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Sample records for unit cell content

  1. Effect of Yttria Content on the Zirconia Unit Cell Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Jessica A.; Lepple, Maren; Gao, Yan; Lipkin, Don M.; Levi, Carlos G. (UCSB); (GE Global)

    2012-02-06

    The relationship between yttria concentration and the unit cell parameters in partially and fully stabilized zirconia has been reassessed, motivated by the need to improve the accuracy of phase analysis upon decomposition of t{prime}-based thermal barrier coatings. Compositions ranging from 6 to 18 mol% YO{sub 1.5} were synthesized and examined by means of high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Lattice parameters were determined using the Rietveld refinement method, a whole-pattern fitting procedure. The revised empirical relationships fall within the range of those published previously. However, efforts to achieve superior homogeneity of the materials, as well as accuracy of the composition and lattice parameters, provide increased confidence in the reliability of these correlations for use in future studies. Additional insight into the potential sources for scatter previously reported for the transition region ({approx}12-14 mol% YO{sub 1.5}), where tetragonal and cubic phases have been observed to coexist, is also provided. Implications on the current understanding of stabilization mechanisms in zirconia are discussed.

  2. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  3. Sickle Cell Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    Included in this high school biology unit on sickle cell anemia are the following materials: a synopsis of the history of the discovery and the genetic qualities of the disease; electrophoresis diagrams comparing normal, homozygous and heterozygous conditions of the disease; and biochemical characteristics and population genetics of the disease. A…

  4. A Content Analysis of Business Schools in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    杉本, 徹雄

    1992-01-01

    A content analysis was performed for data of business schools in the United States published in "The Official Guide to MBA Programs (1988)." Data of three hundred and sixty-one business schools were used for the analysis. The major contents are the analyses for the program of study offered and the characteristics of most recent students in each business school. Seventeen programs of study offered are made up of management, management-related, and management-peripheral. All programs are offere...

  5. 16 CFR 500.23 - Expression of net quantity of contents in SI Metric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expression of net quantity of contents in SI... contents in SI Metric units. (a) The selected multiple or submultiple prefixes for SI metric units shall...” instead of “0.75 L”. (b) The following symbols for SI metric units and none others may be employed in...

  6. Unit: Cells, Inspection Set, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This trial version of a unit is the series being produced by the Australian Science Education Project provides instructions for students to prepare a variety of cell types and examine them with microscopes. It also gives some information about the variety and function of cells. The core of the unit, which all students are expected to complete,…

  7. OpenMath Content Dictionaries for SI Quantities and Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    mole, and candela , corresponding to the seven SI base quantities. There is a necessary one-to-one mapping between the base quantities and the base...kelvin, mole, and candela . The base units, with the inclusion of the unit named one, with symbol, 1, form an abelian generating set for the infinite...BaseUnits1 CD defines metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole, and candela . For completeness, in both the SI BaseQuantities1 and SI BaseUnits1 CDs

  8. The web of production: the economic geography of commercial Internet content production in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew A Zook

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a description and analysis of the clustering behavior of the commercial Internet content industry in specific geographical locations within the United States. Using a data set of Internet domain name developed in the summer of 1998, I show that three regions -- San Francisco, New York, and Los Angeles -- are the leading centers for Internet content in the United States in terms both of absolute size and of degree of specialization. In order to understand better how the ind...

  9. Caravaggio: A Design for an Interdisciplinary Content-Based EAP/ESP Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Michal; Wexler, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Presents a detailed design for a content-based unit, the focus of which is the film "Caravaggio." The unit also includes readings in art history and film and is part of a specialized English for academic purposes/English for special purposes reading comprehension course for first-year students majoring in art history and in a…

  10. Reversible (unitized) PEM fuel cell devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Smith, W F; Weisberg, Molter, T M

    1999-06-01

    Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) are enabling for many weight-critical portable applications, since the packaged specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) of properly designed lightweight RFC systems is several-fold higher than that of the lightest weight rechargeable batteries. RFC systems can be rapidly refueled (like primary fuel cells), or can be electrically recharged (like secondary batteries) if a refueling infrastructure is not conveniently available. Higher energy capacity systems with higher performance, reduced weight, and freedom from fueling infrastructure are the features that RFCs promise for portable applications. Reversible proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also known as unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs), or reversible regenerative fuel cells, are RFC systems which use reversible PEM cells, where each cell is capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer. URFCs further economize portable device weight, volume, and complexity by combining the functions of fuel cells and electrolyzers in the same hardware, generally without any system performance or efficiency reduction. URFCs are being made in many forms, some of which are already small enough to be portable. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has worked with industrial partners to design, develop, and demonstrate high performance and high cycle life URFC systems. LLNL is also working with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in lightweight pressure vessels that are necessary for URFC systems to achieve the specific energy advantages over rechargeable batteries. Proton Energy Systems, Inc. (Proton) is concurrently developing and commercializing URFC systems (UNIGEN' product line), in addition to PEM electrolyzer systems (HOGEN' product line), and primary PEM fuel cell systems. LLNL is constructing demonstration URFC units in order to persuade potential sponsors, often in their own conference rooms, that advanced applications based on URFC s are

