keratinocytes and sebocytes. Analysis of lipid content, inflammatory response and proliferation of cells under the influence of androgens, PPARs ligands and UVR. Results: sebocytes primary cultures were obtained from human sebaceous glands. Proliferation and differentiation, as well as the expression of proinflammatory molecules (IL-1, TNF alpha, iNOs) and lipogenic enzymes (FASN) under androgens and UV treatment were assessed. The response to androgens under UV exposure was also analyzed in dermal papillae cells in culture. (authors)

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction of statistically optimal unit cells of polydisperse particulate composites from microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Brandyberry, M.; Tudor, A.; Matous, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic approach for characterization and reconstruction of statistically optimal representative unit cells of polydisperse particulate composites. Microtomography is used to gather rich three-dimensional data of a packed glass bead system. First-, second-, and third-order probability functions are used to characterize the morphology of the material, and the parallel augmented simulated annealing algorithm is employed for reconstruction of the statistically equivalent medium. Both the fully resolved probability spectrum and the geometrically exact particle shapes are considered in this study, rendering the optimization problem multidimensional with a highly complex objective function. A ten-phase particulate composite composed of packed glass beads in a cylindrical specimen is investigated, and a unit cell is reconstructed on massively parallel computers. Further, rigorous error analysis of the statistical descriptors (probability functions) is presented and a detailed comparison between statistics of the voxel-derived pack and the representative cell is made.

  5. In vivo studies of the long-term 51Cr red cell survival of serologically incompatible red cell units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.L.; Ness, P.M.; Barrasso, C.; Kickler, T.S.; Drew, H.; Tsan, M.F.; Shirey, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term survival of serologically incompatible red cell units was measured in five patients with antibodies to high-frequency antigens. Initially, the survival of 1 ml of 51 Cr-labeled incompatible red cells was measured over 1 hour. After demonstrating that the 1-hour survival times were successful (greater than 70%), each patient then received 5 ml of the same 51 Cr-labeled red cells followed by the transfusion of the remainder of the red cell unit. The long-term T 1/2Cr survival for each case was patient 1 (anti-McCa), 15 days; patient 2 (anti-JMH), 12 days; patient 3 (anti-Kna), 31 days; patient 4 (anti-McCa), 12 days; and patient 5 (anti-Hya), 14 days. Each antibody tested in an in vitro homologous macrophage assay showed less than 5 percent phagocytosis. Anti-JMH was the only antibody to react with IgG subclass antisera and was determined to be IgG4. The macrophage assay, IgG subclass testing, and short-term (1 hour, 1 ml) 51 Cr survival studies all indicated that the short-term survival was good. However, only the measurement of long-term survival with transfused units of serologically incompatible red cells was able to determine the actual survival, and clinical significance of the alloantibodies. Determining the actual long-term survival by the method described here can be of importance for patients requiring chronic red cell transfusion

  6. Enrichment of circulating tumor cells from a large blood volume using leukapheresis and elutriation: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, Robert L; Lind, Judith; Falkenhagen, Dieter; Weber, Viktoria; Fischer, Michael B; Zeillinger, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of a sequential process using leukapheresis, elutriation, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to enrich and isolate circulating tumor cells from a large blood volume to allow further molecular analysis. Mononuclear cells were collected from 10 L of blood by leukapheresis, to which carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester prelabeled CaOV-3 tumor cells were spiked at a ratio of 26 to 10⁶ leukocytes. Elutriation separated the spiked leukapheresates primarily by cell size into distinct fractions, and leukocytes and tumor cells, characterized as carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester positive, EpCAM positive and CD45 negative events, were quantified by flow cytometry. Tumor cells were isolated from the last fraction using FACS or anti-EpCAM coupled immunomagnetic beads, and their recovery and purity determined by fluorescent microscopy and real-time PCR. Leukapheresis collected 13.5 x 10⁹ mononuclear cells with 87% efficiency. In total, 53 to 78% of spiked tumor cells were pre-enriched in the last elutriation fraction among 1.6 x 10⁹ monocytes. Flow cytometry predicted a circulating tumor cell purity of ~90% giving an enrichment of 100,000-fold following leukapheresis, elutriation, and FACS, where CaOV-3 cells were identified as EpCAM positive and CD45 negative events. FACS confirmed this purity. Alternatively, immunomagnetic bead adsorption recovered 10% of tumor cells with a median purity of 3.5%. This proof of concept study demonstrated that elutriation and FACS following leukapheresis are able to enrich and isolate tumor cells from a large blood volume for molecular characterization. Copyright © 2010 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  7. Fuel cell collaboration in the United States. Follow up report to the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Fuel cell technology continues to grow in the United States, with strong sales in stationary applications and early markets such as data centers, materials handling equipment, and telecommunications sites. New fuel cell customers include Fortune 500 companies Apple, eBay, Coca-Cola, and Walmart, who will use fuel cells to provide reliable power to data centers, stores, and facilities. Some are purchasing multi-megawatt (MW) systems, including three of the largest non-utility purchases of stationary fuel cells in the world by AT and T, Apple and eBay - 17 MW, 10 MW and 6 MW respectively. Others are replacing fleets of battery forklifts with fuel cells. Sysco, the food distributor, has more than 700 fuel cell-powered forklifts operating at seven facilities, with more on order. Mega-retailer Walmart now operates more than 500 fuel cell forklifts at three warehouses, including a freezer facility. Although federal government budget reduction efforts are impacting a wide range of departments and programs, fuel cell and hydrogen technology continues to be funded, albeit at a lower level than in past years. The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently funding fuel cell and hydrogen R and D and has nearly 300 ongoing projects at companies, national labs, and universities/institutes universities. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and DOE's Market Transformation efforts have acted as a government ''catalyst'' for market success of emerging technologies. Early market deployments of about 1,400 fuel cells under the ARRA have led to more than 5,000 additional fuel cell purchases by industry with no DOE funding. In addition, interest in Congress remains high. Senators Richard Blumenthal (D-CT), Chris Coons (D-DE), Lindsey Graham (R-SC) and John Hoeven (R-ND) re-launched the bipartisan Senate Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Caucus in August 2012 to promote the continued development and commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

  8. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupka, R.C.; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  9. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupka, Richard C.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  10. Erie Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. License application, preliminary safety analysis report, volume 1: chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Erie 1 and 2 reactors will be located on a site consisting of 1,740 acres in Berlin Township about 2.4 miles south of Lake Erie and 8.9 miles southeast of Sandusky, Ohio. Lake Erie will provide makeup water. The ultimate heat sink will be a 40 acre cooling reservoir shared by both units. Each unit has a proposed core thermal power level of 3,760 MW(t) and a nominal net capacity of about 1282 MW(e). Unit 1 is scheduled for commercial operation by 4/1/84 and Unit 2 by 4/1/86. Fuel will be Zircaloy-4 clad tubes containing cylindrical fuel pellets of UO 2 . B and W pressurized water reactor units to be employed are described in DOCKET-STN-50561

  11. Regulations in the United States for cell transplantation clinical trials in neurological diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhu; Yuanqing Tan; Qi Gu; Weifang Han; Zhongwen Li; Jason S Meyer; Baoyang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to use a systematic approach to evaluate the current utilization, safety, and effectiveness of cell therapies for neurological diseases in human. And review the present regulations, considering United States (US) as a representative country, for cell transplantation in neurological disease and discuss the challenges facing the field of neurology in the coming decades. Methods:A detailed search was performed in systematic literature reviews of cellular‐based therapies in neurological diseases, using PubMed, web of science, and clinical trials. Regulations of cell therapy products used for clinical trials were searched from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Results: Seven most common types of cell therapies for neurological diseases have been reported to be relatively safe with varying degrees of neurological recovery. And a series of regulations in US for cellular therapy was summarized including preclinical evaluations, sourcing material, stem cell manufacturing and characterization, cell therapy product, and clinical trials. Conclusions:Stem cell‐based therapy holds great promise for a cure of such diseases and will value a growing population of patients. However, regulatory permitting activity of the US in the sphere of stem cells, technologies of regenerative medicine and substitutive cell therapy are selective, theoretical and does not fit the existing norm and rules. Compiled well‐defined regulations to guide the application of stem cell products for clinical trials should be formulated.

  12. Water stress from high-volume hydraulic fracturing potentially threatens aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in Arkansas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James; Patterson, Lauren; Maloney, Kelly O.; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Wiseman, Hannah; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2018-01-01

    Demand for high-volume, short duration water withdrawals could create water stress to aquatic organisms in Fayetteville Shale streams sourced for hydraulic fracturing fluids. We estimated potential water stress using permitted water withdrawal volumes and actual water withdrawals compared to monthly median, low, and high streamflows. Risk for biological stress was considered at 20% of long-term median and 10% of high- and low-flow thresholds. Future well build-out projections estimated potential for continued stress. Most water was permitted from small, free-flowing streams and “frack” ponds (dammed streams). Permitted 12-h pumping volumes exceeded median streamflow at 50% of withdrawal sites in June, when flows were low. Daily water usage, from operator disclosures, compared to median streamflow showed possible water stress in 7–51% of catchments from June–November, respectively. If 100% of produced water was recycled, per-well water use declined by 25%, reducing threshold exceedance by 10%. Future water stress was predicted to occur in fewer catchments important for drinking water and species of conservation concern due to the decline in new well installations and increased use of recycled water. Accessible and precise withdrawal and streamflow data are critical moving forward to assess and mitigate water stress in streams that experience high-volume withdrawals.

  13. Water Stress from High-Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Potentially Threatens Aquatic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Arkansas, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James; Patterson, Lauren; Maloney, Kelly; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Konschnik, Katherine; Wiseman, Hannah; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Ryan, Joseph N

    2018-02-20

    Demand for high-volume, short duration water withdrawals could create water stress to aquatic organisms in Fayetteville Shale streams sourced for hydraulic fracturing fluids. We estimated potential water stress using permitted water withdrawal volumes and actual water withdrawals compared to monthly median, low, and high streamflows. Risk for biological stress was considered at 20% of long-term median and 10% of high- and low-flow thresholds. Future well build-out projections estimated potential for continued stress. Most water was permitted from small, free-flowing streams and "frack" ponds (dammed streams). Permitted 12-h pumping volumes exceeded median streamflow at 50% of withdrawal sites in June, when flows were low. Daily water usage, from operator disclosures, compared to median streamflow showed possible water stress in 7-51% of catchments from June-November, respectively. If 100% of produced water was recycled, per-well water use declined by 25%, reducing threshold exceedance by 10%. Future water stress was predicted to occur in fewer catchments important for drinking water and species of conservation concern due to the decline in new well installations and increased use of recycled water. Accessible and precise withdrawal and streamflow data are critical moving forward to assess and mitigate water stress in streams that experience high-volume withdrawals.

  14. Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; A Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the reduced volume prototype (RVP) spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware. Like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and a more flight-like backpressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  15. Mathematical modelling in volume per hectare of Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea Barret y Golfari at the «Jazmines» silvicultural unit, Viñales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Teresa Suárez Sarria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling constitutes a very useful tool for the planning and administration of the forest ecosystems. With the objective of predicting the behavior of volume by hectare of Pinus caribaea Moreletvar. caribaea. Barret y Golfari plantations at the «Jazmines» Silvicultural Unit, Viñales, seven non-lineal regression models were evaluated. The best goodness of fit model was the volume per hectare was the one designed by Hossfeld I, with a determining coefficient of 63, 9 % with a high significance parameter (P <0.001. The description curves for the annual mean increment with the time (IMA and the annual periodical increment (ICA of this variables were provided.

  16. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly

  17. Computer programs for unit-cell determination in electron diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Z.

    2005-01-01

    A set of computer programs for unit-cell determination from an electron diffraction tilt series and pattern indexing has been developed on the basis of several well-established algorithms. In this approach, a reduced direct primitive cell is first determined from experimental data, in the means time, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. The derived primitive cell is then checked for possible higher lattice symmetry and transformed into a proper conventional cell. Finally a least-squares refinement procedure is adopted to generate optimum lattice parameters on the basis of the lengths of basic reflections in each diffraction pattern and the indices of these reflections. Examples are given to show the usage of the programs

  18. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  19. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  20. Joint Peru/United States report on Peru/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 1. Executive summary, main report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In 1978, the US and Peru conducted a comprehensive assessment of Peru's energy resources, needs, and uses and developed several alternative energy strategies that utilize the available resources to meet their energy requirements. This Volume I reports the findings of the assessment and contains the executive summary, the main report, and five appendices of information that support the integrated energy supply and demand analysis. The following chapters are included: The Energy Situation in Peru (economic context and background, energy resources and production, energy consumption patterns); Reference Supply and Demand Projection (approach, procedures, and assumptions; economic projections; energy demand and supply projections; supply/demand integration; uncertainties); and The Development of Strategies and Options (the analysis of options; strategies; increased use of renewables, hydropower, coal; increased energy efficiency; and financial analysis of strategies).

  1. An initial abstraction and constant loss model, and methods for estimating unit hydrographs, peak streamflows, and flood volumes for urban basins in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow data, basin characteristics, and rainfall data from 39 streamflow-gaging stations for urban areas in and adjacent to Missouri were used by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Metropolitan Sewer District of St. Louis to develop an initial abstraction and constant loss model (a time-distributed basin-loss model) and a gamma unit hydrograph (GUH) for urban areas in Missouri. Study-specific methods to determine peak streamflow and flood volume for a given rainfall event also were developed.

  2. Magnetoresistance oscillations of two-dimensional electron systems in lateral superlattices with structured unit cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardts, Rolf R.

    2015-11-01

    Model calculations for commensurability oscillations of the low-field magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in lateral superlattices, consisting of unit cells with an internal structure, are compared with recent experiments. The relevant harmonics of the effective modulation potential depend not only on the geometrical structure of the modulated unit cell, but also strongly on the nature of the modulation. While higher harmonics of an electrostatically generated surface modulation are exponentially damped at the position of the 2DES about 90 nm below the surface, no such damping appears for strain-induced modulation generated, e.g., by the deposition of stripes of calixarene resist on the surface before cooling down the sample.

  3. P32INCREASED PERCENTAGE RESECTION OF TUMOUR VOLUME USING NEURONAVIGATIONAL 3D INTRAOPERATIVE ULTRASOUND: A SINGLE UNIT EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Vaqas, B.; O'Neill, K.; Awad, M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The use of intraoperative 3D navigational ultrasound (Sonowand) offers a relatively inexpensive method of obtaining imaging of intrinsic brain tumours during resection which takes in account brain shift during surgery and also allows better visualisation of the tumour margin to help control resection. We designed a study to measure the volume of tumour resection in 25 consecutive Sonowand cases compared to 25 matched non-ultrasound guided controls. METHOD: A retrospective consec...

  4. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume II. Accident model document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    Purposes of this volume (AMD), are to: Identify all malfunctions, both singular and multiple, which can occur during the complete mission profile that could lead to release outside the clad of the radioisotopic material contained therein; provide estimates of occurrence probabilities associated with these various accidents; evaluate the response of the LWRHU (or its components) to the resultant accident environments; and associate the potential event history with test data or analysis to determine the potential interaction of the released radionuclides with the biosphere

  5. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... volume, nuclear Vv, and nuclear volume fraction, Vv(nuc/tis), along with morphometrical 2-dimensional estimation of nuclear density index, NI, and mitotic activity index, MI, were investigated and compared with the current morphological, multifactorial grading system. The reproducibility among two...... observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively...

  6. Blood cell labeling with technetium-99m. II. Measurement of circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T; Yoshida, H; Matsuda, S; Kimura, H; Miura, N [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1978-02-01

    Using a labeling method with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate to red blood cells (RBC), circulating blood volume was measured in comparison with that from /sup 51/Cr-labeled RBC method. The technique is easier than already published methods, because CIS kit for sup(99m)Tc-RBC labeling (TCK-11) became to be available recently. Two mls of ACD-anticoagulated blood were withdrawn and 0.5 ml of reducing reagent prepared just before use was added to blood, waiting 5 minutes and discarding the serum after centrifugation, then adding 100 ..mu..Ci of sup(99m)Tc. After washing the labeled cells by isotonic saline, cells were re-suspended in 10 ml of saline and injected to the subject. Blood specimen was obtained 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after infusion and blood volume was calculated by the usual way. Circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc was well correlated with that by /sup 51/Cr (=0.98, p 0.01), however, the value calculated from sup(99m)Tc were 4.8 percent higher than those by /sup 51/Cr, which suggested the elution of sup(99m)Tc from labeled RBC. sup(99m)Tc method has the advantages that higher radioactivity can be obtained in small amount of blood, which is useful in the determination of blood volume in children or in small animals in the laboratory. The measurement of blood volume of the mouse was done by using sup(99m)Tc method. The results were 1.70 +- 0.06 ml (6.35 +- 0.18%/gm), which coincided with the values reported previously. Because of it's short half life and low radiation dosage to the patients, sup(99m)Tc method will be recommended in the field of pediatrics or in patients with polycythemia or congestive heart failure, who are requested the repeated measurement of blood volume.

  7. Detection of atomic scale changes in the free volume void size of three-dimensional colorectal cancer cell culture using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axpe, Eneko; Lopez-Euba, Tamara; Castellanos-Rubio, Ainara; Merida, David; Garcia, Jose Angel; Plaza-Izurieta, Leticia; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Plazaola, Fernando; Bilbao, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) provides a direct measurement of the free volume void sizes in polymers and biological systems. This free volume is critical in explaining and understanding physical and mechanical properties of polymers. Moreover, PALS has been recently proposed as a potential tool in detecting cancer at early stages, probing the differences in the subnanometer scale free volume voids between cancerous/healthy skin samples of the same patient. Despite several investigations on free volume in complex cancerous tissues, no positron annihilation studies of living cancer cell cultures have been reported. We demonstrate that PALS can be applied to the study in human living 3D cell cultures. The technique is also capable to detect atomic scale changes in the size of the free volume voids due to the biological responses to TGF-β. PALS may be developed to characterize the effect of different culture conditions in the free volume voids of cells grown in vitro.

  8. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, D; Stefanovski, D; Salber, R; Sweeney, R W

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids after whole blood transfusion. Fifty-eight small ruminants and 22 alpacas that received whole blood transfusions for anemia. Retrospective case series; medical record review for small ruminants and camelids that received whole blood transfusions during hospitalization. Mean volume of distribution of blood as a fraction of body weight in sheep (0.075 L/kg, 7.5% BW) and goats (0.076 L/kg, 7.6% BW) differed significantly (P blood volume (volume of distribution of blood) is adequate for calculation of transfusion volumes; however, use of the species-specific circulating blood volume can improve calculation of transfusion volume to predict and achieve desired packed cell volume. The incidence of transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids is low. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Utilization of transmission probabilities in the calculation of unit-cell by the interface-current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz Bogado Leite, S. de.

    1989-10-01

    A widely used but otherwise physically incorrect assumption in unit-cell calculations by the method of interface currents in cylindrical or spherical geometries, is that of that of isotropic fluxes at the surfaces of the cell annular regions, when computing transmission probabilities. In this work, new interface-current relations are developed without making use of this assumption and the effects on calculated integral parameters are shown for an idealized unit-cell example. (author) [pt

  10. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhuan Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3 with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric constant are also measured under different sintering temperatures. The dielectric spectra showed a slight permittivity decrease with the increase of temperature and exhibited a loss of 0.0005, combined with a higher microwave dielectric constant of ~167 and quality factor Q of 2049. Therefore, CaTiO3 is a kind of versatile and potential metamaterial unit cell. The permittivity of CaTiO3 at higher microwave frequency was also examined in the rectangular waveguide and we got the permittivity of 165, creating a new method to test permittivity at higher microwave frequency.

  11. Effect of Radiotherapy Dose and Volume on Relapse in Merkel Cell Cancer of the Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, Matthew; Harvey, Jennifer; Porceddu, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of radiotherapy (RT) dose and volume on relapse patterns in patients with Stage I-III Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 112 patients diagnosed with MCC between January 2000 and December 2005 and treated with curative-intent RT. Results: Of the 112 evaluable patients, 88% had RT to the site of primary disease for gross (11%) or subclinical (78%) disease. Eighty-nine percent of patients had RT to the regional lymph nodes; in most cases (71%) this was for subclinical disease in the adjuvant or elective setting, whereas 21 patients (19%) were treated with RT to gross nodal disease. With a median follow-up of 3.7 years, the 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 72% and 53%, respectively, and the 2-year locoregional control rate was 75%. The in-field relapse rate was 3% for primary disease, and relapse was significantly lower for patients receiving ≥50Gy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.86). Surgical margins did not affect the local relapse rate. The in-field relapse rate was 11% for RT to the nodes, with dose being significant for nodal gross disease (HR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.87). Patients who did not receive elective nodal RT had a much higher rate of nodal relapse compared with those who did (HR = 6.03; 95% CI, 1.34-27.10). Conclusion: This study indicates a dose-response for subclinical and gross MCC. Doses of ≥50Gy for subclinical disease and ≥55Gy for gross disease should be considered. The draining nodal basin should be treated in all patients.

  12. Comparison of elastic properties of open-cell metallic biomaterials with different unit cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedayati, R.; Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Hosseini-Toudeshky, H

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques have made it possible to create open-cell porous structures with arbitrary micro-geometrical characteristics. Since a wide range of micro-geometrical features is available for making an implant, having a comprehensive knowledge of the mechanical response of

  13. Inulin isoforms differ by repeated additions of one crystal unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter D.; Barclay, Thomas G.; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Gerson, Andrea R.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    Inulin isoforms, especially delta inulin, are important biologically as immune activators and clinically as vaccine adjuvants. In exploring action mechanisms, we previously found regular increments in thermal properties of the seven-member inulin isoform series that suggested regular additions of some energetic structural unit. Because the previous isolates carried additional longer chains that masked defining ranges, these were contrasted with new isoform isolates comprising only inulin chain lengths defining that isoform. The new series began with 19 fructose units per chain (alpha-1 inulin), increasing regularly by 6 fructose units per isoform. Thus the ‘energetic unit’ equates to 6 fructose residues per chain. All isoforms showed indistinguishable X-ray diffraction patterns that were also identical with known inulin crystals. We conclude that an ‘energetic unit’ equates to one helix turn of 6 fructose units per chain as found in one unit cell of the inulin crystal. Each isoform chain comprised progressively more helix turns plus one additional fructose and glucose residues per chain. PMID:24528745

  14. Stereo photo series for quantifying natural fuels. Volume XII: Post-hurricane fuels in forests of the Southeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Vihnanek; Cameron S. Balog; Clinton S. Wright; Roger D. Ottmar; Jeffrey W. Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Two series of single and stereo photographs display a range of natural conditions and fuel loadings in post-hurricane forests in the southeastern United States. Each group of photos includes inventory information summarizing vegetation composition, structure and loading, woody material loading and density by size class, forest floor loading, and various site...

  15. Farmers' objectives toward their woodlands in the upper Midwest of the United States: implications for woodland volumes and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Earl C. Leatherberry; Mark H. Hansen; Brett J. Butler

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study that explores the relationship between farm woodland owners' stated intentions for owning woodland, and the structure and composition of these woodlands in the states of Illinois, Indiana and Iowa in the upper Midwest of the United States. Data from two sample-based inventories conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest...

  16. Variations of target volume definition and daily target volume localization in stereotactic body radiotherapy for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer patients under abdominal compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chunhui, E-mail: chan@coh.org; Sampath, Sagus; Schultheisss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare gross tumor volumes (GTV) in 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) simulation and daily cone beam CT (CBCT) with the internal target volume (ITV) in 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) simulation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) under abdominal compression. We retrospectively selected 10 patients with NSCLC who received image-guided SBRT treatments under abdominal compression with daily CBCT imaging. GTVs were contoured as visible gross tumor on the planning 3DCT and daily CBCT, and ITVs were contoured using maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of the planning 4DCT. Daily CBCTs were registered with 3DCT and MIP images by matching of bony landmarks in the thoracic region to evaluate interfractional GTV position variations. Relative to MIP-based ITVs, the average 3DCT-based GTV volume was 66.3 ± 17.1% (range: 37.5% to 92.0%) (p < 0.01 in paired t-test), and the average CBCT-based GTV volume was 90.0 ± 6.7% (daily range: 75.7% to 107.1%) (p = 0.02). Based on bony anatomy matching, the center-of-mass coordinates for CBCT-based GTVs had maximum absolute shift of 2.4 mm (left-right), 7.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), and 5.2 mm (superior-inferior [SI]) relative to the MIP-based ITV. CBCT-based GTVs had average overlapping ratio of 81.3 ± 11.2% (range: 45.1% to 98.9%) with the MIP-based ITV, and 57.7 ± 13.7% (range: 35.1% to 83.2%) with the 3DCT-based GTV. Even with abdominal compression, both 3DCT simulations and daily CBCT scans significantly underestimated the full range of tumor motion. In daily image-guided patient setup corrections, automatic bony anatomy-based image registration could lead to target misalignment. Soft tissue-based image registration should be performed for accurate treatment delivery.

