WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit cell due

  1. Multi-unit shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' consists of four 935 W CANDU units located on the east shore of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario, Canada. On July 25 and 26, 1989 three of the four operating units were shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursions initiated by a process upset in the Water Treatment Plant that provides demineralized make-up water to all four units. The chemicals that escaped from an ion exchange vessel during a routine regeneration very quickly spread through the condensate make-up system and into the boiler feedwater systems. This resulted in boiler sulfate levels exceeding shutdown limits. A total of 260 GWH of electrical generation was unexpectedly made unavailable to the grid at a time of peak seasonal demand. This event exposed several unforeseen deficiencies and vulnerabilities in the automatic demineralized water make-up quality protection scheme, system designs, operating procedures and the ability of operating personnel to recognize and appropriately respond to such an event. The combination of these factors contributed towards turning a minor system upset into a major multi-unit shutdown. This paper provides the details of the actual event initiation in the Water Treatment Plant and describes the sequence of events that led to the eventual shutdown of three units and near shutdown of the fourth. The design inadequacies, procedural deficiencies and operating personnel responses and difficulties are described. The process of recovering from this event, the flushing out of system piping, boilers and the feedwater train is covered as well as our experiences with setting up supplemental demineralized water supplies including trucking in water and the use of rental trailer mounted demineralizing systems. System design, procedural and operational changes that have been made and that are still being worked on in response to this event are described. The latest evidence of the effect of this event on boiler tube

  2. Errors due to the cylindrical cell approximation in lattice calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmarch, D A [Reactor Development Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1960-06-15

    It is shown that serious errors in fine structure calculations may arise through the use of the cylindrical cell approximation together with transport theory methods. The effect of this approximation is to overestimate the ratio of the flux in the moderator to the flux in the fuel. It is demonstrated that the use of the cylindrical cell approximation gives a flux in the moderator which is considerably higher than in the fuel, even when the cell dimensions in units of mean free path tend to zero; whereas, for the case of real cells (e.g. square or hexagonal), the flux ratio must tend to unity. It is also shown that, for cylindrical cells of any size, the ratio of the flux in the moderator to flux in the fuel tends to infinity as the total neutron cross section in the moderator tends to zero; whereas the ratio remains finite for real cells. (author)

  3. Orbital Infarction due to Sickle Cell Disease without Orbital Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron L. McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy that results in paroxysmal arteriolar occlusion and tissue infarction that can manifest in a plurality of tissues. Rarely, these infarcted crises manifest in the bony orbit. Orbital infarction usually presents with acute onset of periorbital tenderness, swelling, erythema, and pain. Soft tissue swelling can result in proptosis and attenuation of extraocular movements. Expedient diagnosis of sickle cell orbital infarction is crucial because this is a potentially sight-threatening entity. Diagnosis can be delayed since the presentation has physical and radiographic findings mimicking various infectious and traumatic processes. We describe a patient who presented with sickle cell orbital crisis without pain. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion in patients with known sickle cell disease or of African descent born outside the United States in a region where screening for hemoglobinopathy is not routine, even when the presentation is not classic.

  4. Precocious pseudopuberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, G.A.; Farooq, N.

    2003-01-01

    A case of precocious puberty occurring in a young girl is presented. Vaginal bleeding and secondary sexual characteristics had occurred at 7 years of age associated with an abdominal mass. These findings were due to a functional juvenile granulosa cell tumor in the right ovary. Right adenectomy was performed. Histopathology was confirmatory. (author)

  5. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  6. Everolimus Alleviates Obstructive Hydrocephalus due to Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moavero, Romina; Carai, Andrea; Mastronuzzi, Angela; Marciano, Sara; Graziola, Federica; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo

    2017-03-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are low-grade tumors affecting up to 20% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Early neurosurgical resection has been the only standard treatment until few years ago when a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of TSC led to the use of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Surgical resection of SEGAs is still considered as the first line treatment in individuals with symptomatic hydrocephalus and intratumoral hemorrhage. We describe four patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic hydrocephalus who were successfully treated with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. We collected the clinical data of four consecutive patients presenting with symptomatic or asymptomatic hydrocephalus due to a growth of subependymal giant cell atrocytomas and who could not undergo surgery for different reasons. All patients experienced a clinically significant response to everolimus and an early shrinkage of the SEGA with improvement in ventricular dilatation. Everolimus was well tolerated by all individuals. Our clinical series demonstrate a possible expanding indication for mTOR inhibition in TSC, which can be considered in patients with asymptomatic hydrocephalus or even when the symptoms already appeared. It offers a significant therapeutic alternative to individuals that once would have undergone immediate surgery. Everolimus might also allow postponement of a neurosurgical resection, making it elective with an overall lower risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Units Lost Due to Deterioration in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ) Model

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) model and its variations have received much attention from researchers. Recently, there has been an investigation into an EOQ model incorporating effect of units lost due to deterioration in infinite planning horizon with crisp decision environment. Accounting for holding and ordering cost, as has traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment are investigated which are not precisely known and defined on a ...

  8. Cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia following irradiated packed red cells transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, Kazuharu [Yamamoto-kumiai General Hospital, Noshiro, Akita (Japan); Ohta, Sukejuurou; Kojima, Yukiko; Mizunuma, Takahide; Nishikawa, Toshiaki

    1998-11-01

    We describe two cases of cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia following transfusion of irradiated packed red cells. Case 1: Because sudden, rapid and massive hemorrage occurred in a 69-year-old male patient undergoing the left lobectomy of the liver, 8 units of irradiated packed red cells were rapidly transfused, the patient developed cardiac arrest. Serum kalium concentration after transfusion was 7.6 mEq/l. Case 2: A 7-month-old girl scheduled for closure of a ventricular septal defect, developed cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass. The extracorporeal circuit was primed with 6 units of irradiated packed red blood cells. Serum kalium concentration immediately after the start of cardiopulmonary bypass was 10.6 mEq/l. Analysis of kalium concentration in the pilot tubes of the same packs revealed 56-61 mEq/l. These case reports suggest that fresh irradiated packed red cells should be transfused during massive bleeding and for pediatric patients to prevent severe hyperkalemia. (author)

  9. Experimental and numerical studies on pressure drop in reverse electrodialysis: Effect of unit cell configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Kook; Choi, Kyung Soo [Advanced Combustion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Soo; Hwang, Kyo Sik; Han, Ji Hyung; Kim, Han Ki; Jeong, Nam Jo [Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Experimental and numerical studies on pressure drop in Reverse electrodialysis (RED) were performed. In this study, a module with 200 unit cells is considered for the demonstration of bench-scale RED module and two different unit cell configurations are utilized. Pressure drop through the module is measured by varying flow rates. For evaluating the hydrodynamic characteristics in the unit cell, a numerical simulation is also conducted and the simplified method using a porous media model is employed to simulate the channel filled with spacer. Due to the insertion of spacer and narrow channel, great pressure loss occurs along the unit cell. Based on estimated pressure data, high pressure difference between seawater and fresh water channel takes place locally in the unit cell configuration with crossflow direction, leading to a leakage problem through the membrane and finally degradation in the output power. Consequently, it is confirmed that the unit cell configuration is one of the important design parameters in a RED module.

  10. The Effect of Units Lost Due to Deterioration in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pattnaik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ model and its variations have received much attention from researchers. Recently, there has been an investigation into an EOQ model incorporating effect of units lost due to deterioration in infinite planning horizon with crisp decision environment. Accounting for holding and ordering cost, as has traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment are investigated which are not precisely known and defined on a bounded interval of real numbers. The question is how reliable are the EOQ models when items stocked deteriorate one time. This paper introduces Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ model in which it assumes that units lost due to deterioration is included in the objective function to properly model the problem in finite planning horizon. The numerical analysis shows that an appropriate fuzzy policy can benefit the retailer and that is significant, especially for deteriorating items is shown to be superior to that of crisp decision making. A computational algorithm using LINGO 13.0 and MATLAB (R2009a software are developed to find the optimal solution. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution is also studied and managerial insights are drawn which shows the influence of key model parameters.

  11. Zeroing in on red blood cell unit expiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyalil, Fathima; Irwin, Greg; Ross, Bryony; Manolis, Michael; Enjeti, Anoop K

    2017-12-01

    Expiry of red blood cell (RBC) units is a significant contributor to wastage of precious voluntary donations. Effective strategies aimed at optimal resource utilization are required to minimize wastage. This retrospective study analyzed the strategic measures implemented to reduce expiry of RBC units in an Australian tertiary regional hospital. The measures, which included inventory rearrangement, effective stock rotation, and the number of emergency courier services required during a 24-month period, were evaluated. There was no wastage of RBC units due to expiry over the 12 months after policy changes. Before these changes, approximately half of RBC wastage (261/511) was due to expiry. The total number of transfusions remained constant in this period and there was no increase in the use of emergency couriers. Policy changes implemented were decreasing the RBC inventory level by one-third and effective stock rotation and using a computerized system to link the transfusion services across the area. Effective stock rotation resulted in a reduction in older blood (>28 days) received in the main laboratory rotated from peripheral hospitals, down from 6%-41% to 0%-2.5%. Age-related expiry of blood products is preventable and can be significantly reduced by improving practices in the pathology service. This study provides proof of principle for "zero tolerance for RBC unit expiry" across a large networked blood banking service. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  12. Bacterial Cell Surface Damage Due to Centrifugal Compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, Brandon W.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Centrifugal damage has been known to alter bacterial cell surface properties and interior structures, including DNA. Very few studies exist on bacterial damage caused by centrifugation because of the difficulty in relating centrifugation speed and container geometry to the damage caused. Here, we

  13. Projected Increase in Lightning Strikes in the United States Due to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romps, D. M.; Seeley, J.; Vollaro, D.; Molinari, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lightning plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and in the initiation of wildfires, but the impact of global warming on lightning rates is poorly constrained. The lightning flash rate is proposed here to be proportional to the convective available potential energy (CAPE) times the precipitation rate. Using observations, the product of CAPE and precipitation is found to explain the majority of variance in the time series of total cloud-to-ground lightning flashes over the contiguous United States (CONUS) on timescales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. The observations reveal that storms convert the CAPE of water mass to discharged lightning energy with an efficiency of about 1%. This proxy can be applied to global climate models, which provide predictions for the increase in lightning due to global warming. Results from 11 GCMs will be shown.

  14. A Tool for Assessing Future Capacity Loss Due to Sedimentation in the United States' Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, A. O.; Baker, B.; White, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    Federal reservoirs are critical components of the United States' water supply, flood risk management, hydropower and navigation infrastructure. These reservoirs included capacity for storage loss due to the deposition of sediment by inflowing streams in their original design. However, the actual rate of capacity loss experienced is controlled in part by climate, topography, soils, and land use/land cover, and may vary from the design. To assess the current and future vulnerability of its reservoirs to sedimentation. USACE has developed an online planning tool to identify USACE reservoirs where sedimentation is currently a problem (e.g., sedimentation rate exceeds design sedimentation rate, or zone losses disproportionately affect authorized purposes), and reservoirs where rates are expected to increase significantly in the future. The goal is to be able to prioritize operation and maintenance actions to minimize the effects of reservoir capacity loss on authorized purposes and help maximize reservoir use life.

  15. Un-repairable DNA damage in cell due to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Giichi

    1992-01-01

    Radiation-induced cell reproductive deactivation is caused by damage to DNA. In a cell, cellular DNA radical reacts with diffusion controlled rate and generates DNA peroxide radical. The chemical repair of DNA radical with hydrogen donation by thiol competes with the reaction of oxygen with same radicals in the DNA molecules. From the point reaction rates, the prolongation of radical life time is not as great as expected from the reduction in the glutathione content of the cell. This indicates that further reducting compounds (protein bound thiol) are present in the cell. The residual radicals are altered to strand breaks, base damages and so on. The effective lesions for a number of endpoints is un-repaired double strand break, which has been discovered in a cluster. This event gives risk to high LET radiation or to a track end of X-rays. For X- or electron irradiations the strand breaks are frequently induced by the interactions between sublesions on two strands in DNA. A single strand break followed by radical action may be unstable excited state, because of remaining sugar radical action and of having negative charged phosphates, in which strands breaks will be rejoined in a short time to stable state. On the same time, a break in the double helix will be immediately produced if two breaks are on either or approximately opposite locations. The formation of a double strand break in the helix depends on the ion strength of the cell. The potassium ions are largely released from polyanionic strand during irradiation, which results in the induction of denatured region. Double strand break with the denatured region seems to be un-repairable DNA damage. (author)

  16. Years of Life Gained Due to Leisure-Time Physical Activity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Carson, Valerie; Lee, I-Min; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for non-communicable disease. The degree to which physical activity affects the life expectancy of Americans is unknown. This study estimated the potential years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity across the adult lifespan in the United States. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2010), National Health Interview Study mortality linkage (1990–2006), and US Life Tables (2006) were used to estimate and compare life expectancy at each age of adult life for inactive (no moderate-to-vigorous physical activity), somewhat active (some moderate-to-vigorous activity but active (≥500 metabolic equivalent min/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity) adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Somewhat active and active non-Hispanic white men had a life expectancy at age 20 that was around 2.4 years longer than the inactive men; this life expectancy advantage was 1.2 years at age 80. Similar observations were made in non-Hispanic white women, with a higher life expectancy within the active category of 3.0 years at age 20 and 1.6 years at age 80. In non-Hispanic black women, as many as 5.5 potential years of life were gained due to physical activity. Significant increases in longevity were also observed within somewhat active and active non-Hispanic black men; however, among Hispanics the years of life gained estimates were more variable and not significantly different from 0 years gained. Conclusions Leisure-time physical activity is associated with increases in longevity in the United States. PMID:23253646

  17. Recurrent Syncope due to Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Casini, Alessandro; Tschanz, Elisabeth; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Syncope is caused by a wide variety of disorders. Recurrent syncope as a complication of malignancy is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose and to treat. Primary neck carcinoma or metastases spreading in parapharyngeal and carotid spaces can involve the internal carotid artery and cause neurally mediated syncope with a clinical presentation like carotid sinus syndrome. We report the case of a 76-year-old man who suffered from recurrent syncope due to invasion of the right carotid sinus b...

  18. Paediatric cyclical Cushing's disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2015-06-01

    Cushing\\'s disease is very rare in the paediatric population. Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing\\'s syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. Likewise, cyclical cortisol hypersecretion, while accounting for 15 % of adult cases of Cushing\\'s disease, has only rarely been described in the paediatric population. Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

  19. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haghighatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

  20. Characteristics of patients hospitalized at an intensive care unit due to drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Antunes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize the clinical and demographic profile of patients hospitalized due to drug intoxication at an intensive care unit (ICU of a teaching hospital between 2004 and 2010. Methodology. In this descriptive study, information was collected from the hospitalized patients, as informed by a Toxicology Care Center (CAT in Paraná (Brazil. The clinical files were checked and information was collected about age, gender, toxic agents and intoxication circumstances, comorbidities and clinical outcomes. Results. Sixty-two patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 58 years and 77% male. Alcohol was the substance related to most hospitalizations (77%, followed by psychoactive drugs (14% and marihuana and crack (5% each. The main comorbidities were bronchopneumonia due to aspiration (37%, alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (24% and traumatic brain injury (19%. The most frequent intoxication circumstances were chronic abuse (79%, attemptive suicide (19% and acute abuse (4.9%. Thirty-nine percent of the patients died during hospitalization. Conclusion. The results show a concerning reality, as most of the patients are men of economically active age, who were intoxicated by a legal substance like alcohol, with a relevant number of deaths. Nurses need to pay particular attention to this health problem, in the context of which they play a fundamental role as educators with a view to the encouragement of healthy lifestyles.

  1. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  2. Recurrent Syncope due to Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is caused by a wide variety of disorders. Recurrent syncope as a complication of malignancy is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose and to treat. Primary neck carcinoma or metastases spreading in parapharyngeal and carotid spaces can involve the internal carotid artery and cause neurally mediated syncope with a clinical presentation like carotid sinus syndrome. We report the case of a 76-year-old man who suffered from recurrent syncope due to invasion of the right carotid sinus by metastases of a carcinoma of the esophagus, successfully treated by radiotherapy. In such cases, surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy can be performed. Because syncope may be an early sign of neck or cervical cancer, the diagnostic approach of syncope in patients with a past history of cancer should include the possibility of neck tumor recurrence or metastasis and an oncologic workout should be considered.

  3. Salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States due to fresh produce: sources and potential intervention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Irene B; Nutt, J D; Ricke, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Foodborne Salmonella spp. is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States each year. Traditionally, most cases of salmonellosis were thought to originate from meat and poultry products. However, an increasing number of salmonellosis outbreaks are occurring as a result of contaminated produce. Several produce items specifically have been identified in outbreaks, and the ability of Salmonella to attach or internalize into vegetables and fruits may be factors that make these produce items more likely to be sources of Salmonella. In addition, environmental factors including contaminated water sources used to irrigate and wash produce crops have been implicated in a large number of outbreaks. Salmonella is carried by both domesticated and wild animals and can contaminate freshwater by direct or indirect contact. In some cases, direct contact of produce or seeds with contaminated manure or animal wastes can lead to contaminated crops. This review examines outbreaks of Salmonella due to contaminated produce, the potential sources of Salmonella, and possible control measures to prevent contamination of produce.

  4. Aspects of radiation effects due to visual display units at work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.

    1988-01-01

    The introduction and acceptance of video display units at work have led to a huge flood of information, rumours, and half-truths about those units. As the population became increasingly sensitized to 'radioactive radiation', there was, and in part still is, a tendency to consider particularly effects of unclear origin, first of all ionizing radiation and later on also non-ionizing radiation, as the main threat from video display units at work. Such important issuses as ergonomics, stress load, visual stress load, and social hygiene are often effaced by the question for 'the radiation load from visual display units'. The paper is an attempt to deal with aspects of radiation effects of visual display units at work. The discussion also extends to hazards, respectively the 'radiation environment', at the site of the visual display unit. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR.

  6. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR

  7. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  8. Unit-cell refinement from powder diffraction scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawley, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for the refinement of the crystal unit cell from a powder diffraction scan is presented. In this procedure knowledge of the crystal structure is not required, and at the end of the refinement a list of indexed intensities is produced. This list may well be usable as the starting point for the application of direct methods. The problems of least-squares ill-conditioning due to overlapping reflections are overcome by constraints. An example using decafluorocyclohexene, C 6 F 10 , shows the quality of fit obtained in a case which may even be a false minimum. The method should become more relevant as powder scans of improved resolution become available, through the use of pulsed neutron sources. (Auth.)

  9. Uncertainty analysis of light water reactor unit fuel pin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamerow, S.; Ivanov, K., E-mail: sln107@PSU.EDU, E-mail: kni1@PSU.EDU [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States); Moreno, C. Arenas, E-mail: cristina.arenas@UPC.EDU [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The study explored the calculation of uncertainty based on available covariance data and computational tools. Uncertainty due to temperature changes and different fuel compositions are the main focus of this analysis. Selected unit fuel pin cells were analyzed according to the OECD LWR UAM benchmark specifications. Criticality and uncertainty analyses were performed using TSUNAMI-1D sequence in SCALE 6.0. It was found that uncertainties increase with increasing temperature while k{sub eff} decreases. This increase in the uncertainty is due to the increase in sensitivity of the largest contributor of uncertainty, namely nuclide reaction {sup 238}U (n, gamma). The sensitivity grew larger as the capture cross-section of {sup 238}U expanded due to Doppler broadening. In addition, three different compositions (UOx, MOx, and UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of fuel cells were analyzed. It showed a remarkable increase in uncertainty in k{sub eff} for the case of the MOx fuel cell and UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} fuel cell. The increase in the uncertainty of k{sub eff} in UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} fuel was nearly twice of that in MOx fuel and almost four times the amount in UOx fuel. The components of the uncertainties in k{sub eff} in each case were examined and it was found that the neutron-nuclide reaction of {sup 238}U, mainly (n,n'), contributed the most to the uncertainties in the cases of MOx and UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. At higher energy, the covariance coefficient matrix of {sup 238}U (n,n') to {sup 238}U (n,n') and {sup 238}U (n,n') cross-section showed very large values. Further, examination of the UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} case found that the {sup 238}U (n,n') became the dominant contributor to the uncertainty because most of the thermal neutrons in the cell were absorbed by Gadolinium in UOxGd{sub 2}O{sub 3} case and thus shifting the neutron spectrum to higher energy. For the MOx case on other hand, {sup 239}Pu has a very strong absorption cross-section at low energy

  10. Frame-dragging effect in the field of non rotating body due to unit gravimagnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriglazov, Alexei A.; Ramírez, Walberto Guzmán

    2018-04-01

    Nonminimal spin-gravity interaction through unit gravimagnetic moment leads to modified Mathisson-Papapetrou-Tulczyjew-Dixon equations with improved behavior in the ultrarelativistic limit. We present exact Hamiltonian of the resulting theory and compute an effective 1/c2-Hamiltonian and leading post-Newtonian corrections to the trajectory and spin. Gravimagnetic moment causes the same precession of spin S as a fictitious rotation of the central body with angular momentum J = M/m S. So the modified equations imply a number of qualitatively new effects, that could be used to test experimentally, whether a rotating body in general relativity has null or unit gravimagnetic moment.

  11. 77 FR 20123 - Proposed Collection of Information: Claims Against the United States for Amounts Due in the Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... United States for Amounts Due in the Case of a Deceased Creditor AGENCY: Financial Management Service...(c)(2)(A)), the Financial Management Service solicits comments on the collection of information...) ways to minimize the burden of the collection of information on respondents, including through the use...

  12. Unit cell geometry of 3-D braided structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank K.

    1993-01-01

    The traditional approach used in modeling of composites reinforced by three-dimensional (3-D) braids is to assume a simple unit cell geometry of a 3-D braided structure with known fiber volume fraction and orientation. In this article, we first examine 3-D braiding methods in the light of braid structures, followed by the development of geometric models for 3-D braids using a unit cell approach. The unit cell geometry of 3-D braids is identified and the relationship of structural parameters such as yarn orientation angle and fiber volume fraction with the key processing parameters established. The limiting geometry has been computed by establishing the point at which yarns jam against each other. Using this factor makes it possible to identify the complete range of allowable geometric arrangements for 3-D braided preforms. This identified unit cell geometry can be translated to mechanical models which relate the geometrical properties of fabric preforms to the mechanical responses of composite systems.

  13. Buckling behavior of origami unit cell facets under compressive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshad, Mohamed Ali Emhmed; Naguib, Hani E.

    2018-03-01

    Origami structures as cores for sandwich structures are designed to withstand the compressive loads and to dissipate compressive energy. The deformation of the origami panels and the unit cell facets are the primary factors behind the compressive energy dissipation in origami structures. During the loading stage, the origami structures deform through the folding and unfolding process of the unit cell facets, and also through the plastic deformation of the facets. This work presents a numerical study of the buckling behavior of different origami unit cell elements under compressive loading. The studied origami configurations were Miura and Ron-Resch-like origami structures. Finite element package was used to model the origami structures. The study investigated the buckling behavior of the unit cell facets of two types of origami structures Miura origami and Ron-Resch-Like origami structures. The simulation was conducted using ANSYS finite element software, in which the model of the unit cell represented by shell elements, and the eigenvalues buckling solver was used to predict the theoretical buckling of the unit cell elements.

  14. Job creation due to nuclear power resurgence in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenley, C.R.; Klingler, R.D.; Plowman, C.M.; Soto, R.; Turk, R.J.; Baker, R.L.; Close, S.A.; McDonnell, V.L.; Paul, S.W.; Rabideau, L.R.; Rao, S.S.; Reilly, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    The recent revival of global interest in the next generation of nuclear power reactors is causing a re-examination of the role of nuclear power in the United States. This renewed interest has led to questions regarding the capability and capacity of current US industries to support a renewal of nuclear power plant deployment. Key among the many questions currently being asked is what potential exists for the creation of new jobs as a result of developing and operating these new plants? Idaho National Laboratory and Bechtel Power Corporation collaborated to perform a Department of Energy-sponsored study that evaluated the potential for job creation in the United States should these new next generation nuclear power plants be built. The study focused primarily on providing an initial estimate of the numbers of new manufacturing jobs that could be created, including those that could be repatriated from overseas, resulting from the construction of these new reactors. In addition to the growth in the manufacturing sector, the study attempted to estimate the potential increase in construction trades necessary to accomplish the new construction. (author)

  15. Advanced fuel cell development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Both molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells are being developed in the United States to complement and/or supplant phosphoric acid cells for commercial and utility use. This paper described the two technologies and the programs for their development

  16. Obtaining the Wakefield Due to Cell-to-Cell Misalignments in a Linear Accelerator Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bane, Karl L. F.; Li, Zenghai

    2001-01-01

    A linear accelerator structure, such as will be used in the linacs of the JLC/NLC collider, is composed of on the order of 100 cells. The cells are constructed as individual cups that are brazed together to form a structure. Fabrication error will result in slight cell-to-cell misalignments along the finished structure. In this report we derive an approximation to the transverse wakefield of a structure with cell-to-cell misalignments in terms of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the erro...

  17. Climate change. Projected increase in lightning strikes in the United States due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romps, David M; Seeley, Jacob T; Vollaro, David; Molinari, John

    2014-11-14

    Lightning plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry and in the initiation of wildfires, but the impact of global warming on lightning rates is poorly constrained. Here we propose that the lightning flash rate is proportional to the convective available potential energy (CAPE) times the precipitation rate. Using observations, the product of CAPE and precipitation explains 77% of the variance in the time series of total cloud-to-ground lightning flashes over the contiguous United States (CONUS). Storms convert CAPE times precipitated water mass to discharged lightning energy with an efficiency of 1%. When this proxy is applied to 11 climate models, CONUS lightning strikes are predicted to increase 12 ± 5% per degree Celsius of global warming and about 50% over this century. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. High carbon losses due to recent cropland expansion in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spawn, S.; Lark, T.; Gibbs, H.

    2017-12-01

    Land conversion for agriculture in the United States has reached record highs in recent years. From 2008 to 2012 nearly 30,000 square kilometers of previously un-cultivated land were converted to agricultural land use with much of this expansion occurring on grasslands (77%) and shrublands (8%). To understand the effects of this conversion on global C cycling, we created novel, spatially explicit biomass maps for these biomes by combining existing satellite data products with models derived from field measurements. We then estimated changes in existing C stocks by combining our derived data with existing Landsat-scale data on land cover, land conversion, forest biomass and soil organic carbon (C) stocks. We find that conversion results in annual C losses of approximately 25 Tg C from US terrestrial ecosystems. Nationwide, roughly 80% of total emissions result from committed soil organic C losses. While biomass losses from expansion into forests and wetlands are disproportionately high per unit area, the vast majority of C losses occurred in grassland ecosystems, with grassland roots representing close to 70% of total biomass losses across all biomes. C losses are partially offset each year by agricultural abandonment which we estimate could sequester as much as 15 Tg C, annually. Taken together, we find that US agricultural expansion results in net annual emissions of 10 Tg C which is nearly 30% of emissions from existing US croplands. Our estimate is comparable to a recent analogous estimate for conversion of the Brazilian Cerrado and is equivalent to 10% of annual C losses from pantropical deforestation, suggesting that the effects of US cropland expansion could be globally significant.

  19. Fabrication and characteristics of unit cell for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Eom, Seung-Wook; Moon, Seong-In [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Kyongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Research and development on solid oxide fuel cells in Korea have been mainly focused on unit cell and small stack. Fuel cell system is called clean generation system which not cause NOx or SOx. It is generation efficiency come to 50-60% in contrast to 40% of combustion generation system. Among the fuel cell system, solid oxide fuel cell is constructed of ceramics, so stack construction is simple, power density is very high, and there are no corrosion problems. The object of this study is to develop various composing material for SOFC generation system, and to test unit cell performance manufactured. So we try to present a guidance for developing mass power generation system. We concentrated on development of manufacturing process for cathode, anode and electrolyte.

  20. Estimation of absorbed dose in cell nuclei due to DNA-bound /sup 3/H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M; Ishida, M R; Streffer, C; Molls, M

    1985-04-01

    The average absorbed dose due to DNA-bound /sup 3/H in a cell nucleus was estimated by a Monte Carlo simulation for a model nucleus which was assumed to be spheroidal. The volume of the cell nucleus was the major dose-determining factor for cell nuclei which have the same DNA content and the same specific activity of DNA. This result was applied to estimating the accumulated dose in the cell nuclei of organs of young mice born from mother mice which ingested /sup 3/H-thymidine with drinking water during pregnancy. The values of dose-modifying factors for the accumulated dose due to DNA-bound /sup 3/H compared to the dose due to an assumed homogenous distribution of /sup 3/H in organ were found to be between about 2 and 6 for the various organs.

  1. Genotype by environment interaction for growth due to altitude in United States Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Bertrand, J K; Misztal, I; Łukaszewicz, M

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if sires perform consistently across altitude and to quantify the genetic relationship between growth and survival at differing altitudes. Data from the American Angus Association included weaning weight (WW) adjusted to 205 (n = 77,771) and yearling weight adjusted to 365 (n = 39,450) d of age from 77,771 purebred Angus cattle born in Colorado between 1972 and 2007. Postweaning gain (PWG) was calculated by subtracting adjusted WW from adjusted yearling weight. Altitude was assigned to each record based upon the zip code of each herd in the database. Records for WW and PWG were each split into 2 traits measured at low and high altitude, with the records from medium altitude removed from the data due to inconsistencies between growth performance and apparent culling rate. A binary trait, survival (SV), was defined to account for censored records at yearling for each altitude. It was assumed that, at high altitude, individuals missing a yearling weight either died or required relocation to a lower altitude predominantly due to brisket disease, a condition common at high altitude. Model 1 considered each WW and PWG measured at 2 altitudes as separate traits. Model 2 treated PWG and SV measured as separate traits due to altitude. Models included the effects of weaning contemporary group, age of dam, animal additive genetic effects, and residual. Maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were included for WW. Heritability estimates for WW in Model 1 were 0.28 and 0.26 and for PWG were 0.26 and 0.19 with greater values in low altitude. Genetic correlations between growth traits measured at different altitude were moderate in magnitude: 0.74 for WW and 0.76 for PWG and indicate possibility of reranking of sires across altitude. Maternal genetic correlation between WW at varying altitude of 0.75 also indicates these may be different traits. In Model 2, heritabilities were 0.14 and 0.27 for PWG and 0.36 and

  2. Programmatic changes due to TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2]: Accident planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingert, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of the paper is lessons learned for emergency planning and preparedness form the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The lessons learned are examined from two perspectives: (a) lessons learned that have resulted in programmatic changes, and (b) lessons learned that have not been adequately addressed. There is no doubt that the TMI-2 accident is the pivotal event that caused a major rethinking of the pre-TMI emergency preparedness posture and led to a fundamentally different approach to emergency preparedness for commercial nuclear power plant accidents. While this new approach has evolved into a comprehensive, systematic, and even prototypical national program, it has also generated new problems: escalating costs for state and local governments and leveraging of the federal licensing process by state and local governments who do not want specific nuclear power plants to operate. A discussion of the primary lessons learned on emergency preparedness is presented under the following topics: beyond defense-in-depth, predetermined action, mandatory emergency planning and preparedness, and federal coordination

  3. Evaluation of the population dose due to the gaseous emission of a radioisotopes production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Jacomino, V.M.F.; Sordi, G.-M.A.A.

    1990-05-01

    In order to control the emission of gaseous radioactive iodine from the unit responsible for the production of radioisotopes of IPEN-CNEN/SP, a discharge monitoring is carried out. In 1988 an activity of 65 GBq of I-131 was discharged to the environment. Based upon this value and the site analysis, the effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated for normal operation and for an incidental discharge. The evaluation was carried out by using a diffusion atmospheric model, 500 to 7000 m away from the discharge point and using 8 different wind direction sectors. The critical group was identified as being the people who lives 3000 m far from the discharge point, in the diffusion sector NW. The dose evaluated at this point is 10 9 times lower than the annual dose limit for individual of the public, according to Radiological Protection Standards. The derived limit for discharge of iodine was also evaluated and it was concluded that the IPEN-CNEN/SP can increase their production up to a level which results in an annual discharge of 1,5 x 10 12 of I-131. (author) [pt

  4. Maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells culture due to the cells with reduced attachment rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvalova N. S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The classic detachment techniques lead to changes in cells properties. We offer a simple method of cultivating the population of cells that avoided an influence on the surface structures. Methods. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC from human umbilical cord matrix were obtained and cultivated in standard conditions. While substituting the culture media by a fresh portion, the conditioned culture medium, where the cells were maintained for three days, was transferred to other culture flacks with addition of serum and growth factors. Results. In the flacks, one day after medium transfer, we observed attached cells with typical MSC morphology. The cultures originated from these cells had the same rate of surface markers expression and clonogenic potential as those replated by standard methods. Conclusions. MSC culture, derived by preserving the cells with reduced attachment ability, actually has the properties of «parent» passage. Using this method with accepted techniques of cells reseeding would allow maintaining the cells that avoided an impact on the cell surface proteins.

  5. Reported foodborne outbreaks due to fresh produce in the United States and European Union: trends and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Raquel M; Rodríguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Ubeda, Cristina; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of fruit and vegetables continues to rise in the United States and European Union due to healthy lifestyle recommendations. Meanwhile, the rate of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of these products remains high in both regions, representing a significant public health and financial issue. This study addresses the occurrence of reported foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables consumption in the United States and European Union during the period 2004-2012, where data are available. Special attention is paid to those pathogens responsible for these outbreaks, the mechanisms of contamination, and the fresh produce vehicles involved. Norovirus is shown to be responsible for most of the produce-related outbreaks, followed by Salmonella. Norovirus is mainly linked with the consumption of salad in the United States and of berries in the European Union, as demonstrated by the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Salmonella was the leading cause of multistate produce outbreaks in the United States and was the pathogen involved in the majority of sprouts-associated outbreaks. As is reflected in the MCA, the pattern of fresh produce outbreaks differed in the United States and European Union by the type of microorganism and the food vehicle involved.

  6. No Geographic Correlation between Lyme Disease and Death Due to 4 Neurodegenerative Disorders, United States, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Joseph D; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Perea, Anna E; Pastula, Daniel M; Mead, Paul S

    2015-11-01

    Associations between Lyme disease and certain neurodegenerative diseases have been proposed, but supportive evidence for an association is lacking. Similar geographic distributions would be expected if 2 conditions were etiologically linked. Thus, we compared the distribution of Lyme disease cases in the United States with the distributions of deaths due to Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson disease; no geographic correlations were identified. Lyme disease incidence per US state was not correlated with rates of death due to ALS, MS, or Parkinson disease; however, an inverse correlation was detected between Lyme disease and Alzheimer disease. The absence of a positive correlation between the geographic distribution of Lyme disease and the distribution of deaths due to Alzheimer disease, ALS, MS, and Parkinson disease provides further evidence that Lyme disease is not associated with the development of these neurodegenerative conditions.

  7. Replacement of the moderator cell unit of JRR-3's cold neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazawa, Tomoya; Nagahori, Kazuhisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2006-10-01

    The moderator cell of the JRR-3's cold neutron source (CNS) facility, converts thermal neutrons into cold neutrons by passing through liquid cold hydrogen. The cold neutrons are used for material and life science research such as the neutron scattering. The CNS has been operated since the start of JRR-3's in 1990. The moderator cell containing liquid hydrogen is made of stainless steel. The material irradiation lifetime is limited to 7 years due to irradiation brittleness. The first replacement was done by using a spare part made in France. This replacement work of 2006 was carried out by using the domestic moderator cell unit. The following technologies were developed for the moderator cell unit production. 1) Technical development of black treatment on moderator cell surface to increase radiation heat. 2) Development of bending technology of concentric triple tubes consisting from inside tube, Outside tube and Vacuum insulation tube. 3) Development of manufacturing technique of the moderator cell with complicated shapes. According to detail planed work procedures, replacement work was carried out. As results, the working days were reduced to 80% of old ones. The radiation dose was also reduced due to reduction of working days. It was verified by measurement of neutrons characteristics that the replaced moderator cell has the same performance as that of the old moderator cell. The domestic manufacturing of the moderator cell was succeeded. As results, the replacement cost was reduced by development of domestic production technology. (author)

  8. MHC-I modulation due to changes in tumor cell metabolism regulates tumor sensitivity to CTL and NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Elena; Charni, Seyma; Jaime, Paula; Aguiló, Juan Ignacio; Enríquez, José Antonio; Naval, Javier; Pardo, Julián; Villalba, Martín; Anel, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells have a tendency to use glucose fermentation to obtain energy instead of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We demonstrated that this phenotype correlated with loss of ERK5 expression and with reduced MHC class I expression. Consequently, tumor cells could evade cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune surveillance, but also increase their sensitivity to natural killer (NK) cells. These outcomes were evaluated using two cellular models: leukemic EL4 cells and L929 transformed fibroblasts and their derived ρ° cell lines, which lack mitochondrial DNA. We have also used a L929 cell sub-line that spontaneously lost matrix attachment (L929dt), reminiscent of metastasis generation, that also downregulated MHC-I and ERK5 expression. MHC-I expression is lower in ρ° cells than in the parental cell lines, but they were equally sensitive to CTL. On the contrary, ρ° cells were more sensitive to activated NK cells than parental cells. On the other hand, L929dt cells were resistant to CTL and NK cells, showed reduced viability when forced to perform OXPHOS, and surviving cells increased MHC-I expression and became sensitive to CTL. The present results suggest that when the reduction in MHC-I levels in tumor cells due to glycolytic metabolism is partial, the increase in sensitivity to NK cells seems to predominate. However, when tumor cells completely lose MHC-I expression, the combination of treatments that increase OXPHOS with CTL-mediated immunotherapy could be a promising therapeutic approach. PMID:25949869

  9. MHC-I modulation due to changes in tumor cell metabolism regulates tumor sensitivity to CTL and NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Elena; Charni, Seyma; Jaime, Paula; Aguiló, Juan Ignacio; Enríquez, José Antonio; Naval, Javier; Pardo, Julián; Villalba, Martín; Anel, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells have a tendency to use glucose fermentation to obtain energy instead of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We demonstrated that this phenotype correlated with loss of ERK5 expression and with reduced MHC class I expression. Consequently, tumor cells could evade cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune surveillance, but also increase their sensitivity to natural killer (NK) cells. These outcomes were evaluated using two cellular models: leukemic EL4 cells and L929 transformed fibroblasts and their derived ρ° cell lines, which lack mitochondrial DNA. We have also used a L929 cell sub-line that spontaneously lost matrix attachment (L929dt), reminiscent of metastasis generation, that also downregulated MHC-I and ERK5 expression. MHC-I expression is lower in ρ° cells than in the parental cell lines, but they were equally sensitive to CTL. On the contrary, ρ° cells were more sensitive to activated NK cells than parental cells. On the other hand, L929dt cells were resistant to CTL and NK cells, showed reduced viability when forced to perform OXPHOS, and surviving cells increased MHC-I expression and became sensitive to CTL. The present results suggest that when the reduction in MHC-I levels in tumor cells due to glycolytic metabolism is partial, the increase in sensitivity to NK cells seems to predominate. However, when tumor cells completely lose MHC-I expression, the combination of treatments that increase OXPHOS with CTL-mediated immunotherapy could be a promising therapeutic approach.

  10. [Renal cell carcinoma producing erythrocytosis due to inappropriate production of erythropoietin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Gimeno, M M; Vicario-Bermúdez, J M; Fonseca-López, Ch; Caballero-Castro, J P; Zabala-López, S I; Sánchez-Elipe, M A; González-Gómez, N

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocytosis, or polycythaemia, is an increase, in absolute terms, of the erythrocyte mass. The most common solid tumour related to this phenomenon is renal cell carcinoma, which can produce erythrocytosis by increasing erythropoietin production. About 30% of symptomatic renal cell carcinomas are diagnosed due to the appearance of a paraneoplastic syndrome. Polycythaemia is one of these. Surgery, (radical or partial nephrectomy), is the treatment of choice in renal cell carcinoma and helps to keep the erythrocytosis situation under control. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Reversal by EGTA of the enhanced secretory responsiveness of mast cells due to treatment with ouabain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Knudsen, T; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    1990-01-01

    The effect of EGTA on the enhancement by ouabain of compound 48/80-induced secretion from mast cells was compared with the effect on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity. The time-dependent secretory enhancement by ouabain was blocked by addition of EGTA to the cell suspension concomitantly with the addition...... of ouabain, and EGTA caused a large increase in the pump activity. Addition of 10 microM EGTA to ouabain-treated cells stopped but did not reverse the enhancement. The experiments show that the effect of ouabain was due to changes in a calcium pool utilized in compound 48/80-induced secretion following...

  12. cgCorrect: a method to correct for confounding cell-cell variation due to cell growth in single-cell transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Thomas; Buettner, Florian; Strasser, Michael K.; Marr, Carsten; Theis, Fabian J.

    2017-06-01

    Accessing gene expression at a single-cell level has unraveled often large heterogeneity among seemingly homogeneous cells, which remains obscured when using traditional population-based approaches. The computational analysis of single-cell transcriptomics data, however, still imposes unresolved challenges with respect to normalization, visualization and modeling the data. One such issue is differences in cell size, which introduce additional variability into the data and for which appropriate normalization techniques are needed. Otherwise, these differences in cell size may obscure genuine heterogeneities among cell populations and lead to overdispersed steady-state distributions of mRNA transcript numbers. We present cgCorrect, a statistical framework to correct for differences in cell size that are due to cell growth in single-cell transcriptomics data. We derive the probability for the cell-growth-corrected mRNA transcript number given the measured, cell size-dependent mRNA transcript number, based on the assumption that the average number of transcripts in a cell increases proportionally to the cell’s volume during the cell cycle. cgCorrect can be used for both data normalization and to analyze the steady-state distributions used to infer the gene expression mechanism. We demonstrate its applicability on both simulated data and single-cell quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data from mouse blood stem and progenitor cells (and to quantitative single-cell RNA-sequencing data obtained from mouse embryonic stem cells). We show that correcting for differences in cell size affects the interpretation of the data obtained by typically performed computational analysis.

  13. How to reduce avoidable admissions due to acute diabetes complications?: interrelation between primary and specialized attention in a diabetes unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Talavera Espín, N V; López-Ruiz, A; Nuñez Sánchez, Ma Á; Meoro Avilés, A; Sánchez Cañizares, C; Romero López-Reinoso, H; López Olivar, Ma D; Lapaz Jorge, Ma Á; Guirao Sastre, J Ma; San Eustaquio Tudanca, F; Soriano Palao, J

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a serious health problem. In the year 2030 it will affect 366 million people around the world. Evaluate the effectiveness of a mixed intervention and reducing the amount and seriousness of acute complications in diabetics from our Health Area. Protocols of action as well as information documents were produced. Diabetes Unit coordinated educational activities in the different support levels of the Area VII of Murcia. Information talks were provided for the people in charge of the Diabetes Unit in every Care Center and Service of the Health Area. Personalized training was provided for patients treated in the different Care levels. The study comprised three stages. Information leaflets were spread and talks offered to the patient regarding in house handling of hypo and hyper glycemia. A reduction of 39% of the emergencies due to acute non complicated diabetes was achieved, as well as a reduction of 47.6% of hospital admissions. There was a reduction of 67.8% of the amount of total hospital stays for the group of patients under 35 years who were admitted into the hospital due to type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus that didn't show any complications (GRD295). There was a reduction of more than thirty percent in the emergencies due to acute decompensations in the disease and a significant reduction in the avoidable hospital stays in the young adult, thus improving the patients' life quality and reducing the social cost of the diabetic patient.

  14. Plurality of Birth and Infant Mortality Due to External Causes in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Katherine A; Thoma, Marie E; Rossen, Lauren M; Warner, Margaret; Simon, Alan E

    2017-03-01

    Risk of death during the first year of life due to external causes, such as unintentional injury and homicide, may be higher among twins and higher-order multiples than among singletons in the United States. We used national birth cohort linked birth-infant death data (2000-2010) to evaluate the risk of infant mortality due to external causes in multiples versus singletons in the United States. Risk of death from external causes during the study period was 3.6 per 10,000 live births in singletons and 5.1 per 10,000 live births in multiples. Using log-binomial regression, the corresponding unadjusted risk ratio was 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.50). After adjustment for maternal age, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education, the risk ratio was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.56, 1.81). Infant deaths due to external causes were most likely to occur between 2 and 7 months of age. Applying inverse probability weighting and assuming a hypothetical intervention where no infants were low birth weight, the adjusted controlled direct effect of plurality on infant mortality due to external causes was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.39, 1.97). Twins and higher-order multiples were at greater risk of infant mortality due to external causes, particularly between 2 and 7 months of age, and this risk appeared to be mediated largely by factors other than low-birth-weight status. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Learning about the Unit Cell and Crystal Lattice with Computerized Simulations and Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luealamai, Sutha; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based learning module on the unit cell of various types of crystal. The module has two components: the virtual unit cell (VUC) part and the subsequent unit cell hunter part. The VUC is a virtual reality simulation for students to actively arrive at the unit cell from exploring, from a broad view, the crystal…

  16. Performance of multi-junction cells due to illumination distribution across the cell surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.D.; Vorster, F.J; Dyk, E.E van

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the influence of illumination distribution on the performance of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module. CPV systems comprise of optical elements as well as mechanical tracking to concentrate the solar flux onto the solar receiver as well as to keep the system on track with the sun. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell depends on the optical alignment of the system. Raster scanning of the incident intensity in the optical plane of the receiver and corresponding I–V measurements were used to investigate the influence of illumination distribution on performance. The results show that the illumination distribution that differs between cells does affect the performance of the module. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell also depends on the optical alignment of the system.

  17. Performance of multi-junction cells due to illumination distribution across the cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.D., E-mail: s206029578@live.nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Vorster, F.J; Dyk, E.E van [Nelson Mandela University, Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, 6031, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    This paper addresses the influence of illumination distribution on the performance of a high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module. CPV systems comprise of optical elements as well as mechanical tracking to concentrate the solar flux onto the solar receiver as well as to keep the system on track with the sun. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell depends on the optical alignment of the system. Raster scanning of the incident intensity in the optical plane of the receiver and corresponding I-V measurements were used to investigate the influence of illumination distribution on performance. The results show that the illumination distribution that differs between cells does affect the performance of the module. The performance of the subcells of the multi-junction concentrator cell also depends on the optical alignment of the system.

  18. PO02 - Clinical profile of children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit due to acute clinical deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert

    2016-01-01

    Theme: Intensive care Background: There has been an increased number of critically ill patients admitted to paediatric departments. Only a few studies have described the various causes of unplanned admission to paediatric intensive care units (PICU) due to clinical deterioration. However...... and exploring life-threatening situations leading to unexpected transfers to PICU in hospitalised children. The study includes all paediatric departments in the Central Denmark Region. PERSPECTIVE: This study will provide knowledge to assist the research efforts to identify and improve the management...... of critical ill children in paediatric wards....

  19. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell mini power unit for portable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, F.; Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 S. Lucia, Messina (Italy); Zerbinati, O. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Dip. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)

    2007-06-20

    This paper describes the design, realisation and test of a power unit based on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, operating at room temperature, for portable application. The device is composed of an home made air breathing fuel cell stack, a metal hydride tank for H{sub 2} supply, a dc-dc converter for power output control and a fan for stack cooling. The stack is composed by 10 cells with an active surface of 25 cm{sup 2} and produces a rated power of 15 W at 6 V and 2 A. The stack successfully runs with end-off fed hydrogen without appreciable performance degradation during the time. The final assembled system is able to generate 12 W at 9.5 V, and power a portable DVD player for 3 h in continuous. The power unit has collected about 100 h of operation without maintenance. (author)

  20. Using stochastic cell division and death to probe minimal units of cellular replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chib, Savita; Das, Suman; Venkatesan, Soumya; Sai Narain Seshasayee, Aswin; Thattai, Mukund

    2018-03-01

    The invariant cell initiation mass measured in bacterial growth experiments has been interpreted as a minimal unit of cellular replication. Here we argue that the existence of such minimal units induces a coupling between the rates of stochastic cell division and death. To probe this coupling we tracked live and dead cells in Escherichia coli populations treated with a ribosome-targeting antibiotic. We find that the growth exponent from macroscopic cell growth or decay measurements can be represented as the difference of microscopic first-order cell division and death rates. The boundary between cell growth and decay, at which the number of live cells remains constant over time, occurs at the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antibiotic. This state appears macroscopically static but is microscopically dynamic: division and death rates exactly cancel at MIC but each is remarkably high, reaching 60% of the antibiotic-free division rate. A stochastic model of cells as collections of minimal replicating units we term ‘widgets’ reproduces both steady-state and transient features of our experiments. Sub-cellular fluctuations of widget numbers stochastically drive each new daughter cell to one of two alternate fates, division or death. First-order division or death rates emerge as eigenvalues of a stationary Markov process, and can be expressed in terms of the widget’s molecular properties. High division and death rates at MIC arise due to low mean and high relative fluctuations of widget number. Isolating cells at the threshold of irreversible death might allow molecular characterization of this minimal replication unit.

  1. Field collapse due to band-tail charge in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Schiff, E.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    It is common for the fill factor to decrease with increasing illumination intensity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells. This is especially critical for thicker solar cells, because the decrease is more severe than in thinner cells. Usually, the fill factor under uniformly absorbed red light changes much more than under strongly absorbed blue light. The cause of this is usually assumed to arise from space charge trapped in deep defect states. The authors model this behavior of solar cells using the Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures (AMPS) simulation program. The simulation shows that the decrease in fill factor is caused by photogenerated space charge trapped in the band-tail states rather than in defects. This charge screens the applied field, reducing the internal field. Owing to its lower drift mobility, the space charge due to holes exceeds that due to electrons and is the main cause of the field screening. The space charge in midgap states is small compared with that in the tails and can be ignored under normal solar-cell operating conditions. Experimentally, the authors measured the photocapacitance as a means to probe the collapsed field. They also explored the light intensity dependence of photocapacitance and explain the decrease of FF with the increasing light intensity.

  2. THE GERMLINE STEM CELL NICHE UNIT IN MAMMALIAN TESTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Jon M.; Brinster, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses current understanding of the germline stem cell niche unit in mammalian testes. Spermatogenesis is a classic model of tissue-specific stem cell function relying on self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). These fate decisions are influenced by a niche microenvironment composed of a growth factor milieu that is provided by several testis somatic support cell populations. Investigations over the last two decades have identified key determinants of the SSC niche including cytokines that regulate SSC functions and support cells providing these factors, adhesion molecules that influence SSC homing, and developmental heterogeneity of the niche during postnatal aging. Emerging evidence suggests that Sertoli cells are a key support cell population influencing the formation and function of niches by secreting soluble factors and possibly orchestrating contributions of other support cells. Investigations with mice have shown that niche influence on SSC proliferation differs during early postnatal development and adulthood. Moreover, there is mounting evidence of an age-related decline in niche function, which is likely influenced by systemic factors. Defining the attributes of stem cell niches is key to developing methods to utilize these cells for regenerative medicine. The SSC population and associated niche comprise a valuable model system for study that provides fundamental knowledge about the biology of tissue-specific stem cells and their capacity to sustain homeostasis of regenerating tissue lineages. While the stem cell is essential for maintenance of all self-renewing tissues and has received considerable attention, the role of niche cells is at least as important and may prove to be more receptive to modification in regenerative medicine. PMID:22535892

  3. The fundamental unit of pain is the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichling, David B; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2013-12-01

    The molecular/genetic era has seen the discovery of a staggering number of molecules implicated in pain mechanisms [18,35,61,69,96,133,150,202,224]. This has stimulated pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to invest billions of dollars to develop drugs that enhance or inhibit the function of many these molecules. Unfortunately this effort has provided a remarkably small return on this investment. Inevitably, transformative progress in this field will require a better understanding of the functional links among the ever-growing ranks of "pain molecules," as well as their links with an even larger number of molecules with which they interact. Importantly, all of these molecules exist side-by-side, within a functional unit, the cell, and its adjacent matrix of extracellular molecules. To paraphrase a recent editorial in Science magazine [223], although we live in the Golden age of Genetics, the fundamental unit of biology is still arguably the cell, and the cell is the critical structural and functional setting in which the function of pain-related molecules must be understood. This review summarizes our current understanding of the nociceptor as a cell-biological unit that responds to a variety of extracellular inputs with a complex and highly organized interaction of signaling molecules. We also discuss the insights that this approach is providing into peripheral mechanisms of chronic pain and sex dependence in pain.

  4. A heated vapor cell unit for DAVLL in atomic rubidium

    OpenAIRE

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm-long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field...

  5. Comparing of the Financial Ratios: A case study on United States, Great Britain, Greece Due Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stamatis Kontsas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study of the countries through the financial ratios that were analysed. This study was carried out in order to find the characteristics of each economy in comparison to the others. It would be worthy to mention that the three economies that were put under comparative study, are not of the same dynamic. The United States of America and Great Britain show some common characteristics due to the positions of power that they possess in the allocation of the global economy. However, in the case of Greece the same dynamic with the other two countries doesn’t exist, a fact that is greatly imprinted in their in-between comparison.

  6. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  7. Unusual Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Late Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tsan Chang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of recurrent massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding originating from metastatic renal cell carcinoma is reported. A 63-year-old woman underwent right nephrectomy 9 years previously and experienced no recurrence during follow-up. A gradually enlarging ulcerative tumor over the bulb of the duodenum and four subsequent episodes of massive bleeding from this tumor occurred between June 2001 and March 2002. The patient underwent surgery in April 2002 for intractable bleeding from the tumor. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the duodenum was confirmed from the surgical specimen. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to malignancy is very rare and the duodenum is the least frequently involved site. Furthermore, a solitary late renal cell carcinoma metastasis 9 years after a nephrectomy is extremely uncommon. This case suggests that life-long follow-up of renal cell carcinoma patients is necessary, owing to unpredictable behavior and the possibility of long disease-free intervals. In nephrectomized patients suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding, complete evaluation, especially endoscopic examination, is indicated. The possibility of late recurrent renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract should be kept in mind, although it is rare. If the patient is fit for surgery, metastatectomy is the first choice of treatment.

  8. Development of a unit cell model for interim performance assessment of vitrified low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1995-09-01

    The unit cell modeling approach has been developed and used in analysis of some design options for a vitrified low level waste disposal facility. The unit cell modeling approach is likely to be useful in interim performance assessment for the facility. The present unit cell model will probably need to be refitted in terms of some model parameters for the latter purpose. Two present disposal facility concepts differ in the length of a capillary barrier proposed to limit effective recharge through the top of the facility. Results of the study summarized herein suggest design of a capillary barrier which can reduce a recharge rate of 0.1 cm/yr by one or two orders of magnitude seems feasible for both concepts. A benchmark comparison of the unit cell model against a full facility model shows comparable predictive accuracy in less than one percent of the computer time. Results suggest that model parameters include capillary barrier performance, inter-canister spacing, rate of moisture withdrawal due to glass corrosion, contaminant inventory, and the well interceptor factor. It is also important that variations of waste form hydraulic parameters suggest that transport through the waste form is dominated by diffusion

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  10. Comparison of gas membrane separation cascades using conventional separation cell and two-unit separation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masayoshi; Morisue, Tetsuo; Ozaki, Osamu; Miyauchi, Terukatsu.

    1978-01-01

    The adoption of two-unit separation cells in radioactive rare gas membrane separation equipment enhances the separation factor, but increases the required membrane area and compressive power. An analytical economic evaluation was undertaken to compare the conventional separation cell with the two-unit separation cells, adopting as parameters the number of cascade stages, the membrane area and the operating power requirements. This paper describes the models used for evaluating the separation performance and the economics of cascade embodying these different concepts of separation cell taken up for study, and the results obtained for the individual concepts are mutually compared. It proved that, in respect of the number required of cascade stages, of operating power requirements and of the annual expenditure, better performance could always be expected of the two-unit separation cells as compared with the conventional separation cell, at least in the range of parameters adopted in this study. As regards the minimum membrane area, the conventional separation cell and the series-type separation cell yielded almost the same values, with the parallel-type separation cell falling somewhat behind. (auth.)

  11. Evaluating temperature changes of brain tissue due to induced heating of cell phone waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Forouharmajd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worries have recently been increased in the absorption of radiofrequency waves and their destructing effects on human health by increasing use of cell phones (mobile phones. This study performed to determine the thermal changes due to mobile phone radio frequency waves in gray and white brain tissue. Methods: This study is an empirical study, where the thermal changes of electromagnetic waves resulted from cell phones (900 MHZ, specific absorption rate for head 1.18 w/kg on the 15 brain tissue of a cow were analyzed in a compartment with three different thickness of 2 mm, 12 mm, and 22 mm, for 15 min. The Lutron thermometer (model: MT-917 with 0.01°C precision was used for measuring the tissue temperature. For each thickness was measured three times. Data analysis is done by Lutron and MATLAB software packages. Results: In confronting of the tissue with the cell phone, the temperature was increased by 0.53°C in the 2 mm thickness that is the gray matter of the brain, increased by 0.99°C in the 12 mm thickness, and also increased by 0.92°C in the 22 mm thickness. Brain temperature showed higher rates than the base temperature after 15 min of confrontation with cell phone waves in all the three thicknesses. Conclusions: Cell phone radiated radio frequency waves were effective on increasing brain tissue temperature, and this temperature increase has cumulative effect on the tissue, being higher, for some time after the confrontation than the time with no confrontation.