  11. Analysis of undergraduate cell biology contents in Brazilian public universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luis

    2017-04-01

    The enormous amount of information available in cell biology has created a challenge in selecting the core concepts we should be teaching our undergraduates. One way to define a set of essential core ideas in cell biology is to analyze what a specific cell biology community is teaching their students. Our main objective was to analyze the cell biology content currently being taught in Brazilian universities. We collected the syllabi of cell biology courses from public universities in Brazil and analyzed the frequency of cell biology topics in each course. We also compared the Brazilian data with the contents of a major cell biology textbook. Our analysis showed that while some cell biology topics such as plasma membrane and cytoskeleton was present in ∼100% of the Brazilian curricula analyzed others such as cell signaling and cell differentiation were present in only ∼35%. The average cell biology content taught in the Brazilian universities is quite different from what is presented in the textbook. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations. We also suggest a list with essential cell biology topics for any biological or biomedical undergraduate course. The comparative discussion of cell biology topics presented here could be valuable in other educational contexts.

  12. Sodium content of popular commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in close collaboration with U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention is monitoring the sodium content of commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. The main purpose of this manuscript is to prov...

  13. Culture and health reporting: a comparative content analysis of newspapers in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Peng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Health reporting has the potential to educate the public and promote health behaviors. Culture influences the style of such communication. Following the theorization of national cultures by Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) and Wilber (2000), this study compares health reporting in the United States and China through a content analysis of leading newspapers. The authors discover significant differences in health reporting in terms of controllability attribution, temporal orientation, citation of authority sources, and use of statistics. As one of the first comparative content analysis studies of health reporting in Eastern and Western cultures, this study provides a unique cultural lens for health communication scholars to better understand health information in the news media.

  14. Cell Viability Assessment: Toward Content-Rich Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Christina Nicole; Antczak, Christophe; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Importance of the field Monitoring cell viability in vitro is critical in many areas of biomedical research, and the ultimate goal in drug discovery is the ability to predict the in vivo toxicology of drug candidates based on their toxicity profile in vitro. Over the last decade, the contribution of high-throughput screening (HTS) toward this goal has been tremendous, providing the ability to screen compounds in parallel against multiple cell types. However, the toxic effects of drug candidates uncovered during clinical trials are by far the main reason for their failure. Over the same period, our understanding of programmed cell death has evolved dramatically with the identification of critical control points in the cell death pathways. As a result, cell viability should no longer be characterized solely on the basis of discrete endpoint measurements such as membrane permeability. Areas covered in this review/What the reader will gain This review summarizes the traditional viability assays currently commercially available, focusing on methods amenable to high density format. Assays categorized into the following classes are discussed: dye exclusion assays, DNA condensation-based assays and assays monitoring a metabolic function. We describe each approach, and using case studies, we emphasize their limitations. Take home message Current low-content methods based on single parameter readouts are prone to error due to the heterogeneity of cell populations and the multi-faceted nature of cell death. High-content approaches based on continuous, multiplexed readouts are becoming increasingly important for monitoring multiple markers of cell death induction simultaneously, on a cell by cell basis. The use of such content-rich platforms is a necessity to predict the toxicology of drug candidates accurately. PMID:22823019

  15. Prevalence of mcr-1 in the Cecal Contents of Food Animals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinersmann, Richard J; Ladely, Scott R; Plumblee, Jodie R; Cook, Kimberly L; Thacker, Eileen

    2017-02-01

    A survey of 2,003 cecal content samples from chickens, turkeys, cattle, and swine at slaughter facilities in the United States was conducted to estimate the prevalence of the mcr-1 gene conferring resistance to colistin in Enterobacteriaceae Two cecal samples from swine had Escherichia coli with IncI2 plasmids bearing the mcr-1 gene. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. User-generated online health content: a survey of Internet users in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Braden; Ziebland, Sue; Valderas, Jose; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco

    2014-04-30

    The production of health information has begun to shift from commercial organizations to health care users themselves. People increasingly go online to share their own health and illness experiences and to access information others have posted, but this behavior has not been investigated at a population level in the United Kingdom. This study aims to explore access and production of user-generated health content among UK Internet users and to investigate relationships between frequency of use and other variables. We undertook an online survey of 1000 UK Internet users. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were used to interpret the data. Nearly one-quarter of respondents (23.7%, 237/1000) reported accessing and sharing user-generated health content online, whereas more than 20% (22.2%, 222/1000) were unaware that it was possible to do this. Respondents could be divided into 3 groups based on frequency of use: rare users (78.7%, 612/778) who accessed and shared content less than weekly, users (13.9%, 108/778) who did so weekly, and superusers (7.5%, 58/778) who did so on a daily basis. Superusers were more likely to be male (Ponline health content, only a minority of respondents reported doing so frequently. As this type of content proliferates, superusers are likely to shape the health information that others access. Further research should assess the effect of user-generated online content on health outcomes and use of health services by Internet users.

  17. Thermal stability of homologous functional units of Helix pomatia hemocyanin does not correlate with carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Betül T; Gielens, Constant; Meersman, Filip

    2008-07-01

    The thermal stability of the eight functional units of beta-hemocyanin of the gastropodan mollusc Helix pomatia was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Molluscan hemocyanin functional units have a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa and generally contain three disulfide bridges: two in the mainly alpha-helical N-terminal domain and one in the C-terminal beta-sheet domain. They show more than 50% sequence homology and it is assumed that they adopt a similar conformation. However, the functional units of H. pomatiabeta-hemocyanin, designated HpH-a to HpH-h, differ considerably in their carbohydrate content (0-18 wt%). Most functional units are exceptionally stable with a melting temperature in the range 77-83 degrees C. Two functional units, HpH-b and HpH-c, however, have a reduced stability with melting temperature values of 73 degrees C and 64 degrees C, respectively. Although the most glycosylated functional unit (HpH-g) has the highest temperature stability, there is no linear correlation between the degree of glycosylation of the functional units and the unfolding temperature. This is ascribed to variations in secondary structure as well as in glycan attachment sites. Moreover, the disulfide bonds might play an important role in the conformational stability of the functional units. Sequence comparison of molluscan hemocyanins suggests that the less stable functional units, HpH-b and HpH-c, similar to most of their paralogous counterparts, lack the disulfide bond in the C-terminal domain.

  18. Frequency Selective Surfaces with Nanoparticles Unit Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Hung Poon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency selective surface (FSS is a periodic structure with filtering performance for optical and microwave signals. The general periodic arrays made with patterned metallic elements can act as an aperture or patch on a substrate. In this work, two kinds of materials were used to produce unit cells with various patterns. Gold nanoparticles of 25 nm diameter were used to form periodic monolayer arrays by a confined photocatalytic oxidation-based surface modification method. As the other material, silver gel was used to create multiple layers of silver. Due to the ultra-thin nature of the self-assembled gold nanoparticle monolayer, it is very easy to penetrate the FSS with terahertz radiation. However, the isolated silver islands made from silver gel form thicker multiple layers and contribute to much higher reflectance. This work demonstrated that multiple silver layers are more suitable than gold nanoparticles for use in the fabrication of FSS structures.

  19. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  20. Information management for high content live cell imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Michael RH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content live cell imaging experiments are able to track the cellular localisation of labelled proteins in multiple live cells over a time course. Experiments using high content live cell imaging will generate multiple large datasets that are often stored in an ad-hoc manner. This hinders identification of previously gathered data that may be relevant to current analyses. Whilst solutions exist for managing image data, they are primarily concerned with storage and retrieval of the images themselves and not the data derived from the images. There is therefore a requirement for an information management solution that facilitates the indexing of experimental metadata and results of high content live cell imaging experiments. Results We have designed and implemented a data model and information management solution for the data gathered through high content live cell imaging experiments. Many of the experiments to be stored measure the translocation of fluorescently labelled proteins from cytoplasm to nucleus in individual cells. The functionality of this database has been enhanced by the addition of an algorithm that automatically annotates results of these experiments with the timings of translocations and periods of any oscillatory translocations as they are uploaded to the repository. Testing has shown the algorithm to perform well with a variety of previously unseen data. Conclusion Our repository is a fully functional example of how high throughput imaging data may be effectively indexed and managed to address the requirements of end users. By implementing the automated analysis of experimental results, we have provided a clear impetus for individuals to ensure that their data forms part of that which is stored in the repository. Although focused on imaging, the solution provided is sufficiently generic to be applied to other functional proteomics and genomics experiments. The software is available from: fhttp://code.google.com/p/livecellim/