  17. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006–2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Luethy, D.; Stefanovski, D.; Salber, R.; Sweeney, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. Objective To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion...

  18. Blood, blood compounds and cell cultures irradiation in clinical radiotherapy equipment: studies on ideal volume and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco Antonio R.; Pereira, Adelino Jose; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo R.S.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present the technic and equipment used by the Physical Radiologic Service of Radiation Therapy Department of A.C. Camargo Hospital to irradiate blood and blood compounds. The practical routine is illustrated. The results from others Institutions are presented, discussing about the homogeneity of dose of 2000 to 3500 c Gy to all target volume, sufficient to neutralize cells responsible by graft-versus-host disease from blood transfusions. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. CaK2(AsO3OH)(H2O)2 cell length a | forthcoming | boms | Volumes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; boms; forthcoming; CaK2(AsO3OH)(H2O)2 cell length a. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th ...

  20. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  1. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

    2012-03-12

    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  2. Study of the Capability of the United States Textile and Apparel Industries to Support National Defense. Volume 2. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-30

    22541-El Men’s Briefs 241,740 " 22541-7i Boys’ Briefs 101,640 23412-13 Women’s, Misses, and Juniors Panties 434,484 785,280 Units 8 Underwear-Woven...and Boys’ Light Outerwear 26,988 23397 pt 22533 pt Women’s Outerwear 42,900 23850 men’s and Boys’ Raincoats 44,472 23850 Women’s and Girls Rainwear

  3. Compact Design of 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Systems with Microcontroller Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiaokang Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fuel, oxidant supply and cooling systems with microcontroller units (MCU are developed in a compact design to fit two 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stacks. At the initial stage, the testing facility of the system has a large volume (2.0 m × 2.0 m × 1.5 m with a longer pipeline and excessive control sensors for safe testing. After recognizing the performance and stability of stack, the system is redesigned to fit in a limited space (0.4 m × 0.5 m × 0.8 m. Furthermore, the stack performance is studied under different hydrogen recycling modes. Then, two similar 5 kW stacks are directly coupled with diodes to obtain a higher power output and safe operation. The result shows that the efficiency of the 5 kW stack is 43.46% with a purge period of 2 min with hydrogen recycling and that the hydrogen utilization rate µf is 66.31%. In addition, the maximum power output of the twin-coupled module (a power module with two stacks in electrical cascade/parallel arrangement is 9.52 kW.

  4. Fatigue behaviour of NiTi shape memory alloy scaffolds produced by SLM, a unit cell design comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, M; Van Hooreweder, B; Van Humbeeck, J; Kruth, J-P

    2017-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique able to produce complex functional parts via successively melting layers of metal powder. This process grants the freedom to design highly complex scaffold components to allow bone ingrowth and aid mechanical anchorage. This paper investigates the compression fatigue behaviour of three different unit cells (octahedron, cellular gyroid and sheet gyroid) of SLM nitinol scaffolds. It was found that triply periodic minimal surfaces display superior static mechanical properties in comparison to conventional octahedron beam lattice structures at identical volume fractions. Fatigue resistance was also found to be highly geometry dependent due to the effects of AM processing techniques on the surface topography and notch sensitivity. Geometries minimising nodal points and the staircase effect displayed the greatest fatigue resistance when normalized to yield strength. Furthermore oxygen analysis showed a large oxygen uptake during SLM processing which must be altered to meet ASTM medical grade standards and may significantly reduce fatigue life. These achieved fatigue properties indicate that NiTi scaffolds produced via SLM can provide sufficient mechanical support over an implants lifetime within stress range values experienced in real life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Complications as indicators of quality assurance after 401 consecutive colorectal cancer resections: the importance of surgeon volume in developing colorectal cancer units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Guruprasad S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low incidence of colorectal cancer in India, coupled with absence of specialized units, contribute to lack of relevant data arising from the subcontinent. We evaluated the data of the senior author to better define the requirements that would enable development of specialized units in a country where colorectal cancer burden is increasing. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data of 401 consecutive colorectal resections from a prospective database of the senior author. In addition to patient demographics and types of resections, perioperative data like intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, complications, re-operation rates and hospital stay were recorded and analyzed. Results The median age was 52 years (10-86 years. 279 were males and 122 were females. The average duration of surgery was 220.32 minutes (range 50 - 480 min. The overall complication rate was 12.2% (49/401 with a 1.2% (5/401 mortality rate. The patients having complications had an increase in their median hospital stay (from 10.5 days to 23.4 days and the re-operation rate in them was 51%. The major complications were anastomotic leaks (2.5% and stoma related complications (2.7%. Conclusions This largest ever series from India compares favorably with global standards. In a nation where colorectal cancer is on the rise, it is imperative that high volume centers develop specialized units to train future specialist colorectal surgeons. This would ensure improved quality assurance and delivery of health care even to outreach, low volume centers.

  6. Trends of Heller myotomy hospitalizations for achalasia in the United States, 1993-2005: effect of surgery volume on perioperative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Richard; Dempsey, Daniel T; Friedenberg, Frank K; Richter, Joel E

    2008-10-01

    Achalasia is a rare chronic disorder of esophageal motor function. Single-center reports suggest that there has been greater use of laparoscopic Heller myotomy for achalasia in the United States since its introduction in 1992. We aimed to study the trends of Heller myotomy and the relationship between surgery volume and perioperative outcomes. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) is a 20% stratified sample of all hospitalizations in the United States. It was used to study the macro-trends of Heller myotomy hospitalizations during 1993-2005. We also used the NIS 2003-2005 micro-data to study the perioperative outcomes of Heller myotomy hospitalizations, using other achalasia and laparoscopic cholecystectomy hospitalizations as control groups. The generalized linear model with repeated observations from the same unit was used to adjust for multiple hospitalizations from the same hospital. The national estimate of Heller myotomy hospitalizations increased from 728 to 2,255 during 1993-2005, while its mean length of stay decreased from 9.9 to 4.3 days. Of the 1,117 Heller myotomy hospitalizations in the NIS 2003-2005, 10 (0.9%) had the diagnosis of esophageal perforation at discharge. Length of stay was negatively correlated with a hospital's number of Heller myotomy per year (correlation coefficient -0.171, P Heller myotomy per year was negatively associated with length of stay (coefficient -0.215 to -0.119, both P Heller myotomy for achalasia was associated with greater use of surgery and shorter length of stay. A larger volume of Heller myotomy in a hospital was associated with better perioperative outcomes in terms of shorter length of stay and lower total charges.

  7. Do time of birth, unit volume, and staff seniority affect neonatal outcome in deliveries at ≥34+0 weeks of gestation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, P; Pichler, G; Griesbacher, A; Lehner, G; Schöll, W; Lang, U; Hofmann, H; Ulrich, D

    2018-06-01

    We investigated whether time of birth, unit volume, and staff seniority affect neonatal outcome in neonates born at ≥34 +0 weeks of gestation. Population-based prospective cohort study. Ten public hospitals in the Austrian province of Styria. A total of 87 065 neonates delivered in the period 2004-2015. Based on short-term outcome data, generalised linear mixed models were used to calculate the risk for adverse and severely adverse neonatal outcomes according to time of birth, unit volume, and staff seniority. Neonatal composite adverse and severely adverse outcome measures. The odds ratio for severely adverse events during the night-time (22:01-07:29 hours) compared with the daytime (07:30-15:00 hours) was 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.13-1.61). There were no significant differences in neonatal outcome comparing weekdays and weekends, and comparing office hours and shifts. Units with 500-1000 deliveries per year had the lowest risk for adverse events. Adverse and severely adverse neonatal outcomes were least common for midwife-guided deliveries, and became more frequent with the level of experience of the doctors attending the delivery. With increasing pregnancy risks, senior staff attending delivery and delivering in a tertiary centre reduce the odds ratio for adverse events. Different times of delivery were associated with increased adverse neonatal outcomes. The management of uncomplicated deliveries by less experienced staff showed no negative impact on perinatal outcome. In contrast, riskier pregnancies delivered by senior staff in a tertiary centre favour a better outcome. Achieving a better balance in the total number of labour ward staff during the day and the night appears to be a greater priority than increasing the continuous presence of senior obstetrical staff on the labour ward during the out-of-hours period. Deliveries during night time lead to a greater number of neonates experiencing severely adverse events. © 2017 Royal College of

  8. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Express determination of the volume 222Rn activity using the Lucas Type scintillation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, M.; Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report deals with the possibility of the accurate determination of the volume radon activity using the Lucas type scintillation chamber before the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its decay products is achieved. This method allows to obtain data about the volume activity of the sample promptly and also it offers a possibility to apply the detector for measurements more times a day. We developed a method for the determination of the detection efficiency of the scintillation chamber for varied time periods after the chamber was filled up with a sample. The volume radon activity calculated from the count rates in saturated conditions is in a good agreement with the volume radon activity calculated from our derived relation. It was shown that the scintillation chamber can be used for the express determination of the volume radon activity. The time between the individual applications of the scintillation chamber can be compressed maintaining of sufficient accuracy of the determination of the volume radon activity. (authors)

  10. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Data Summary Tables, United States: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across states. Hawaii is missing from all tables since no sampling was done in that state. The following section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. The third section contains the summary tables organized by sample type (water and sediment) and displaying elements within states and states within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  11. Mechanical properties of regular porous biomaterials made from truncated cube repeating unit cells: Analytical solutions and computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled fabrication of open-cell porous biomaterials based on repeating unit cells. The micro-architecture of the porous biomaterials and, thus, their physical properties could then be precisely controlled. Due to their many favorable properties, porous biomaterials manufactured using AM are considered as promising candidates for bone substitution as well as for several other applications in orthopedic surgery. The mechanical properties of such porous structures including static and fatigue properties are shown to be strongly dependent on the type of the repeating unit cell based on which the porous biomaterial is built. In this paper, we study the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials made from a relatively new unit cell, namely truncated cube. We present analytical solutions that relate the dimensions of the repeating unit cell to the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, and buckling load of those porous structures. We also performed finite element modeling to predict the mechanical properties of the porous structures. The analytical solution and computational results were found to be in agreement with each other. The mechanical properties estimated using both the analytical and computational techniques were somewhat higher than the experimental data reported in one of our recent studies on selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V porous biomaterials. In addition to porosity, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the porous structures were found to be strongly dependent on the ratio of the length of the inclined struts to that of the uninclined (i.e. vertical or horizontal) struts, α, in the truncated cube unit cell. The geometry of the truncated cube unit cell approaches the octahedral and cube unit cells when α respectively approaches zero and infinity. Consistent with those geometrical observations, the analytical solutions presented in this study approached those of the octahedral and cube unit cells when

  12. Characterization of Distinct Astrocytic Populations Responding with Different Volume Changes to Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation: 3d Confocal Morphometry And Single-Cell Gene Expression Profilig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešová, Jana; Rusňáková, Vendula; Honsa, Pavel; Pivoňková, Helena; Kubista, Mikael; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2011), S126-S126 ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glia l Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-13.09.2011, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : cell volume regulation * single-cell PCR profiling * ischemia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  13. Ammonia concentration and bacterial evaluation of feline whole blood and packed red blood cell units stored for transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Spada

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia concentrations increase in human, canine and equine WB and PRBC units during storage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage on ammonia concentration in feline WB and PRBC units stored in a veterinary blood bank and to evaluate possible correlations with bacterial contamination. Ammonia concentration was evaluated in 15 WB units and 2 PRBC units on day 1 and at the end of storage after 35 and 42 days, respectively. In an additional 5 WB units and 4 PRBC units ammonia concentrations were determined daily until the day the normal reference range was exceeded and then weekly to the end of storage. All units were evaluated for bacterial contamination. Ammonia increased markedly during storage as a linear function over time. On the 35th and 42th day of storage at 4±2°C mean±SD ammonia concentration reached 909±158 µg/dl and 1058±212 µg/dl in WB and PRBC units, respectively. Bacterial culture was negative in all units. High ammonia concentrations in stored WB and PRBC units could result in toxicity, particularly in feline recipients with liver failure, portosystemic shunts or those receiving large transfusion volumes. Clinical in vivo studies evaluating the effects on recipients should be performed.

  14. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 3. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.; Witten, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Nuclear Power Plant was conducted for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1967 through 1976. Specific recommendations are made for improving both the present hydrothermal and ecological monitoring programs. Hydrothermal monitoring would be improved by more complete reporting of in-plant operating parameters. In addition, the present boat surveys could be discontinued, and monitoring efforts could be directed toward expanding the present thermograph network. Ecological monitoring programs were judged to be of high quality because standardized collection techniques, consistent reporting formats, and statistical analyses were performed on all of the data and were presented in an annual report. Sampling for all trophic groups was adequate for the purposes of assessing power plant induced perturbations. Considering the extensive period of preoperational data (six years) and operational data (three years) available for analysis, consideration could be given to reducing monitoring effort after data have been collected for a period when both units are operating at full capacity. In this way, an assessment of the potential ecological impact of the Peach Bottom facility can be made under conditions of maximum plant induced perturbations

  15. Radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: volume definition and patient selection. Annecy 1998 international Association for the study of lung cancer (IASLC) Workshop recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mornex, F.; Loubeyre, P.; Van houtte, P.; Scalliet, P.

    1998-01-01

    Chemo-radiation is the standard treatment of unresectable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, with a mean dose of 60-66 Gy, excluding escalation dose schemes. The standard treated volume includes primary tumor, ipsilateral hilar and mediastinal nodes, supraclavicular and contralateral nodes as well, regardless of the node status. This work tries to answer the question of the optimal volume to be treated. Drainage routes analysis is in favor of large volumes, while toxicity analysis favors small volumes. Combined modality treatment may increase the observed toxicity. The optimal volume definition is difficult, and requires available conformal therapy tools. Patients selection is another important issue. A volume definition is then attempted, based on the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) Annecy workshop experience, highlighting the inter-observers discrepancies, and suggests basic recommendations to harmonize volume definition. (author)

  16. Theoretical Analysis of Moving Reference Planes Associated with Unit Cells of Nonreciprocal Lossy Periodic Transmission-Line Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lamultree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of moving reference planes associated with unit cells of nonreciprocal lossy periodic transmission-line structures (NRLSPTLSs by the equivalent bi-characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL model. Applying the BCITL theory, only the equivalent BCITL parameters (characteristic impedances for waves propagating in forward and reverse directions and associated complex propagation constants are of interest. An infinite NRLSPTLS is considered first by shifting a reference position of unit cells along TLs of interest. Then, a semi-infinite terminated NRLSPTLS is investigated in terms of associated load reflection coefficients. It is found that the equivalent BCITL characteristic impedances of the original and shifted unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. In addition, the associated load reflection coefficients of both unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. However, the equivalent BCITL complex propagation constants remain unchanged. Numerical results are provided to show the validity of the proposed theoretical analysis.

  17. Failure mechanisms of additively manufactured porous biomaterials: Effects of porosity and type of unit cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhodapour, J; Montazerian, H; Darabi, A Ch; Anaraki, A P; Ahmadi, S M; Zadpoor, A A; Schmauder, S

    2015-10-01

    Since the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, regular porous biomaterials have emerged as promising candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds owing to their controllable pore architecture and feasibility in producing scaffolds from a variety of biomaterials. The architecture of scaffolds could be designed to achieve similar mechanical properties as in the host bone tissue, thereby avoiding issues such as stress shielding in bone replacement procedure. In this paper, the deformation and failure mechanisms of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) biomaterials manufactured by selective laser melting from two different types of repeating unit cells, namely cubic and diamond lattice structures, with four different porosities are studied. The mechanical behavior of the above-mentioned porous biomaterials was studied using finite element models. The computational results were compared with the experimental findings from a previous study of ours. The Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage model was implemented in the finite element models to simulate the failure of the additively manufactured scaffolds under compression. The computationally predicted stress-strain curves were compared with the experimental ones. The computational models incorporating the Johnson-Cook damage model could predict the plateau stress and maximum stress at the first peak with less than 18% error. Moreover, the computationally predicted deformation modes were in good agreement with the results of scaling law analysis. A layer-by-layer failure mechanism was found for the stretch-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the cubic unit cell, while the failure of the bending-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the diamond unit cells, was accompanied by the shearing bands of 45°. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form

  19. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-20

    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  20. Effects of a Birth Hospital's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Level and Annual Volume of Very Low-Birth-Weight Infant Deliveries on Morbidity and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erik A; Lorch, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    The annual volume of deliveries of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants has a greater effect on mortality risk than does neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) level. The differential effect of these hospital factors on morbidity among VLBW infants is uncertain. To assess the independent effects of a birth hospital's annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries and NICU level on the risk of several neonatal morbidities and morbidity-mortality composite outcomes that are predictive of future neurocognitive development. Retrospective, population-based cohort study (performed in 2014) of all VLBW infants without severe congenital anomalies delivered in all hospitals in California, Missouri, and Pennsylvania between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2009 (N = 72,431). Risk-adjusted odds ratios and risk-adjusted probabilities were determined by logistic regression. The primary study outcomes were the individual composites of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Among the 72,431 VLBW infants in the present study, birth at a hospital with 10 or less deliveries of VLBW infants per year was associated with the highest risk-adjusted probability of death (15.3% [95% CI, 14.4%-16.3%]), death or severe intraventricular hemorrhage (17.5% [95% CI, 16.5%-18.6%]), and death or necrotizing enterocolitis (19.3% [95% CI, 18.1%-20.4%]). These complications were also more common among infants born at hospitals with a level I or II NICU compared with infants delivered at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU. The risk-adjusted probability of death or retinopathy of prematurity was highest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU and lowest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIA NICU. When the effects of NICU level and annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries were evaluated simultaneously, the annual volume of deliveries was the stronger contributor to the risk of death, death or

  1. Fuel cell collaboration in the United States. A report to the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide members of the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells with information regarding collaborative opportunities in the United States. The report is designed to provide an overview of key issues and activities and to provide guidance on strategies for finding U.S. research and commercial partners and gaining access to the U.S. market. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the key drivers of policy at the federal and state government levels regarding hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and provides a perspective of the U.S. industry and key players. It also suggests three general pathways for accessing U.S. opportunities: enhancing visibility; developing vendor relationships; and establishing a formal presence in the U.S. The next sections summarize focus areas for commercial and research activity that currently are of the greatest interest in the U.S. Section 2 describes major programs within the federal government and national laboratories, and discusses various methods for identifying R and D funding opportunities, with an overview of federal acquisition regulations. Section 3 reviews the efforts of several state governments engaging the fuel cell industry as an economic driver and presents an overview of acquisition at the state level. Section 4 discusses university research and development (R and D) and university-industry partnerships. There are 12 appendices attached to the report. These appendices provide more detailed information regarding the key federal government agencies involved in fuel cells and hydrogen, state-specific policies and activities, national laboratories and universities, and other information regarding the fuel cell and hydrogen industry in the U.S. (Author)

  2. Brownian Dynamics of a Suspension of Particles with Constrained Voronoi Cell Volumes

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, John P.; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; Koch, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Solvent-free polymer-grafted nanoparticle fluids consist of inorganic core particles fluidized by polymers tethered to their surfaces. The attachment of the suspending fluid to the particle surface creates a strong penalty for local variations in the fluid volume surrounding the particles. As a model of such a suspension we perform Brownian dynamics of an equilibrium system consisting of hard spheres which experience a many-particle potential proportional to the variance of the Voronoi volumes surrounding each particle (E = α(Vi-V0)2). The coefficient of proportionality α can be varied such that pure hard sphere dynamics is recovered as α → 0, while an incompressible array of hairy particles is obtained as α →. As α is increased the distribution of Voronoi volumes becomes narrower, the mean coordination number of the particle increases and the variance in the number of nearest neighbors decreases. The nearest neighbor peaks in the pair distribution function are suppressed and shifted to larger radial separations as the constraint acts to maintain relatively uniform interstitial regions. The structure factor of the model suspension satisfies S(k=0) → 0 as α → in accordance with expectation for a single component (particle plus tethered fluid) incompressible system. The tracer diffusivity of the particles is reduced by the volume constraint and goes to zero at φ 0.52, indicating an earlier glass transition than has been observed in hard sphere suspensions. The total pressure of the suspension grows in proportion to (αkBT)1/2 as the strength of the volume-constraint potential grows. This stress arises primarily from the interparticle potential forces, while the hard-sphere collisional contribution to the stress is suppressed by the volume constraint.

  3. Brownian Dynamics of a Suspension of Particles with Constrained Voronoi Cell Volumes

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, John P.

    2015-06-23

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Solvent-free polymer-grafted nanoparticle fluids consist of inorganic core particles fluidized by polymers tethered to their surfaces. The attachment of the suspending fluid to the particle surface creates a strong penalty for local variations in the fluid volume surrounding the particles. As a model of such a suspension we perform Brownian dynamics of an equilibrium system consisting of hard spheres which experience a many-particle potential proportional to the variance of the Voronoi volumes surrounding each particle (E = α(Vi-V0)2). The coefficient of proportionality α can be varied such that pure hard sphere dynamics is recovered as α → 0, while an incompressible array of hairy particles is obtained as α →. As α is increased the distribution of Voronoi volumes becomes narrower, the mean coordination number of the particle increases and the variance in the number of nearest neighbors decreases. The nearest neighbor peaks in the pair distribution function are suppressed and shifted to larger radial separations as the constraint acts to maintain relatively uniform interstitial regions. The structure factor of the model suspension satisfies S(k=0) → 0 as α → in accordance with expectation for a single component (particle plus tethered fluid) incompressible system. The tracer diffusivity of the particles is reduced by the volume constraint and goes to zero at φ 0.52, indicating an earlier glass transition than has been observed in hard sphere suspensions. The total pressure of the suspension grows in proportion to (αkBT)1/2 as the strength of the volume-constraint potential grows. This stress arises primarily from the interparticle potential forces, while the hard-sphere collisional contribution to the stress is suppressed by the volume constraint.

  4. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  5. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre.

  6. U.S. Job Creation Due to Nuclear Power Resurgence in The United States — Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine M. Plowman

    2004-11-01

    The recent revival of interest in nuclear power is causing a reexamination of the role of nuclear power in the United States. This renewed interest has led to questions regarding the capability and capacity of current U.S. industries to support a renewal of nuclear power plant deployment. This study was conducted to provide an initial estimate of jobs to be gained in the U.S. through the repatriation of the nuclear manufacturing industry. In the course of the study, related job categories were also modeled to provide an additional estimate of the potential expansion of existing industries (i.e., plant construction and operations) in conjunction with the repatriation of manufacturing jobs.