  12. Trends in US minority red blood cell unit donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; Vassallo, Ralph; Ziman, Alyssa; Shaz, Beth

    2017-05-01

    To provide the appropriately diverse blood supply necessary to support alloimmunized and chronically transfused patients, minority donation recruitment programs have been implemented. This study investigated temporal changes in minority red blood cell (RBC) donation patterns in the United States. Data on donor race and ethnicity from 2006 through 2015, including the number of unique donors, collections, RBCs successfully donated, and average annual number of RBC donations per donor (donor fraction), were collected from eight US blood collectors. Minority donors were stratified into the following groups: Asian, black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, white, multiracial/other, and no answer/not sure. Over the 10-year period, white donors annually constituted the majority of unique donors (range, 70.7%-73.9%), had the greatest proportion of collections (range, 76.1%-79.8%), and donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (range, 76.3%-80.2%). These donors also had the highest annual donor fraction (range, 1.82-1.91 units per donor). Black or African American donors annually constituted between 4.9 and 5.2% of all donors during the study period and donated between 4.0 and 4.3% of all RBC units. Linear regression analysis revealed decreasing numbers of donors, collections, and donated RBC units from white donors over time. Although the US population has diversified, and minority recruitment programs have been implemented, white donors constitute the majority of RBC donors and donations. Focused and effective efforts are needed to increase the proportion of minority donors. © 2017 AABB.

  13. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  14. Mechanical behavior of regular open-cell porous biomaterials made of diamond lattice unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S M; Campoli, G; Amin Yavari, S; Sajadi, B; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-06-01

    Cellular structures with highly controlled micro-architectures are promising materials for orthopedic applications that require bone-substituting biomaterials or implants. The availability of additive manufacturing techniques has enabled manufacturing of biomaterials made of one or multiple types of unit cells. The diamond lattice unit cell is one of the relatively new types of unit cells that are used in manufacturing of regular porous biomaterials. As opposed to many other types of unit cells, there is currently no analytical solution that could be used for prediction of the mechanical properties of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cells. In this paper, we present new analytical solutions and closed-form relationships for predicting the elastic modulus, Poisson׳s ratio, critical buckling load, and yield (plateau) stress of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cell. The mechanical properties predicted using the analytical solutions are compared with those obtained using finite element models. A number of solid and porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) specimens were manufactured using selective laser melting. A series of experiments were then performed to determine the mechanical properties of the matrix material and cellular structures. The experimentally measured mechanical properties were compared with those obtained using analytical solutions and finite element (FE) models. It has been shown that, for small apparent density values, the mechanical properties obtained using analytical and numerical solutions are in agreement with each other and with experimental observations. The properties estimated using an analytical solution based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory markedly deviated from experimental results for large apparent density values. The mechanical properties estimated using FE models and another analytical solution based on the Timoshenko beam theory better matched the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  15. Mechanical properties of regular porous biomaterials made from truncated cube repeating unit cells: Analytical solutions and computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled fabrication of open-cell porous biomaterials based on repeating unit cells. The micro-architecture of the porous biomaterials and, thus, their physical properties could then be precisely controlled. Due to their many favorable properties, porous biomaterials manufactured using AM are considered as promising candidates for bone substitution as well as for several other applications in orthopedic surgery. The mechanical properties of such porous structures including static and fatigue properties are shown to be strongly dependent on the type of the repeating unit cell based on which the porous biomaterial is built. In this paper, we study the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials made from a relatively new unit cell, namely truncated cube. We present analytical solutions that relate the dimensions of the repeating unit cell to the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, and buckling load of those porous structures. We also performed finite element modeling to predict the mechanical properties of the porous structures. The analytical solution and computational results were found to be in agreement with each other. The mechanical properties estimated using both the analytical and computational techniques were somewhat higher than the experimental data reported in one of our recent studies on selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V porous biomaterials. In addition to porosity, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the porous structures were found to be strongly dependent on the ratio of the length of the inclined struts to that of the uninclined (i.e. vertical or horizontal) struts, α, in the truncated cube unit cell. The geometry of the truncated cube unit cell approaches the octahedral and cube unit cells when α respectively approaches zero and infinity. Consistent with those geometrical observations, the analytical solutions presented in this study approached those of the octahedral and cube unit cells when

  16. [Medication reconciliation: an innovative experience in an internal medicine unit to decrease errors due to inacurrate medication histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérennes, Maud; Carde, Axel; Nicolas, Xavier; Dolz, Manuel; Bihannic, René; Grimont, Pauline; Chapot, Thierry; Granier, Hervé

    2012-03-01

    An inaccurate medication history may prevent the discovery of a pre-admission iatrogenic event or lead to interrupted drug therapy during hospitalization. Medication reconciliation is a process that ensures the transfer of medication information at admission to the hospital. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the interest in clinical practice of this concept and the resources needed for its implementation. We chose to include patients aged 65 years or over admitted in the internal medicine unit between June and October 2010. We obtained an accurate list of each patient's home medications. This list was then compared with medication orders. All medication variances were classified as intended or unintended. An internist and a pharmacist classified the clinical importance of each unintended variance. Sixty-one patients (mean age: 78 ± 7.4 years) were included in our study. We identified 38 unintended discrepancies. The average number of unintended discrepancies was 0.62 per patient. Twenty-five patients (41%) had one or more unintended discrepancies at admission. The contact with the community pharmacist permitted us to identify 21 (55%) unintended discrepancies. The most common errors were the omission of a regularly used medication (76%) and an incorrect dosage (16%). Our intervention resulted in order changes by the physician for 30 (79%) unintended discrepancies. Fifty percent of the unintended variances were judged by the internist and 76% by the pharmacist to be clinically significant. The admission to the hospital is a critical transition point for the continuity of care in medication management. Medication reconciliation can identify and resolve errors due to inaccurate medication histories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequency distribution of the reduced unit cells of centred lattices from the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2012-03-01

    In crystallography, a centred conventional lattice unit cell has its corresponding reduced primitive unit cell. This study presents the frequency distribution of the reduced unit cells of all centred lattice entries of the Protein Data Bank (as of 23 August 2011) in four unit-cell-dimension-based groups and seven interaxial-angle-based subgroups. This frequency distribution is an added layer of support during space-group assignment in new crystals. In addition, some interesting patterns of distribution are discussed as well as how some reduced unit cells could be wrongly accepted as primitive lattices in a different crystal system.

  18. Fungemia due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T; Nakamura, Y; Kato, J; Sugita, K; Murata, M; Kamei, K; Okamoto, S

    2012-02-01

    Rhodotorula species have been increasingly recognized as emerging pathogens, particularly in immunocompromised patients. We herein report on a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome who developed fungemia due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an unrelated donor. He developed severe acute graft-versus-host disease requiring high-dose steroids, and had serially been administered fluconazole and micafungin for the prophylaxis of fungal infection. Although several cases of Rhodotorula infection after HSCT have been reported, all of them were recipients of autologous HSCT, not allogeneic HSCT. A review of all the reported cases of Rhodotorula infection after HSCT revealed that all patients had received fluconazole or echinocandins before the onset of infection. The findings suggest that Rhodotorula species could be causative yeasts, particularly in patients receiving fluconazole or echinocandins, both of which are inactive against the species. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Population attributable fraction of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma due to smoking and alcohol in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Samson; Churchill, Cristina; Owori, Rogers; Nasasira, Benson; Tumuhimbise, Christine; Abonga, Charles Lagoro; Mutiibwa, David; Christiani, David C.; Corey, Kathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high rates and regional variation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in East Africa, the contributions of smoking and alcohol to the ESCC burden in the general population are unknown. We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. Sociodemographic data including smoking and alcohol intake were collected prior to endoscopy. Cases were those with histological diagnosis of ESCC and controls were participants with normal endoscopic examination and gastritis/duodentitis or normal histology. We used odds ratios associated with ESCC risk to determine the population attributable fractions for smoking, alcohol use, and a combination of smoking and alcohol use among adults aged 30 years or greater who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Our study consisted of 67 cases and 142 controls. Median age was 51 years (IQR 40–64); and participants were predominantly male (59 %). Dysphagia and/or odynophagia as indications for endoscopy were significantly more in cases compared to controls (72 % vs 6 %, p < 0.0001). Male gender and increasing age were statistically associated with ESCC. In the unadjusted models, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to male gender was 55 %, female gender - 49 %, smoking 20 %, alcohol 9 % and a combination of alcohol & smoking 15 %. After adjusting for gender and age, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to smoking, alcohol intake and a combination of alcohol & smoking were 16, 10, and 13 % respectively. In this population, 13 % of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases would be avoided if smoking and alcohol use were discontinued. These results suggest that other important risk factors for ESCC in southwestern Uganda remain unknown

  20. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  1. Lifespan differences in hematopoietic stem cells are due to imperfect repair and unstable mean-reversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans B Sieburg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life-long supply of blood cells depends on the long-term function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. HSCs are functionally defined by their multi-potency and self-renewal capacity. Because of their self-renewal capacity, HSCs were thought to have indefinite lifespans. However, there is increasing evidence that genetically identical HSCs differ in lifespan and that the lifespan of a HSC is predetermined and HSC-intrinsic. Lifespan is here defined as the time a HSC gives rise to all mature blood cells. This raises the intriguing question: what controls the lifespan of HSCs within the same animal, exposed to the same environment? We present here a new model based on reliability theory to account for the diversity of lifespans of HSCs. Using clonal repopulation experiments and computational-mathematical modeling, we tested how small-scale, molecular level, failures are dissipated at the HSC population level. We found that the best fit of the experimental data is provided by a model, where the repopulation failure kinetics of each HSC are largely anti-persistent, or mean-reverting, processes. Thus, failure rates repeatedly increase during population-wide division events and are counteracted and decreased by repair processes. In the long-run, a crossover from anti-persistent to persistent behavior occurs. The cross-over is due to a slow increase in the mean failure rate of self-renewal and leads to rapid clonal extinction. This suggests that the repair capacity of HSCs is self-limiting. Furthermore, we show that the lifespan of each HSC depends on the amplitudes and frequencies of fluctuations in the failure rate kinetics. Shorter and longer lived HSCs differ significantly in their pre-programmed ability to dissipate perturbations. A likely interpretation of these findings is that the lifespan of HSCs is determined by preprogrammed differences in repair capacity.

  2. Hydrogen and fuel cells in the United States Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacobucci, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years, the United States Congress has shown increasing interest in the development of hydrogen fuel and fuel cells for transportation, stationary, and mobile applications The high efficiency of fuel cell systems could address some of the concern over increasing dependence on imported petroleum. Further, lower emissions could help promote air quality goals However, many questions remain, including the affordability, safety, overall fuel-cycle efficiency and emissions. These questions, especially those related to cost, have led Members of Congress to enact legislation to speed the development and commercialization of the technologies. This paper discusses congressional action on hydrogen and fuel cells. It provides an overview of the U.S. Congress, and outlines the role of the appropriations process. It then provides a history of federal hydrogen fuel research and development (R and D), both in terms of legislative and executive initiatives, and it describes pending legislation current as of this writing, including bills on energy policy, transportation policy, tax policy, and appropriations. Finally, the paper presents some of the issues that the pending legislation may raise for industry. (author)

  3. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly

  4. Oxidative stress due to radiation in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells. Protection by IGF-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratou, K.; Karakantza, M.; Giannopoulou, E.; Antonacopoulou, A.; Adonakis, G.; Kardamakis, D.; Matsouka, P.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exerts direct as well as indirect effects on DNA through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) experience DNA strand breaks, favoring genetic instability, due to ROS generation. Our aim was to study the effect of a range of radiation doses in HPCs and the possible protective mechanisms activated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). ROS generation was evaluated, in the presence or absence of IGF-1 in liquid cultures of human HPCs-CD34 + irradiated with 1-, 2- and 5-Gy X-rays, using a flow cytometry assay. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression was studied by western blot analysis and visualized by an immunofluorescence assay. Apoptosis was estimated using the following assays: Annexin-V assay, DNA degradation assay, BCL-2/BAX mRNA and protein levels and caspase-9 protein immunofluorescence visualization. Viability and clonogenic potential were studied in irradiated HPCs. The generation of superoxide anion radicals at an early and a late time point was increased, while the hydrogen peroxide generation at a late time point was stable. IGF-1 presence further enhanced the radiation-induced increase of MnSOD at 24 h post irradiation. IGF-1 inhibited the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis by regulating the m-RNA and protein expression of BAX, BCL-2 and the BCL-2/BAX ratio and by decreasing caspase-9 protein expression. IGF-1 presence in culture media of irradiated cells restored the clonogenic capacity and the viability of HPCs as well. In conclusion, IGF-1 protects HPCs-CD34 + from radiation effects, by eliminating the oxidative microenvironment through the enhancement of MnSOD activation and by regulating the mitochondria-mediated pathway of apoptosis. (author)

  5. Impedance Spectroscopic Investigation of the Degraded Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell due to Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of ageing on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. The electrical characterization of fresh and degraded DSCs is done under AM1.5G spectrum and the current density-voltage (J-V characteristics are analyzed. Short circuit current density (JSC decreases significantly whereas a noticeable increase in open circuit voltage is observed. These results have been further investigated electroanalytically using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. An increase in net resistance results in a lower JSC for the degraded DSC. This decrease in current is mainly due to degradation of TiO2-dye interface, which is observed from light and dark J-V characteristics and is further confirmed by EIS measurements. A reduction in the chemical capacitance of the degraded DSC is observed, which is responsible for the shifting of Fermi level with respect to conduction band edge that further results in an increase of open circuit voltage for the degraded DSC. It is also confirmed from EIS that the degradation leads to a better contact formation between the electrolyte and Pt electrode, which improves the fill factor of the DSC. But the recombination throughout the DSC is found to increase along with degradation. This study suggests that the DSC should be used under low illumination conditions and around room temperature for a longer life.

  6. Alloimmunization due to red cell antibodies in Rhesus positive Omani Pregnant Women: Maternal and Perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamima Al-Dughaishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed to determine the prevalence of alloimmunization due to antibodies to red blood cell (RBC antigens (other than rhesus [Rh] antigen and report the maternal, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of all patients with minor RBCs antibodies alloimmunization who were followed and delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman from June 2011 to June 2013. Maternal characteristics, antibody type, antibody titer in addition to perinatal and neonatal outcomes were reviewed. Results: There were 1160 patients with Rh positive status in the study. The most common ABO blood group was O, followed by A, B, and AB. We found 33 out of 1160 Rh positive women alloimmunized with minor RBCs antibodies that gave a prevalence of minor RBCs alloimmunization of 2.7%. The most frequent antibody was anti-E 38%, followed by anti-c 17% and anti-kell 17%. 6 of these 33 patients were identified to have significant antibody titer, and two cases showed evidence of fetal anemia. Only one case required an intrauterine blood transfusion. The most common neonatal complication was jaundice in 53%, followed by respiratory distress syndrome in 28%. Two cases complicated by neonatal anemia required a postnatal blood transfusion. Conclusion: Alloimmunization with anti-E, anti-c, and anti-kell were the most common antibodies among the study group. Minor RBCs alloimmunization was an important cause of neonatal morbidity.

  7. Secondary Involvement of the Mandible due to Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Mosannen Mozaffary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cutaneous malignancy among Caucasians. Rare examples of aggressive and neglected BCC have been reported. Here we report a unique case of a neglected BCC with significant jaw involvement. A 50-year-old female, referred by an otorhinologist, presented with a large ulcer on her chin, which was extended to her mandibular vestibule. The ulcer was 9×5.5 cm in size, and tissue destruction, necrosis was observed in the central portion, and the mandibular bone was exposed. On intraoral examination, tooth mobility and severe bone loss were evident. Due to the primary cutaneous origin of the lesion, BCC was considered as preliminary diagnosis. Biopsy was performed and diagnosis of BCC was confirmed. The diseased mandibular bone was resected and reconstructed with a surgical plate. The soft tissue defect was reconstructed with deltopectoral flap. The patient refused secondary stage plastic surgery. Although BCC is not a lethal malignancy, if left untreated and neglected, it can result in severe destruction, disfigurement, and even mortality.

  8. Hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloantibodies in the Malay population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nazri; Mohd Noor, Noor Haslina; Johan Noor, Shah Reza; Sukri, Salamah Ahmad; Mustafa, Rapiaah; Luc Aster, Hans Van Rostenberghe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization may lead to production of harmful antibodies that result in hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN). There is insufficient data on the prevalence of HDFN due to RBC alloantibodies in the Malay neonatal population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HDFN in the Malay neonatal population due to clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Transfusion Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitiy Sains Malaysia over one year period from January to December 2009. A total of 5163 Malay pregnant women who attended labor room for delivery were collected and analyzed prospectively. The blood samples were subjected to the standard immunohematological procedure for RBC antibody screening and identification using reagents of Diamed-ID Gel microtyping system. All the newborns with RBC alloantibody were investigated for the evidence of HDFN. Results: Thirty (0.58%) women were found to have clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Most of the alloantibodies belonged to Rhesus (Rh) system (56.7%) where anti-E (33.3%) was the most common followed by anti-D (10.0%). Rh antibodies were the main cause of HDFN in fourteen (0.27%) neonates. Anti-D and anti-c were identified to cause moderate to very severe HDFN. Conclusions: With the low prevalence of clinically significant RBC alloantibodies and HDFN, routine antenatal antibody screening practice may not be advised as a routine practice at present, preferably reserved for those women of RhD negative or with history of HDFN, significantly of those attributed to anti-c. PMID:25161351

  9. Hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloantibodies in the Malay population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazri Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal red blood cell (RBC alloimmunization may lead to production of harmful antibodies that result in hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN. There is insufficient data on the prevalence of HDFN due to RBC alloantibodies in the Malay neonatal population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HDFN in the Malay neonatal population due to clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Transfusion Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitiy Sains Malaysia over one year period from January to December 2009. A total of 5163 Malay pregnant women who attended labor room for delivery were collected and analyzed prospectively. The blood samples were subjected to the standard immunohematological procedure for RBC antibody screening and identification using reagents of Diamed-ID Gel microtyping system. All the newborns with RBC alloantibody were investigated for the evidence of HDFN. Results: Thirty (0.58% women were found to have clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Most of the alloantibodies belonged to Rhesus (Rh system (56.7% where anti-E (33.3% was the most common followed by anti-D (10.0%. Rh antibodies were the main cause of HDFN in fourteen (0.27% neonates. Anti-D and anti-c were identified to cause moderate to very severe HDFN . Conclusions: With the low prevalence of clinically significant RBC alloantibodies and HDFN, routine antenatal antibody screening practice may not be advised as a routine practice at present, preferably reserved for those women of RhD negative or with history of HDFN, significantly of those attributed to anti-c.

  10. Variations in insulin responsiveness in rat fat cells are due to metabolic differences rather than insulin binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Mølgård; Nilsson, Poul; Sonne, Ole

    1983-01-01

    -insulin to fat cells. Insulin binding was not correlated to the plasma insulin level which however was reflected in the lipoprotein lipase activity in the adipose tissue. In conclusion, these results indicate that variations in insulin responsiveness in fat cells are due to alterations in cellular metabolism...

  11. Automated assembling of single fuel cell units for use in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Barz, C.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    The manufacturing of PEMFC stacks (POLYMER ELEKTROLYT MEMBRAN Fuel Cell) is nowadays still done by hand. Over hundreds of identical single components have to be placed accurate together for the construction of a fuel cell stack. Beside logistic problems, higher total costs and disadvantages in weight the high number of components produce a higher statistic interference because of faulty erection or material defects and summation of manufacturing tolerances. The saving of costs is about 20 - 25 %. Furthermore, the total weight of the fuel cells will be reduced because of a new sealing technology. Overall a one minute cycle time has to be aimed per cell at the manufacturing of these single components. The change of the existing sealing concept to a bonded sealing is one of the important requisites to get an automated manufacturing of single cell units. One of the important steps for an automated gluing process is the checking of the glue application by using of an image processing system. After bonding the single fuel cell the sealing and electrical function can be checked, so that only functional and high qualitative cells can get into further manufacturing processes.

  12. Super Unit Cells in Aperture-Based Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Tanasković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important class of electromagnetic metamaterials are aperture-based metasurfaces. Examples include extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnets with negative refractive index. We analyze a generalization of such metamaterials where a simple aperture is now replaced by a compound object formed by superposition of two or more primitive objects (e.g., rectangles, circles, and ellipses. Thus obtained “super unit cell” shows far richer behavior than the subobjects that comprise it. We show that nonlocalities introduced by overlapping simple subobjects can be used to produce large deviations of spectral dispersion even for small additive modifications of the basic geometry. Technologically, some super cells may be fabricated by simple spatial shifting of the existing photolithographic masks. In our investigation we applied analytical calculations and ab initio finite element modeling to prove the possibility to tailor the dispersion including resonances for plasmonic nanocomposites by adjusting the local geometry and exploiting localized interactions at a subwavelength level. Any desired form could be defined using simple primitive objects, making the situation a geometrical analog of the case of series expansion of a function. Thus an additional degree of tunability of metamaterials is obtained. The obtained designer structures can be applied in different fields like waveguiding and sensing.

  13. Calcitonin, phosphate, and the osteocyte--osteoblast bone cell unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, R.V.; Matthews, J.L.; Martin, J.H.; Kennedy, J.W. III; Davis, W.L.; Roycroft, J.H. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    In this report we have attempted to correlate the morphological and chemical changes that occur in the long bone (tibia) of rats with the hypocalcemia that is produced following calcitonin injection or release from its gland of origin. By varying the supply of phosphate available to the rat, it has been possible to demonstrate that changes produced by CT both in bone and in plasma calcium concentrations were dependent upon an adequate supply of this ion. It is, therefore, postulated that the hypocalcemia produced by calcitonin is secondary to the formation of a calcium phosphate complex in and around osteocytes and lining cells. It is suggested that this complex, which is normally prevented from transforming to apatite crystal by the presence of an inhibitor, reduces the availability of calcium for rapid transport to the ECF. The reduction in calcium flux from bone to ECF results in a rapid and transient hypocalcemia. Regardless of the status of this postulate, we have at least demonstrated that the osteocyte-osteoblast unit of compact bone reacts rapidly to calcitonin in a process requiring phosphate in a sequence of events which can be closely correlated to the hypocalcemic action of the hormone.

  14. Decreased mortality in patients hospitalized due to respiratory diseases after installation of an intensive care unit in a secondary hospital in the interior of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Luciano Passamani; Bahlis, Laura Fuchs; Wajner, André; Waldemar, Fernando Starosta

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between the in-hospital mortality of patients hospitalized due to respiratory diseases and the availability of intensive care units. This retrospective cohort study evaluated a database from a hospital medicine service involving patients hospitalized due to respiratory non-terminal diseases. Data on clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mortality, such as Charlson score and length of hospital stay, were collected. The following analyses were performed: univariate analysis with simple stratification using the Mantel Haenszel test, chi squared test, Student's t test, Mann-Whitney test, and logistic regression. Three hundred thirteen patients were selected, including 98 (31.3%) before installation of the intensive care unit and 215 (68.7%) after installation of the intensive care unit. No significant differences in the clinical and anthropometric characteristics or risk factors were observed between the groups. The mortality rate was 18/95 (18.9%) before the installation of the intensive care unit and 21/206 (10.2%) after the installation of the intensive care unit. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the probability of death after the installation of the intensive care unit decreased by 58% (OR: 0.42; 95%CI 0.205 -0.879; p = 0.021). Considering the limitations of the study, the results suggest a benefit, with a decrease of one death per every 11 patients treated for respiratory diseases after the installation of an intensive care unit in our hospital. The results corroborate the benefits of the implementation of intensive care units in secondary hospitals.

  15. Home-Schools and Interscholastic Sports: Denying Participation Violates United States Constitutional Due Process and Equal Protection Rights. Chalk Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Derwin L.

    1997-01-01

    Participation in sports, in some instances, is considered a right which grants students the opportunity to be involved in extracurricular activities. Discusses the potential violation of home-schooled students' constitutional due process and equal protection rights and the pertinent laws regarding students and their ability to participate in…

  16. Polyploidization of rat hepatocytes due to cell fusion under the effect of radiation of different let

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil'yano, N.Ya.; Malinovskij, O.V.; Khair, M.B.; Baldychev, A.S.; Smolin, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The method of flow cytometry was used to study polyploidization of hepatocytes following X-, γ-, and neutron-irradiation. Ionizing radiation was shown to induce cell polyploidization by two different ways: (1) cells and nuclei fusion, and (2) restriction of mitosis after DNA replication. RBE of 14 MeV neutrons with respect to fusion was about 5x10 3 . With neutron irradiation, the densitivity of cells by fusion was not lower than that by chromosome mutations

  17. Polyploidization of rat hepatocytes due to cell fusion under the effect of radiation of different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khair, M.; Gil'yano, N.Ya.; Malinovskij, O.V.; Smolin, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The method of flow cytometry was used to study polyploidization of hepatocytes following X-, γ-, and neutron-irradiation. Ionizing radiation was shown to induce cell polyploidization by two different ways: (1) cells and nuclei fusion, and (2) restriction of mitosis after DNA replication. RBE of 14 MeV neutrons with respect to fusion was about 5x10 3 . With neutron irradiation, the sensitivity of cells by fusion was not lower than that by chromosome mutations. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  18. Case report of a near medical event in stereotactic radiotherapy due to improper units of measure from a treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladstone, D. J.; Li, S.; Jarvis, L. A.; Hartford, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors hereby notify the Radiation Oncology community of a potentially lethal error due to improper implementation of linear units of measure in a treatment planning system. The authors report an incident in which a patient was nearly mistreated during a stereotactic radiotherapy procedure due to inappropriate reporting of stereotactic coordinates by the radiation therapy treatment planning system in units of centimeter rather than in millimeter. The authors suggest a method to detect such errors during treatment planning so they are caught and corrected prior to the patient positioning for treatment on the treatment machine. Methods: Using pretreatment imaging, the authors found that stereotactic coordinates are reported with improper linear units by a treatment planning system. The authors have implemented a redundant, independent method of stereotactic coordinate calculation. Results: Implementation of a double check of stereotactic coordinates via redundant, independent calculation is simple and accurate. Use of this technique will avoid any future error in stereotactic treatment coordinates due to improper linear units, transcription, or other similar errors. Conclusions: The authors recommend an independent double check of stereotactic treatment coordinates during the treatment planning process in order to avoid potential mistreatment of patients.

  19. Case report of a near medical event in stereotactic radiotherapy due to improper units of measure from a treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladstone, D. J.; Li, S.; Jarvis, L. A.; Hartford, A. C. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The authors hereby notify the Radiation Oncology community of a potentially lethal error due to improper implementation of linear units of measure in a treatment planning system. The authors report an incident in which a patient was nearly mistreated during a stereotactic radiotherapy procedure due to inappropriate reporting of stereotactic coordinates by the radiation therapy treatment planning system in units of centimeter rather than in millimeter. The authors suggest a method to detect such errors during treatment planning so they are caught and corrected prior to the patient positioning for treatment on the treatment machine. Methods: Using pretreatment imaging, the authors found that stereotactic coordinates are reported with improper linear units by a treatment planning system. The authors have implemented a redundant, independent method of stereotactic coordinate calculation. Results: Implementation of a double check of stereotactic coordinates via redundant, independent calculation is simple and accurate. Use of this technique will avoid any future error in stereotactic treatment coordinates due to improper linear units, transcription, or other similar errors. Conclusions: The authors recommend an independent double check of stereotactic treatment coordinates during the treatment planning process in order to avoid potential mistreatment of patients.

  20. Quantifying the Risk of Human Toxoplasma gondii Infection Due to Consumption of Domestically Produced Lamb in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Mishra, Abhinav; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Gamble, H Ray; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a prevalent protozoan parasite worldwide. Human toxoplasmosis is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and meat products have been identified as an important source of T. gondii infections in humans. The goal of this study was to develop a farm-to-table quantitative microbial risk assessment model to predict the public health burden in the United States associated with consumption of U.S. domestically produced lamb. T. gondii prevalence in market lambs was pooled from the 2011 National Animal Health Monitoring System survey, and the concentration of the infectious life stage (bradyzoites) was calculated in the developed model. A log-linear regression and an exponential doseresponse model were used to model the reduction of T. gondii during home cooking and to predict the probability of infection, respectively. The mean probability of infection per serving of lamb was estimated to be 1.5 cases per 100,000 servings, corresponding to ∼6,300 new infections per year in the U.S. Based on the sensitivity analysis, we identified cooking as the most effective method to influence human health risk. This study provided a quantitative microbial risk assessment framework for T. gondii infection through consumption of lamb and quantified the infection risk and public health burden associated with lamb consumption.

  1. Antigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ElHassan, A M; Gaafar, A; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    keratinocytes and endothelial cells also showed these characteristics, they may also act as APC. By examining tissue samples from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes it was possible to follow the probable route of trafficking of various inflammatory cells between the skin lesion and lymph nodes. Leishmania...

  2. Changes in adipose tissue stromal-vascular cells in primary culture due to porcine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, D.E.; Hausman, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the response of rat stromal-vascular cells to pig sea. Sera were collected from unselected contemporary (lean) and high backfat thickness selected (obese) pigs. Sera from obese pigs were collected either by exsanguination or cannulation. sera from lean pigs during the growing phase (45 kg) and the fattening phase (100-110 kg) were collected. Stromal-vascular cells derived rom rat inguinal tissue were cultured on either 25 cm 2 flasks, collagen-coated coverslips or petri dishes. Cell proliferation was measured by [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation during the fourth day of culture. Coverslip cultures were used for histochemical analysis. Petri dish cultures were used for analysis of Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. All cells were plated for 24 hours in media containing 10 fetal bovine sera. Test media contained 2.5, 5.0, 10.0% sera. Sera from obese pigs increased GPDH activity and fat cell production when compared to the lean controls. The increased concentration of sera increased esterase activity and lipid as measured with oil red O. The sera from obese pigs collected at slaughter stimulated more fat cell production than obese sera collected by cannulation. These studies show there are adipogenic factors in obese pigs sera which promote fat cell development in primary cell culture

  3. Estimated number of preterm births and low birth weight children born in the United States due to maternal binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Khoa D; Reifsnider, Odette S; Mayorga, Maria E; Spitler, Hugh

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the aggregate burden of maternal binge drinking on preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) across American sociodemographic groups in 2008. To estimate the aggregate burden of maternal binge drinking on preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) across American sociodemographic groups in 2008. A simulation model was developed to estimate the number of PTB and LBW cases due to maternal binge drinking. Data inputs for the model included number of births and rates of preterm and LBW from the National Center for Health Statistics; female population by childbearing age groups from the U.S. Census; increased relative risks of preterm and LBW deliveries due to maternal binge drinking extracted from the literature; and adjusted prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant women estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. The most conservative estimates attributed maternal binge drinking to 8,701 (95% CI: 7,804-9,598) PTBs (1.75% of all PTBs) and 5,627 (95% CI 5,121-6,133) LBW deliveries in 2008, with 3,708 (95% CI: 3,375-4,041) cases of both PTB and LBW. The estimated rate of PTB due to maternal binge drinking was 1.57% among all PTBs to White women, 0.69% among Black women, 3.31% among Hispanic women, and 2.35% among other races. Compared to other age groups, women ages 40-44 had the highest adjusted binge drinking rate and highest PTB rate due to maternal binge drinking (4.33%). Maternal binge drinking contributed significantly to PTB and LBW differentially across sociodemographic groups.

  4. Rhombicuboctahedron unit cell based scaffolds for bone regeneration: geometry optimization with a mechanobiology - driven algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Fiorentino, Michele; Uva, Antonio E; Laghetti, Luca N; Monno, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    In a context more and more oriented towards customized medical solutions, we propose a mechanobiology-driven algorithm to determine the optimal geometry of scaffolds for bone regeneration that is the most suited to specific boundary and loading conditions. In spite of the huge number of articles investigating different unit cells for porous biomaterials, no studies are reported in the literature that optimize the geometric parameters of such unit cells based on mechanobiological criteria. Parametric finite element models of scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell were developed and incorporated into an optimization algorithm that combines them with a computational mechanobiological model. The algorithm perturbs iteratively the geometry of the unit cell until the best scaffold geometry is identified, i.e. the geometry that allows to maximize the formation of bone. Performances of scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell were compared with those of other scaffolds with hexahedron unit cells. We found that scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell are particularly suited for supporting medium-low loads, while, for higher loads, scaffolds with hexahedron unit cells are preferable. The proposed algorithm can guide the orthopaedic/surgeon in the choice of the best scaffold to be implanted in a patient-specific anatomic region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. U.S. Job Creation Due to Nuclear Power Resurgence in The United States — Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine M. Plowman

    2004-11-01

    The recent revival of interest in nuclear power is causing a reexamination of the role of nuclear power in the United States. This renewed interest has led to questions regarding the capability and capacity of current U.S. industries to support a renewal of nuclear power plant deployment. This study was conducted to provide an initial estimate of jobs to be gained in the U.S. through the repatriation of the nuclear manufacturing industry. In the course of the study, related job categories were also modeled to provide an additional estimate of the potential expansion of existing industries (i.e., plant construction and operations) in conjunction with the repatriation of manufacturing jobs.

  6. Vascular networks due to dynamically arrested crystalline ordering of elongated cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Palm (Margriet); R.M.H. Merks (Roeland)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractRecent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that crystallization and glass-like solidification are useful analogies for understanding cell ordering in confluent biological tissues. It remains unexplored how cellular ordering contributes to pattern formation during morphogenesis.

  7. Vascular networks due to dynamically arrested crystalline ordering of elongated cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Palm (Margriet); R.M.H. Merks (Roeland)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractRecent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that crystallization and glass-like solidification are useful analogies for understanding cell ordering in confluent biological tissues. It remains unexplored how cellular ordering contributes to pattern formation during morphogenesis.

  8. Computed tomographic demonstration of a spontaneous subcapsular hematoma due to a small renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, S.; Bosniak, M.A.; Megibow, A.J.; Ambos, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was able to demonstrate a small renal cell carcinoma as the cause of a spontaneous subcapsular hematoma. Angiographic and pathologic correlation were obtained. A review of the causes for nontraumatic renal subcapsular hematoma is included

  9. Radon-induced cancer: a cell-based model of tumorigenesis due to protracted exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1982, results with C3H mouse embryo cells showed that the frequency of neoplastic transformation was enhanced when exposures to fission-spectrum neutrons were protracted in time. This finding was unexpected because the opposite was found with low-LET radiations. Similar neutron enhancements were reported with normal life-span Syrian hamster embryo cells, and with human hybrid cells. Because other studies did not confirm the preceding, in 1990 - at a conference convened by the US Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute - a biophysical model was proposed to explain the basis for the enhancement observed in some experiments but not in others. The model attributed special sensitivities, related to killing and neoplastic transformation, to cells in and around mitosis. Subsequently, it was shown that late G 2 /M phase cells constituted this window of sensitivity. In the instance of tumorigenesis, the model predicted that protracted exposures to a high-LET radiation would result in enhanced frequencies of transformation providing that susceptible cells were cycling or could be induced to cycle. The model explained data on lung tumour induction in rats breathing radon at different concentrations, and uranium miners working in atmospheres containing different concentrations of radon. The model also explains the anomalous finding that lung cancer deaths are often sublinearly correlated with indoor radon concentration. (author)

  10. Hydrogen doping of Indium Tin Oxide due to thermal treatment of hetero-junction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzau, Kurt-Ulrich, E-mail: kurt-ulrich.ritzau@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Behrendt, Torge [Infineon Technologies, Max-Planck-Straße 5, 59581 Warstein (Germany); Palaferri, Daniele [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS—UMR 7162, 75013 Paris (France); Bivour, Martin; Hermle, Martin [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-01-29

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) layers in silicon hetero junction solar cells change their electrical and optical properties when exposed to temperature treatments. Hydrogen which effuses from underlying amorphous silicon layers is identified to dope the ITO layer. This leads to an additional increase in conductivity. In this way an almost isolating ITO can become degenerately doped through temperature treatments. The resulting carrier density in the range of 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} leads to a substantial increase in free carrier absorption, which in turn leads to an increased parasitic absorption in the cell device. Thus hydrogen effusion in silicon hetero-junction (SHJ) solar cells does not only affect the degradation of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) passivation of crystalline silicon (c-Si), but also the electrical and optical properties of both front and back ITO layers. This leads to the further design rule for SHJ solar cells, meaning that ITO properties have to be optimized in the state after modification during temperature treatment. - Highlights: • ITO is additionally doped by heat treatment of silicon hetero-junction solar cells. • The discovered effect turns an almost isolating ITO into a degenerately doped TCO. • TCO properties have to be considered as measured in the final cell.

  11. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an in balance between the strength (structural integrity......) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficult to investigate due to non-linear scaling laws. The paper describes a method by which impact loads on....... slender armour units can be studied. by load-cell technique. Moreover, the paper presents DoJos design diagrams for the prediction of both breakage and hydraulic stability...

  12. β-cell dysfunction due to increased ER stress in a stem cell model of Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Linshan; Hua, Haiqing; Foo, Kylie; Martinez, Hector; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Zimmer, Matthew; Kahler, David J; Freeby, Matthew; Chung, Wendy; LeDuc, Charles; Goland, Robin; Leibel, Rudolph L; Egli, Dieter

    2014-03-01

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in WFS1 and is characterized by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. To investigate the cause of β-cell failure, we used induced pluripotent stem cells to create insulin-producing cells from individuals with Wolfram syndrome. WFS1-deficient β-cells showed increased levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress molecules and decreased insulin content. Upon exposure to experimental ER stress, Wolfram β-cells showed impaired insulin processing and failed to increase insulin secretion in response to glucose and other secretagogues. Importantly, 4-phenyl butyric acid, a chemical protein folding and trafficking chaperone, restored normal insulin synthesis and the ability to upregulate insulin secretion. These studies show that ER stress plays a central role in β-cell failure in Wolfram syndrome and indicate that chemical chaperones might have therapeutic relevance under conditions of ER stress in Wolfram syndrome and other forms of diabetes.

  13. Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteremia in a chemotherapy day care unit due to intrinsic contamination of an antiemetic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Singhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the end of 2009, a large number of patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy at the day care unit of a private hospital in Mumbai, India developed Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC blood stream infection (BSI. Objective: The objectives were to identify the source of the outbreak and terminate the outbreak as rapidly as possible. Materials and Methods: All infection control protocols and processes were reviewed. Intensive training was started for all nursing staff involved in patient care. Cultures were sent from the environment (surfaces, water, air, intravenous fluids, disinfectants and antiseptics and opened/unopened medication. Results: A total of 13 patients with cancer with tunneled catheters were affected with BCC BSI. The isolates were of similar antimicrobial sensitivity. No significant breach of infection control protocols could be identified. Cultures from the prepared intravenous medication bags grew BCC. Subsequently, culture from unused vials of the antiemetic granisetron grew BCC, whereas those from the unopened IV fluid bag and chemotherapy medication were negative. On review, it was discovered that the outbreak started when a new brand of granisetron was introduced. The result was communicated to the manufacturer and the brand was withdrawn. There were no further cases. Conclusions: This outbreak was thus linked to intrinsic contamination of medication vials. We acknowledge a delay in identifying the source as we were concentrating more on human errors in medication preparation and less on intrinsic contamination. We recommend that in an event of an outbreak, unopened vials be cultured at the outset.

  14. Regional 3-D Modeling of Ground Geoelectric Field for the Northeast United States due to Realistic Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikova, E.; Kruglyakov, M.; Kuvshinov, A. V.; Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Ngwira, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    During extreme space weather events electric currents in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere experience large variations, which leads to dramatic intensification of the fluctuating magnetic field at the surface of the Earth. According to Faraday's law of induction, the fluctuating geomagnetic field in turn induces electric field that generates harmful currents (so-called "geomagnetically induced currents"; GICs) in grounded technological systems. Understanding (via modeling) of the spatio-temporal evolution of the geoelectric field during enhanced geomagnetic activity is a key consideration in estimating the hazard to technological systems from space weather. We present the results of ground geoelectric field modeling for the Northeast United States, which is performed with the use of our novel numerical tool based on integral equation approach. The tool exploits realistic regional three-dimensional (3-D) models of the Earth's electrical conductivity and realistic global models of the spatio-temporal evolution of the magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems responsible for geomagnetic disturbances. We also explore in detail the manifestation of the coastal effect (anomalous intensification of the geoelectric field near the coasts) in this region.

  15. Disparities in Spatial Prevalence of Feline Retroviruses due to Data Aggregation: A Case of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal K. Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the spatial distribution feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections, which are untreatable, can inform on their risk factors and high-risk areas to enhance control. However, when spatial analysis involves aggregated spatial data, results may be influenced by the spatial scale of aggregation, an effect known as the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP. In this study, area level risk factors for both infections in 28,914 cats tested with ELISA were investigated by multivariable spatial Poisson regression models along with MAUP effect on spatial clustering and cluster detection (for postal codes, counties, and states by Moran’s I test and spatial scan test, respectively. The study results indicate that the significance and magnitude of the association of risk factors with both infections varied with aggregation scale. Further more, Moran’s I test only identified spatial clustering at postal code and county levels of aggregation. Similarly, the spatial scan test indicated that the number, size, and location of clusters varied over aggregation scales. In conclusion, the association between infection and area was influenced by the choice of spatial scale and indicates the importance of study design and data analysis with respect to specific research questions.

  16. Outbreak of infection in a burns unit due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa originating from contaminated tubing used for irrigation of patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, H J; Thuesen, B; Nielsen, S V

    1993-01-01

    water used for irrigation of the burns, as part of the first-aid treatment which the patients received when entering the hospital. Contamination was restricted to showers and tubing that were permanently connected to the taps, and the outbreak stopped after they had been disinfected. Tubing and showers...... used for irrigation of burns should be dismantled and heat-disinfected after each patient and not reconnected to the taps until immediately before the next treatment. Taps used for irrigation of burns should be monitored regularly for the presence of P. aeruginosa and other potentially pathogenic......Five patients with extensive deep burns developed septicaemia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroup O-7.8 and phage type 21 or 21/188 shortly after they had been admitted to hospital. Four other burned patients became colonized with the same strain. The source of infection was contaminated tap...

  17. Chronic ulceration of the leg following extensive scarring due to a snake bite complicated by squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, L.F.B.; Barcelos, M.G.; Nogueira Neto, N.C.; Meohas, W.; Pinto, L.W.; Melo, P.A.; Smith, J.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic ulcers of the leg are common in Brazil, perhaps more common than in the developed world. We report a case of a chronic ulcer of the leg following extensive scarring due to a bite by a venomous snake, which eventually led to a squamous cell carcinoma. (orig.)

  18. Clinical and laboratory characteristics and associated risk factors of infants hospitalized in neonatal unit due to indirect hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Hatipoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate characteristicsof neonates hospitalized to Neonatal Unit dueto indirect hyperbilirubinemia and to determine risk factorsfor indirect hyperbilirubinemia.Materials and methods: Totally 222 newborns, aged≥35 weeks of gestational age and hospitalized in neonatalunit with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, were investigated.Physical examination and laboratory studies of childrenwere performed. Decision of phototherapy and exchangetransfusion was done according to total serum bilirubin(TSB level that notified in the Guidelines of AmericanAcademy of Pediatrics.Results: Study group consisted of 131 (60% male and91 (30% female newborns. No significant difference wasfound in TSB values between male and female neonates.There was 71.2% term and 19.8% late preterm newbornbabies. Babies born with spontaneous vaginal deliveryhad borderline higher TSB values compared with cesareansection deliveries (p=0.051. ABO blood group incompatibilitywas found in 30.1% and Rh incompatibilityin 6.7%. Insufficient nutrition and inadequate caloric intakewere found in 49 (22.7% of neonates, urinary tractinfection in 19 (8.5%, hypernatremic dehydration in 9(4.5% and hypothyroidism in 4 (2.0%. Exchange transfusionwas performed in 10 newborns and kernicterus occurredin two. A significant negative correlation was foundbetween TSB values at hospitalization and baby’s birth(p<0.05 and a positive correlation between initial TSBvalue and percent of patient weight loss (p<0.05.Conclusions: According to our results, the most frequentetiological causes of jaundice in newborns were ABOblood group incompatibility, insufficient nutrition and beinglate preterm. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(1: 38-43

  19. Plasma generated in culture medium induces damages of HeLa cells due to flow phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yusuke; Sato, Takehiko; Yoshino, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Plasma in a liquid has been anticipated as an effective tool for medical applications, however, few reports have described cellular responses to plasma generated in a liquid similar to biological fluids. Herein we report the effects of plasma generated in a culture medium on HeLa cells. The plasma in the culture medium produced not only heat, shock waves, and reactive chemical species but also a jet flow with sub millimeter-sized bubbles. Cells exposed to the plasma exhibited detachment, morphological changes, and changes in the actin cytoskeletal structure. The experimental results suggest that wall shear stress over 160 Pa was generated on the surface of the cells by the plasma. It is one of the main factors that cause those cellular responses. We believe that our findings would provide valuable insight into advancements in medical applications of plasma in a liquid.

  20. Pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia due to a mutation of the glucagon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larger, Etienne; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Hansen, L.H.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids...... to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia, as well as elevated plasma amino acid levels. Together with the glucagon-induced hypoaminoacidemia in glucagonoma patients, our case supports recent suggestions that amino acids may provide the feedback link between the liver and the pancreatic α-cells....

  1. MMP-19 deficiency causes aggravation of colitis due to defects in innate immune cell function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauer, Rena; Turečková, Jolana; Kanchev, Ivan; Khoylou, M.; Škarda, J.; Procházka, Jan; Špoutil, František; Beck, Inken; Žbodáková, Olga; Kašpárek, Petr; Kořínek, Vladimír; Chalupský, Karel; Karhu, T.; Herzig, K.H.; Hajduch, M.; Gregor, Martin; Sedláček, Radislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2016), s. 974-985 ISSN 1933-0219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/11/2048; GA ČR GAP303/10/2044; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : human matrix-metalloproteinase * inflammatory-bowel-disease * differential expression * chemokine fractalkine * epithelial-cells * myeloid cells * in-vivo * mice * tissue * identification Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.478, year: 2016

  2. Inhibition of pH fronts in corrosion cells due to the formation of cerium hydroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soestbergen, M. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of cerium-based corrosion inhibitors on the pH front between the alkaline cathode and acidic anode in corrosion cells has been studied. The cerium component of these inhibitors can affect the pH front since it precipitates in an alkaline environment as cerium hydroxide, which is important

  3. Increased sensitivity of p53-deficient cells to anticancer agents due to loss of Pms2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedier, A; Ruefenacht, U B; Schwarz, V A; Haller, U; Fink, D

    2002-01-01

    A large fraction of human tumours carries mutations in the p53 gene. p53 plays a central role in controlling cell cycle checkpoint regulation, DNA repair, transcription, and apoptosis upon genotoxic stress. Lack of p53 function impairs these cellular processes, and this may be the basis of resistance to chemotherapeutic regimens. By virtue of the involvement of DNA mismatch repair in modulating cytotoxic pathways in response to DNA damaging agents, we investigated the effects of loss of Pms2 on the sensitivity to a panel of widely used anticancer agents in E1A/Ha-Ras-transformed p53-null mouse fibroblasts either proficient or deficient in Pms2. We report that lack of the Pms2 gene is associated with an increased sensitivity, ranging from 2–6-fold, to some types of anticancer agents including the topoisomerase II poisons doxorubicin, etoposide and mitoxantrone, the platinum compounds cisplatin and oxaliplatin, the taxanes docetaxel and paclitaxel, and the antimetabolite gemcitabine. In contrast, no change in sensitivity was found after treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Cell cycle analysis revealed that both, Pms2-deficient and -proficient cells, retain the ability to arrest at the G2/M upon cisplatin treatment. The data indicate that the concomitant loss of Pms2 function chemosensitises p53-deficient cells to some types of anticancer agents, that Pms2 positively modulates cell survival by mechanisms independent of p53, and that increased cytotoxicity is paralleled by increased apoptosis. Tumour-targeted functional inhibition of Pms2 may be a valuable strategy for increasing the efficacy of anticancer agents in the treatment of p53-mutant cancers. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1027–1033. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600599 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12434296

  4. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsch Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  5. Unusually large unit cell of lipid bicontinuous cubic phase: towards nature's length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojun; Leal, Cecilia

    Lipid bicontinuous cubic phases are of great interest for drug delivery, protein crystallization, biosensing, and templates for directing hard material assembly. Structural modulations of lipid mesophases regarding phase identity and unit cell size are often necessary to augment loading and gain pore size control. One important example is the need for unit cells large enough to guide the crystallization of bigger proteins without distortion of the templating phase. In nature, bicontinuous cubic constructs achieve unit cell dimensions as high as 300 nm. However, the largest unit cell of lipid mesophases synthesized in the lab is an order of magnitude lower. In fact, it has been predicted theoretically that lipid bicontinuous cubic phases of unit cell dimensions exceeding 30 nm could not exist, as high membrane fluctuations would damp liquid crystalline order. Here we report non-equilibrium assembly methods of synthesizing metastable bicontinuous cubic phases with unit cell dimensions as high as 70 nm. The phases are stable for very long periods and become increasingly ordered as time goes by without changes to unit cell dimensions. We acknowledge the funding source as a NIH.

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  7. Model of inter-cell interference phenomenon in 10 nm magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular anisotropy array due to oscillatory stray field from neighboring cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchida, Satoshi; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model of inter-cell interference phenomenon in a 10 nm magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular anisotropy (p-MTJ) array and investigated the interference effect between a program cell and unselected cells due to the oscillatory stray field from neighboring cells by Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert micromagnetic simulation. We found that interference brings about a switching delay in a program cell and excitation of magnetization precession in unselected cells even when no programing current passes through. The origin of interference is ferromagnetic resonance between neighboring cells. During the interference period, the precession frequency of the program cell is 20.8 GHz, which synchronizes with that of the theoretical precession frequency f = γH eff in unselected cells. The disturbance strength of unselected cells decreased to be inversely proportional to the cube of the distance from the program cell, which is in good agreement with the dependence of stray field on the distance from the program cell calculated by the dipole approximation method.

  8. Morphological Changes of Yeast Cells due to Oxidative Stress by Mercury and Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Hyoun; Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important microorganisms employed in industry. Growth rate, mutation, and environmental conditions affect yeast size and shape distributions but, in general, the influence of spatial variations in large-scale bioreactors is not considered. Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks in the nucleus, In addition, it causes lipid peroxidation, ceramide generation, and protein oxidation in the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Metal ions are essential to life. However, some metals such as mercury are harmful, even when present at trace amounts. Toxicity of mercury arises mainly from its oxidizing properties. As a metal ion, it induces an oxidative stress or predisposes cells to an oxidative stress, with considerable damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. In this work, we investigated to effect of ionizing radiation (IR) and mercury chloride (II) on cell morphology.

  9. Pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia due to a glucagon receptor splice mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Larger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids. Disruption of glucagon signaling in rodents results in grossly elevated circulating glucagon levels but no hypoglycemia. Here, we describe a patient carrying a homozygous G to A substitution in the invariant AG dinucleotide found in a 3′ mRNA splice junction of the glucagon receptor gene. Loss of the splice site acceptor consensus sequence results in the deletion of 70 nucleotides encoded by exon 9, which introduces a frame shift and an early termination signal in the receptor mRNA sequence. The mutated receptor neither bound 125I-labeled glucagon nor induced cAMP production upon stimulation with up to 1 μM glucagon. Despite the mutation, the only obvious pathophysiological trait was hyperglucagonemia, hyperaminoacidemia and massive hyperplasia of the pancreatic α-cells assessed by histology. Our case supports the notion of a hepato–pancreatic feedback system, which upon disruption leads to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia, as well as elevated plasma amino acid levels. Together with the glucagon-induced hypoaminoacidemia in glucagonoma patients, our case supports recent suggestions that amino acids may provide the feedback link between the liver and the pancreatic α-cells.

  10. Efficient K+ buffering by mammalian retinal glial cells is due to cooperation of specialized ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilius, B; Reichenbach, A

    1988-06-01

    Radial glial (Müller) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by papaine and mechanical dissociation. Regional membrane properties of these cells were studied by using the patch-clamp technique. In the course of our experiments, we found three distinct types of large K+ conducting channels. The vitread process membrane was dominated by high conductance inwardly rectifying (HCR) channels which carried, in the open state, inward currents along a conductance of about 105 pS (symmetrical solutions with 140 mM K+) but almost no outward currents. In the membrane of the soma and the proximal distal process, we found low conductance inwardly rectifying (LCR) channels which had an open state-conductance of about 60 pS and showed rather weak rectification. The endfoot membrane, on the other hand, was found to contain non-rectifying very high conductance (VHC) channels with an open state-conductance of about 360 pS (same solutions). These results suggest that mammalian Müller cells express regional membrane specializations which are optimized to carry spatial buffering currents of excess K+ ions.

  11. Caspase 8 and maspin are downregulated in breast cancer cells due to CpG site promoter methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yanyuan; Alvarez, Monica; Slamon, Dennis J; Koeffler, Phillip; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic changes associated with promoter DNA methylation results in silencing of several tumor suppressor genes that lead to increased risk for tumor formation and for progression of the cancer. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite sequencing were used for determination of proapoptotic gene Caspase 8 (CASP8) and the tumor suppressor gene maspin promoter methylation in four breast cancer and two non-tumorigenic breast cell lines. Involvement of histone H3 methylation in those cell lines were examined by CHIP assay. The CpG sites in the promoter region of CASP8 and maspin were methylated in all four breast cancer cell lines but not in two non-tumorigenic breast cell lines. Demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dc) selectively inhibits DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and restored CASP8 and maspin gene expression in breast cancer cells. 5-aza-dc also reduced histone H3k9me2 occupancy on CASP8 promoter in SKBR3cells, but not in MCF-7 cells. Combination of histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) and 5-aza-dc significant decrease in nuclear expression of Di-methyl histone H3-Lys27 and slight increase in acetyl histone H3-Lys9 in MCF-7 cells. CASP8 mRNA and protein level in MCF-7 cells were increased by the 5-aza-dc in combination with TSA. Data from our study also demonstrated that treatment with 5-FU caused a significant increase in unmethylated CASP8 and in CASP8 mRNA in all 3 cancer lines. CASP8 and maspin expression were reduced in breast cancer cells due to promoter methylation. Selective application of demethylating agents could offer novel therapeutic opportunities in breast cancer

  12. Changes in tumor cell response due to prolonged dose delivery times in fractionated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganetti, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Dynamic radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, delivers more complex treatment fields than conventional techniques. The increased complexity causes longer dose delivery times for each fraction. The cellular damage after a full treatment may depend on the dose rate, because sublethal radiation damage can be repaired more efficiently during prolonged dose delivery. The goal of this study was to investigate the significance of this effect in fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The lethal/potentially lethal model was used to calculate lesion induction rates for repairable and nonrepairable lesions. Dose rate effects were analyzed for 9 different cell lines (8 human tumor xenografts and a C3H10T1/2 cell line). The effects of single-fraction as well as fractionated irradiation for different dose rates were studied. Results: Significant differences can be seen for dose rates lower than about 0.1 Gy/min for all cell lines considered. For 60 Gy delivered in 30 fractions, the equivalent dose is reduced by between 1.3% and 12% comparing 2 Gy delivery over 30 min per fraction with 2 Gy delivery over 1 min per fraction. The effect is higher for higher doses per fraction. Furthermore, the results show that dose rate effects do not show a simple correlation with the α/β ratio for ratios between 3 Gy and 31 Gy. Conclusions: If the total dose delivery time for a treatment fraction in radiation therapy increases to about 20 min, a correction for dose rate effects may have to be considered in treatment planning. Adjustments in effective dose may be necessary when comparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy with conventional treatment plans

  13. A case of hirsutism due to bilateral diffuse ovarian Leydig cell hyperplasia in a post-menopausal woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, F S.M.; Stanaway, S E.R.S.; Zakhour, H D.; Spearing, G; Bowen-Jones, D

    2003-11-01

    Hyperandrogenism in females usually results from ovarian or adrenal pathology. We present a case of virilizaton due to very rare bilateral ovarian diffuse interstitial proliferation of Leydig cells with no tumour or hilar cell hyperplasia identified. Interestingly, the case was further complicated by the finding of high levels of testosterone in one adrenal vein on selective venous sampling (SVS), resulting in an unnecessary unilateral adrenalectomy. Further sampling found high levels also in the ovarian veins, and the condition was finally cured by bilateral oophorectomy.