  1. Technique to accurately quantify collagen content in hyperconfluent cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Eugene Yong-Shun; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James Cho Hong

    2008-12-01

    Tissue engineering aims to regenerate tissues that can successfully take over the functions of the native tissue when it is damaged or diseased. In most tissues, collagen makes up the bulk component of the extracellular matrix, thus, there is great emphasis on its accurate quantification in tissue engineering. It has already been reported that pepsin digestion is able to solubilize the collagen deposited within the cell layer for accurate quantification of collagen content in cultures, but this method has drawbacks when cultured cells are hyperconfluent. In this condition, Pepsin digestion will result in fragments of the cell layers that cannot be completely resolved. These fragments of the undigested cell sheet are visible to the naked eye, which can bias the final results. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no reported method to accurately quantify the collagen content in hyperconfluent cell sheet. Therefore, this study aims to illustrate that sonication is able to aid pepsin digestion of hyperconfluent cell layers of fibroblasts and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, to solubilize all the collagen for accurate quantification purposes.

  2. Extracellular DNA affects NO content in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, L V; Alekseeva, A Yu; Konkova, M S; Kostyuk, S V; Ershova, E S; Smirnova, T D; Konorova, I L; Veiko, N N

    2010-08-01

    Fragments of extracellular DNA are permanently released into the blood flow due to cell apoptosis and possible de novo DNA synthesis. To find out whether extracellular DNA can affect the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), one of key vascular tone regulators, we studied in vitro effects of three artificial DNA probes with different sequences and 10 samples of extracellular DNA (obtained from healthy people and patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis) on NO synthesis in endothelial cell culture (HUVEC). For detection of NO in live cells and culture medium, we used a NO-specific agent CuFL penetrating into the cells and forming a fluorescent product FL-NO upon interaction with NO. Human genome DNA fragments affected the content of NO in endothelial cells; this effect depended on both the base sequence and concentration of DNA fragments. Addition of artificial DNA and extracellular DNA from healthy people into the cell culture in a low concentration (5 ng/ml) increased the detected NO concentration by 4-fold at most. Cytosine-guanine (CG)-rich fragment of the transcribed sequence of ribosomal repeat was the most powerful NO-inductor. The effect of DNA fragments on NO synthesis was comparable with that of low doses of oxidizing agents, H(2)O(2) and 17β-estradiol. Extracellular DNA samples obtained from patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis decreased NO content in cells and medium by 1.3-28 times compared to the control; the effect correlated with the content of CG-rich sequences.

  3. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  4. Novel negative mass density resonant metamaterial unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cselyuszka, Norbert, E-mail: cselyu@yahoo.com; Sečujski, Milan, E-mail: secujski@uns.ac.rs; Crnojević-Bengin, Vesna, E-mail: bengin@uns.ac.rs

    2015-01-02

    In this paper a novel resonant unit cell of one-dimensional acoustic metamaterials is presented, which exhibits negative effective mass density. We theoretically analyze the unit cell and develop a closed analytical formula for its effective mass density. Then we proceed to demonstrate left-handed propagation of acoustic waves using the proposed unit cell. Finally, we present its dual-band version, capable of operating at two independent frequencies. - Highlights: • A novel acoustic metamaterial unit cell provides Lorentz-type resonant effective mass density. • Analytical formula for effective mass density is derived. • Acoustic bandstop medium and left-handed metamaterial based on the novel unit cell are presented. • Modified version of the unit cell, operating at two independent frequencies, is proposed.