  7. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre

  8. Development of a Probabilistic Tornado Wind Hazard Model for the Continental United States Volume I: Main Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnade, A; Hossain, Q; Kimball, J

    2000-01-01

    Since the mid-l980's, assessment of the wind and tornado risks at the Department of Energy (DOE) high and moderate hazard facilities has been based on the straight wind/tornado hazard curves given in UCRL-53526 (Coats, 1985). These curves were developed using a methodology that utilized a model, developed by McDonald, for severe winds at sub-tornado wind speeds and a separate model, developed by Fujita, for tornado wind speeds. For DOE sites not covered in UCRL-53526, wind and tornado hazard assessments are based on the criteria outlined in DOE-STD-1023-95 (DOE, 1996), utilizing the methodology in UCRL-53526; Subsequent to the publication of UCRL53526, in a study sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed tornado wind hazard curves for the contiguous United States, NUREG/CR-4461 (Ramsdell, 1986). Because of the different modeling assumptions and underlying data used to develop the tornado wind information, the wind speeds at specified exceedance levels, at a given location, based on the methodology in UCRL-53526, are different than those based on the methodology in NUREG/CR-4461. In 1997, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was funded by the DOE to review the current methodologies for characterizing tornado wind hazards and to develop a state-of-the-art wind/tornado characterization methodology based on probabilistic hazard assessment techniques and current historical wind data. This report describes the process of developing the methodology and the database of relevant tornado information needed to implement the methodology. It also presents the tornado wind hazard curves obtained from the application of the method to DOE sites throughout the contiguous United States

  9. Structure and oxidation states of giant unit cell compound Dy{sub 117+x}Fe{sub 57-y}Sn{sub 112-z}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Alexander T.; Barron, Keaton G.; Salazar, Bryan G.; Kirby, Parker; McCandless, Gregory T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Walker, Amy V.; Chan, Julia Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas, Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States)

    2017-12-13

    Motivated by the complex structure and properties of giant unit cell intermetallic compounds, a new isostructural Fe analogue of the Dy{sub 117}Co{sub 57}Sn{sub 112} structure type was synthesized. Single crystals of Dy{sub 122}Fe{sub 55}Sn{sub 101} were grown at 1260 C via a Dy-Fe eutectoid flux. The Fe analogue also adopts the space group Fm anti 3m with lattice parameters a = 29.914(9) Aa, V = 26769(23) Aa{sup 3}, and Z = 4. Dy{sub 122}Fe{sub 55}Sn{sub 101} has a large cell volume, structural complexity, and consists of seven Dy, eight Fe, and ten Sn unique crystallographic sites. There are fifteen fully occupied atomic positions, three unique pairs of alternating atomic positions with positional disorder, and seven partially occupied atomic sites. Within this complex unit cell, only approximately half the unique atomic positions are fully occupied with the remainder of the atoms either positionally or occupationally disordered. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the compound contains Dy{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 0}, Fe{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 0}, and Sn{sup 4+}. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2. Radioactive waste and laundry shipments. Volume 9. Summary status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information concerning radioactive waste and laundry shipments from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 2 to radioactive waste disposal sites and to protective clothing decontamination facilities (laundries) since the loss of coolant accident experienced on March 28, 1979. Data were collected from radioactive shipment records, summarized, and placed in a computerized data information retrieval/manipulation system which permits extraction of specific information. This report covers the period of April 9, 1979 to May 5, 1985. Included in this report are: waste disposal site locations, dose rates, curie content, waste description, container type and number, volumes and weights. This information is presented in two major categories: protective clothing (laundry) and radioactive waste. Each of the waste shipment reports is in chronological order

  11. Is it possible to design a portable power generator based on micro-solid oxide fuel cells? A finite volume analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, D.; Sánchez-González, A.; Garbayo, I.; Salleras, M.; Morata, A.; Tarancón, A.

    2015-10-01

    The inherent limited capacity of current battery technology is not sufficient for covering the increasing power requirements of widely extended portable devices. Among other promising alternatives, recent advances in the field of micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (μ-SOFCs) converted this disruptive technology into a serious candidate to power next generations of portable devices. However, the implementation of single cells in real devices, i.e. μ-SOFC stacks coupled to the required balance-of-plant elements like fuel reformers or post combustors, still remains unexplored. This work aims addressing this system-level research by proposing a new compact design of a vertically stacked device fuelled with ethanol. The feasibility and design optimization for achieving a thermally self-sustained regime and a rapid and low-power consuming start-up is studied by finite volume analysis. An optimal thermal insulation strategy is defined to maintain the steady-state operation temperature of the μ-SOFC at 973 K and an external temperature lower than 323 K. A hybrid start-up procedure, based on heaters embedded in the μ-SOFCs and heat released by chemical reactions in the post-combustion unit, is analyzed allowing start-up times below 1 min and energy consumption under 500 J. These results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of high temperature μ-SOFC power systems fuelled with hydrocarbons for portable applications, therefore, anticipating a new family of mobile and uninterrupted power generators.

  12. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering. (paper)

  13. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  14. OECD benchmark a of MOX fueled PWR unit cells using SAS2H, triton and mocup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganda, F.; Greenspan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Three code systems are tested by applying them to calculate the OECD PWR MOX unit cell benchmark A. The codes tested are the SAS2H code sequence of the SCALE5 code package using 44 group library, MOCUP (MCNP4C + ORIGEN2), and the new TRITON depletion sequence of SCALE5 using 238 group cross sections generated using CENTRM with continuous energy cross sections. The burnup-dependent k ∞ and actinides concentration calculated by all three code-systems were found to be in good agreement with the OECD benchmark average results. Limited results were calculated also with the WIMS-ANL code package. WIMS-ANL was found to significantly under-predict k ∞ as well as the concentration of Pu 242 , consistently with the predictions of the WIMS-LWR reported by two of the OECD benchmark participants. Additionally, SAS2H is benchmarked against MOCUP for a hydride fuel containing unit cell, giving very satisfactory agreement. (authors)

  15. Prognostic value of defining the systemic tumor volume with FDG-PET in diffuse large b cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Lim, Sang Moo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Kang, Hye Jin; Na, Im Il; Ryoo, Baek Yeol; Yang, Sung Hyun

    2007-01-01

    We measured the systemic tumor volume using FDG-PET in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL). We also investigated its prognostic role, and compared it with that of other prognostic factors. FDG PET was performed in 38 newly diagnosed DLBL patients (20 men, 18 women, age 55.715.1 years) at pre-treatment of chemotherapy. Clinical staging of lymphoma was evaluated by Ann Arbor system. On each FDG PET scan, we acquired volume of interest (VOl) at the cut-off value of SUV=2.5 in every measurable tumor by the automatic edge detection software. According to the VOI, we measured the metabolic volume and mean SUV, and estimated volume-activity indexes (SUV Vol) as mean SUV times metabolic volume. And then, we calculated the summed metabolic volume (VOLsum) and summed SUV Vol (SUV Volsum) in every FDG PET scan. Maximum SUV of involved lesion (SUVmax) was also acquired on each FDG PET scan. Time to treatment failure (TTF) was compared among VOLsum (median), SUV Volsum (median), SUVmax (median), clinical stage, gender, age, LDH, and performance status-assigned response designations by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Initial stages of DLBL patients were stage I in 4, II in 14, III in 15, and IV in 4 by Ann Arbor system. Median follow up period was 15.5months, and estimated mean TTF was 22.3 months. Univariate analysis demonstrated that TTF is statistically significantly reduced in those with high VOLsum (>215.1cm2, p=0.004), high SUV Volsum (>1577.5, p=0.003), and increased LDH (p=0.036). TTF did not correlate with SUVmax (p=0.571), clinical stage (p=0.194), gender (p=0.549), and age (p=0.128), and performance status =2 (p=0.074). Multivariate analysis using VOLsum, SUV Volsum, LDH, and performance status demonstrated no statistically significant predictor of TTF (p>0.05). Systemic tumor volume measurement using FDG-PET is suggestive to be the significant prognostic factor in patients with DLBL

  16. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor defueling and disassembly. Summary status report. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to the preparations for defueling the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor and disassembly activities being performed concurrently with decontamination of the facility. Data have been collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources and entered in a computerized data sysem which permits extraction/manipulation of specific data which can be used in planning for recovery from a loss of coolant event similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during the period of April 23, 1979 to April 16, 1985, in the completion of activities related to preparation for reactor defueling. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are not included within the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: A chronological summary listing work performed for the period; and summary reports for each major task undertaken in connection with the specific scope of this report. Presented in chronological order for the referenced time period. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: Labor and exposures by department; and labor and exposures by major activity

  17. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-03-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  19. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Accident Progression Uncertainty Analysis and Implications for Decommissioning of Fukushima Reactors - Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mattie, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysis (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression with the MELCOR code. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). That study focused on reconstructing the accident progressions, as postulated by the limited plant data. This work was focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures-of-merit (e.g., hydrogen production, reactor damage state, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure). The primary intent of this study was to characterize the range of predicted damage states in the 1F1 reactor considering state of knowledge uncertainties associated with MELCOR modeling of core damage progression and to generate information that may be useful in informing the decommissioning activities that will be employed to defuel the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, core damage progression variability inherent in MELCOR modeling numerics is investigated.

  20. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building decontamination. Summary status report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.; Scotti, K.S.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes information relating to decontamination of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor building. The report covers activities for the period of June 1, 1979 through March 29, 1985. The data collected from activity reports, reactor containment entry records, and other sources were entered into a computerized data system which permits extraction/manipulation of specific information which can be used in planning for recovery from an accident similar to that experienced at TMI-2 on March 28, 1979. This report contains summaries of man-hours, manpower, and radiation exposures incurred during decontamination of the reactor building. Support activities conducted outside of radiation areas are excluded from the scope of this report. Computerized reports included in this document are: a chronological summary listing work performed relating to reactor building decontamination for the period specified; and summary reports for each major task during the period. Each task summary is listed in chronological order for zone entry and subtotaled for the number of personnel entries, exposures, and man-hours. Manually-assembled table summaries are included for: labor and exposures by department and labor and exposures by major activity

  1. Optical Quantification of Cellular Mass, Volume, and Density of Circulating Tumor Cells Identified in an Ovarian Cancer Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Velasco, Carmen Ruiz; Li, Julia; Kolatkar, Anand; Luttgen, Madelyn; Bethel, Kelly; Duggan, Bridgette; Kuhn, Peter; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present in the blood of cancer patients with known metastatic disease across the major types of epithelial malignancies. Recent studies have shown that the concentration of CTCs in the blood is prognostic of overall survival in breast, prostate, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancer. This study characterizes CTCs identified using the high-definition (HD)-CTC assay in an ovarian cancer patient with stage IIIC disease. We characterized the physical properties of 31 HD-CTCs and 50 normal leukocytes from a single blood draw taken just prior to the initial debulking surgery. We utilized a non-interferometric quantitative phase microscopy technique using brightfield imagery to measure cellular dry mass. Next we used a quantitative differential interference contrast microscopy technique to measure cellular volume. These techniques were combined to determine cellular dry mass density. We found that HD-CTCs were more massive than leukocytes: 33.6 ± 3.2 pg (HD-CTC) compared to 18.7 ± 0.6 pg (leukocytes), p < 0.001; had greater volumes: 518.3 ± 24.5 fL (HD-CTC) compared to 230.9 ± 78.5 fL (leukocyte), p < 0.001; and possessed a decreased dry mass density with respect to leukocytes: 0.065 ± 0.006 pg/fL (HD-CTC) compared to 0.085 ± 0.004 pg/fL (leukocyte), p < 0.006. Quantification of HD-CTC dry mass content and volume provide key insights into the fluid dynamics of cancer, and may provide the rationale for strategies to isolate, monitor or target CTCs based on their physical properties. The parameters reported here can also be incorporated into blood cell flow models to better understand metastasis.

  2. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C. Cheng. 2. Höfler diagrams below the volume of zero turgor and the theoretical implication for pressure-volume curves of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Li, Junhui; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    The physiological advantages of negative turgor pressure, P t , in leaf cells are water saving and homeostasis of reactants. This paper advances methods for detecting the occurrence of negative P t in leaves. Biomechanical models of pressure-volume (PV) curves predict that negative P t does not change the linearity of PV curve plots of inverse balance pressure, P B , versus relative water loss, but it does predict changes in either the y-intercept or the x-intercept of the plots depending on where cell collapse occurs in the P B domain because of negative P t . PV curve analysis of Robinia leaves revealed a shift in the x-intercept (x-axis is relative water loss) of PV curves, caused by negative P t of palisade cells. The low x-intercept of the PV curve was explained by the non-collapse of palisade cells in Robinia in the P B domain. Non-collapse means that P t smoothly falls from positive to negative values with decreasing cell volume without a dramatic change in slope. The magnitude of negative turgor in non-collapsing living cells was as low as -1.3 MPa and the relative volume of the non-collapsing cell equaled 58% of the total leaf cell volume. This study adds to the growing evidence for negative P t . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. LIFAC Demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 Volume II: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-04-01

    The C1ean Coal Technology (CCT) Program has been recognized in the National Energy Strategy as a major initiative whereby coal will be able to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. Attainment of this goal depends upon the development of highly efficient, environmentally sound, competitive coal utilization technologies responsive to diverse energy markets and varied consumer needs. The CCT Program is an effort jointly funded by government and industry whereby the most promising of the advanced coal-based technologies are being moved into the marketplace through demonstration. The CCT Program is being implemented through a total of five competitive solicitations. LIFAC North America, a joint venture partnership of ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., and Tampella Power Corporation, is currently demonstrating the LIFAC flue gas desulfurization technology developed by Tampella Power. This technology provides sulfur dioxide emission control for power plants, especially existing facilities with tight space limitations. Sulfur dioxide emissions are expected to be reduced by up to 85% by using limestone as a sorbent. The LIFAC technology is being demonstrated at Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, a 60-MW coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Richmond Power and Light (RP&L) and located in Richmond, Indiana. The Whitewater plant consumes high-sulfur coals, with sulfur contents ranging from 2.0-2.9 $ZO. The project, co-funded by LIFAC North America and DOE, is being conducted with the participation of Richmond Power and Light, the State of Indiana, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Black Beauty Coal Company. The project has a total cost of $21.4 million and a duration of 48 months from the preliminary design phase through the testing program.

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  5. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  8. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  9. Incidence, microbiological profile of nosocomial infections, and their antibiotic resistance patterns in a high volume Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs in the postoperative period not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also impose a significant economic burden on the health care infrastructure. This retrospective study was undertaken to (a evaluate the incidence, characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of NIs and (b identify common microorganisms responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance profile in our Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU. Patients and Methods: After ethics committee approval, the CSICU records of all patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NI, distribution of NI sites, types of microorganisms and their antibiotic resistance, length of CSICU stay, and patient-outcome were determined. Results: Three hundred and nineteen of 6864 patients (4.6% developed NI after cardiac surgery. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs accounted for most of the infections (44.2% followed by surgical-site infection (SSI, 11.6%, bloodstream infection (BSI, 7.5%, urinary tract infection (UTI, 6.9% and infections from combined sources (29.8%. Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTI, BSI, UTI, and SSI, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources were found to be highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion: The incidence of NI and sepsis-related mortality, in our CSICU, was 4.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Lower respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and Gram-negative bacilli, the most common pathogens after cardiac surgery. Antibiotic resistance was maximum with Acinetobacter spp.

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  13. The histone genes in HeLa cells are on individual transcriptional units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.B.; Traub, P.; Gallwitz, D.

    1978-01-01

    The distances of the five major histone genes from their promotors have been investigated in order to determine whether in human cells these genes could be transcribed as a single polycistronic transcriptional unit. By measuring the decreases of both histone protein and histone mRNA synthesis as functions of the ultraviolet light dosage, it was possible to calculate the distances of the histone genes from their promotors. The inactivation kinetics for histone genes H1 and H3 are first-order, indicating a single type of transcriptional unit for each gene. The dose-response kinetics for genes H2A, H2B and H4 are first-order with two distinct rates; 10 to 15% of the genes for each of these histones appear to be much more sensitive to ultraviolet light inactivation than are the majority. It is concluded that the transcriptional units for 85 to 90% of the genes for H2A, H2B and H4 are similar. As determined by the inhibition of protein synthesis, the inactivation coefficients for the major component of each histone are: H1, 907 mm 2 /erg; H2A, 878 mm 2 /erg; H2B, 871 mm 2 /erg; H3, 965 mm 2 /erg; and H4, 792 mm 2 /erg. The sensitivities of histone mRNA synthesis to irradiation were measured by translation in vitro with similar results. The calculated target sizes for the genes (in base-pairs) are: H1, 1190; H2A, 1240; H2B, 1250; H3, 1130; and H4, 1380. This similarity in target sizes for all five of the histones genes indicates that they are primarily transcribed from individual transcriptional units. (author)

  14. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio: Remedial investigation and feasibility study: Volume 3: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices F--J

  15. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.

  16. Structure and properties of cell membranes. Volume 3: Methodology and properties of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benga, G.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the topics: Quantum chemical approach to study the mechanisms of proton translocation across membranes through protein molecules; monomolecular films as biomembrane models; planar lipid bilayers in relation to biomembranes; relation of liposomes to cell membranes; reconstitution of membrane transport systems; structure-function relationships in cell membranes as revealed by X-ray techniques; structure-function relationships in cell membranes as revealed by spin labeling ESR; structure and dynamics of cell membranes as revealed by NMR techniques; the effect of dietary lipids on the composition and properties of biological membranes and index

  17. Ambulatory cell phone injuries in the United States: an emerging national concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel C; Schreiber, Kristin M; Saltos, Andreas; Lichenstein, Sarah B; Lichenstein, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the use of cell phones has increased 8-fold in the United States. Cell phone use has been shown to increase crash risks for drivers, but no systematic analyses have described injuries related to ambulatory cell phone use. The purpose of this study is to describe and quantitate injuries and deaths among persons using cell phones while walking. We searched the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) for emergency department (ED) reports of injuries related to phone use. The cases that returned were screened initially using words that would eliminate cases unlikely to be related to cell phone use and walking, possibly linked to distraction. The resulting cases were randomized and evaluated for consistency with predetermined case definitions by two authors blinded to the dates of the incidents. Cases that were disagreed upon were evaluated in a second screening by both authors for final case determination. National ED visit rates were estimated based on NEISS sampling methods. Annual variations were analyzed using linear regression with a restricted maximum likelihood approach. Our screening process identified 5,754 possible cases that occurred between 2000 and 2011, and 310 were agreed on as cases of cell-phone-induced distraction. The majority of the patients were female (68%) and 40 years of age or younger (54%). The primary mechanism of injury was a fall (72%), and most patients were treated and released from the ED (85%). No patients died from their injuries while they were in the ED. Linear modeling by year revealed a statistically significant increase in distraction injury rates over the years of study (pcell phone use has been increasing. More research is needed to determine the risks associated with walking and talking on a cell phone and to develop strategies for intervention. Cell phone use continues to increase both at home and outdoor environments. The use of smart phones, with their more enticing features, increases

  18. Curcumin-loaded embryonic stem cell exosomes restored neurovascular unit following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Anuradha; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Kamat, Pradip K; Maldonado, Claudio; Bauer, Philip; Joshua, Irving G; Tyagi, Suresh C; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-10-01

    We tested whether the combined nano-formulation, prepared with curcumin (anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecule) and embryonic stem cell exosomes (MESC-exo cur ), restored neurovascular loss following an ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. IR-injury was created in 8-10 weeks old mice and divided into two groups. Out of two IR-injured groups, one group received intranasal administration of MESC-exo cur for 7days. Similarly, two sham groups were made and one group received MESC-exo cur treatment. The study determined that MESC-exo cur treatment reduced neurological score, infarct volume and edema following IR-injury. As compared to untreated IR group, MESC-exo cur treated-IR group showed reduced inflammation and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor expression. Treatment of MESC-exo cur also reduced astrocytic GFAP expression and alleviated the expression of NeuN positive neurons in IR-injured mice. In addition, MESC-exo cur treatment restored vascular endothelial tight (claudin-5 and occludin) and adherent (VE-cadherin) junction proteins in IR-injured mice as compared to untreated IR-injured mice. These results suggest that combining the potentials of embryonic stem cell exosomes and curcumin can help neurovascular restoration following ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wood decay by brown-rot fungi : changes in pore structure and cell wall volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas S. Flournoy; T. Kent Kirk; T.L. Highley

    1991-01-01

    Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) wood blocks were decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta in soilblock cultures. Decay was terminated at various weight losses, and the pore volumes available to four low molecular weight molecules, (water, 4 Å,; glucose, 8 Å,; maltose, 10 Å; and raffinose, 128,) and three dextrans (Mr 6,000, 38 Å; 11,200, 51 Å; nd 17,500, 61 Å) were...

  20. Modulation of Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels by small changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soe, Rikke; Macaulay, Nanna; Klaerke, Dan Arne

    2009-01-01

    in Kir4.1 and Kir4.1-Kir5.1 currents upon swelling of the oocytes and a reduction in the current when the oocytes were shrunk. The volume-dependent changes in channel activity were not due to changes in the kinetics of the channels. These findings implicate a putative functional interaction between...... the Kir channels and aquaporins via small, fast cell volume changes in the glial cells....... channels and aquaporins is therefore debated. To test a possible volume-sensitivity of the Kir channels, the Kir4.1 or Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels were expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without co-expression of aquaporins and subsequently exposed to cell volume alterations. Our results show an increase...

  1. ESTRO ACROP guidelines for target volume definition in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Ursula; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Ricardi, Umberto; Geets, Xavier; Belderbos, Jose; Pöttgen, Christoph; Dziadiuszko, Rafal; Peeters, Stephanie; Lievens, Yolande; Hurkmans, Coen; Slotman, Ben; Ramella, Sara; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; McDonald, Fiona; Manapov, Farkhad; Putora, Paul Martin; LePéchoux, Cécile; Van Houtte, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) plays a major role in the curative treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, the ACROP committee was asked by the ESTRO to provide recommendations on target volume delineation for standard clinical scenarios in definitive (chemo)radiotherapy (RT) and adjuvant RT for locally advanced NSCLC. The guidelines given here are a result of the evaluation of a structured questionnaire followed by a consensus discussion, voting and writing procedure within the committee. Hence, we provide advice for methods and time-points of diagnostics and imaging before the start of treatment planning and for the mandatory and optional imaging to be used for planning itself. Concerning target volumes, recommendations are given for GTV delineation of primary tumour and lymph nodes followed by issues related to the delineation of CTVs for definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy. In the context of PTV delineation, recommendations about the management of geometric uncertainties and target motion are given. We further provide our opinions on normal tissue delineation and organisational and responsibility questions in the process of target volume delineation. This guideline intends to contribute to the standardisation and optimisation of the process of RT treatment planning for clinical practice and prospective studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multimodality imaging with CT, MR and FDG-PET for radiotherapy target volume delineation in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, David; Scarsbrook, Andrew F.; Sykes, Jonathan; Ramasamy, Satiavani; Subesinghe, Manil; Carey, Brendan; Wilson, Daniel J.; Roberts, Neil; McDermott, Gary; Karakaya, Ebru; Bayman, Evrim; Sen, Mehmet; Speight, Richard; Prestwich, Robin J.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the variation in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma gross tumour volume (GTV) delineation between CT, MR and FDG PET-CT imaging. A prospective, single centre, pilot study was undertaken where 11 patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancers (2 tonsil, 9 base of tongue primaries) underwent pre-treatment, contrast enhanced, FDG PET-CT and MR imaging, all performed in a radiotherapy treatment mask. CT, MR and CT-MR GTVs were contoured by 5 clinicians (2 radiologists and 3 radiation oncologists). A semi-automated segmentation algorithm was used to contour PET GTVs. Volume and positional analyses were undertaken, accounting for inter-observer variation, using linear mixed effects models and contour comparison metrics respectively. Significant differences in mean GTV volume were found between CT (11.9 cm 3 ) and CT-MR (14.1 cm 3 ), p < 0.006, CT-MR and PET (9.5 cm 3 ), p < 0.0009, and MR (12.7 cm 3 ) and PET, p < 0.016. Substantial differences in GTV position were found between all modalities with the exception of CT-MR and MR GTVs. A mean of 64 %, 74 % and 77 % of the PET GTVs were included within the CT, MR and CT-MR GTVs respectively. A mean of 57 % of the MR GTVs were included within the CT GTV; conversely a mean of 63 % of the CT GTVs were included within the MR GTV. CT inter-observer variability was found to be significantly higher in terms of position and/or volume than both MR and CT-MR (p < 0.05). Significant differences in GTV volume were found between GTV volumes delineated by radiologists (9.7 cm 3 ) and oncologists (14.6 cm 3 ) for all modalities (p = 0.001). The use of different imaging modalities produced significantly different GTVs, with no single imaging technique encompassing all potential GTV regions. The use of MR reduced inter-observer variability. These data suggest delineation based on multimodality imaging has the potential to improve accuracy of GTV definition. ISRCTN Registry: ISRCTN34165059. Registered 2

  3. Non-calcified coronary plaque volume inversely related to CD4(+) T-cell count in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Horacio; Matta, Jatin R; Muldoon, Nancy; Masur, Henry; Hadigan, Colleen; Gharib, Ahmed M

    2012-01-01

    Non-calcified coronary artery plaque (NCAP) might be an important predictor of cardiovascular events; however, few studies have directly measured NCAP in HIV-infected individuals. We completed a prospective cross-sectional evaluation of NCAP and coronary calcium scores using computed tomography angiography in HIV-infected patients (n=26) without known coronary artery disease (CAD), but who had one or more CAD risk factor(s), and compared them with controls matched on age, race, sex, body mass index and Framingham Risk Score (n=26). There was no difference in coronary calcium scores (114 ± 218 versus 124 ± 298; P=0.89) or NCAP volume (65 ± 86 mm(3) versus 63 ± 82 mm(3); P=0.38) between HIV-infected patients and controls, respectively. Among HIV-infected patients, lower CD4(+) T-cell count was associated with increased NCAP volume (r=-0.52, P=0.006). The CD4(+) T-cell count remained a significant predictor of NCAP in a multivariate analysis that adjusted for age and duration of antiretroviral therapy. Plaque burden is similar between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals when matched on traditional CAD risk factors; however, immune function might mediate the development of atherosclerosis in HIV infection.