  14. Rhabdomyolysis due to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Administration following a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Augustyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis, a syndrome of muscle necrosis, is a life-threatening event. Here we describe the case of a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia who underwent a haploidentical stem cell transplant and subsequently developed rhabdomyolysis after beginning trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX prophylaxis therapy. Rechallenge with TMP/SMX resulted in a repeat episode of rhabdomyolysis and confirmed the association. Withdrawal of TMP/SMX led to sustained normalization of creatine kinase levels in the patient. A high index of suspicion is necessary to identify TMP/SMX as the cause of rhabdomyolysis in immunocompromised patients.

  15. Cetuximab insufficiently inhibits glioma cell growth due to persistent EGFR downstream signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Benedikte; Lassen, Ulrik; Poulsen, Hans S

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression and/or amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is present in 35-45% of primary glioblastoma multiforme tumors and has been correlated with a poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of cetuximab and intracellular signaling pathways downstream...... of EGFR, important for cell survival and proliferation. We show insufficient EGFR downregulation and competition with endogenous EGFR ligands upon cetuximab treatment. Dose-response experiments showed inhibition of EGFR phosphorylation without affecting two of the prominent downstream signaling pathways....... Our results indicate that amplification and/or overexpression of EGFR is an unsatisfactory predictor for response to cetuximab....

  16. Possible Explanation for Cancer in Rats due to Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    Very recently, the National Toxicology Program reported a correlation between exposure to whole body 900 MHz radio frequency radiation and cancer in the brains and hearts of Sprague Dawley male rats. Assuming that the National Toxicology Program is statistically significant, I propose the following explanation for these results. The neurons around the brain and heart form closed electrical circuits and, following Faraday's Law, 900 MHz radio frequency radiation induces 900 MHz electrical currents in these neural circuits. In turn, these 900 MHz currents in the neural circuits generate sufficient localized heat in the neural cells to shift the equilibrium concentration of carcinogenic radicals to higher levels and thus, to higher incidences of cancer.

  17. Empirical Derivation of Correction Factors for Human Spiral Ganglion Cell Nucleus and Nucleolus Count Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Mark E; Linthicum, Fred H

    2016-01-01

    Profile count method for estimating cell number in sectioned tissue applies a correction factor for double count (resulting from transection during sectioning) of count units selected to represent the cell. For human spiral ganglion cell counts, we attempted to address apparent confusion between published correction factors for nucleus and nucleolus count units that are identical despite the role of count unit diameter in a commonly used correction factor formula. We examined a portion of human cochlea to empirically derive correction factors for the 2 count units, using 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double counts. The Neurotology and House Histological Temporal Bone Laboratory at University of California at Los Angeles. Using a fully sectioned and stained human temporal bone, we identified and generated digital images of sections of the modiolar region of the lower first turn of cochlea, identified count units with a light microscope, labeled them on corresponding digital sections, and used 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double-counted count units. For 25 consecutive sections, we determined that double-count correction factors for nucleus count unit (0.91) and nucleolus count unit (0.92) matched the published factors. We discovered that nuclei and, therefore, spiral ganglion cells were undercounted by 6.3% when using nucleolus count units. We determined that correction factors for count units must include an element for undercounting spiral ganglion cells as well as the double-count element. We recommend a correction factor of 0.91 for the nucleus count unit and 0.98 for the nucleolus count unit when using 20-µm sections. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  18. Increased radiosensitivity of HPV-positive head and neck cancer cell lines due to cell cycle dysregulation and induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenz, Andrea; Ziemann, Frank; Wittig, Andrea; Preising, Stefanie; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Mayer, Christina; Wagner, Steffen; Klussmann, Jens-Peter; Wittekindt, Claus; Dreffke, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) respond favourably to radiotherapy as compared to HPV-unrelated HNSCC. We investigated DNA damage response in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines aiming to identify mechanisms, which illustrate reasons for the increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancers of the oropharynx. Radiation response including clonogenic survival, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and cell cycle redistribution in four HPV-positive (UM-SCC-47, UM-SCC-104, 93-VU-147T, UPCI:SCC152) and four HPV-negative (UD-SCC-1, UM-SCC-6, UM-SCC-11b, UT-SCC-33) cell lines was evaluated. HPV-positive cells were more radiosensitive (mean SF2: 0.198 range: 0.22-0.18) than HPV-negative cells (mean SF2: 0.34, range: 0.45-0.27; p = 0.010). Irradiated HPV-positive cell lines progressed faster through S-phase showing a more distinct accumulation in G2/M. The abnormal cell cycle checkpoint activation was accompanied by a more pronounced increase of cell death after x-irradiation and a higher number of residual and unreleased DSBs. The enhanced responsiveness of HPV-related HNSCC to radiotherapy might be caused by a higher cellular radiosensitivity due to cell cycle dysregulation and impaired DNA DSB repair. (orig.) [de

  19. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Saraf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (∼10–12 unit cells thick epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and substrate roughness of ∼1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.

  20. TRICE - A program for reconstructing 3D reciprocal space and determining unit-cell parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaodong; Hovmoeller, Anders; Hovmoeller, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A program system-Trice-for reconstructing the 3D reciprocal lattice from an electron diffraction tilt series is described. The unit-cell parameters can be determined from electron diffraction patterns directly by Trice. The unit cell can be checked and the lattice type and crystal system can be determined from the 3D reciprocal lattice. Trice can be applied to all crystal systems and lattice types

  1. The Daniell Cell, Ohm's Law and the Emergence of the International System of Units

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40s and flourished in the following decades, but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell. Each company had their own resistance standard. In 1862 the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873 they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the...

  2. Control of infectious mortality due to carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcina, A; Baldan, R; Marasco, V; Cichero, P; Bondanza, A; Noviello, M; Piemontese, S; Soliman, C; Greco, R; Lorentino, F; Giglio, F; Messina, C; Carrabba, M; Bernardi, M; Peccatori, J; Moro, M; Biancardi, A; Nizzero, P; Scarpellini, P; Cirillo, D M; Mancini, N; Corti, C; Clementi, M; Ciceri, F

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) infections are an emerging cause of death after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In allogeneic transplants, mortality rate may rise up to 60%. We retrospectively evaluated 540 patients receiving a transplant from an auto- or an allogeneic source between January 2011 and October 2015. After an Institutional increase in the prevalence of KPC-Kp bloodstream infections (BSI) in June 2012, from July 2012, 366 consecutive patients received the following preventive measures: (i) weekly rectal swabs for surveillance; (ii) contact precautions in carriers (iii) early-targeted therapy in neutropenic febrile carriers. Molecular typing identified KPC-Kp clone ST512 as the main clone responsible for colonization, BSI and outbreaks. After the introduction of these preventive measures, the cumulative incidence of KPC-Kp BSI (P=0.01) and septic shocks (P=0.01) at 1 year after HSCT was significantly reduced. KPC-Kp infection-mortality dropped from 62.5% (pre-intervention) to 16.6% (post-intervention). Day 100 transplant-related mortality and KPC-Kp infection-related mortality after allogeneic HSCT were reduced from 22% to 10% (P=0.001) and from 4% to 1% (P=0.04), respectively. None of the pre-HSCT carriers was excluded from transplant. These results suggest that active surveillance, contact precautions and early-targeted therapies, may efficiently control KPC-Kp spread and related mortality even after allogeneic HSCT.

  3. The effect of apple (Malus Domestica juice on the damage of mice liver cells due to paracetamol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hartanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an important organ for body metabolism process. Liver disease is one of serious health problems in developing countries including Indonesia. Liver damage is caused by viral infection, toxic agent exposure (medications, alcohol, hormonal disturbance, neoplasm and autoimmune diseases. The use of high dose paracetamol to reduce pain also leads to liver damage. Apple (Malus domestica juice is a natural anti oxidant agent. This laboratory experimental study was performed to discover the effect of giving apple juice on damaged cell regeneration due to the use of paracetamol. The study was performed in 21 male mice from Swiss-Webster strain that were divided into group I, II, and III. Group, I served as control while group II received 1 mg/ml paracetamol dose for 5 days and Group III received 1 mg/ml paracetamol for 5 days and 1 ml of apple juice on the 5th to 10th day. The observation of the mice liver cells was conducted using a light microscope with 400x magnification to get the number of necrotic liver cells per view field. The results of this study showed a difference in the number of necrotic liver cells between Group II and III. ANOVA statistical test ( = 0.05 concluded that apple juice significantly helps regeneration process in damaged liver cells caused by paracetamol.

  4. Evaluation of Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit Due to Drug-Related Suicide Attempt and Access to Drugs: A Single Center Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Doğu Geyik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate patients who were hospitalized in our intensive care unit due to drug-related suicide attempt (medical or insecticides and their access to these drugs. Methods: We prospectively recorded the demographic characteristics and medical data of 50 patients (32 females and 18 males who were hospitalized in our intensive care unit due to drug-related suicide attempt. Results: 66% of subjects were between the ages of 15 and 24 years with a mean age of 25.4±8.8 years. Multiple drug overdose was observed in 28% of patients. The unemployment rate was higher for women than men (p<0.001. Men obtained drugs from pharmacy more often than women (27.8% vs 6.2%, p=0,03. Of the patients, 86% got the drugs from home medicine cabinet while this rate was 93% among women (n=30. The level of toxicity was higher among patients who got the drugs from pharmacy than in those who used drugs at home (p=0.06. The length of stay in the intensive care unit was longer among patients with toxic level of medication (p=0.001. Conclusion: Patients usually use drugs or insecticides available at home to commit suicide. We believe that in patients with risk of suicide attempt, access to drugs should be limited and state regulations should be applied. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52:111-5

  5. Theoretical characterization and design of small molecule donor material containing naphthodithiophene central unit for efficient organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yu-Ai; Geng, Yun; Li, Hai-Bin; Jin, Jun-Ling; Wu, Yong; Su, Zhong-Min

    2013-07-15

    To seek for high-performance small molecule donor materials used in heterojunction solar cell, six acceptor-donor-acceptor small molecules based on naphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b']dithiophene (NDT) units with different acceptor units were designed and characterized using density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. Their geometries, electronic structures, photophysical, and charge transport properties have been scrutinized comparing with the reported donor material NDT(TDPP)2 (TDPP  =  thiophene-capped diketopyrrolopyrrole). The open circuit voltage (V(oc)), energetic driving force(ΔE(L-L)), and exciton binding energy (E(b)) were also provided to give an elementary understanding on their cell performance. The results reveal that the frontier molecular orbitals of 3-7 match well with the acceptor material PC61 BM, and compounds 3-5 were found to exhibit the comparable performances to 1 and show promising potential in organic solar cells. In particular, comparing with 1, system 7 with naphthobisthiadiazole acceptor unit displays broader absorption spectrum, higher V(oc), lower E(b), and similar carrier mobility. An in-depth insight into the nature of the involved excited states based on transition density matrix and charge density difference indicates that all S1 states are mainly intramolecular charge transfer states with the charge transfer from central NDT unit to bilateral acceptor units, and also imply that the exciton of 7 can be dissociated easily due to its large extent of the charge transfer. In a word, 7 maybe superior to 1 and may act as a promising donor candidate for organic solar cell. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Honey can repairing damage of liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition through induction of endogenous stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heru Prasetyo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was to evaluate effect of honey in repairing damage of liver tissue due to energy protein malnutrition and in mobilization of endogenous stem cells. Materials and Methods: Male mice model of degenerative liver was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused energy protein malnutrition and damage of liver tissue. The administration of 50% (v/v honey was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group was fasted and not given honey and the negative control not fasted and without honey. Observations of regeneration the liver tissue based on histologically examination, observation of Hsp70 expression, and homing signal based on vascular endothelial growth factor-1 (VEGF-1 expression using immunohistochemistry technique. Observation on expression of CD34 and CD45 as the marker of auto mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells using flow cytometry technique. Results: There is regeneration of the liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition, decrease of Hsp70 expression, increase of VEGF-1 expression, and high expression of CD34 and CD45. Conclusion: Honey can improve the liver tissue based on: (1 Mobilization of endogenous stem cells (CD34 and CD45; (2 Hsp70 and VEGF-1 expressions as regeneration marker of improvement, and (3 regeneration histologically of liver tissue.

  7. Productivity loss due to premature mortality caused by blood cancer: a study based on patients undergoing stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Ortega, Marta; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Jiménez-Aguilera, Juan de Dios; Romero-Aguilar, Antonio; Espigado-Tocino, Ildefonso

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation has been used for many years to treat haematological malignancies that could not be cured by other treatments. Despite this medical breakthrough, mortality rates remain high. Our purpose was to evaluate labour productivity losses associated with premature mortality due to blood cancer in recipients of stem cell transplantations. We collected primary data from the clinical histories of blood cancer patients who had undergone stem cell transplantation between 2006 and 2011 in two Spanish hospitals. We carried out a descriptive analysis and calculated the years of potential life lost and years of potential productive life lost. Labour productivity losses due to premature mortality were estimated using the Human Capital method. An alternative approach, the Friction Cost method, was used as part of the sensitivity analysis. Our findings suggest that, in a population of 179 transplanted and deceased patients, males and people who die between the ages of 30 and 49 years generate higher labour productivity losses. The estimated loss amounts to over €31.4 million using the Human Capital method (€480,152 using the Friction Cost method), which means an average of €185,855 per death. The highest labour productivity losses are produced by leukaemia. However, lymphoma generates the highest loss per death. Further efforts are needed to reduce premature mortality in blood cancer patients undergoing transplantations and reduce economic losses. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Honey can repairing damage of liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition through induction of endogenous stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R Heru; Hestianah, Eka Pramyrtha

    2017-06-01

    This study was to evaluate effect of honey in repairing damage of liver tissue due to energy protein malnutrition and in mobilization of endogenous stem cells. Male mice model of degenerative liver was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused energy protein malnutrition and damage of liver tissue. The administration of 50% (v/v) honey was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group was fasted and not given honey and the negative control not fasted and without honey. Observations of regeneration the liver tissue based on histologically examination, observation of Hsp70 expression, and homing signal based on vascular endothelial growth factor-1 (VEGF-1) expression using immunohistochemistry technique. Observation on expression of CD34 and CD45 as the marker of auto mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells using flow cytometry technique. There is regeneration of the liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition, decrease of Hsp70 expression, increase of VEGF-1 expression, and high expression of CD34 and CD45. Honey can improve the liver tissue based on: (1) Mobilization of endogenous stem cells (CD34 and CD45); (2) Hsp70 and VEGF-1 expressions as regeneration marker of improvement, and (3) regeneration histologically of liver tissue.

  9. Electrochemical characterization of a polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Schaltz, Erik; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    This work constitutes detailed EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) measurements on a PBIbased HT-PEM unit cell. By means of EIS the fuel cell is characterized in several modes of operation by varying the current density, temperature and the stoichiometry of the reactant gases. Using...

  10. Quasi bound states in the continuum with few unit cells of photonic crystal slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2017-01-01

    cell structures. They are explained by a viewpoint of BICs originating from the tight-binding of individual resonances of each unit cell as in semiconductors. Combined with a reciprocal-space matching technique, the microcavities based on quasi-BICs can achieve a Q-factor as high as defect-based Ph...

  11. Storage characteristics of multiple-donor pooled red blood cells compared to single-donor red blood cell units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Aabhas; Chowdhury, Raquibul; Hillyer, Christopher D; Mitchell, W Beau; Shaz, Beth H

    2016-12-01

    Each unit of blood donated is processed and stored individually resulting in variability in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) collected, RBC properties, and the 24-hour posttransfusion RBC survivability. As a result, each unit differs in its ability to deliver oxygen and potentially its effects on the recipient. The goal of this study was to investigate the storage of pooled RBCs from multiple donors in comparison to control standard RBC units. Two units of irradiated, leukoreduced RBCs of same ABO, D, E, C, and K antigen phenotype were collected from each of five donors using apheresis. One unit from each donor was pooled in a 2-L bag and remaining units were used as controls. After being pooled, RBCs were separated in five bags and stored at 4°C along with the controls. Quality indexes were measured on Days 2, 14, and 28 for all the units. Adenosine triphosphate assays for both pooled and controls showed a slight decrease from Day 2 to Day 28 (pooled/control from 5.22/5.24 to 4.35/4.33 µmol/g hemoglobin [Hb]). 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate was successfully rejuvenated for all RBC units on Day 28 (pooled 11.46 µmol/g Hb; control 11.86 µmol/g Hb). The results showed a nonsignificant difference between pooled and control units, with a general trend of lower standard deviation for pooled units when compared to controls. Pooled units have reduced unit-to-unit variability. Future exploration of their immunogenicity is required before using pooled units for transfusion. © 2016 AABB.

  12. Radiative forcing over the conterminous United States due to contemporary land cover land use change and sensitivity to snow and interannual albedo variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher A.; Roy, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite-derived land cover land use (LCLU), snow and albedo data, and incoming surface solar radiation reanalysis data were used to study the impact of LCLU change from 1973 to 2000 on surface albedo and radiative forcing for 58 ecoregions covering 69% of the conterminous United States. A net positive surface radiative forcing (i.e., warming) of 0.029 Wm−2 due to LCLU albedo change from 1973 to 2000 was estimated. The forcings for individual ecoregions were similar in magnitude to current global forcing estimates, with the most negative forcing (as low as −0.367 Wm−2) due to the transition to forest and the most positive forcing (up to 0.337 Wm−2) due to the conversion to grass/shrub. Snow exacerbated both negative and positive forcing for LCLU transitions between snow-hiding and snow-revealing LCLU classes. The surface radiative forcing estimates were highly sensitive to snow-free interannual albedo variability that had a percent average monthly variation from 1.6% to 4.3% across the ecoregions. The results described in this paper enhance our understanding of contemporary LCLU change on surface radiative forcing and suggest that future forcing estimates should model snow and interannual albedo variation.

  13. Syncytial giant-cell hepatitis due to autoimmune hepatitis type II (LKM1+) presenting as subfulminant hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Z; Broida, E; Monselise, Y; Kazatsker, A; Baruch, J; Pappo, O; Skappa, E; Tur-Kaspa, R

    2000-03-01

    Giant cell hepatitis (GCH) in adults is a rare event. The diagnosis of GCH is based on findings of syncytial giant hepatocytes. It is commonly associated with either viral infection or autoimmune hepatitis type I. A patient with GCH due to autoimmune hepatitis type II (LKM1+) is described, a combination that has not been previously reported. Corticosteroid therapy was effective in decreasing serum liver enzymes; however, the patient deteriorated rapidly and developed subfulminant hepatic failure. Although an emergency orthotopic liver transplantation was performed, the patient died because of reperfusion injury. Interestingly, only a few giant hepatocytes were noted in the explanted liver. This case stresses the association of GCH with autoimmune disorders, the possible immune mechanism involved in the formation of giant cell hepatocytes, and illustrates the rapidly progressive course and unfavorable prognosis that these patients can develop.

  14. International stem cell collaboration: how disparate policies between the United States and the United Kingdom impact research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Flynn, Jesse M; Solnick, Rachel E; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2011-03-08

    As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors. While the UK exhibited a higher proportion of international publications than the US, this difference was consistent with overall trends in international scientific collaboration. The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most

  15. Importance of unit cells in accurate evaluation of the characteristics of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzyan, Hassan; Sadeghpour, Narges [Isfahan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-08-01

    Effects of the size of the unit cell on energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies of graphene at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone are studied in the absence and presence of an electric field using density functional theory (DFT) methods (LDA and DFT-PBE functionals with Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) and Troullier-Martins (TM) norm-conserving pseudopotentials). Two types of unit cells containing n{sub c}=4-28 carbon atoms are considered. Results show that stability of graphene increases with increasing size of the unit cell. Energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies all converge above n{sub c}=24 for all functional-pseudopotentials used. Except for the LDA-GTH calculations, application of an electric field of 0.4 and 0.9 V/nm strengths does not change the trends with the size of the unit cell but instead slightly decreases the binding energy of graphene. Results of this study show that the choice of unit cell size and type is critical for calculation of reliable characteristics of graphene.

  16. The Daniell cell, Ohm's law, and the emergence of the International System of Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40 s and flourished in the following decades but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell, but each telegraphy company had their own resistance standard. In 1862, the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873, they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as 109 emu units of resistance and the volt as 108 emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the Joule). As it was, the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By introducing another unit X (where X could be any of the practical electrical units), Giorgi demonstrated that a self-consistent MKSX system was tenable without the need for multiplying factors. Ultimately, the ampere was selected as the fourth unit. It took nearly 60 years, but in 1960, Giorgi's proposal was incorporated as the core of the newly inaugurated International System of Units (SI). This article surveys the physics, physicists, and events that contributed to those developments.

  17. Downregulation of miR-15a due to LMP1 promotes cell proliferation and predicts poor prognosis in nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Yuki; Kishibe, Kan; Nagato, Toshihiro; Ueda, Seigo; Takahara, Miki; Harabuchi, Yasuaki

    2014-01-01

    Nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NNKTL) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancy and has distinct clinical and histological features. However, its genetic features are hitherto unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of several malignancies via regulating gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether the specific microRNAs were related to the tumor behaviors in NNKTL. MiRNA array and Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that miR-15a was expressed at a much lower level in NNKTL cells (SNK-1, SNK-6, and SNT-8) than in normal peripheral NK cells and EBV-negative NK cell line KHYG-1. Quantitative PCR and western blot analyses showed that the expression of MYB and cyclin D1, which are validated targets of miR-15a, was higher in NNKTL cells. Transfection of NNKTL cells (SNK-6 and SNT-8) with a miR-15a precursor decreased MYB and cyclin D1 levels, thereby blocking G1/S transition and cell proliferation. Knockdown of EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) significantly increased miR-15a expression in SNK-6 cells. In NNKTL tissues, we found that reduced miR-15a expression, which correlated with MYB and cyclin D1 expression, was associated with poor prognosis of NNKTL patients. These data suggest that downregulation of miR-15a, possibly due to LMP1, implicates in the pathogenesis of NNKTL by inducing cell proliferation via MYB and cyclin D1. Thus, miR-15a could be a potential target for antitumor therapy and a prognostic predictor for NNKTL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The influence of the cigarette smoke pollution and ventilation rate on alpha-activities per unit volume due to radon and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Flata, K.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha and beta activities per unit volume air due to radon, thoron and their decay products were evaluated in the air of various cafe rooms polluted by cigarette smoke. Both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were used. Equilibrium factors between radon and its progeny and thoron and its daughters have been evaluated in the air of the studied cafe rooms. The committed equivalent doses due to short-lived radon decay products were determined in different regions of the respiratory tract of non-smoker members of the public. The influence of cigarette smoke pollution, ventilation rate and exposure time on committed equivalent dose in the respiratory systems of non-smokers was investigated. Committed equivalent doses ranged from 1.15x10 -11 -2.7x10 -7 Sv.y -1 /h of exposure in the extrathoracic region and from 0.8x10 -12 -1.7x10 -8 Sv.y -1 /h of exposure in the thoracic region of the respiratory tract of non-smokers

  19. Involvement of Atm and Trp53 in neural cell loss due to Terf2 inactivation during mouse brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jusik; Choi, Inseo; Lee, Youngsoo

    2017-11-01

    Maintenance of genomic integrity is one of the critical features for proper neurodevelopment and inhibition of neurological diseases. The signals from both ATM and ATR to TP53 are well-known mechanisms to remove neural cells with DNA damage during neurogenesis. Here we examined the involvement of Atm and Atr in genomic instability due to Terf2 inactivation during mouse brain development. Selective inactivation of Terf2 in neural progenitors induced apoptosis, resulting in a complete loss of the brain structure. This neural loss was rescued partially in both Atm and Trp53 deficiency, but not in an Atr-deficient background in the mouse. Atm inactivation resulted in incomplete brain structures, whereas p53 deficiency led to the formation of multinucleated giant neural cells and the disruption of the brain structure. These giant neural cells disappeared in Lig4 deficiency. These data demonstrate ATM and TP53 are important for the maintenance of telomere homeostasis and the surveillance of telomere dysfunction during neurogenesis.

  20. Unit cell parameters of wurtzite InP nanowires determined by x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegner, D; Wintersberger, E; Kawaguchi, K; Wallentin, J; Borgström, M T; Stangl, J

    2011-10-21

    High resolution x-ray diffraction is used to study the structural properties of the wurtzite polytype of InP nanowires. Wurtzite InP nanowires are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy using S-doping. From the evaluation of the Bragg peak position we determine the lattice parameters of the wurtzite InP nanowires. The unit cell dimensions are found to differ from the ones expected from geometric conversion of the cubic bulk InP lattice constant. The atomic distances along the c direction are increased whereas the atomic spacing in the a direction is reduced in comparison to the corresponding distances in the zinc-blende phase. Using core/shell nanowires with a thin core and thick nominally intrinsic shells we are able to determine the lattice parameters of wurtzite InP with a negligible influence of the S-doping due to the much larger volume in the shell. The determined material properties will enable the ab initio calculation of electronic and optical properties of wurtzite InP nanowires.

  1. Combined UMC- DFT prediction of electron-hole coupling in unit cells of pentacene crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Luciano Almeida; de Souza Júnior, Rafael Timóteo; de Almeida Fonseca, Antonio Luciano; Ribeiro Junior, Luiz Antonio; Blawid, Stefan; da Silva Filho, Demetrio Antonio; da Cunha, Wiliam Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Pentacene is an organic semiconductor that draws special attention from the scientific community due to the high mobility of its charge carriers. As electron-hole interactions are important aspects in the regard of such property, a computationally inexpensive method to predict the coupling between these quasi-particles is highly desired. In this work, we propose a hybrid methodology of combining Uncoupled Monte Carlo Simulations (UMC) and Density functional Theory (DFT) methodologies to obtain a good compromise between computational feasibility and accuracy. As a first step in considering a Pentacene crystal, we describe its unit cell: the Pentacene Dimer. Because many conformations can be encountered for the dimer and considering the complexity of the system, we make use of UMC in order to find the most probable structures and relative orientations for the Pentacene-Pentacene complex. Following, we carry out electronic structure calculations in the scope of DFT with the goal of describing the electron-hole coupling on the most probable configurations obtained by UMC. The comparison of our results with previously reported data on the literature suggests that the methodology is well suited for describing transfer integrals of organic semiconductors. The observed accuracy together with the smaller computational cost required by our approach allows us to conclude that such methodology might be an important tool towards the description of systems with higher complexity.

  2. Improved survival with renal transplantation for end-stage renal disease due to granulomatosis with polyangiitis: data from the United States Renal Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Zachary S; Wallwork, Rachel; Zhang, Yuqing; Lu, Na; Cortazar, Frank; Niles, John L; Heher, Eliot; Stone, John H; Choi, Hyon K

    2018-05-14

    Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for selected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the survival benefit of renal transplantation among patients with ESRD attributed to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is unknown. We identified patients from the United States Renal Data System with ESRD due to GPA (ESRD-GPA) between 1995 and 2014. We restricted our analysis to waitlisted subjects to evaluate the impact of transplantation on mortality. We followed patients until death or the end of follow-up. We compared the relative risk (RR) of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients who received a transplant versus non-transplanted patients using a pooled logistic regression model with transplantation as a time-varying exposure. During the study period, 1525 patients were waitlisted and 946 received a renal transplant. Receiving a renal transplant was associated with a 70% reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality in multivariable-adjusted analyses (RR=0.30, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.37), largely attributed to a 90% reduction in the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) (RR=0.10, 95% 0.06-0.16). Renal transplantation is associated with a significant decrease in all-cause mortality among patients with ESRD attributed to GPA, largely due to a decrease in the risk of death to CVD. Prompt referral for transplantation is critical to optimise outcomes for this patient population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Dicer1 depletion in male germ cells leads to infertility due to cumulative meiotic and spermiogenic defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis is a complex biological process that requires a highly specialized control of gene expression. In the past decade, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. DICER1, an RNAse III endonuclease, is essential for the biogenesis of several classes of small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs, but is also critical for the degradation of toxic transposable elements. In this study, we investigated to which extent DICER1 is required for germ cell development and the progress of spermatogenesis in mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the selective ablation of Dicer1 at the early onset of male germ cell development leads to infertility, due to multiple cumulative defects at the meiotic and post-meiotic stages culminating with the absence of functional spermatozoa. Alterations were observed in the first spermatogenic wave and include delayed progression of spermatocytes to prophase I and increased apoptosis, resulting in a reduced number of round spermatids. The transition from round to mature spermatozoa was also severely affected, since the few spermatozoa formed in mutant animals were immobile and misshapen, exhibiting morphological defects of the head and flagellum. We also found evidence that the expression of transposable elements of the SINE family is up-regulated in Dicer1-depleted spermatocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DICER1 is dispensable for spermatogonial stem cell renewal and mitotic proliferation, but is required for germ cell differentiation through the meiotic and haploid phases of spermatogenesis.

  4. Multi-sphere unit cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Antwerpen, W.; Rousseau, P.G.; Du Toit, C.G.

    2010-01-01

    A proper understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer, fluid flow and pressure drop through a packed bed of spheres is of utmost importance in the design of a high temperature Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). While the gas flows predominantly in the axial direction through the bed, the total effective thermal conductivity is a lumped parameter that characterises the total heat transfer in the radial direction through the packed bed. The study of the effective thermal conductivity is important because it forms an intricate part of the self-acting decay heat removal chain, which is directly related to the PBR safety case. The effective thermal conductivity is the summation of various heat transport phenomena. These are the enhanced thermal conductivity due to turbulent mixing as the fluid passes through the voids between pebbles, heat transfer due to the movement of the solid spheres and thermal conduction and thermal radiation between the spheres in a stagnant fluid environment. In this study, the conduction and radiation between the spheres are investigated. Firstly, existing correlations for the effective thermal conductivity are investigated, with particular attention given to its applicability in the near-wall region. Several phenomena in particular are examined namely: conduction through the spheres, conduction through the contact area between the spheres, conduction through the gas phase and radiation between solid surfaces. A new approach to simulate the effective thermal conductivity for randomly packed beds is then presented, namely the so-called Multi-sphere Unit Cell Model. The model is validated by comparing the results with that obtained in experiments. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of the impact of banking umbilical cord blood units with high cell dose for ethnically diverse patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritesky, Gretta; Wadsworth, Kimberly; Duffy, Merry; Buck, Kelly; Dehn, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood units provide an important stem cell source for transplantation, particularly for patients of ethnic diversity who may not have suitably matched available, adult-unrelated donors. However, with the cost of cord blood unit acquisition from public banks significantly higher than that for adult-unrelated donors, attention is focused on decreasing cost yet still providing cord blood units to patients in need. Historical practices of banking units with low total nucleated cell counts, including units with approximately 90 × 10 7 total nucleated cells, indicates that most banked cord blood units have much lower total nucleated cell counts than are required for transplant. The objective of this study was to determine the impact on the ability to identify suitable cord blood units for transplantation if the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking were increased from 90 × 10 7 to 124 or 149 × 10 7 . We analyzed ethnically diverse patients (median age, 3 years) who underwent transplantation of a single cord blood unit in 2005 to 2016. A cord blood unit search was evaluated to identify units with equal or greater human leukocyte antigen matching and a greater total nucleated cell count than that of the transplanted cord blood unit (the replacement cord blood unit). If the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking increased to 124 or 149 × 10 7 , then from 75 to 80% of patients would still have at least 1 replacement cord blood unit in the current (2016) cord blood unit inventory. The best replacement cord blood units were often found among cords with the same ethnic background as the patient. The current data suggest that, if the minimum total nucleated cell count were increased for banking, then it would likely lead to an inventory of more desirable cord blood units while having minimal impact on the identification of suitable cord blood units for transplantation. © 2017 AABB.

  6. Culture of human cells in experimental units for spaceflight impacts on their behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Moscheni, Claudia; Maier, Jeanette Am; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Because space missions produce pathophysiological alterations such as cardiovascular disorders and bone demineralization which are very common on Earth, biomedical research in space is a frontier that holds important promises not only to counterbalance space-associated disorders in astronauts but also to ameliorate the health of Earth-bound population. Experiments in space are complex to design. Cells must be cultured in closed cell culture systems (from now defined experimental units (EUs)), which are biocompatible, functional, safe to minimize any potential hazard to the crew, and with a high degree of automation. Therefore, to perform experiments in orbit, it is relevant to know how closely culture in the EUs reflects cellular behavior under normal growth conditions. We compared the performances in these units of three different human cell types, which were recently space flown, i.e. bone mesenchymal stem cells, micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells. Endothelial cells are only slightly and transiently affected by culture in the EUs, whereas these devices accelerate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward osteogenic differentiation, in part by increasing the amounts of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that cell culture conditions in the EUs do not exactly mimic what happens in a culture dish and that more efforts are necessary to optimize these devices for biomedical experiments in space. Impact statement Cell cultures represent valuable preclinical models to decipher pathogenic circuitries. This is true also for biomedical research in space. A lot has been learnt about cell adaptation and reaction from the experiments performed on many different cell types flown to space. Obviously, cell culture in space has to meet specific requirements for the safety of the crew and to comply with the unique environmental challenges. For these reasons, specific devices for cell culture in space have been developed. It is important to clarify whether these

  7. A simplistic analytical unit cell based model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X H; Kuang, J J; Lu, T J; Han, F S; Kim, T

    2013-01-01

    We present a simplistic yet accurate analytical model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams saturated in a low conducting fluid (air). The model is derived analytically based on a realistic representative unit cell (a tetrakaidecahedron) under the assumption of one-dimensional heat conduction along highly tortuous-conducting ligaments at high porosity ranges (ε ⩾ 0.9). Good agreement with existing experimental data suggests that heat conduction along highly conducting and tortuous ligaments predominantly defines the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell metal foams with negligible conduction in parallel through the fluid phase. (paper)

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  9. Fuel Cells in Distributed Power Market Applications in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastler, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews results from EPRI market analysis, which examined the technical and economic market potential of fuel cells in distributed power markets in the United States. A methodology and approach for developing realistic quantitative estimates of market potential in competitive electricity markets is presented. Market size estimates for phosphoric acid, polymer exchange membrane, high temperature fuel cells (carbonate and solid oxide systems) and ultra-high efficient fuel cell hybrids are estimated. Market potentials are reviewed for fuel cells systems ranging in size from 3 kW up to 20-30 MW in scale and underlying assumptions are provided. The results and implications are discussed in relation to the changing U.S. electric utility market structures. Results will be of value to energy companies and to fuel cell developers seeking to understand revenue sales estimates, market size, and most profitable segments for fuel cells in the competitive US electric markets. (author)

  10. Severe Cushing’s syndrome due to small cell prostate carcinoma: a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Elston

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome (CS due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH is associated with a variety of tumours most of which arise in the thorax or abdomen. Prostate carcinoma is a rare but important cause of rapidly progressive CS. To report a case of severe CS due to ACTH production from prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma and summarise previous published cases. A 71-year-old male presented with profound hypokalaemia, oedema and new onset hypertension. The patient reported two weeks of weight gain, muscle weakness, labile mood and insomnia. CS due to ectopic ACTH production was confirmed with failure to suppress cortisol levels following low- and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests in the presence of a markedly elevated ACTH and a normal pituitary MRI. Computed tomography demonstrated an enlarged prostate with features of malignancy, confirmed by MRI. Subsequent prostatic biopsy confirmed neuroendocrine carcinoma of small cell type and conventional adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Adrenal steroidogenesis blockade was commenced using ketoconazole and metyrapone. Complete biochemical control of CS and evidence of disease regression on imaging occurred after four cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide. By the sixth cycle, the patient demonstrated radiological progression followed by recurrence of CS and died nine months after initial presentation. Prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare cause of CS that can be rapidly fatal, and early aggressive treatment of the CS is important. In CS where the cause of EAS is unable to be identified, a pelvic source should be considered and imaging of the pelvis carefully reviewed.

  11. Population Structure of mtDNA Variation due to Pleistocene Fluctuations in the South American Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger, 1815): Management Units for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Susana; Cosse, Mariana; Franco, María del Rosario; Emmons, Louise; Vynne, Carly; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; Beccacesi, Marcelo D; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2015-01-01

    The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is one of the largest South American canids, and conservation across this charismatic carnivore's large range is presently hampered by a lack of knowledge about possible natural subdivisions which could influence the population's viability. To elucidate the phylogeographic patterns and demographic history of the species, we used 2 mtDNA markers (D-loop and cytochrome b) from 87 individuals collected throughout their range, in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Uruguay. We found moderate levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity, and the 14 D-loop haplotypes were closely related. Genetic structure results revealed 4 groups, and when coupled with model inferences from a coalescent analysis, suggested that maned wolves have undergone demographic fluctuations due to changes in climate and habitat during the Pleistocene glaciation period approximately 24000 years before present (YBP). This genetic signature points to an event that occurred within the timing estimated for the start of the contraction of the Cerrado around 50000 YBP. Our results reveal a genetic signature of population size expansion followed by contraction during Pleistocene interglaciations, which had similar impacts on other South American mammals. The 4 groups should for now be considered management units, within which future monitoring efforts should be conducted independently. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Improved reproducibility of unit-cell parameters in macromolecular cryocrystallography by limiting dehydration during crystal mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Christopher; Burks, Geoffry; Siegert, Thomas; Juers, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    In macromolecular cryocrystallography unit-cell parameters can have low reproducibility, limiting the effectiveness of combining data sets from multiple crystals and inhibiting the development of defined repeatable cooling protocols. Here, potential sources of unit-cell variation are investigated and crystal dehydration during loop-mounting is found to be an important factor. The amount of water lost by the unit cell depends on the crystal size, the loop size, the ambient relative humidity and the transfer distance to the cooling medium. To limit water loss during crystal mounting, a threefold strategy has been implemented. Firstly, crystal manipulations are performed in a humid environment similar to the humidity of the crystal-growth or soaking solution. Secondly, the looped crystal is transferred to a vial containing a small amount of the crystal soaking solution. Upon loop transfer, the vial is sealed, which allows transport of the crystal at its equilibrated humidity. Thirdly, the crystal loop is directly mounted from the vial into the cold gas stream. This strategy minimizes the exposure of the crystal to relatively low humidity ambient air, improves the reproducibility of low-temperature unit-cell parameters and offers some new approaches to crystal handling and cryoprotection.

  13. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  14. Experimental broadband absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-09-09

    We design silicon membranes with nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells that maximize broadband absorption. We fabricate the optimized design and measure the optical absorption. We demonstrate an experimental broadband absorption about 3.5 times higher than an equally-thick thin film.

  15. Identification of two distinct chromosome 12-derived amplification units in neuroblastoma cell line NGP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roy, N.; Forus, A.; Myklebost, O.; Cheng, N. C.; Versteeg, R.; Speleman, F.

    1995-01-01

    The neuroblastoma cell line NGP contains two homogeneously staining regions (hsr). One of these hsrs contains MYCN sequences. Reverse painting experiments demonstrated that the second HSR consisted of two chromosome 12-derived amplification units, located at 12q14-15 and 12q24. Southern blot and

  16. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  17. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D 2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude

  18. Interconnection between the geometry and the structure of unit cells of substances in inorganic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, A.A.; Kuz'micheva, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Regularity of interconnection between the geometry and the structure of elementary cells of inorganic compounds is investigated. Structural motives on the basis of NaCl structure for all phases of rare earth chalcogenides are built. It is shown that compounds (phases of variable content), detected on 23 (out of 48 possible) state diagrams of rare earths chalcogen binary systems are closely bound both from the viewpoint of geometric dimensions of elementary cells and structural motives. It is shown that using ion representations the number of formula units in the cell of a new rare earth chalcogenide can be calculated and its structural motif can be built

  19. Cytokine expression and cytokine-based T-cell profiling in occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueqin, Yang; Wenxue, Li; Peimao, Li; Wen, Zhang; Xianqing, Huang; Zhixiong, Zhuang

    2018-05-15

    Early diagnosis and treatment of occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene (OMLDT) are absence of specific and reliable diagnostic/therapeutic biomarkers. This study was conducted on 30 cases of OMLDT, 58 workers exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) and 40 unexposed controls in order to identify any cytokine signatures that give an index to CD4 + T cell differential and serve as biomarkers of OMLDT. Expression profiles of Th 1 , Th 2 , Th 17 and Treg cell type-specifying transcription factors and cytokines were analyzed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay. To explore whether such expression profiles reflected their steady state plasma levels, a Luminex liquid fluorescence analysis was conducted. We found that the expression of transcription factors FoxP3 transcription factors (P = 0.006 and P < 0.0001) and IL-10 cytokine (P = 0.0008 and P < 0.0001) of the Treg subset were significantly higher in patients than TCE exposure workers and unexposed controls, suggesting that Treg cells were active after the occurrence of OMLDT. The transcript levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in the TCE exposure groups including patients and exposure workers as compared to the unexposed controls (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0008). Circulating levels of assessed cytokines of IL-6 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.011) and TFN-α (P = 0.005 and P < 0.0001) were lower in the exposure groups than in the unexposed controls. Compared to the controls, the levels of IL-10 in patients were higher (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0008). There was a significantly positive correlation between the plasma levels IL-6 and IL-10 in TCE exposed workers. These alterations in the expression of transcription factors and cytokines highlight the underlying dysregulation of T cell subsets in OMLDT that reflect an immune tolerance or immune inhibition. Therefore, the elevation of IL-10 level may be a kind of pathogenesis indicator, and the decline in IL

  20. Modulation of the androgenetic response in diverse skin cell types: the pilosebaceous unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurvarra, F.; Kerner, N.; Hagelin, K.

    2009-01-01

    Androgens play a central role in diverse morphogenetic processes of the skin. Hair growth and follicular cycle are regulated in part by androgens. Androgens also play a key function, together with other receptors such as the PPARs receptors family, on the proliferation and differentiation of the sebaceous gland that forms part of the pilosebaceous unit and influences hair growth and skin well-being. UV radiation may affect androgens regulation of skin homeostasis. Objectives: to study the modulation of androgenetic response related to UV radiation on the pilosebaceous unit, in two skin conditions: androgenetic alopecia and acne, both affecting skin and constituting major concerns for affected individuals. Methods: primary cultures of cells and established cell lines from the pilosebaceous unit: dermal papillae cells, keratinocytes and sebocytes. Analysis of lipid content, inflammatory response and proliferation of cells under the influence of androgens, PPARs ligands and UVR. Results: sebocytes primary cultures were obtained from human sebaceous glands. Proliferation and differentiation, as well as the expression of proinflammatory molecules (IL-1, TNF alpha, iNOs) and lipogenic enzymes (FASN) under androgens and UV treatment were assessed. The response to androgens under UV exposure was also analyzed in dermal papillae cells in culture. (authors)

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction of statistically optimal unit cells of polydisperse particulate composites from microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Brandyberry, M.; Tudor, A.; Matous, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic approach for characterization and reconstruction of statistically optimal representative unit cells of polydisperse particulate composites. Microtomography is used to gather rich three-dimensional data of a packed glass bead system. First-, second-, and third-order probability functions are used to characterize the morphology of the material, and the parallel augmented simulated annealing algorithm is employed for reconstruction of the statistically equivalent medium. Both the fully resolved probability spectrum and the geometrically exact particle shapes are considered in this study, rendering the optimization problem multidimensional with a highly complex objective function. A ten-phase particulate composite composed of packed glass beads in a cylindrical specimen is investigated, and a unit cell is reconstructed on massively parallel computers. Further, rigorous error analysis of the statistical descriptors (probability functions) is presented and a detailed comparison between statistics of the voxel-derived pack and the representative cell is made.

  2. In vivo studies of the long-term 51Cr red cell survival of serologically incompatible red cell units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.L.; Ness, P.M.; Barrasso, C.; Kickler, T.S.; Drew, H.; Tsan, M.F.; Shirey, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term survival of serologically incompatible red cell units was measured in five patients with antibodies to high-frequency antigens. Initially, the survival of 1 ml of 51 Cr-labeled incompatible red cells was measured over 1 hour. After demonstrating that the 1-hour survival times were successful (greater than 70%), each patient then received 5 ml of the same 51 Cr-labeled red cells followed by the transfusion of the remainder of the red cell unit. The long-term T 1/2Cr survival for each case was patient 1 (anti-McCa), 15 days; patient 2 (anti-JMH), 12 days; patient 3 (anti-Kna), 31 days; patient 4 (anti-McCa), 12 days; and patient 5 (anti-Hya), 14 days. Each antibody tested in an in vitro homologous macrophage assay showed less than 5 percent phagocytosis. Anti-JMH was the only antibody to react with IgG subclass antisera and was determined to be IgG4. The macrophage assay, IgG subclass testing, and short-term (1 hour, 1 ml) 51 Cr survival studies all indicated that the short-term survival was good. However, only the measurement of long-term survival with transfused units of serologically incompatible red cells was able to determine the actual survival, and clinical significance of the alloantibodies. Determining the actual long-term survival by the method described here can be of importance for patients requiring chronic red cell transfusion

  3. Fuel cell collaboration in the United States. Follow up report to the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Fuel cell technology continues to grow in the United States, with strong sales in stationary applications and early markets such as data centers, materials handling equipment, and telecommunications sites. New fuel cell customers include Fortune 500 companies Apple, eBay, Coca-Cola, and Walmart, who will use fuel cells to provide reliable power to data centers, stores, and facilities. Some are purchasing multi-megawatt (MW) systems, including three of the largest non-utility purchases of stationary fuel cells in the world by AT and T, Apple and eBay - 17 MW, 10 MW and 6 MW respectively. Others are replacing fleets of battery forklifts with fuel cells. Sysco, the food distributor, has more than 700 fuel cell-powered forklifts operating at seven facilities, with more on order. Mega-retailer Walmart now operates more than 500 fuel cell forklifts at three warehouses, including a freezer facility. Although federal government budget reduction efforts are impacting a wide range of departments and programs, fuel cell and hydrogen technology continues to be funded, albeit at a lower level than in past years. The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently funding fuel cell and hydrogen R and D and has nearly 300 ongoing projects at companies, national labs, and universities/institutes universities. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and DOE's Market Transformation efforts have acted as a government ''catalyst'' for market success of emerging technologies. Early market deployments of about 1,400 fuel cells under the ARRA have led to more than 5,000 additional fuel cell purchases by industry with no DOE funding. In addition, interest in Congress remains high. Senators Richard Blumenthal (D-CT), Chris Coons (D-DE), Lindsey Graham (R-SC) and John Hoeven (R-ND) re-launched the bipartisan Senate Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Caucus in August 2012 to promote the continued development and commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

  4. The crystal structure of Haloferax volcanii proliferating cell nuclear antigen reveals unique surface charge characteristics due to halophilic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morroll Shaun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Results The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins. HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects. Conclusion The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as

  5. The crystal structure of Haloferax volcanii proliferating cell nuclear antigen reveals unique surface charge characteristics due to halophilic adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jody A; Christofi, Panayiotis; Morroll, Shaun; Bunting, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Background The high intracellular salt concentration required to maintain a halophilic lifestyle poses challenges to haloarchaeal proteins that must stay soluble, stable and functional in this extreme environment. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a fundamental protein involved in maintaining genome integrity, with roles in both DNA replication and repair. To investigate the halophilic adaptation of such a key protein we have crystallised and solved the structure of Haloferax volcanii PCNA (HvPCNA) to a resolution of 2.0 Å. Results The overall architecture of HvPCNA is very similar to other known PCNAs, which are highly structurally conserved. Three commonly observed adaptations in halophilic proteins are higher surface acidity, bound ions and increased numbers of intermolecular ion pairs (in oligomeric proteins). HvPCNA possesses the former two adaptations but not the latter, despite functioning as a homotrimer. Strikingly, the positive surface charge considered key to PCNA's role as a sliding clamp is dramatically reduced in the halophilic protein. Instead, bound cations within the solvation shell of HvPCNA may permit sliding along negatively charged DNA by reducing electrostatic repulsion effects. Conclusion The extent to which individual proteins adapt to halophilic conditions varies, presumably due to their diverse characteristics and roles within the cell. The number of ion pairs observed in the HvPCNA monomer-monomer interface was unexpectedly low. This may reflect the fact that the trimer is intrinsically stable over a wide range of salt concentrations and therefore additional modifications for trimer maintenance in high salt conditions are not required. Halophilic proteins frequently bind anions and cations and in HvPCNA cation binding may compensate for the remarkable reduction in positive charge in the pore region, to facilitate functional interactions with DNA. In this way, HvPCNA may harness its environment as opposed to simply surviving in

  6. Regulations in the United States for cell transplantation clinical trials in neurological diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhu; Yuanqing Tan; Qi Gu; Weifang Han; Zhongwen Li; Jason S Meyer; Baoyang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to use a systematic approach to evaluate the current utilization, safety, and effectiveness of cell therapies for neurological diseases in human. And review the present regulations, considering United States (US) as a representative country, for cell transplantation in neurological disease and discuss the challenges facing the field of neurology in the coming decades. Methods:A detailed search was performed in systematic literature reviews of cellular‐based therapies in neurological diseases, using PubMed, web of science, and clinical trials. Regulations of cell therapy products used for clinical trials were searched from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Results: Seven most common types of cell therapies for neurological diseases have been reported to be relatively safe with varying degrees of neurological recovery. And a series of regulations in US for cellular therapy was summarized including preclinical evaluations, sourcing material, stem cell manufacturing and characterization, cell therapy product, and clinical trials. Conclusions:Stem cell‐based therapy holds great promise for a cure of such diseases and will value a growing population of patients. However, regulatory permitting activity of the US in the sphere of stem cells, technologies of regenerative medicine and substitutive cell therapy are selective, theoretical and does not fit the existing norm and rules. Compiled well‐defined regulations to guide the application of stem cell products for clinical trials should be formulated.

  7. Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy with Preservation of Gastroduodenal Artery for Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Duodenal Metastasis by Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Patient with Celiac Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is rare, and even rarer is a massive gastrointestinal bleeding from such tumours. Coeliac occlusive disease, although rarely symptomatic, can lead to ischaemic changes with anastomotic dehiscence and leaks when a patient undergoes pancreatoduodenectomy. A 41-year-old man with known metastasis to the adrenal glands and the second part of the duodenum close to the ampulla of Vater from clear cell renal cell carcinoma was admitted to our department due to massive gastrointestinal bleeding from the duodenal metastasis. Endoscopic control of the bleed was not possible, while the bleeding vessel embolization was able to control the haemorrhage only temporarily. An angiography during the embolization demonstrated the presence of stenosis of the coeliac artery and also hypertrophic inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries supplying the proper hepatic artery via the gastroduodenal artery (GDA. The patient underwent emergency pancreatoduodenectomy with preservation of the gastroduodenal artery. The patient had an uneventful recovery and did not experience further bleeding. Also the blood flow to the liver was compromised as shown by the normal liver function tests (LFTs postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a preservation of the GDA during an emergency pancreatoduodenectomy.

  8. Production of DNA Double Strand Breaks in Human Cells due to Acute Exposure to Tritiated Water (HTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, R.; German, U.; Alfassi, Z. B.; Priel, E.

    2014-01-01

    The average and maximum energies of the beta emission from 3H are 5.69 keV and 18.6 keV respectively. The average range in water (or soft tissues), around 0.5 1/4m (500 nm), is considerably less than the typical diameter of a cell (10-30 1/4m), and even of a cell nucleus (5-10 1/4m), thus the micro-location of the tritium atom may well be crucial in determining its biochemical consequences. Due to the high ionization density of the beta particles emitted by tritium (about 400 ion pairs/1/4m) possible interaction of tritium beta radiation with DNA may play a significant role. Tritiated water (HTO) is the main chemical form in which tritium is found in the environment. In the body it may be retained as organically bound tritium (OBT), binding to biological molecules or remaining as OBT with various degrees of solubility. OBT can be retained in the human body much longer than HTO and therefore the dose arising from OBT can reach 50% of the total tritium dose . Histones are major protein components of chromatin. They function as spools around which DNA winds and play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. In the absence of histones, the DNA in chromosomes would be unmanageably long, as human cells each have about 1.8 m of DNA. During mitosis, DNA is duplicated and condensed, resulting in about 120 1/4m of chromosomes. It was recently reported that the phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine residue 139 (D 3 -H2AX) is associated with Double Strand Breaks (DSB) sites in DNA), which indicates the possibility of research based on the detection of DSBs in DNA. The phosphorylated megabase chromatin domain surrounding the DSB can be immunostained and visualized as discrete foci by fluorescence microscopy, as each DNA DSB formed produces a visible D 3 -H2AX focus. Since 1 Gy of radiation produces approximately 60 DSBs/cell, doses of a few mGy should be distinguishable from the background, and it was recently shown that the exposure to 1 mGy of X-rays induces

  9. Suppressing Energy Loss due to Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Chemical Structures and Molecular Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xiankai; Wang, Tonghui; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    In the most efficient solar cells based on blends of a conjugated polymer (electron donor) and a fullerene derivative (electron acceptor),ultrafast formation of charge-transfer (CT) electronic states at the donor-acceptor interfaces and efficient separation of these CT states into free charges, lead to internal quantum efficiencies near 100%. However, there occur substantial energy losses due to the non-radiative recombinations of the charges, mediated by the loweset-energy (singlet and triplet) CT states; for example, such recombinations can lead to the formation of triplet excited electronic states on the polymer chains, which do not generate free charges. This issue remains a major factor limiting the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of these devices. The recombination rates are, however, difficult to quantify experimentally. To shed light on these issues, here, an integrated multi-scale theoretical approach that combines molecular dynamics simulations with quantum chemistry calculations is employed in order to establish the relationships among chemical structures, molecular packing, and non-radiative recombination losses mediated by the lowest-energy charge-transfer states.

  10. Suppressing Energy Loss due to Triplet Exciton Formation in Organic Solar Cells: The Role of Chemical Structures and Molecular Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xiankai

    2017-04-21

    In the most efficient solar cells based on blends of a conjugated polymer (electron donor) and a fullerene derivative (electron acceptor),ultrafast formation of charge-transfer (CT) electronic states at the donor-acceptor interfaces and efficient separation of these CT states into free charges, lead to internal quantum efficiencies near 100%. However, there occur substantial energy losses due to the non-radiative recombinations of the charges, mediated by the loweset-energy (singlet and triplet) CT states; for example, such recombinations can lead to the formation of triplet excited electronic states on the polymer chains, which do not generate free charges. This issue remains a major factor limiting the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of these devices. The recombination rates are, however, difficult to quantify experimentally. To shed light on these issues, here, an integrated multi-scale theoretical approach that combines molecular dynamics simulations with quantum chemistry calculations is employed in order to establish the relationships among chemical structures, molecular packing, and non-radiative recombination losses mediated by the lowest-energy charge-transfer states.