  5. Size and Carbon Content of Sub-seafloor Microbial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S.; Morono, Y.; Littmann, S.; Jørgensen, B. B.; Lomstein, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Into the seafloor, a radical decline in nutrient and energy availability poses strong metabolic demands to any residing life. However, a sedimentary microbial ecosystem seems to maintain itself close to what we understand to be the energetic limit of life. Since a complex sediment matrix is interfering with the analysis of whole cells and sub-cellular compounds such as cell wall and membrane molecules, little is known about the physiological properties of cells in the deep biosphere. Here we focus on the size and carbon content of cells from a 90-m sediment drill core retrieved in October 2013 at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea, in 437 meters water depth. To determine their shape and volume, cells were separated from the sediment matrix by multi-layer density centrifugation and visualized via fluorescence microscopy (FM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED). Total cell-carbon was calculated from amino acid-carbon, which was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography after cells had additionally been purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Cell-carbon turnover times were estimated using an amino acid racemization model that is based on the built-in molecular clock of aspartic acid, which due to racemization alternates between the D- and L-isomeric configurations over timescales of thousands of years at low in-situ temperatures (≈4˚C). We find that the majority of microbial cells in the sediment have coccoid or rod-shaped morphology, and that absolute values for cell volume are strongly dependent on the method used, spanning three orders of magnitude from approximately 0.001 to 1 µm3 for both coccoid and rod-shaped cells. From the surface to the deepest sample measured (≈60 mbsf), cell volume decreases by an order of magnitude, and carbon content is in the lower range (factors. Cell-carbon is turned over approximately every 50-600 years, and total carbon oxidation rates decrease from ≈3400

  6. Regulating web content: the nexus of legislation and performance standards in the United Kingdom and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoumis, G Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Despite different historical traditions, previous research demonstrates a convergence between regulatory approaches in the United Kingdom and Norway. To understand this convergence, this article examines how different policy traditions influence the legal obligations of performance standards regulating web content for use by persons with disabilities. While convergence has led to similar policy approaches, I argue that national policy traditions have an impact on how governments establish legal obligations for standards compliance. The analysis reveals that national policy traditions influenced antidiscrimination legislation and the capacity and authority of regulatory agencies, which impacted the diverging legal obligations of standards in the United Kingdom and Norway. The analysis further suggests that policy actors mediate the reciprocal influence between national policy traditions and regulatory convergence mechanisms.

  7. Knowledge Quartet’s Unit of Contingency in the Light of Mathematics Content Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiha Kula

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to introduce the Contingency unit of Knowledge Quartet, which is a framework used in assessing mathematics student teachers’ subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge, address its significance and demonstrate examples from its reflections on classroom setting. The study initially covers the type of knowledge that teachers should possess and Knowledge Quartet, which enables examining and assessing subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge together. Next, general information was given regarding knowledge units of this model and it was explained including contingency components. Finally, the importance of Contingency was mentioned and some examples in classroom setting were discussed. It is thought that through this study, awareness of mathematics student teachers can be made ensured with regards to situations that teachers may encounter and that are almost impossible to plan in advance.Key Words:    Contingency, knowledge quartet, mathematics student teacher, subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge

  8. A Unit Cell Laboratory Experiment: Marbles, Magnets, and Stacking Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David C.

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate first-semester general chemistry laboratory experiment introducing face-centered, body-centered, and simple cubic unit cells is presented. Emphasis is placed on the stacking arrangement of solid spheres used to produce a particular unit cell. Marbles and spherical magnets are employed to prepare each stacking arrangement. Packing…

  9. Changes in growth, rRNA content, and cell morphology of Listeria monocytogenes induced by CO2 up- and downshift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jydegaard-Axelsen, A.M.; Aaes-Jorgensen, A.; Koch, A.G.;

    2005-01-01

    Cell morphology, rRNA content, and growth were examined for Listeria monocytogenes LO28 and EGD, respectively, grown in brain-heart infusion (BHI) and on slices of sausage at 10degreesC in 100% CO2, 100% N-2, and air. In CO2, filamentous cells were formed by both strains on sausage slices and by L...... unchanged. On sausage slices, the number of colony forming units also increased rapidly for both strains in response to CO2 downshift. Large variations in rRNA content of individual cells were observed in the tested scenarios. The results demonstrate the risk of underestimating the number of infectious...

  10. Changes in growth, rRNA content, and cell morphology of Listeria monocytogenes induced by CO2 up- and downshift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jydegaard-Axelsen, A.M.; Aaes-Jorgensen, A.; Koch, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Cell morphology, rRNA content, and growth were examined for Listeria monocytogenes LO28 and EGD, respectively, grown in brain-heart infusion (BHI) and on slices of sausage at 10degreesC in 100% CO2, 100% N-2, and air. In CO2, filamentous cells were formed by both strains on sausage slices and by L...... unchanged. On sausage slices, the number of colony forming units also increased rapidly for both strains in response to CO2 downshift. Large variations in rRNA content of individual cells were observed in the tested scenarios. The results demonstrate the risk of underestimating the number of infectious...