  4. Akt2 and nucleophosmin/B23 function as an oncogenic unit in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Kwon; Nguyen, Truong L.X.; Lee, Sang Bae; Park, Sang Bum; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2011-01-01

    The signaling network of protein kinase B(PKB)/Akt has been implicated in survival of lung cancer cells. However, understanding the relative contribution of the different isoform of Akt network is nontrival. Here, we report that Akt2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells. Suppression of Akt2 expression in A549 cells results in notable inhibition of cell poliferation, soft agar growth, and invasion, accompanying by a decrease of nucleophosmin/B23 protein. Overexpression of Akt1 restores cancerous growth of A549 cells in B23-knockdown (KD) cells while Akt2 overexpression did not restore proliferating potential in cells with downregulated B23, thus suggesting Akt2 requires B23 to drive proliferation of lung cancer cell. Loss of functional Akt2 and B23 has similar defects on cell proliferation, apoptotic resistance and cell cycle regulation, while loss of Akt1 has less defects on cell proliferation, survial and cell cycle progression in A549 cells. Moreover, overexpression of B23 rescues the proliferative block induced as a consequence of loss of Akt2. Thus our data suggest that Akt2/B23 functions as an oncogenic unit to drive tumorigenesis of A549 lung cancer cells.

  5. Relationship between unit cell type and porosity and the fatigue behavior of selective laser melted meta-biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Ahmadi, S M; Wauthle, R; Pouran, B; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-03-01

    Meta-materials are structures when their small-scale properties are considered, but behave as materials when their homogenized macroscopic properties are studied. There is an intimate relationship between the design of the small-scale structure and the homogenized properties of such materials. In this article, we studied that relationship for meta-biomaterials that are aimed for biomedical applications, otherwise known as meta-biomaterials. Selective laser melted porous titanium (Ti6Al4V ELI) structures were manufactured based on three different types of repeating unit cells, namely cube, diamond, and truncated cuboctahedron, and with different porosities. The morphological features, static mechanical properties, and fatigue behavior of the porous biomaterials were studied with a focus on their fatigue behavior. It was observed that, in addition to static mechanical properties, the fatigue properties of the porous biomaterials are highly dependent on the type of unit cell as well as on porosity. None of the porous structures based on the cube unit cell failed after 10(6) loading cycles even when the applied stress reached 80% of their yield strengths. For both other unit cells, higher porosities resulted in shorter fatigue lives for the same level of applied stress. When normalized with respect to their yield stresses, the S-N data points of structures with different porosities very well (R(2)>0.8) conformed to one single power law specific to the type of the unit cell. For the same level of normalized applied stress, the truncated cuboctahedron unit cell resulted in a longer fatigue life as compared to the diamond unit cell. In a similar comparison, the fatigue lives of the porous structures based on both truncated cuboctahedron and diamond unit cells were longer than that of the porous structures based on the rhombic dodecahedron unit cell (determined in a previous study). The data presented in this study could serve as a basis for design of porous biomaterials

  6. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  7. Direct Observation of High-Temperature Superconductivity in One-Unit-Cell FeSe Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen-Hao; Zhang Jin-Song; Li Fang-Sen; Guo Ming-Hua; Ding Hao; Tang Chen-Jia; Wang Qing-Yan; He Ke; Ji Shuai-Hua; Chen Xi; Sun Yi; Zhao Yan-Fei; Xing Ying; Wang Hui-Chao; Zhang Hui-Min; Peng Jun-Ping; Li Zhi; Wang Meng; Fujita Takeshi; Hirata Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We prepared one-unit-cell (1-UC) thick FeSe films on insulating SrTiO 3 substrates with non-superconducting FeTe protection layers by molecular beam epitaxy for ex situ studies. By direct transport and magnetic measurements, we provide definitive evidence for high temperature superconductivity in the 1-UC FeSe films with an onset T C above 40 K and an extremely large critical current density J C ∼1.7×10 6 A/cm 2 at 2 K, which are much higher than T C ∼8 K and J C ∼10 4 A/cm 2 for bulk FeSe, respectively. Our work may pave the way to enhancing and tailoring superconductivity by interface engineering. (express letter)

  8. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. P., E-mail: yplee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics and RINS, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, J. Y. [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J.-H. [Department of Nano and Electronic Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. W. [Department of Information Display, Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, H. [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. H. [Infovion Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  9. Mitigation of Unwanted Forward Narrow-band Radiation from PCBs with a Metamaterial Unit Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of EMI from a PCB is obtained through the use of a metamaterial unit cell. The focus is on the reduction of narrow-band radiation in the forward hemisphere when the resonant element is etched on a layer located between the source of radiation and the ground plane. As opposed to previous...... publications in the literature, the aim of this work is the application of a filter to scattered radiation, generalizing the former characterizations based solely upon transmission lines’ insertion loss. The radiating area accounts for traces and components placed on the top layer of a PCB and is simulated via...... a patch antenna. The study exhibits how the radiation pattern and the electric field on the patch antenna change within and outside the resonance bandwidth of the parasitic element. An EMC assessment provides experimental verification of the operating principle....

  10. Asymmetric lateral distribution of melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Kelly G; Iyer, Jayasri G; Nghiem, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent report suggested a trend towards more UV-linked skin cancers arising on the left rather than the right side of the body in the United States. Objective To test whether the reported incidences of two UV-linked skin cancers, malignant melanoma (MM) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), are greater on the left than the right in the US. Methods MMs (n = 82,587) and MCCs (n = 2,384) occurring on the left or right side of the face, arm or leg that were reported in the SE*ER registry between 1986–2006 were included for analysis. Results MM and MCC were significantly more likely to present on the left than the right (p automobile UV exposure (approximately 20-fold stronger on the left than right arm) is a likely contributing factor. It may be prudent to remind skin cancer-prone individuals to take appropriate sun precautions when driving in an automobile. PMID:21514002

  11. Prognosis of Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Sidsel Christy; Nielsen, Jonas; Lindmark, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a procedure with inherent complications and intensive care may be necessary. We evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of the HSCT recipients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We...... ventilation had a statistically significant effect on in-ICU (p = 0.02), 6-month (p = 0.049) and 1-year (p = 0.014) mortality. Renal replacement therapy also had a statistically significant effect on in-hospital (p = 0.038) and 6-month (p = 0.026) mortality. Short ICU admissions, i.e. ... to the ICU was confirmed in our study. Mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy and an ICU admission of ≥10 days were each risk factors for mortality in the first year after ICU admission....

  12. Quality of red cell concentrates in relation to the volume of the buffy coat removed by automated processing in a top and bottom system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersz, R N; Dekker, W J; Reesink, H A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of automated removal of increasing volumes of buffy coat in a 'top and bottom' system on the composition of red cell concentrates (RCC) was investigated. The volume of the buffy coat was adjusted to group 1:50 ml (n = 31), group 2: 70 ml (n = 31) and group 3: 100 ml (n = 31), respectively. The numbers of platelets and leukocytes in the buffy coats were comparable between the groups, whereas the red cell volumes in the buffy coats showed a significant difference (17 +/- 3.6 ml group 1, versus 22 +/- 4.1 ml group 2 and 26 +/- 3.88 ml group 3; p less than 0.001). The volumes, hematocrits and cell counts of the RCC were not significantly different. The plasma volumes were inversely correlated with the volume of buffy coat removed, i.e. 268 +/- 19 ml group 1, versus 257 +/- 15 ml group 2 and 233 +/- 20 ml group 3 (p less than 0.001). We conclude that in the 'top and bottom' system an increase of the volume of the buffy coat from 50 to 100 ml did not improve the quality of the RCC regarding contamination with leukocytes and platelets.

  13. Effects of Simultaneous Radiofrequency Radiation and Chemical Exposure of Mammalian Cells. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    chromosome - - - - - - -I aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Yao (1982) exposed rat kangaroo RH5 and RH1l6 cells to 2.45 GHz radiation, and...control was reported in chromosome aberrations. Yac (1982) investigated the cytogenetic consequences of chronic microwave exposure on rat kangaroo RH5...was said to be 280C. The cells were exposed both as conidia, which are "rather inactive metabolically ," and also after DNA replication had been

  14. Planar conjugated polymers containing 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene units for efficient polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwu; Kang, Chong; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Jicheng; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Guangyao; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Bo, Zhishan

    2014-06-01

    Four novel conjugated polymers (P1-4) with 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene (PhA) as the donor unit and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit are synthesized and characterized. These polymers are of medium bandgaps (2.0 eV), low-lying HOMO energy levels (below -5.3 eV), and high hole mobilities (in the range of 3.6 × 10(-3) to 0.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with P1-4:PC71 BM blends as the active layer and an alcohol-soluble fullerene derivative (FN-C60) as the interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode give the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.24%, indicating that 9,10-disubstituted PhA are potential donor materials for high-efficiency BHJ PSCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells: The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahmadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited, primarily because of the challenge in fabricating porous biomaterials with arbitrarily complex morphological designs. In the present work, we studied the relationship between relative density (RD of porous Ti6Al4V EFI alloy and five compressive properties of the material, namely elastic gradient or modulus (Es20–70, first maximum stress, plateau stress, yield stress, and energy absorption. Porous structures with different RD and six different unit cell configurations (cubic (C, diamond (D, truncated cube (TC, truncated cuboctahedron (TCO, rhombic dodecahedron (RD, and rhombicuboctahedron (RCO were fabricated using selective laser melting. Each of the compressive properties increased with increase in RD, the relationship being of a power law type. Clear trends were seen in the influence of unit cell configuration and porosity on each of the compressive properties. For example, in terms of Es20–70, the structures may be divided into two groups: those that are stiff (comprising those made using C, TC, TCO, and RCO unit cell and those that are compliant (comprising those made using D and RD unit cell.

  16. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  17. Recurrence pattern of squamous cell carcinoma in the midthoracic esophagus: implications for the clinical target volume design of postoperative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Wang,1,2,* Yijun Luo,1,2,* Minghuan Li,2 Hongjiang Yan,2 Mingping Sun,2 Tingyong Fan2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Postoperative radiotherapy has shown positive efficacy in lowering the recurrence rate and improving the survival rate for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. However, controversies still exist about the postoperative prophylactic radiation target volume. This study was designed to analyze the patterns of recurrence and to provide a reference for determination of the postoperative radiotherapy target volume for patients with midthoracic ESCC.Patients and methods: A total of 338 patients with recurrent or metastatic midthoracic ESCC after radical surgery were retrospectively examined. The patterns of recurrence including locoregional and distant metastasis were analyzed for these patients.Results: The rates of lymph node (LN metastasis were 28.4% supraclavicular, 77.2% upper mediastinal, 32.0% middle mediastinal, 50.0% lower mediastinal, and 19.5% abdominal LNs. In subgroup analyses, the rate of abdominal LN metastasis was significantly higher in patients with histological node-positive than that in patients with histological node-negative (P=0.033. Further analysis in patients with histological node-positive demonstrated that patients with three or more positive nodes are more prone to abdominal LN metastasis, compared with patients with one or two positive nodes (χ2=4.367, P=0.037. The length of tumor and histological differentiation were also the high-risk factors for abdominal LN metastasis.Conclusion: For midthoracic ESCC with histological node-negative, or one or two positive nodes, the supraclavicular and

  18. Unit cell determination of epitaxial thin films based on reciprocal space vectors by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Huajun; Chen, Zuhuang; Chen, Lang; Wang, John

    2013-01-01

    A new approach, based on reciprocal space vectors (RSVs), is developed to determine Bravais lattice types and accurate lattice parameters of epitaxial thin films by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HR-XRD). The lattice parameters of single crystal substrates are employed as references to correct the systematic experimental errors of RSVs of thin films. The general procedure is summarized, involving correction of RSVs, derivation of raw unit cell, subsequent conversion to the Niggli unit ...

  19. Lowering bronchoaspiration rate in an acute stroke unit by means of a 2 volume/3 texture dysphagia screening test with pulsioximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocho, D; Sagales, M; Cobo, M; Homs, I; Serra, J; Pou, M; Perez, G; Pujol, G; Tantinya, S; Bao, P; Aloy, A; Sabater, R; Gendre, J; Otermin, P

    During acute stroke, 30% of all patients present dysphagia and 50% of that subgroup will experience bronchoaspiration. Our aim was to compare mortality and bronchoaspiration rates associated with the water test compared to those associated with a 2 volume/3 texture test controlled with pulse oximetry (2v/3t-P test) in our stroke unit. Over a 5-year period, we performed a prospective analysis of all consecutive acute ischaemic stroke patients hospitalised in the Stroke Unit. Dysphagia was evaluated using the water test between 2008 and 2010 (group 0 or G0), and the 2v/3t-P test (group 1 or G1) between 2011 and 2012. We analysed demographic data, vascular risk factors, neurological deficit on the NIHSS, aetiological subtype according to TOAST criteria, clinical subtype according to the Oxfordshire classification, prevalence of dysphagia, percentage of patients with bronchoaspiration, and mortality. We examined 418 patients with acute stroke (G0=275, G1=143). There were significant differences between the 2 groups regarding the percentage of patients with TACI (17% in G0 vs. 29% in G1, P=.005) and median NIHSS score (4 points in G0 vs. 7 points in G1, P=.003). Since adopting the new swallowing test, we detected a non-significant increase in the percentage of dysphagia (22% in G0 vs. 25% in G1, P=.4), lower mortality (1.7% in G0 vs. 0.7% in G1, P=.3) and a significant decrease in the bronchoaspiration rate (6.2% in G0 vs. 2.1% in G1, P=.05). Compared to the water test used for dysphagia screening, the new 2v/3t-P test lowered bronchoaspiration rates in acute stroke patients. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell number and transfection volume dependent peptide nucleic acid antisense activity by cationic delivery methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovera Nadal, Laia; Berthold, Peter; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    have now quantitatively compared the cellular activity (in the pLuc705 HeLa cell splice correction system) of PNA antisense oligomers using lipoplex delivery of cholesterol- and bisphosphonate-PNA conjugates, polyplex delivery via a PNA-polyethyleneimine conjugate and CPP delivery via a PNA......Efficient intracellular delivery is essential for high activity of nucleic acids based therapeutics, including antisense agents. Several strategies have been developed and practically all rely on auxiliary transfection reagents such as cationic lipids, cationic polymers and cell penetrating...... peptides as complexing agents and carriers of the nucleic acids. However, uptake mechanisms remain rather poorly understood, and protocols always require optimization of transfection parameters. Considering that cationic transfection complexes bind to and thus may up-concentrate on the cell surface, we...

  1. The Blood Volume of the Guinea Pig: Effects of Epinephrine and Isoproterenol upon the Red Cell and Plasma Volumes, Heart Rate, and Mean Arterial Pressure,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    capillaries (4), blood volumes calculated from plasma volume measures must correct for label that has left the system between the time of the injected dose...Splenic sequestration and contraction are mediated by the autonomic nervous system and blood-borne agents (10). Sympathetic nerve fibers from the truncus...sympathlcus and parasympathetic neurons of the nervus vagus (cranial nerve X) innervate the celiac plexus (8, 11). A subdivision of the celiac plexus

  2. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and its precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P; Jakobsen, A

    1991-01-01

    -sampling of nuclear intercepts in 51 pre-treatment biopsies from patients with invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Vertical sections from 27 specimens with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I through III were also investigated, along with 10 CIN III associated with microinvasion (CIN III + M...

  3. Comparison of six methods of segmentation of tumor volume on the 18F-F.D.G. PET scan with reference histological volume in non small cell bronchopulmonary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venel, Y.; Garhi, H.; Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier-Aesch, C.; Muret, A. de; Barillot, I.

    2008-01-01

    The 18 F-F.D.G. PET has demonstrated its importance in oncology, for initial extension and efficacy of anti tumoral therapeutics. Several studies have attempted to prove its utility to define tumoral volumes for conformational radiotherapy in non small cell lung cancers. Some authors have suggested the use of threshold of tumor intensity uptake with 40 or 50% of maximal intensity. Black et al. have determined contouring with linear regression formula of mean semi-quantitative index of tumor uptake (standard uptake value): SUV threshold = 0.307 Sub average + 0.588. Nestle et al. have taken into account the background noise intensity and mean intensity of the tumor: I threshold = β I average +I noise with β 0.15. Our study was done in collaboration with Inserm U618 team and has compared volumes defined on PET scan defined according to different methods based on intensity or S.U.V. to the tumour volume determined on CT scan by radio physicist. We have compared those volumes with histological volume that we considered for reference. Four patients have been included. They had 18 F-F.D.G. PET scan followed by complete tumoral removal surgery. Specific histological procedure allowed to define complete size of the tumor in re expanded lung. Comparatively to pathology, the volumes obtained using I max 40 and I max 50 are all underestimated. The volumes defined by Black's et al. method are under evaluated for the two largest tumours (15.8% to 22%) and overestimated for the two smallest ones (17.9 to 82.9%). Nestle's et al. method, using β = 0.15, correctly estimates two tumor volumes over 2 cm, but overestimates the two small tumors (79.6 to 124%). Finally, the corrected Nestle's et al. formula (using β = 0.264) overestimates three tumours. Volumes defined on CT scan by radio physicist are correct for one lesion, underestimated for one and overestimated for two other ones (44 and 179.5%). Nestle's et al. method seems to be the most accurate for tumours over 2 cm of

  4. The influence of the cigarette smoke pollution and ventilation rate on alpha-activities per unit volume due to radon and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Flata, K.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha and beta activities per unit volume air due to radon, thoron and their decay products were evaluated in the air of various cafe rooms polluted by cigarette smoke. Both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were used. Equilibrium factors between radon and its progeny and thoron and its daughters have been evaluated in the air of the studied cafe rooms. The committed equivalent doses due to short-lived radon decay products were determined in different regions of the respiratory tract of non-smoker members of the public. The influence of cigarette smoke pollution, ventilation rate and exposure time on committed equivalent dose in the respiratory systems of non-smokers was investigated. Committed equivalent doses ranged from 1.15x10 -11 -2.7x10 -7 Sv.y -1 /h of exposure in the extrathoracic region and from 0.8x10 -12 -1.7x10 -8 Sv.y -1 /h of exposure in the thoracic region of the respiratory tract of non-smokers

  5. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  7. EGFR-TK inhibition before radiotherapy reduces tumour volume but does not improve local control: Differential response of cancer stem cells and nontumourigenic cells?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Mechthild; Prager, Jenny; Zhou Xuanjing; Yaromina, Ala; Doerfler, Annegret; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Baumann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Waiting times before radiotherapy may reduce tumour control probability due to proliferation of tumour cells. The aim of the experiment was to test whether the growth inhibiting effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-inhibitors after surgery or tumour transplantation results in a lower tumour mass at time of irradiation and can thereby improve local tumour control. Materials and methods: The EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBX1382BS was applied over 14 days starting from microscopically non-in-sano-resection of FaDu tumours or from tumour transplantation, followed by irradiation (5f/5d). Endpoint was local tumour control. In addition, vital tumour areas, pimonidazole hypoxic fraction, BrdU labelling index, and colony forming ability in vitro were tested in control tumours and after BIBX1382BS treatment (starting from transplantation). Results: The tumour volume at start of irradiation was significantly lower in the BIBX1382BS treated tumours as compared to the control groups by factors of 11 (post-surgery setting) and 2.7 (transplantation setting). However, the reduced volume did not translate into improved local control after irradiation. The TCD 50 values after surgery were 25.4 Gy [95% CI 18; 33 Gy] in the control group and 30.5 Gy [24; 37] in the BIBX1382BS group (p = 0.25). Treatment after transplantation resulted in TCD 50 values of 41.1 Gy [35; 47] in the control group and 41.1 Gy [33; 49] in the BIBX1382BS group (p = 1). While the proportion of S-phase cells decreased after BIBX1382BS treatment, no differences were observed between the pimonidazole hypoxic fractions and in vitro colony forming ability. Conclusions: EGFR-TK inhibition with BIBX1382BS over 14 days between macroscopically complete tumour resection or tumour transplantation and start of radiotherapy significantly reduced tumour volume but did not improve local tumour control. One possible explanation is that the EGFR-TK inhibitor has a higher activity in

  8. A three-week traditional altitude training increases hemoglobin mass and red cell volume in elite biathlon athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, K; Heinicke, I; Schmidt, W; Wolfarth, B

    2005-06-01

    It is well known that altitude training stimulates erythropoiesis, but only few data are available concerning the direct altitude effect on red blood cell volume (RCV) in world class endurance athletes during exposure to continued hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of three weeks of traditional altitude training at 2050 m on total hemoglobin mass (tHb), RCV and erythropoietic activity in highly-trained endurance athletes. Total hemoglobin mass, RCV, plasma volume (PV), and blood volume (BV) from 6 males and 4 females, all members of a world class biathlon team, were determined on days 1 and 20 during their stay at altitude as well as 16 days after returning to sea-level conditions (800 m, only males) by using the CO-rebreathing method. In males tHb (14.0 +/- 0.2 to 15.3 +/- 1.0 g/kg, p altitude and returned to near sea-level values 16 days after descent. Similarly in females, tHb (13.0 +/- 1.0 to 14.2 +/- 1.3 g/kg, p altitude training period, whereas PV was not altered. In male athletes, plasma erythropoietin concentration increased up to day 4 at altitude (11.8 +/- 5.0 to 20.8 +/- 6.0 mU/ml, p altitude training period, both parameters indicating enhanced erythropoietic activity. In conclusion, we show for the first time that a three-week traditional altitude training increases erythropoietic activity even in world class endurance athletes leading to elevated tHb and RCV. Considering the relatively fast return of tHb and RCV to sea-level values after hypoxic exposure, our data suggest to precisely schedule training at altitude and competition at sea level.

  9. Large volume unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: acute toxicity and initial outcome results with rapid arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute toxicity, initial outcome results and planning therapeutic parameters in radiation treatment of advanced lung cancer (stage III with volumetric modulated arcs using RapidArc (RA. Methods Twenty-four consecutive patients were treated with RA. All showed locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with stage IIIA-IIIB and with large volumes (GTV:299 ± 175 cm3, PTV:818 ± 206 cm3. Dose prescription was 66Gy in 33 fractions to mean PTV. Delivery was performed with two partial arcs with a 6 MV photon beam. Results From a dosimetric point of view, RA allowed us to respect most planning objectives on target volumes and organs at risk. In particular: for GTV D1% = 105.6 ± 1.7%, D99% = 96.7 ± 1.8%, D5%-D95% = 6.3 ± 1.4%; contra-lateral lung mean dose resulted in 13.7 ± 3.9Gy, for spinal cord D1% = 39.5 ± 4.0Gy, for heart V45Gy = 9.0 ± 7.0Gy, for esophagus D1% = 67.4 ± 2.2Gy. Delivery time was 133 ± 7s. At three months partial remission > 50% was observed in 56% of patients. Acute toxicities at 3 months showed 91% with grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 esophageal toxicity; 18% presented grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 pneumonia; no grade 3 acute toxicity was observed. The short follow-up does not allow assessment of local control and progression free survival. Conclusions RA proved to be a safe and advantageous treatment modality for NSCLC with large volumes. Long term observation of patients is needed to assess outcome and late toxicity.