  11. Effect Of Ionized Radiation On Blood Vessels And Neural Celle On Workers In Cardiac Catheterization Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgazzar, E.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The catheterization laboratory is generally considered an area where exposure to radiation is particularly high. Factors such as the configuration of the of the x-ray equipment, the number of cases per day, contribute to this relatively high level of exposure, which is amongst the highest in the hospital (Butler et al., 2006). Meanwhile, Systematic reviews of the published epidemiological literature and cardiovascular diseases or reviews of studies of populations medically, occupationally or environmentally exposed to relatively low-dose radiation concluded that there is a significant association (although with substantial heterogeneity) between radiation exposure and circulatory disease, either cardiovascular or cerebra-vascular. Vascular injury is a well recognized cause of late radiation therapy morbidity and this manifests as atherosclerosis in large vessels (Nagababu et al., 2009). Since the brain is among the most critical dose-limiting organs in radiotherapy, mainly due to the development of cognitive dysfunction following white matter disruption. The neuro-vascular unit is also vulnerable to radiation effects, and cerebra-vascular atherosclerotic damage is now considered proven (Raber, 2004). Circulating EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) has been shown to be isolated from bone marrow or circulating mononuclear cells that express a variety of endothelial surface markers. EPCs incorporate into sites of revascularization and home to sites of endothelial denudation. Initial clinical studies demonstrated that risk factors for atherosclerosis are associated with reduced levels of circulating EPCs and that the functional integrity of the endothelium correlates with the activities of EPCs (Losordo and Dimmeler 2004). Since oxidative processes are essential one of the main mechanisms associated with radiation induced hazardous effects and early ageing is an effect associated with radiation exposure, accordingly it can be suggested that low-dose irradiation

  12. Increased radiosensitivity of HPV-positive head and neck cancer cell lines due to cell cycle dysregulation and induction of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenz, Andrea; Ziemann, Frank; Wittig, Andrea; Preising, Stefanie; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Philipps-University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, BMFZ - Biomedical Research Center, Marburg (Germany); Mayer, Christina; Wagner, Steffen; Klussmann, Jens-Peter; Wittekindt, Claus [Justus Liebig University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Giessen (Germany); Dreffke, Kirstin [Philipps-University, Institute for Radiobiology and Molecular Radiooncology, Marburg (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) respond favourably to radiotherapy as compared to HPV-unrelated HNSCC. We investigated DNA damage response in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines aiming to identify mechanisms, which illustrate reasons for the increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancers of the oropharynx. Radiation response including clonogenic survival, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and cell cycle redistribution in four HPV-positive (UM-SCC-47, UM-SCC-104, 93-VU-147T, UPCI:SCC152) and four HPV-negative (UD-SCC-1, UM-SCC-6, UM-SCC-11b, UT-SCC-33) cell lines was evaluated. HPV-positive cells were more radiosensitive (mean SF2: 0.198 range: 0.22-0.18) than HPV-negative cells (mean SF2: 0.34, range: 0.45-0.27; p = 0.010). Irradiated HPV-positive cell lines progressed faster through S-phase showing a more distinct accumulation in G2/M. The abnormal cell cycle checkpoint activation was accompanied by a more pronounced increase of cell death after x-irradiation and a higher number of residual and unreleased DSBs. The enhanced responsiveness of HPV-related HNSCC to radiotherapy might be caused by a higher cellular radiosensitivity due to cell cycle dysregulation and impaired DNA DSB repair. (orig.) [German] Fuer Patienten mit HPV-assoziierten Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNSCC) ist im Vergleich zu Patienten mit nicht-HPV-assoziierten Tumoren ein besseres Ueberleben nach Radiotherapie gesichert. Ziel der Untersuchung war die Identifizierung von Unterschieden in der zellulaeren DNA-Schadensantwort von HPV-positiven und HPV-negativen Zelllinien, wodurch die bereits in Erprobung stehende Deeskalation einer Radiotherapie bei Patienten mit HPV-assoziierten HNSCC durch experimentelle Daten abgesichert werden koennte. Klonogenes Ueberleben, Induktion von Apoptose, DNA-Doppelstrang-Reparatur und Zellzyklusverhalten wurden in vier HPV-positiven (UM-SCC-47, UM-SCC-104, 93-VU-147T, UPCI:SCC152) und vier HPV

  13. Computer programs for unit-cell determination in electron diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Z.

    2005-01-01

    A set of computer programs for unit-cell determination from an electron diffraction tilt series and pattern indexing has been developed on the basis of several well-established algorithms. In this approach, a reduced direct primitive cell is first determined from experimental data, in the means time, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. The derived primitive cell is then checked for possible higher lattice symmetry and transformed into a proper conventional cell. Finally a least-squares refinement procedure is adopted to generate optimum lattice parameters on the basis of the lengths of basic reflections in each diffraction pattern and the indices of these reflections. Examples are given to show the usage of the programs

  14. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  15. Localized nasal cavity, sinus, and massive bilateral orbital involvement by human T cell leukemia virus 1 adult T cell lymphoma, with epidermal hypertrophy due to mite infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Laveaux

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available HTLV1 adult T cell lymphoma occurs tends to be widely disseminated and aggressive, with only brief responses to chemotherapy. Aside from cervical adenopathy, involvement of head and neck structures is uncommon and orbital involvement rare. We report a case of nasal cavity HTLV lymphoma with massive bilateral orbital involvement and proptosis, resulting in complete left and partial right eye amaurosis. No other sites of disease were found. Response to chemotherapy was rapid and complete, with almost complete restoration of vision and oculo-motor function; the patient has remained in remission for one year. An associated problem was striking bilateral hypertrophic, hyperkeratotic eyelid and breast lesions due to mite infestation. 

  16. Magnetoresistance oscillations of two-dimensional electron systems in lateral superlattices with structured unit cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardts, Rolf R.

    2015-11-01

    Model calculations for commensurability oscillations of the low-field magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in lateral superlattices, consisting of unit cells with an internal structure, are compared with recent experiments. The relevant harmonics of the effective modulation potential depend not only on the geometrical structure of the modulated unit cell, but also strongly on the nature of the modulation. While higher harmonics of an electrostatically generated surface modulation are exponentially damped at the position of the 2DES about 90 nm below the surface, no such damping appears for strain-induced modulation generated, e.g., by the deposition of stripes of calixarene resist on the surface before cooling down the sample.

  17. Response of plasma facing components in Tokamaks due to intense energy deposition using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Filippo

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFC) due to various plasma instabilities is still a major concern for the successful development of fusion energy and represents a significant research obstacle in the community. It is of great importance to fully understand the behavior and lifetime expectancy of PFC under both low energy cycles during normal events and highly energetic events as disruptions, Edge-Localized Modes (ELM), Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), and Run-away electron (RE). The consequences of these high energetic dumps with energy fluxes ranging from 10 MJ/m2 up to 200 MJ/m 2 applied in very short periods (0.1 to 5 ms) can be catastrophic both for safety and economic reasons. Those phenomena can cause a) large temperature increase in the target material b) consequent melting, evaporation and erosion losses due to the extremely high heat fluxes c) possible structural damage and permanent degradation of the entire bulk material with probable burnout of the coolant tubes; d) plasma contamination, transport of target material into the chamber far from where it was originally picked. The modeling of off-normal events such as Disruptions and ELMs requires the simultaneous solution of three main problems along time: a) the heat transfer in the plasma facing component b) the interaction of the produced vapor from the surface with the incoming plasma particles c) the transport of the radiation produced in the vapor-plasma cloud. In addition the moving boundaries problem has to be considered and solved at the material surface. Considering the carbon divertor as target, the moving boundaries are two since for the given conditions, carbon doesn't melt: the plasma front and the moving eroded material surface. The current solution methods for this problem use finite differences and moving coordinates system based on the Crank-Nicholson method and Alternating Directions Implicit Method (ADI). Currently Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods are widely used for solving

  18. Utilization of transmission probabilities in the calculation of unit-cell by the interface-current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz Bogado Leite, S. de.

    1989-10-01

    A widely used but otherwise physically incorrect assumption in unit-cell calculations by the method of interface currents in cylindrical or spherical geometries, is that of that of isotropic fluxes at the surfaces of the cell annular regions, when computing transmission probabilities. In this work, new interface-current relations are developed without making use of this assumption and the effects on calculated integral parameters are shown for an idealized unit-cell example. (author) [pt

  19. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhuan Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3 with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric constant are also measured under different sintering temperatures. The dielectric spectra showed a slight permittivity decrease with the increase of temperature and exhibited a loss of 0.0005, combined with a higher microwave dielectric constant of ~167 and quality factor Q of 2049. Therefore, CaTiO3 is a kind of versatile and potential metamaterial unit cell. The permittivity of CaTiO3 at higher microwave frequency was also examined in the rectangular waveguide and we got the permittivity of 165, creating a new method to test permittivity at higher microwave frequency.

  20. Comparison of elastic properties of open-cell metallic biomaterials with different unit cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedayati, R.; Sadighi, M.; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Hosseini-Toudeshky, H

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques have made it possible to create open-cell porous structures with arbitrary micro-geometrical characteristics. Since a wide range of micro-geometrical features is available for making an implant, having a comprehensive knowledge of the mechanical response of

  1. Inulin isoforms differ by repeated additions of one crystal unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter D.; Barclay, Thomas G.; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Gerson, Andrea R.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    Inulin isoforms, especially delta inulin, are important biologically as immune activators and clinically as vaccine adjuvants. In exploring action mechanisms, we previously found regular increments in thermal properties of the seven-member inulin isoform series that suggested regular additions of some energetic structural unit. Because the previous isolates carried additional longer chains that masked defining ranges, these were contrasted with new isoform isolates comprising only inulin chain lengths defining that isoform. The new series began with 19 fructose units per chain (alpha-1 inulin), increasing regularly by 6 fructose units per isoform. Thus the ‘energetic unit’ equates to 6 fructose residues per chain. All isoforms showed indistinguishable X-ray diffraction patterns that were also identical with known inulin crystals. We conclude that an ‘energetic unit’ equates to one helix turn of 6 fructose units per chain as found in one unit cell of the inulin crystal. Each isoform chain comprised progressively more helix turns plus one additional fructose and glucose residues per chain. PMID:24528745

  2. Single-unit-cell layer established Bi 2 WO 6 3D hierarchical architectures: Efficient adsorption, photocatalysis and dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongwei; Cao, Ranran; Yu, Shixin; Xu, Kang; Hao, Weichang; Wang, Yonggang; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Tierui; Zhang, Yihe

    2017-12-01

    Single-layer catalysis sparks huge interests and gains widespread attention owing to its high activity. Simultaneously, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure can afford large surface area and abundant reactive sites, contributing to high efficiency. Herein, we report an absorbing single-unit-cell layer established Bi2WO6 3D hierarchical architecture fabricated by a sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)-assisted assembled strategy. The DBS- long chains can adsorb on the (Bi2O2)2+ layers and hence impede stacking of the layers, resulting in the single-unit-cell layer. We also uncovered that SDS with a shorter chain is less effective than SDBS. Due to the sufficient exposure of surface O atoms, single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 shows strong selectivity for adsorption on multiform organic dyes with different charges. Remarkably, the single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 casts profoundly enhanced photodegradation activity and especially a superior photocatalytic H2 evolution rate, which is 14-fold increase in contrast to the bulk Bi2WO6. Systematic photoelectrochemical characterizations disclose that the substantially elevated carrier density and charge separation efficiency take responsibility for the strengthened photocatalytic performance. Additionally, the possibility of single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has also been attempted and it was manifested to be a promising dye-sensitized photoanode for oxygen evolution reaction (ORR). Our work not only furnish an insight into designing single-layer assembled 3D hierarchical architecture, but also offer a multi-functional material for environmental and energy applications.

  3. Attenuation of radiation-induced DNA damage due to paracrine interactions between normal human epithelial and stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenko, V.A.; Nakazawa, Yu.; Rogounovitch, T.I.; Suzuki, K.; Mitsutake, N.; Matsuse, M.; Yamashita, S.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Developmentally, every tissue accommodates different types of cells, such as epitheliocytes and stromal cells in parenchymal organs. To better understand the complexity of radiation response, it is necessary to evaluate possible cross-talk between different tissue components. This work was set out to investigate reciprocal influence of normal human epithelial cells and fibroblasts on the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage. Methods: Model cultures of primary human thyrocytes (PT), normal diploid fibroblasts (BJ), PT/BJ cell co-culture and conditioned medium transfer were used to examine DNA damage in terms of γ-H2AX foci number per cell or by Comet assay after exposure to different doses of γ-rays. Results: In co-cultures, the kinetics of γ-H2AX foci number change was dose-dependent and similar to that in individual PT and BJ cultures. The number of γ-H2AX foci in co-cultures was significantly lower (∼25%) in both types of cells comparing to individual cultures. Reciprocal conditioned medium transfer to individual counterpart cells prior to irradiation resulted in approximately 35% reduction in the number γ-H2AX foci at 1 Gy and lower doses in both PT and BJ demonstrating the role of paracrine soluble factors. Comet assay corroborated the results of γ-H2AX foci counting in conditioned medium transfer experiments. In contrast to medium conditioned on PT cells, conditioned medium collected from several human thyroid cancer cell lines failed to establish DNA-protected state in BJ fibroblasts. In its turn, medium conditioned on BJ cells did not change the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage in cancer cell lines tested. Conclusion: The results imply the existence of a network of soluble factor-mediated paracrine interactions between normal epithelial and stromal cells that could be a part of natural mechanism by which cells protect DNA from genotoxic stress.

  4. Changes in T cell populations due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Daigo

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the immune organs after head and neck irradiation. The numbers of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, the spleen and the thymus following local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice were studied using three-color fluorometry and were compared with a non-irradiation group. In the peripheral blood, the absolute numbers of T cells, CD4 + SP cells and CD8 + SP cells decreased after irradiation, and the period of the decrease was longer than the decreases in number of leukocytes and lymphocytes. The ratio of CD4 + SP cells showed a significant decrease, and the ratio of CD8+ S P cells showed a significant increase 1 day after irradiation. In the spleen, the absolute number of T cells, the radio of CD4 + SP and CD8 + SP cell subsets showed a decrease, and the period of the decrease was longer than the decrease of the wet-weight of the spleen, and also longer than the decrease of the number of leukocytes. The number of CD4 + SP cells showed a signigicant increase, and CD8 + SP cells showed a significant decrease 21 days after irradiation. In the thymus, the absolute number of TCR αβ-thymocytes did not show a significant decrease. However, the number of DN thymocytes showed a marked decrease. These results indicate that the numbers of T cells in peripheral blood, the spleen and the thymus change immediately after irradiation, and the numbers of lymphocytes and the T cells in the spleen recover more slowly than that in the peripheral blood. As lymphoid tissues showed the suppression of immunological response for a long period, it was suggested that lymphoid tissues have to be observed carefully after irradiation to prevent cancer metastasis. (K.H.)

  5. Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway in mitotic COS7 cells is due to the inability of EGFR/Raf to transduce EGF signaling to downstream proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Yi, Yongqing; Ma, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have shown that Ras-ERK signaling in mitosis is closed due to the inhibition of signal transduction, the events involved in the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in mitotic COS7 cells. The results demonstrated that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) failed to increase the endocytosis of EGF-EGFR (EGF receptor) complexes in mitotic COS7 cells, although a large amount of endosomes were found in asynchronous COS7 cells. Clathrin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were inhibited whereas caveolin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were almost unaffected. Y1068 and Y1086 residues of EGFR in the mitotic COS7 cells were activated. However, Grb2 and Shc in the mitotic COS7 cells did not bind to activated EGFR. Ras activity was inhibited in the mitotic COS7 cells whereas its downstream protein, Raf, was obviously phosphorylated by EGF in mitosis. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also increased the phosphorylation levels of Raf in the mitotic COS7 cells. Nevertheless, Raf phosphorylation in mitosis was significantly inhibited by AG1478. Lastly, activation of EGF-mediated MEK and ERK in the mitotic COS7 cells was obviously inhibited. In summary, our results suggest that the Ras-ERK pathway is inhibited in mitotic COS7 cells which may be the dual result of the difficulty in the transduction of EGF signaling by EGFR or Raf to downstream proteins.

  6. Investigations on the change of texture of plant cells due to preservative treatments by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Priyanka; Anand, Arun

    2014-10-01

    Texture change is observed in preserved fruits and vegetables. Responsible factors for texture change during preservative treatments are cell morphology, cell wall structure, cell turger, water content and some biochemical components, and also the environmental conditions. Digital Holographic microscopy (DHM) is a quantitative phase contrast imaging technique, which provides three dimensional optical thickness profiles of transparent specimen. Using DHM the morphology of plant cells preserved by refrigeration or stored in vinegar or in sodium chloride can be obtained. This information about the spatio-temporal evolution of optical volume and thickness can be an important tool in area of food processing. Also from the three dimensional images, the texture of the cell can be retrieved and can be investigated under varying conditions.

  7. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosynthesis of Various Steroids in vitro by Isolated Adrenal Cells in Primary Aldosteronism, Cushing's Syndrome, and Adrenogenital Syndrome due to Adrenocortical Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    MIZUNO, SHIGERU; FUNAHASHI, HIROOMI

    1981-01-01

    To a further understanding of the role of steroid hormones in adrenal disorders, we have prepared free cell system of adrenal cells, using adrenal tissues that had been removed by operation from (i) cases of Cushing's syndrome due to adrenocortical adenoma or adrenocortical hyperplasia, (ii) a case of primary aldosteronism, and (iii) a patient with virilizing adrenal tumor. Twelve important steroid hormones were measured, such as pregnenolone, cortisol and aldosterone, which were produced by ...

  9. Potential Intensive Care unit Ventilator Demand/Capacity Mismatch due to Novel Swine-Origin H1N1 in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Smetanin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the ability of Canadian intensive care units (ICUs and ventilators to handle widespread re-emergence of the swine-origin H1N1 virus in the context of an aggressive strategy of vaccination.

  10. Auto-regeneration of mice testicle seminiferous tubules due to malnutrition based on stem cells mobilization using honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Safitri

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Results of this study revealed a significantly different of C34 and CD45 expressions between groups, also an increase SSCs expression and testicle seminiferous tubules cells regeneration as well.

  11. Dose response relationship of disturbed migration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum due to X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmanto, W.; Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Aolad, H.; Murata, Yoshiharu

    1998-01-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to 2.0, 2.25 or 2.5 Gy X-irradiation on gestation day 21. Pups were sacrificed 12 hr after exposure, and on postnatal day 5 (P5), P7 and P9. Their cerebella were observed immunohistochemically using anti-inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate (IP3) receptor antibody to identify Purkinje cells. These cells were disturbed to migrate and remained in the internal granular layer and white matter of the cerebellum. They had short dendrites, and some showed an abnormal direction of dendrites in rats exposed to 2.25 or 2.5 Gy. Alignment of Purkinje cells was also disturbed when examined either on P5, P7 or P9 especially by doses of 2.25 and 2.5 Gy. There was a relationship between X-ray doses and the number of cells piling up in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum. The dose-response relationship with the number of ectopic Purkinje cells was noted in the anterior lobes of the cerebellum. (author)

  12. Theoretical Analysis of Moving Reference Planes Associated with Unit Cells of Nonreciprocal Lossy Periodic Transmission-Line Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lamultree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of moving reference planes associated with unit cells of nonreciprocal lossy periodic transmission-line structures (NRLSPTLSs by the equivalent bi-characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL model. Applying the BCITL theory, only the equivalent BCITL parameters (characteristic impedances for waves propagating in forward and reverse directions and associated complex propagation constants are of interest. An infinite NRLSPTLS is considered first by shifting a reference position of unit cells along TLs of interest. Then, a semi-infinite terminated NRLSPTLS is investigated in terms of associated load reflection coefficients. It is found that the equivalent BCITL characteristic impedances of the original and shifted unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. In addition, the associated load reflection coefficients of both unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. However, the equivalent BCITL complex propagation constants remain unchanged. Numerical results are provided to show the validity of the proposed theoretical analysis.

  13. Failure mechanisms of additively manufactured porous biomaterials: Effects of porosity and type of unit cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhodapour, J; Montazerian, H; Darabi, A Ch; Anaraki, A P; Ahmadi, S M; Zadpoor, A A; Schmauder, S

    2015-10-01

    Since the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, regular porous biomaterials have emerged as promising candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds owing to their controllable pore architecture and feasibility in producing scaffolds from a variety of biomaterials. The architecture of scaffolds could be designed to achieve similar mechanical properties as in the host bone tissue, thereby avoiding issues such as stress shielding in bone replacement procedure. In this paper, the deformation and failure mechanisms of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) biomaterials manufactured by selective laser melting from two different types of repeating unit cells, namely cubic and diamond lattice structures, with four different porosities are studied. The mechanical behavior of the above-mentioned porous biomaterials was studied using finite element models. The computational results were compared with the experimental findings from a previous study of ours. The Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage model was implemented in the finite element models to simulate the failure of the additively manufactured scaffolds under compression. The computationally predicted stress-strain curves were compared with the experimental ones. The computational models incorporating the Johnson-Cook damage model could predict the plateau stress and maximum stress at the first peak with less than 18% error. Moreover, the computationally predicted deformation modes were in good agreement with the results of scaling law analysis. A layer-by-layer failure mechanism was found for the stretch-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the cubic unit cell, while the failure of the bending-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the diamond unit cells, was accompanied by the shearing bands of 45°. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  15. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form

  16. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-20

    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  17. Alteration in lipid composition of plasma membranes of sensitive and resistant Guerin carcinoma cells due to the action of free and liposomal form of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naleskina, L A; Todor, I N; Nosko, M M; Lukianova, N Y; Pivnyuk, V M; Chekhun, V F

    2013-09-01

    To study in vivo changes of lipid composition of plasma membranes of sensitive and resistant to cisplatin Guerin carcinoma cells under influence of free and liposomal cisplatin forms. The isolation of plasma membranes from parental (sensitive) and resistant to cisplatin Guerin carcinoma cells was by differential ultracentrifugation in sucrose density gradient. Lipids were detected by method of thin-layer chromatography. It was determined that more effective action of cisplatin liposomal form on resistant cells is associated with essential abnormalities of conformation of plasma membrane due to change of lipid components and architectonics of rafts. It results in the increase of membrane fluidity. Reconstructions in lipid composition of plasma membranes of cisplatin-resistant Guerin carcinoma cells provide more intensive delivery of drug into the cells, increase of its concentration and more effective interaction with cellular structural elements.

  18. Time course of cell death due to acoustic overstimulation in the mouse medial geniculate body and primary auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Frohlich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that acoustic overstimulation induces cell death and extensive cell loss in key structures of the central auditory pathway. A correlation between noise-induced apoptosis and cell loss was hypothesized for the cochlear nucleus and colliculus inferior. To determine the role of cell death in noise-induced cell loss in thalamic and cortical structures, the present mouse study (NMRI strain describes the time course following noise exposure of cell death mechanisms for the ventral medial geniculate body (vMGB, medial MGB (mMGB, and dorsal MGB (dMGB and the six histological layers of the primary auditory cortex (AI 1–6. Therefore, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dioxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay (TUNEL was performed in these structures 24 h, 7 days, and 14 days after noise exposure (3 h, 115 dB sound pressure level, 5–20 kHz, as well as in unexposed controls. In the dMGB, TUNEL was statistically significant elevated 24 h postexposure. AI-1 showed a decrease in TUNEL after 14 days. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for the other brain areas investigated. dMGB’s widespread connection within the central auditory pathway and its nontonotopical organization might explain its prominent increase in TUNEL compared to the other MGB subdivisions and the AI. It is assumed that the onset and peak of noise-induced cell death is delayed in higher areas of the central auditory pathway and takes place between 24 h and 7 days postexposure in thalamic and cortical structures.

  19. Hydrocephalus in mice following X-irradiation at early gestational stage. Possibly due to persistent deceleration of cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aolad, H.M.; Inouye, Minoru; Darmanto, W.; Hayasaka, Shizu; Murata, Yoshiharu

    2000-01-01

    The pathogenesis of X-ray-induced congenital hydrocephalus was studied. Pregnant mice were irradiated at 1.4 Gy on gestational day 7 (G7). Four hours after irradiation, extensive cell death was evident in the neuroepithelium and underlying mesoderm of the head region, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells almost disappeared. Embryos with thinner lamina terminalis of the telecephalon, when compared with that of the control, were found in the irradiated group on G9. As early as G11 in some irradiated embryos the telencephalic wall was thinner and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. The choroid invagination from the lamina terminalis began on G11 in the control brain, but not in the affected brain. During the following development, fetuses with readily apparent hydrocephalus were consistently found among irradiated fetuses. In these brains the brain mantle was thinner, the corpus striatum and thalamic regions were smaller, and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. Even on G11 and G13 the frequencies of PCNA-positive cells in the brain mantle and other brain regions were lower in the hydrocephalic brain than those of the control, suggesting a decelerated proliferation of successive cell generations following exposure to X-rays. The cerebral aqueduct was open in the hydrocephalic brain during the fetal period when the lateral ventricles were dilated. The head was vaulted after birth but the cerebral aqueduct was not completely occluded even in these animals. These findings suggested that cell death in the neuroepithelium followed by a persistent deceleration of neural cell proliferation, resulting in the hypoplasia of brain parenchyma with compensatory ventricular dilatation, is important for the establishment of hydrocephalus. (author)

  20. Hydrocephalus in mice following X-irradiation at early gestational stage. Possibly due to persistent deceleration of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aolad, H.M.; Inouye, Minoru; Darmanto, W.; Hayasaka, Shizu; Murata, Yoshiharu [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    2000-09-01

    The pathogenesis of X-ray-induced congenital hydrocephalus was studied. Pregnant mice were irradiated at 1.4 Gy on gestational day 7 (G7). Four hours after irradiation, extensive cell death was evident in the neuroepithelium and underlying mesoderm of the head region, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells almost disappeared. Embryos with thinner lamina terminalis of the telecephalon, when compared with that of the control, were found in the irradiated group on G9. As early as G11 in some irradiated embryos the telencephalic wall was thinner and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. The choroid invagination from the lamina terminalis began on G11 in the control brain, but not in the affected brain. During the following development, fetuses with readily apparent hydrocephalus were consistently found among irradiated fetuses. In these brains the brain mantle was thinner, the corpus striatum and thalamic regions were smaller, and lateral ventricles were larger than those of the control. Even on G11 and G13 the frequencies of PCNA-positive cells in the brain mantle and other brain regions were lower in the hydrocephalic brain than those of the control, suggesting a decelerated proliferation of successive cell generations following exposure to X-rays. The cerebral aqueduct was open in the hydrocephalic brain during the fetal period when the lateral ventricles were dilated. The head was vaulted after birth but the cerebral aqueduct was not completely occluded even in these animals. These findings suggested that cell death in the neuroepithelium followed by a persistent deceleration of neural cell proliferation, resulting in the hypoplasia of brain parenchyma with compensatory ventricular dilatation, is important for the establishment of hydrocephalus. (author)

  1. Fuel cell collaboration in the United States. A report to the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide members of the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells with information regarding collaborative opportunities in the United States. The report is designed to provide an overview of key issues and activities and to provide guidance on strategies for finding U.S. research and commercial partners and gaining access to the U.S. market. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the key drivers of policy at the federal and state government levels regarding hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and provides a perspective of the U.S. industry and key players. It also suggests three general pathways for accessing U.S. opportunities: enhancing visibility; developing vendor relationships; and establishing a formal presence in the U.S. The next sections summarize focus areas for commercial and research activity that currently are of the greatest interest in the U.S. Section 2 describes major programs within the federal government and national laboratories, and discusses various methods for identifying R and D funding opportunities, with an overview of federal acquisition regulations. Section 3 reviews the efforts of several state governments engaging the fuel cell industry as an economic driver and presents an overview of acquisition at the state level. Section 4 discusses university research and development (R and D) and university-industry partnerships. There are 12 appendices attached to the report. These appendices provide more detailed information regarding the key federal government agencies involved in fuel cells and hydrogen, state-specific policies and activities, national laboratories and universities, and other information regarding the fuel cell and hydrogen industry in the U.S. (Author)

  2. Combined cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha with various cytotoxic agents in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to mutated p53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijfer, S; Le, T. K. P.; de Jong, S.; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Withoff, S; Mulder, NH

    Several studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is able to overcome drug resistance in tumors. Whether TNF is able to do so in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene p53 is unclear. Therefore, we studied the in vitro cytotoxic effects

  3. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  4. Structure and structural evolution of the Rechnitz window and adjacent units, Eastern Alps: changing Neogene extension directions due to motion around a foreland promontory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Franz; Cao, Shuyun

    2013-04-01

    The Rechnitz window is part of Penninic window group exposed along the South Burgenland basement high within the large Neogene Pannonian basin, which is formed by changing the extension directions during the motion of the Alcapa block around the Bohemian foreland promontory. Based on new data of the structural history of Penninic units, its burial and exhumation is proposed during eastward and northeastward motion around the Bohemian foreland promontory. Two tectonic units within the Rechnitz window are distinguished, the Schlaining unit with ophiolites, which show a Paleogene history of subduction (deformation stage D1), and the Köszeg unit with distal continental margin successions indicated by their richness of continent-derived clastic material. Previous fossil findings indicate a persistence of sedimentation until early Late Cretaceous. Both units were subducted during Paleogene and suffered blueschist metamorphism. The age of ophiolite obduction onto the Köszeg unit must be between latest Paleocene and earliest Miocene associated with peak temperature conditions (deformation stage D2, likely at 22 Ma). A new 40Ar/39Ar white mica age shows a plateau-type pattern at 22.3 ± 0.2 Ma and a subsequent thermal event of Ar loss at 19.2 ± 0.5 Ma. Exhumation and extension of buried Penninic rocks were facilitated by a sequence of normal faults and the change of the motion direction from northeastward to eastward motion (D3 and D4a). In present-day coordinates, the initial stage of faulting along a major ductile low-angle normal fault was directed northeastward at ca. 19 Ma. In the subsequent stage (Early Miocene), extension resulted in a ca. eastward prograding rolling hinge, which separates the Rechnitz window from Danube basin located in the east (D4a). Gently W-dipping thrust faults indicate ca. WSW-ENE shortening and also resulted in ca. N-S trending E-vergent folds occur in lower sectors of the Köszeg unit (deformation stage D4b). Finally, small Late Miocene

  5. Integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system on a lattice with three structural elements in the unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O.

    2018-05-01

    Developing the idea of increasing the number of structural elements in the unit cell of a quasi-one-dimensional lattice as applied to the semi-discrete integrable systems of nonlinear Schrödinger type, we construct the zero-curvature representation for the general integrable nonlinear system on a lattice with three structural elements in the unit cell. The integrability of the obtained general system permits to find explicitly a number of local conservation laws responsible for the main features of system dynamics and in particular for the so-called natural constraints separating the field variables into the basic and the concomitant ones. Thus, considering the reduction to the semi-discrete integrable system of nonlinear Schrödinger type, we revealed the essentially nontrivial impact of concomitant fields on the Poisson structure and on the whole Hamiltonian formulation of system dynamics caused by the nonzero background values of these fields. On the other hand, the zero-curvature representation of a general nonlinear system serves as an indispensable key to the dressing procedure of system integration based upon the Darboux transformation of the auxiliary linear problem and the implicit Bäcklund transformation of field variables. Due to the symmetries inherent to the six-component semi-discrete integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system with attractive-type nonlinearities, the Darboux-Bäcklund dressing scheme is shown to be simplified considerably, giving rise to the appropriately parameterized multi-component soliton solution consisting of six basic and four concomitant components.

  6. High-resolution characterization of sequence signatures due to non-random cleavage of cell-free DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrananda, Dineika; Thorne, Natalie P; Bahlo, Melanie

    2015-06-17

    High-throughput sequencing of cell-free DNA fragments found in human plasma has been used to non-invasively detect fetal aneuploidy, monitor organ transplants and investigate tumor DNA. However, many biological properties of this extracellular genetic material remain unknown. Research that further characterizes circulating DNA could substantially increase its diagnostic value by allowing the application of more sophisticated bioinformatics tools that lead to an improved signal to noise ratio in the sequencing data. In this study, we investigate various features of cell-free DNA in plasma using deep-sequencing data from two pregnant women (>70X, >50X) and compare them with matched cellular DNA. We utilize a descriptive approach to examine how the biological cleavage of cell-free DNA affects different sequence signatures such as fragment lengths, sequence motifs at fragment ends and the distribution of cleavage sites along the genome. We show that the size distributions of these cell-free DNA molecules are dependent on their autosomal and mitochondrial origin as well as the genomic location within chromosomes. DNA mapping to particular microsatellites and alpha repeat elements display unique size signatures. We show how cell-free fragments occur in clusters along the genome, localizing to nucleosomal arrays and are preferentially cleaved at linker regions by correlating the mapping locations of these fragments with ENCODE annotation of chromatin organization. Our work further demonstrates that cell-free autosomal DNA cleavage is sequence dependent. The region spanning up to 10 positions on either side of the DNA cleavage site show a consistent pattern of preference for specific nucleotides. This sequence motif is present in cleavage sites localized to nucleosomal cores and linker regions but is absent in nucleosome-free mitochondrial DNA. These background signals in cell-free DNA sequencing data stem from the non-random biological cleavage of these fragments. This

  7. Outbreak of Invasive Wound Mucormycosis in a Burn Unit Due to Multiple Strains of Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides Resolved by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea Garcia-Hermoso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucorales are ubiquitous environmental molds responsible for mucormycosis in diabetic, immunocompromised, and severely burned patients. Small outbreaks of invasive wound mucormycosis (IWM have already been reported in burn units without extensive microbiological investigations. We faced an outbreak of IWM in our center and investigated the clinical isolates with whole-genome sequencing (WGS analysis. We analyzed M. circinelloides isolates from patients in our burn unit (BU1, Héééôèéééûéôèôèôôèéôééôéôôèôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France together with nonoutbreak isolates from Burn Unit 2 (BU2, Paris area and from France over a 2-year period (2013 to 2015. A total of 21 isolates, including 14 isolates from six BU1 patients, were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS. Phylogenetic classification based on de novo assembly and assembly free approaches showed that the clinical isolates clustered in four highly divergent clades. Clade 1 contained at least one of the strains from the six epidemiologically linked BU1 patients. The clinical isolates were specific to each patient. Two patients were infected with more than two strains from different clades, suggesting that an environmental reservoir of clonally unrelated isolates was the source of contamination. Only two patients from BU1 shared one strain, which could correspond to direct transmission or contamination with the same environmental source. In conclusion, WGS of several isolates per patients coupled with precise epidemiological data revealed a complex situation combining potential cross-transmission between patients and multiple contaminations with a heterogeneous pool of strains from a cryptic environmental reservoir.

  8. Increase of reliability of contact networks of electric transport, due to increase of strength of the joint unit of pipes of different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitov, L. S.; Kashapov, N. F.; Gilmanshin, I. R.; Gatiyatov, I. Z.; Kuznetsov, I. L.

    2017-09-01

    The feature of the stress state of the supports of the contact networks is the presence of a joint of pipes of different diameters, the ultimate state of which is determined, as a rule, the strength of the weld. The proposed unit allows to increase the reliability and strength of the connection and also exclude the presence of a weld bead on the outer surface of the pipe of smaller diameter in the place of its attachment to the upper end of the support ring.

  9. Always expect the unexpected: lung abscess due to pseudomonas aeruginosa mimicking pulmonary aspergilloma in acute B-cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieks, J-K; von Bueren, A O; Schaefer, I-M; Menke, J; Lex, C; Krause, U; Zenker, D; Kühnle, I; Kramm, C M

    2013-11-01

    We report on a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and consecutive lung abscess in a 13-year-old patient with acute B-cell leukemia. At first, radiographic findings strongly suggested presence of pulmonary aspergilloma and only microbiological testing of the surgically enucleated mass revealed the correct underlying pathogen and confirmed final diagnosis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Anticarcinogenic Effect of Spices Due to Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds-In Vitro Evaluation on Prostate Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackova, Zuzana; Buchtelova, Hana; Buchtova, Zaneta; Klejdus, Borivoj; Heger, Zbynek; Brtnicky, Martin; Kynicky, Jindrich; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-09-28

    This study shows the effects of spices, and their phenolic and flavonoid compounds, on prostate cell lines (PNT1A, 22RV1 and PC3). The results of an MTT assay on extracts from eight spices revealed the strongest inhibitory effects were from black pepper and caraway seed extracts. The strongest inhibitory effect on prostatic cells was observed after the application of extracts of spices in concentration of 12.5 mg·mL -1 . An LC/MS analysis identified that the most abundant phenolic and flavonoid compounds in black pepper are 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and naringenin chalcone, while the most abundant phenolic and flavonoid compounds in caraway seeds are neochlorogenic acid and apigenin. Using an MTT assay for the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from spices, we identified the IC 50 value of ~1 mmol·L -1 PNT1A. The scratch test demonstrated that the most potent inhibitory effect on PNT1A, 22RV1 and PC3 cells is from the naringenin chalcone contained in black pepper. From the spectrum of compounds assessed, the naringenin chalcone contained in black pepper was identified as the most potent inhibitor of the growth of prostate cells.

  11. Degradation of Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells due to the ionization effect of low-energy electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Shirou, E-mail: kawakita.shirou@jaxa.jp [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Imaizumi, Mitsuru [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Ishizuka, Shogo; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Okuda, Shuichi [Osaka Prefecture University (OPU), Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Kusawake, Hiroaki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Cu (In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells were irradiated with 100 keV electrons to reveal the characteristics of created radiation defects. 100 keV electrons cannot produce any displacement defects in CIGS. Low-fluence electrons improve the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells due to the change in the conductive type of donor to acceptor in a metastable defect, which is equivalent to the light-soaking effect. However, high fluence electrons cause the cell performance to decline. From analysis based on changes in carrier density and electroluminescence, defects causing the decline in performance include donor- and non-radiative types. In addition, red-on-bias experiments showed an increase in III{sub Cu} defects due to electron irradiation. Based on these results, the degradation in the electrical performance of the CIGS solar cells irradiated with high electron fluence would be attributable to a change in the conductive type of III{sub Cu} defects. - Highlights: • Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar cells were irradiated with 100 and 250 keV electrons at low temperature. • These electrons degraded the electrical performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 sola cells. • The electrons induced ⅢCu defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se2.

  12. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering. (paper)

  13. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  14. OECD benchmark a of MOX fueled PWR unit cells using SAS2H, triton and mocup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganda, F.; Greenspan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Three code systems are tested by applying them to calculate the OECD PWR MOX unit cell benchmark A. The codes tested are the SAS2H code sequence of the SCALE5 code package using 44 group library, MOCUP (MCNP4C + ORIGEN2), and the new TRITON depletion sequence of SCALE5 using 238 group cross sections generated using CENTRM with continuous energy cross sections. The burnup-dependent k ∞ and actinides concentration calculated by all three code-systems were found to be in good agreement with the OECD benchmark average results. Limited results were calculated also with the WIMS-ANL code package. WIMS-ANL was found to significantly under-predict k ∞ as well as the concentration of Pu 242 , consistently with the predictions of the WIMS-LWR reported by two of the OECD benchmark participants. Additionally, SAS2H is benchmarked against MOCUP for a hydride fuel containing unit cell, giving very satisfactory agreement. (authors)

  15. Contribution to the radiological study of the eosinophilic granuloma of the mandible (Unifocal granuloma due to Langherans' cell histiocytosis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigi, Gino; Pastremoli, Alessandro; Pisi, Paolo; Pastremoli, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The radiological diagnosis of osteolytic lesions of the mandible still constitutes a challenge in some pathological conditions in which the clinical data and the case history are relatively uniform and the radiological picture is lacking in any characteristics. Materials and methods: We reviewed the conventional radiograms of six cases of Langherans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the mandible examined over the last ten years. The X-ray examinations were performed in the lateral-oblique projection to allow a view of the horizontal portion of the mandible almost completely free of overlapping images of other bone structures. Results: We identified a series of radiological patterns for these reticulo-endotheliopathies capable of causing granuloma formed by polinuclear eosinophils, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and large mononuclear macrophages with granulopexic and phagocytic activity that proliferate in the bone tissue and can be identified as the Langherans' cells of skin, mucosa, periodontal cavities and bone marrow. The granulomatous tissue penetrates the affected organ elements and, in its spread, it compresses, atrophies, and destroyed the damaged tissue, replacing it. The alterations produced by Langherans' cell histiocytic granuloma are most common in the skeletal system affecting, in order of frequency, the skull, the long bones of the limbs, the foot, the ribs and the spine. The oral mucosa is rarely involved. Conclusions: The radiological investigation of unifocal Langherans' cell histiocytic granuloma of the mandible is essential in the study of perimandibular swelling, although diagnosis is based on biopsy alone. In addition to digital or conventional radiography, other useful examinations are bone scintigraphy, Colour Doppler US, MR and CT, which enables a correct localisation necessary for planning the biopsy and treatment [it

  16. Choice of Cell Source in Cell-Based Therapies for Retinal Damage due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex disorder that affects primarily the macula involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE but also to a certain extent the photoreceptor layer and the retinal neurons. Cell transplantation is a promising option for AMD and clinical trials are underway using different cell types. Methods. We hypothesize that instead of focusing on a particular cell source for concurrent regeneration of all the retinal layers and also to prevent exhaustive research on an array of cell sources for regeneration of each layer, the choice should depend on, precisely, which layer is damaged. Results. Thus, for a damage limited to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE layer, the choice we suggest would be RPE cells. When the damage extends to rods and cones, the choice would be bone marrow stem cells and when retinal neurons are involved, relatively immature stem cell populations with an inherent capacity to yield neuronal lineage such as hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells can be tried. Conclusion. This short review will prove to be a valuable guideline for those working on cell therapy for AMD to plan their future directions of research and therapy for this condition.

  17. Subacute Cerebellar Degeneration due to a Paraneoplastic Phenomenon Associated with Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Sharobeam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this article is to illustrate the diagnostic challenges and management of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes in Merkel cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: We describe a previously functionally independent 85-year-old woman who presented with subacute onset of dizziness and gait ataxia in the setting of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Results: Diagnosis was made on biopsy after positron emission tomography imaging revealed increased metabolic activity in 2 left inguinofemoral lymph nodes. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was positive for anti-Hu on subsequent admission. Her functional status improved with methylprednisolone treatment and radiotherapy. Conclusion: The case highlights the challenge of the evaluation of patients who present with progressive cerebellar signs and the need to consider a paraneoplastic syndrome, especially in the setting of previous malignancy.

  18. The histone genes in HeLa cells are on individual transcriptional units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.B.; Traub, P.; Gallwitz, D.

    1978-01-01

    The distances of the five major histone genes from their promotors have been investigated in order to determine whether in human cells these genes could be transcribed as a single polycistronic transcriptional unit. By measuring the decreases of both histone protein and histone mRNA synthesis as functions of the ultraviolet light dosage, it was possible to calculate the distances of the histone genes from their promotors. The inactivation kinetics for histone genes H1 and H3 are first-order, indicating a single type of transcriptional unit for each gene. The dose-response kinetics for genes H2A, H2B and H4 are first-order with two distinct rates; 10 to 15% of the genes for each of these histones appear to be much more sensitive to ultraviolet light inactivation than are the majority. It is concluded that the transcriptional units for 85 to 90% of the genes for H2A, H2B and H4 are similar. As determined by the inhibition of protein synthesis, the inactivation coefficients for the major component of each histone are: H1, 907 mm 2 /erg; H2A, 878 mm 2 /erg; H2B, 871 mm 2 /erg; H3, 965 mm 2 /erg; and H4, 792 mm 2 /erg. The sensitivities of histone mRNA synthesis to irradiation were measured by translation in vitro with similar results. The calculated target sizes for the genes (in base-pairs) are: H1, 1190; H2A, 1240; H2B, 1250; H3, 1130; and H4, 1380. This similarity in target sizes for all five of the histones genes indicates that they are primarily transcribed from individual transcriptional units. (author)

  19. Diversity of T cell epitopes in Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein likely due to protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh R Aragam

    Full Text Available Circumsporozoite protein (CS is a leading vaccine antigen for falciparum malaria, but is highly polymorphic in natural parasite populations. The factors driving this diversity are unclear, but non-random assortment of the T cell epitopes TH2 and TH3 has been observed in a Kenyan parasite population. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the variable C terminal region of the protein allows the assessment of the impact of diversity on protein structure and T cell epitope assortment. Using data from the Gambia (55 isolates and Malawi (235 isolates, we evaluated the patterns of diversity within and between epitopes in these two distantly-separated populations. Only non-synonymous mutations were observed with the vast majority in both populations at similar frequencies suggesting strong selection on this region. A non-random pattern of T cell epitope assortment was seen in Malawi and in the Gambia, but structural analysis indicates no intramolecular spatial interactions. Using the information from these parasite populations, structural analysis reveals that polymorphic amino acids within TH2 and TH3 colocalize to one side of the protein, surround, but do not involve, the hydrophobic pocket in CS, and predominately involve charge switches. In addition, free energy analysis suggests residues forming and behind the novel pocket within CS are tightly constrained and well conserved in all alleles. In addition, free energy analysis shows polymorphic residues tend to be populated by energetically unfavorable amino acids. In combination, these findings suggest the diversity of T cell epitopes in CS may be primarily an evolutionary response to intermolecular interactions at the surface of the protein potentially counteracting antibody-mediated immune recognition or evolving host receptor diversity.

  20. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oe, Shinji; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.

  1. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oe, Shinji, E-mail: ooes@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Miyagawa, Koichiro, E-mail: koichiro@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Honma, Yuichi, E-mail: y-homma@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Harada, Masaru, E-mail: msrharada@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2016-09-10

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.

  2. Changes in digestibility and cell - wall constituents of some agricultural by-products due to gamma irradiation and urea treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Guenther, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0. 100, 150, 200 KGy) or different concentrations of urea (0, 2, 3, and 5 g urea/100 g DM) on in-vitro organic matter digestibility (JVOMD), digestible energy (IVDE), gross energy (GE) nd cell-wall constituents: neutral-detergent fibre, acid-detergent fibre and acid=detergent lignin, have been evaluated in wheat straw, cotton seed shell, peanut shell, soybean shell, extracted olive cake and extracted unpeeled sunflower seeds. The results indicated that gamma irradiation or urea treatments increased the digestible energy values significantly. (p<0.05) and these were attributed to the increases IVOMD and decreases cell-wall constituents of treated samples. The experimental agricultural by-products do not respond to the treatments in the same amount in increasing the IVOMD. There was no significant effect of irradiation and urea treatments on GE. Combined treatments had slightly less effect in increasing IVDE as the addition of both effects. The treatment of 200 KGy and 5% urea resulted in a larger increase in the digestible energy and a better effect by reducing the concentration of the cell-wall constituents even more than what occurred using a single treatment. However, the combination of irradiation with urea treatments could reduce the applied irradiation doses for increasing the IVDE in some studied agricultural by-products. (author)

  3. Isolation and characterization of the environmental bacterial and fungi contamination in a pharmaceutical unit of mesenchymal stem cell for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Patricia Gálvez; González, María Bermejo; Martínez, Adolfina Ruiz; Lara, Visitación Gallardo; Naveros, Beatriz Clares

    2012-09-01

    Design and implementation of an environmental monitoring program is vital to assure the maintenance of acceptable quality conditions in a pharmaceutical manufacturing unit of human mesenchymal stem cells. Since sterility testing methods require 14 days and these cells are only viable for several hours, they are currently administered without the result of this test. Consequently environmental monitoring is a key element in stem cell banks for assuring low levels of potential introduction of contaminants into the cell products. The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the environmental microbiological quality in a pharmaceutical manufacturing unit of human mesenchymal stem cells production for use in advanced therapies. Two hundred and sixty one points were tested monthly during one year, 156 from air and 105 from surfaces. Among the 6264 samples tested, 231 showed contamination, 76.6% for bacteria and 23.4% for fungi. Microbial genuses isolated were Staphylococcus (89.7%), Microccocus (4.5%), Kocuria (3.2%) and Bacillus (2.6%). In the identification of fungi, three genuses were detected: Aspergillus (56%), Penicillium (26%) and Cladosporium (18%). The origin of the contamination was found to be due to personnel manipulation and air microbiota. For all sampling methods, alert limits were set and corrective measures suggested. Copyright © 2012 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ambulatory cell phone injuries in the United States: an emerging national concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel C; Schreiber, Kristin M; Saltos, Andreas; Lichenstein, Sarah B; Lichenstein, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the use of cell phones has increased 8-fold in the United States. Cell phone use has been shown to increase crash risks for drivers, but no systematic analyses have described injuries related to ambulatory cell phone use. The purpose of this study is to describe and quantitate injuries and deaths among persons using cell phones while walking. We searched the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) for emergency department (ED) reports of injuries related to phone use. The cases that returned were screened initially using words that would eliminate cases unlikely to be related to cell phone use and walking, possibly linked to distraction. The resulting cases were randomized and evaluated for consistency with predetermined case definitions by two authors blinded to the dates of the incidents. Cases that were disagreed upon were evaluated in a second screening by both authors for final case determination. National ED visit rates were estimated based on NEISS sampling methods. Annual variations were analyzed using linear regression with a restricted maximum likelihood approach. Our screening process identified 5,754 possible cases that occurred between 2000 and 2011, and 310 were agreed on as cases of cell-phone-induced distraction. The majority of the patients were female (68%) and 40 years of age or younger (54%). The primary mechanism of injury was a fall (72%), and most patients were treated and released from the ED (85%). No patients died from their injuries while they were in the ED. Linear modeling by year revealed a statistically significant increase in distraction injury rates over the years of study (pcell phone use has been increasing. More research is needed to determine the risks associated with walking and talking on a cell phone and to develop strategies for intervention. Cell phone use continues to increase both at home and outdoor environments. The use of smart phones, with their more enticing features, increases

  5. Conjugated Polymer with Intrinsic Alkyne Units for Synergistically Enhanced Raman Imaging in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengliang; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Li, Zhiliang; Huang, Yanyi; Schanze, Kirk S; Wang, Shu

    2017-10-16

    Development of Raman-active materials with enhanced and distinctive Raman vibrations in the Raman-silent region (1800-2800 cm -1 ) is highly required for specific molecular imaging of living cells with high spatial resolution. Herein, water-soluble cationic conjugated polymers (CCPs), poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) derivatives, are explored for use as alkyne-state-dependent Raman probes for living cell imaging due to synergetic enhancement effect of alkyne vibrations in Raman-silent region compared to alkyne-containing small molecules. The enhanced alkyne signals result from the integration of alkyne groups into the rigid backbone and the delocalized π-conjugated structure. PPE-based conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) were also prepared as Raman-responsive nanomaterials for distinct imaging application. This work opens a new way into the development of conjugated polymer materials for enhanced Raman imaging. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Unique Preservation of Neural Cells in Hutchinson- Gilford Progeria Syndrome Is Due to the Expression of the Neural-Specific miR-9 MicroRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Nissan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One puzzling observation in patients affected with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, who overall exhibit systemic and dramatic premature aging, is the absence of any conspicuous cognitive impairment. Recent studies based on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from HGPS patient cells have revealed a lack of expression in neural derivatives of lamin A, a major isoform of LMNA that is initially produced as a precursor called prelamin A. In HGPS, defective maturation of a mutated prelamin A induces the accumulation of toxic progerin in patient cells. Here, we show that a microRNA, miR-9, negatively controls lamin A and progerin expression in neural cells. This may bear major functional correlates, as alleviation of nuclear blebbing is observed in nonneural cells after miR-9 overexpression. Our results support the hypothesis, recently proposed from analyses in mice, that protection of neural cells from progerin accumulation in HGPS is due to the physiologically restricted expression of miR-9 to that cell lineage.

  7. Hypoxic stress induces, but cannot sustain trophoblast stem cell differentiation to labyrinthine placenta due to mitochondrial insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufen Xie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional stem cell differentiation into placental lineages is associated with gestational diseases. Of the differentiated lineages available to trophoblast stem cells (TSC, elevated O2 and mitochondrial function are necessary to placental lineages at the maternal–placental surface and important in the etiology of preeclampsia. TSC lineage imbalance leads to embryonic failure during uterine implantation. Stress at implantation exacerbates stem cell depletion by decreasing proliferation and increasing differentiation. In an implantation site O2 is normally ~2%. In culture, exposure to 2% O2 and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4 enabled the highest mouse TSC multipotency and proliferation. In contrast, hypoxic stress (0.5% O2 initiated the most TSC differentiation after 24 h despite exposure to FGF4. However, hypoxic stress supported differentiation poorly after 4–7 days, despite FGF4 removal. At all tested O2 levels, FGF4 maintained Warburg metabolism; mitochondrial inactivity and aerobic glycolysis. However, hypoxic stress suppressed mitochondrial membrane potential and maintained low mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (oxidative phosphorylation/OxPhos, and high pyruvate kinase M2 (glycolysis despite FGF4 removal. Inhibiting OxPhos inhibited optimum differentiation at 20% O2. Moreover, adding differentiation-inducing hyperosmolar stress failed to induce differentiation during hypoxia. Thus, differentiation depended on OxPhos at 20% O2; hypoxic and hyperosmolar stresses did not induce differentiation at 0.5% O2. Hypoxia-limited differentiation and mitochondrial inhibition and activation suggest that differentiation into two lineages of the labyrinthine placenta requires O2 > 0.5–2% and mitochondrial function. Stress-activated protein kinase increases an early lineage and suppresses later lineages in proportion to the deviation from optimal O2 for multipotency, thus it is the first enzyme reported to prioritize differentiation.

  8. Costos secundarios por infecciones nosocomiales en dos unidades pediátricas de cuidados intensivos Secondary costs due to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Navarrete-Navarro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Estimar los costos asociados a infecciones nosocomiales en niños tratados en dos unidades de terapia intensiva. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio parcial de costos en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN y en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos (UTIP de un hospital infantil de tercer nivel de atención médica. Se investigaron los costos de las pruebas diagnósticas y de los recursos terapéuticos empleados, así como el exceso de estancia hospitalaria debida a la presencia de una infección nosocomial. RESULTADOS. Se detectaron 102 infecciones, 46 en UCIN y 56 en UTIP, en el lapso de un año, tiempo que duró el estudio. El costo promedio por infección fue de 91 698 pesos y el gasto global fue de 9.3 millones de pesos. Neumonía, flebitis y septicemia abarcaron 65% de los costos. En los niños infectados se registró una estancia hospitalaria extra de 9.6 días, 13.7 exámenes de laboratorio y 3.3 cultivos en promedio, debido a la presencia de una infección intrahospitalaria. La estancia hospitalaria representó 97% del gasto total. CONCLUSIONES. Esta evaluación representa una estimación de costos directos de infección. Los resultados justifican el establecimiento de programas preventivos agresivos para reducir las complicaciones dentro de los hospitales.OBJECTIVES. We estimated associated costs to nosocomial infections in two pediatric intensive care units in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A transversal study in the neonatal (NICU and pediatric (PICU intensive care units, was done. We reviewed use and cost of diagnostic procedures, medications, and excess of hospital stay. RESULTS. There were 102 infections, 46 in the NICU and 56 in the PICU. The average cost per infection was $11,682 USD and the overall expense was 1,184.71 USD. Infected children had an excess of hospital stay of 9.6 days, 13.7 more laboratory tests and 3.3 more cultures. Hospital stay represented 97% of the overall cost

  9. CMV latent infection improves CD8+ T response to SEB due to expansion of polyfunctional CD57+ cells in young individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Pera

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV latent infection has a deleterious effect on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in the elderly, suggesting that CMV restricts immunological diversity impairing the immune system functionality in old age. Polyfunctional T cells produce multiple cytokines and higher amounts than mono-functional T cells. High number of polyfunctional T cells correlates with better prognosis during infection. Thus, the efficiency of T cell response associates with quality (polyfunctionality rather than with quantity (percentage of T cells. We analyze the effect of CMV infection on CD8+ T cells polyfunctionality --degranulation (CD107a, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production--, from young CMV-seropositive and CMV-seronegative individuals and in middle age CMV-seropositive donors, in response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB. Our results show a higher percentage of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in young CMV-seropositive individuals compared to CMV-seronegative. Also, we find an expansion of CD8+CD57+ T cells in CMV-seropositive individuals, which are more polyfunctional than CD8+CD57- cells. In middle age individuals there is a higher frequency of SEB-responding CD8+ T cells, mainly TNF-alpha or TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma producers, whereas the percentage of polyfunctional cells (IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha/CD107a is similar to the percentages found in young CMV-seropositive. Therefore, whereas it has been shown that CMV latent infection can be detrimental for immune response in old individuals, our results indicate that CMV-seropositivity is associated to higher levels of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in young and middle age donors. This increase in polyfunctionality, which can provide an immunological advantage in the response to other pathogens, is due to a CD8+CD57+ T cell expansion in CMV-seropositive individuals and it is independent of age. Conversely, age could contribute to the inflammation found in old individuals by increasing the percentage of cells

  10. Akt2 and nucleophosmin/B23 function as an oncogenic unit in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Kwon; Nguyen, Truong L.X.; Lee, Sang Bae; Park, Sang Bum; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2011-01-01

    The signaling network of protein kinase B(PKB)/Akt has been implicated in survival of lung cancer cells. However, understanding the relative contribution of the different isoform of Akt network is nontrival. Here, we report that Akt2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells. Suppression of Akt2 expression in A549 cells results in notable inhibition of cell poliferation, soft agar growth, and invasion, accompanying by a decrease of nucleophosmin/B23 protein. Overexpression of Akt1 restores cancerous growth of A549 cells in B23-knockdown (KD) cells while Akt2 overexpression did not restore proliferating potential in cells with downregulated B23, thus suggesting Akt2 requires B23 to drive proliferation of lung cancer cell. Loss of functional Akt2 and B23 has similar defects on cell proliferation, apoptotic resistance and cell cycle regulation, while loss of Akt1 has less defects on cell proliferation, survial and cell cycle progression in A549 cells. Moreover, overexpression of B23 rescues the proliferative block induced as a consequence of loss of Akt2. Thus our data suggest that Akt2/B23 functions as an oncogenic unit to drive tumorigenesis of A549 lung cancer cells.

  11. Hypotension due to Chemotherapy in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer and Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome Undergoing Hemodialysis: A First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Kuwata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first case of small cell lung cancer with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome during hemodialysis (HD. A 72-year-old male patient receiving HD experienced progressive muscle weakness. He was diagnosed with small cell lung cancer with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome due to an increased serum level of anti-voltage-gated calcium channel antibody and aspiration cytology on endobronchial ultrasonography for the swelling of a subcarinal lymph node. He received chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin (300 mg/m2 and etoposide (50 mg/m2, to which he had a partial response. However, the second therapy course could not be administered because of the unexpected development of severe hematological adverse events, which also prevented him from undergoing further HD. This case indicates that caution should be taken when using chemotherapy for such patients because of hypotension due to chemotherapy, with which it is impossible to undergo HD.

  12. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-Ge3: combined antibody-dependent hemolysis and erythroid precursor cell growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackall, Douglas P; Pesek, Gina D; Montgomery, Matthew M; Oza, Krishna K; Arndt, Patricia A; Garratty, George; Shahcheraghi, Ali; Denomme, Gregory A

    2008-10-01

    The Gerbich (Ge) antigens are a collection of high-incidence antigens carried on the red blood cell membrane glycoproteins, glycophorins C and D. Antibodies against these antigens are uncommon, and there have been only rare case reports of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-Ge. In this case report, we present a neonate with severe anemia and hyperbilirubinemia due to anti-Ge3. Routine and special laboratory studies undertaken in this case suggested two mechanisms for the patient's hemolysis and persistent anemia. Antibody-dependent hemolysis was associated with early-onset hyperbilirubinemia, anemia, and a mild reticulocytosis, and inhibition of erythroid progenitor cell growth was associated with late anemia and normal bilirubin and reticulocyte values. Though rare, anti-Ge3 can be a dangerous antibody in pregnancy. Affected neonates may require intensive initial therapy and close follow-up for at least several weeks after delivery.