  11. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  12. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  13. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  14. Histamine content and secretion in basophils and mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, A M

    1998-01-01

    Biochemical determinations of the histamine content and secretion from basophils and mast cells have been available for some time, and much of the complex anatomy of these cellular populations and their release reactions has been documented using the electron microscope. The ultrastructural analyses led to the description of vesicular transport between secretory granules and the plasma membrane as a mechanism for secretion from basophils and mast cells--a process termed piecemeal degranulation. Proof of concepts incorporated in a general degranulation model put forth in 1975 (DVORAK, H.F. and DVORAK, A.M.) requires high magnification imaging of a granule constituent in trafficking vesicles in the process of a stimulated release reaction in which the constituent release is monitored biochemically. Development and application of a new enzyme-affinity method to detect histamine at high magnifications in well-preserved ultrastructural samples have provided the necessary means to establish proof that appropriate secretagogues can stimulate the vesicular transport of histamine in basophils and mast cells during release reactions monitored biochemically. The background information necessary to the understanding of this result is presented here, as well as the development and verification of the diamine oxidase-gold method to image histamine in human mast cell granules as the test system. Also presented are applications using this technology to examine histamine stores and secretion in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo in human basophils and mast cells and in mouse mast cells. Specifically examined are histamine stores developing in maturing mast cells induced to develop de novo from cultured human cord blood cells, secretagogue-stimulated release and recovery of histamine stores from isolated, purified human lung mast cells ex vivo, cytokine-stimulated degranulation of human skin mast cells and their histamine stores in vivo, piecemeal degranulation of human gut mast cells and

  15. Single cell analysis in native tissue: Quantification of the retinoid content of hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Kerstin; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Glaser, Uwe; Markwart, Robby; Bocklitz, Thomas; Bauer, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, Ute

    2016-04-11

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are retinoid storing cells in the liver: The retinoid content of those cells changes depending on nutrition and stress level. There are also differences with regard to a HSC's anatomical position in the liver. Up to now, retinoid levels were only accessible from bulk measurements of tissue homogenates or cell extracts. Unfortunately, they do not account for the intercellular variability. Herein, Raman spectroscopy relying on excitation by the minimally destructive wavelength 785 nm is introduced for the assessment of the retinoid state of single HSCs in freshly isolated, unprocessed murine liver lobes. A quantitative estimation of the cellular retinoid content is derived. Implications of the retinoid content on hepatic health state are reported. The Raman-based results are integrated with histological assessments of the tissue samples. This spectroscopic approach enables single cell analysis regarding an important cellular feature in unharmed tissue.

  16. Curricular Inclusion of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Content in Occupational Therapy Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Michelle L

    2016-10-01

    An exploratory, cross-sectional survey design was used to explore the extent to which CAM was included, what factors impacted its inclusion, topics and student learning outcomes covered, who taught the material, and what sources were used to prepare for delivering course content. While the vast majority of responding occupational therapy educators reported curricular inclusion of CAM, educational experiences for occupational therapy students varied widely. This overview of the curricular inclusion of CAM by faculty in occupational therapy programs in the United States indicated that many occupational therapy educators are responding to the demands of a more integrative healthcare system. Resolving ethical and pragmatic issues, providing faculty development opportunities, and standardizing student learning outcomes would align all stakeholders and mitigate ambiguities that currently exist surrounding the inclusion of CAM in occupational therapy education.

  17. Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Liu, Yining; Dyke, Jason V

    2008-02-15

    Adequacy of iodine nutrition in the United States has lately been of concern. A major source of dietary iodine for the U.S. population is iodized salt. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) recommends 60-100 mg Kl/kg salt, equivalent to 46-76 mg l/kg salt. All U.S. iodized salt contains 45 mg l/kg according to labels. We collected samples of table salt from freshly opened containers from U.S. volunteers. A sample was sent to us when the can was first purchased. Subsets of volunteers sent further samples when the salt container became half-empty through normal use and a further final sample when the container was nearly finished. We also looked at iodine distribution homogeneity within individual containers, loss of iodine from salt upon exposure to humidity and sunlight, and upon short-term heating (dry and in solution) as may be encountered in cooking. Measurements were made in 0.01% w/v salt solutions by induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with 72Ge as an internal standard. The median and mean (+/-sd) I content in freshly opened top-of-the-can salt samples was 44.1 and 47.5 +/- 18.5 mg/kg (n=88, range 12.7-129 mg l/kg) and geometric mean and standard deviation of 44.70 and 1.41. Forty-seven of 88 samples fell below the USFDA recommended I content while 6 exceeded it. The homogeneity in a single can of salt varied greatly: in 5 samples taken from the same container from different depths, the iodine content varied by as little as 1.2x (8.3% coefficient of variance (CV)) to as much as 3.3x (49.3% CV) from one container/brand to another. Iodine is significantly lost upon high humidity storage but light or dry heat has little effect. There is much recent literature on iodine sufficiency and uptake inhibitors; there is also much misinformation and disinformation. We review the relevant literature and discuss our results with reference to the United States.