  10. Development of a mathematical model for a single alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) with fixed volume and general square section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Elise Meister; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Setor de Tecnologia], Email: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br; Martins, Lauber de Souza; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahasse, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Advanced Power Systems], Emails: martins@caps.fsu.edu, ordonez@eng.fsu.edu

    2010-07-01

    The Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell (AMFC) is a recently developed fuel cell type, which has shown good experimental results in the laboratory. This paper introduces a mathematical model for the single AMFC with fixed volume and general square section. The main objective is to produce a reliable model (and computationally fast) to predict the response of the single AMFC according to variations of the physical properties of manufacturing materials and operating and design parameters. The model is based on mass, momentum, energy and species conservation, and electrochemical principles, and takes into account pressure drops in the gas channels and temperature gradients with respect to space in the flow direction. The simulation results comprise the AMFC temperature distribution, net power and polarization curves. It is shown that temperature spatial gradients and gas channels pressure drops significantly affect fuel cell performance. Such effects are not usually investigated in the models available in the literature, with most of them assuming uniform pressure and temperature operation. Therefore, the model is expected to be a useful tool for AMFC design and optimization. (author)

  11. Cost of fuel cell systems on a mass basis as a function of production volume; Kosten von Brennstoffzellensystemen auf Massenbasis in Abhaengigkeit von der Absatzmenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werhahn, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    The currently high cost of fuel cells is determined by expensive materials and low production volume. A detailed understanding of the cost structures reveals unexploited potential that can reduce costs in future. However, this requires a method of predicting costs that can be applied with little effort and which offers both a sufficient degree of detail and also good accuracy. Existing forecasting methods do not, however, fulfil these requirements. The major objective of the present work was to apply mass-specific cost forecasting to fuel cell systems for the first time and to modify the approach for this application. In this method, the cost of an object is estimated solely by means of the object mass with the aid of empirical values (Euro/kg). The advantages of the method are its simple application and the accuracy of the forecast. Due to the considerable complexity of the fuel cell and the heterogeneity of the materials used, the application of mass-specific cost forecasting does not provide the desired benefits on the level of the aggregated system. The mass-specific cost forecast approach was therefore expanded and optimized. Instead of determining costs on the level of the aggregated system, the cost forecast was applied directly to the individual components. Cost parameters were also embedded in the method in order to include component-internal cost-relevant differences. Due to the great influence of the production rate on the manufacturing costs, an additional dependence on number of units was also integrated. Expanding the empirical values from discrete values to distribution functions enabled a detailed error analysis to be performed and also a statistical localization of the predicted production costs. Empirical values are necessary in order to implement the modified method and therefore an extensive data search was performed. To this end, a methodology was developed which comprehensively described the data acquisition and the required data evaluation on

  12. Kajian Pemilihan Sumber Mikroorganisme Solid Phase Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC Berdasarkan Jenis dan Volume Sampah, Power Density dan Efisiensi Penurunan COD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganjar Samudro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mikroorganisme merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam proses Solid Phase Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC untuk degradasi bahan organik dan transfer elektron. Pemilihan sumber mikroorganisme menjadi metode yang paling sederhana untuk dikaji sebagai informasi awal ketersediaan dan identifikasi jenis mikroorganisme yang mendukung proses SMFC. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk memilih sumber mikroorganisme tanah, septic tank dan sedimen sungai yang tepat digunakan dalam proses SMFC berdasarkan jenis dan volume sampah, power density, dan efisiensi penurunan COD. Kajian ini didasarkan pada hasil penelitian menggunakan reaktor SMFC tipe single chamber microbial fuel cell dengan variabel jenis dan volume sampah , serta sumber mikroorganisme. Metode perbandingan secara kuantitatif dilakukan berdasarkan kecenderungan nilai power density dan efisiensi penurunan COD tertinggi di antara jenis dan volume sampah kantin, dedaunan dan komposit kantin-dedaunan. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah sumber mikroorganisme tanah dan sedimen sungai tepat digunakan untuk volume sampah 1/3 dan 2/3 dari volume reaktor, sedangkan sumber mikroorganisme septic tank tepat digunakan untuk volume sampah 1/3 dan 1/2 dari volume reaktor. Sumber mikroorganisme dari septic tank menunjukkan kinerja power density dan efisiensi penurunan COD yang lebih rendah dibandingkan sumber mikroorganisme tanah dan sedimen sungai.

  13. Pretherapy metabolic tumour volume is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasanelli, Myriam; Meignan, Michel; Haioun, Corinne; Itti, Emmanuel [Paris-Est University, Nuclear Medicine and Lymphoid Malignancies Unit, Henri Mondor Hospital, Creteil (France); Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Casasnovas, Rene-Olivier [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Georges-Francois Leclerc Center, Le Bocage Hospital, Dijon (France); Biggi, Alberto; Gallamini, Andrea [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Santa Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Siegel, Barry A.; Cashen, Amanda F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vera, Pierre; Tilly, Herve [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Henri Becquerel Center, Rouen (France); Versari, Annibale [Nuclear Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We investigated the prognostic value of total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). TMTV was measured in 114 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at baseline before immunochemotherapy. TMTV was computed by summing the volumes of all lymphomatous lesions after applying the local SUVmax threshold of 41 % using semiautomatic software. Prognostic value was assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median follow-up was 39 months. Average pretherapy TMTV was 509 ± 568 cm{sup 3}. The 3-year estimates of PFS were 77 % in the low metabolic burden group (TMTV ≤550 cm{sup 3}) and 60 % in the high metabolic burden group (TMTV >550 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.04), and prediction of OS was even better (87 % vs. 60 %, p = 0.0003). Cox regression showed independence of TMTV for OS prediction (p = 0.002) compared with other pretherapy indices of tumour burden, such as tumour bulk and the International Prognostic Index. Pretherapy TMTV is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with DLBCL. (orig.)

  14. A second-order cell-centered Lagrangian ADER-MOOD finite volume scheme on multidimensional unstructured meshes for hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscheri, Walter; Dumbser, Michael; Loubère, Raphaël; Maire, Pierre-Henri

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we develop a conservative cell-centered Lagrangian finite volume scheme for the solution of the hydrodynamics equations on unstructured multidimensional grids. The method is derived from the Eucclhyd scheme discussed in [47,43,45]. It is second-order accurate in space and is combined with the a posteriori Multidimensional Optimal Order Detection (MOOD) limiting strategy to ensure robustness and stability at shock waves. Second-order of accuracy in time is achieved via the ADER (Arbitrary high order schemes using DERivatives) approach. A large set of numerical test cases is proposed to assess the ability of the method to achieve effective second order of accuracy on smooth flows, maintaining an essentially non-oscillatory behavior on discontinuous profiles, general robustness ensuring physical admissibility of the numerical solution, and precision where appropriate.

  15. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively....... None of the investigated categorical and quantitative parameters (cutoff points = means) reached the level of significance with respect to prognostic value. However, nuclear Vv showed the best information concerning survival (2p = 0.08), and this estimator offers optimal features for objective...

  16. Performance of a parallel plate volume cell prototype for a fast iron/gas calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzeti, A.; Civinini, C.; D'alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present the first test of the application of the parallel plate chamber principles for the design of a very fast and radiation-hard iron/gas sampling calorimeter, suitable for very forward regions in detectors for LBC; based on the use of thick iron plates as electrodes. We have built a one cell prototype consisting of three parallel thick iron plates (117 mn each). Results on efficiencies and mean collected charge for minimum ionizing particles with different gases are presented. (Author)

  17. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  18. Red blood cell-derived microparticles isolated from blood units initiate and propagate thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Olivier; Delobel, Julien; Prudent, Michel; Lion, Niels; Kohl, Kid; Tucker, Erik I; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne

    2013-08-01

    Red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) are small phospholipid vesicles shed from RBCs in blood units, where they accumulate during storage. Because microparticles are bioactive, it could be suggested that RMPs are mediators of posttransfusion complications or, on the contrary, constitute a potential hemostatic agent. This study was performed to establish the impact on coagulation of RMPs isolated from blood units. Using calibrated automated thrombography, we investigated whether RMPs affect thrombin generation (TG) in plasma. We found that RMPs were not only able to increase TG in plasma in the presence of a low exogenous tissue factor (TF) concentration, but also to initiate TG in plasma in absence of exogenous TF. TG induced by RMPs in the absence of exogenous TF was neither affected by the presence of blocking anti-TF nor by the absence of Factor (F)VII. It was significantly reduced in plasma deficient in FVIII or F IX and abolished in FII-, FV-, FX-, or FXI-deficient plasma. TG was also totally abolished when anti-XI 01A6 was added in the sample. Finally, neither Western blotting, flow cytometry, nor immunogold labeling allowed the detection of traces of TF antigen. In addition, RMPs did not comprise polyphosphate, an important modulator of coagulation. Taken together, our data show that RMPs have FXI-dependent procoagulant properties and are able to initiate and propagate TG. The anionic surface of RMPs might be the site of FXI-mediated TG amplification and intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complex assembly. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  19. Environmental, health, and safety issues of fuel cells in transportation. Volume 1: Phosphoric acid fuel-cell buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, S

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Phosphoric Acid Fuel-Cell (PAFC) Bus Program to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cells in heavy-duty transportation systems. As part of this program, PAFC- powered buses are being built to meet transit industry design and performance standards. Test-bed bus-1 (TBB-1) was designed in 1993 and integrated in March 1994. TBB-2 and TBB-3 are under construction and should be integrated in early 1995. In 1987 Phase I of the program began with the development and testing of two conceptual system designs- liquid- and air-cooled systems. The liquid-cooled PAFC system was chosen to continue, through a competitive award, into Phase H, beginning in 1991. Three hybrid buses, which combine fuel-cell and battery technologies, were designed during Phase III. After completing Phase II, DOE plans a comprehensive performance testing program (Phase HI) to verify that the buses meet stringent transit industry requirements. The Phase III study will evaluate the PAFC bus and compare it to a conventional diesel bus. This NREL study assesses the environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues that may affect the commercialization of the PAFC bus. Because safety is a critical factor for consumer acceptance of new transportation-based technologies the study focuses on these issues. The study examines health and safety together because they are integrally related. In addition, this report briefly discusses two environmental issues that are of concern to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first issue involves a surge battery used by the PAFC bus that contains hazardous constituents. The second issue concerns the regulated air emissions produced during operation of the PAFC bus.

  20. A Caulobacter MreB mutant with irregular cell shape exhibits compensatory widening to maintain a preferred surface area to volume ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leigh K.; Dye, Natalie A.; Theriot, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Rod-shaped bacteria typically elongate at a uniform width. To investigate the genetic and physiological determinants involved in this process, we studied a mutation in the morphogenetic protein MreB in Caulobacter crescentus that gives rise to cells with a variable-width phenotype, where cells have regions that are both thinner and wider than wild-type. During growth, individual cells develop a balance of wide and thin regions, and mutant MreB dynamically localizes to poles and thin regions. Surprisingly, the surface area to volume ratio of these irregularly-shaped cells is, on average, very similar to wild-type. We propose that, while mutant MreB localizes to thin regions and promotes rod-like growth there, wide regions develop as a compensatory mechanism, allowing cells to maintain a wild-type-like surface area to volume ratio. To support this model, we have shown that cell widening is abrogated in growth conditions that promote higher surface area to volume ratios, and we have observed individual cells with high ratios return to wild-type levels over several hours by developing wide regions, suggesting that compensation can take place at the level of individual cells. PMID:25266768

  1. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  2. Successful Large-volume Leukapheresis for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Collection in a Very-low-weight Brain Tumor Infant with Coagulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Liao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral apheresis has become a safe procedure to collect hematopoietic stem cells, even in pediatric patients and donors. However, the apheresis procedure for small and sick children is more complicated due to difficult venous access, relatively large extracorporeal volume, toxicity of citrate, and unstable hemostasis. We report a small and sick child with refractory medulloblastoma, impaired liver function, and coagulopathy after several major cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. She successfully received large-volume leukapheresis for hematopoietic stem cell collection, although the patient experienced severe coagulopathy during the procedures. Health care providers should be alert to this potential risk.

  3. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence and mortality trends in the United States, 1973-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Sirjani, Davud; Devine, Erin E

    2017-10-31

    To analyze oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence and mortality trends in the United States for the years 1973 through 2013. Cross-sectional study using a large population-based cancer database. Data on incidence and mortality rates were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 Database. Annual percentage change in rates was calculated using Joinpoint regression analysis (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD). Incidence rates increased (annual percent change [APC]; 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17 to 2.88) from 1973 to 1983, remained stable (APC -0.52, 95% CI -1.30 to 0.26) from 1983 to 1997, and increased (APC 1.32, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.81) from 1997 to 2013. Overall, incidence rates increased for males (APC 0.73, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.25) but not females (APC -0.77, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.82). Incidence rates increased in the white population (APC 0.79, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.25) but decreased in the black population (APC -0.72, 95% CI -1.41 to -0.02). The incidence rates increased for tongue-base tumors (APC 1.17, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.92) and tonsil tumors (APC 0.47, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.96) but decreased for other sites. Incidence-based mortality decreased (APC -0.78, 95% CI -1.13 to -0.42) from 1993 to 2013. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence rates increased in a nonlinear fashion from 1973 to 2013, whereas mortality rates declined. This, along with variation in trends by demographic and tumor factors, suggest that human papilloma virus is the main driver of the recent rise in incidence. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Vakili

    Full Text Available On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea. Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  5. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-01-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S −1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T gt (s) via growth rate v (m s −1 ): V×S −1  = v gr ×T r . The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m 3 ), minimum and maximum doubling time T dt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S −1  = 4.46⋅10 −11 ×T dt was found, where v gr  = 4.46×10 −11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v gr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v gr >h/2π and T dt ×M×v gr 2 >h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10 −34 J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  6. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2014-10-01

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S-1 (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time Tgt(s) via growth rate v (m s-1): V×S-1 = vgr×Tr. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m3), minimum and maximum doubling time Tdt (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program `Statistics' is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S-1 = 4.46ṡ10-11×Tdt was found, where vgr = 4.46×10-11 m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate vgr satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×vgr>h/2π and Tdt×M×vgr2>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10-34 Jṡs is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

  7. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov, E-mail: atanastod@abv.bg [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University, 11 Armeiska Str., 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria)

    2014-10-06

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S{sup −1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup −1}): V×S{sup −1} = v{sub gr}×T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ρ (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S{sup −1} = 4.46⋅10{sup −11}×T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr} = 4.46×10{sup −11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v{sub gr}>h/2π and T{sub dt}×M×v{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2π are valid, where h= 6.626×10{sup −34} J⋅s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?.

  8. Performance of a parallel plate volume cell prototype for a fast iron/gas calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzeti, A.; Civinini, C.; D' Alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.; Malinin, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Pojidaev, V.

    1993-07-01

    We present the first test of the application of the parallel plate chamber principles for the design of a very fast and radiation-hard iron/gas sampling calorimeter, suitable for very forward regions in detectors for LHC, based on the use of thick iron plates as electrodes. We have built a one cell prototype consisting of three parallel thick iron plates (17 mm each). Results on efficiencies and mean collected charge for minimum ionizing particles with different gases are presented. (Author) 7 refs.

  9. Performance of a parallel plate volume cell prototype for a fast iron/gas calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzeti, A.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.; Malinin, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Pojidaev, V.

    1993-01-01

    We present the first test of the application of the parallel plate chamber principles for the design of a very fast and radiation-hard iron/gas sampling calorimeter, suitable for very forward regions in detectors for LHC, based on the use of thick iron plates as electrodes. We have built a one cell prototype consisting of three parallel thick iron plates (17 mm each). Results on efficiencies and mean collected charge for minimum ionizing particles with different gases are presented. (Author) 7 refs

  10. A cost effective model for appropriate administration of red cell units and salvaging un-transfused red cell units by using temperature sensitive indicators for blood component transportation in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A rule called "30-min rule" defines that red cell unit cannot be used if it has been out of blood bank refrigerator for over 30 min. This rule is useful to guide initiation of transfusion, but is inadequate for deciding whether to reuse or discard units received-back at blood transfusion services (BTS. A simple cost-effective temperature-sensitive indicator was evaluated to decide upon reuse (cold chain was uninterrupted or discard (where cold chain was interrupted in a simulation exercise. Materials and Methods: Temperature-sensitive indicators TH-F™ that irreversibly changed color from white to red demonstrated that heat excursion has occurred and the cumulative temperature has exceeded 10°C for over 30 min, were used in outdated red cells for simulating units, which are not used and received-back. These units were also tagged with a standard temperature monitoring device, which was a re-usable credit card sized device, which would log the actual time and temperature. In few units percent hemolysis was also calculated. Results: Statistically insignificant elevation in average temperature was noted in 102 simulated units at the time of return to BTS (Δ 0.04°C, despite the fact that these units were in the transport box for over 4 h. The average supernatant hemoglobin in these units was 0.24%, much below the prescribed threshold. Conclusion: Transportation of blood in controlled conditions with temperature-sensitive indicator is a cost-effective model to save blood, a precious human resource.

  11. The role of total cell-free DNA in predicting outcomes among trauma patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Mikail; Burcharth, Jakob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials and reference lists of relevant articles for studies that assessed the prognostic value of cell-free DNA detection in trauma patients in the intensive care unit. Outcomes of interest included survival, posttraumatic...

  12. Comparison of six methods of segmentation of tumor volume on the {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET scan with reference histological volume in non small cell bronchopulmonary cancers; Comparaison de six methodes de segmentation du volume tumoral sur la {sup 18}F-FDG TEP-TDM avec le volume de reference anatomopathologique dans les cancers bronchopulmonaires non a petites cellules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venel, Y.; Garhi, H.; Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier-Aesch, C. [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 37 - Tours (France); Muret, A. de [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service de Radiotherapie, 37 - Tours (France); Barillot, I. [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service d' Anatomopathologie, 37 - Tours (France)

    2008-06-15

    The {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET has demonstrated its importance in oncology, for initial extension and efficacy of anti tumoral therapeutics. Several studies have attempted to prove its utility to define tumoral volumes for conformational radiotherapy in non small cell lung cancers. Some authors have suggested the use of threshold of tumor intensity uptake with 40 or 50% of maximal intensity. Black et al. have determined contouring with linear regression formula of mean semi-quantitative index of tumor uptake (standard uptake value): SUV{sub threshold} = 0.307 Sub{sub average} + 0.588. Nestle et al. have taken into account the background noise intensity and mean intensity of the tumor: I{sub threshold} = {beta} I{sub average} +I{sub noise} with {beta} 0.15. Our study was done in collaboration with Inserm U618 team and has compared volumes defined on PET scan defined according to different methods based on intensity or S.U.V. to the tumour volume determined on CT scan by radio physicist. We have compared those volumes with histological volume that we considered for reference. Four patients have been included. They had {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET scan followed by complete tumoral removal surgery. Specific histological procedure allowed to define complete size of the tumor in re expanded lung. Comparatively to pathology, the volumes obtained using I{sub max} 40 and I{sub max} 50 are all underestimated. The volumes defined by Black's et al. method are under evaluated for the two largest tumours (15.8% to 22%) and overestimated for the two smallest ones (17.9 to 82.9%). Nestle's et al. method, using {beta} = 0.15, correctly estimates two tumor volumes over 2 cm, but overestimates the two small tumors (79.6 to 124%). Finally, the corrected Nestle's et al. formula (using {beta} = 0.264) overestimates three tumours. Volumes defined on CT scan by radio physicist are correct for one lesion, underestimated for one and overestimated for two other ones (44 and 179.5%). Nestle

  13. HTR-PROTEUS benchmark calculations. Pt. 1. Unit cell results LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Klippel, H.T.; Kuijper, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched (LEU) HTGRs' calculational benchmarks are performed on the basis of LEU-HTR pebble-bed critical experiments carried out in the PROTEUS facility at PSI, Switzerland. Of special interest is the treatment of the double heterogeneity of the fuel and the spherical fuel elements of these pebble bed core configurations. Also of interest is the proper calculation of the safety related physics parameters like the effect of water ingress and control rod worth. This document describes the ECN results of the LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2 unitcell calculations performed with the codes WIMS-E, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A. Results of the LEUPRO-1 unit cell with 20% water ingress in the void is also reported for both the single and the double heterogeneous case. Emphasis is put on the intercomparison of the results obtained by the deterministic codes WIMS-E and SCALE-4, and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The LEUPRO whole core calculations will be reported later. (orig.)

  14. Results and analysis of saltstone cores taken from saltstone disposal unit cell 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    As part of an ongoing Performance Assessment (PA) Maintenance Plan, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has developed a sampling and analyses strategy to facilitate the comparison of field-emplaced samples (i.e., saltstone placed and cured in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU)) with samples prepared and cured in the laboratory. The primary objectives of the Sampling and Analyses Plan (SAP) are; (1) to demonstrate a correlation between the measured properties of laboratory-prepared, simulant samples (termed Sample Set 3), and the field-emplaced saltstone samples (termed Sample Set 9), and (2) to validate property values assumed for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) PA modeling. The analysis and property data for Sample Set 9 (i.e. six core samples extracted from SDU Cell 2A (SDU2A)) are documented in this report, and where applicable, the results are compared to the results for Sample Set 3. Relevant properties to demonstrate the aforementioned objectives include bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC), and radionuclide leaching behavior.

  15. Combined UMC- DFT prediction of electron-hole coupling in unit cells of pentacene crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Luciano Almeida; de Souza Júnior, Rafael Timóteo; de Almeida Fonseca, Antonio Luciano; Ribeiro Junior, Luiz Antonio; Blawid, Stefan; da Silva Filho, Demetrio Antonio; da Cunha, Wiliam Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Pentacene is an organic semiconductor that draws special attention from the scientific community due to the high mobility of its charge carriers. As electron-hole interactions are important aspects in the regard of such property, a computationally inexpensive method to predict the coupling between these quasi-particles is highly desired. In this work, we propose a hybrid methodology of combining Uncoupled Monte Carlo Simulations (UMC) and Density functional Theory (DFT) methodologies to obtain a good compromise between computational feasibility and accuracy. As a first step in considering a Pentacene crystal, we describe its unit cell: the Pentacene Dimer. Because many conformations can be encountered for the dimer and considering the complexity of the system, we make use of UMC in order to find the most probable structures and relative orientations for the Pentacene-Pentacene complex. Following, we carry out electronic structure calculations in the scope of DFT with the goal of describing the electron-hole coupling on the most probable configurations obtained by UMC. The comparison of our results with previously reported data on the literature suggests that the methodology is well suited for describing transfer integrals of organic semiconductors. The observed accuracy together with the smaller computational cost required by our approach allows us to conclude that such methodology might be an important tool towards the description of systems with higher complexity.

  16. New solar cell and clean unit system platform (CUSP) for earth and environmental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Enomoto, R.; Yasutake, M.

    2017-11-01

    We have investigated InGaN-based multi-striped orthogonal photon-photocarrier propagation solar cell (MOP3SC) in which sunlight propagates in a direction being orthogonal to that of photocarriers generated by the sunlight. Thanks to the orthogonality, in MOP3SC, absorption of the sunlight and collection of the photocarriers can be simultaneously and independently optimized with no trade-off. Furthermore, by exploiting the degree of freedom along the photon propagation and using multi-semiconductor stripes in which the incoming photons first encounter the widest gap semiconductor, and the narrowest at last, we can convert the whole solar spectrum into electricity resulting in the high conversion efficiency. For processing MOP3SC, we have developed Clean Unit System Platform (CUSP), which turns out to be able to serve as clean versatile environment having low power-consumption and high cost-performance. CUSP is suitable not only for processing devices, but also for cross-disciplinary fields, including medical/hygienic applications.