  13. Relationship between unit cell type and porosity and the fatigue behavior of selective laser melted meta-biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Ahmadi, S M; Wauthle, R; Pouran, B; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-03-01

    Meta-materials are structures when their small-scale properties are considered, but behave as materials when their homogenized macroscopic properties are studied. There is an intimate relationship between the design of the small-scale structure and the homogenized properties of such materials. In this article, we studied that relationship for meta-biomaterials that are aimed for biomedical applications, otherwise known as meta-biomaterials. Selective laser melted porous titanium (Ti6Al4V ELI) structures were manufactured based on three different types of repeating unit cells, namely cube, diamond, and truncated cuboctahedron, and with different porosities. The morphological features, static mechanical properties, and fatigue behavior of the porous biomaterials were studied with a focus on their fatigue behavior. It was observed that, in addition to static mechanical properties, the fatigue properties of the porous biomaterials are highly dependent on the type of unit cell as well as on porosity. None of the porous structures based on the cube unit cell failed after 10(6) loading cycles even when the applied stress reached 80% of their yield strengths. For both other unit cells, higher porosities resulted in shorter fatigue lives for the same level of applied stress. When normalized with respect to their yield stresses, the S-N data points of structures with different porosities very well (R(2)>0.8) conformed to one single power law specific to the type of the unit cell. For the same level of normalized applied stress, the truncated cuboctahedron unit cell resulted in a longer fatigue life as compared to the diamond unit cell. In a similar comparison, the fatigue lives of the porous structures based on both truncated cuboctahedron and diamond unit cells were longer than that of the porous structures based on the rhombic dodecahedron unit cell (determined in a previous study). The data presented in this study could serve as a basis for design of porous biomaterials

  14. Circulating tumour cells escape from EpCAM-based detection due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorges, Tobias M; Tinhofer, Ingeborg; Drosch, Michael; Röse, Lars; Zollner, Thomas M; Krahn, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have shown prognostic relevance in metastatic breast, prostate, colon and pancreatic cancer. For further development of CTCs as a biomarker, we compared the performance of different protocols for CTC detection in murine breast cancer xenograft models (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and KPL-4). Blood samples were taken from tumour bearing animals (20 to 200 mm 2 ) and analysed for CTCs using 1. an epithelial marker based enrichment method (AdnaTest), 2. an antibody independent technique, targeting human gene transcripts (qualitative PCR), and 3. an antibody-independent approach, targeting human DNA-sequences (quantitative PCR). Further, gene expression changes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were determined with an EMT-specific PCR assay. We used the commercially available Adna Test, RT-PCR on human housekeeping genes and a PCR on AluJ sequences to detect CTCs in xenografts models. Phenotypic changes in CTCs were tested with the commercially available “Human Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition RT-Profiler PCR Array”. Although the AdnaTest detects as few as 1 tumour cell in 1 ml of mouse blood spiking experiments, no CTCs were detectable with this approach in vivo despite visible metastasis formation. The presence of CTCs could, however, be demonstrated by PCR targeting human transcripts or DNA-sequences - without epithelial pre-enrichment. The failure of CTC detection by the AdnaTest resulted from downregulation of EpCAM, whereas mesenchymal markers like Twist and EGFR were upregulated on CTCs. Such a change in the expression profile during metastatic spread of tumour cells has already been reported and was linked to a biological program termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The use of EpCAM-based enrichment techniques leads to the failure to detect CTC populations that have undergone EMT. Our findings may explain clinical results where low CTC numbers have been reported even in patients with late

  15. Circulating tumour cells escape from EpCAM-based detection due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorges Tobias M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating tumour cells (CTCs have shown prognostic relevance in metastatic breast, prostate, colon and pancreatic cancer. For further development of CTCs as a biomarker, we compared the performance of different protocols for CTC detection in murine breast cancer xenograft models (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and KPL-4. Blood samples were taken from tumour bearing animals (20 to 200 mm2 and analysed for CTCs using 1. an epithelial marker based enrichment method (AdnaTest, 2. an antibody independent technique, targeting human gene transcripts (qualitative PCR, and 3. an antibody-independent approach, targeting human DNA-sequences (quantitative PCR. Further, gene expression changes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT were determined with an EMT-specific PCR assay. Methods We used the commercially available Adna Test, RT-PCR on human housekeeping genes and a PCR on AluJ sequences to detect CTCs in xenografts models. Phenotypic changes in CTCs were tested with the commercially available “Human Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition RT-Profiler PCR Array”. Results Although the AdnaTest detects as few as 1 tumour cell in 1 ml of mouse blood spiking experiments, no CTCs were detectable with this approach in vivo despite visible metastasis formation. The presence of CTCs could, however, be demonstrated by PCR targeting human transcripts or DNA-sequences - without epithelial pre-enrichment. The failure of CTC detection by the AdnaTest resulted from downregulation of EpCAM, whereas mesenchymal markers like Twist and EGFR were upregulated on CTCs. Such a change in the expression profile during metastatic spread of tumour cells has already been reported and was linked to a biological program termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Conclusions The use of EpCAM-based enrichment techniques leads to the failure to detect CTC populations that have undergone EMT. Our findings may explain clinical results where low

  16. Output power fluctuations due to different weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell simulations of Cerenkov devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Rong; Li, Yongdong; Liu, Chunliang; Wang, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    The output power fluctuations caused by weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a backward wave oscillator and a travelling wave tube are statistically analyzed. It is found that the velocities of electrons passed a specific slow-wave structure form a specific electron velocity distribution. The electron velocity distribution obtained in PIC simulation with a relative small weight of macro particles is considered as an initial distribution. By analyzing this initial distribution with a statistical method, the estimations of the output power fluctuations caused by different weights of macro particles are obtained. The statistical method is verified by comparing the estimations with the simulation results. The fluctuations become stronger with increasing weight of macro particles, which can also be determined reversely from estimations of the output power fluctuations. With the weights of macro particles optimized by the statistical method, the output power fluctuations in PIC simulations are relatively small and acceptable.

  17. Diabetes insipidus due to herpes encephalitis in a patient with diffuse large cell lymphoma. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinpflug, K; Schalk, E; Reschke, K; Franke, A; Mohren, M

    2006-01-01

    The major causes of central diabetes insipidus are neoplastic or infiltrative lesions of the hypothalamus or pituitary, severe head injuries and pituitary or hypothalamic surgery. Central diabetes insipidus caused by viral infections has been rarely reported in immunosuppressed patients, such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or Cushing's syndrome. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman suffering from diffuse large cell lymphoma, who developed hypotonic polyuria, hypernatriaemia and somnolence after the first course of chemotherapy with CHOEP and rituximab. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed by low urine osmolarity and an undetectable vasopressin concentration. MRI revealed no pituitary abnormalities but encephalitis, and lumbar punction confirmed herpes zoster infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of central diabetes insipidus in a lymphoma patient caused by an opportunistic CNS-infection.

  18. Direct Observation of High-Temperature Superconductivity in One-Unit-Cell FeSe Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen-Hao; Zhang Jin-Song; Li Fang-Sen; Guo Ming-Hua; Ding Hao; Tang Chen-Jia; Wang Qing-Yan; He Ke; Ji Shuai-Hua; Chen Xi; Sun Yi; Zhao Yan-Fei; Xing Ying; Wang Hui-Chao; Zhang Hui-Min; Peng Jun-Ping; Li Zhi; Wang Meng; Fujita Takeshi; Hirata Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We prepared one-unit-cell (1-UC) thick FeSe films on insulating SrTiO 3 substrates with non-superconducting FeTe protection layers by molecular beam epitaxy for ex situ studies. By direct transport and magnetic measurements, we provide definitive evidence for high temperature superconductivity in the 1-UC FeSe films with an onset T C above 40 K and an extremely large critical current density J C ∼1.7×10 6 A/cm 2 at 2 K, which are much higher than T C ∼8 K and J C ∼10 4 A/cm 2 for bulk FeSe, respectively. Our work may pave the way to enhancing and tailoring superconductivity by interface engineering. (express letter)

  19. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. P., E-mail: yplee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics and RINS, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, J. Y. [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J.-H. [Department of Nano and Electronic Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. W. [Department of Information Display, Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, H. [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. H. [Infovion Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  20. Mitigation of Unwanted Forward Narrow-band Radiation from PCBs with a Metamaterial Unit Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of EMI from a PCB is obtained through the use of a metamaterial unit cell. The focus is on the reduction of narrow-band radiation in the forward hemisphere when the resonant element is etched on a layer located between the source of radiation and the ground plane. As opposed to previous...... publications in the literature, the aim of this work is the application of a filter to scattered radiation, generalizing the former characterizations based solely upon transmission lines’ insertion loss. The radiating area accounts for traces and components placed on the top layer of a PCB and is simulated via...... a patch antenna. The study exhibits how the radiation pattern and the electric field on the patch antenna change within and outside the resonance bandwidth of the parasitic element. An EMC assessment provides experimental verification of the operating principle....

  1. Asymmetric lateral distribution of melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Kelly G; Iyer, Jayasri G; Nghiem, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent report suggested a trend towards more UV-linked skin cancers arising on the left rather than the right side of the body in the United States. Objective To test whether the reported incidences of two UV-linked skin cancers, malignant melanoma (MM) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), are greater on the left than the right in the US. Methods MMs (n = 82,587) and MCCs (n = 2,384) occurring on the left or right side of the face, arm or leg that were reported in the SE*ER registry between 1986–2006 were included for analysis. Results MM and MCC were significantly more likely to present on the left than the right (p automobile UV exposure (approximately 20-fold stronger on the left than right arm) is a likely contributing factor. It may be prudent to remind skin cancer-prone individuals to take appropriate sun precautions when driving in an automobile. PMID:21514002

  2. Prognosis of Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Sidsel Christy; Nielsen, Jonas; Lindmark, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a procedure with inherent complications and intensive care may be necessary. We evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of the HSCT recipients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We...... ventilation had a statistically significant effect on in-ICU (p = 0.02), 6-month (p = 0.049) and 1-year (p = 0.014) mortality. Renal replacement therapy also had a statistically significant effect on in-hospital (p = 0.038) and 6-month (p = 0.026) mortality. Short ICU admissions, i.e. ... to the ICU was confirmed in our study. Mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy and an ICU admission of ≥10 days were each risk factors for mortality in the first year after ICU admission....

  3. Topographic Locomotive Analysis of 99mTc-HDP Uptake of Acute Rhabdomyolysis and Musculotendinous Unit Injury due to Excessive Swimming Exercise in Novice: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Jeon, Ho Seung

    2008-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis (RM), also referred to as myonecrosis, is not an uncommon disorder of skeletal muscle, the incidence of which is on the increase as endurance tests, sports and body build have become popular. RM is divided into diffuse muscle fiber damage and musculotendinous unit (MTU) injury. A recent study by Crenshaw et al. revealed that muscular fiber damage caused by racing was associated with elevated intra-muscular pressure, capillary damage, and ischchemia. It is to be remembered that myocytes are mainly destroyed in RM whereas perimysial connective is predominantly damaged in myositis ossificans. When muscle fibers disrupt myoglobin escapes into extracellular fluid and plasma resulting in myoglobinemia and often acute renal failure. Plasma creatine phosphokinase level becomes elevated. We report a case of strenuous swimming-related RM that occurred in the muscles of the shoulder girdles and chest wall analyzed using magnified 9 :9 m Tc-HDP bone scan. Of interest magnified bone scan of RM in the present case showed not only ordinary muscular injury but also MTU injury. MRI is useful in the study of soft tissue injury and in recent years sonography has also become increasingly used. As mentioned 99m Tc-HDP bone scan, especially magnification scan, sensitively depicts metabolic change that occurred in injured muscles and tendons. Unless injury is trivial the bone scan nearly always reveals pathological uptake in a damaged muscle, MTU, and/or tendinous insertion permitting the topographic distinction of injury. Thus, the diagnosis of myolysis, MTU injury, and enthesitis can specifically be made when one uses magnification technique

  4. Multicenter Clinical and Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Bacteremia Due to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in the CRE Epicenter of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Patel, Gopi; Gomez-Simmonds, Angela; Weston, Gregory; Kim, Angela C.; Seo, Susan K.; Rosenthal, Marnie E.; Sperber, Steven J.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Hamula, Camille L.; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Levi, Michael H.; Fries, Bettina C.; Juretschko, Stefan; Rojtman, Albert D.; Hong, Tao; Mathema, Barun; Jacobs, Michael R.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ) area is an epicenter for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), there are few multicenter studies of CRE from this region. We characterized patients with CRE bacteremia in 2013 at eight NY/NJ medical centers and determined the prevalence of carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream isolates and CRE resistance mechanisms, genetic backgrounds, capsular types (cps), and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Of 121 patients with CRE bacteremia, 50% had cancer or had undergone transplantation. The prevalences of carbapenem resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., and Escherichia coli bacteremias were 9.7%, 2.2%, and 0.1%, respectively. Ninety percent of CRE were K. pneumoniae and 92% produced K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-3, 48%; KPC-2, 44%). Two CRE produced NDM-1 and OXA-48 carbapenemases. Sequence type 258 (ST258) predominated among KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp). The wzi154 allele, corresponding to cps-2, was present in 93% of KPC-3-Kp, whereas KPC-2-Kp had greater cps diversity. Ninety-nine percent of CRE were ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI)-susceptible, although 42% of KPC-3-Kp had an CAZ-AVI MIC of ≥4/4 μg/ml. There was a median of 47 h from bacteremia onset until active antimicrobial therapy, 38% of patients had septic shock, and 49% died within 30 days. KPC-3-Kp bacteremia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.58; P = 0.045), cancer (aOR, 3.61, P = 0.01), and bacteremia onset in the intensive care unit (aOR, 3.79; P = 0.03) were independently associated with mortality. Active empirical therapy and combination therapy were not associated with survival. Despite a decade of experience with CRE, patients with CRE bacteremia have protracted delays in appropriate therapies and high mortality rates, highlighting the need for rapid diagnostics and evaluation of new therapeutics. PMID:28167547

  5. Topographic Locomotive Analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-HDP Uptake of Acute Rhabdomyolysis and Musculotendinous Unit Injury due to Excessive Swimming Exercise in Novice: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Jeon, Ho Seung [SungAe General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Rhabdomyolysis (RM), also referred to as myonecrosis, is not an uncommon disorder of skeletal muscle, the incidence of which is on the increase as endurance tests, sports and body build have become popular. RM is divided into diffuse muscle fiber damage and musculotendinous unit (MTU) injury. A recent study by Crenshaw et al. revealed that muscular fiber damage caused by racing was associated with elevated intra-muscular pressure, capillary damage, and ischchemia. It is to be remembered that myocytes are mainly destroyed in RM whereas perimysial connective is predominantly damaged in myositis ossificans. When muscle fibers disrupt myoglobin escapes into extracellular fluid and plasma resulting in myoglobinemia and often acute renal failure. Plasma creatine phosphokinase level becomes elevated. We report a case of strenuous swimming-related RM that occurred in the muscles of the shoulder girdles and chest wall analyzed using magnified {sup 9}:9{sup m}Tc-HDP bone scan. Of interest magnified bone scan of RM in the present case showed not only ordinary muscular injury but also MTU injury. MRI is useful in the study of soft tissue injury and in recent years sonography has also become increasingly used. As mentioned {sup 99m}Tc-HDP bone scan, especially magnification scan, sensitively depicts metabolic change that occurred in injured muscles and tendons. Unless injury is trivial the bone scan nearly always reveals pathological uptake in a damaged muscle, MTU, and/or tendinous insertion permitting the topographic distinction of injury. Thus, the diagnosis of myolysis, MTU injury, and enthesitis can specifically be made when one uses magnification technique.

  6. Cytokine-mediated FOXO3a phosphorylation suppresses FasL expression in hemopoietic cell lines: investigations of the role of Fas in apoptosis due to cytokine starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Jamil, Sarwat; Denny, Trisha A; Duronio, Vincent

    2007-05-01

    We have investigated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent survival signalling pathways using several cytokines in three different hemopoietic cell lines, MC/9, FDC-P1, and TF-1. Cytokines caused PI3K- and PKB-dependent phosphorylation of FOXO3a (previously known as FKHRL1) at three distinct sites. Following cytokine withdrawal or PI3K inhibition, both of which are known to lead to apoptosis, there was a loss of FOXO3a phosphorylation, and a resulting increase in forkhead transcriptional activity, along with increased expression of Fas Ligand (FasL), which could be detected at the cell surface. Concurrently, an increase in cell surface expression of Fas was also detected. Despite the presence of both FasL and Fas, there was no detectable evidence that activation of Fas-mediated apoptotic events was contributing to apoptosis resulting from cytokine starvation or inhibition of PI3K activity. Thus, inhibition of FOXO3a activity is mediated by the PI3K-PKB pathway, but regulation of FasL is not the primary means by which cell survival is regulated in cytokine-dependent hemopoietic cells. We were also able to confirm increased expression of known FOXO3a targets, Bim and p27kip1. Together, these results support the conclusion that mitochondrial-mediated signals play the major role in apoptosis of hemopoietic cells due to loss of cytokine signalling.

  7. Planar conjugated polymers containing 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene units for efficient polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwu; Kang, Chong; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Jicheng; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Guangyao; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Bo, Zhishan

    2014-06-01

    Four novel conjugated polymers (P1-4) with 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene (PhA) as the donor unit and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit are synthesized and characterized. These polymers are of medium bandgaps (2.0 eV), low-lying HOMO energy levels (below -5.3 eV), and high hole mobilities (in the range of 3.6 × 10(-3) to 0.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with P1-4:PC71 BM blends as the active layer and an alcohol-soluble fullerene derivative (FN-C60) as the interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode give the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.24%, indicating that 9,10-disubstituted PhA are potential donor materials for high-efficiency BHJ PSCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells: The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahmadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited, primarily because of the challenge in fabricating porous biomaterials with arbitrarily complex morphological designs. In the present work, we studied the relationship between relative density (RD of porous Ti6Al4V EFI alloy and five compressive properties of the material, namely elastic gradient or modulus (Es20–70, first maximum stress, plateau stress, yield stress, and energy absorption. Porous structures with different RD and six different unit cell configurations (cubic (C, diamond (D, truncated cube (TC, truncated cuboctahedron (TCO, rhombic dodecahedron (RD, and rhombicuboctahedron (RCO were fabricated using selective laser melting. Each of the compressive properties increased with increase in RD, the relationship being of a power law type. Clear trends were seen in the influence of unit cell configuration and porosity on each of the compressive properties. For example, in terms of Es20–70, the structures may be divided into two groups: those that are stiff (comprising those made using C, TC, TCO, and RCO unit cell and those that are compliant (comprising those made using D and RD unit cell.

  9. Effect of Spike Lavender Lakhlakhe on Pain Intensity Due to Phlebotomy Procedure in Premature Infants Hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Beheshtipoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Premature infants undergo multiple painful procedures during treatment; thus, it must be tried to limit complications caused by diagnostic and treatment procedures using simple and practical methods. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of spike lavender lakhlakhe on pain intensity due to phlebotomy in hospitalized premature infants.Methods: This single-arm, randomized clinical trial was performed on 30 infants chosen through convenience sampling method. Each newborn was considered as its own control. For the test group, one drop of pure (100% spike lavender lakhlakhe was taken by a standard dropper and diluted with 4 ml of warm distilled water by the research assistant. This mixture was stirred at 2-3 cm distance of the newborns’ nose from 60 minutes before until 2 minutes after phlebotomy, such that it could be smelled by the newborns. In both groups, heart rate and blood oxygen saturation were measured by a standard portable device, and the corresponding data was recorded in data collection sheets. Moreover, the infants’ facial expression changes were recorded by a camera and the intensity of pain was measured by Premature Infant Pain Profile before and after the procedure. Finally, the data was analyzed by paired comparison analysis test in SPSS, version 17.Results: Comparison of mean pain intensity caused by phlebotomy in the control and test groups showed a significant difference (7.667±0.311 vs. 4.882±0.311; P

  10. Cell cycle inhibitor, p19INK4d, promotes cell survival and decreases chromosomal aberrations after genotoxic insult due to enhanced DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassa, María E; Marazita, Mariela C; Ceruti, Julieta M; Carcagno, Abel L; Sirkin, Pablo F; González-Cid, Marcela; Pignataro, Omar P; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2007-05-01

    Genome integrity and cell proliferation and survival are regulated by an intricate network of pathways that includes cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and recombination, and programmed cell death. It makes sense that there should be a coordinated regulation of these different processes, but the components of such mechanisms remain unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that p19INK4d expression enhances cell survival under genotoxic conditions. By using p19INK4d-overexpressing clones, we demonstrated that p19INK4d expression correlates with the cellular resistance to UV treatment with increased DNA repair activity against UV-induced lesions. On the contrary, cells transfected with p19INK4d antisense cDNA show reduced ability to repair DNA damage and increased sensitivity to genotoxic insult when compared with their p19INK4d-overexpressing counterparts. Consistent with these findings, our studies also show that p19INK4d-overexpressing cells present not only a minor accumulation of UV-induced chromosomal aberrations but a lower frequency of spontaneous chromosome abnormalities than p19INK4d-antisense cells. Lastly, we suggest that p19INK4d effects are dissociated from its role as CDK4/6 inhibitor. The results presented herein support a crucial role for p19INK4d in regulating genomic stability and overall cell viability under conditions of genotoxic stress. We propose that p19INK4d would belong to a protein network that would integrate DNA repair, apoptotic and checkpoint mechanisms in order to maintain the genomic integrity.

  11. Multicenter Clinical and Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Bacteremia Due to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in the CRE Epicenter of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satlin, Michael J; Chen, Liang; Patel, Gopi; Gomez-Simmonds, Angela; Weston, Gregory; Kim, Angela C; Seo, Susan K; Rosenthal, Marnie E; Sperber, Steven J; Jenkins, Stephen G; Hamula, Camille L; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Levi, Michael H; Fries, Bettina C; Tang, Yi-Wei; Juretschko, Stefan; Rojtman, Albert D; Hong, Tao; Mathema, Barun; Jacobs, Michael R; Walsh, Thomas J; Bonomo, Robert A; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2017-04-01

    Although the New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ) area is an epicenter for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), there are few multicenter studies of CRE from this region. We characterized patients with CRE bacteremia in 2013 at eight NY/NJ medical centers and determined the prevalence of carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream isolates and CRE resistance mechanisms, genetic backgrounds, capsular types ( cps ), and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Of 121 patients with CRE bacteremia, 50% had cancer or had undergone transplantation. The prevalences of carbapenem resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae , Enterobacter spp., and Escherichia coli bacteremias were 9.7%, 2.2%, and 0.1%, respectively. Ninety percent of CRE were K. pneumoniae and 92% produced K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-3, 48%; KPC-2, 44%). Two CRE produced NDM-1 and OXA-48 carbapenemases. Sequence type 258 (ST258) predominated among KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC- Kp ). The wzi154 allele, corresponding to cps-2 , was present in 93% of KPC-3- Kp , whereas KPC-2- Kp had greater cps diversity. Ninety-nine percent of CRE were ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI)-susceptible, although 42% of KPC-3- Kp had an CAZ-AVI MIC of ≥4/4 μg/ml. There was a median of 47 h from bacteremia onset until active antimicrobial therapy, 38% of patients had septic shock, and 49% died within 30 days. KPC-3- Kp bacteremia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.58; P = 0.045), cancer (aOR, 3.61, P = 0.01), and bacteremia onset in the intensive care unit (aOR, 3.79; P = 0.03) were independently associated with mortality. Active empirical therapy and combination therapy were not associated with survival. Despite a decade of experience with CRE, patients with CRE bacteremia have protracted delays in appropriate therapies and high mortality rates, highlighting the need for rapid diagnostics and evaluation of new therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Suppression of Human T Cell Proliferation Mediated by the Cathepsin B Inhibitor, z-FA-FMK Is Due to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Rajah

    Full Text Available The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethyl ketone (z-FA-FMK readily inhibits anti-CD3-induced human T cell proliferation, whereas the analogue benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethyl ketone (z-FA-DMK had no effect. In contrast, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethyl ketone (z-FA-CMK was toxic. The inhibition of T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK requires not only the FMK moiety, but also the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal, suggesting some degree of specificity in z-FA-FMK-induced inhibition of primary T cell proliferation. We showed that z-FA-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC and L-cysteine, whereas D-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced up-regulation of CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-FA-FMK was also attenuated in the presence of exogenous GSH. Similar to cell proliferation, GSH, NAC and L-cysteine but not D-cysteine, completely restored the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3 to their respective subunits in z-FA-FMK-treated activated T cells. Our collective results demonstrated that the inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK is due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH.

  13. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  14. Fatigue behaviour of NiTi shape memory alloy scaffolds produced by SLM, a unit cell design comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, M; Van Hooreweder, B; Van Humbeeck, J; Kruth, J-P

    2017-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique able to produce complex functional parts via successively melting layers of metal powder. This process grants the freedom to design highly complex scaffold components to allow bone ingrowth and aid mechanical anchorage. This paper investigates the compression fatigue behaviour of three different unit cells (octahedron, cellular gyroid and sheet gyroid) of SLM nitinol scaffolds. It was found that triply periodic minimal surfaces display superior static mechanical properties in comparison to conventional octahedron beam lattice structures at identical volume fractions. Fatigue resistance was also found to be highly geometry dependent due to the effects of AM processing techniques on the surface topography and notch sensitivity. Geometries minimising nodal points and the staircase effect displayed the greatest fatigue resistance when normalized to yield strength. Furthermore oxygen analysis showed a large oxygen uptake during SLM processing which must be altered to meet ASTM medical grade standards and may significantly reduce fatigue life. These achieved fatigue properties indicate that NiTi scaffolds produced via SLM can provide sufficient mechanical support over an implants lifetime within stress range values experienced in real life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unit cell determination of epitaxial thin films based on reciprocal space vectors by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Huajun; Chen, Zuhuang; Chen, Lang; Wang, John

    2013-01-01

    A new approach, based on reciprocal space vectors (RSVs), is developed to determine Bravais lattice types and accurate lattice parameters of epitaxial thin films by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HR-XRD). The lattice parameters of single crystal substrates are employed as references to correct the systematic experimental errors of RSVs of thin films. The general procedure is summarized, involving correction of RSVs, derivation of raw unit cell, subsequent conversion to the Niggli unit ...

  16. Bevacizumab and gefitinib enhanced whole-brain radiation therapy for brain metastases due to non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R.F.; Yu, B.; Zhang, R.Q.; Wang, X.H.; Li, C.; Wang, P.; Zhang, Y.; Han, B.; Gao, X.X.; Zhang, L. [Taian City Central Hospital, Taian, Shandong (China); Jiang, Z.M., E-mail: dmyh2436@126.com [Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong Province, Shandong University, Ji’nan, Shandong (China)

    2018-02-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who experience brain metastases are usually associated with poor prognostic outcomes. This retrospective study proposed to assess whether bevacizumab or gefitinib can be used to improve the effectiveness of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in managing patients with brain metastases. A total of 218 NSCLC patients with multiple brain metastases were retrospectively included in this study and were randomly allocated to bevacizumab-gefitinibWBRT group (n=76), gefitinib-WBRT group (n=77) and WBRT group (n=75). Then, tumor responses were evaluated every 2 months based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.0. Karnofsky performance status and neurologic examination were documented every 6 months after the treatment. Compared to the standard WBRT, bevacizumab and gefitinib could significantly enhance response rate (RR) and disease control rate (DCR) of WBRT (Po0.001). At the same time, RR and DCR of patients who received bevacizumab-gefitinib-WBRT were higher than those who received gefitinib-WBRT. The overall survival (OS) rates and progression-free survival (PFS) rates also differed significantly among the bevacizumab-gefitinib-WBRT (48.6 and 29.8%), gefitinib-WBRT (36.7 and 29.6%) and WBRT (9.8 and 14.6%) groups (Po0.05). Although bevacizumabgefitinib-WBRT was slightly more toxic than gefitinib-WBRT, the toxicity was tolerable. As suggested by prolonged PFS and OS status, bevacizumab substantially improved the overall efficacy of WBRT in the management of patients with NSCLC. (author)

  17. Particle-in-cell simulations of fast magnetic field penetration into plasmas due to the Hall electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, S.B.; Grossmann, J.M.; Fruchtman, A.; Oliver, B.V.; Ottinger, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used to study the penetration of magnetic field into plasmas in the electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) regime. These simulations represent the first definitive verification of EMHD with a PIC code. When ions are immobile, the PIC results reproduce many aspects of fluid treatments of the problem. However, the PIC results show a speed of penetration that is between 10% and 50% slower than predicted by one-dimensional fluid treatments. In addition, the PIC simulations show the formation of vortices in the electron flow behind the EMHD shock front. The size of these vortices is on the order of the collisionless electron skin depth and is closely coupled to the effects of electron inertia. An energy analysis shows that one-half the energy entering the plasma is stored as magnetic field energy while the other half is shared between internal plasma energy (thermal motion and electron vortices) and electron kinetic energy loss from the volume to the boundaries. The amount of internal plasma energy saturates after an initial transient phase so that late in time the rate that magnetic energy increases in the plasma is the same as the rate at which kinetic energy flows out through the boundaries. When ions are mobile it is observed that axial magnetic field penetration is followed by localized thinning in the ion density. The density thinning is produced by the large electrostatic fields that exist inside the electron vortices which act to reduce the space-charge imbalance necessary to support the vortices. This mechanism may play a role during the opening process of a plasma opening switch. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Changes in thymocytes due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice. A study of NKT cells and γδT cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satho, Taigo; Tamasawa, Ken; Yosue, Takashi; Arai, Thiaki

    2000-01-01

    We have been investigating the changes of lymphocyte subsets in immune organs after head and neck irradiation. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla on the thymocyte subsets, specifically NKT cells and γδT cells in mice. The thymocyte subsets were analyzed following irradiation using a fluorometer (anti-CD4, CD8, TCRαβ, TCRγδ and NK1.1 monoclonal antibodies) and the outcome compared with that obtained from no-irradiation groups. The following results were obtained: The total number of thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day and three days after irradiation. The absolute number of DN (double negative; CD4 - CD8 - ), CD4 + SP (CD4 + single positive; CD4 + CD8 - ) and CD8 + SP (CD8 + single positive; CD4 - CD8 + ) thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The absolute number of DP (double positive; CD4 + CD8 + ) thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day and three days after irradiation. The absolute number of NKT and γδT cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. In conclusion, the results suggest that NKT cells and γδT cells exhibit behavior which is the same as main stream thymocytes, except DP thymocytes. (author)

  19. Changes in thymocytes due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice. A study of NKT cells and {gamma}{delta}T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satho, Taigo; Tamasawa, Ken; Yosue, Takashi [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, Thiaki

    2000-07-01

    We have been investigating the changes of lymphocyte subsets in immune organs after head and neck irradiation. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla on the thymocyte subsets, specifically NKT cells and {gamma}{delta}T cells in mice. The thymocyte subsets were analyzed following irradiation using a fluorometer (anti-CD4, CD8, TCR{alpha}{beta}, TCR{gamma}{delta} and NK1.1 monoclonal antibodies) and the outcome compared with that obtained from no-irradiation groups. The following results were obtained: The total number of thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day and three days after irradiation. The absolute number of DN (double negative; CD4{sup -} CD8{sup -}), CD4{sup +} SP (CD4{sup +} single positive; CD4{sup +} CD8{sup -}) and CD8{sup +} SP (CD8{sup +} single positive; CD4{sup -} CD8{sup +}) thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. The absolute number of DP (double positive; CD4{sup +} CD8{sup +}) thymocytes showed a significant decrease one day and three days after irradiation. The absolute number of NKT and {gamma}{delta}T cells showed a significant decrease one day after irradiation. In conclusion, the results suggest that NKT cells and {gamma}{delta}T cells exhibit behavior which is the same as main stream thymocytes, except DP thymocytes. (author)

  20. Low temperature caused modifications in the arrangement of cell wall pectins due to changes of osmotic potential of cells of maize leaves (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska-Kos, Anna; Solecka, Danuta; Dziewulska, Aleksandra; Ochodzki, Piotr; Jończyk, Maciej; Bilski, Henryk; Sowiński, Paweł

    2017-03-01

    The cell wall emerged as one of the important structures in plant stress responses. To investigate the effect of cold on the cell wall properties, the content and localization of pectins and pectin methylesterase (PME) activity, were studied in two maize inbred lines characterized by different sensitivity to cold. Low temperature (14/12 °C) caused a reduction of pectin content and PME activity in leaves of chilling-sensitive maize line, especially after prolonged treatment (28 h and 7 days). Furthermore, immunocytohistological studies, using JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies, revealed a decrease of labeling of both low- and high-methylesterified pectins in this maize line. The osmotic potential, quantified by means of incipient plasmolysis was lower in several types of cells of chilling-sensitive maize line which was correlated with the accumulation of sucrose. These studies present new finding on the effect of cold stress on the cell wall properties in conjunction with changes in the osmotic potential of maize leaf cells.

  1. Narcolepsy: Autoimmunity, Effector T Cell Activation Due to Infection, or T Cell Independent, Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Induced Neuronal Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Adriano; Gast, Heidemarie; Reith, Walter; Recher, Mike; Birchler, Thomas; Bassetti, Claudio L.

    2010-01-01

    Human narcolepsy with cataplexy is a neurological disorder, which develops due to a deficiency in hypocretin producing neurons in the hypothalamus. There is a strong association with human leucocyte antigens HLA-DR2 and HLA-DQB1*0602. The disease typically starts in adolescence. Recent developments in narcolepsy research support the hypothesis of…

  2. Red blood cell-derived microparticles isolated from blood units initiate and propagate thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Olivier; Delobel, Julien; Prudent, Michel; Lion, Niels; Kohl, Kid; Tucker, Erik I; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne

    2013-08-01

    Red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) are small phospholipid vesicles shed from RBCs in blood units, where they accumulate during storage. Because microparticles are bioactive, it could be suggested that RMPs are mediators of posttransfusion complications or, on the contrary, constitute a potential hemostatic agent. This study was performed to establish the impact on coagulation of RMPs isolated from blood units. Using calibrated automated thrombography, we investigated whether RMPs affect thrombin generation (TG) in plasma. We found that RMPs were not only able to increase TG in plasma in the presence of a low exogenous tissue factor (TF) concentration, but also to initiate TG in plasma in absence of exogenous TF. TG induced by RMPs in the absence of exogenous TF was neither affected by the presence of blocking anti-TF nor by the absence of Factor (F)VII. It was significantly reduced in plasma deficient in FVIII or F IX and abolished in FII-, FV-, FX-, or FXI-deficient plasma. TG was also totally abolished when anti-XI 01A6 was added in the sample. Finally, neither Western blotting, flow cytometry, nor immunogold labeling allowed the detection of traces of TF antigen. In addition, RMPs did not comprise polyphosphate, an important modulator of coagulation. Taken together, our data show that RMPs have FXI-dependent procoagulant properties and are able to initiate and propagate TG. The anionic surface of RMPs might be the site of FXI-mediated TG amplification and intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complex assembly. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Conspicuous variation of the lattice unit cell in the pavonite homologous series and its relation with cation/anion occupational modulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Mato, J.M., E-mail: jm.perez-mato@ehu.es [Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Elcoro, Luis [Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Makovicky, Emil [Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Topa, Dan [Department of Materials Research and Physics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Petříček, Václav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Madariaga, Gotzon [Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Strong non-uniform variation of unit cell parameters in the pavonite homologous series. ► Conspicuous unit cell variation due to an underlying sub-lattice with cation/anion occupation. ► A modulated model common to the whole series using the superspace formalism proposed. ► Model successfully applied to the {sup 7}P pavonite Ag{sub 3}(Bi,Pb){sub 7}S{sub 12}. ► The model can be applied in a predictive way to other members of the family. - Abstract: The pavonites is a homologous series of sulfosalts with galena-like modules of variable size. A survey of their unit cells reveals that they are severely constrained by the metrics of an underlying common average sublattice. The unit cell of any compound of the series accommodates with high precision an integer number of approximately equal subcells. This explains a peculiar non-uniform variation of the unit cell parameters within the series and evidences that the interface between the galena-like modules, despite having a very different topology, approximately maintains the subperiodicity of the modules, and must therefore be subject to strong steric restrictions. It also implies that cations and anions occupy the nodes of the observed common underlying average sublattice according to a striking alternate cation/anion occupational modulation. This is the starting point for a description of these materials as modulated structures, which can make a proficient use of the approximate atomic positional non-crystallographic correlations caused by their modular character. Under this approach only four parameters suffice to define a realistic approximate model of any member of the series. A full structural characterization of any of the compounds only requires the determination of additional small/smooth modulations. As an example, the case of the {sup 7}P pavonite Ag{sub 3}Bi{sub 6.2}Pb{sub 0.8}S{sub 12}, is analyzed.

  4. [Multiple organ failure presumably due to alkylating agents used as preconditioning drugs for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in an acute promyelocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tori; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Ebe, Yusuke; Yano, Toshio; Sato, Naoko; Koike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old male was diagnosed as having acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in 2006. He received induction chemotherapy including all-trans retinoic acid and initially achieved a complete remission (CR). After several courses of consolidation therapy combining anthracyclines and cytarabine, he maintained CR. In 2009, an APL relapse was diagnosed, and he was treated with arsenic trioxide. Since he achieved a second CR, he underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) with a conditioning regimen consisting of busulfan and melphalan. At four months after auto-PBSCT, he developed a pneumothorax and acute respiratory failure. He died despite intensive therapy. Autopsy findings included various atypical and apoptotic cells in his pulmonary tissue. These changes were confirmed in multiple organs throughout the body, suggesting them to be drug-induced. The findings in this case suggested multiple organ failure due to alkylating agents.

  5. Leydig Cell Tumor Associated with Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Charfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH describes a group of inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in the steroidogenic pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Chronic excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH stimulation may result in hyperplasia of ACTH-sensitive tissues in adrenal glands and other sites such as the testes, causing testicular masses known as testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs. Leydig cell tumors (LCTs are make up a very small number of all testicular tumors and can be difficult to distinguish from TARTs. This distinction is interesting because LCTs and TARTs require different therapeutic approaches. Hereby, we present an unusual case of a 19-year-old patient with CAH due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, who presented with TARTs and an epididymal Leydig cell tumor.

  6. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence and mortality trends in the United States, 1973-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Sirjani, Davud; Devine, Erin E

    2017-10-31

    To analyze oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence and mortality trends in the United States for the years 1973 through 2013. Cross-sectional study using a large population-based cancer database. Data on incidence and mortality rates were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 Database. Annual percentage change in rates was calculated using Joinpoint regression analysis (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD). Incidence rates increased (annual percent change [APC]; 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17 to 2.88) from 1973 to 1983, remained stable (APC -0.52, 95% CI -1.30 to 0.26) from 1983 to 1997, and increased (APC 1.32, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.81) from 1997 to 2013. Overall, incidence rates increased for males (APC 0.73, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.25) but not females (APC -0.77, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.82). Incidence rates increased in the white population (APC 0.79, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.25) but decreased in the black population (APC -0.72, 95% CI -1.41 to -0.02). The incidence rates increased for tongue-base tumors (APC 1.17, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.92) and tonsil tumors (APC 0.47, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.96) but decreased for other sites. Incidence-based mortality decreased (APC -0.78, 95% CI -1.13 to -0.42) from 1993 to 2013. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma incidence rates increased in a nonlinear fashion from 1973 to 2013, whereas mortality rates declined. This, along with variation in trends by demographic and tumor factors, suggest that human papilloma virus is the main driver of the recent rise in incidence. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Vakili

    Full Text Available On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea. Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  8. A cost effective model for appropriate administration of red cell units and salvaging un-transfused red cell units by using temperature sensitive indicators for blood component transportation in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A rule called "30-min rule" defines that red cell unit cannot be used if it has been out of blood bank refrigerator for over 30 min. This rule is useful to guide initiation of transfusion, but is inadequate for deciding whether to reuse or discard units received-back at blood transfusion services (BTS. A simple cost-effective temperature-sensitive indicator was evaluated to decide upon reuse (cold chain was uninterrupted or discard (where cold chain was interrupted in a simulation exercise. Materials and Methods: Temperature-sensitive indicators TH-F™ that irreversibly changed color from white to red demonstrated that heat excursion has occurred and the cumulative temperature has exceeded 10°C for over 30 min, were used in outdated red cells for simulating units, which are not used and received-back. These units were also tagged with a standard temperature monitoring device, which was a re-usable credit card sized device, which would log the actual time and temperature. In few units percent hemolysis was also calculated. Results: Statistically insignificant elevation in average temperature was noted in 102 simulated units at the time of return to BTS (Δ 0.04°C, despite the fact that these units were in the transport box for over 4 h. The average supernatant hemoglobin in these units was 0.24%, much below the prescribed threshold. Conclusion: Transportation of blood in controlled conditions with temperature-sensitive indicator is a cost-effective model to save blood, a precious human resource.

  9. The role of total cell-free DNA in predicting outcomes among trauma patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Mikail; Burcharth, Jakob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials and reference lists of relevant articles for studies that assessed the prognostic value of cell-free DNA detection in trauma patients in the intensive care unit. Outcomes of interest included survival, posttraumatic...

  10. Downregulation of miR-15a due to LMP1 promotes cell proliferation and predicts poor prognosis in nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    駒林, 優樹; 岸部, 幹; 長門, 利純; 上田, 征吾; 高原, 幹; 原渕, 保明

    2014-01-01

    Nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NNKTL) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancy and has distinct clinical and histological features. However, its genetic features are hitherto unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of several malignancies via regulating gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether the specific microRNAs were related to the tumor behaviors in NNKTL. MiRNA array and Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that miR-15a was expressed at...

  11. HTR-PROTEUS benchmark calculations. Pt. 1. Unit cell results LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Klippel, H.T.; Kuijper, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched (LEU) HTGRs' calculational benchmarks are performed on the basis of LEU-HTR pebble-bed critical experiments carried out in the PROTEUS facility at PSI, Switzerland. Of special interest is the treatment of the double heterogeneity of the fuel and the spherical fuel elements of these pebble bed core configurations. Also of interest is the proper calculation of the safety related physics parameters like the effect of water ingress and control rod worth. This document describes the ECN results of the LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2 unitcell calculations performed with the codes WIMS-E, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A. Results of the LEUPRO-1 unit cell with 20% water ingress in the void is also reported for both the single and the double heterogeneous case. Emphasis is put on the intercomparison of the results obtained by the deterministic codes WIMS-E and SCALE-4, and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The LEUPRO whole core calculations will be reported later. (orig.)

  12. Results and analysis of saltstone cores taken from saltstone disposal unit cell 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    As part of an ongoing Performance Assessment (PA) Maintenance Plan, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has developed a sampling and analyses strategy to facilitate the comparison of field-emplaced samples (i.e., saltstone placed and cured in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU)) with samples prepared and cured in the laboratory. The primary objectives of the Sampling and Analyses Plan (SAP) are; (1) to demonstrate a correlation between the measured properties of laboratory-prepared, simulant samples (termed Sample Set 3), and the field-emplaced saltstone samples (termed Sample Set 9), and (2) to validate property values assumed for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) PA modeling. The analysis and property data for Sample Set 9 (i.e. six core samples extracted from SDU Cell 2A (SDU2A)) are documented in this report, and where applicable, the results are compared to the results for Sample Set 3. Relevant properties to demonstrate the aforementioned objectives include bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC), and radionuclide leaching behavior.

  13. New solar cell and clean unit system platform (CUSP) for earth and environmental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Enomoto, R.; Yasutake, M.

    2017-11-01

    We have investigated InGaN-based multi-striped orthogonal photon-photocarrier propagation solar cell (MOP3SC) in which sunlight propagates in a direction being orthogonal to that of photocarriers generated by the sunlight. Thanks to the orthogonality, in MOP3SC, absorption of the sunlight and collection of the photocarriers can be simultaneously and independently optimized with no trade-off. Furthermore, by exploiting the degree of freedom along the photon propagation and using multi-semiconductor stripes in which the incoming photons first encounter the widest gap semiconductor, and the narrowest at last, we can convert the whole solar spectrum into electricity resulting in the high conversion efficiency. For processing MOP3SC, we have developed Clean Unit System Platform (CUSP), which turns out to be able to serve as clean versatile environment having low power-consumption and high cost-performance. CUSP is suitable not only for processing devices, but also for cross-disciplinary fields, including medical/hygienic applications.

  14. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells : The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.M.; Yavari, S.A.; Wauthle, R.; Pouran, B.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited,

  15. Stem Cell Therapy and Breast Cancer Treatment: review of stem cell research and potential therapeutic impact against cardiotoxicities due to breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Sharp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new problem has emerged with the ever-increasing number of breast cancer survivors. While early screening and advances in treatment have allowed these patients to overcome their cancer, these treatments often have adverse cardiovascular side effects that can produce abnormal cardiovascular function. Chemotherapeutic and radiation therapy have both been linked to cardiotoxicity; these therapeutics can cause a loss of cardiac muscle and deterioration of vascular structure that can eventually lead to heart failure (HF. This cardiomyocyte toxicity can leave the breast cancer survivor with a probable diagnosis of dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathy (DCM or RCM. While current HF standard of care can alleviate symptoms, other than heart transplantation, there is no therapy that replaces cardiac myocytes that are killed during cancer therapies. There is a need to develop novel therapeutics that can either prevent or reverse the cardiac injury caused by cancer therapeutics. These new therapeutics should promote the regeneration of lost or deteriorating myocardium. Over the last several decades the therapeutic potential of cell-based therapy has been investigated for HF patients. In this review we discuss the progress of preclinical and clinical stem cell research for the diseased heart and discuss the possibility of utilizing these novel therapies to combat cardiotoxicity observed in breast cancer survivors.

  16. Risk of chronic liver disease in post-menopausal women due to body mass index, alcohol and their interaction: a prospective nested cohort study within the United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Trembling

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the risk of chronic liver disease (CLD due to alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI and the effects of their interaction in a prospective cohort study of women recruited to the UKCTOCS trial. Methods 95,126 post-menopausal women without documented CLD were stratified into 12 groups defined by combinations of BMI (normal, overweight, obese and alcohol consumption (none, <1–15, 16–20 and ≥21 units/week, and followed for an average of 5.1 years. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated for incident liver-related events (LRE. Results First LREs were reported in 325 (0.34% participants. Compared to women with normal BMI, HR = 1.44 (95% CI; 1.10–1.87 in the overweight group and HR = 2.25 (95% CI; 1.70–2.97 in the obese group, adjusted for alcohol and potential confounders. Compared to those abstinent from alcohol, HR = 0.70 (95% CI; 0.55–0.88 for <1–15 units/week, 0.93 (95% CI; 0.50–1.73 for 16–20 units/week and 1.82 (95% CI; 0.97–3.39 for ≥21 units/week adjusted for BMI and potential confounders. Compared to women with normal BMI drinking no alcohol, HR for LRE in obese women consuming ≥21 units/week was 2.86 (95% CI; 0.67–12.42, 1.58 (95% CI; 0.96–2.61 for obese women drinking <1–15 units/week and 1.93 (95% CI; 0.66–5.62 in those with normal BMI consuming ≥21 units/week after adjustment for potential confounders. We found no significant interaction between BMI and alcohol. Conclusion High BMI and alcohol consumption and abstinence are risk factors for CLD in post-menopausal women. However, BMI and alcohol do not demonstrate significant interaction in this group. Trial registration UKCTOCS is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN22488978 . Registered 06/04/2000.

  17. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    A by-pass unit suitable for placement of a number of different probes for corrosion monitoring has been designed. Also measurements of water parameters are allowed in a side stream from the unit. The project is a part of the Nordic Innovation Fund project KORMOF. The by-pass unit has been installed...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...

  18. Risk factors for death in 632 patients with sickle cell disease in the United States and United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T Gladwin

    Full Text Available The role of pulmonary hypertension as a cause of mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD is controversial.We evaluated the relationship between an elevated estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure and mortality in patients with SCD. We followed patients from the walk-PHaSST screening cohort for a median of 29 months. A tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV≥ 3.0 m/s cuttof, which has a 67-75% positive predictive value for mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mm Hg was used. Among 572 subjects, 11.2% had TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec. Among 582 with a measured NT-proBNP, 24.1% had values ≥ 160 pg/mL. Of 22 deaths during follow-up, 50% had a TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec. At 24 months the cumulative survival was 83% with TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec and 98% with TRV 47 years, male gender, chronic transfusions, WHO class III-IV, increased hemolytic markers, ferritin and creatinine were also associated with increased risk of death.A TRV ≥ 3.0 m/sec occurs in approximately 10% of individuals and has the highest risk for death of any measured variable. The study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier: NCT00492531.

  19. Differential Susceptibility of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) and Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries) Neutrophils to Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin is not due to Differential Expression of Cell Surface CD18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Liu, Weiguo; Casas, Eduardo; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2017-07-01

    Bighornsheep ( Ovis canadensis ) are more susceptible to pneumonia caused by Mannheimia haemolytica than are domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ). Leukotoxin produced by M. haemolytica is the principal virulence factor involved in pneumonia pathogenesis. Although leukotoxin is cytolytic to all subsets of ruminant leukocytes, neutrophils are the most susceptible subset. Bighorn sheep neutrophils are four- to eightfold more susceptible to leukotoxin-induced cytolysis than are domestic sheep neutrophils. We hypothesized that the higher susceptibility of bighorn sheep neutrophils, in comparison to domestic sheep neutrophils, is due to higher expression of CD18, the receptor for leukotoxin on leukocytes. Our objective was to quantify CD18 expression on neutrophils of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Cell-surface CD18 expression on bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils was measured as antibody binding capacity of cells by flow cytometric analysis with two fluorochrome-conjugated anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (BAQ30A and HUH82A) and microspheres. Contrary to our expectations, CD18 expression was higher (Psheep neutrophils in comparison to bighorn sheep neutrophils. These findings suggest that the higher in vitro susceptibility to leukotoxin of bighorn sheep neutrophils compared to domestic sheep neutrophils is not due to higher expression of the leukotoxin receptor CD18 on bighorn sheep neutrophils.

  20. The Central Bright Spot Sign: A Potential New MR Imaging Sign for the Early Diagnosis of Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy due to Giant Cell Arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remond, P; Attyé, A; Lecler, A; Lamalle, L; Boudiaf, N; Aptel, F; Krainik, A; Chiquet, C

    2017-07-01

    A rapid identification of the etiology of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is crucial because it determines therapeutic management. Our aim was to assess MR imaging to study the optic nerve head in patients referred with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, due to either giant cell arteritis or the nonarteritic form of the disease, compared with healthy subjects. Fifteen patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and 15 patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy from 2 medical centers were prospectively included in our study between August 2015 and May 2016. Fifteen healthy subjects and patients had undergone contrast-enhanced, flow-compensated, 3D T1-weighted MR imaging. The bright spot sign was defined as optic nerve head enhancement with a 3-grade ranking system. Two radiologists and 1 ophthalmologist independently performed blinded evaluations of MR imaging sequences with this scale. Statistical analysis included interobserver agreement. MR imaging scores were significantly higher in patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy than in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy ( P ≤ .05). All patients with giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (15/15) and 7/15 patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy presented with the bright spot sign. No healthy subjects exhibited enhancement of the anterior part of the optic nerve. There was a significant relationship between the side of the bright spot and the side of the anterior ischemic optic neuropathy ( P ≤ .001). Interreader agreement was good for observers (κ = 0.815). Here, we provide evidence of a new MR imaging sign that identifies the acute stage of giant cell arteritis-related anterior ischemic optic neuropathy; patients without this central bright spot sign always had a nonarteritic pathophysiology and therefore did not require emergency corticosteroid

  1. Increase in white cell and neutrophil counts during the first eighteen weeks of treatment with clozapine in patients admitted to a long-term psychiatric care inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capllonch, Adrián; de Pablo, Silvia; de la Torre, Alberto; Morales, Ignacio

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic drug that has shown to be more effective than other antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia, but its use is limited due to its side effects, particularly by the risk of causing agranulocytosis. A study was made on the variations in white cell and neutrophil counts in patients treated with clozapine in a Long-term Psychiatric Unit. A retrospective observational study was conducted with a sample of women of our long-term psychiatric care unit who had been treated with clozapine. A study was made on the variations in white cell and neutrophil counts during the first 18 weeks of treatment, as well as the onset of leukopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, and the influence of concomitant drugs. The study included 55 patients on treatment with clozapine. The incidence rate of neutropenia was 1.82% (95% CI; 0.05-10.13). The incidence rate of leukopenia and agranulocytosis was 0%. An increase in white cell and neutrophil counts from baseline to week 3-4 was observed. Only small variations were observed after this time, but the counts remained higher than the initial values. These changes were statistically significant in the white cell count: One-way repeated ANOVA with Greenhouse-Geisser correction F (11.47, 37) = 2.114 (P= .011); and in neutrophils: One-way repeated ANOVA with Greenhouse-Geisser correction F (10.3, 37)=3.312 (P=.0002), and MANOVA F (18, 37)=2.693 (P=.005), ŋ 2 P =0.567. The influence of concomitant drugs (lithium, valproic and biperiden) was not significant on the overall increase found in white cells or neutrophils (MANOVA). Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Outbreaks of Pox Disease Due to Canarypox-Like and Fowlpox-Like Viruses in Large-Scale Houbara Bustard Captive-Breeding Programmes, in Morocco and the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loc'h, G; Paul, M C; Camus-Bouclainville, C; Bertagnoli, S

    2016-12-01

    Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of reinforcement programmes of endangered species. Houbara Bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years in North Africa and the Middle East. Field observations show that pox disease, caused by avipoxviruses (APV), regularly emerges in conservation projects of Houbara Bustard, despite a very strict implementation of both vaccination and biosecurity. Data collected from captive flocks of Houbara Bustard in Morocco from 2006 through 2013 and in the United Arab Emirates from 2011 through 2013 were analysed, and molecular investigations were carried out to define the virus strains involved. Pox cases (n = 2311) were observed during more than half of the year (88% of the months in Morocco, 54% in the United Arab Emirates). Monthly morbidity rates showed strong variations across the time periods considered, species and study sites: Four outbreaks were described during the study period on both sites. Molecular typing revealed that infections were mostly due to canarypox-like viruses in Morocco while fowlpox-like viruses were predominant in the United Arab Emirates. This study highlights that APV remain a major threat to consider in bird conservation initiatives. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Transient hemolysis due to anti-D and anti-A1 produced by engrafted donor's lymphocytes after allogeneic unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailén, Rebeca; Kwon, Mi; Pérez-Corral, Ana María; Pascual, Cristina; Buño, Ismael; Balsalobre, Pascual; Serrano, David; Gayoso, Jorge; Díez-Martín, José Luis; Anguita, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Development of de novo alloantibodies against recipient's red blood cell (RBC) antigens by engrafted donor's lymphocytes is a known phenomenon in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This situation is usually clinically insignificant. We report a case of early clinically relevant hemolytic anemia in a blood group A 1 D+ patient, due to a limited production of anti-D and anti-A 1 produced by nonpreviously sensitized newly engrafted donor's immune system. A 31-year-old Caucasian woman, blood group A 1 , D+, with Hodgkin's lymphoma, received an unmanipulated haploidentical allogeneic peripheral blood HSCT after a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. Donor blood group was A 2 B, D-. The patient had an uneventful course until Day +34, when she developed clinically significant hemolytic anemia with a positive direct antiglobulin test. Anti-D and anti-A 1 produced by the donor-engrafted lymphocytes were detected both in serum and in eluate. The hemolysis produced an accelerated group change, turning the patient's ABO group into A 2 B 2 weeks after the detection of the alloantibodies. As the residual patient's RBCs progressively disappeared, anti-D and anti-A 1 production decreased and were not detected in serum by Day +41. This case illustrates that de novo alloantibody production against ABO and D antigens by the newly engrafted donor's lymphocytes can occasionally cause clinically significant anemia. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported of clinically significant hemolytic anemia due to a transient anti-D anti-A 1 alloimmunization after T-cell-repleted haploidentical HSCT. © 2017 AABB.