  18. Deformability of Red Blood Cells and Correlation with ATP Content during Storage as Leukocyte-Depleted Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Ralf; Lukow, Christian; Kretschmer, Volker

    2012-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Storage duration of red cells has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality following transfusion. This association has been attributed to the loss of deformability of stored red cells leading to deterioration of microvascular perfusion. ATP content is considered a critical determinant of the deformability of stored red cells. METHODS: ATP content and deformability were determined after storage for up to 49 days in 40 leukocyte-depleted whole blood units. Red cell deformability was determined using a laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyzer (LORCA( (®) )) employing shear stress (SS) ranging from 0.3 to 30 Pa. Deformability was expressed as the elongation index (EI). EI was correlated with ATP content. RESULTS: ATP content decreased from 3.5 to 1.7 ?mol/g hemoglobin. EI increased from 0.03 to 0.05 at an SS of 0.3 Pa, and decreased from 0.62 to 0.59 at an SS of 30 Pa. Correlation coefficient (r) of ATP vs. EI at 0.3 Pa ranged from -0.17 to +0.15 during storage. At 30 Pa, r ranged from -0.03 to +0.45. Correlation increased with storage irrespective of SS, and increased with SS irrespective of storage. CONCLUSIONS: ATP content is not a valid surrogate marker for red cell deformability and may not reflect in vivo survival of stored red cells.

  19. High-Content Screening for Quantitative Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzi Usaj, Mojca; Styles, Erin B; Verster, Adrian J; Friesen, Helena; Boone, Charles; Andrews, Brenda J

    2016-08-01

    High-content screening (HCS), which combines automated fluorescence microscopy with quantitative image analysis, allows the acquisition of unbiased multiparametric data at the single cell level. This approach has been used to address diverse biological questions and identify a plethora of quantitative phenotypes of varying complexity in numerous different model systems. Here, we describe some recent applications of HCS, ranging from the identification of genes required for specific biological processes to the characterization of genetic interactions. We review the steps involved in the design of useful biological assays and automated image analysis, and describe major challenges associated with each. Additionally, we highlight emerging technologies and future challenges, and discuss how the field of HCS might be enhanced in the future.

  20. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  1. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  2. Branched chain fatty acid content of United States retail cow's milk and implications for dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, R R; Sim, D; O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Bauman, D E; Barbano, D M; Brenna, J T

    2011-07-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 14-18 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 ± 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean ± SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids.

  3. Fabrication and characteristics of unit cell for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Eom, Seung-Wook; Moon, Seong-In [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Kyongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Research and development on solid oxide fuel cells in Korea have been mainly focused on unit cell and small stack. Fuel cell system is called clean generation system which not cause NOx or SOx. It is generation efficiency come to 50-60% in contrast to 40% of combustion generation system. Among the fuel cell system, solid oxide fuel cell is constructed of ceramics, so stack construction is simple, power density is very high, and there are no corrosion problems. The object of this study is to develop various composing material for SOFC generation system, and to test unit cell performance manufactured. So we try to present a guidance for developing mass power generation system. We concentrated on development of manufacturing process for cathode, anode and electrolyte.

  4. "allometry" Deterministic Approaches in Cell Size, Cell Number and Crude Fiber Content Related to the Physical Quality of Kangkong (Ipomoea reptans) Grown Under Different Plant Density Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, A.; Atiman, S. A.; Puteh, A.; Abdullah, N. A. P.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Zulkeefli, A. A.; Othman, S.

    Kangkong, especially the upland type (Ipomoea reptans) is popularly consumed as a vegetable dish in the South East Asian countries for its quality related to Vitamins (A and C) and crude fiber contents. Higher fiber contents would prevent from the occurrence of colon cancer and diverticular disease. With young stem edible portion, its cell number and size contribute to the stem crude fiber content. The mathematical approach of allometry of cell size, number, and fiber content of stem could be used in determining the 'best' plant density pressure in producing the quality young stem to be consumed. Basically, allometry is the ratio of relative increment (growth or change) rates of two parameters, or the change rate associated to the log of measured variables relationship. Kangkog grown equal or lower than 55 plants m-2 produced bigger individual plant and good quality (physical) kangkong leafy vegetable, but with lower total yield per unit area as compared to those grown at higher densities.