  17. Regulated phosphorylation of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC3 at dual C-terminal threonines is a potent switch of intracellular potassium content and cell volume homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma C. Adragna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The defense of cell volume against excessive shrinkage or swelling is a requirement for cell function and organismal survival. Cell swelling triggers a coordinated homeostatic response termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD, resulting in K+ and Cl– efflux via the activation of K+ channels, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, and the K+-Cl– cotransporters, including KCC3. Here, we show genetic alanine (Ala substitution at threonines (Thr 991 and 1048 in the KCC3a isoform carboxyl-terminus, preventing inhibitory phosphorylation at these sites, not only significantly up-regulates KCC3a activity up to 25-fold in normally inhibitory isotonic conditions, but is also accompanied by reversal of activity of the related bumetanide-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl– cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1. This results in a rapid (90 % reduction in intracellular K+ content (Ki via both Cl-dependent (KCC3a + NKCC1 and Cl-independent (DCPIB [VRAC inhibitor]-sensitive pathways, which collectively renders cells less prone to acute swelling in hypotonic osmotic stress. Together, these data demonstrate the phosphorylation state of Thr991/Thr1048 in the KCC3a encodes a potent switch of transporter activity, Ki homeostasis, and cell volume regulation, and reveal novel observations into the functional interaction among ion transport molecules involved in RVD.

  18. Regulated phosphorylation of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC3 is a molecular switch of intracellular potassium content and cell volume homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adragna, Norma C; Ravilla, Nagendra B; Lauf, Peter K; Begum, Gulnaz; Khanna, Arjun R; Sun, Dandan; Kahle, Kristopher T

    2015-01-01

    The defense of cell volume against excessive shrinkage or swelling is a requirement for cell function and organismal survival. Cell swelling triggers a coordinated homeostatic response termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD), resulting in K(+) and Cl(-) efflux via activation of K(+) channels, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs), and the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters, including KCC3. Here, we show genetic alanine (Ala) substitution at threonines (Thr) 991 and 1048 in the KCC3a isoform carboxyl-terminus, preventing inhibitory phosphorylation at these sites, not only significantly up-regulates KCC3a activity up to 25-fold in normally inhibitory isotonic conditions, but is also accompanied by reversal of activity of the related bumetanide-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1). This results in a rapid (90%) reduction in intracellular K(+) content (Ki) via both Cl-dependent (KCC3a + NKCC1) and Cl-independent [DCPIB (VRAC inhibitor)-sensitive] pathways, which collectively renders cells less prone to acute swelling in hypotonic osmotic stress. Together, these data demonstrate the phosphorylation state of Thr991/Thr1048 in KCC3a encodes a potent switch of transporter activity, Ki homeostasis, and cell volume regulation, and reveal novel observations into the functional interaction among ion transport molecules involved in RVD.

  19. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells : The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.M.; Yavari, S.A.; Wauthle, R.; Pouran, B.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited,

  20. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    A by-pass unit suitable for placement of a number of different probes for corrosion monitoring has been designed. Also measurements of water parameters are allowed in a side stream from the unit. The project is a part of the Nordic Innovation Fund project KORMOF. The by-pass unit has been installed...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...

  1. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an in balance between the strength (structural integrity......) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficult to investigate due to non-linear scaling laws. The paper describes a method by which impact loads on....... slender armour units can be studied. by load-cell technique. Moreover, the paper presents DoJos design diagrams for the prediction of both breakage and hydraulic stability...

  2. Risk factors for death in 632 patients with sickle cell disease in the United States and United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T Gladwin

    Full Text Available The role of pulmonary hypertension as a cause of mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD is controversial.We evaluated the relationship between an elevated estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure and mortality in patients with SCD. We followed patients from the walk-PHaSST screening cohort for a median of 29 months. A tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV≥ 3.0 m/s cuttof, which has a 67-75% positive predictive value for mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg was used. Among 572 subjects, 11.2% had TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec. Among 582 with a measured NT-proBNP, 24.1% had values ≥ 160 pg/mL. Of 22 deaths during follow-up, 50% had a TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec. At 24 months the cumulative survival was 83% with TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec and 98% with TRV 47 years, male gender, chronic transfusions, WHO class III-IV, increased hemolytic markers, ferritin and creatinine were also associated with increased risk of death.A TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec occurs in approximately 10% of individuals and has the highest risk for death of any measured variable. The study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier: NCT00492531.

  3. The effect of major adverse renal cardiovascular event (MARCE) incidence, procedure volume, and unit cost on the hospital savings resulting from contrast media use in inpatient angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffel, Eric; McCullough, Peter A; Todoran, Thomas M; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Palli, Swetha R; Ryan, Michael P; Gunnarsson, Candace

    2018-04-01

    To determine the net economic impact of switching from low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) to iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM; iodixanol) in patients undergoing inpatient coronary or peripheral angioplasty in the United States (US). A budget impact model (BIM) was developed from a hospital perspective. Nationally representative procedural and contrast media prevalence rates, along with MARCE (major adverse renal cardiovascular event) incidence and episode-related cost data were derived from Premier Hospital Data (October 2014 to September 2015). A previously estimated relative risk reduction in MARCE associated with IOCM usage (9.3%) was applied. The higher cost of IOCM was included when calculating the net impact estimates at the aggregate, hospital type, and per hospital levels. One-way (±25%) and probabilistic sensitivity analyses identified the model's most important inputs. Based on weighted analysis, 513,882 US inpatient angioplasties and 35,610 MARCE cases were estimated annually. Switching to an "IOCM only" strategy from a "LOCM only" strategy increases contrast media cost, but prevents 2,900 MARCE events. The annual budget impact was an estimated saving of $30.71 million, aggregated across all US hospitals, $6,316 per hospital, or $60 per procedure. Net savings were maintained across all univariate sensitivity analyses. While MARCE/event-free cost differential was the most important factor driving total net savings for hospitals in the Northeast and West, procedural volume was important in the Midwest and rural locations. Switching to an "IOCM only" strategy from a "LOCM only" approach yields substantial net global savings to hospitals, both at the national level and within hospital sub-groups. Hospital administrators should maintain awareness of the factors that are likely to be more influential for their hospital and recognize that purchasing on the basis of lower contrast media cost may result in higher overall costs for patients undergoing inpatient

  4. Primary Tumor Volume Is an Important Predictor of Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck Treated With Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongin, Anna; Yovino, Susannah; Taylor, Rodney; Wolf, Jeffrey; Cullen, Kevin; Zimrin, Ann; Strome, Scott; Regine, William; Suntharalingam, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The tumor volume has been established as a significant predictor of outcomes among patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy alone. The present study attempted to add to the existing data on tumor volume as a prognostic factor among patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients who had undergone definitive chemoradiotherapy for Stage III-IV squamous cell cancer of the hypopharynx, oropharynx, and larynx were identified. The primary tumor volumes were calculated from the treatment planning computed tomography scans, and these were correlated to the survival and tumor control data obtained from the retrospective analysis. Results: The interval to progression correlated with the primary tumor volume (p = .007). The critical cutoff point for the tumor volume was identified as 35 cm 3 , and patients with a tumor volume 3 had a significantly better prognosis than those with a tumor volume >35 cm 3 at 5 years (43% vs. 71%, p = .010). Longer survival was also correlated with smaller primary tumor volumes (p = .022). Similarly, patients with a primary tumor volume 3 had a better prognosis in terms of both progression-free survival (61% vs. 33%, p = .004) and overall survival (84% vs. 41%, p = 3 larger than tumors without locoregional failure (p = .028) and 27.1-cm 3 larger than tumors that recurred as distant metastases (p = .020). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the primary tumor volume is a significant prognostic factor in patients with advanced cancer of the head and neck undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy and correlated with the treatment outcomes better than the T or N stage.

  5. Sex differences in cell genesis, hippocampal volume and behavioral outcomes in a rat model of neonatal HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Hanscom, Marie; Shalon Edwards, N; McKenna, Mary C; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) of the brain in near-term and term infants is a leading cause of infant mortality and lifelong disability but current therapeutic approaches remain limited. Males consistently display greater vulnerability to the deleterious consequences of HI in both humans and animal models. Neurogenesis increases after neonatal HI and offers a potential therapeutic target for recovery. The steroid hormone estradiol has been extensively explored as a neuroprotectant in adult models of stroke but with mixed results. Less consideration has been afforded to this naturally occurring agent in the developing brain, which has unique challenges from the adult. Using a model of term HI in the rat we have explored the impact of this insult on cell genesis in the hippocampus of males and females and the ability of estradiol treatment immediately after insult to restore function. Both short-term (3 days) and long-term (7 days) post-injury were assessed and revealed that only females had markedly increased cell genesis on the short-term but both sexes were increased long-term. A battery of behavioral tests revealed motor impairment in males and compromised episodic memory while both sexes were modestly impaired in spatial memory. Juvenile social play was also depressed in both sexes after HI. Estradiol therapy improved behavioral performance in both sexes but did not reverse a deficit in hippocampal volume ipsilateral to the insult. Thus the effects of estradiol do not appear to be via cell death or proliferation but rather involve other components of neural functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Sex differences in cell genesis, hippocampal volume and behavioral outcomes in a rat model of neonatal HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Hanscom, Marie; Edwards, N. Shalon; McKenna, Mary C.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia ischemia (HI) of the brain in near-term and term infants is a leading cause of infant mortality and lifelong disability but current therapeutic approaches remain limited. Males consistently display greater vulnerability to the deleterious consequences of HI in both humans and animal models. Neurogenesis increases after neonatal HI and offers a potential therapeutic target for recovery. The steroid hormone estradiol has been extensively explored as a neuroprotectant in adult models of stroke but with mixed results. Less consideration has been afforded to this naturally occurring agent in the developing brain, which has unique challenges from the adult. Using a model of term HI in the rat we have explored the impact of this insult on cell genesis in the hippocampus of males and females and the ability of estradiol treatment immediately after insult to restore function. Both short-term (3 days) and long-term (7 days) post-injury were assessed and revealed that only females had markedly increased cell genesis on the short-term but both sexes were increased long-term. A battery of behavioral tests revealed motor impairment in males and compromised episodic memory while both sexes were modestly impaired in spatial memory. Juvenile social play was also depressed in both sexes after HI. Estradiol therapy improved behavioral performance in both sexes but did not reverse a deficit in hippocampal volume ipsilateral to the insult. Thus the effects of estradiol do not appear to be via cell death or proliferation but rather involve other components of neural functioning. PMID:26376217

  7. Importance of a diffusion-dominant small volume to activate cell-secreted soluble factor signaling in embryonic stem cell culture in microbioreactors: a mathematical model based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Mahfuz; Fujii, Teruo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2013-07-01

    In our previous studies, we observed that cell-secreted BMP4 had a prominent influence on mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) behaviors in a membrane-based two-chambered microbioreactor (MB), but not in a macro-scale culture (6-well plate/6WP). In this study, we investigated how the physical aspects of these cultures regulated BMP4 signaling by developing mathematical models of the cultures. The models estimated signaling activity in the cultures by considering size of the undifferentiated mESC colonies and their growth, diffusion of BMP4, and BMP4 trafficking process in the colonies. The models successfully depicted measured profile of BMP4 concentration in the culture medium which was two times higher in the MB than that in the 6WP during 5-day culture. The models estimated that, owing to the small volume and the membrane, cells were exposed to a higher BMP4 concentration in the top chamber of the MB than that in the 6WP culture. The higher concentration of BMP4 induced a higher concentration of BMP4-bound receptor in the colony in the MB than in the 6WP, thereby leading to the higher activation of BMP4 signaling in the MB. The models also predicted that the size of the MB, but not that of the 6WP, was suitable for maximizing BMP4 accumulation and upregulating its signaling. This study will be helpful in analyzing culture systems, designing microfluidic devices for controlling ESC or other cell behavior. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Need for Elective Primary Posterior Lumbar Fusion in A High-Volume Center for Spine Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristagno, Giuseppe; Beluffi, Simonetta; Tanzi, Dario; Belloli, Federica; Carmagnini, Paola; Croci, Massimo; D’Aviri, Giuseppe; Menasce, Guido; Pastore, Juan C.; Pellanda, Armando; Pollini, Alberto; Savoia, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    (1) Background: This study evaluated the perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion need and determined predictors for transfusion in patients undergoing elective primary lumbar posterior spine fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery. (2) Methods: Data from all patients undergoing spine surgery between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016 were reviewed. Patients’ demographics and comorbidities, perioperative laboratory results, and operative time were analyzed in relation to RBC transfusion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of transfusion. (3) Results: A total of 874 elective surgeries for primary spine fusion were performed over the three years. Only 54 cases (6%) required RBC transfusion. Compared to the non-transfused patients, transfused patients were mainly female (p = 0.0008), significantly older, with a higher ASA grade (p = 0.0002), and with lower pre-surgery hemoglobin (HB) level and hematocrit (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate logistic regression, a lower pre-surgery HB (OR (95% CI) 2.84 (2.11–3.82)), a higher ASA class (1.77 (1.03–3.05)) and a longer operative time (1.02 (1.01–1.02)) were independently associated with RBC transfusion. (4) Conclusions: In the instance of elective surgery for primary posterior lumbar fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery, the need for RBC transfusion is low. Factors anticipating transfusion should be taken into consideration in the patient’s pre-surgery preparation. PMID:29385760

  9. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Need for Elective Primary Posterior Lumbar Fusion in A High-Volume Center for Spine Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ristagno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: This study evaluated the perioperative red blood cell (RBC transfusion need and determined predictors for transfusion in patients undergoing elective primary lumbar posterior spine fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery. (2 Methods: Data from all patients undergoing spine surgery between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016 were reviewed. Patients’ demographics and comorbidities, perioperative laboratory results, and operative time were analyzed in relation to RBC transfusion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of transfusion. (3 Results: A total of 874 elective surgeries for primary spine fusion were performed over the three years. Only 54 cases (6% required RBC transfusion. Compared to the non-transfused patients, transfused patients were mainly female (p = 0.0008, significantly older, with a higher ASA grade (p = 0.0002, and with lower pre-surgery hemoglobin (HB level and hematocrit (p < 0.0001. In the multivariate logistic regression, a lower pre-surgery HB (OR (95% CI 2.84 (2.11–3.82, a higher ASA class (1.77 (1.03–3.05 and a longer operative time (1.02 (1.01–1.02 were independently associated with RBC transfusion. (4 Conclusions: In the instance of elective surgery for primary posterior lumbar fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery, the need for RBC transfusion is low. Factors anticipating transfusion should be taken into consideration in the patient’s pre-surgery preparation.

  10. Improved longitudinal length accuracy of gross tumor volume delineation with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Dong-Liang; Shi, Gao-Feng; Gao, Xian-Shu; Asaumi, Junichi; Li, Xue-Ying; Liu, Hui; Yao, Chen; Chang, Joe Y

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the longitudinal length accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Forty-two patients from December 2011 to June 2012 with esophageal SCC who underwent radical surgery were analyzed. Routine computed tomography (CT) scan, T2-weighted MRI and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) were employed before surgery. Diffusion-sensitive gradient b-values were taken at 400, 600, and 800 s/mm 2 . Gross tumor volumes (GTV) were delineated using CT, T2-weighted MRI and DWI on different b-value images. GTV longitude length measured using the imaging modalities listed above was compared with pathologic lesion length to determine the most accurate imaging modality. CMS Xio radiotherapy planning system was used to fuse DWI scans and CT images to investigate the possibility of delineating GTV on fused images. The differences between the GTV length according to CT, T2-weighted MRI and pathology were 3.63 ± 12.06 mm and 3.46 ± 11.41 mm, respectively. When the diffusion-sensitive gradient b-value was 400, 600, and 800 s/mm 2 , the differences between the GTV length using DWI and pathology were 0.73 ± 6.09 mm, -0.54 ± 6.03 mm and −1.58 ± 5.71 mm, respectively. DWI scans and CT images were fused accurately using the radiotherapy planning system. GTV margins were depicted clearly on fused images. DWI displays esophageal SCC lengths most precisely when compared with CT or regular MRI. DWI scans fused with CT images can be used to improve accuracy to delineate GTV in esophageal SCC

  11. Metabolically active tumour volume segmentation from dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET studies in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyng, Lieke L; Frings, Virginie; Hoekstra, Otto S; Kenny, Laura M; Aboagye, Eric O; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) can be used to assess tumour proliferation. A kinetic-filtering (KF) classification algorithm has been suggested for segmentation of tumours in dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET data. The aim of the present study was to evaluate KF segmentation and its test-retest performance in [(18)F]FLT PET in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Nine NSCLC patients underwent two 60-min dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET scans within 7 days prior to treatment. Dynamic scans were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) as well as with ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OSEM). Twenty-eight lesions were identified by an experienced physician. Segmentation was performed using KF applied to the dynamic data set and a source-to-background corrected 50% threshold (A50%) was applied to the sum image of the last three frames (45- to 60-min p.i.). Furthermore, several adaptations of KF were tested. Both for KF and A50% test-retest (TRT) variability of metabolically active tumour volume and standard uptake value (SUV) were evaluated. KF performed better on OSEM- than on FBP-reconstructed PET images. The original KF implementation segmented 15 out of 28 lesions, whereas A50% segmented each lesion. Adapted KF versions, however, were able to segment 26 out of 28 lesions. In the best performing adapted versions, metabolically active tumour volume and SUV TRT variability was similar to those of A50%. KF misclassified certain tumour areas as vertebrae or liver tissue, which was shown to be related to heterogeneous [(18)F]FLT uptake areas within the tumour. For [(18)F]FLT PET studies in NSCLC patients, KF and A50% show comparable tumour volume segmentation performance. The KF method needs, however, a site-specific optimisation. The A50% is therefore a good alternative for tumour segmentation in NSCLC [(18)F]FLT PET studies in multicentre studies. Yet, it was observed that KF has the potential to subsegment

  12. What is the reason for the doubled unit-cell volumes of copper-lead-rich pavonite homologues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Makovicky, Emil; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2008-01-01

    The crystal Structure of cupromakovickyite, ideally Cu8Pb4Ag2Bi18S36, from the skarn deposit at Baita Bihor, in Romania, has been solved by direct methods and refined to an RI index of 5.36% for 2680 unique reflections measured with MOKU radiation oil it four-circle diffractometer equipped...... parameter for cupromakovickyite with respect to makovickyite. To be able to compare them, the crystal structure of Cu-bearing makovickyite, Cu2.25Ag1.56 (Pb0.27Cd0.13)(Sigma 0.4)Bi10.46S18, from a scheelite deposit at Felbertal, in Austria, has been refined to in R, index of 4.36% for 1320 unique...

  13. First-Principles Studies of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) Single Crystal Unit Cell Volumes and Vibrational Frequencies under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Warren F.; Zhao, Jijun; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2006-07-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the PETN molecular crystal were calculated using the first-principles CRYSTAL03 program which employs an all-electron LCAO approach and calculates analytic first derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic displacements. Numerical second derivatives were used to enable calculation of the vibrational frequencies at ambient pressure and under various states of compression. Three different density functionals, B3LYP, PW91, and X3LYP were used to examine the effect of the exchange-correlation functional on the vibrational frequencies. The average deviation with experimental results is shown to be on the order of 2-3%, depending on the functional used. The pressure-induced shift of the vibrational frequencies is presented.

  14. Alterations in the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and swelling-activated Cl- current associated with neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemonnier, L.; Lazarenko, R.; Shuba, Y.; Thebault, S.C.; Roudbaraki, M.; Lepage, G.; Prevarskaya, N.; Skryma, R.

    2005-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation of prostate epithelial/basal cells is a hallmark of advanced, androgen-independent prostate cancer, for which there is no successful therapy. Here we report for the first time on alterations in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and its key determinant,

  15. 200-BP-11 operable unit and 216-B-3 main pond work/closure plan, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Volume 1: Field investigation and sampling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document coordinates a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) past-practice work plan for the 200-BP-11 Operable Unit and a RCRA closure/postclosure plan for the 216-B-3 Main Pond and 216-B-3-3 Ditch [treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit]. Both RCRA TSD and past-practice waste management units are contained within the 200-BP-11 Operable Unit. The 200-BP-11 Operable Unit is a source operable unit located on the east side of the B Plant Source Aggregate Area in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The operable unit lies just east of the 200 East Area perimeter fence and encompass approximately 476 hectares (1,175 acres). Source operable units include waste management units that are potential sources of radioactive and/or hazardous substance contamination. Source waste management units are categorized in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order as either RCRA TSD, RCRA past-practice, or Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) past-practice. As listed below and in the Tri-Party Agreement, the 200-BP-11 Operable Unit contains five RCRA past-practice and five RCRA TSD waste management units. Additionally, for RCRA TSD permitting purposes, the RCRA TSD waste management units are subdivided into two RCRA TSD units

  16. Effect Of Ionized Radiation On Blood Vessels And Neural Celle On Workers In Cardiac Catheterization Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgazzar, E.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The catheterization laboratory is generally considered an area where exposure to radiation is particularly high. Factors such as the configuration of the of the x-ray equipment, the number of cases per day, contribute to this relatively high level of exposure, which is amongst the highest in the hospital (Butler et al., 2006). Meanwhile, Systematic reviews of the published epidemiological literature and cardiovascular diseases or reviews of studies of populations medically, occupationally or environmentally exposed to relatively low-dose radiation concluded that there is a significant association (although with substantial heterogeneity) between radiation exposure and circulatory disease, either cardiovascular or cerebra-vascular. Vascular injury is a well recognized cause of late radiation therapy morbidity and this manifests as atherosclerosis in large vessels (Nagababu et al., 2009). Since the brain is among the most critical dose-limiting organs in radiotherapy, mainly due to the development of cognitive dysfunction following white matter disruption. The neuro-vascular unit is also vulnerable to radiation effects, and cerebra-vascular atherosclerotic damage is now considered proven (Raber, 2004). Circulating EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) has been shown to be isolated from bone marrow or circulating mononuclear cells that express a variety of endothelial surface markers. EPCs incorporate into sites of revascularization and home to sites of endothelial denudation. Initial clinical studies demonstrated that risk factors for atherosclerosis are associated with reduced levels of circulating EPCs and that the functional integrity of the endothelium correlates with the activities of EPCs (Losordo and Dimmeler 2004). Since oxidative processes are essential one of the main mechanisms associated with radiation induced hazardous effects and early ageing is an effect associated with radiation exposure, accordingly it can be suggested that low-dose irradiation

  17. Theoretical characterization and design of small molecule donor material containing naphthodithiophene central unit for efficient organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yu-Ai; Geng, Yun; Li, Hai-Bin; Jin, Jun-Ling; Wu, Yong; Su, Zhong-Min

    2013-07-15

    To seek for high-performance small molecule donor materials used in heterojunction solar cell, six acceptor-donor-acceptor small molecules based on naphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b']dithiophene (NDT) units with different acceptor units were designed and characterized using density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. Their geometries, electronic structures, photophysical, and charge transport properties have been scrutinized comparing with the reported donor material NDT(TDPP)2 (TDPP  =  thiophene-capped diketopyrrolopyrrole). The open circuit voltage (V(oc)), energetic driving force(ΔE(L-L)), and exciton binding energy (E(b)) were also provided to give an elementary understanding on their cell performance. The results reveal that the frontier molecular orbitals of 3-7 match well with the acceptor material PC61 BM, and compounds 3-5 were found to exhibit the comparable performances to 1 and show promising potential in organic solar cells. In particular, comparing with 1, system 7 with naphthobisthiadiazole acceptor unit displays broader absorption spectrum, higher V(oc), lower E(b), and similar carrier mobility. An in-depth insight into the nature of the involved excited states based on transition density matrix and charge density difference indicates that all S1 states are mainly intramolecular charge transfer states with the charge transfer from central NDT unit to bilateral acceptor units, and also imply that the exciton of 7 can be dissociated easily due to its large extent of the charge transfer. In a word, 7 maybe superior to 1 and may act as a promising donor candidate for organic solar cell. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Fermi surface properties of paramagnetic NpCd11 with a large unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yoshiya; Aoki, Dai; Haga, Yoshinori; Settai, Rikio; Sakai, Hironori; Ikeda, Shugo; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Nakamura, Akio; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2010-03-01

    We succeeded in growing a high-quality single crystal of NpCd11 with the cubic BaHg11-type structure by the Cd-self flux method. The lattice parameter of a = 9.2968(2) Å and crystallographic positions of the atoms were determined by x-ray single-crystal structure analysis. From the results of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat experiments, this compound is found to be a 5f-localized paramagnet with the singlet ground state in the crystalline electric field (CEF) scheme. Fermi surface properties were measured using the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) technique. Long-period oscillations were observed in the dHvA frequency range of 9.1 x 105 to 1.9 x 107 Oe, indicating small cross-sectional areas of Fermi surfaces, which is consistent with a small Brillouin zone based on a large unit cell. From the results of dHvA and magnetoresistance experiments, the Fermi surface of NpCd11 is found to consist of many kinds of closed Fermi surfaces and a multiply-connected-like Fermi surface, although the result of energy band calculations based on the 5f-localized Np3+(5f4) configuration reveals the existence of only closed Fermi surfaces. The corresponding cyclotron effective mass is small, ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m0, which is consistent with a small electronic specific heat coefficient γ ≅ 10mJ/K2·mol, revealing no hybridization between the 5f electrons and conduction electrons.