  4. Up-regulation of serum periostin and squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels in infants with acute bronchitis due to respiratory syncytial virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Nakamura

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periostin and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Acute bronchitis due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection during infancy exhibits an asthma-like pathogenesis, suggesting that it may be associated with the subsequent development of asthma. However, the mechanism by which RSV infection leads to development of asthma has not yet been fully elucidated. Methods: Infants younger than 36 months were enrolled and classified into three groups. Group I included patients hospitalized with RSV-induced bronchitis. These patients were further stratified into two sub-groups according to whether the criteria for the modified Asthma Predictive Index (mAPI had been met: Group I consisted of mAPI (+ and mAPI (− patients; Group II included patients with food allergy as a positive control group; and Group III included children with no allergy as a negative control group. Serum periostin and SCCA levels were measured in the groups. This study was registered as a clinical trial (UMIN000012339. Results: We enrolled 14 subjects in Group I mAPI (+, 22 in Group I mAPI (−, 18 in Group II, and 18 in Group III. In Group I, the serum periostin and SCCA levels were significantly higher during the acute phase compared with the recovery phase. However, no significant differences were found between Group I mAPI (+ and mAPI (−. Conclusions: The serum periostin and SCCA levels increased during acute RSV bronchitis. Both periostin and SCCA may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute bronchitis due to RSV. Keywords: Infants, Periostin, Respiratory syncytial virus, Squamous cell carcinoma antigen, T-helper 2 cell cytokines

  5. Death losses due to stillbirth, neonatal death and diseases in cloned cattle derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer and their progeny: a result of nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Nagai, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    To obtain the data concerning death losses due to stillbirth, neonatal death and diseases in cloned cattle derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and their progeny produced by Japanese institutions, a nationwide survey was carried out in July-August, 2006. As a result, lifetime data concerning 482 SCNT cattle (97.5% of cattle produced in the country at that time) and 202 progeny of SCNT cattle were accumulated and the death loss of these cattle was analyzed. Although 1/3 of delivered SCNT calves died during the perinatal period due to stillbirth and neonatal death, incidence of death loss due to diseases in SCNT cattle surviving more than 200 days after birth seems to be the same as these in conventionally bred cattle. In contrast, progeny of SCNT cattle showed the same level in death loss as observed in conventionally bred cattle throughout their lifetime. These results suggest that robust health would be expected in SCNT cattle surviving to adulthood and their progeny.

  6. Acute liver failure due to natural killer-like T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: A case report and review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan S Dellon; Shannon R Morris; Wozhan Tang; Cherie H Dunphy; Mark W Russo

    2006-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a medical emergency requiring immediate evaluation for liver transplantation. We describe an unusual case of a patient who presented with ascites, jaundice, and encephalopathy and was found to have ALF due to natural killer (NK)-like T cell leukemia/lymphoma. The key immunophenotype was CD2+, CD3+, CD7+, CD56+. This diagnosis, which was based on findings in the peripheral blood and ascitic fluid, was confirmed with liver biopsy, and was a contraindication to liver transplantation. A review of the literature shows that hematologic malignancies are an uncommon cause of fulminant hepatic failure, and that NK-like T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a relatively recently recognized entity which is characteristically CD3+ and CD56+. This case demonstrates that liver biopsy is essential in diagnosing unusual causes of acute liver failure, and that infiltration of the liver with NK-like T-cell lymphoma/leukemia can cause acute liver failure.

  7. Online estimation of internal stack temperatures in solid oxide fuel cell power generating units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, B.; Vrečko, D.; Juričić, Ɖ.; Pohjoranta, A.; Pianese, C.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal stress is one of the main factors affecting the degradation rate of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. In order to mitigate the possibility of fatal thermal stress, stack temperatures and the corresponding thermal gradients need to be continuously controlled during operation. Due to the fact that in future commercial applications the use of temperature sensors embedded within the stack is impractical, the use of estimators appears to be a viable option. In this paper we present an efficient and consistent approach to data-driven design of the estimator for maximum and minimum stack temperatures intended (i) to be of high precision, (ii) to be simple to implement on conventional platforms like programmable logic controllers, and (iii) to maintain reliability in spite of degradation processes. By careful application of subspace identification, supported by physical arguments, we derive a simple estimator structure capable of producing estimates with 3% error irrespective of the evolving stack degradation. The degradation drift is handled without any explicit modelling. The approach is experimentally validated on a 10 kW SOFC system.

  8. Fermi surface properties of paramagnetic NpCd11 with a large unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yoshiya; Aoki, Dai; Haga, Yoshinori; Settai, Rikio; Sakai, Hironori; Ikeda, Shugo; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Nakamura, Akio; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2010-03-01

    We succeeded in growing a high-quality single crystal of NpCd11 with the cubic BaHg11-type structure by the Cd-self flux method. The lattice parameter of a = 9.2968(2) Å and crystallographic positions of the atoms were determined by x-ray single-crystal structure analysis. From the results of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat experiments, this compound is found to be a 5f-localized paramagnet with the singlet ground state in the crystalline electric field (CEF) scheme. Fermi surface properties were measured using the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) technique. Long-period oscillations were observed in the dHvA frequency range of 9.1 x 105 to 1.9 x 107 Oe, indicating small cross-sectional areas of Fermi surfaces, which is consistent with a small Brillouin zone based on a large unit cell. From the results of dHvA and magnetoresistance experiments, the Fermi surface of NpCd11 is found to consist of many kinds of closed Fermi surfaces and a multiply-connected-like Fermi surface, although the result of energy band calculations based on the 5f-localized Np3+(5f4) configuration reveals the existence of only closed Fermi surfaces. The corresponding cyclotron effective mass is small, ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m0, which is consistent with a small electronic specific heat coefficient γ ≅ 10mJ/K2·mol, revealing no hybridization between the 5f electrons and conduction electrons.

  9. Cisplatin sensitivity of testis tumour cells is due to deficiency in interstrand-crosslink repair and low ERCC1-XPF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaina Bernd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin based chemotherapy cures over 80% of metastatic testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT. In contrast, almost all other solid cancers in adults are incurable once they have spread beyond the primary site. Cell lines derived from TGCTs are hypersensitive to cisplatin reflecting the clinical response. Earlier findings suggested that a reduced repair capacity might contribute to the cisplatin hypersensitivity of testis tumour cells (TTC, but the critical DNA damage has not been defined. This study was aimed at investigating the formation and repair of intrastrand and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs induced by cisplatin in TTC and their contribution to TTC hypersensitivity. Results We observed that repair of intrastrand crosslinks is similar in cisplatin sensitive TTC and resistant bladder cancer cells, whereas repair of ICLs was significantly reduced in TTC. γH2AX formation, which serves as a marker of DNA breaks formed in response to ICLs, persisted in cisplatin-treated TTC and correlated with sustained phosphorylation of Chk2 and enhanced PARP-1 cleavage. Expression of the nucleotide excision repair factor ERCC1-XPF, which is implicated in the processing of ICLs, is reduced in TTC. To analyse the causal role of ERCC1-XPF for ICL repair and cisplatin sensitivity, we over-expressed ERCC1-XPF in TTC by transient transfection. Over-expression increased ICL repair and rendered TTC more resistant to cisplatin, which suggests that ERCC1-XPF is rate-limiting for repair of ICLs resulting in the observed cisplatin hypersensitivity of TTC. Conclusion Our data indicate for the first time that the exceptional sensitivity of TTC and, therefore, very likely the curability of TGCT rests on their limited ICL repair due to low level of expression of ERCC1-XPF.

  10. Indium phosphide solar cell research in the United States: Comparison with non-photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of the InP solar cell research program are presented. Homojunction cells with efficiencies approaching 19 percent are demonstrated, while 17 percent is achieved for ITO/InP cells. The superior radiation resistance of the two latter cell configurations over both Si and GaAs cells has been shown. InP cells aboard the LIPS3 satellite show no degradation after more than a year in orbit. Computed array specific powers are used to compare the performance of an InP solar cell array to solar dynamic and nuclear systems.

  11. THE FEATURES OF CONNEXINS EXPRESSION IN THE CELLS OF NEUROVASCLAR UNIT IN NORMAL CONDITIONS AND HYPOXIA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Morgun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess a role of connexin 43 (Cx43 and associated molecule CD38 in the regulation of cell-cell interactions in the neurovascular unit (NVU in vitro in physiological conditions and in hypoxia.Materials and methods. The study was done using the original neurovascular unit model in vitro. The NVU consisted of three cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and cerebral endothelial cells derived from rats. Hypoxia was induced by incubating cells with sodium iodoacetate for 30 min at37 °C in standard culture conditions.Results. We investigated the role of connexin 43 in the regulation of cell interactions within the NVU in normal and hypoxic injury in vitro. We found that astrocytes were characterized by high levels of expression of Cx43 and low level of CD38 expression, neurons demonstrated high levels of CD38 and low levels of Cx43. In hypoxic conditions, the expression of Cx43 and CD38 in astrocytes markedly increased while CD38 expression in neurons decreased, however no changes were found in endothelial cells. Suppression of Cx43 activity resulted in down-regulation of CD38 in NVU cells, both in physiological conditions and at chemical hypoxia.Conclusion. Thus, the Cx-regulated intercellular NAD+-dependent communication and secretory phenotype of astroglial cells that are the part of the blood-brain barrier is markedly changed in hypoxia.

  12. Deciphering the Role of Sulfonated Unit in Heparin-Mimicking Polymer to Promote Neural Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiehua; Yuan, Yuqi; Lyu, Zhonglin; Wang, Mengmeng; Liu, Qi; Wang, Hongwei; Yuan, Lin; Chen, Hong

    2017-08-30

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), especially heparin and heparan sulfate (HS), hold great potential for inducing the neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and have brought new hope for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the disadvantages of natural heparin/HS, such as difficulty in isolating them with a sufficient amount, highly heterogeneous structure, and the risk of immune responses, have limited their further therapeutic applications. Thus, there is a great demand for stable, controllable, and well-defined synthetic alternatives of heparin/HS with more effective biological functions. In this study, based upon a previously proposed unit-recombination strategy, several heparin-mimicking polymers were synthesized by integrating glucosamine-like 2-methacrylamido glucopyranose monomers (MAG) with three sulfonated units in different structural forms, and their effects on cell proliferation, the pluripotency, and the differentiation of ESCs were carefully studied. The results showed that all the copolymers had good cytocompatibility and displayed much better bioactivity in promoting the neural differentiation of ESCs as compared to natural heparin; copolymers with different sulfonated units exhibited different levels of promoting ability; among them, copolymer with 3-sulfopropyl acrylate (SPA) as a sulfonated unit was the most potent in promoting the neural differentiation of ESCs; the promoting effect is dependent on the molecular weight and concentration of P(MAG-co-SPA), with the highest levels occurring at the intermediate molecular weight and concentration. These results clearly demonstrated that the sulfonated unit in the copolymers played an important role in determining the promoting effect on ESCs' neural differentiation; SPA was identified as the most potent sulfonated unit for copolymer with the strongest promoting ability. The possible reason for sulfonated unit structure as a vital factor influencing the ability of the copolymers

  13. Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units. Final report; Udvikling af integrerede DMFC og PEM braendselscelle enheder. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odgaard, M. (IRD Fuel Cell Technology, Svendborg (DK))

    2007-06-15

    The 36-month long project 'Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units' has been completed. The project goal was to develop a completely new MEA concept for integrated PEM and DMFC unit cells with enhanced power density and in this way obtain a price reduction. The integrated unit cell consists of a MEA, a gas diffusion layer with flow fields completed with bipolar plates and seals. The main focus of the present project was to: 1) Develop new catalyst materials fabricated by the use of FSD (flame spray deposition method). 2) Optimisation of the state-of-the-art MEA materials and electrode structure. 3) Implementation of a model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM fuel cells. Results and progress obtained in the project established that the individual unit cell components were able to meet and follow the road map of LT-PEM FC regarding electrode catalyst loading and fulfilled the targets for Year 2006. The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: 1) MEA structure knowledge acquired in the project provide a sound basis for further progress. 2) A novel method for the synthesis of electrode by using flame spray synthesis was explored. 3) Electrochemical and catalytic behaviours of catalysts activity for CH{sub 3}OH explored. 4) Implementation of a sub model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM FC has been developed. 5) Numerical study of the flow distribution in FC manifolds was developed and completed with experimental data. 6) The electrode catalyst loading targets for year 2006 achieved. 7) The DMFC MEA performance has been improved by 35%. 8) Optimisation of the MEAs fabrication process has been successfully developed. 9) A new simple flow field design has been designed. 10) A procedure for integrated seals has been developed (au)

  14. Personalized Stem Cell Therapy to Correct Corneal Defects Due to a Unique Homozygous-Heterozygous Mosaicism of Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal Dysplasia-Clefting Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Vanessa; Nasti, Annamaria Assunta; Raffa, Paolo; Migliorati, Angelo; Nespeca, Patrizia; Ferrari, Stefano; Palumbo, Elisa; Bertolin, Marina; Breda, Claudia; Miceli, Francesco; Russo, Antonella; Caenazzo, Luciana; Ponzin, Diego; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina; Di Iorio, Enzo

    2016-08-01

    : Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the p63 gene. To date, approximately 40 different p63 mutations have been identified, all heterozygous. No definitive treatments are available to counteract and resolve the progressive corneal degeneration due to a premature aging of limbal epithelial stem cells. Here, we describe a unique case of a young female patient, aged 18 years, with EEC and corneal dysfunction, who was, surprisingly, homozygous for a novel and de novo R311K missense mutation in the p63 gene. A detailed analysis of the degree of somatic mosaicism in leukocytes from peripheral blood and oral mucosal epithelial stem cells (OMESCs) from biopsies of buccal mucosa showed that approximately 80% were homozygous mutant cells and 20% were heterozygous. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses excluded genomic alterations, thus suggesting a de novo mutation followed by an allelic gene conversion of the wild-type allele by de novo mutant allele as a possible mechanism to explain the homozygous condition. R311K-p63 OMESCs were expanded in vitro and heterozygous holoclones selected following clonal analysis. These R311K-p63 OMESCs were able to generate well-organized and stratified epithelia in vitro, resembling the features of healthy tissues. This study supports the rationale for the development of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial stem cell sheets obtained by selected heterozygous R311K-p63 stem cells, as an effective and personalized therapy for reconstructing the ocular surface of this unique case of EEC syndrome, thus bypassing gene therapy approaches. This case demonstrates that in a somatic mosaicism context, a novel homozygous mutation in the p63 gene can arise as a consequence of an allelic gene conversion event, subsequent to a de novo mutation. The heterozygous mutant R311K-p63 stem cells can be isolated by means of clonal analysis and given their good regenerative

  15. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Giant Unit Cell Intermetallics R117Co52+δSn112+γ (R = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Ho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallics R117Co52+δSn112+γ (R = Y, La, Pr, Nd, and Ho have been prepared by arc-melting followed by annealing at 800 °C. All the compounds belong to the Tb117Fe52Ge112 structure type (space group Fm 3 ¯ m characterized by a complex giant cubic unit cell with a ~ 30 Å. The single-crystal structure determination of Y- and La-containing compounds reveals a significant structural disorder. A comparison of these and earlier reported crystal structures of R117Co52+δSn112+γ suggests that more extensive disorder occurs for structures that contain larger lanthanide atoms. This observation can be explained by the need to maintain optimal bonding interactions as the size of the unit cell increases. Y117Co56Sn115 exhibits weak paramagnetism due to the Co sublattice and does not show magnetic ordering in the 1.8–300 K range. Ho117Co55Sn108 shows ferromagnetic ordering at 10.6 K. Both Pr117Co54Sn112 and Nd117Co54Sn111 exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering at 17 K and 24.7 K, respectively, followed by a spin reorientation transition at lower temperature.

  16. Defects in α-Cell Function in Patients With Diabetes Due to Chronic Pancreatitis Compared With Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Lena; Breuer, Thomas G K; Rohrer, Stephan; Schenker, Nina; Menge, Björn A; Holst, Jens J; Nauck, Michael A; Meier, Juris J

    2017-10-01

    Diabetes frequently develops in patients with chronic pancreatitis. We examined the alterations in the glucagon response to hypoglycemia and to oral glucose administration in patients with diabetes due to chronic pancreatitis. Ten patients with diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis were compared with 13 patients with type 2 diabetes and 10 healthy control subjects. A stepwise hypoglycemic clamp and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed. Glucose levels during the OGTT were higher in patients with diabetes and chronic pancreatitis and lower in control subjects ( P chronic pancreatitis and with type 2 diabetes ( P chronic pancreatitis. α-Cell responses to oral glucose ingestion and to hypoglycemia are disturbed in patients with diabetes and chronic pancreatitis and in patients with type 2 diabetes. The similarities between these defects suggest a common etiology. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Defects in α-Cell Function in Patients With Diabetes Due to Chronic Pancreatitis Compared With Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumme, Lena; Breuer, Thomas G K; Rohrer, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    .0002) but not in patients with chronic pancreatitis. CONCLUSIONS: α-Cell responses to oral glucose ingestion and to hypoglycemia are disturbed in patients with diabetes and chronic pancreatitis and in patients with type 2 diabetes. The similarities between these defects suggest a common etiology.......OBJECTIVE: Diabetes frequently develops in patients with chronic pancreatitis. We examined the alterations in the glucagon response to hypoglycemia and to oral glucose administration in patients with diabetes due to chronic pancreatitis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten patients with diabetes...... secondary to chronic pancreatitis were compared with 13 patients with type 2 diabetes and 10 healthy control subjects. A stepwise hypoglycemic clamp and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed. RESULTS: Glucose levels during the OGTT were higher in patients with diabetes and chronic...

  18. A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for trucks: Analysis of direct and indirect hybrid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krupp, Carsten; Baltzer, Sidney; Gnörich, Bruno; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-fuel cell hybrid auxiliary power unit for heavy duty vehicles is reported. • Comparison of direct and indirect hybrids using representative load profiles. • Evaluation based on validated fuel cell system and battery models. • Indirect hybrid with constant fuel cell load yields 29.3% hybrid system efficiency. • Fuel cell should be pre-heated using waste heat from the diesel engine during drive. - Abstract: The idling operation of engines in heavy duty vehicles to cover electricity demand during layovers entails significant fuel consumption and corresponding emissions. Indeed, this mode of operation is highly inefficient and a noteworthy contributor to the transportation sector’s aggregate carbon dioxide emissions. Here, a potential solution to this wasteful practice is outlined in the form of a hybrid battery-fuel cell system for application as an auxiliary power unit for trucks. Drawing on experimentally-validated fuel cell and battery models, several possible hybrid concepts are evaluated and direct and indirect hybrid configurations analyzed using a representative load profile. The results indicate that a direct hybrid configuration is only applicable if the load demand profile does not deviate strongly from the assumed profile. Operation of an indirect hybrid with a constant fuel cell load yields the greatest hybrid system efficiency, at 29.3%, while battery size could be reduced by 87% if the fuel cell is operated at the highest dynamics. Maximum efficiency in truck applications can be achieved by pre-heating the system prior to operation using exhaust heat from the motor, which increased system efficiency from 25.3% to 28.1%, including start-up. These findings confirm that hybrid systems could offer enormous fuel savings and constitute a sizeable step on the path toward energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly heavy duty vehicles that does not necessitate a fuel switch.

  19. Through wall degradation problem of the turbine extraction steam drain piping due to liquid drop impingement and measures taken for this problem at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Takeyuki; Kobayashi, Teruaki; Shimada, Shigeru; Inoue, Ryousuke; Usuba, Satoshi; Kimura, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Through wall degradation was found on the extraction steam drain piping of Unit 6 of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company after replacement of the turbine rotors with those of higher thermal efficiency. The mechanism of this degradation was loss of material due to liquid drop impingement. Since the estimated life time of the piping based on wall thickness measurements before the replacement was at least 9 years, the rapid wall thinning occurred after the replacement. This paper describes a summary of the phenomenon, its degradation mechanism and root cause, a temporary measurement taken for an immediate action and permanent measures taken during the next refueling outage. (author)

  20. Nanoparticle abraxane possesses impaired proliferation in A549 cells due to the underexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1/GNA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao MZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Minzhi Zhao,* Haiyun Li,* Yan Ma, He Gong, Shu Yang, Qiaojun Fang, Zhiyuan Hu Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Abraxane (Abr, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved albumin-bound nanoparticle applied for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, has been reported to be more effective than paclitaxel (PTX. To further understand the molecular mechanisms that produce this superior drug efficacy of Abr, a quantitative proteomic approach has been applied to investigate the global protein expression profiles of lung cancer cell A549 treated with Abr and PTX. Only one protein, namely, glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNA1, showed significant differential expression (P<0.05 in the cutoff of 2.0 fold, suggesting that Abr can be used safely as a substitute for PTX. GNA1 is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine, which is an important donor substrate for N-linked glycosylation and has several important functions such as embryonic development and growth. Albumin plays a major role in the regulation of this protein. In summary, this study first shows that the superior drug effect of Abr is mainly due to the downregulation of GNA1, which causes proliferative delay and cell adhesion defect. It is also noteworthy that the deficiency of GNA1 might reduce insulin secretion which correlates with type 2 diabetes. Keywords: quantitative proteomics, nano-drug, drug efficacy, lung cancer, molecular mechanisms, abraxane

  1. Quasi-Unit-Cell Model for an Al-Ni-Co Ideal Quasicrystal based on Clusters with Broken Tenfold Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Eiji; Saitoh, Koh; Takakura, H.; Tsai, A. P.; Steinhardt, P. J.; Jeong, H.-C.

    2000-01-01

    We present new evidence supporting the quasi-unit-cell description of the Al 72 Ni 20 Co 8 decagonal quasicrystal which shows that the solid is composed of repeating, overlapping decagonal cluster columns with broken tenfold symmetry. We propose an atomic model which gives a significantly improved fit to electron microscopy experiments compared to a previous proposal by us and to alternative proposals with tenfold symmetric clusters. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. Fuel Cell Backup Power Unit Configuration and Electricity Market Participation: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-13

    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory industry-inspired Laboratory Directed Research and Development project evaluates the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., balancing, ancillary services, demand response). The work is intended to evaluate the integration of thousands of under-utilized, clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems that are already installed in cell towers for potential grid and ancillary services.

  3. On the Effect of Unit-Cell Parameters in Predicting the Elastic Response of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of unit-cell geometrical parameters in predicting elastic properties of a typical wood plastic composite (WPC. The ultimate goal was obtaining the optimal values of representative volume element (RVE parameters to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of the WPC. For each unit cell, defined by a given combination of the above geometrical parameters, finite element simulation in ABAQUS was carried out, and the corresponding stress-strain curve was obtained. A uniaxial test according to ASTM D638-02a type V was performed on the composite specimen. Modulus of elasticity was determined using hyperbolic tangent function, and the results were compared to the sets of finite element analyses. Main effects of RVE parameters and their interactions were demonstrated and discussed, specially regarding the inclusion of two adjacent wood particles within one unit cell of the material. Regression analysis was performed to mathematically model the RVE parameter effects and their interactions over the modulus of elasticity response. The model was finally employed in an optimization analysis to arrive at an optimal set of RVE parameters that minimizes the difference between the predicted and experimental moduli of elasticity.

  4. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moinul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH metamaterial (MTM unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm3, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4–12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  5. MS4A1 dysregulation in asbestos-related lung squamous cell carcinoma is due to CD20 stromal lymphocyte expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M Wright

    Full Text Available Asbestos-related lung cancer accounts for 4-12% of lung cancers worldwide. We have previously identified ADAM28 as a putative oncogene involved in asbestos-related lung adenocarcinoma (ARLC-AC. We hypothesised that similarly gene expression profiling of asbestos-related lung squamous cell carcinomas (ARLC-SCC may identify candidate oncogenes for ARLC-SCC. We undertook a microarray gene expression study in 56 subjects; 26 ARLC-SCC (defined as lung asbestos body (AB counts >20AB/gram wet weight (gww and 30 non-asbestos related lung squamous cell carcinoma (NARLC-SCC; no detectable lung asbestos bodies; 0AB/gww. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis identified six candidate genes differentially expressed between ARLC-SCC and NARLC-SCC based on statistical significance (p2-fold. Two genes MS4A1 and CARD18, were technically replicated by qRT-PCR and showed consistent directional changes. As we also found MS4A1 to be overexpressed in ARLC-ACs, we selected this gene for biological validation in independent test sets (one internal, and one external dataset (2 primary tumor sets. MS4A1 RNA expression dysregulation was validated in the external dataset but not in our internal dataset, likely due to the small sample size in the test set as immunohistochemical (IHC staining for MS4A1 (CD20 showed that protein expression localized predominantly to stromal lymphocytes rather than tumor cells in ARLC-SCC. We conclude that differential expression of MS4A1 in this comparative gene expression study of ARLC-SCC versus NARLC-SCC is a stromal signal of uncertain significance, and an example of the rationale for tumor cell enrichment in preparation for gene expression studies where the aim is to identify markers of particular tumor phenotypes. Finally, our study failed to identify any strong gene candidates whose expression serves as a marker of asbestos etiology. Future research is required to determine the role of stromal lymphocyte MS4A1 dysregulation in

  6. Transient Analysis for Evaluating the Potential Boiling in the High Elevation Emergency Cooling Units of PWR Following a Hypothetical Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Subsequent Water Hammer Due to Pump Restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S. Mahmood; Qashu, Riyad K.

    2004-01-01

    The Generic Letter GL-96-06 issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) required the utilities to evaluate the potential for voiding in their Containment Emergency Cooling Units (ECUs) due to a hypothetical Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) or a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accompanied by the Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP). When the offsite power is restored, the Component Cooling Water (CCW) pumps restart causing water hammer to occur due to cavity closure. Recently EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) performed a research study that recommended a methodology to mitigate the water hammer due to cavity closure. The EPRI methodology allows for the cushioning effects of hot steam and released air, which is not considered in the conventional water column separation analysis. The EPRI study was limited in scope to the evaluation of water hammer only and did not provide any guidance for evaluating the occurrence of boiling and the extent of voiding in the ECU piping. This paper presents a complete methodology based on first principles to evaluate the onset of boiling. Also, presented is a methodology for evaluating the extent of voiding and the water hammer resulting from cavity closure by using an existing generalized computer program that is based on the Method of Characteristics. The EPRI methodology is then used to mitigate the predicted water hammer. Thus it overcomes the inherent complications and difficulties involved in performing hand calculations for water hammer. The heat transfer analysis provides an alternative to the use of very cumbersome modeling in using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) based computer programs. (authors)

  7. The use of PEM united regenerative fuel cells in solar- hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun K Doddathimmaiah; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Remote area power supply (RAPS) is a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. Solar hydrogen RAPS systems commonly employ photovoltaic panels, a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolyser, a storage for hydrogen gas, and a PEM fuel cell. Currently such systems are more costly than conventional RAPS systems employing diesel generator back up or battery storage. Unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) have the potential to lower the costs of solar hydrogen RAPS systems since a URFC employs the same hardware for both the electrolyser and fuel cell functions. The need to buy a separate electrolyser and a separate fuel cell, both expensive items, is thus avoided. URFCs are in principle particularly suited for use in RAPS applications since the electrolyser function and fuel cell function are never required simultaneously. The present paper reports experimental findings on the performance of a URFC compared to that of a dedicated PEM electrolyser and a dedicated fuel cell. A design for a single-cell PEM URFC for use in experiments is described. The experimental data give a good quantitative description of the performance characteristics of all the devices. It is found that the performance of the URFC in the electrolyser mode is closely similar to that of the stand-alone electrolyser. In the fuel cell mode the URFC performance is, however, lower than that of the stand-alone fuel cell. The wider implications of these findings for the economics of future solar-hydrogen RAPS systems are discussed, and a design target of URFCs for renewable-energy RAPS applications proposed. (authors)

  8. Quantification of in situ temperature measurements on a PBI-based high temperature PEMFC unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebæk, Jesper; Ali, Syed Talat; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    The temperature is a very important operating parameter for all types of fuel cells. In the present work distributed in situ temperature measurements are presented on a polybenzimidazole based high temperature PEM fuel cell (HT-PEM). A total of 16 T-type thermocouples were embedded on both the an...

  9. Profiling of Ubiquitination Pathway Genes in Peripheral Cells from Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia due to C9ORF72 and GRN Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serpente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the expression levels of 84 key genes involved in the regulated degradation of cellular protein by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in peripheral cells from patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD due to C9ORF72 and GRN mutations, as compared with sporadic FTD and age-matched controls. A SABiosciences PCR array was used to investigate the transcription profile in a discovery population consisting of six patients each in C9ORF72, GRN, sporadic FTD and age-matched control groups. A generalized down-regulation of gene expression compared with controls was observed in C9ORF72 expansion carriers and sporadic FTD patients. In particular, in both groups, four genes, UBE2I, UBE2Q1, UBE2E1 and UBE2N, were down-regulated at a statistically significant (p < 0.05 level. All of them encode for members of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. In GRN mutation carriers, no statistically significant deregulation of ubiquitination pathway genes was observed, except for the UBE2Z gene, which displays E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme activity, and was found to be statistically significant up-regulated (p = 0.006. These preliminary results suggest that the proteasomal degradation pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of FTD associated with TDP-43 pathology, although different proteins are altered in carriers of GRN mutations as compared with carriers of the C9ORF72 expansion.

  10. Leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum in a FIV and FeIV positive cat with a squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed with histological, serological and isoenzymatic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grevot A.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is an endemic zoonosis present in the Mediterranean area. Canidae (dog and fox constitute the main reservoir hosts for the parasite, whilst wild rodents or the cat can be carriers of the protozoan and are considered as secondary potential reservoirs. This paper describes a case of disseminated feline leishmaniosis with cutaneous (ulcerative, visceral (spleen and lymph nodes and blood involvement in a FIV-FelV positive cat. The microscopic identification of the Leishmania infection was initially made on a skin biopsy of the temporal area, where a squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. The diagnosis of the disease was achieved by several serological techniques (ELISA, IFAT and Western-blot. The strain was obtained by blood culture, characterized by electrophoresis of isoenzymes and identified as Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1. Since the infection due to L. infantum is a zoonosis, the potential feline reservoir should be more investigated. Serological analysis by Western blot on domestic cats provides a useful tool. In veterinary practice, feline leishmaniosis should be systematically included in the differential diagnosis when compatible cutaneous lesions are present, especially in the endemic areas of canine leishmaniosis.

  11. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay eKumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6 was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27-37°C, pH 8-10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v. The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6 lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6 can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6 showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6

  12. Hazards assessment and technical actions due to the production of pressured hydrogen within a pilot photovoltaic-electrolyser-fuel cell power system for agricultural equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot power system formed by photovoltaic panels, alkaline electrolyser and fuel cell stacks was designed and set up to supply the heating system of an experimental greenhouse. The aim of this paper is to analyse the main safety aspects of this power system connected to the management of the pressured hydrogen, such as the explosion limits of the mixture hydrogen-oxygen, the extension of the danger zone, the protection pressure vessels and the system to make unreactive the plant. The electrolyser unit is the core of this plant and from the safety point of view has been equipped with devices able to highlight the malfunctions before they cause damages. Alarm situations are highlighted and the production process is cut off in safe conditions in the event that the operational parameters have an abnormal deviation from the design values. Also the entire power system has been designed so that any failure to its components does not compromise the workers’ safety even if the risk analysis is in progress because technical operations are being carried out for enhancing the plant functionality, making it more suitable to the designed task of supplying electrically the greenhouse heating system during cold periods. Some experimental data pertinent to the solar radiation and the corresponding hydrogen production rate are also reported. At present it does not exist a well-established safety reference protocol to design the reliability of these types of power plants and then the assumed safety measures even if related to the achieved pilot installation, can represent an original base of reference to set up guidelines for designing the safety of power plants in the future available for agricultural purposes.

  13. Assessment of changes in plasma hemoglobin and potassium levels in red cell units during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nishant; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2015-06-01

    Red cell units undergo changes during storage and processing. The study was planned to assess plasma potassium, plasma hemoglobin, percentage hemolysis during storage and to determine the effects of outdoor blood collection and processing on those parameters. Blood collection in three types of blood storage bags was done - single CPDA bag (40 outdoor and 40 in-house collection), triple CPD + SAGM bag (40 in-house collection) and quadruple CPD + SAGM bag with integral leukoreduction filter (40 in-house collection). All bags were sampled on day 0 (day of collection), day 1 (after processing), day 7, day 14 and day 28 for measurement of percentage hemolysis and potassium levels in the plasma of bag contents. There was significant increase in percentage hemolysis, plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium level in all the groups during storage (p levels during the storage of red blood cells. Blood collection can be safely undertaken in outdoor blood donation camps even in hot summer months in monitored blood transport boxes. SAGM additive solution decreases the red cell hemolysis and allows extended storage of red cells. Prestorage leukoreduction decreases the red cell hemolysis and improves the quality of blood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovation on a Hospital Perinatal Unit: Cell Phone Use by Nurses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrilak, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    .... This study evaluates the impact and effect of cell phone communication technology on reducing nurse task frequency and time spent on activities that could more appropriately be accomplished by hospital support staff...

  15. Natural Killer/T-cell Neoplasms: Analysis of Incidence, Patient Characteristics, and Survival Outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommalapati, Anuhya; Tella, Sri Harsha; Ganti, Apar Kishore; Armitage, James O

    2018-05-04

    Limited data are available regarding the incidence, survival patterns, and long-term outcomes of natural killer (NK)/T-cell neoplasms in the United States. We performed a retrospective study of patients with NK/T-cell neoplasms diagnosed from 2001 to 2014 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the overall survival difference among the subgroups. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the factors affecting survival. For the 797 patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, the median age at diagnosis was 53 years, and males tended to be younger at diagnosis (P < .0001). The incidence of the disease increased from 0.4 in 2001 to 0.8 in 2014 per 1,000,000 individuals. The incidence was significantly greater in Hispanic patients compared with that in non-Hispanic patients (rate ratio, 3.03; P = .0001). The median overall survival was 20 months (range, 2-73 months) and varied significantly according to the primary site (P < .0001) and the disease stage at diagnosis (P < .0001). NK/T-cell lymphoma patients had an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (standardized incidence ratio, 18.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.27-67.81). For the 105 NK/T-cell leukemia patients, the median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range, 4-95 years). The overall incidence of the disease was 0.09 per 1,000,000 individuals and was significantly greater in males (rate ratio, 0.41; P < .0001). Unlike NK/T-cell lymphoma, no racial disparities were found in the incidence. The median overall survival was 17 months (range, 0-36 months). The incidence of NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, in the United States has at least doubled in the past decade, with the greatest predilection among Hispanics. Patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma might have an increased risk of the subsequent development of acute myeloid leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fuel cell programs in the United States for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M.

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, is participating with the private sector in sponsoring the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for application in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by the Office of Fossil Energy in previous years and is now being commercialized by the private sector. Private sector participants with the Department of Energy include the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research institute (GRI), electric and gas utilities, universities, manufacturing companies and their suppliers. through continued government and private sector support, fuel cell systems are emerging power generation technologies which are expected to have significant worldwide impacts. An industry with annual sales of over a billion dollars is envisioned early in the 21st century. PAFC power plants have begun to enter the marketplace and MCFC and SOFC power plants are expected to be ready to enter the marketplace in the late 1990s. In support of the efficient and effective use of our natural resources, the fuel cell program seeks to increase energy efficiency and economic effectiveness of power generation. This is to be accomplished through effectiveness of power generation. This is accomplished through the development and commercialization of cost-effective, efficient and environmentally desirable fuel cell systems which will operate on fossil fuels in multiple and end use sectors.

  17. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: REPRODUCIBILITY OF INTERBLASTOMERE DIFFERENCES OF mRNA EXPRESSION IN 2-CELL STAGE MOUSE EMBRYOS IS REMARKABLY POOR DUE TO COMBINATORIAL MECHANISMS OF BLASTOMERE DIVERSIFICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casser, E; Israel, S; Schlatt, S; Nordhoff, V; Boiani, M

    2018-05-09

    endomembrane system. Although there are many dimensions to the issue of reproducibility (biological, experimental, analytical), we consider that the sister blastomeres are poised to escape high interblastomere correlations of mRNA levels, because at least five sources of diversity superimpose on each other, accounting for at least 25 = 32 different states. As a result, interblastomere mRNA differences of a given 2-cell embryo are necessarily difficult to reproduce in another 2-cell embryo. Data were as provided by the original studies (GSE21688, GSE22182, GSE27396, GSE45719, GSE57249, E-MTAB-3321, GSE94050). The original studies present similarities (e.g. fertilization in vivo after ovarian stimulation) as well as differences (e.g. mouse strains, method and timing of blastomere separation). We identified robust mRNA differences between the sister blastomeres, but these differences are underestimated because our double cut-off method works with thresholds and affords more protection against false positives than false negatives. Regarding the false negatives, transcriptome analysis may have captured only part of the interblastomere differences due to: 1) the twofold cut-off not being sensitive enough to detect the remaining part of the interblastomere differences, 2) the detection limit of the transcriptomic methods not being sufficient, or 3) interblastomere differences being oblivious to transcriptomic identification because transcriptional changes are oscillatory or because differences are mediated non-transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally. Regarding the false positives, it seems unlikely that a difference was found just by chance for the same group of transcripts due to the same technical error, given that different laboratories produced the data. It is clear that the sister blastomeres are distinguishable from each other by mRNA analysis even at the 2-cell stage; however, efforts to identify large stable patterns may be in vain. This elicits thoughts about the

  18. One unit-cell seed layer induced epitaxial growth of heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T L; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Hasegawa, T [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: chen@ksp.or.jp

    2008-03-21

    We present a novel way to obtain heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films by using a solid-state nitrogen source. Epitaxial growth of the films was realized by introducing one unit-cell seed layer, which was indicated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction as intensity oscillation. Results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the films were in the anatase phase heavily doped with nitrogen of {approx}15 at%. The films obtained exhibited considerable narrowing of the optical bandgap, resulting in an enhancement of absorption in the visible-light region. (fast track communication)

  19. A program for the derivation of crystal unit cell parameters from X-ray powder diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, I.F.; Rogerson, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The program, FIRESTAR, determines the dimensions of a crystallographic unit cell from a set of X-ray powder diffraction measurements corresponding to a set of Bragg reflections, provided that the crystal system applicable is known and the Bragg reflections have been indexed. The program includes a range of possible extrapolation functions, and the data may be weighted. Provision is made for detecting and rejecting a single 'bad' measurement, and then rejecting measurements which lie outside an error limit set in the input data. (orig.)

  20. Tim-3-expressing macrophages are functionally suppressed and expanded in oral squamous cell carcinoma due to virus-induced Gal-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianfeng; Cheng, Lijun; Zhao, Minchao; Pan, Xiangfeng; Feng, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dawei

    2017-05-01

    Oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumor in the oral cavity. High-risk human papillomavirus 16 infection is a major cause of oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma development. Strong antitumor immune responses, especially CD8 + T cell responses, are thought to be essential to effective cancer treatment and are associated with better prognosis in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we examined the role of the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. We found that Gal-9 expression by CD4 + T cells was increased in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients, but not in human papillomavirus-negative oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Increased Gal-9 secretion by CD4 + T cells presented multiple immunosuppressive effects. Coculturing monocytes with high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells resulted in the expansion of Tim-3 + monocytes, which suppressed interferon gamma production by activated CD8 + T cells. Subsequently, total monocytes incubated with exogenous Gal-9, or high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells, suppressed the expression of interferon gamma by CD8 + T cells. Exogenous Gal-9 and high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells also suppressed the secretion of both interleukin 10 and interleukin 12 by monocytes. These effects are Tim-3/Gal-9-dependent because blocking Tim-3 and/or Gal-9 could enhance the support of CD8 + T cell interferon gamma production and the interleukin 10 and interleukin 12 secretion by monocytes. Together, these data suggest that the high Tim-3 expression in monocytes could be utilized by tumor-promoting Gal-9 expression on CD4 + T cells. Immunotherapy in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients therefore faces an additional challenge posed by Tim-3 and Gal-9 and likely requires the blockade of these

  1. Dancoff factors of unit cells in cluster geometry with partial absorption of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Leticia Jenisch

    2011-01-01

    In its classical formulation, the Dancoff factor for a perfectly absorbing fuel rod is defined as the relative reduction in the incurrent of resonance neutrons into the rod in the presence of neighboring rods, as compared to the incurrent into a single fuel rod immersed in an infinite moderator. Alternatively, this factor can be viewed as the probability that a neutron emerging from the surface of a fuel rod will enter another fuel rod without any collision in the moderator or cladding. For perfectly absorbing fuel these definitions are equivalent. In the last years, several works appeared in literature reporting improvements in the calculation of Dancoff factors, using both the classical and the collision probability definitions. In this work, we step further reporting Dancoff factors for perfectly absorbing (Black) and partially absorbing (Grey) fuel rods calculated by the collision probability method, in cluster cells with square outer boundaries. In order to validate the results, comparisons are made with the equivalent cylindricalized cell in hypothetical test cases. The calculation is performed considering specularly reflecting boundary conditions, for the square lattice, and diffusive reflecting boundary conditions, for the cylindrical geometry. The results show the expected asymptotic behavior of the solution with increasing cell sizes. In addition, Dancoff factors are computed for the Canadian cells CANDU-37 and CANFLEX by the Monte Carlo and Direct methods. Finally, the effective multiplication factors, k eff , for these cells (cluster cell with square outer boundaries and the equivalent cylindricalized cell) are also computed, and the differences reported for the cases using the perfect and partial absorption assumptions. (author)

  2. Inter-relationships between single carbon units' metabolism and resting energy expenditure in weight-losing patients with small cell lung cancer. Effects of methionine supply and chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, H; Hansen, O P; Simonsen, L

    1994-01-01

    The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance...

  3. Inter-relationships between single carbon units' metabolism and resting energy expenditure in weight-losing patients with small cell lung cancer. Effects of methionine supply and chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, H; Hansen, O P; Simonsen, L

    1994-01-01

    The one-carbon unit metabolism was investigated in 8 weight-losing patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC). At diagnosis, 6 of the 8 patients had elevated formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) excretion after a histidine load, suggesting a lack of one-carbon units. In accordance, a signifi...

  4. Growth Factor Independence-1 (Gfi1) Is Required for Pancreatic Acinar Unit Formation and Centroacinar Cell Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Nyeng, Pia; Xiao, Fan

    2015-01-01

    of granulocytes, inner ear hair cells, and the development of secretory cell types in the intestine. As GFI1/Gfi1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreas, we characterized the potential function of Gfi1 in mouse pancreatic development. METHODS: Gfi1 knockout mice were analyzed at histological and molecular...... levels, including qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Loss of Gfi1 impacted formation and structure of the pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit. Histologic and ultrastructural analysis of Gfi1-null pancreas revealed specific defects at the level...... was correlated with an exocrine organ defect. Postnatally, Gfi1 deficiency resulted in severe pancreatic acinar dysplasia, including loss of granulation, autolytic vacuolation, and a proliferative and apoptotic response. CONCLUSIONS: Gfi1 plays an important role in regulating the development of pancreatic CACs...

  5. SBDS-Deficient Cells Have an Altered Homeostatic Equilibrium due to Translational Inefficiency Which Explains their Reduced Fitness and Provides a Logical Framework for Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Calamita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomopathies are a family of inherited disorders caused by mutations in genes necessary for ribosomal function. Shwachman-Diamond Bodian Syndrome (SDS is an autosomal recessive disease caused, in most patients, by mutations of the SBDS gene. SBDS is a protein required for the maturation of 60S ribosomes. SDS patients present exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, neutropenia, chronic infections, and skeletal abnormalities. Later in life, patients are prone to myelodisplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML. It is unknown why patients develop AML and which cellular alterations are directly due to the loss of the SBDS protein. Here we derived mouse embryonic fibroblast lines from an SbdsR126T/R126T mouse model. After their immortalization, we reconstituted them by adding wild type Sbds. We then performed a comprehensive analysis of cellular functions including colony formation, translational and transcriptional RNA-seq, stress and drug sensitivity. We show that: 1. Mutant Sbds causes a reduction in cellular clonogenic capability and oncogene-induced transformation. 2. Mutant Sbds causes a marked increase in immature 60S subunits, limited impact on mRNA specific initiation of translation, but reduced global protein synthesis capability. 3. Chronic loss of SBDS activity leads to a rewiring of gene expression with reduced ribosomal capability, but increased lysosomal and catabolic activity. 4. Consistently with the gene signature, we found that SBDS loss causes a reduction in ATP and lactate levels, and increased susceptibility to DNA damage. Combining our data, we conclude that a cell-specific fragile phenotype occurs when SBDS protein drops below a threshold level, and propose a new interpretation of the disease.

  6. SBDS-Deficient Cells Have an Altered Homeostatic Equilibrium due to Translational Inefficiency Which Explains their Reduced Fitness and Provides a Logical Framework for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miluzio, Annarita; Russo, Arianna; Ricciardi, Sara; Khanim, Farhat; Cheroni, Cristina; Alfieri, Roberta; Mancino, Marilena; Gorrini, Chiara; Peluso, Ivana; Pagani, Massimiliano; Medina, Diego L.

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomopathies are a family of inherited disorders caused by mutations in genes necessary for ribosomal function. Shwachman-Diamond Bodian Syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disease caused, in most patients, by mutations of the SBDS gene. SBDS is a protein required for the maturation of 60S ribosomes. SDS patients present exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, neutropenia, chronic infections, and skeletal abnormalities. Later in life, patients are prone to myelodisplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is unknown why patients develop AML and which cellular alterations are directly due to the loss of the SBDS protein. Here we derived mouse embryonic fibroblast lines from an SbdsR126T/R126T mouse model. After their immortalization, we reconstituted them by adding wild type Sbds. We then performed a comprehensive analysis of cellular functions including colony formation, translational and transcriptional RNA-seq, stress and drug sensitivity. We show that: 1. Mutant Sbds causes a reduction in cellular clonogenic capability and oncogene-induced transformation. 2. Mutant Sbds causes a marked increase in immature 60S subunits, limited impact on mRNA specific initiation of translation, but reduced global protein synthesis capability. 3. Chronic loss of SBDS activity leads to a rewiring of gene expression with reduced ribosomal capability, but increased lysosomal and catabolic activity. 4. Consistently with the gene signature, we found that SBDS loss causes a reduction in ATP and lactate levels, and increased susceptibility to DNA damage. Combining our data, we conclude that a cell-specific fragile phenotype occurs when SBDS protein drops below a threshold level, and propose a new interpretation of the disease. PMID:28056084

  7. Diffusion of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms inside Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qin [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang, Sichuan 621908 (China); Fu, Qiang [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Shao, Xiji; Ma, Xuhang; Wu, Xuefeng [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Wang, Kedong, E-mail: wangkd@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Xiao, Xudong, E-mail: xdxiao@phy.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Diffusions of Au, Ag and Cu atoms in the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7×7) have been studied by using a STM-based I-t method. • Despite their similar absorption sites, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. • Theoretical calculations suggest that different potential energy profiles are responsible for the observed differences. - Abstract: The diffusion behaviors of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms on Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells have been investigated via combining scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles calculations. Despite the similar adsorption sites between both half unit cells among these elements, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. Although obvious asymmetry has been found in the diffusion behaviors of Au and Cu atoms in two half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7), the asymmetry behaves in a way different from that of Ag atoms and no dual-time character has been observed for the diffusions of Au and Cu in both half unit cells. Theoretical calculations suggest a different potential energy profile caused by the stronger hybridization between d states of Au (Cu) and Si states make the concept of basin useless for the diffusion of Au and Cu atoms inside the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7).

  8. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  9. Octasaccharide is the minimal length unit required for efficient binding of cyclophilin B to heparin and cell surface heparan sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Denys, Agnès; Carpentier, Mathieu; Pakula, Rachel; Mazurier, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2004-09-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a heparin-binding protein first identified as a receptor for cyclosporin A. In previous studies, we reported that CyPB triggers chemotaxis and integrin-mediated adhesion of T-lymphocytes by way of interaction with two types of binding sites. The first site corresponds to a signalling receptor; the second site has been identified as heparan sulphate (HS) and appears crucial to induce cell adhesion. Characterization of the HS-binding unit is critical to understand the requirement of HS in pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. By using a strategy based on gel mobility shift assays with fluorophore-labelled oligosaccharides, we demonstrated that the minimal heparin unit required for efficient binding of CyPB is an octasaccharide. The mutants CyPB(KKK-) [where KKK- refers to the substitutions K3A(Lys3-->Ala)/K4A/K5A] and CyPB(DeltaYFD) (where Tyr14-Phe-Asp16 has been deleted) failed to interact with octasaccharides, confirming that the Y14FD16 and K3KK5 clusters are required for CyPB binding. Molecular modelling revealed that both clusters are spatially arranged so that they may act synergistically to form a binding site for the octasaccharide. We then demonstrated that heparin-derived octasaccharides and higher degree of polymerization oligosaccharides inhibited the interaction between CyPB and fluorophore-labelled HS chains purified from T-lymphocytes, and strongly reduced the HS-dependent pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. However, oligosaccharides or heparin were unable to restore adhesion of heparinase-treated T-lymphocytes, indicating that HS has to be present on the cell membrane to support the pro-adhesive activity of CyPB. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the octasaccharide is likely to be the minimal length unit required for efficient binding of CyPB to cell surface HS and consequent HS-dependent cell responses.

  10. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITY NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast in the United States: incidence, demographics, tumor characteristics, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Siddhartha; Yadav, Dhiraj; Zakalik, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of breast accounts for less than 0.1% of all breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology and survival of this rare malignancy. Data were extracted from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Registry to identify women diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of breast between 1998 and 2013. SEER*Stat 8.3.1 was used to calculate age-adjusted incidence, age-wise distribution, and annual percentage change in incidence. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted for survival analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine predictors of survival. A total of 445 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of breast were diagnosed during the study period. The median age of diagnosis was 67 years. The overall age-adjusted incidence between 1998 and 2013 was 0.62 per 1,000,000 per year, and the incidence has been on a decline. Approximately half of the tumors were poorly differentiated. Stage II was the most common stage at presentation. Majority of the cases were negative for expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor. One-third of the cases underwent breast conservation surgery while more than half of the cases underwent mastectomy (unilateral or bilateral). Approximately one-third of cases received radiation treatment. The 1-year and 5-year cause-specific survival was 81.6 and 63.5%, respectively. Excluding patient with metastasis or unknown stage at presentation, in multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, older age at diagnosis and higher tumor stage (T3 or T4) or nodal stage at presentation were significant predictors of poor survival. Our study describes the unique characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma of breast and demonstrates that it is an aggressive tumor with a poor survival. Older age and higher tumor or nodal stages at presentation were independent predictors of poor survival for loco-regional stages.

  12. Single fibre and multifibre unit cell analysis of strength and cracking of unidirectional composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.W.; Zhou, H.W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2009-01-01

    damageable parts in composites (matrix cracks, fibre/matrix interface damage and fibre fracture) was observed in the simulations. The strength of interface begins to influence the deformation behaviour of the cell only after the fibre is broken. In this case, the higher interface layer strength leads...... to the higher stiffness of the damaged material. The damage in the composites begins by fibre breakage, which causes the interface damage, followed by matrix cracking....

  13. A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF AIR FLOW THROUGH A TELECOM BACK-UP UNIT POWERED BY AN AIR-COOLED PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and heat....... This product heat has to be effectively removed from the fuel cell, and while automotive fuel cells are usually liquid-cooled using a secondary coolant loop similar to the internal combustion engines, stationary fuel cell systems as they are used for telecom back-up applications often rely on excessive air fed...... to the fuel cell cathode to remove the heat. Thereby, the fuel cell system is much simpler and cheaper while the fuel cell performance is substantially lower compared to automotive fuel cells. This work presents a computational fluid dynamics analysis on the heat management of an air-cooled fuel cell powered...

  14. HTTR criticality calculations with SCALE6: Studies of various geometric and unit-cell options in modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. Y.; Chiang, M. H.; Sheu, R. J.; Liu, Y. W. H. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    The fuel element of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) presents a doubly heterogeneous geometry, where tiny TRISO fuel particles dispersed in a graphite matrix form the fuel region of a cylindrical fuel rod, and a number of fuel rods together with moderator or reflector then constitute the lattice design of the core. In this study, a series of full-core HTTR criticality calculations were performed with the SCALE6 code system using various geometric and unit-cell options in order to systematically investigate their effects on neutronic analysis. Two geometric descriptions (ARRAY or HOLE) in SCALE6 can be used to construct a complicated and repeated model. The result shows that eliminating the use of HOLE in the HTTR geometric model can save the computation time by a factor of 4. Four unit-cell treatments for resonance self-shielding corrections in SCALE6 were tested to create problem-specific multigroup cross sections for the HTTR core model. Based on the same ENDF/B-VII cross-section library, their results were evaluated by comparing with continuous-energy calculations. The comparison indicates that the INFHOMMEDIUM result overestimates the system multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) by 55 mk, whereas the LATTICECELL and MULTIREGION treatments predict the k{sub eff} values with similar biases of approximately 10 mk overestimation. The DOUBLEHET result shows a more satisfactory agreement, about 4.2 mk underestimation in the k{sub eff} value. In addition, using cell-weighted cross sections instead of an explicit modeling of TRISO particles in fuel region can further reduce the computation time by a factor of 5 without sacrificing accuracy. (authors)

  15. Use of variations in unit cell length, reflectance and hardness for determining the origin of Fe disulphides in sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Eberhard, E.; Hartmann, B.

    1997-01-01

    Fe disulphides are common opaque accessories in sedimentary rocks. Both marcasite and pyrite may shed some light on the depositional environment and help determine the diagenesis of their host rocks. Quantitative ore microscopy (reflectance measurements, Vickers hardness numbers) and X-ray diffraction methods, supplemented with scanning electron microscopy and chemical analyses, were applied to pyrite (and some marcasite) hosted by sedimentary rocks spanning the interval from the Devonian to the Pliocene, and formed in various marine and continental environments. Quantitative ore microscopy of pyrites of sedimentary origin does not seem to be an efficient tool for analyzing the environment owing to the inhomogeneous nature of sulphide aggregates when viewed under the ore microscope, and the variable amounts of minor elements (e.g., As, Ni, and Co) that control the reflectance values (RV) and Vickers hardness numbers (VHN) of the host sulphides. However, such parameters as crystal habit and unit cell length of pyrite, which correlate with FeS x, are useful for environmental analysis. The redox conditions and the presence of organic remains during formation are the main factors determining these crystallographic parameters. Differences in these parameters from those of pure, ideal FeS 2 can be related to substitution of, e.g., wustite in the pyrite lattice, reflecting moderate oxidation (i.e. in the microenvironment). As far as crystal habit and length of the cell edge are concerned, late stage diagenesis is obviously less important than the microenvironment attending initial formation. The environment of deposition (i.e. the macroenvironment) of pyrite-bearing rocks has no influence on the crystal morphology or the length of the unit cell of Fe disulphide. X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that this method provides useful evidence on the microenvironment of sulphide precipitation around a single, equant pyrite, as well as around pyritized fossils.

  16. Performance evaluation of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack under ambient conditions: Case study of United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zeyoudi, Hend; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of open-cathode PEM fuel cell stacks with forced air-convection. • Stack performance can vary up to 40% from winter to summer. • Hot and arid condition leads to membrane drying and performance deterioration. • Anode humidification improves the stack performance up to 40% during summer. - Abstract: The open-cathode polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack has been a promising candidate as a sustainable energy conversion system for replacing fossil fuel-based energy conversion devices in portable and automotive applications. As the ambient air is directly used to provide both oxidant and cooling, the complex cooling loop can be avoided which reduces the complexity and cost. However, the stack performance is highly affected by ambient conditions, i.e., ambient temperature and humidity. In this study, the effect of monthly ambient air conditions (temperature and humidity) is evaluated with respect to the stack’s power production performance as well as thermal, water and gas management by employing a validated three-dimensional open-cathode PEM fuel cell stack model. The annual climate data from the hot and arid environment of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) are used as a case study. The objective is to develop a better fundamental understanding of the interactions of physical phenomena in a fuel cell stack, which can assist in improving the performance and operation of an open-cathode PEM fuel cell-powered vehicle. The results indicate that the stack performance can vary significantly (up to 40%) from winter to summer, especially at high operating currents, with significant changes in the stack temperature and the water content at the membrane. Moreover, the anode humidification results in a significant improvement in the stack performance (up to 40%) in hot and dry conditions. However, a careful balance has to be struck between the humidifier parasitic load and the stack power.

  17. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  18. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana B. Shaik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region.

  19. Unit-cell design for two-dimensional phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjia Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.

  20. Reduced intracellular drug accumulation in drug-resistant leukemia cells is not solely due to MDR-mediated efflux but also to decreased uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oliveira Pisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Expression of ABC family transporter proteins that promote drug efflux from cancer cells is a widely observed mechanism of multi-drug resistance of cancer cells. Cell adaptation in long-term culture of HL60 leukemic cells in the presence of chemotherapy leads to induction and maintenance of the ABC transporters expression, preventing further accumulation of drugs. However, we found that decreased accumulation of drugs and fluorescent dyes was also contributed by a reduced uptake by the resistant cells. Confocal time-lapse microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that fluid-phase endocytosis was diminished in drug-resistant cells compared to drug-sensitive cells. Drug uptake was increased by insulin co-treatment when cells were grown in methylcellulose and monitored under the microscope, but not when cultured in suspension. We propose that multi-drug resistance is not solely achieved by enhanced efflux capacity but also by supressed intake of the drug offering an alternative target to overcome drug resistance or potentiate chemotherapy.

  1. V-79 Chinese Hamster Cells irradiated with antiprotons, a study of peripheral damage due to medium and long range components of the annihilation radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Sandra; Bassler, Niels; Hartley, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    beam with fluence ranging from 4.5e8 to 4.5e9 particles, and evaluated the biological effect on cells located distal to the Bragg peak using clonogenic survival and the COMET assay. Results: Both methods show a substantial biological effect on the cells in the entrance channel and the Bragg Peak area...

  2. Congenital and nosocomial sepsis in infants born in a regional perinatal unit: cause, outcome, and white blood cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, A; Vearncombe, M

    1987-02-01

    The incidence, cause, and outcome of sepsis and the white blood cell response were studied in 6315 infants born in a regional perinatal unit. The incidence of neonatal sepsis was 6.5 per 1000 live births. Congenital sepsis (12 cases) was overwhelming, with associated maternal infection (92%), neutropenia (75%), and high rate of mortality (50%). The most common organism was Escherichia coli (58%). Gestational age and birth weight were similar in survivors and nonsurvivors. There was a strong correlation between total white blood cell count and both mature and immature neutrophil counts in survivors but this correlation decreased substantially in neonates that died. Analysis of variance indicated that the means for polymorphonuclear leukocyte and immature neutrophil counts were significantly higher in survivors. Nosocomial sepsis (38 cases) occurred in premature low birth weight infants receiving invasive, intensive care. The most common organism was Staphylococcus epidermidis (76%). Total white blood cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte, and immature neutrophil counts rose significantly in response to sepsis. None died. Prevention of congenital sepsis requires methods to detect early maternal-fetal infection. Providing granulocytes to neutropenic neonates with congenital sepsis might improve outcome.

  3. Modeling the performance of hydrogen-oxygen unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cells for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Massimo; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Moro, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Thanks to the independent sizing of power and energy, hydrogen-based energy storage is one of the very few technologies capable of providing long operational times in addition to the other advantages offered by electrochemical energy storage, for example scalability, site versatility, and mobile service. The typical design consists of an electrolyzer in charge mode and a separate fuel cell in discharge mode. Instead, a unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) is a single device performing both energy conversions, achieving a higher compactness and power-to-weight ratio. This paper presents a performance model of a URFC based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyte and working on hydrogen and oxygen, which can provide high energy and power densities (>0.7 W cm-2). It provides voltage, power, and efficiency at varying load conditions as functions of the controlling physical quantities: temperature, pressure, concentration, and humidification. The model constitutes a tool for designing the interface and control sub-system as well as for exploring optimized cell/stack designs and operational conditions. To date, only a few of such analyses have been carried out and more research is needed in order to explore the true potential of URFCs.

  4. Fuel cell assembly unit for promoting fluid service and electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.

    1999-01-01

    Fluid service and/or electrical conductivity for a fuel cell assembly is promoted. Open-faced flow channel(s) are formed in a flow field plate face, and extend in the flow field plate face between entry and exit fluid manifolds. A resilient gas diffusion layer is located between the flow field plate face and a membrane electrode assembly, fluidly serviced with the open-faced flow channel(s). The resilient gas diffusion layer is restrained against entering the open-faced flow channel(s) under a compressive force applied to the fuel cell assembly. In particular, a first side of a support member abuts the flow field plate face, and a second side of the support member abuts the resilient gas diffusion layer. The support member is formed with a plurality of openings extending between the first and second sides of the support member. In addition, a clamping pressure is maintained for an interface between the resilient gas diffusion layer and a portion of the membrane electrode assembly. Preferably, the support member is spikeless and/or substantially flat. Further, the support member is formed with an electrical path for conducting current between the resilient gas diffusion layer and position(s) on the flow field plate face.

  5. Curcumin-loaded embryonic stem cell exosomes restored neurovascular unit following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Anuradha; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Kamat, Pradip K; Maldonado, Claudio; Bauer, Philip; Joshua, Irving G; Tyagi, Suresh C; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-10-01

    We tested whether the combined nano-formulation, prepared with curcumin (anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecule) and embryonic stem cell exosomes (MESC-exo cur ), restored neurovascular loss following an ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. IR-injury was created in 8-10 weeks old mice and divided into two groups. Out of two IR-injured groups, one group received intranasal administration of MESC-exo cur for 7days. Similarly, two sham groups were made and one group received MESC-exo cur treatment. The study determined that MESC-exo cur treatment reduced neurological score, infarct volume and edema following IR-injury. As compared to untreated IR group, MESC-exo cur treated-IR group showed reduced inflammation and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor expression. Treatment of MESC-exo cur also reduced astrocytic GFAP expression and alleviated the expression of NeuN positive neurons in IR-injured mice. In addition, MESC-exo cur treatment restored vascular endothelial tight (claudin-5 and occludin) and adherent (VE-cadherin) junction proteins in IR-injured mice as compared to untreated IR-injured mice. These results suggest that combining the potentials of embryonic stem cell exosomes and curcumin can help neurovascular restoration following ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How reduction of theta rhythm by medial septum inactivation may covary with disruption of entorhinal grid cell responses due to reduced cholinergic transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Pilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations in the coordinated firing of brain neurons have been proposed to play important roles in perception, cognition, attention, learning, navigation, and sensory-motor control. The network theta rhythm has been associated with properties of spatial navigation, as has the firing of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells. Two recent studies reduced the theta rhythm by inactivating the medial septum (MS and demonstrated a correlated reduction in the characteristic hexagonal spatial firing patterns of grid cells. These results, along with properties of intrinsic membrane potential oscillations (MPOs in slice preparations of entorhinal cells, have been interpreted to support oscillatory interference models of grid cell firing. The current article shows that an alternative self-organizing map model of grid cells can explain these data about intrinsic and network oscillations without invoking oscillatory interference. In particular, the adverse effects of MS inactivation on grid cells can be understood in terms of how the concomitant reduction in cholinergic inputs may increase the conductances of leak potassium (K+ and slow and medium after-hyperpolarization (sAHP and mAHP channels. This alternative model can also explain data that are problematic for oscillatory interference models, including how knockout of the HCN1 gene in mice, which flattens the dorsoventral gradient in MPO frequency and resonance frequency, does not affect the development of the grid cell dorsoventral gradient of spatial scales, and how hexagonal grid firing fields in bats can occur even in the absence of theta band modulation. These results demonstrate how models of grid cell self-organization can provide new insights into the relationship between brain learning, oscillatory dynamics, and navigational behaviors.

  7. Aggravation of Alzheimer's disease due to the COX-2-mediated reciprocal regulation of IL-1β and Aβ between glial and neuron cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Guan, Pei-Pei; Wang, Tao; Yu, Xin; Guo, Jian-Jun; Wang, Zhan-You

    2014-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and displays the characteristics of chronic neurodegenerative disorders; amyloid plaques (AP) that contain amyloid β-protein (Aβ) accumulate in AD, which is also characterized by tau phosphorylation. Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that long-term treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) markedly reduces the risk of AD by inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Although the levels of COX-2 and its metabolic product prostaglandin (PG)E2 are elevated in the brain of AD patients, the mechanisms for the development of AD remain unknown. Using human- or mouse-derived glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cell lines as model systems, we delineated the signaling pathways by which COX-2 mediates the reciprocal regulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Aβ between glial and neuron cells. In glioblastoma cells, COX-2 regulates the synthesis of IL-1β in a PGE2 -dependent manner. Moreover, COX-2-derived PGE2 signals the activation of the PI3-K/AKT and PKA/CREB pathways via cyclic AMP; these pathways transactivate the NF-κB p65 subunit via phosphorylation at Ser 536 and Ser 276, leading to IL-1β synthesis. The secretion of IL-1β from glioblastoma cells in turn stimulates the expression of COX-2 in human or mouse neuroblastoma cells. Similar regulatory mechanisms were found for the COX-2 regulation of BACE-1 expression in neuroblastoma cells. More importantly, Aβ deposition mediated the inflammatory response of glial cells via inducing the expression of COX-2 in glioblastoma cells. These findings not only provide new insights into the mechanisms of COX-2-induced AD but also initially define the therapeutic targets of AD. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Rising population of survivors of oral squamous cell cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira A; Blackford, Amanda L; Rettig, Eleni M; Richmon, Jeremy D; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and a subset of oral cavity cancer (OCC) is increasing in the United States. To the authors' knowledge, the presumed growing prevalence of survivors of OPC and OCC has not been investigated to date. Retrospective analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data (1975-2012) estimated changes in incidence, 5-year cause-specific survival, and prevalence for OPC and OCC. Changes in incidence, cause-specific survival and prevalence were estimated by linear regression and expressed as the percentage change (B). Differences in incidence trends over time were determined by joinpoint analysis. The incidence of OPC increased by 62.6% from 1975 through 2012. Notable increases in OPC incidence were observed among men, white individuals, and those of younger ages. The 5-year survival for OPC increased significantly for all sexes, races, and individuals aged >30 years, with white individuals and males experiencing the largest increase in survival. By contrast, the incidence of OCC declined by 22.3% during the same time period. OCC incidence decreased across all groups but increased among individuals aged 30 to 39 years. Significant increases in survival were observed for OCC, except for those who were female, black, and aged American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. Tetraspanin-enriched microdomains: a functional unit in cell plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Barreiro, Olga; Gordon-Alonso, Mónica; Sala-Valdés, Mónica; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2009-09-01

    Membrane lipids and proteins are non-randomly distributed and are unable to diffuse freely in the plane of the membrane. This is because of multiple constraints imposed both by the cortical cytoskeleton and by the preference of lipids and proteins to cluster into diverse and specialized membrane domains, including tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-linked proteins nanodomains and caveolae, among others. Recent biophysical characterization of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains suggests that they might be specially suited for the regulation of avidity of adhesion receptors and the compartmentalization of enzymatic activities. Moreover, modulation by tetraspanins of the function of adhesion receptors involved in inflammation, lymphocyte activation, cancer and pathogen infection suggests potential as therapeutic targets. This review explores this emerging picture of tetraspanin microdomains and discusses the implications for cell adhesion, proteolysis and pathogenesis.

  10. A Unit-Cell Model for Predicting the Elastic Constants of 3D Four Directional Cylindrical Braided Composite Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wenfeng; Liu, Ye; Huang, Xinrong; Liu, Yinghua; Zhu, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the elastic constants of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts were predicted using analytical and numerical methods. First, the motion rule of yarn carrier of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts was analyzed, and the horizontal projection of yarn motion trajectory was obtained. Then, the geometry models of unit-cells with different braiding angles and fiber volume contents were built up, and the meso-scale models of 3D cylindrical braided composite shafts were obtained. Finally, the effects of braiding angles and fiber volume contents on the elastic constants of 3D braided composite shafts were analyzed theoretically and numerically. These results play a crucial role in investigating the mechanical properties of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts.

  11. Galectin-3-independent Down-regulation of GABABR1 due to Treatment with Korean Herbal Extract HAD-B Reduces Proliferation of Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung-Hee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many efforts have shown multi-oncologic roles of galectin-3 for cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by which galectin-3 is involved in cell proliferation are not yet fully understood, especially in human colon cancer cells. Methods: To cluster genes showing positively or negatively correlated expression with galectin-3, we employed human colon cancer cell lines, SNU-61, SNU-81, SNU-769B, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 in high-throughput gene expression profiling. Gene and protein expression levels were determined by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The proliferation rate of human colon cancer cells was measured by using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: Expression of γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 (GABABR1 showed a positive correlation with galectin-3 at both the transcriptional and the translational levels. Downregulation of galectin-3 decreased not only GABABR1 expression but also the proliferation rate of human colon cancer cells. However, Korean herbal extract, HangAmDan-B (HAD-B, decreased expression of GABABR1 without any expressional change of galectin-3, and offset γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-enhanced human colon cancer cell proliferation. Conclusions: Our present study confirmed that GABABR1 expression was regulated by galectin-3. HAD-B induced galectin-3-independent down-regulation of GABABR1, which resulted in a decreased proliferation of human colon cancer cells. The therapeutic effect of HAD-B for the treatment of human colon cancer needs to be further validated.

  12. Successful implementation of a packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusion protocol in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Szpila

    Full Text Available Blood product transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if implementation of a restrictive protocol for packed red blood cell (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP transfusion safely reduces blood product utilization and costs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU.We performed a retrospective, historical control analysis comparing before (PRE and after (POST implementation of a restrictive PRBC/FFP transfusion protocol for SICU patients. Univariate analysis was utilized to compare patient demographics and blood product transfusion totals between the PRE and POST cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to determine if implementation of the restrictive transfusion protocol is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after controlling for age, illness severity, and total blood products received.829 total patients were included in the analysis (PRE, n=372; POST, n=457. Despite higher mean age (56 vs. 52 years, p=0.01 and APACHE II scores (12.5 vs. 11.2, p=0.006, mean units transfused per patient were lower for both packed red blood cells (0.7 vs. 1.2, p=0.03 and fresh frozen plasma (0.3 vs. 1.2, p=0.007 in the POST compared to the PRE cohort, respectively. There was no difference in inpatient mortality between the PRE and POST cohorts (7.5% vs. 9.2%, p=0.39. There was a decreased risk of urinary tract infections (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.80 in the POST cohort after controlling for age, illness severity and amount of blood products transfused.Implementation of a restrictive transfusion protocol can effectively reduce blood product utilization in critically ill surgical patients with no increase in morbidity or mortality.

  13. Efficient particle-in-cell simulation of auroral plasma phenomena using a CUDA enabled graphics processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Stephen

    This thesis introduces a software framework that effectively utilizes low-cost commercially available Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) to simulate complex scientific plasma phenomena that are modeled using the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) paradigm. The software framework that was developed conforms to the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), a standard for general purpose graphic processing that was introduced by NVIDIA Corporation. This framework has been verified for correctness and applied to advance the state of understanding of the electromagnetic aspects of the development of the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis. For each phase of the PIC methodology, this research has identified one or more methods to exploit the problem's natural parallelism and effectively map it for execution on the graphic processing unit and its host processor. The sources of overhead that can reduce the effectiveness of parallelization for each of these methods have also been identified. One of the novel aspects of this research was the utilization of particle sorting during the grid interpolation phase. The final representation resulted in simulations that executed about 38 times faster than simulations that were run on a single-core general-purpose processing system. The scalability of this framework to larger problem sizes and future generation systems has also been investigated.

  14. Resonance region neutronics of unit cells in fast and thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, A.A.; Driscoll, M.J.; Deutsch, O.L.

    1977-05-01

    A method has been developed for generating resonance-self-shielded cross sections based upon an improved equivalence theorem, which appears to allow extension of the self-shielding-factor (Bondarenko f-factor) method, now mainly applied to fast reactors, to thermal reactors as well. The method is based on the use of simple prescriptions for the ratio of coolant-to-fuel region-averaged fluxes, in the equations defining cell averaged cross sections. Linearization of the dependence of these functions on absorber optical thickness is found to be a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of an equivalence theorem. Results are given for cylindrical, spherical and slab geometries. The functional form of the flux ratio relations is developed from theoretical considerations, but some of the parameters are adjusted to force-fit numerical results. Good agreement over the entire range of fuel and coolant optical thicknesses is demonstrated with numerical results calculated using the ANISN program in the S 8 P 1 option

  15. Computation of a Canadian SCWR unit cell with deterministic and Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrisson, G.; Marleau, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian SCWR has the potential to achieve the goals that the generation IV nuclear reactors must meet. As part of the optimization process for this design concept, lattice cell calculations are routinely performed using deterministic codes. In this study, the first step (self-shielding treatment) of the computation scheme developed with the deterministic code DRAGON for the Canadian SCWR has been validated. Some options available in the module responsible for the resonance self-shielding calculation in DRAGON 3.06 and different microscopic cross section libraries based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluated nuclear data file have been tested and compared to a reference calculation performed with the Monte Carlo code SERPENT under the same conditions. Compared to SERPENT, DRAGON underestimates the infinite multiplication factor in all cases. In general, the original Stammler model with the Livolant-Jeanpierre approximations are the most appropriate self-shielding options to use in this case of study. In addition, the 89 groups WIMS-AECL library for slight enriched uranium and the 172 groups WLUP library for a mixture of plutonium and thorium give the most consistent results with those of SERPENT. (authors)

  16. Prediction of equibiaxial loading stress in collagen-based extracellular matrix using a three-dimensional unit cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Monica E; Bell, Brett J; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2013-03-01

    Mechanical signals are important factors in determining cell fate. Therefore, insights as to how mechanical signals are transferred between the cell and its surrounding three-dimensional collagen fibril network will provide a basis for designing the optimum extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment for tissue regeneration. Previously we described a cellular solid model to predict fibril microstructure-mechanical relationships of reconstituted collagen matrices due to unidirectional loads (Acta Biomater 2010;6:1471-86). The model consisted of representative volume elements made up of an interconnected network of flexible struts. The present study extends this work by adapting the model to account for microstructural anisotropy of the collagen fibrils and a biaxial loading environment. The model was calibrated based on uniaxial tensile data and used to predict the equibiaxial tensile stress-stretch relationship. Modifications to the model significantly improved its predictive capacity for equibiaxial loading data. With a comparable fibril length (model 5.9-8μm, measured 7.5μm) and appropriate fibril anisotropy the anisotropic model provides a better representation of the collagen fibril microstructure. Such models are important tools for tissue engineering because they facilitate prediction of microstructure-mechanical relationships for collagen matrices over a wide range of microstructures and provide a framework for predicting cell-ECM interactions. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 116: Area 25 Test Cell C Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-09-29

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). CAU 116 consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 25-23-20, Nuclear Furnace Piping and (2) CAS 25-41-05, Test Cell C Facility. CAS 25-41-05 consisted of Building 3210 and the attached concrete shield wall. CAS 25-23-20 consisted of the nuclear furnace piping and tanks. Closure activities began in January 2007 and were completed in August 2011. Activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 116 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2008). This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provides data confirming that closure objectives for CAU 116 were met. Site characterization data and process knowledge indicated that surface areas were radiologically contaminated above release limits and that regulated and/or hazardous wastes were present in the facility.

  18. New apparatus for direct counting of β particles from two-dimensional gels and an application to changes in protein synthesis due to cell density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.L.; Puck, T.T.; Shera, E.B.

    1987-07-01

    A new method is described for scanning two-dimensional gels by the direct counting of β particles instead of autoradiography. The methodology is described; results are compared with autoradiographic results; and data are presented demonstrating changed patterns of protein synthesis accompanying changes in cell density. The method is rapid and permits identification of differences in protein abundance of approximately 10% for a substantial fraction of the more prominent proteins. A modulation effect of more than 5 standard deviations, accompanying contact inhibition of cell growth, is shown to occur for an appreciable number of these proteins. The method promises to be applicable to a variety of biochemical and genetic experiments designed to delineate changes in protein synthesis accompanying changes in genome, molecular environment, history, and state of differentiation of the cell populations studied. 13 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Interhospital Variability in Perioperative Red Blood Cell Ordering Patterns in United States Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel M; Thurm, Cary W; Rothstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate perioperative red blood cell (RBC) ordering and interhospital variability patterns in pediatric patients undergoing surgical interventions at US children's hospitals. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study of children aged blood type and crossmatch were included when done on the day before or the day of the surgical procedure. The RBC transfusions included were those given on the day of or the day after surgery. The type and crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio (TCTR) was calculated for each surgical procedure. An adjusted model for interhospital variability was created to account for variation in patient population by age, sex, race/ethnicity, payer type, and presence/number of complex chronic conditions (CCCs) per patient. A total of 357 007 surgical interventions were identified across all participating hospitals. Blood type and crossmatch was performed 55 632 times, and 13 736 transfusions were provided, for a TCTR of 4:1. There was an association between increasing age and TCTR (R(2) = 0.43). Patients with multiple CCCs had lower TCTRs, with a stronger relationship (R(2) = 0.77). There was broad variability in adjusted TCTRs among hospitals (range, 2.5-25). The average TCTR in US children's hospitals was double that of adult surgical data, and was associated with wide interhospital variability. Age and the presence of CCCs markedly influenced this ratio. Studies to evaluate optimal preoperative RBC ordering and standardization of practices could potentially decrease unnecessary costs and wasted blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A new model of strabismic amblyopia: Loss of spatial acuity due to increased temporal dispersion of geniculate X-cell afferents on to cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, D P; Crewther, S G

    2015-09-01

    Although the neural locus of strabismic amblyopia has been shown to lie at the first site of binocular integration, first in cat and then in primate, an adequate mechanism is still lacking. Here we hypothesise that increased temporal dispersion of LGN X-cell afferents driven by the deviating eye onto single cortical neurons may provide a neural mechanism for strabismic amblyopia. This idea was investigated via single cell extracellular recordings of 93 X and 50 Y type LGN neurons from strabismic and normal cats. Both X and Y neurons driven by the non-deviating eye showed shorter latencies than those driven by either the strabismic or normal eyes. Also the mean latency difference between X and Y neurons was much greater for the strabismic cells compared with the other two groups. The incidence of lagged X-cells driven by the deviating eye of the strabismic cats was higher than that of LGN X-cells from normal animals. Remarkably, none of the cells recorded from the laminae driven by the non-deviating eye were of the lagged class. A simple computational model was constructed in which a mixture of lagged and non-lagged afferents converge on to single cortical neurons. Model cut-off spatial frequencies to a moving grating stimulus were sensitive to the temporal dispersion of the geniculate afferents. Thus strabismic amblyopia could be viewed as a lack of developmental tuning of geniculate lags for neurons driven by the amblyopic eye. Monocular control of fixation by the non-deviating eye is associated with reduced incidence of lagged neurons, suggesting that in normal vision, lagged neurons might play a role in maintaining binocular connections for cortical neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 1-Methyl-tryptophan attenuates regulatory T cells differentiation due to the inhibition of estrogen-IDO1-MRC2 axis in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunyan; Mei, Jie; Tang, Lingli; Liu, Yukai; Li, Dajin; Li, Mingqing; Zhu, Xiaoyong

    2016-12-01

    Foxp3 + regulatory T (T reg ) cells contribute to the local dysfunctional immune environment in endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, which affects the function of ectopic endometrial tissue clearance by the immune system. The reason for the high percentage of peritoneal T reg in endometriosis patients is unknown. Here, we show that the proportion of peritoneal T reg cells increases as endometriosis progresses. To determine the probable mechanism, we established a naive T cell-macrophage-endometrial stromal cell (ESC) co-culture system to mimic the peritoneal cavity microenvironment. After adding 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), a specific inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), to the co-culture system, we found that the differentiation of T reg cells, mainly IL-10 + T reg cells, decreased. Therefore, 1-MT-pretreated ESCs-educated T reg cells performed impaired suppressive function. Moreover, estrogen promoted the differentiation of T reg cells by elevating IDO1 expression in the ectopic lesion. Subsequently, we examined mannose receptor C, type 2 (MRC2), which is an up-stream molecule of IL-10, by bioinformatics analysis and real-time PCR validation. MRC2 expression in ectopic ESCs was notably lower than that in normal ESCs, which further negatively regulated the expression of IDO1 and Ki-67 in ESCs. Furthermore, MRC2 is required for T reg differentiation in the ectopic lesion, especially that for CD4 high T reg . Therefore, MRC2-silenced ESCs-educated T reg manifested a stronger suppressive function in vitro. Consistently, the percentage of T reg increased when MRC2-shRNA was administered in the peritoneal cavity of endometriosis-disease mice model. Besides, 1-MT improved the condition of endometriosis, in terms of reducing the number and weight of total ectopic lesions in vivo. These results indicate that the estrogen-IDO1-MRC2 axis participates in the differentiation and function of T reg and is involved in the development of

  2. Simulation of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack using AspenPlusTM unit operation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Croiset, E.; Douglas, P.L.; Fowler, M.W.; Entchev, E.

    2005-01-01

    The design of a fuel cell system involves both optimization of the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant with respect to efficiency and economics. Many commercially available process simulators, such as AspenPlus TM , can facilitate the analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A SOFC system may include fuel pre-processors, heat exchangers, turbines, bottoming cycles, etc., all of which can be very effectively modelled in process simulation software. The current challenge is that AspenPlus TM or any other commercial process simulators do not have a model of a basic SOFC stack. Therefore, to enable performing SOFC system simulation using one of these simulators, one must construct an SOFC stack model that can be implemented in them. The most common approach is to develop a complete SOFC model in a programming language, such as Fortran, Visual Basic or C++, first and then link it to a commercial process simulator as a user defined model or subroutine. This paper introduces a different approach to the development of a SOFC model by utilizing existing AspenPlus TM functions and existing unit operation modules. The developed ''AspenPlus TM SOFC'' model is able to provide detailed thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the SOFC operation and can easily be extended to study the entire power plant consisting of the SOFC and the balance of plant without the requirement for linking with other software. Validation of this model is performed by comparison to a Siemens-Westinghouse 100 kW class tubular SOFC stack. Sensitivity analyses of major operating parameters, such as utilization factor (U f ), current density (I c ) and steam-carbon ratio (S/C), were performed using the developed model, and the results are discussed in this paper

  3. Optimal stochastic coordinated scheduling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind and photovoltaic units in micro grids considering hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. •The effect of combined heat and power is considered. •Hydrogen storage is considered for fuel cells. •Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. •Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. -- Abstract: Nowadays, renewable energy sources and combined heat and power units are extremely used in micro grids, so it is necessary to schedule these units to improve the performance of the system. In this regard, a stochastic model is proposed in this paper to schedule proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power, wind turbines, and photovoltaic units coordinately in a micro grid while considering hydrogen storage. Hydrogen storage strategy is considered for the operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell-combined heat and power units. To consider stochastic generation of renewable energy source units in this paper, a scenario-based method is used. In this method, the uncertainties of electrical market price, the wind speed, and solar irradiance are considered. This stochastic scheduling problem is a mixed integer- nonlinear programming which considers the proposed objective function and variables of coordinated scheduling of PEMFC-CHP, wind turbines and photovoltaic units. It also considers hydrogen storage strategy and converts it to a mixed integer nonlinear problem. In this study a modified firefly algorithm is used to solve the problem. This method is examined on modified 33-bus distributed network as a MG for its performance.

  4. A decade of marketing approval of gene and cell-based therapies in the United States, European Union and Japan: An evaluation of regulatory decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, D G M; de Wilde, S; Guchelaar, H J; De Bruin, M L; Leufkens, H G M; Meij, P; Hoekman, J

    2018-05-02

    There is a widely held expectation of clinical advance with the development of gene and cell-based therapies (GCTs). Yet, establishing benefits and risks is highly uncertain. We examine differences in decision-making for GCT approval between jurisdictions by comparing regulatory assessment procedures in the United States (US), European Union (EU) and Japan. A cohort of 18 assessment procedures was analyzed by comparing product characteristics, evidentiary and non-evidentiary factors considered for approval and post-marketing risk management. Product characteristics are very heterogeneous and only three products are marketed in multiple jurisdictions. Almost half of all approved GCTs received an orphan designation. Overall, confirmatory evidence or indications of clinical benefit were evident in US and EU applications, whereas in Japan approval was solely granted based on non-confirmatory evidence. Due to scientific uncertainties and safety risks, substantial post-marketing risk management activities were requested in the EU and Japan. EU and Japanese authorities often took unmet medical needs into consideration in decision-making for approval. These observations underline the effects of implemented legislation in these two jurisdictions that facilitate an adaptive approach to licensing. In the US, the recent assessments of two chimeric antigen receptor-T cell (CAR-T) products are suggestive of a trend toward a more permissive approach for GCT approval under recent reforms, in contrast to a more binary decision-making approach for previous approvals. It indicates that all three regulatory agencies are currently willing to take risks by approving GCTs with scientific uncertainties and safety risks, urging them to pay accurate attention to post-marketing risk management. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impaired mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis in respiratory chain-deficient cells but efficient compensation of energetic disadvantage by enhanced anaerobic glycolysis due to low ATP steady state levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleist-Retzow, Juergen-Christoph von; Hue-Tran Hornig-Do; Schauen, Matthias; Eckertz, Sabrina; Tuan Anh Duong Dinh; Stassen, Frank; Lottmann, Nadine; Bust, Maria; Galunska, Bistra; Wielckens, Klaus; Hein, Wolfgang; Beuth, Joseph; Braun, Jan-Matthias; Fischer, Juergen H.; Ganitkevich, Vladimir Y.; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Wiesner, Rudolf J.

    2007-01-01

    Energy-producing pathways, adenine nucleotide levels, oxidative stress response and Ca 2+ homeostasis were investigated in cybrid cells incorporating two pathogenic mitochondrial DNA point mutations, 3243A > G and 3302A > G in tRNA Leu(UUR) , as well as Rho 0 cells and compared to their parental 143B osteosarcoma cell line. All cells suffering from a severe respiratory chain deficiency were able to proliferate as fast as controls. The major defect in oxidative phosphorylation was efficiently compensated by a rise in anaerobic glycolysis, so that the total ATP production rate was preserved. This enhancement of glycolysis was enabled by a considerable decrease of cellular total adenine nucleotide pools and a concomitant shift in the AMP + ADP/ATP ratios, while the energy charge potential was still in the normal range. Further important consequences were an increased production of superoxide which, however, was neither escorted by major changes in the antioxidative defence systems nor was it leading to substantial oxidative damage. Most interestingly, the lowered mitochondrial membrane potential led to a disturbed intramitochondrial calcium homeostasis, which most likely is a major pathomechanism in mitochondrial diseases

  6. Preimplantation diagnosis of repeated miscarriage due to chromosomal translocations using metaphase chromosomes of a blastomere biopsied from 4- to 6-cell-stage embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagayoshi, Motoi; Awata, Shoichiro; Mawatari, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Izumi; Kusunoki, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and accuracy of karyotyping the blastomere chromosomes at metaphase in the natural cell cycle for preimplantation diagnosis. A pilot study. A private infertility clinic and a university laboratory. Eleven patients undergoing IVF and preimplantation diagnosis. Intact human embryos at the 4- to 6-cell stage and human-mouse heterokaryons were cultured and checked hourly for disappearance of the nuclear envelope. After it disappeared, the metaphase chromosomes were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Percentage of analyzable metaphase plates and safety and accuracy of the method. The success rate of electrofusion to form human-mouse heterokaryons was 87.1% (27/31), and analyzable chromosomes were obtained from 77.4% (24/31) of the heterokaryons. On the other hand, disappearance of the nuclear envelope occurred in 89.5% (17/19) of the human embryos and it began earlier than that in the heterokaryons. Analyzable chromosomes were obtained and their translocation sites were identified in all blastomeres biopsied from the 17 embryos. After the biopsy, 67.0% of the embryos could develop to the blastocyst stage. The natural cell cycle method reported herein requires frequent observation, but it is safe, with no artificial effects on the chromosomes and without loss of or damage to blastomeres, which occurred with the electrofusion method. Using the natural cell cycle method, we could perform preimplantation diagnosis with nearly 100% accuracy.

  7. Hispanics have the lowest stem cell transplant utilization rate for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in the United States: A CIBMTR report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Jeffrey R; Hari, Parameswaran N; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Fei, Mingwei; Costa, Luciano J; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamad A; Angel-Diaz, Miguel; Gale, Robert P; Ganguly, Siddharatha; Girnius, Saulius K; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Pawarode, Attaphol; Vesole, David H; Wiernik, Peter H; Wirk, Baldeep M; Marks, David I; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F; Usmani, Saad Z; Mark, Tomer M; Nieto, Yago L; D'Souza, Anita

    2017-08-15

    Race/ethnicity remains an important barrier in clinical care. The authors investigated differences in the receipt of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) among patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and outcomes based on race/ethnicity in the United States. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database was used to identify 28,450 patients who underwent AHCT for MM from 2008 through 2014. By using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 registries, the incidence of MM was calculated, and a stem cell transplantation utilization rate (STUR) was derived. Post-AHCT outcomes were analyzed among patients ages 18 to 75 years who underwent melphalan-conditioned peripheral cell grafts (N = 24,102). The STUR increased across all groups from 2008 to 2014. The increase was substantially lower among Hispanics (range, 8.6%-16.9%) and non-Hispanic blacks (range, 12.2%-20.5%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (range, 22.6%-37.8%). There were 18,046 non-Hispanic whites, 4123 non-Hispanic blacks, and 1933 Hispanic patients. The Hispanic group was younger (P blacks (42%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (56%). A Karnofsky score 3 were more common in non-Hispanic blacks compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites (P blacks (54%) and non-Hispanic whites (52%; P blacks (45%) and non-Hispanic whites (44%) had a very good partial response or better before transplantation (P = .005). Race/ethnicity did not impact post-AHCT outcomes. Although the STUR increased, it remained low and was significantly lower among Hispanics followed by non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Race/ethnicity did not impact transplantation outcomes. Efforts to increase the rates of transplantation for eligible patients who have MM, with an emphasis on groups that underuse transplantation, are warranted. Cancer 2017;123:3141-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Reduced Serum IgG Responses to Pneumococcal Antigens in Otitis-Prone Children May Be Due to Poor Memory B-Cell Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharad K.; Casey, Janet R.

    2012-01-01

    A low level of serum antibody to antigens expressed by Streptococcus pneumoniae has been proposed to explain the susceptibility of children to recurrent episodes of acute otitis media (hereafter, “otitis-prone children”). By use of enzyme-linked immunospot assays, the percentages of memory B cells to pneumococcal protein antigens PhtD, LytB, PcpA, PhtE, and Ply were compared between otitis-prone and non–otitis-prone children at the time of acute otitis media or nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae. We found significantly lower percentages of memory B cells to 3 pneumococcal protein antigens (PhtD, PhtE, and Ply) and reduced antigen-specific immunoglobulin G concentrations in otitis-prone children, compared with non–otitis-prone children. PMID:22383675

  9. Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: A preliminary study in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, Rauda Lucia; Martins Jorge, Maria Paulete; Pereira, Sergio Silva; Melione, Luiz Paulo; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Ma, Te Hsiu; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the correlation between the frequency of micronuclei in Trad-MN, measured across 28 biomonitoring stations during the period comprised between 11 of May and 2 of October, 2006, and adjusted mortality rates due to cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and cancer in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, an area with different sources of air pollution. For controlling purposes, mortality rate due to gastrointestinal diseases (an event less prone to be affected by air pollution) was also considered in the analysis. Spatial distribution of micronuclei frequency was determined using average interpolation. The association between health estimators and micronuclei frequency was determined by measures of Pearson's correlation. Higher frequencies of micronuclei were detected in areas with high traffic and close to a petrochemical pole. Significant associations were detected between micronuclei frequency and adjusted mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (r = 0.841, p = 0.036) and cancer (r = 0.890, p = 0.018). The association between mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases was positive but did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.640, p = 0.172), probably because of the small number of events. Gastrointestinal mortality did not exhibit significant association with micronuclei frequency. Because the small number of observations and the nature of an ecological study, the present findings must be considered with caution and considered as preliminary. Further studies, performed in different conditions of contamination and climate should be done before considering Trad-MN in the evaluation of human health risk imposed by air pollutants. - Bioassay used to explore the correlation between air pollution exposition and mortality rates.

  10. Enhanced Replication of Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus in Chicken Macrophages Is due to Polarized Activation of Cells by Inhibition of TLR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingze; Ding, Zhuang; Liu, Xinxin; Chen, Yanyu; Li, Junjiao; Tao, Zhi; Fei, Yidong; Xue, Cong; Qian, Jing; Wang, Xueli; Li, Qingmei; Stoeger, Tobias; Chen, Jianjun; Bi, Yuhai; Yin, Renfu

    2018-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infections with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is one of the most important infectious disease affecting wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds worldwide. Vaccines constructed from live, low-virulence (lentogenic) viruses are the most accepted prevention and control strategies for combating ND in poultry across the globe. Avian macrophages are one of the first cell lines of defense against microbial infection, responding to signals in the microenvironment. Although macrophages are considered to be one of the main target cells for NDV infection in vivo , very little is known about the ability of NDV to infect chicken macrophages, and virulence mechanisms of NDV as well as the polarized activation patterns of macrophages and correlation with viral infection and replication. In the present study, a cell culture model (chicken bone marrow macrophage cell line HD11) and three different virulence and genotypes of NDV (including class II virulent NA-1, class II lentogenic LaSota, and class I lentogenic F55) were used to solve the above underlying questions. Our data indicated that all three NDV strains had similar replication rates during the early stages of infection. Virulent NDV titers were shown to increase compared to the other lentogenic strains, and this growth was associated with a strong upregulation of both pro-inflammatory M1-like markers/cytokines and anti-inflammatory M2-like markers/cytokines in chicken macrophages. Virulent NDV was found to block toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 expression, inducing higher expression of type I interferons in chicken macrophages at the late stage of viral infection. Only virulent NDV replication can be inhibited by pretreatment with TLR7 ligand. Overall, this study demonstrated that virulent NDV activates a M1-/M2-like mixed polarized activation of chicken macrophages by inhibition of TLR7, resulting in enhanced replication compared to lentogenic viruses.

  11. Leydig Cell Tumor Associated with Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Charfi, Nadia; Kamoun, Mahdi; Feki Mnif, Mouna; Mseddi, Neila; Mnif, Fatma; Kallel, Nozha; Ben Naceur, Basma; Rekik, Nabila; Fourati, Hela; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zainab; Hadj Sliman, Mourad; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahia; Abid, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in the steroidogenic pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Chronic excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation may result in hyperplasia of ACTH-sensitive tissues in adrenal glands and other sites such as the testes, causing testicular masses known as testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). Leydig cell tumors (...

  12. Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of ARID1B-mediated disorders and identification of altered cell-cycle dynamics due to ARID1B haploinsufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Joe C H; White, Susan M; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Wilson, Gabrielle R; Gillies, Greta; Pope, Kate; Mountford, Hayley S; Torring, Pernille M; McKee, Shane; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Leventer, Richard J; Delatycki, Martin B; Amor, David J; Lockhart, Paul J

    2014-03-27

    Mutations in genes encoding components of the Brahma-associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex have recently been shown to contribute to multiple syndromes characterised by developmental delay and intellectual disability. ARID1B mutations have been identified as the predominant cause of Coffin-Siris syndrome and have also been shown to be a frequent cause of nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of a patient with an overlapping but distinctive phenotype of intellectual disability, plantar fat pads and facial dysmorphism. High density microarray analysis of the patient demonstrated a heterozygous deletion at 6q25.3, which resulted in the loss of four genes including AT Rich Interactive Domain 1B (ARID1B). Subsequent quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed ARID1B haploinsufficiency in the patient. Analysis of both patient-derived and ARID1B knockdown fibroblasts after serum starvation demonstrated delayed cell cycle re-entry associated with reduced cell number in the S1 phase. Based on the patient's distinctive phenotype, we ascertained four additional patients and identified heterozygous de novo ARID1B frameshift or nonsense mutations in all of them. This study broadens the spectrum of ARID1B associated phenotypes by describing a distinctive phenotype including plantar fat pads but lacking the hypertrichosis or fifth nail hypoplasia associated with Coffin-Siris syndrome. We present the first direct evidence in patient-derived cells that alterations in cell cycle contribute to the underlying pathogenesis of syndromes associated with ARID1B haploinsufficiency.

  13. Inhibition of Hsp90 acts synergistically with topoisomerase II poisons to increase the apoptotic killing of cells due to an increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Catherine R.; McNamara, Anne V.; Rackstraw, Stephen A.; Nelson, David E.; White, Mike R.; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Jenkins, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Topoisomerase II plays a crucial role during chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis and meiosis and is a highly attractive target for chemotherapeutic agents. We have identified previously topoisomerase II and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as part of a complex. In this paper we demonstrate that drug combinations targeting these two enzymes cause a synergistic increase in apoptosis. The objective of our study was to identify the mode of cell killing and the mechanism behind the inc...

  14. Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, L; Shelmerdine, H; Hughes, M P; Coley, H M; Huebner, Y; Labeed, F H

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)-the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields-has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K + and Ca 2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl - were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function. (note)

  15. Pre-clinical analysis of changes in intra-cellular biochemistry of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells due to c-Myc silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Vishal; Vaidyanathan, Muthukumar; Janardhanam, Vanisree Arambakkam; Bradner, James E

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of brain Tumor that has few cures. In this study, we analyze the anti-proliferative effects of a new molecule JQ1 against GBMs induced in Wistar Rats. JQ1 is essentially a Myc inhibitor. c-Myc is also known for altering the biochemistry of a tumor cell. Therefore, the study is intended to analyze certain other oncogenes associated with c-Myc and also the change in cellular biochemistry upon c-Myc inhibition. The quantitative analysis of gene expression gave a co-expressive pattern for all the three genes involved namely; c-Myc, Bcl-2, and Akt. The cellular biochemistry analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed high glycogen and lipid aggregation in Myc inhibited cells and excessive autophagy. The study demonstrates the role of c-Myc as a central metabolic regulator and Bcl-2 and Akt assisting in extending c-Myc half-life as well as in regulation of autophagy, so as to regulate cell survival on the whole. The study also demonstrates that transient treatment by JQ1 leads to aggressive development of tumor and therefore, accelerating death, emphasizing the importance of dosage fixation, and duration for clinical use in future.

  16. Lung metastasis fails in MMTV-PyMT oncomice lacking S100A4 due to a T-cell deficiency in primary tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Grigorian, Mariam

    2010-01-01

    significantly reduced the metastatic burden in lungs of PyMT-induced mammary tumors. In S100A4(+/+) PyMT mice, massive leukocyte infiltration at the site of the growing tumor at the stage of malignant transition was associated with increased concentration of extracellular S100A4 in the tumor microenvironment......Interactions between tumor and stroma cells are essential for the progression of cancer from its initial growth at a primary site to its metastasis to distant organs. The metastasis-stimulating protein S100A4 exerts its function as a stroma cell-derived factor. Genetic depletion of S100A4...... monolayers. In vivo, the presence of S100A4(+/+), but not S100A4(-/-), fibroblasts significantly stimulated the attraction of T lymphocytes to the site of the growing tumor. Increased levels of T cells were also observed in the premetastatic lungs of tumor-bearing mice primed to metastasize by S100A4...

  17. Ankylosis of the hips and knees due to sickle cell disease [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/S7w2Gz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Saleh Abdullah Al Elayan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a 29-year-old Saudi male with sickle cell disease (SCD with severe stiffness of his joints, mainly both knees and hips, secondary to complications of SCD. He was severely crippled: unable to sit, stand or walk, and was bedridden for 8 years when he was presented to us. Radiographs showed fusion of both knees and hips. There was no evidence of active osteomyelitis by Gallium scan. The patient’s hemoglobin S decreased to levels below 30% by exchange transfusion. Bilateral total hip replacement, as well as unilateral total knee replacement, was carried out to improve his level of function. There is only one reported case of such severe and multiple joint complications in a single patient suffering from SCD. The increased life expectancy that medical advances have offered to the sickle-cell patients has led to the appearance of sickle-cell-related complications, which were previously only seen rarely. These complications were successfully managed and the patient was able to move and transfer using a wheel chair.

  18. Modification of electron states in CdTe absorber due to a buffer layer in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, Y. G.; Major, J. D.; Pressman, A.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K.

    2015-01-01

    By application of the ac admittance spectroscopy method, the defect state energy distributions were determined in CdTe incorporated in thin film solar cell structures concluded on ZnO, ZnSe, and ZnS buffer layers. Together with the Mott-Schottky analysis, the results revealed a strong modification of the defect density of states and the concentration of the uncompensated acceptors as influenced by the choice of the buffer layer. In the solar cells formed on ZnSe and ZnS, the Fermi level and the energy position of the dominant deep trap levels were observed to shift closer to the midgap of CdTe, suggesting the mid-gap states may act as recombination centers and impact the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the solar cells. For the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed to increase, indicating fluctuations of the charge on a microscopic scale. Such changes can be attributed to the grain-boundary strain and the modification of the charge trapped at the grain-boundary interface states in polycrystalline CdTe

  19. Modification of electron states in CdTe absorber due to a buffer layer in CdTe/CdS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, Y. G., E-mail: y.fedorenko@liverpool.ac.uk; Major, J. D.; Pressman, A.; Phillips, L. J.; Durose, K. [Stephenson Institute for Renewable Energy and Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, Chadwick Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZF (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-28

    By application of the ac admittance spectroscopy method, the defect state energy distributions were determined in CdTe incorporated in thin film solar cell structures concluded on ZnO, ZnSe, and ZnS buffer layers. Together with the Mott-Schottky analysis, the results revealed a strong modification of the defect density of states and the concentration of the uncompensated acceptors as influenced by the choice of the buffer layer. In the solar cells formed on ZnSe and ZnS, the Fermi level and the energy position of the dominant deep trap levels were observed to shift closer to the midgap of CdTe, suggesting the mid-gap states may act as recombination centers and impact the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the solar cells. For the deeper states, the broadening parameter was observed to increase, indicating fluctuations of the charge on a microscopic scale. Such changes can be attributed to the grain-boundary strain and the modification of the charge trapped at the grain-boundary interface states in polycrystalline CdTe.

  20. Inhibition of Hsp90 acts synergistically with topoisomerase II poisons to increase the apoptotic killing of cells due to an increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Catherine R; McNamara, Anne V; Rackstraw, Stephen A; Nelson, David E; White, Mike R; Watson, Alastair J M; Jenkins, John R

    2006-01-01

    Topoisomerase II plays a crucial role during chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis and meiosis and is a highly attractive target for chemotherapeutic agents. We have identified previously topoisomerase II and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as part of a complex. In this paper we demonstrate that drug combinations targeting these two enzymes cause a synergistic increase in apoptosis. The objective of our study was to identify the mode of cell killing and the mechanism behind the increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage. Importantly we demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibition results in an increased topoiosmerase II activity but not degradation of topoisomerase II and it is this, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison that causes the increase in cell death. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of action where the inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsp90-topoisomerase II interaction leading to an increase in and activation of unbound topoisomerase II, which, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison leads to the formation of an increased number of cleavable complexes ultimately resulting in rise in DNA damage and a subsequent increase cell death.

  1. Trends in age and red blood cell donation habits among several racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Vassallo, Ralph; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; van de Watering, Leo; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-07-01

    To meet the needs of a diverse patient population, an adequate supply of red blood cells (RBCs) from ethnic/racial minority donors is essential. We previously described the 10-year changes in minority blood donation in the United States. This study describes donation patterns by donor status, age, and race/ethnicity. Data on the age and the number of unique black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and white RBC donors were obtained from eight US blood collectors for 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2015. Donors self-identified their race/ethnicity. First-time (FT) and repeat (R) donors were analyzed separately. Overall, for both FT and R donor groups, whites constituted the majority of unique donors (FT 66.7% and R 82.7%) and also donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (FT 66.6% and R 83.8%). Donors less than 20 years old comprised the greatest proportion of FT donors for all racial/ethnic groups (39.2%) and had the highest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.12) among FT donors. Conversely, R donors less than 20 years old had some of the lowest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.55) among R donors, whereas R donors at least 60 years old had the highest mean (1.88). Year by year, the percentage of FT donors who were less than 20 years old increased for all race/ethnicities. For R donors, whites were more frequently older, while Hispanics/Latinos and Asians were younger. Greater efforts to convert FT donors less than 20 years into R donors should be undertaken to ensure the continued diversity of the blood supply. © 2017 AABB.

  2. The connection between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas in the United States: implications for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jennifer L; Junger, Michele L; Saraiya, Mona; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-08-01

    Results from studies conducted in the past several years suggest that some oropharyngeal cancers, those of the base of the tongue and the tonsils, are associated with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). In this article, the authors summarize the available evidence regarding the epidemiology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, the available HPV vaccines and the implications of these for dentistry. They also examine the differences in HPV prevalence between cancers of the oral cavity and those of the oropharynx. The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and the National Guideline Clearinghouse to identify English-language systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers published from January 2005 through May 2011. Molecular and epidemiologic evidence suggest a strong etiologic association of HPV with oropharyngeal cancers. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States has increased between 1973 and 2007, whereas that of cancers at other head and neck sites has decreased steadily. Compared with HPV-negative cancers, HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers are associated with certain sexual behaviors, occur more often among white men and people who do not use tobacco or alcohol, and may occur in a population younger by about four years (median ages, 52-56 years). Despite often having a later stage of diagnosis, people with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers have a lower risk of dying or recurrence than do those with HPV-negative cancers. The effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in preventing oropharyngeal cancers is unknown. Dental health care personnel (DHCP) should be knowledgeable about the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, the association of HPV with oropharyngeal cancers and HPV vaccines, and they should be prompt in referring patients with suggestive symptoms for evaluation. DHCP can play an important role in increasing patients' knowledge about HPV

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action at the Test Cell A Leachfield System and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The Test Cell A Leachfield System is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 261. Remediation of CAU 261 is required under the FFACO (1996). CAU 261 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 261 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASS): CAS 25-05-01, Leachfield; and CAS 25-05-07, Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (Figures 2 and 3). Test Cell A was operated during the 1960s and 1970s to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Various operations within Building 3124 at Test Cell A resulted in liquid waste releases to the Leachfield and the AWLP. The following existing site conditions were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999): Soil in the leachfield was found to exceed the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preliminary remediation goals for semi volatile organic compounds, and background concentrations for strontium-90; Soil below the sewer pipe and approximately 4.5 meters (m) (15 feet [ft]) downstream of the initial outfall was found to exceed background concentrations for cesium-137 and strontium-90; Sludge in the leachfield septic tank was found to exceed the NDEP Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons and to contain americium-241, cesium-137, uranium-234, uranium-238, potassium-40, and strontium-90; No constituents of concern (COC) were identified at the AWLP. The NDEP-approved CADD (DOWNV, 1999) recommended Corrective Action Alternative 2, ''Closure of the Septic Tank and Distribution Box

  4. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1980-06-01

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na 2 O 2 .l -1 . After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO 2 -neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 100 0 C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  5. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  6. Radiolabeled Cu-ATSM as a novel indicator of overreduced intracellular state due to mitochondrial dysfunction: studies with mitochondrial DNA-less ρ0 cells and cybrids carrying MELAS mitochondrial DNA mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yukie; Yoneda, Makoto; Ikawa, Masamichi; Furukawa, Takako; Kiyono, Yasushi; Mori, Tetsuya; Yoshii, Hiroshi; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Saga, Tsuneo; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Radiolabeled Cu-diacetyl-bis (N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazone) ( ⁎ Cu-ATSM), including 60/62/64 Cu-ATSM, is a potential imaging agent of hypoxic tumors for positron emission tomography (PET). We have reported that ⁎ Cu-ATSM is trapped in tumor cells under intracellular overreduced states, e.g., hypoxia. Here we evaluated ⁎ Cu-ATSM as an indicator of intracellular overreduced states in mitochondrial disorders using cell lines with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA-less ρ 0 206 cells; the parental 143B human osteosarcoma cells; the cybrids carrying mutated mitochondria from a patient of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) (2SD); and that carrying wild-type one (2SA) were used. Cells were treated under normoxia or hypoxia, and 64 Cu-ATSM uptake was examined to compare it with levels of biological reductant NADH and NADPH. Results: ρ 0 206 cells showed higher 64 Cu-ATSM uptake than control 143B cells under normoxia, whereas 64 Cu-ATSM uptake was not significantly increased under hypoxia in ρ 0 206 cells. Additionally, 64 Cu-ATSM uptake showed correlate change to the NADH and NADPH levels, but not oxygenic conditions. 2SD cells showed increased 64 Cu-ATSM uptake under normoxia as compared with the control 2SA, and 64 Cu-ATSM uptake followed NADH and NADPH levels, but not oxygenic conditions. Conclusions: 64 Cu-ATSM accumulated in cells with overreduced states due to mitochondrial dysfunction, even under normoxia. We recently reported that 62 Cu-ATSM-PET can visualize stroke-like episodes maintaining oxygen supply in MELAS patients. Taken together, our data indicate that ⁎ Cu-ATSM uptake reflects overreduced intracellular states, despite oxygenic conditions; thus, ⁎ Cu-ATSM would be a promising marker of intracellular overreduced states for disorders with mitochondrial dysfunction, such as MELAS, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Novel web-based real-time dashboard to optimize recycling and use of red cell units at a large multi-site transfusion service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Christopher; Quinn, Jason G; Watson, Stephanie; Doiron, Donald; Crocker, Bryan; Cheng, Calvino

    2014-01-01

    Effective blood inventory management reduces outdates of blood products. Multiple strategies have been employed to reduce the rate of red blood cell (RBC) unit outdate. We designed an automated real-time web-based dashboard interfaced with our laboratory information system to effectively recycle red cell units. The objective of our approach is to decrease RBC outdate rates within our transfusion service. The dashboard was deployed in August 2011 and is accessed by a shortcut that was placed on the desktops of all blood transfusion services computers in the Capital District Health Authority region. It was designed to refresh automatically every 10 min. The dashboard provides all vital information on RBC units, and implemented a color coding scheme to indicate an RBC unit's proximity to expiration. The overall RBC unit outdate rate in the 7 months period following implementation of the dashboard (September 2011-March 2012) was 1.24% (123 units outdated/9763 units received), compared to similar periods in 2010-2011 and 2009-2010: 2.03% (188/9395) and 2.81% (261/9220), respectively. The odds ratio of a RBC unit outdate postdashboard (2011-2012) compared with 2010-2011 was 0.625 (95% confidence interval: 0.497-0.786; P dashboard system is an inexpensive and novel blood inventory management system which was associated with a significant reduction in RBC unit outdate rates at our institution over a period of 7 months. This system, or components of it, could be a useful addition to existing RBC management systems at other institutions.

  8. In vivo activity of released cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin is due principally to trehalose mycolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Rachel E; Sakamoto, Kaori; Russell, David G; Rhoades, Elizabeth R

    2005-04-15

    The hallmark of Mycobacterium-induced pathology is granulomatous inflammation at the site of infection. Mycobacterial lipids are potent immunomodulators that contribute to the granulomatous response and are released in appreciable quantities by intracellular bacilli. Previously we investigated the granulomagenic nature of the peripheral cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) by coating the lipids onto 90-microm diameter microspheres that were mixed into Matrigel matrix with syngeneic bone marrow-derived macrophages and injected i.p. into mice. These studies demonstrated that BCG lipids elicit proinflammatory cytokines and recruit leukocytes. In the current study we determined the lipids responsible for this proinflammatory effect. BCG-derived cell wall lipids were fractionated and purified by liquid chromatography and preparative TLC. The isolated fractions including phosphatidylinositol dimannosides, cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, trehalose monomycolate, trehalose dimycolate, and mycoside B. Trehalose dimycolate, when delivered to bone marrow-derived murine macrophages, induced the greatest secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in vitro. Trehalose dimycolate similarly induced the greatest secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines in ex vivo matrices over the course of 12 days. Trehalose monomycolate and dimycolate also induced profound neutrophil recruitment in vivo. Experiments with TLR2 or TLR4 gene-deficient mice revealed no defects in responses to trehalose mycolates, although MyD88-deficient mice manifested significantly reduced cell recruitment and cytokine production. These results demonstrate that the trehalose mycolates, particularly trehalose dimycolate, are the most bioactive lipids in the BCG extract, inducing a proinflammatory cascade that influences granuloma formation.

  9. Carriers of loss-of-function mutations in EXT display impaired pancreatic beta-cell reserve due to smaller pancreas volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie J Bernelot Moens

    Full Text Available Exotosin (EXT proteins are involved in the chain elongation step of heparan sulfate (HS biosynthesis, which is intricately involved in organ development. Loss of function mutations (LOF in EXT1 and EXT2 result in hereditary exostoses (HME. Interestingly, HS plays a role in pancreas development and beta-cell function, and genetic variations in EXT2 are associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that loss of function of EXT1 or EXT2 in subjects with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME affects pancreatic insulin secretion capacity and development. We performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT followed by hyperglycemic clamps to investigate first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS in HME patients and age and gender matched non-affected relatives. Pancreas volume was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. OGTT did not reveal significant differences in glucose disposal, but there was a markedly lower GSIS in HME subjects during hyperglycemic clamp (iAUC HME: 0.72 [0.46-1.16] vs. controls 1.53 [0.69-3.36] nmol·l-1·min-1, p<0.05. Maximal insulin response following arginine challenge was also significantly attenuated (iAUC HME: 7.14 [4.22-10.5] vs. controls 10.2 [7.91-12.70] nmol·l-1·min-1 p<0.05, indicative of an impaired beta-cell reserve. MRI revealed a significantly smaller pancreatic volume in HME subjects (HME: 72.0±15.8 vs. controls 96.5±26.0 cm3 p = 0.04. In conclusion, loss of function of EXT proteins may affect beta-cell mass and insulin secretion capacity in humans, and render subjects at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes when exposed to environmental risk factors.