  19. Multi-sphere unit cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Antwerpen, W.; Rousseau, P.G.; Du Toit, C.G.

    2010-01-01

    A proper understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer, fluid flow and pressure drop through a packed bed of spheres is of utmost importance in the design of a high temperature Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). While the gas flows predominantly in the axial direction through the bed, the total effective thermal conductivity is a lumped parameter that characterises the total heat transfer in the radial direction through the packed bed. The study of the effective thermal conductivity is important because it forms an intricate part of the self-acting decay heat removal chain, which is directly related to the PBR safety case. The effective thermal conductivity is the summation of various heat transport phenomena. These are the enhanced thermal conductivity due to turbulent mixing as the fluid passes through the voids between pebbles, heat transfer due to the movement of the solid spheres and thermal conduction and thermal radiation between the spheres in a stagnant fluid environment. In this study, the conduction and radiation between the spheres are investigated. Firstly, existing correlations for the effective thermal conductivity are investigated, with particular attention given to its applicability in the near-wall region. Several phenomena in particular are examined namely: conduction through the spheres, conduction through the contact area between the spheres, conduction through the gas phase and radiation between solid surfaces. A new approach to simulate the effective thermal conductivity for randomly packed beds is then presented, namely the so-called Multi-sphere Unit Cell Model. The model is validated by comparing the results with that obtained in experiments. (authors)

  20. Indium phosphide solar cell research in the United States: Comparison with non-photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of the InP solar cell research program are presented. Homojunction cells with efficiencies approaching 19 percent are demonstrated, while 17 percent is achieved for ITO/InP cells. The superior radiation resistance of the two latter cell configurations over both Si and GaAs cells has been shown. InP cells aboard the LIPS3 satellite show no degradation after more than a year in orbit. Computed array specific powers are used to compare the performance of an InP solar cell array to solar dynamic and nuclear systems.

  1. THE FEATURES OF CONNEXINS EXPRESSION IN THE CELLS OF NEUROVASCLAR UNIT IN NORMAL CONDITIONS AND HYPOXIA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Morgun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess a role of connexin 43 (Cx43 and associated molecule CD38 in the regulation of cell-cell interactions in the neurovascular unit (NVU in vitro in physiological conditions and in hypoxia.Materials and methods. The study was done using the original neurovascular unit model in vitro. The NVU consisted of three cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and cerebral endothelial cells derived from rats. Hypoxia was induced by incubating cells with sodium iodoacetate for 30 min at37 °C in standard culture conditions.Results. We investigated the role of connexin 43 in the regulation of cell interactions within the NVU in normal and hypoxic injury in vitro. We found that astrocytes were characterized by high levels of expression of Cx43 and low level of CD38 expression, neurons demonstrated high levels of CD38 and low levels of Cx43. In hypoxic conditions, the expression of Cx43 and CD38 in astrocytes markedly increased while CD38 expression in neurons decreased, however no changes were found in endothelial cells. Suppression of Cx43 activity resulted in down-regulation of CD38 in NVU cells, both in physiological conditions and at chemical hypoxia.Conclusion. Thus, the Cx-regulated intercellular NAD+-dependent communication and secretory phenotype of astroglial cells that are the part of the blood-brain barrier is markedly changed in hypoxia.

  2. Deciphering the Role of Sulfonated Unit in Heparin-Mimicking Polymer to Promote Neural Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiehua; Yuan, Yuqi; Lyu, Zhonglin; Wang, Mengmeng; Liu, Qi; Wang, Hongwei; Yuan, Lin; Chen, Hong

    2017-08-30

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), especially heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), hold great potential for inducing the neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and have brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the disadvantages of natural heparin/HS, such as difficulty in isolating them with a sufficient amount, highly heterogeneous structure, and the risk of immune responses, have limited their further therapeutic applications. Thus, there is a great demand for stable, controllable, and well-defined synthetic alternatives of heparin/HS with more effective biological functions. In this study, based upon a previously proposed unit-recombination strategy, several heparin-mimicking polymers were synthesized by integrating glucosamine-like 2-methacrylamido glucopyranose monomers (MAG) with three sulfonated units in different structural forms, and their effects on cell proliferation, the pluripotency, and the differentiation of ESCs were carefully studied. The results showed that all the copolymers had good cytocompatibility and displayed much better bioactivity in promoting the neural differentiation of ESCs as compared to natural heparin; copolymers with different sulfonated units exhibited different levels of promoting ability; among them, copolymer with 3-sulfopropyl acrylate (SPA) as a sulfonated unit was the most potent in promoting the neural differentiation of ESCs; the promoting effect is dependent on the molecular weight and concentration of P(MAG-co-SPA), with the highest levels occurring at the intermediate molecular weight and concentration. These results clearly demonstrated that the sulfonated unit in the copolymers played an important role in determining the promoting effect on ESCs' neural differentiation; SPA was identified as the most potent sulfonated unit for copolymer with the strongest promoting ability. The possible reason for sulfonated unit structure as a vital factor influencing the ability of the copolymers

  3. Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units. Final report; Udvikling af integrerede DMFC og PEM braendselscelle enheder. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odgaard, M. (IRD Fuel Cell Technology, Svendborg (DK))

    2007-06-15

    The 36-month long project 'Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units' has been completed. The project goal was to develop a completely new MEA concept for integrated PEM and DMFC unit cells with enhanced power density and in this way obtain a price reduction. The integrated unit cell consists of a MEA, a gas diffusion layer with flow fields completed with bipolar plates and seals. The main focus of the present project was to: 1) Develop new catalyst materials fabricated by the use of FSD (flame spray deposition method). 2) Optimisation of the state-of-the-art MEA materials and electrode structure. 3) Implementation of a model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM fuel cells. Results and progress obtained in the project established that the individual unit cell components were able to meet and follow the road map of LT-PEM FC regarding electrode catalyst loading and fulfilled the targets for Year 2006. The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: 1) MEA structure knowledge acquired in the project provide a sound basis for further progress. 2) A novel method for the synthesis of electrode by using flame spray synthesis was explored. 3) Electrochemical and catalytic behaviours of catalysts activity for CH{sub 3}OH explored. 4) Implementation of a sub model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM FC has been developed. 5) Numerical study of the flow distribution in FC manifolds was developed and completed with experimental data. 6) The electrode catalyst loading targets for year 2006 achieved. 7) The DMFC MEA performance has been improved by 35%. 8) Optimisation of the MEAs fabrication process has been successfully developed. 9) A new simple flow field design has been designed. 10) A procedure for integrated seals has been developed (au)

  4. Changes in Hippocampal Volume are Correlated with Cell Loss but Not with Seizure Frequency in Two Chronic Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, Roberson S.; Malheiros, Jackeline M.; dos Santos, Renan; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M.; Tannús, Alberto; Mello, Luiz E.; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) or pilocarpine (PILO) have been used in rats to model human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but the distribution and severity of structural lesions between these two models may differ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used quantitative measurements of hippocampal T2 (T2HP) relaxation time and volume, but simultaneous comparative results have not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to compare the MRI T2HP and volume with histological data and frequency of seizures in both models. KA- and PILO-treated rats were imaged with a 2 T MRI scanner. T2HP and volume values were correlated with the number of cells, mossy fiber sprouting, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency over the 9 months following status epilepticus (SE). Compared to controls, KA-treated rats had unaltered T2HP, pronounced reduction in hippocampal volume and concomitant cell reduction in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3 at 3 months post SE. In contrast, hippocampal volume was unchanged in PILO-treated animals despite detectable increased T2HP and cell loss in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3. In the following 6 months, MRI hippocampal volume remained stable with increase of T2HP signal in the KA-treated group. The number of CA1 and CA3 cells was smaller than age-matched CTL group. In contrast, PILO group had MRI volumetric reduction accompanied by reduction in the number of CA1 and CA3 cells. In this group, T2HP signal was unaltered at 6 or 9 months after status. Reductions in the number of cells were not progressive in both models. Notably, the SRS frequency was higher in PILO than in the KA model. The volumetry data correlated well with tissue damage in the epileptic brain, suggesting that MRI may be useful for tracking longitudinal hippocampal changes, allowing the assessment of individual variability and disease progression. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in hippocampal morphology are distinct for both models of TLE and that

  5. A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for trucks: Analysis of direct and indirect hybrid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Baltzer, Sidney; Gnörich, Bruno; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for heavy duty vehicles is reported. • Comparison of direct and indirect hybrids using representative load profiles. • Evaluation based on validated fuel cell system and battery models. • Indirect hybrid with constant fuel cell load yields 29.3% hybrid system efficiency. • Fuel cell should be pre-heated using waste heat from the diesel engine during drive. - Abstract: The idling operation of engines in heavy duty vehicles to cover electricity demand during layovers entails significant fuel consumption and corresponding emissions. Indeed, this mode of operation is highly inefficient and a noteworthy contributor to the transportation sector’s aggregate carbon dioxide emissions. Here, a potential solution to this wasteful practice is outlined in the form of a hybrid battery-fuel cell system for application as an auxiliary power unit for trucks. Drawing on experimentally-validated fuel cell and battery models, several possible hybrid concepts are evaluated and direct and indirect hybrid configurations analyzed using a representative load profile. The results indicate that a direct hybrid configuration is only applicable if the load demand profile does not deviate strongly from the assumed profile. Operation of an indirect hybrid with a constant fuel cell load yields the greatest hybrid system efficiency, at 29.3%, while battery size could be reduced by 87% if the fuel cell is operated at the highest dynamics. Maximum efficiency in truck applications can be achieved by pre-heating the system prior to operation using exhaust heat from the motor, which increased system efficiency from 25.3% to 28.1%, including start-up. These findings confirm that hybrid systems could offer enormous fuel savings and constitute a sizeable step on the path toward energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly heavy duty vehicles that does not necessitate a fuel switch.

  6. Protein fiber linear dichroism for structure determination and kinetics in a low-volume, low-wavelength couette flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafforn, Timothy R; Rajendra, Jacindra; Halsall, David J; Serpell, Louise C; Rodger, Alison

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution structure determination of soluble globular proteins relies heavily on x-ray crystallography techniques. Such an approach is often ineffective for investigations into the structure of fibrous proteins as these proteins generally do not crystallize. Thus investigations into fibrous protein structure have relied on less direct methods such as x-ray fiber diffraction and circular dichroism. Ultraviolet linear dichroism has the potential to provide additional information on the structure of such biomolecular systems. However, existing systems are not optimized for the requirements of fibrous proteins. We have designed and built a low-volume (200 microL), low-wavelength (down to 180 nm), low-pathlength (100 microm), high-alignment flow-alignment system (couette) to perform ultraviolet linear dichroism studies on the fibers formed by a range of biomolecules. The apparatus has been tested using a number of proteins for which longer wavelength linear dichroism spectra had already been measured. The new couette cell has also been used to obtain data on two medically important protein fibers, the all-beta-sheet amyloid fibers of the Alzheimer's derived protein Abeta and the long-chain assemblies of alpha1-antitrypsin polymers.

  7. Comparison between hemoglobin and packed cell volume among young male and female students from a Medical College of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Q.U.A.

    2015-01-01

    To high light the importance of laboratory investigations for students and encourage them to participate in research. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out at Islamabad Medical and Dental College Islamabad for a three months period from April 1, 2014 to June 30, 2014. Students with age 18-20 years were chosen by convenience sampling for sample collection. Verbal consent was taken from candidates before sample collection. Packed cell volume (PCV) was measured by using Micro Hematocrit method and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration by Sahli acid haematin method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 106 students, there were 32 males and 74 females. Male participants had significantly greater Hb concentration and PCV as compared to females (p=0.05). Conclusion: Both Hb and PCV were significantly higher in males as compared to females of almost same age. For improving Hb concentration, dietary sources of iron and iron supplements may be used for better health of future generation. (author)

  8. Can radiological changes in lymph node volume during treatment predict success of radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Sanju; Hammond, Alexander; Read, Nancy; Venkatesan, Varagur; Warner, Andrew; Winquist, Eric; Nichols, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of nodal response after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is difficult, as both CT and positron emission tomography scanning have limited predictive value for residual disease. We sought to measure changes in nodal volume during RT to determine whether such changes are predictive of nodal disease control. Patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with 70Gy of radical RT (±chemotherapy or anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies) were eligible. Baseline pre-RT scans and cone-beam CT scans done at the outset of treatment and at weeks 3, 5 and 7 (cone-beam CTs 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively) were deformably coregistered, and 3D nodal volumes were measured. Thirty-eight eligible patients were identified. The main primary tumour site was oropharyngeal; most patients had stage IVa disease. Twenty-seven patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy, 10 received only an EGFR inhibitor with RT and one received RT alone. Twelve patients had a failure in the neck. After week 1 of treatment, a 4% mean decrease in nodal volume was observed, increasing to 40% at week 7. Platinum-based chemotherapy achieved significantly greater decreases in nodal volume than EGFR inhibitors (44 vs. 25%; P=0.026). Advanced tumour stage predicted neck failure (P=0.002), but nodal volumes did not correlate with neck control. Changes in nodal volume are minimal initially during RT but accelerate during the latter weeks of therapy. This study suggests that chemotherapy achieves a greater decrease in nodal volume than EGFR inhibitors and that nodal changes do not predict disease control in the neck.

  9. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Saraf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (∼10–12 unit cells thick epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and substrate roughness of ∼1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.

  10. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J M

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  11. Quasi-Unit-Cell Model for an Al-Ni-Co Ideal Quasicrystal based on Clusters with Broken Tenfold Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Eiji; Saitoh, Koh; Takakura, H.; Tsai, A. P.; Steinhardt, P. J.; Jeong, H.-C.

    2000-01-01

    We present new evidence supporting the quasi-unit-cell description of the Al 72 Ni 20 Co 8 decagonal quasicrystal which shows that the solid is composed of repeating, overlapping decagonal cluster columns with broken tenfold symmetry. We propose an atomic model which gives a significantly improved fit to electron microscopy experiments compared to a previous proposal by us and to alternative proposals with tenfold symmetric clusters. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. Fuel Cell Backup Power Unit Configuration and Electricity Market Participation: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-13

    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory industry-inspired Laboratory Directed Research and Development project evaluates the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., balancing, ancillary services, demand response). The work is intended to evaluate the integration of thousands of under-utilized, clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems that are already installed in cell towers for potential grid and ancillary services.

  13. DNA level and stereologic estimates of nuclear volume in squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix. A comparative study with analysis of prognostic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P; Jakobsen, A

    1992-01-01

    Grading of malignancy in squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix is based on qualitative, morphologic examination and suffers from poor reproducibility. Using modern stereology, unbiased estimates of the three-dimensional, volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vv), were obtained...... in pretreatment biopsies from 51 patients treated for cervical cancer in clinical Stages I through III (mean age of 56 years, follow-up period greater than 5 years). In addition, conventional, two-dimensional morphometric estimates of nuclear and mitotic features were obtained. DNA indices (DI) were estimated...... carcinoma of the uterine cervix....

  14. DNA level and stereologic estimates of nuclear volume in squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix. A comparative study with analysis of prognostic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P; Jakobsen, A

    1992-01-01

    Grading of malignancy in squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix is based on qualitative, morphologic examination and suffers from poor reproducibility. Using modern stereology, unbiased estimates of the three-dimensional, volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (nuclear vv), were obtained...... in pretreatment biopsies from 51 patients treated for cervical cancer in clinical Stages I through III (mean age of 56 years, follow-up period greater than 5 years). In addition, conventional, two-dimensional morphometric estimates of nuclear and mitotic features were obtained. DNA indices (DI) were estimated...

  15. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  16. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: Dam Density and Storage Volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the dam density and storage volumes within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on National...

  17. Effect of operator and institutional volume on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions performed in Canada and the United States: a brief report from the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Mina; Nikhil, Janarthan; Hellkamp, Anne S; Pieper, Karen S; Labinaz, Marino; Cohen, E A; Buller, Christopher E; Cantor, Warren J; Seidelin, Peter; Ducas, John; Carere, Ronald G; Natarajan, Madhu K; O'Shea, J Conor; Tcheng, James E

    2009-08-01

    The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial compared the use of eptifibatide with placebo in 2064 coronary intervention patients. It was previously reported that Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, myocardial infarction (MI) or target vessel revascularization (TVR) compared with patients in the United States (US). To examine whether operator or institutional volume differences explain the regional variation in clinical outcome. Each site received an operator and institutional volume survey. Fifty-seven sites (62%) returned complete data on 1338 patients. In this smaller cohort, Canadian patients had reduced rates of 30-day and one-year death, MI or TVR compared with US patients (6.3% versus 10.3% and 14.9% versus 20.1%, respectively; PESPRIT study, institutional volume was associated with a modest reduction in risk of death, MI or TVR over short- and long-term follow-up periods. The Canadian and US investigators and institutions selected in ESPRIT had similar annual procedural volumes. Therefore, volume variables did not explain the differential risk of clinical events observed for patients enrolled in the two countries.

  18. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moinul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH metamaterial (MTM unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm3, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4–12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  19. Tumour volume response, initial cell kill and cellular repopulation in B16 melanoma treated with cyclophosphamide and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T. C.; Peacock, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between tumour volume response and cell kill in B16 melanoma following treatment in vivo with cyclophosphamide (CY) and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) was investigated. Tumour volume response, expressed as growth delay, was estimated from measurements of tumour dimensions. Depression of in vitro colony-forming ability of cells from treated tumours was used as the measure of tumour cell kill. The relationship between these parameters was clearly different for the two agents studied. CY produced more growth delay (7.5 days) per decade of tumour cell kill than CCNU (2 to 3.5 days). The possibility that this was due to a technical artefact was rejected in favour of an alternative explanation that different rates of cellular repopulation in tumours treated with CY and CCNU might be responsible. Cellular repopulation was measured directly, by performing cell-survival assays at various times after treatment with doses of CY and CCNU which produced about 3 decades of cell kill. The rate of repopulation by clonogenic cells was much slower after treatment with CY than with CCNU, and this appears to account for the longer duration of the growth delay obtained with CY. PMID:921888

  20. Parametric exergy analysis of a tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack through finite-volume model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, F.; Ferruzzi, G.; Vanoli, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a very detailed local exergy analysis of a tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack. In particular, a complete parametric analysis has been carried out, in order to assess the effects of the synthesis/design parameters on the local irreversibilities in the components of the stack. A finite-volume axial-symmetric model of the tubular internal reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stack under investigation has been used. The stack consists of: SOFC tubes, tube-in-tube pre-reformer and tube and shell catalytic burner. The model takes into account the effects of heat/mass transfer and chemical/electrochemical reactions. The model allows one to predict the performance of a SOFC stack once a series of design and operative parameters are fixed, but also to investigate the source and localization of inefficiency. To this scope, an exergy analysis was implemented. The SOFC tube, the pre-reformer and the catalytic burner are discretized along their longitudinal axes. Detailed models of the kinetics of the reforming, catalytic combustion and electrochemical reactions are implemented. Pressure drops, convection heat transfer and overvoltages are calculated on the basis of the work previously developed by the authors. The heat transfer model includes the contribution of thermal radiation, so improving the models previously used by the authors. Radiative heat transfer is calculated on the basis of the slice-to-slice configuration factors and corresponding radiosities. On the basis of this thermochemical model, an exergy analysis has been carried out, in order to localize the sources and the magnitude of irreversibilities along the components of the stack. In addition, the main synthesis/design variables were varied in order to assess their effect on the exergy destruction within the component to which the parameter directly refers ('endogenous' contribution) and on the exergy destruction of all remaining components ('exogenous' contribution). Then, this analysis

  1. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 3. Appendix on service and fuel demands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This book is the third volume of the ISTUM report. The first volume of the report describes the primary model logic and the model's data inputs. The second volume lists and evaluates the results of one model run. This and the fourth volume give supplementary information in two sets of model data - the energy consumption base and technology descriptions. Chapter III of Vol. I, Book 1 describes the ISTUM demand base and explains how that demand base was developed. This volume serves as a set of appendices to that chapter. The chapter on demands in Vol. I describes the assumptions and methodology used in constructing the ISTUM demand base; this volume simply lists tables of data from that demand base. This book divides the demand tables into two appendices. Appendix III-1 contains detailed tables on ISTUM fuel-consumption estimates, service-demand forecasts, and size and load-factor distributions. Appendix III-2 contains tables detailing ISTUM allocations of each industry's fuel consumption to service sectors. The tables show how the ECDB was used to develop the ISTUM demand base.