  10. Enhanced glycosylation of factor VIII:C in capillary endothelial cells following β-adrenoreceptor stimulation is not due to increased sugar transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavarez-Pagan, J.J.; Oliveira, C.M.; Banerjee, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Factor VIII:C (Antihemophilia Factor A) in capillary endothelial cells from bovine adrenal medulla found to contain M r 200,000 and M r 46,000 dalton protein species when analyzed by SDS-PAGE under reduced condition. But the secretory FVIII:C under non-reduced condition gave rise to a protein of M r 270,000 dalton indicating that the heavy and light chains are held together by S-S bridge. Upon stimulation of these cells with β-agonist, isoproterenol (10 -7 M), a 2-fold increase in the ratio of [ 3 H]-mannose to [ 35 S]-methionine incorporation in immunoprecipitated FVIII:C was observed. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of this increase, a detail study of sugar transport was carried out. The transport of 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]-glucose in these cells was time and temperature dependent. Furthermore, inhibition of 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]-glucose uptake by cytochalasin B strongly supported for a carrier mediated process. However, when the transport studies were conducted in the presence of isoproterenol at 10 -5 M or 10 -7 M or 8 Br-cAMP (2 mM) no increase was observed. The kinetic studies indicated that the K m and V max for 2 deoxy-D-[ 3 H]-glucose were 0.24 mM and 0.88 nmol/mg protein/minute, respectively under normal conditions but these values were changed to 0.37 mM and 0.69 nmol/mg protein/minute when stimulated with isoproterenol (10 -7 M)

  11. CD1d knockout mice exhibit aggravated contact hypersensitivity responses due to reduced interleukin-10 production predominantly by regulatory B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Jonas; Antvorskov, Julie C; Buschard, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    .05) and peritoneal cavity (80.8% decrease; P challenge, which suggests an important regulatory and protective role of CD1d-dependent NKT cells in CHS in our model, at least in part via regulation of IL-10 producing B(regs) ....... knockout (CD1d KO) and wild-type (Wt) mice after contact allergen exposure. For induction of CHS, C57BL/6 CD1d KO mice (n = 6) and C57BL/6 Wt mice (n = 6) were sensitised with 1% (w/v) dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or vehicle for three consecutive days and subsequently challenged with a single dose of 0...

  12. Effects of the Scientific Argumentation Based Learning Process on Teaching the Unit of Cell Division and Inheritance to Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Ceyda; Yenice, Nilgun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of scientific argumentation based learning process on the eighth grade students' achievement in the unit of "cell division and inheritance". It also deals with the effects of this process on their comprehension about the nature of scientific knowledge, their willingness to take part in…

  13. Convergent synthesis of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide from the cell wall lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintu Kumar Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward convergent synthesis has been carried out for the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-specific cell wall lipopolysaccharide of the strain Sp7 of Azospirillum brasilense. The target tetrasaccharide has been synthesized from suitably protected monosaccharide intermediates in 42% overall yield in seven steps by using a [2 + 2] block glycosylation approach.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site.

  15. Extraordinary electromagnetic transmission by antenna arrays and frequency selective surfaces having compound unit cells with dissimilar elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loui, Hung; Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2018-03-20

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to extraordinary electromagnetic transmission (EEMT) to enable multiple inefficient (un-matched) but coupled radiators and/or apertures to radiate and/or pass electromagnetic waves efficiently. EEMT can be utilized such that signal transmission from a plurality of antennas and/or apertures occurs at a transmission frequency different to transmission frequencies of the individual antennas and/or aperture elements. The plurality of antennas/apertures can comprise first antenna/aperture having a first radiating area and material(s) and second antenna/aperture having a second radiating area and material(s), whereby the first radiating/aperture area and second radiating/aperture area can be co-located in a periodic compound unit cell. Owing to mutual coupling between the respective antennas/apertures in their arrayed configuration, the transmission frequency of the array can be shifted from the transmission frequencies of the individual elements. EEMT can be utilized for an array of evanescent of inefficient radiators connected to a transmission line(s).

  16. Compact Design of 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Systems with Microcontroller Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiaokang Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fuel, oxidant supply and cooling systems with microcontroller units (MCU are developed in a compact design to fit two 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stacks. At the initial stage, the testing facility of the system has a large volume (2.0 m × 2.0 m × 1.5 m with a longer pipeline and excessive control sensors for safe testing. After recognizing the performance and stability of stack, the system is redesigned to fit in a limited space (0.4 m × 0.5 m × 0.8 m. Furthermore, the stack performance is studied under different hydrogen recycling modes. Then, two similar 5 kW stacks are directly coupled with diodes to obtain a higher power output and safe operation. The result shows that the efficiency of the 5 kW stack is 43.46% with a purge period of 2 min with hydrogen recycling and that the hydrogen utilization rate µf is 66.31%. In addition, the maximum power output of the twin-coupled module (a power module with two stacks in electrical cascade/parallel arrangement is 9.52 kW.

  17. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-01-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection[NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site

  18. Invasive fungal infection among hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients with mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Chen-Yiu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive fungal infection (IFI is associated with high morbidity and high mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT patientsThe purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of HSCT patients with IFIs who are undergoing MV at a single institution in Taiwan. Methods We performed an observational retrospective analysis of IFIs in HSCT patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV in an intensive care unit (ICU from the year 2000 to 2009. The characteristics of these HSCT patients and risk factors related to IFIs were evaluated. The status of discharge, length of ICU stay, date of death and cause of death were also recorded. Results There were 326 HSCT patients at the Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan during the study period. Sixty of these patients (18% were transferred to the ICU and placed on mechanical ventilators. A total of 20 of these 60 patients (33% had IFIs. Multivariate analysis indicated that independent risk factors for IFI were admission to an ICU more than 40 days after HSCT, graft versus host disease (GVHD, and high dose corticosteroid (p p = 0.676. Conclusion There was a high incidence of IFIs in HSCT patients requiring MV in the ICU in our study cohort. The independent risk factors for IFI are ICU admission more than 40 days after HSCT, GVHD, and use of high-dose corticosteroid.

  19. Farm business and operator variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count from dairy herds in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Karen L; Lambert, Dayton M; Schexnayder, Susan; Krawczel, Peter; Fly, Mark; Garkovich, Lorraine; Oliver, Steve

    2017-11-01

    Mastitis is a worldwide problem in dairy cows and results in reduced milk production, the culling of cows, and other economic losses. Bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) over 200,000 cells/mL often indicates underlying subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. Several preventative measures that can be implemented to help improve the incidence of mastitis exist, but surveys find these practices not fully adopted by producers. The goal of this research was to analyze the farm and operator characteristics associated with BTSCC in dairy herds by analyzing a survey of dairy producers in the southeastern United States. We examined this region because it has experienced a decline in the number of dairy farms, dairy cows, and milk production over the past 2 decades. The southeast region is also associated with higher BTSCC levels than the national average. Dairy farms in Georgia, Mississippi, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia were surveyed. Producers were asked questions about the BTSCC at which they take action to address BTSCC, the information sources they use to learn about and manage BTSCC, farm structure and management characteristics, and attitudinal variables associated with profitability, managerial control, and planning horizon. Least squares regression was used to determine how these factors were associated with BTSCC levels across the 7-state region. Concern over mastitis, financial consequences of mastitis, and increased previous-year BTSCC were associated with higher current BTSCC levels. Obtaining information about mastitis from veterinarians and extension personnel, taking action against mastitis at a BTSCC less than 300,000 cells/mL, and perceived ability to control processes and mastitis incidence were associated with reduced BTSCC. We found average BTSCC was lower in North Carolina and Virginia. These results suggest that proactive producers (i.e., those that perceive they can control BTSCC and seek information from reliable

  20. Inhibitory effect of SPE-39 due to tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination on the function of Vps33B in the EGF-stimulated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ayumi; Kamimori, Kanae; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Kido, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takeshi; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2012-07-30

    Although SPE-39 is a binding protein to Vps33B that is one of the subunit in the mammalian HOPS complex, the elements of SPE-39 function remain unknown. Here, we show that tyrosine phosphorylation of SPE-39 following EGF stimulation plays a role in the stability of SPE-39 itself. Ubiquitination of the C-terminal region of SPE-39 was also elevated in response to EGF stimulation, and this process was regulated by the phosphorylation of Tyr-11 in SPE-39. However, association of Vps33B with SPE-39 inhibited the elevation of ubiquitination of SPE-39 following EGF stimulation, which might be responsible for the stabilization of SPE-39. Furthermore, an opposing functional relationship between SPE-39 and Vps33B on the downregulation of the EGF receptor was observed in EGF-stimulated COS-7 cells. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Research of the impact of coupling between unit cells on performance of linear-to-circular polarization conversion metamaterial with half transmission and half reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengchao; Zhou, Kan; Wang, Xiaokun; Zhuang, Haiyan; Tang, Dongming; Zhang, Baoshan; Yang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the impact of coupling between unit cells on the performance of linear-to-circular polarization conversion metamaterial with half transmission and half reflection is analyzed by changing the distance between the unit cells. An equivalent electrical circuit model is then built to explain it based on the analysis. The simulated results show that, when the distance between the unit cells is 23 mm, this metamaterial converts half of the incident linearly-polarized wave into reflected left-hand circularly-polarized wave and converts the other half of it into transmitted left-hand circularly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz; when the distance is 28 mm, this metamaterial reflects all of the incident linearly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz; and when the distance is 32 mm, this metamaterial converts half of the incident linearly-polarized wave into reflected right-hand circularly-polarized wave and converts the other half of it into transmitted right-hand circularly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz. The tunability is realized successfully. The analysis shows that the changes of coupling between unit cells lead to the changes of performance of this metamaterial. The coupling between the unit cells is then considered when building the equivalent electrical circuit model. The built equivalent electrical circuit model can be used to perfectly explain the simulated results, which confirms the validity of it. It can also give help to the design of tunable polarization conversion metamaterials.

  2. Cross-talk between IGF-1 and estrogen receptors attenuates intracellular changes in ventral spinal cord 4.1 motoneuron cells due to interferon-gamma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookyoung; Nozaki, Kenkichi; Smith, Joshua A.; Krause, James S.; Banik, Naren L.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neuroprotective growth factor that promotes neuronal survival by inhibition of apoptosis. In order to examine whether IGF-1 exerts cytoprotective effects against extracellular inflammatory stimulation, ventral spinal cord 4.1 (VSC4.1) motoneuron cells were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Our data demonstrated apoptotic changes, increased calpain:calpastatin and Bax:Bcl-2 ratios, and expression of apoptosis related proteases (caspase-3 and −12) in motoneurons rendered by IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with IGF-1 attenuated these changes. In addition, IGF-1 treatment of motoneurons exposed to IFN-γ decreased expression of inflammatory markers (cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B:inhibitor of kappa B ratio). Furthermore, IGF-1 attenuated the loss of expression of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rα and IGF-1Rβ) and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) induced by IFN-γ. To determine whether the protective effects of IGF-1 are associated with ERs, ERs antagonist ICI and selective siRNA targeted against ERα and ERβ were used in VSC4.1 motoneurons. Distinctive morphological changes were observed following siRNA knockdown of ERα and ERβ. In particular, apoptotic cell death assessed by TUNEL assay was enhanced in both ERα and ERβ-silenced VSC4.1 motoneurons following IFN-γ and IGF-1 exposure. These results suggest that IGF-1 protects motoneurons from inflammatory insult by a mechanism involving pivotal interactions with ERα and ERβ. PMID:24188094

  3. Molecular modeling of the conductivity changes of the emeraldine base polyaniline due to protonic acid doping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Yuan, C.A.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Zhang, G.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a molecular modeling strategy, which is capable of predicting the conductivity change of emeraldine base polyaniline polymer due to different degree of protonic acid doping. The method is comprised of two key steps: (1) generating the amorphous unit cells with given number of polymer

  4. Silicon Nanowire/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cell-Supercapacitor: A Self-Charging Power Unit with a Total Efficiency of 10.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiyuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Teng; Wang, Mingjun; Wu, Changsheng; Zou, Haiyang; Song, Tao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Sun, Baoquan

    2017-07-12

    An integrated self-charging power unit, combining a hybrid silicon nanowire/polymer heterojunction solar cell with a polypyrrole-based supercapacitor, has been demonstrated to simultaneously harvest solar energy and store it. By efficiency enhancement of the hybrid nanowire solar cells and a dual-functional titanium film serving as conjunct electrode of the solar cell and supercapacitor, the integrated system is able to yield a total photoelectric conversion to storage efficiency of 10.5%, which is the record value in all the integrated solar energy conversion and storage system. This system may not only serve as a buffer that diminishes the solar power fluctuations from light intensity, but also pave its way toward cost-effective high efficiency self-charging power unit. Finally, an integrated device based on ultrathin Si substrate is demonstrated to expand its feasibility and potential application in flexible energy conversion and storage devices.

  5. Novel web-based real-time dashboard to optimize recycling and use of red cell units at a large multi-site transfusion service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sharpe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective blood inventory management reduces outdates of blood products. Multiple strategies have been employed to reduce the rate of red blood cell (RBC unit outdate. We designed an automated real-time web-based dashboard interfaced with our laboratory information system to effectively recycle red cell units. The objective of our approach is to decrease RBC outdate rates within our transfusion service. Methods: The dashboard was deployed in August 2011 and is accessed by a shortcut that was placed on the desktops of all blood transfusion services computers in the Capital District Health Authority region. It was designed to refresh automatically every 10 min. The dashboard provides all vital information on RBC units, and implemented a color coding scheme to indicate an RBC unit′s proximity to expiration. Results: The overall RBC unit outdate rate in the 7 months period following implementation of the dashboard (September 2011-March 2012 was 1.24% (123 units outdated/9763 units received, compared to similar periods in 2010-2011 and 2009-2010: 2.03% (188/9395 and 2.81% (261/9220, respectively. The odds ratio of a RBC unit outdate postdashboard (2011-2012 compared with 2010-2011 was 0.625 (95% confidence interval: 0.497-0.786; P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Our dashboard system is an inexpensive and novel blood inventory management system which was associated with a significant reduction in RBC unit outdate rates at our institution over a period of 7 months. This system, or components of it, could be a useful addition to existing RBC management systems at other institutions.

  6. Selective bilateral internal iliac artery embolization for controlling refractory hematuria due to the metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mokhtari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder squamous cell carcinoma (SCC may lead to gross hematuria. However, the metastasis of head and neck cutaneous SCC to the urinary bladder has not been described in literature. Nowadays, noninvasive methods such as embolization, are considered as an appropriate choice for controlling life-threatening hematuria in patients with high operative risk. However, few reports exist on the effectiveness of this approach in managing the hematuria secondary to metastatic bladder SCC. Here we report a case of bladder SCC originating from the forehead cutaneous SCC. An 83-year-old man, a known case of forehead cutaneous SCC with distant metastasis, referred to our clinic with a chief complaint of hematuria. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic urinary bladder SCC. Angiography and embolization were undertaken and resulted in complete alleviation of the symptoms. The recurrence of hematuria or embolization-related complications were not observed during 3-month follow-up. Selective embolization of the bilateral internal iliac artery is a safe and efficient procedure for controlling severe hematuria in patients with primary or metastatic bladder SCC.

  7. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris

    2006-07-01

    occurred during Phase II. The activities included: a. Dismantlement of the building structure surrounding the hot cells and then finally dismantlement of the hot cell block b. Soil remediation c. Handling and disposal of decommissioning wastes d. Confirmatory surveys 3. Final site release occurred during Phase III. 4. The final activity which occurred substantially after Phases II and III were complete was the shipment of the IFM to a DOE facility. The HCF and HM structures are approximately the same size on a volumetric basis. The volume of the HM hot cells is about 12 percent greater than at HCF but the HCF had 27 percent more surface area due to the existence of three separate cells. Of potential importance is that the contamination levels on the hot cell surfaces were not equal. The HCF facility was highly contaminated from such activities as band-sawing irradiated high temperature gas cooled reactor fuel. On these grounds it might be expected that the HCF actual costs would be higher than HM estimates. However, a factor of almost nine times higher seems to be exceptional. The very large difference in fact stems from a number of special circumstances at HCF that need to be backed-out of a cost comparison in order to make it meaningful. One special requirement was the removal and safe management of irradiated fuel material, including high enriched uranium. Another cost related to maintenance of the building before decommissioning could commence. The costs of waste disposal also vary substantially, in terms of unit costs and the proportion of dismantling waste that needs to be sentenced to a radioactive waste repository. The available information for HM has been evaluated and compared, to the extent possible, with the HCF decommissioning costs and other selected NAC derived decommissioning cost benchmarks. In summary the main conclusions for the HM decommissioning cost estimate are as follows: Theoretical estimates of planning and other support activities can have a

  8. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Dismantlement occurred during Phase II. The activities included: a. Dismantlement of the building structure surrounding the hot cells and then finally dismantlement of the hot cell block b. Soil remediation c. Handling and disposal of decommissioning wastes d. Confirmatory surveys 3. Final site release occurred during Phase III. 4. The final activity which occurred substantially after Phases II and III were complete was the shipment of the IFM to a DOE facility. The HCF and HM structures are approximately the same size on a volumetric basis. The volume of the HM hot cells is about 12 percent greater than at HCF but the HCF had 27 percent more surface area due to the existence of three separate cells. Of potential importance is that the contamination levels on the hot cell surfaces were not equal. The HCF facility was highly contaminated from such activities as band-sawing irradiated high temperature gas cooled reactor fuel. On these grounds it might be expected that the HCF actual costs would be higher than HM estimates. However, a factor of almost nine times higher seems to be exceptional. The very large difference in fact stems from a number of special circumstances at HCF that need to be backed-out of a cost comparison in order to make it meaningful. One special requirement was the removal and safe management of irradiated fuel material, including high enriched uranium. Another cost related to maintenance of the building before decommissioning could commence. The costs of waste disposal also vary substantially, in terms of unit costs and the proportion of dismantling waste that needs to be sentenced to a radioactive waste repository. The available information for HM has been evaluated and compared, to the extent possible, with the HCF decommissioning costs and other selected NAC derived decommissioning cost benchmarks. In summary the main conclusions for the HM decommissioning cost estimate are as follows: Theoretical estimates of planning and other support activities can

  9. Importance of the functional state of alveolar macrophages of the lungs for hygienic evaluation of protective reactions and cell damage due to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusl, M; Vyskocil, A; Duerrer, I; Aulika, B V; Litvinov, N N; Merkur' eva, R V

    1983-01-01

    Total number of cells, their viability and ability to adhesion were examined in surface alveolar macrophages isolated from rat livers after exposure to sulphur dioxide during 2, 4 and 6 weeks (0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/m3); to nitrogen oxide during 5, 8 and 15 hours, 28 and 56 days (19 mg/m3) and to carbon monoxide during 2, 28 and 56 days (0.01% or 10 MAC). In the experiment with exposure to sulphur dioxide, the activity of enzymes of varying localization in the macrophages - soluble in the cytoplasm (lactate dehydrogenase) and connected with subcellular structures - lysosomes (beta-galactosidase, beta-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) was tested by means of biochemical methods in parallel with cytological examinations. Low concentrations of various chemical contaminants of the atmospheric air (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide) have an unfavourable biological effect on rats, manifest in the impairment of local immunity, i.e., decreased number of alveolar macrophages, disturbance of their viability and reduced ability of the macrophages to adhesion. At the same time, sulphur dioxide induces enzyme disorganization in lactate dehydrogenase and in a number of lysosomal enzymes of the macrophages. These results serve as a basis for the recommendation of cytobiochemical methods of elaborating methodological approaches to the regulation of environmental factors. Alveolar macrophages as a constituent part of the mononuclear phagocytic system ensuring local non-specific and specific resistance of the organism form one of the most important cellular mechanisms of protection of the organism against the harmful effect of environmental factors including chemical contaminants of the atmospheric air (1, 2).

  10. Ammonia concentration and bacterial evaluation of feline whole blood and packed red blood cell units stored for transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Spada

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia concentrations increase in human, canine and equine WB and PRBC units during storage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage on ammonia concentration in feline WB and PRBC units stored in a veterinary blood bank and to evaluate possible correlations with bacterial contamination. Ammonia concentration was evaluated in 15 WB units and 2 PRBC units on day 1 and at the end of storage after 35 and 42 days, respectively. In an additional 5 WB units and 4 PRBC units ammonia concentrations were determined daily until the day the normal reference range was exceeded and then weekly to the end of storage. All units were evaluated for bacterial contamination. Ammonia increased markedly during storage as a linear function over time. On the 35th and 42th day of storage at 4±2°C mean±SD ammonia concentration reached 909±158 µg/dl and 1058±212 µg/dl in WB and PRBC units, respectively. Bacterial culture was negative in all units. High ammonia concentrations in stored WB and PRBC units could result in toxicity, particularly in feline recipients with liver failure, portosystemic shunts or those receiving large transfusion volumes. Clinical in vivo studies evaluating the effects on recipients should be performed.

  11. Endogenous chloride channels of insect sf9 cells. Evidence for coordinated activity of small elementary channel units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Gabriel, S. E.; Stutts, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    The endogenous Cl- conductance of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells was studied 20-35 h after plating out of either uninfected cells or cells infected by a baculovirus vector carrying the cloned beta-galactosidase gene (beta-Gal cells). With the cation Tris+ in the pipette and Na+ in the bath...

  12. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Activity in Pediatric Cancer between 2008 and 2014 in the United States: A Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Pooja; Millard, Heather R; Thiel, Elizabeth; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Abraham, Allistair A; Auletta, Jeffery J; Boulad, Farid; Brown, Valerie I; Camitta, Bruce M; Chan, Ka Wah; Chaudhury, Sonali; Cowan, Morton J; Angel-Diaz, Miguel; Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Gale, Robert Peter; Hale, Gregory; Kasow, Kimberly A; Keating, Amy K; Kitko, Carrie L; MacMillan, Margaret L; Olsson, Richard F; Page, Kristin M; Seber, Adriana; Smith, Angela R; Warwick, Anne B; Wirk, Baldeep; Mehta, Parinda A

    2017-08-01

    This Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research report describes the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric patients with cancer, 4408 undergoing allogeneic (allo) and3076 undergoing autologous (auto) HSCT in the United States between 2008 and 2014. In both settings, there was a greater proportion of boys (n = 4327; 57%), children reports of transplant practices in the United States. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative analysis of tumor shrinkage due to chemotherapy and its implication for radiation treatment planning in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Bing; Wang, Jia-Zhou; Liu, Qi; Cheng, Jing-Yi; Zhu, Zheng-Fei; Fu, Xiao-Long

    2013-01-01

    The optimal timing of chemoradiotherapy in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) hasn’t been established, although evidence from studies supported that patients can benefit from early radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to quantify tumor shrinkage in response to induction chemotherapy (IC), evaluate the impact of tumor shrinkage on radiation dosimetric parameters and determine its implication for the timing of radiation therapy for patients with LS-SCLC. Twenty patients with LS-SCLC who were treated with IC followed by concomitant radiation therapy were investigated retrospectively. Ten patients received 1 cycle of IC, and 10 patients received 2 cycles of IC. Pre-IC CT imaging was coregistered with a simulation CT, and virtual radiation plans were created for pre- and post-IC thoracic disease in each case. The changes in the gross target volume (GTV), planning target volume (PTV) and dosimetric factors associated with the lungs, esophagus and heart were analyzed. The mean GTV and PTV for all of the patients decreased by 60.9% and 40.2%, respectively, which resulted in a significant reduction in the radiation exposure to the lungs, esophagus and heart. Changes in the PTV and radiation exposure of normal tissue were not significantly affected by the number of chemotherapy cycles delivered, although patients who received 2 cycles of IC had a greater decrease in GTV than those who received only 1 cycle of IC (69.6% vs. 52.1%, p = 0.273). Our data showed that targeting the tumor post-IC may reduce the radiation dose to normal tissue in patients with LS-SCLC. However, the benefit to the normal tissue was not increased by an additional cycle of IC. These findings suggest that the first cycle of chemotherapy is very important for tumor shrinkage and that initiating thoracic radiation therapy at the second cycle of chemotherapy may be a reasonable strategy for timing of radiation therapy in LS-SCLC treatment

  14. Cancer cells become susceptible to natural killer cell killing after exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors due to glycogen synthase kinase-3-dependent expression of MHC class I-related chain A and B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Søren; Pedersen, Marianne Terndrup; Andresen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    We show that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors lead to functional expression of MHC class I-related chain A and B (MICA/B) on cancer cells, making them potent targets for natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing through a NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) restricted mechanism. Blocking either...

  15. Acinetobacter baumannii K27 and K44 capsular polysaccharides have the same K unit but different structures due to the presence of distinct wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Kenyon, Johanna J; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Shneider, Mikhail M; Popova, Anastasiya V; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), from Acinetobacter baumannii isolates 1432, 4190 and NIPH 70, which have related gene content at the K locus, were examined, and the chemical structures established using 2D(1)H and(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The three isolates produce the same pentasaccharide repeat unit, which consists of 5-N-acetyl-7-N-[(S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl] (major) or 5,7-di-N-acetyl (minor) derivatives of 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic (legionaminic) acid (Leg5Ac7R), D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. However, the linkage between repeat units in NIPH 70 was different to that in 1432 and 4190, and this significantly alters the CPS structure. The KL27 gene cluster in 4190 and KL44 gene cluster in NIPH 70 are organized identically and contain lga genes for Leg5Ac7R synthesis, genes for the synthesis of the common sugars, as well as anitrA2 initiating transferase and four glycosyltransferases genes. They share high-level nucleotide sequence identity for corresponding genes, but differ in the wzy gene encoding the Wzy polymerase. The Wzy proteins, which have different lengths and share no similarity, would form the unrelated linkages in the K27 and K44 structures. The linkages formed by the four shared glycosyltransferases were predicted by comparison with gene clusters that synthesize related structures. These findings unambiguously identify the linkages formed by WzyK27 and WzyK44, and show that the presence of different wzy genes in otherwise closely related K gene clusters changes the structure of the CPS. This may affect its capacity as a protective barrier for A. baumannii. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Identified metabolic signature for assessing red blood cell unit quality is associated with endothelial damage markers and clinical outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordbar, Aarash; Johansson, Pär I.; Paglia, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    shown no difference of clinical outcome for patients receiving old or fresh RBCs. An overlooked but essential issue in assessing RBC unit quality and ultimately designing the necessary clinical trials is a metric for what constitutes an old or fresh RBC unit. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty RBC units...... years and endothelial damage markers in healthy volunteers undergoing autologous transfusions. CONCLUSION: The state of RBC metabolism may be a better indicator of cellular quality than traditional hematologic variables....

  17. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse arewidely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an inbalance between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are diff...

  18. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse arewidely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of suchstructures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealingan in balance between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and thehydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakageis caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficu...

  19. Decreased release of histamine and sulfidoleukotrienes by human peripheral blood leukocytes after wasp venom immunotherapy is partially due to induction of IL-10 and IFN-gamma production of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierkes, M; Bellinghausen, I; Hultsch, T; Metz, G; Knop, J; Saloga, J

    1999-02-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that venom immunotherapy (VIT) alters the pattern of cytokine production by inducing an allergen-specific T-cell shift in cytokine expression from TH2 (IL-4, IL-5) to TH1 (IFN-gamma) cytokines and also inducing the production of IL-10. This study was carried out to analyze whether these changes in cytokine production of T cells already observed 1 week after the initiation of VIT in subjects with wasp venom allergy also influence the reactivity of effector cells, such as mast cells and basophils. All subjects included in this study had a history of severe systemic allergic reactions to wasp stings and positive skin test responses with venom and venom-specific IgE in the sera. Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated before and after the initiation of VIT (rush therapy reaching a maintenance dose of 100 microg venom injected subcutaneously within 1 week) and preincubated with or without addition of IL-10, IFN-gamma, IL-10 + IFN-gamma, anti-IL-10, or anti-IFN-gamma. After stimulation with wasp venom, histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release were assessed by ELISA and compared with spontaneous release and total histamine content. After the induction of VIT, venom-induced absolute and relative histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release were reduced. This was at least partially due to the induction of IFN-gamma and IL-10 production, because (1) neutralization of IL-10 and IFN-gamma by mAbs partially restored the release after the initiation of VIT and (2) the addition of exogenous IFN-gamma and IL-10 caused a statistically significant diminution of the venom-induced histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release before VIT. Depletion of CD2(+) T cells also restored the releasability after VIT. These data indicate that T cells (producing IL-10 and IFN-gamma after VIT) play a key role for the inhibition of histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release of effector cells.

  20. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an inbalance between the strength (structural integrity) of ...

  1. Heat and Mass Transfer during Hydrogen Generation in an Array of Fuel Bars of a BWR Using a Periodic Unit Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Romero-Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, the numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer during hydrogen generation in an array of fuel cylinder bars, each coated with a cladding and a steam current flowing outside the cylinders. The analysis considers the fuel element without mitigation effects. The system consists of a representative periodic unit cell where the initial and boundary-value problems for heat and mass transfer were solved. In this unit cell, we considered that a fuel element is coated by a cladding with steam surrounding it as a coolant. The numerical simulations allow describing the evolution of the temperature and concentration profiles inside the nuclear reactor and could be used as a basis for hybrid upscaling simulations.

  2. An international investigation into O red blood cell unit administration in hospitals: the GRoup O Utilization Patterns (GROUP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Barty, Rebecca; Aandahl, Astrid; Apelseth, Torunn O; Callum, Jeannie; Dunbar, Nancy M; Elahie, Allahna; Garritsen, Henk; Hancock, Helen; Kutner, José Mauro; Manukian, Belinda; Mizuta, Shuichi; Okuda, Makoto; Pagano, Monica B; Pogłód, Ryszard; Rushford, Kylie; Selleng, Kathleen; Sørensen, Claess Henning; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Staves, Julie; Weiland, Thorsten; Wendel, Silvano; Wood, Erica M; van de Watering, Leo; van Wordragen-Vlaswinkel, Maria; Ziman, Alyssa; Jan Zwaginga, Jaap; Murphy, Michael F; Heddle, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-10-01

    Transfusion of group O blood to non-O recipients, or transfusion of D- blood to D+ recipients, can result in shortages of group O or D- blood, respectively. This study investigated RBC utilization patterns at hospitals around the world and explored the context and policies that guide ABO blood group and D type selection practices. This was a retrospective study on transfusion data from the 2013 calendar year. This study included a survey component that asked about hospital RBC selection and transfusion practices and a data collection component where participants submitted information on RBC unit disposition including blood group and D type of unit and recipient. Units administered to recipients of unknown ABO or D group were excluded. Thirty-eight hospitals in 11 countries responded to the survey, 30 of which provided specific RBC unit disposition data. Overall, 11.1% (21,235/191,397) of group O units were transfused to non-O recipients; 22.6% (8777/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to O D+ recipients, and 43.2% (16,800/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to recipients that were not group O D-. Disposition of units and hospital transfusion policy varied within and across hospitals of different sizes, with transfusion of group O D- units to non-group O D- patients ranging from 0% to 33%. A significant proportion of group O and D- RBC units were transfused to compatible, nonidentical recipients, although the frequency of this practice varied across sites. © 2017 AABB.

  3. Investigation of a Spinel-forming Cu-Mn Foam as an Oxygen Electrode Contact Material in a Solid Oxide Cell Single Repeating Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Philipp; Wulff, Anders Christian; Sun, Xiufu

    2017-01-01

    A critical issue in state-of-the-art solid oxide cell stacks is the contacting of the oxygen electrode. The commonly used ceramic contact layers are applied in a green state and cannot be sintered properly, due to compliance limitations arising from other stack components like sealing glasses...

  4. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  5. Constitutional Due Process and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uerling, Donald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses substantive and procedural due process as required by the United States Constitution and interpreted by the Supreme Court, with particular reference to situations arising in educational environments. Covers interests protected by due process requirements, the procedures required, and some special considerations that may apply. (PGD)

  6. Immunoexpression of P16INK4a, Rb and TP53 proteins in bronchiolar columnar cell dysplasia (BCCD in lungs resected due to primary non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. High mortality comes out mainly of the fact that majority of the cases are diagnosed in advanced stadium. An expanded diagnostics of precancerous conditions would certainly contribute to lowering the mortality rate. Many of the molecular changes accompanying the multistep cancer development could be observed using the immunohistochemistry method. In this paper we describe the morphology and cell cycle proteins immunoexpression of the novel probable preinvasive lesion - bronchiolar columnar cell dysplasia (BCCD. Thirty cases of BCCD selected out of 193 patients population, treated for primary non-small cell lung cancer were investigated. Loss of P16INK4a protein was observed in 70% of all cases and was statistically significant in patients with adenocarcinoma. Two cases show abnormal cytoplasmic localization of this protein. TP53 protein accumulates in 26.7% of all BCCD. Rb protein was active in 48.3% of the BCCD cases. In two cases we observed differentiation of the cells composing BCCD into multilayer epithelium of the squamous type, which occurs with formation of desmosomes. We suppose that BCCD may be preneoplastic lesion leading to adenocarcinoma as well as to peripheral squamous cell lung cancer.

  7. Stem cells are units of natural selection for tissue formation, for germline development, and in cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Irving L

    2015-07-21

    It is obvious that natural selection operates at the level of individuals and collections of individuals. Nearly two decades ago we showed that in multi-individual colonies of protochordate colonial tunicates sharing a blood circulation, there exists an exchange of somatic stem cells and germline stem cells, resulting in somatic chimeras and stem cell competitions for gonadal niches. Stem cells are unlike other cells in the body in that they alone self-renew, so that they form clones that are perpetuated for the life of the organism. Stem cell competitions have allowed the emergence of competitive somatic and germline stem cell clones. Highly successful germline stem cells usually outcompete less successful competitors both in the gonads of the genotype partner from which they arise and in the gonads of the natural parabiotic partners. Therefore, natural selection also operates at the level of germline stem cell clones. In the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri the formation of natural parabionts is prevented by a single-locus highly polymorphic histocompatibility gene called Botryllus histocompatibility factor. This limits germline stem cell predation to kin, as the locus has hundreds of alleles. We show that in mice germline stem cells compete for gonad niches, and in mice and humans, blood-forming stem cells also compete for bone marrow niches. We show that the clonal progression from blood-forming stem cells to acute leukemias by successive genetic and epigenetic events in blood stem cells also involves competition and selection between clones and propose that this is a general theme in cancer.

  8. Panhypopituitarism Due to Hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Özkaya; Kadir Gis; Ali Çetinkaya

    2013-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is an iron storage disease. Panhypopituitarism is a clinical condition in which the anterior pituitary hormones are deficient. Herein, we report a rare case of panhypopituitarism due to hemochromatosis. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 125-6

  9. Deference and Due Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the textbooks, procedural due process is a strictly judicial enterprise; although substantive entitlements are created by legislative and executive action, it is for courts to decide independently what process the Constitution requires. The notion that procedural due process might be committed primarily to the discretion of the agencies themselves is almost entirely absent from the academic literature. The facts on the ground are very different. Thanks to converging strands of caselaw ...

  10. Influence of Host Interleukin-10 Polymorphisms on Development of Traveler's Diarrhea Due to Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Travelers from the United States Who Are Visiting Mexico▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jose; DuPont, Herbert L.; Lee, Stephanie A.; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Paredes, Mercedes; Mohamed, Jamal A.; Armitige, Lisa Y.; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Okhuysen, Pablo C.

    2008-01-01

    Up to 60% of U.S. visitors to Mexico develop traveler's diarrhea (TD), mostly due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Distinct single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter have been associated with high, intermediate, or low production of IL-10. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the association of SNPs in the IL-10 promoter and the occurrence of TD in ETEC LT-exposed travelers. Sera from U.S. travelers to Mexico collected on arrival and departure were studied for ETEC LT seroconversion by using cholera toxin as the antigen. Pyrosequencing was performed to genotype IL-10 SNPs. Stools from subjects who developed diarrhea were also studied for other enteropathogens. One hundred twenty-one of 569 (21.3%) travelers seroconverted to ETEC LT, and among them 75 (62%) developed diarrhea. Symptomatic seroconversion was more commonly seen in subjects who carried a genotype producing high levels of IL-10; it was seen in 83% of subjects with the GG genotype versus 54% of subjects with the AA genotype at IL-10 gene position −1082 (P, 0.02), in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 33% of those with the TT genotype at position −819 (P, 0.005), and in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 38% of those with the AA genotype at position −592 (P, 0.02). Travelers with the GCC haplotype were more likely to have symptomatic seroconversion than those with the ATA haplotype (71% versus 38%; P, 0.002). Travelers genetically predisposed to produce high levels of IL-10 were more likely to experience symptomatic ETEC TD. PMID:18579697

  11. Influence of host interleukin-10 polymorphisms on development of traveler's diarrhea due to heat-labile enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in travelers from the United States who are visiting Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jose; DuPont, Herbert L; Lee, Stephanie A; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Paredes, Mercedes; Mohamed, Jamal A; Armitige, Lisa Y; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Okhuysen, Pablo C

    2008-08-01

    Up to 60% of U.S. visitors to Mexico develop traveler's diarrhea (TD), mostly due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins. Distinct single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter have been associated with high, intermediate, or low production of IL-10. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the association of SNPs in the IL-10 promoter and the occurrence of TD in ETEC LT-exposed travelers. Sera from U.S. travelers to Mexico collected on arrival and departure were studied for ETEC LT seroconversion by using cholera toxin as the antigen. Pyrosequencing was performed to genotype IL-10 SNPs. Stools from subjects who developed diarrhea were also studied for other enteropathogens. One hundred twenty-one of 569 (21.3%) travelers seroconverted to ETEC LT, and among them 75 (62%) developed diarrhea. Symptomatic seroconversion was more commonly seen in subjects who carried a genotype producing high levels of IL-10; it was seen in 83% of subjects with the GG genotype versus 54% of subjects with the AA genotype at IL-10 gene position -1082 (P, 0.02), in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 33% of those with the TT genotype at position -819 (P, 0.005), and in 71% of those with the CC genotype versus 38% of those with the AA genotype at position -592 (P, 0.02). Travelers with the GCC haplotype were more likely to have symptomatic seroconversion than those with the ATA haplotype (71% versus 38%; P, 0.002). Travelers genetically predisposed to produce high levels of IL-10 were more likely to experience symptomatic ETEC TD.

  12. [Endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit: dependence of respiration of secretory cells on activity of ryanodine- and IP3 - sensitive Ca(2+)-channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velykopols'ka, O Iu; Man'ko, B O; Man'ko, V V

    2012-01-01

    Using Clark oxygen electrode, dependence of mitochondrial functions on Ca(2+)-release channels activity of Chironomus plumosus L. larvae salivary glands suspension was investigated. Cells were ATP-permeabilized in order to enable penetration of exogenous oxidative substrates. Activation of plasmalemmal P2X-receptors (as well as P2Y-receptors) per se does not modify the endogenous respiration of salivary gland suspension. That is, Ca(2+)-influx from extracellular medium does not influence functional activity of mitochondria, although they are located along the basal part of the plasma membrane. Activation of RyRs intensifies endogenous respiration and pyruvate-malate-stimulated respiration, but not succinate-stimulated respiration. Neither activation of IP3Rs (via P2Y-receptors activation), nor their inhibition alters endogenous respiration. Nevertheless, IP3Rs inhibition by 2-APB intensifies succinate-stimulated respiration. All abovementioned facts testify that Ca2+, released from stores via channels, alters functional activity of mitochondria, and undoubtedly confirm the existence of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit in Ch. plumosus larvae salivary glands secretory cells. In steady state of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit the spontaneous activity of IP3Rs is observed; released through IP3Rs, Ca2+ is accumulated in mitochondria via uniporter and modulates oxidative processes. Activation of RyRs induces the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to the active state, which is required to intensify cell respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. As expected, the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to inactivated state (i. e. inhibition of Ca(2+)-release channels at excessive [Ca2+]i) limits the duration of signal transduction, has protective nature and prevents apoptosis.

  13. Injury due to thorotrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takesaburo

    1976-01-01

    A synthetic study was performed on some of those to whom Thorotrast had been injected, in Japan. In the epidemiological study of 147 war woundeds to whom Thorotrast had been injected, it was noted that the Thorotrast injection increased the mortality rate and the incidences of malignant hepatic tumor, liver cirrhosis, and hematological diseases. Clinical study of 44 of them showed that the Thorotrast injection resulted in liver and hematopoietic hypofunctions. Analysis of the dissection of the injected area in 118 cases showed malignant hepatic tumor in 63.5%, liver cirrhosis in 14.4% and hematological diseases in 10.2%. The total of the three types of disease was 88.1%. Histological classification showed that of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast, hepatobiliary cancer and hemangioendothelioma of the liver were frequent. By the comparison of the absorbed dose in the liver of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast with that of the cancers developed in animal experiments, it was noted that the carcinogenic dose was a mean of 2,000 - 3,000 rad by accumulated dose. It was elucidated that carcinogenesis and fibrination were primary in injury due to Thorotrast, i.e., late injury due to Thorotrast, and that the increase in the accumulated dose in rogans and the increase of the local dose due to the gigantic growth of Thorotrast granules in organs greatly influenced carninogenesis and fibrination. (Chiba, N.)

  14. Optimal coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power fuel cell, wind, and photovoltaic units in micro grids considering uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornapour, Mosayeb; Hooshmand, Rahmat-Allah; Khodabakhshian, Amin; Parastegari, Moein

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power units in micro grid considering wind turbine and photovoltaic units. Uncertainties of electrical market price; the speed of wind and solar radiation are considered using a scenario-based method. In the method, scenarios are generated using roulette wheel mechanism based on probability distribution functions of input random variables. Using this method, the probabilistic specifics of the problem are distributed and the problem is converted to a deterministic one. The type of the objective function, coordinated scheduling of combined heat and power, wind turbine, and photovoltaic units change this problem to a mixed integer nonlinear one. Therefore to solve this problem modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed. The mentioned uncertainties lead to an increase in profit. Moreover, the optimal coordinated scheduling of renewable energy resources and thermal units in micro grids increase the total profit. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, its performance is executed on modified 33 bus distributed system as a micro grid. - Highlights: • Stochastic model is proposed for coordinated scheduling of renewable energy sources. • The effect of combined heat and power is considered. • Maximizing profits of micro grid is considered as objective function. • Considering the uncertainties of problem lead to profit increasing. • Optimal scheduling of renewable energy sources and thermal units increases profit.

  15. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kumiya; Cho, Tatsurai; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Onishi, Shogo; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Naruo; Fujimatsu, Takayoshi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anaphylaxis due to caffeine intake. A 27-year-old woman suffered her first episode of anaphylaxis and a positive skin prick test suggested that the anaphylaxis was due to an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to caffeine. She was diagnosed with caffeine allergy and has not had an allergic reaction after avoiding foods and drinks containing caffeine. Although caffeine is known to have antiallergic effects, this case shows that caffeine can be an allergen and cause ...

  16. Structure and oxidation states of giant unit cell compound Dy{sub 117+x}Fe{sub 57-y}Sn{sub 112-z}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Alexander T.; Barron, Keaton G.; Salazar, Bryan G.; Kirby, Parker; McCandless, Gregory T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Walker, Amy V.; Chan, Julia Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas, Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States)

    2017-12-13

    Motivated by the complex structure and properties of giant unit cell intermetallic compounds, a new isostructural Fe analogue of the Dy{sub 117}Co{sub 57}Sn{sub 112} structure type was synthesized. Single crystals of Dy{sub 122}Fe{sub 55}Sn{sub 101} were grown at 1260 C via a Dy-Fe eutectoid flux. The Fe analogue also adopts the space group Fm anti 3m with lattice parameters a = 29.914(9) Aa, V = 26769(23) Aa{sup 3}, and Z = 4. Dy{sub 122}Fe{sub 55}Sn{sub 101} has a large cell volume, structural complexity, and consists of seven Dy, eight Fe, and ten Sn unique crystallographic sites. There are fifteen fully occupied atomic positions, three unique pairs of alternating atomic positions with positional disorder, and seven partially occupied atomic sites. Within this complex unit cell, only approximately half the unique atomic positions are fully occupied with the remainder of the atoms either positionally or occupationally disordered. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the compound contains Dy{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 0}, Fe{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 0}, and Sn{sup 4+}. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Use of the Primitive Unit Cell in Understanding Subtle Features of the Cubic Closest-Packed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, John A.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important crystal structures adopted by metals is characterized by the "abcabc"...stacking of close-packed layers. This structure is commonly referred to in textbooks as the cubic close-packed (ccp) or face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, since the entire lattice can be generated by replication of a face-centered cubic unit cell…

  18. Characteristics of cells producing stimulator for the proliferation of colony forming unit-spleen (CFU-S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Manaf Ali; Wright, E.G.; Riches, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of stimulator for haemopoietic stem cell (CFU-S) proliferation in regenerating bone marrow was assayed by incubating the conditioned medium (CM) prepared from bone marrow with quiescent CFU-S from normal bone marrow. The percentage of CFU-S normal bone marrow in DNA synthesis increased more than 30 percent after incubating with CM of 4.5 Gy regenerating bone marrow. Stimulator was also present in bone marrow of mice at 9.0 Gy whole body X-irradiation. However the conditioned medium prepared from regenerating bone marrow without Fc and Ia-2k cells failed to increase the percentage of CFU-S in DNA synthesis. On the other hand, elimination of Thy 1.2 positive cells with complement cytolysis did not affect the ability of regenerating bone marrow to produce stimulator. These observations suggest that the stimulator producing cells are radio-resistant, Thy 1.2 negative, Fc and Ia-2k positive

  19. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  20. Risk and outcome analysis of 1832 consecutively excised basal cell carcinomas in a tertiary referral plastic surgery unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, Vinod

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinomas are the most prevalent of all skin cancers worldwide and form the majority of the surgical workload for most modern cutaneous malignancy centres. Primary surgical removal of basal cell carcinomas remains the gold standard of treatment but, despite almost two centuries of surgical experience, rates of incomplete surgical excision of up to 50% are still reported. The aim of this study was to assess, quantify and perform comparative analysis of the outcomes and predictive factors of consecutive primarily-excised basal cell carcinomas in a tertiary centre over a six-year period. METHODS: Retrospective audit was conducted on all patients who underwent surgical excision of basal cell carcinomas from January 2000 to December 2005. Assessment parameters included patient biographics, tumour management differences and detailed histopathological analysis of tumour margins and subtypes. RESULTS: One thousand eight hundred and thirty two basal cell carcinomas were excised from 1329 patients over the designated time period. Two hundred and fifty one (14%) lesions were incompletely excised with 135 (7.4%) involving the peripheral margin only, 48 (2.6%) the deep margin only and 41 (2.2%) involving both. Nasal location was the most common predictor of incomplete excision. CONCLUSIONS: Overall basal cell carcinomas excision rates compared favourably with international reported standards but attention to a variety of surgical and histological risk factors may improve this further.

  1. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.

  2. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1993-01-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application. (orig.)

  3. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16 ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1992-10-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here, emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application

  4. Novel hydroxyamides and amides containing D-glucopyranose or D-fructose units: Biological assays in MCF-7 and MDST8 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Elisabete P; Costa, Ana R; Cordeiro, Maria M; Martins, Rute; Pires, Tiago O; Saraiva, Mafalda; Antunes, Célia M; Burke, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    A novel library of 15 compounds, hydroxyamides and amides containing a β-D-glucopyranose (D-Gluc) or a β-D-fructose (D-Fruc) units was designed and synthesized for antiproliferative assays in breast (MCF-7) and colon (MDST8) cancer cell lines. Twelve of them were hydroxyamides and were successfully synthesized from β-D-glucuronic acid (D-GluA). Six of these hydroxyamides which were acetylated hydroxy-β-D-glucopyranuronamide 2a-2f (1st Family) and the other six were their respective isomers, that is, hydroxy-β-D-fructuronamide 3a-3f (2nd Family), obtained by acid-base catalyzed isomerization. These compounds have the general structure, D-Gluc-C=ONH-CHR-(CH2)n-OH and D-Fruc-C=ONH-CHR-(CH2)n-OH, where R=an aromatic, alkyl or a hydrogen substituent, with n=0 or 1. Eight of these contained a chiral aminoalcohol group. Three compounds were amides containing a D-glucopyranose unit (3rd Family). SAR studies were conducted with these compounds. Antiproliferative studies showed that compound 4a, the bromo-amide containing the β-D-glucopyranose ring, potently inhibits the proliferation of the MDST8 cells. Five compounds (2e, 2f, 3d, 3e, and 3f) were shown to potently selectively inhibit the proliferation of the MCF-7 cells. Compound 4b was the only one showing inhibition in both cell lines. In general, the more active compounds were the amides and hydroxyamides containing the β-D-fructose moiety, and containing an alkyl group or hydrogen. Half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of between 0.01 and 10 μM, were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Heat and Mass Transfer to Operation Mode Switching of a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs. In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange membrane is generated to investigate transient responses in the process of operation mode switching from fuel cell (FC to electrolysis cell (EC. Various heat generation mechanisms, including Joule heat, reaction heat, and the heat attributed to activation polarizations, have been considered in the transient model coupled with electrochemical reaction and mass transfer in porous electrodes. The polarization curves of the steady-state models are validated by experimental data in the literatures. Numerical results reveal that current density, gas mass fractions, and temperature suddenly change with the sudden change of operating voltage in the mode switching process. The response time of temperature is longer than that of current density and gas mass fractions. In both FC and EC modes, the cell temperature and gradient of gas mass fraction in the oxygen side are larger than that in the hydrogen side. The temperature difference of the entire cell is less than 1.5 K. The highest temperature appears at oxygen-side catalyst layer under the FC mode and at membrane under a more stable EC mode. The cell is exothermic all the time. These dynamic responses and phenomena have important implications for heat analysis and provide proven guidelines for the improvement of URFCs mode switching.

  6. Compact modeling of a telecom back-up unit powered by air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    Applications of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are expanding in portable, automotive and stationary markets. One promising application is the back-up power for telecommunication applications in remote areas where usually air-cooled PMEFC’s are used. An air-cooled PEMFC system is much...

  7. Selective Laser Melting: a regular unit cell approach for the manufacture of porous, titanium, bone in-growth constructs, suitable for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Lewis; Stamp, Robin C; Brooks, Wesley K; Jones, Eric; Sutcliffe, Christopher J

    2009-05-01

    In this study, a novel porous titanium structure for the purpose of bone in-growth has been designed, manufactured and evaluated. The structure was produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM); a rapid manufacturing process capable of producing highly intricate, functionally graded parts. The technique described utilizes an approach based on a defined regular unit cell to design and produce structures with a large range of both physical and mechanical properties. These properties can be tailored to suit specific requirements; in particular, functionally graded structures with bone in-growth surfaces exhibiting properties comparable to those of human bone have been manufactured. The structures were manufactured and characterized by unit cell size, strand diameter, porosity, and compression strength. They exhibited a porosity (10-95%) dependant compression strength (0.5-350 Mpa) comparable to the typical naturally occurring range. It is also demonstrated that optimized structures have been produced that possesses ideal qualities for bone in-growth applications and that these structures can be applied in the production of orthopedic devices. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Technical Due Diligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Varano, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    carried out for buyers or sellers involved in real estate transactions. It can also be part of mergers including real estate and other assets or part of facilities management outsourcing. This paper is based on a case study and an interview survey of companies involved in TDD consulting in Denmark......Technical Due Diligence (TDD) as an evaluation of the performance of constructed facilities has become an important new field of practice for consultants. Before the financial crisis started in autumn 2008 it represented the fastest growing activity in some consulting companies. TDD is mostly...... and Italy during 2009. The research identifies the current practice and compares it with the recommended practice in international guidelines. The current practice is very diverse and could in many cases be improved by a more structured approach and stricter adherence to international guidelines. However...

  9. Mixed-valence molecular four-dot unit for quantum cellular automata: Vibronic self-trapping and cell-cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-10-07

    Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 116: Area 25 Test Cell C Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C (TCC) Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 116 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (as amended February 2008) and consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 25-23-20, Nuclear Furnace Piping; and (2) CAS 25-41-05, Test Cell C Facility. CAS 25-41-05 is described in the FFACO as the TCC Facility but actually includes Building 3210 and attached concrete shield wall only. CAU 116 will be closed by demolishing Building 3210, the attached concrete shield wall, and the nuclear furnace piping. In addition, as a best management practice (BMP), Building 3211 (moveable shed) will be demolished due to its close proximity to Building 3210. This will aid in demolition and disposal operations. Radiological surveys will be performed on the demolition debris to determine the proper disposal pathway. As much of the demolition debris as space allows will be placed into the Building 3210 basement structure. After filling to capacity with demolition debris, the basement structure will be mounded or capped and closed with administrative controls. Prior to beginning demolition activities and according to an approved Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), representative sampling of surface areas that are known, suspected, or have the potential to contain hazardous constituents such as lead or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) will be performed throughout all buildings and structures. Sections 2.3.2, 4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.3, 4.3, and 6.2.6.1 address the methodologies employed that assure the solid debris placed in the basement structure will not contain contaminants of concern (COCs) above hazardous waste levels. The anticipated post

  11. Semiempirical and DFT computations of the influence of Tb(III) dopant on unit cell dimensions of cerium(III) fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyichuk, Andrii; Runowski, Marcin; Lis, Stefan; Kaczkowski, Jakub; Jezierski, Andrzej

    2015-01-30

    Several computational methods, both semiempirical and ab initio, were used to study the influence of the amount of dopant on crystal cell dimensions of CeF3 doped with Tb(3+) ions (CeF3 :Tb(3+) ). AM1, RM1, PM3, PM6, and PM7 semiempirical parameterization models were used, while the Sparkle model was used to represent the lanthanide cations in all cases. Ab initio calculations were performed by means of GGA+U/PBE projector augmented wave density functional theory. The computational results agree well with the experimental data. According to both computation and experiment, the crystal cell parameters undergo a linear decrease with increasing amount of the dopant. The computations performed using Sparkle/PM3 and DFT methods resulted in the best agreement with the experiment with the average deviation of about 1% in both cases. Typical Sparkle/PM3 computation on a 2×2×2 supercell of CeF3:Tb3+ lasted about two orders of magnitude shorter than the DFT computation concerning a unit cell of this material. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Extracellular matrix of adipogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells reveals a network of collagen filaments, mostly interwoven by hexagonal structural units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mujib; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is the non-cellular component of tissues, which not only provides biological shelter but also takes part in the cellular decisions for diverse functions. Every tissue has an ECM with unique composition and topology that governs the process of determination, differentiation, proliferation, migration and regeneration of cells. Little is known about the structural organization of matrix especially of MSC-derived adipogenic ECM. Here, we particularly focus on the composition and architecture of the fat ECM to understand the cellular behavior on functional bases. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were adipogenically differentiated, then, were transferred to adipogenic propagation medium, whereas they started the release of lipid droplets leaving bare network of ECM. Microarray analysis was performed, to indentify the molecular machinery of matrix. Adipogenesis was verified by Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets and by qPCR of adipogenic marker genes PPARG and FABP4. Antibody staining demonstrated the presence of collagen type I, II and IV filaments, while alkaline phosphatase activity verified the ossified nature of these filaments. In the adipogenic matrix, the hexagonal structures were abundant followed by octagonal structures, whereas they interwoven in a crisscross manner. Regarding molecular machinery of adipogenic ECM, the bioinformatics analysis revealed the upregulated expression of COL4A1, ITGA7, ITGA7, SDC2, ICAM3, ADAMTS9, TIMP4, GPC1, GPC4 and downregulated expression of COL14A1, ADAMTS5, TIMP2, TIMP3, BGN, LAMA3, ITGA2, ITGA4, ITGB1, ITGB8, CLDN11. Moreover, genes associated with integrins, glycoproteins, laminins, fibronectins, cadherins, selectins and linked signaling pathways were found. Knowledge of the interactive-language between cells and matrix could be beneficial for the artificial designing of biomaterials and bioscaffolds. © 2013.

  13. Development of a three-dimensional unit cell to model the micromechanical response of a collagen-based extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Monica E; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure and mechanical properties of the collagen fibrils within the extracellular matrix (ECM) is now being recognized as a primary factor in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, an appreciation of the mechanical aspects by which a cell interacts with its ECM is required for the development of engineered tissues. Ultimately, using these interactions to design tissue equivalents requires mathematical models with three-dimensional architecture. In this study, a three-dimensional model of a collagen fibril matrix undergoing uniaxial tensile stress was developed by making use of cellular solids. A structure consisting of thin struts was chosen to represent the arrangement of collagen fibrils within an engineered ECM. To account for the large deformation of tissues, the collagen fibrils were modeled as hyperelastic neo-Hookean or Mooney-Rivlin materials. The use of cellular solids allowed the fibril properties to be related to the ECM properties in closed form, which, in turn, allowed the estimation of fibril properties using ECM experimental data. A set of previously obtained experimental data consisting of simultaneous measures of the fibril microstructure and mechanical tests was used to evaluate the model's capability to estimate collagen fibril mechanical property when given tissue-scale data and to predict the tissue-scale mechanical properties when given estimated fibril stiffness. The fibril tangent modulus was found to be 1.26 + or - 0.70 and 1.62 + or - 0.88 MPa when the fibril was modeled as neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin material, respectively. There was no statistical significance of the estimated fibril tangent modulus among the different groups. Sensitivity analysis showed that the fibril mechanical properties and volume fraction were the two input parameters which required accurate values. While the volume fraction was easily obtained from the initial image of the gel, the fibril mechanical properties

  14. Genetically enhanced T lymphocytes and the intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Tiberiu; Li, Huming; Constantinescu, Catalin-Sorin; Onaciu, Anca; Chira, Sergiu; Osan, Ciprian; Pasca, Sergiu; Petrushev, Bobe; Moisoiu, Vlad; Micu, Wilhelm-Thomas; Berce, Cristian; Tranca, Sebastian; Dima, Delia; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Shen, Jianli