  2. A Prospective Randomized Study of the Radiotherapy Volume for Limited-stage Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao HU

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Controversies exists with regard to target volumes as far as thoracic radiotherapy (TRT is concerned in the multimodality treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LSCLC. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare the local control rate, toxicity profiles, and overall survival (OS between patients received different target volumes irradiation after induction chemotherapy. Methods LSCLC patients received 2 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP induction chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to receive TRT to either the post- or pre-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T as study arm and control arm, CTV-N included the positive nodal drainage area for both arms. One to 2 weeks after induction chemotherapy, 45 Gy/30 Fx/19 d TRT was administered concurrently with the third cycle of EP regimen. After that, additional 3 cycles of EP consolidation were administered. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI was administered to patients with a complete response. Results Thirty-seven and 40 patients were randomly assigned to study arm and control arm. The local recurrence rates were 32.4% and 28.2% respectively (P=0.80; the isolated nodal failure (INF rate were 3.0% and 2.6% respectively (P=0.91; all INF sites were in the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa. Medastinal N3 disease was the risk factor for INF (P=0.02, OR=14.13, 95%CI: 1.47-136.13. During radiotherapy, grade I, II weight loss was observed in 29.4%, 5.9% and 56.4%, 7.7% patients respectively (P=0.04. Grade 0-I and II-III late pulmonary injury was developed in 97.1%, 2.9% and 86.4%, 15.4% patients respectively (P=0.07. Median survival time was 22.1 months and 26.9 months respectively. The 1 to 3-year OS were 77.9%, 44.4%, 37.3% and 75.8%, 56.3%, 41.7% respectively (P=0.79. Conclusion The preliminary results of this study indicate that irradiant the post-chemotherapy tumor extent (GTV-T and positive nodal drainage area did not decrease local control and overall

  3. Effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural on the volume and membrane permeability of red blood cells from patients with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Cytlak, Urszula M; Rees, David C; Tewari, Sanjay; Gibson, John S

    2014-01-01

    The heterocyclic aldehyde 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF) interacts allosterically with the abnormal form of haemoglobin (Hb), HbS, in red blood cells (RBCs) from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), thereby increasing oxygen affinity and decreasing HbS polymerization and RBC sickling during hypoxia. We hypothesized that should 5HMF also inhibit the main cation pathways implicated in the dehydration of RBCs from SCD patients – the deoxygenation-induced cation pathway (Psickle), the Ca2+-activated K+ channel (the Gardos channel) and the K+–Cl− cotransporter (KCC) – it would have a synergistic effect in protection against sickling, directly through interacting with HbS, and indirectly through maintaining hydration and reducing [HbS]. This study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of 5HMF on RBC volume and K+ permeability in vitro. 5HMF markedly reduced the deoxygenation-induced dehydration of RBCs whether in response to maintained deoxygenation or to cyclical deoxygenation/re-oxygenation. 5HMF was found to inhibit Psickle, an effect which correlated with its effects on sickling. Deoxygenation-induced activation of the Gardos channel and exposure of phosphatidylserine were also inhibited, probably indirectly via reduced entry of Ca2+ through the Psickle pathway. Effects of 5HMF on KCC were more modest with a slight inhibition in N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, 1 mm)-treated RBCs and stimulation in RBCs untreated with NEM. These findings support the hypothesis that 5HMF may also be beneficial through effects on RBC ion and water homeostasis. PMID:25015917

  4. Effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural on the volume and membrane permeability of red blood cells from patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Cytlak, Urszula M; Rees, David C; Tewari, Sanjay; Gibson, John S

    2014-09-15

    The heterocyclic aldehyde 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF) interacts allosterically with the abnormal form of haemoglobin (Hb), HbS, in red blood cells (RBCs) from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), thereby increasing oxygen affinity and decreasing HbS polymerization and RBC sickling during hypoxia. We hypothesized that should 5HMF also inhibit the main cation pathways implicated in the dehydration of RBCs from SCD patients - the deoxygenation-induced cation pathway (Psickle), the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (the Gardos channel) and the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC) - it would have a synergistic effect in protection against sickling, directly through interacting with HbS, and indirectly through maintaining hydration and reducing [HbS]. This study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of 5HMF on RBC volume and K(+) permeability in vitro. 5HMF markedly reduced the deoxygenation-induced dehydration of RBCs whether in response to maintained deoxygenation or to cyclical deoxygenation/re-oxygenation. 5HMF was found to inhibit Psickle, an effect which correlated with its effects on sickling. Deoxygenation-induced activation of the Gardos channel and exposure of phosphatidylserine were also inhibited, probably indirectly via reduced entry of Ca(2+) through the Psickle pathway. Effects of 5HMF on KCC were more modest with a slight inhibition in N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, 1 mm)-treated RBCs and stimulation in RBCs untreated with NEM. These findings support the hypothesis that 5HMF may also be beneficial through effects on RBC ion and water homeostasis. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  5. The use of PEM united regenerative fuel cells in solar- hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun K Doddathimmaiah; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Remote area power supply (RAPS) is a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. Solar hydrogen RAPS systems commonly employ photovoltaic panels, a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolyser, a storage for hydrogen gas, and a PEM fuel cell. Currently such systems are more costly than conventional RAPS systems employing diesel generator back up or battery storage. Unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) have the potential to lower the costs of solar hydrogen RAPS systems since a URFC employs the same hardware for both the electrolyser and fuel cell functions. The need to buy a separate electrolyser and a separate fuel cell, both expensive items, is thus avoided. URFCs are in principle particularly suited for use in RAPS applications since the electrolyser function and fuel cell function are never required simultaneously. The present paper reports experimental findings on the performance of a URFC compared to that of a dedicated PEM electrolyser and a dedicated fuel cell. A design for a single-cell PEM URFC for use in experiments is described. The experimental data give a good quantitative description of the performance characteristics of all the devices. It is found that the performance of the URFC in the electrolyser mode is closely similar to that of the stand-alone electrolyser. In the fuel cell mode the URFC performance is, however, lower than that of the stand-alone fuel cell. The wider implications of these findings for the economics of future solar-hydrogen RAPS systems are discussed, and a design target of URFCs for renewable-energy RAPS applications proposed. (authors)

  6. Molecular detection of blood pathogens and their impacts on levels of packed cell volume in stray dogs from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Piratae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of blood parasite infection in stray dogs by PCR technique and the association between levels of packed cell volume (PCV and blood parasitic infection in stray dogs. Methods: A total of 65 blood samples were collected from stray dogs in animal quarantine station from Mahasarakham, Thailand to evaluate the levels of PCV before molecular screening for tick-borne pathogens infection. Results: Stray dogs were positive with one or more pathogens in 44 (67.69% out of 65 blood samples. Ehrlichia canis [43.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 38.1–48.1] was the most common blood pathogen found infecting in stray dogs in Mahasarakham Province, followed by Anaplasma platys (29.2%, 95% CI: 24.2–34.2, Hepatozoon canis (12.3%, 95% CI: 7.3–17.3 and Babesia canis vogeli (6.2%, 95% CI: 1.2–11.2, respectively. Moreover, co-infections with two pathogens were identified in 11 (16.9% of dogs examined and two (2.9% dogs were coinfections with three pathogens. Statistically significant relationship between the PCV levels and Ehrlichia canis infection was found (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study indicated that blood pathogens are spreading in stray dogs and they are potentially high risk of agent transmission to human via exposure with tick vectors. It was also the first report of Anaplasma platys infection in dogs in north-eastern part of Thailand.

  7. The application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in gross tumor volume delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Dongliang; Shi Gaofeng; Gao Xianshu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the application value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods: Twenty-nine patients with esophageal SCC treated with radical surgery were analyzed. Routine CT scan, MRI T 2 -weighted and DWMRI were employed before surgery; diffusion-sensitive gradient b-values were taken 400, 600 and 800 s/mm 2 . GTVs were delineated using CT, MRI T 2 -weighted images and DWMRI under different b-value images. The length of GTVs measured under different images was compared with the pathological length and confirm the most accurate imaging condition. Use radiotherapy planning system to fuse DWMRI images and CT images to investigate the possibility of delineate GTVs on fused images. Results: The difference of GTV length value between CT, T 2 WI images and specimen was 3.36 mm and 2.84 mm. When b =400,600 and 800 s/mm 2 , the difference between GTV length value on the DWMRI images and on specimen was 0.47 mm, -0.47 mm and - 1.53 mm; the correlation coefficient of the measuring esophageal lengths on DWMRI images and the pathological lengths was 0.928, 0.927 and 0.938. DWMRI images and CT images could fuse accurately on radiotherapy planning system. GTV margin could.show clearly on fused images. Conclusions: DWMRI images can display the esophageal carcinoma lengths and margin accurately. When DWMRI images fused with CT images, GTV margin could show clearly,it can be used to delineate GTV accurately. (authors)

  8. Patterns of failure after resection of non-small-cell lung cancer: Implications for postoperative radiation therapy volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Light, Kim L.C.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze local-regional patterns of failure after surgical resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: This retrospective analysis included 61 patients who underwent resection of NSCLC at Duke University Medical Center. Inclusion into the study required the following: margin-negative resection, no neoadjuvant/adjuvant radiation therapy (RT), first recurrence involving a local-regional site, and imaging studies available for review. Sites of intrathoracic disease recurrence were documented. Diagrams were constructed that illustrated sites of failure on the basis of lobe of primary tumor. Failure rates were compared by application of a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: All patients had CT imaging for review, and 54% also had PET imaging. The median number of local-regional recurrent sites was two (range, 1-6). For all patients, the most common site of failure was the bronchial stump/staple line (44%), which was present more often in those who had a wedge resection than in those who had a more radical procedure (79% vs. 34%, p = 0.005). Patients with initial nodal involvement (pN1-2) were not more likely to have involvement of the mediastinum than were patients with pN0 disease (64% vs. 72%, p = 0.72), but were more likely to have involvement of the supraclavicular fossa (27% vs. 4%, p = 0.04). Mediastinal involvement, without overt evidence of hilar involvement, occurred in 59% of patients. Left-sided tumors tended to involve the contralateral mediastinum more frequently than did right-sided tumors. Patterns of failure after resection are diagrammed and follow a fairly predictable pattern on the basis of involved lobe. Conclusions: These data may help clinicians construct postoperative RT volumes that are smaller than ones traditionally utilized, which may improve the therapeutic ratio

  9. Estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume from radioisotopic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Minoru

    1989-01-01

    Lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in man were estimated from the radioisotopic image using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Six healthy volunteers were studied in a supine position with normal and altered lung volumes by applying continuous negative body-surface pressure (CNP) and by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). 99m Tc labeled human serum albumin was administered as an aerosol to image the lungs. The CNP caused the diaphragm to be lowered and it increased the mean lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT from 3.09±0.49 l for baseline to 3.67±0.62 l for 10 cmH 2 O (p 2 O (p 2 O), respectively. The PEEP also increased the lung tissue volume to 3.68±0.68 l for 10 cmH 2 O as compared with the baseline (p 2 O PEEP. The lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT showed a positive correlation with functional residual capacity measured by the He dilution method (r=0.91, p 99m Tc-labeled red blood cells. The L/H ratio decreased after either the CNP or PEEP, suggesting a decrease in the blood volume per unit lung volume. However, it was suggested that the total pulmonary blood volume increased slightly either on the CNP (+7.4% for 10 cmH 2 O, p 2 O,p<0.05) when we extrapolated the L/H ratio to the whole lungs by multiplying the lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT. We concluded that SPECT could offer access to the estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in vivo. (author)

  10. Serial section scanning electron microscopy (S3EM) on silicon wafers for ultra-structural volume imaging of cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Heinz; Körber, Christoph; Sätzler, Kurt; Aydin, Daniel; Kuner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High resolution, three-dimensional (3D) representations of cellular ultrastructure are essential for structure function studies in all areas of cell biology. While limited subcellular volumes have been routinely examined using serial section transmission electron microscopy (ssTEM), complete ultrastructural reconstructions of large volumes, entire cells or even tissue are difficult to achieve using ssTEM. Here, we introduce a novel approach combining serial sectioning of tissue with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using a conductive silicon wafer as a support. Ribbons containing hundreds of 35 nm thick sections can be generated and imaged on the wafer at a lateral pixel resolution of 3.7 nm by recording the backscattered electrons with the in-lens detector of the SEM. The resulting electron micrographs are qualitatively comparable to those obtained by conventional TEM. S(3)EM images of the same region of interest in consecutive sections can be used for 3D reconstructions of large structures. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by reconstructing a 31.7 µm(3) volume of a calyx of Held presynaptic terminal. The approach introduced here, Serial Section SEM (S(3)EM), for the first time provides the possibility to obtain 3D ultrastructure of large volumes with high resolution and to selectively and repetitively home in on structures of interest. S(3)EM accelerates process duration, is amenable to full automation and can be implemented with standard instrumentation.

  11. Serial section scanning electron microscopy (S3EM on silicon wafers for ultra-structural volume imaging of cells and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Horstmann

    Full Text Available High resolution, three-dimensional (3D representations of cellular ultrastructure are essential for structure function studies in all areas of cell biology. While limited subcellular volumes have been routinely examined using serial section transmission electron microscopy (ssTEM, complete ultrastructural reconstructions of large volumes, entire cells or even tissue are difficult to achieve using ssTEM. Here, we introduce a novel approach combining serial sectioning of tissue with scanning electron microscopy (SEM using a conductive silicon wafer as a support. Ribbons containing hundreds of 35 nm thick sections can be generated and imaged on the wafer at a lateral pixel resolution of 3.7 nm by recording the backscattered electrons with the in-lens detector of the SEM. The resulting electron micrographs are qualitatively comparable to those obtained by conventional TEM. S(3EM images of the same region of interest in consecutive sections can be used for 3D reconstructions of large structures. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by reconstructing a 31.7 µm(3 volume of a calyx of Held presynaptic terminal. The approach introduced here, Serial Section SEM (S(3EM, for the first time provides the possibility to obtain 3D ultrastructure of large volumes with high resolution and to selectively and repetitively home in on structures of interest. S(3EM accelerates process duration, is amenable to full automation and can be implemented with standard instrumentation.

  12. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Volume IV of the ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications, but relates closely with Chapter II of Volume I. The emphasis in that chapter is on providing an overview of where each technology fits into the general-model logic. Volume IV presents the actual cost structure and specification of every technology modeled in ISTUM. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data base. It includes an explanation of the data base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters are devoted to documenting the specific-technology cost specifications. Technologies included are: conventional technologies (boiler and non-boiler conventional technologies); fossil-energy technologies (atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, low Btu coal and medium Btu coal gasification); cogeneration (steam, machine drive, and electrolytic service sectors); and solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies), and conservation technologies.

  13. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W. [ed.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L. [and others

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  14. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1

  15. Quantification of in situ temperature measurements on a PBI-based high temperature PEMFC unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebæk, Jesper; Ali, Syed Talat; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    The temperature is a very important operating parameter for all types of fuel cells. In the present work distributed in situ temperature measurements are presented on a polybenzimidazole based high temperature PEM fuel cell (HT-PEM). A total of 16 T-type thermocouples were embedded on both the an...

  16. Proceedings of the second United Nations symposium on the development and use of geothermal resources held at San Francisco, California, May 20--29, 1975. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The 299 papers in the Proceedings are presented in three volumes and are divided into twelve sections, each section dealing with a different aspect of geothermal energy. Rapporturs' summaries of the contents of each section are grouped together in Vol. 1 of the Proceedings; a separate abstract was prepared for each summary. Volume 1 also contains ninety-eight papers under the following section headings: present status of resources development; geology, hydrology, and geothermal systems; and geochemical techniques in exploration. Separate abstracts were prepared for ninety-seven papers. One paper was previously abstracted for ERA and appeared as CONF-750525--17. (LBS)

  17. Effects of local single and fractionated X-ray doses on rat bone marrow blood flow and red blood cell volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, M.A.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Time and dose dependent changes in blood flow and red blood cell volume were studied in the locally irradiated bone marrow of the rat femur after single and fractionated doses of X-rays. With the single dose of 10 Gy the bone marrow blood flow although initially reduced returned to the control levels by seven months after irradiation. With doses >=15 Gy the blood flow was still significantly reduced at seven months. The total dose levels predicted by the nominal standard dose equation for treatments in three, six or nine fractions produced approximately the same degree of reduction in the bone marrow blood flow seven months after the irradiation. However, the fall in the red blood cell volume was from 23 to 37% greater in the three fractions groups compared with that in the nine fractions groups. Using the red blood cell volume as a parameter the nominal standard dose formula underestimated the severity of radiation damage in rat bone marrow at seven months for irradiation with small numbers of large dose fractions. (orig.) [de

  18. Addendum to the remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This addendum to the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This addendum is a supplement to a document that was previously issued in January 1995 and that provided the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation performed at OU 2. The January 1995 D2 version of the RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 included information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in the document formed the basis for the development of the Feasibility Study Report. This addendum includes revisions to four chapters of information that were a part of the document issued in January 1995. Specifically, it includes revisions to Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 9. Volume 1 of this document is not being reissued in its entirety as a D3 version because only the four chapters just mentioned have been affected by requested changes. Note also that Volume 2 of this RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 is not being reissued in conjunction with Volume 1 of this document because there have been no changes requested or made to the previously issued version of Volume 2 of this document.

  19. Determination of the volume of circulating blood by means of in vivo labelled red blood cells with 99mTc pertechnetate and use of a Bulgarian kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Shejretova, E.; Pencheva, V.; Udvareva, N.

    1988-01-01

    A method was proposed for determination of the circulating blood volume (CBV) by means of in vivo labelled red blood cells, which was compared to the routine method with 51 Cr-sodium chromate. To the patients concecutively was given 1 g of potassium perchlorate (for blocking of the organs, which actively absorbed the perchnetate ion) and 500 mkg of tin pyrophosphate (Bulgarian kit) with subsequent labelling of the red blood cells with 99m Tc-pertechnate (1,8 - 3,7 MBq). The volume of the red blood cells, and hence also CBV, was measured with the use of a modified by the authors formula, in which correction for the individual effectiveness of the cell labelling was done. In comparison with the standard method for in vitro labelling of the red blood cells with 51 Cr sodium chromate, the method proposed gave an insignificant difference of 4,16%, but when compared to the commercial tin pyrophosphate (of the firm Mallinckrot - Holland), the Bulgarian kit displayed equivalent qualities. It was concluded that the method has a high accuracy and was easy for execution, cause a low radiation burden of the patient and is suitable for application in nuclear cardiology and radionuclide angiography

  20. Lung-protective ventilation in intensive care unit and operation room : Tidal volume size, level of positive end-expiratory pressure and driving pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpa Neto, A.

    2017-01-01

    Several investigations have shown independent associations between three ventilator settings – tidal volume size, positive end–expiratory pressure (PEEP) and driving pressure – and outcomes in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There is an increasing notion that similar

  1. Therapeutic analysis of high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer using a cylindrical target volume model and varied cancer cell distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hualin.zhang@northwestern.edu; Donnelly, Eric D.; Strauss, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60611 (United States); Qi, Yujin [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) in the treatment of endometrial cancer in a cylindrical target volume with either a varied or a constant cancer cell distributions using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) technique was used to calculate the 3D dose distribution of HDR VCBT over a variety of cylinder diameters and treatment lengths. A treatment planning system (TPS) was used to make plans for the various cylinder diameters, treatment lengths, and prescriptions using the clinical protocol. The dwell times obtained from the TPS were fed into MC. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of two brachytherapy regimens prescribed either at 0.5 cm depth (5.5 Gy × 4 fractions) or at the vaginal mucosal surface (8.8 Gy × 4 fractions) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. An experimentally determined endometrial cancer cell distribution, which showed a varied and resembled a half-Gaussian distribution, was used in radiobiology modeling. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to cancer cells was calculated for each treatment scenario. The therapeutic ratio (TR) was defined by comparing VCBT with a uniform dose radiotherapy plan in term of normal cell survival at the same level of cancer cell killing. Calculations of clinical impact were run twice assuming two different types of cancer cell density distributions in the cylindrical target volume: (1) a half-Gaussian or (2) a uniform distribution. Results: EUDs were weakly dependent on cylinder size, treatment length, and the prescription depth, but strongly dependent on the cancer cell distribution. TRs were strongly dependent on the cylinder size, treatment length, types of the cancer cell distributions, and the sensitivity of normal tissue. With a half-Gaussian distribution of cancer cells which populated at the vaginal mucosa the most, the EUDs were between 6.9 Gy × 4 and 7.8 Gy × 4, the TRs were in the range from (5.0){sup 4} to (13

  2. Activation and inactivation of the volume-sensitive taurine leak pathway in NIH3T3 fibroblasts and Ehrlich Lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry

    2007-01-01

    Hypotonic exposure provokes the mobilization of arachidonic acid, production of ROS, and a transient increase in taurine release in Ehrlich Lettre cells. The taurine release is potentiated by H(2)O(2) and the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate and reduced by the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2......)) inhibitors bromoenol lactone (BEL) and manoalide, the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor ETH-615139, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyl iodonium (DPI), and antioxidants. Thus, swelling-induced taurine efflux in Ehrlich Lettre cells involves Ca(2+)-independent (iPLA(2))/secretory PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) plus 5-LO...... activity and modulation by ROS. Vanadate and H(2)O(2) stimulate arachidonic acid mobilization and vanadate potentiates ROS production in Ehrlich Lettre cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts under hypotonic conditions. However, vanadate-induced potentiation of the volume-sensitive taurine efflux is, in both cell...

  3. Assessment of changes in plasma hemoglobin and potassium levels in red cell units during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nishant; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2015-06-01

    Red cell units undergo changes during storage and processing. The study was planned to assess plasma potassium, plasma hemoglobin, percentage hemolysis during storage and to determine the effects of outdoor blood collection and processing on those parameters. Blood collection in three types of blood storage bags was done - single CPDA bag (40 outdoor and 40 in-house collection), triple CPD + SAGM bag (40 in-house collection) and quadruple CPD + SAGM bag with integral leukoreduction filter (40 in-house collection). All bags were sampled on day 0 (day of collection), day 1 (after processing), day 7, day 14 and day 28 for measurement of percentage hemolysis and potassium levels in the plasma of bag contents. There was significant increase in percentage hemolysis, plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium level in all the groups during storage (p levels during the storage of red blood cells. Blood collection can be safely undertaken in outdoor blood donation camps even in hot summer months in monitored blood transport boxes. SAGM additive solution decreases the red cell hemolysis and allows extended storage of red cells. Prestorage leukoreduction decreases the red cell hemolysis and improves the quality of blood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C.Cheng. 1. Evidence from pressure-volume curve analysis of dead tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Pan, Shaoan; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of evidence for negative turgor pressure in leaf cells starting with experimental evidence in the late 1950s and ending with biomechanical models published in 2014. In the present study, biomechanical models were used to predict how negative turgor pressure might be manifested in dead tissue, and experiments were conducted to test the predictions. The main findings were as follows: (i) Tissues killed by heating to 60 or 80 °C or by freezing in liquid nitrogen all became equally leaky to cell sap solutes and all seemed to pass freely through the cell walls. (ii) Once cell sap solutes could freely pass the cell walls, the shape of pressure-volume curves was dramatically altered between living and dead cells. (iii) Pressure-volume curves of dead tissue seem to measure negative turgor defined as negative when inside minus outside pressure is negative. (iv) Robinia pseudoacacia leaves with small palisade cells had more negative turgor than Metasequoia glyptostroboides with large cells. (v) The absolute difference in negative turgor between R. pseudoacacia and M. glyptostroboides approached as much as 1.0 MPa in some cases. The differences in the manifestation of negative turgor in living versus dead tissue are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Innovation on a Hospital Perinatal Unit: Cell Phone Use by Nurses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrilak, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    .... This study evaluates the impact and effect of cell phone communication technology on reducing nurse task frequency and time spent on activities that could more appropriately be accomplished by hospital support staff...

  6. Natural Killer/T-cell Neoplasms: Analysis of Incidence, Patient Characteristics, and Survival Outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommalapati, Anuhya; Tella, Sri Harsha; Ganti, Apar Kishore; Armitage, James O

    2018-05-04

    Limited data are available regarding the incidence, survival patterns, and long-term outcomes of natural killer (NK)/T-cell neoplasms in the United States. We performed a retrospective study of patients with NK/T-cell neoplasms diagnosed from 2001 to 2014 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the overall survival difference among the subgroups. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the factors affecting survival. For the 797 patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, the median age at diagnosis was 53 years, and males tended to be younger at diagnosis (P < .0001). The incidence of the disease increased from 0.4 in 2001 to 0.8 in 2014 per 1,000,000 individuals. The incidence was significantly greater in Hispanic patients compared with that in non-Hispanic patients (rate ratio, 3.03; P = .0001). The median overall survival was 20 months (range, 2-73 months) and varied significantly according to the primary site (P < .0001) and the disease stage at diagnosis (P < .0001). NK/T-cell lymphoma patients had an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (standardized incidence ratio, 18.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.27-67.81). For the 105 NK/T-cell leukemia patients, the median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range, 4-95 years). The overall incidence of the disease was 0.09 per 1,000,000 individuals and was significantly greater in males (rate ratio, 0.41; P < .0001). Unlike NK/T-cell lymphoma, no racial disparities were found in the incidence. The median overall survival was 17 months (range, 0-36 months). The incidence of NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, in the United States has at least doubled in the past decade, with the greatest predilection among Hispanics. Patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma might have an increased risk of the subsequent development of acute myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct and Lead Units in Execution of Battle (Battlefield Function 20) as Accomplished by a Heavy Brigade. Volume 2: Assessment Package

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullen, William

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the overall research program was to document the synchronization required by command and control tasks performed within the armored brigade, to include combat support and combat service support units...

  8. Direct and Lead Units During Preparation for the Battle (Battlefield Function 19) as Accomplished by a Direct Support Field Artillery Battalion. Volume 2: Assessment Package

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullen, William

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the overall research program was to document the synchronization required by command and control tasks performed within the armored brigade, to include combat support and combat service support units...

  9. Direct and Lead Units During Preparation for the Battle (Battlefield Function 19) as Accomplished by an Engineer Battalion Supporting a Heavy Brigade. Volume 1: Function Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clagg, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the overall research program was to document the synchronization required by command and control tasks performed within the armored brigade, to include combat support and combat service support units...

  10. Direct and Lead Units in Execution of Battle (Battlefield Function 20) as Accomplished by an Engineer Battalion Supporting a Heavy Brigade. Volume 2: Assessment Package

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullen, William

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the overall research program was to document the synchronization required by command and control tasks performed within the armored brigade to include combat support and combat service support units...

  11. Fuel cell programs in the United States for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M.

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, is participating with the private sector in sponsoring the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for application in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by the Office of Fossil Energy in previous years and is now being commercialized by the private sector. Private sector participants with the Department of Energy include the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research institute (GRI), electric and gas utilities, universities, manufac