  5. Proliferation conditions for human satellite cells. The fractional content of satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Schrøder, H D

    2001-01-01

    the fraction of Sc in culture. Evaluation of different culture conditions allowed us to find proliferation conditions preferentially for Sc: a) Sc should be cultured on surfaces coated with ECM-gel. b) Primary cell culture should be inoculated in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum to increase cell......Primary satellite cell cultures have become an important tool as a model system for skeletal muscles. A common problem in human satellite cell culturing is fibroblast overgrowth. We combined N-CAM (Leu19) immunocytochemical staining of satellite cells (Sc) with stereological methods to estimate...... adherence. c) Change of media to DMEM supplemented with 2% Ultroser-G and 2% FCS after 24 h.d) Before subcultivation, cells should be preplated for 30 min. The fractional content of Sc in passage four when applying this method of cultivation was 0.82 +/- 0.07 (mean +/- SE, N = 10). Our method enabled us...

  6. Rare Coumarins Induce Apoptosis, G1 Cell Block and Reduce RNA Content in HL60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widelski Jarosław

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare coumarins stenocarpin, stenocarpin isobutyrate, oficinalin, oficinalin isobutyrate, 8-methoxypeucedanin and the known xanthotoxin, isoimperatorin, bergapten, peucedanin and 8–methoxyisoimperatorin were isolated from Peucedanum luxurians Tamamsch. (Apiaceae and identified by means of spectral data (1D and 2D NMR. Their immunomodulating activity was evaluated by flow cytometry and their influence on HL60 cells as well as on PHA-stimulated PBLs was tested. All tested coumarins induce apoptosis (maximal in the 48 h culture and decrease cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, especially in HL60 cells. They also induce partial G1 block, but only in HL60 cells (at 100 µM concentrations. Dose-dependent reduction of RNA content was also found in G1 cells treated by the coumarins. All of the tested coumarins also possessed immunomodulatory activities. Bergapten and xanthotoxin were found to be the best candidates for further evaluation as anti-cancer drugs.

  7. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, David M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Guenther, Chris P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Shekhawat, Dushyant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); VanEssendelft, Dirk T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Means, Nicholas C. [AECOM Technology Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-23

    A full engineering scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) system is being used at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) to stabilize acidic Low Activity Waste (LAW) known as Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW). The INTEC facility, known as the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), underwent an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) in March 2014. The IWTU began non-radioactive simulant processing in late 2014 and by January, 2015 ; the IWTU had processed 62,000 gallons of simulant. The facility is currently in a planned outage for inspection of the equipment and will resume processing simulated waste feed before commencing to process 900,000 gallons of radioactive SBW. The SBW acidic waste will be made into a granular FBSR product (carbonate based) for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In the FBSR process calcined coal is used to create a CO2 fugacity to force the waste species to convert to carbonate species. The quality of the coal, which is a feed input, is important because the reactivity, moisture, and volatiles (C,H,N,O, and S) in the coal impact the reactions and control of the mineralizing process in the primary steam reforming vessel, the Denitration and Mineralizing Reformer (DMR). Too much moisture in the coal can require that additional coal be used. However since moisture in the coal is only a small fraction of the moisture from the fluidizing steam this can be self-correcting. If the coal reactivity or heating value is too low then the coal feedrate needs to be adjusted to achieve the desired heat generation. Too little coal and autothermal heat generation in the DMR cannot be sustained and/or the carbon dioxide fugacity will be too low to create the desired carbonate mineral species. Too much coal and excess S and hydroxide species can form. Excess sulfur from coal that (1) is too rich in sulfur or (2) from overfeeding coal can promote wall scale and contribute to corrosion

  8. Learning about the Unit Cell and Crystal Lattice with Computerized Simulations and Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luealamai, Sutha; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based learning module on the unit cell of various types of crystal. The module has two components: the virtual unit cell (VUC) part and the subsequent unit cell hunter part. The VUC is a virtual reality simulation for students to actively arrive at the unit cell from exploring, from a broad view, the crystal…

  9. Learning about the Unit Cell and Crystal Lattice with Computerized Simulations and Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luealamai, Sutha; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based learning module on the unit cell of various types of crystal. The module has two components: the virtual unit cell (VUC) part and the subsequent unit cell hunter part. The VUC is a virtual reality simulation for students to actively arrive at the unit cell from exploring, from a broad view, the crystal…

  10. Influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of Ti–Cu sintered alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Erlin, E-mail: zhangel@atm.neu.edu.cn [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Zheng, Lanlan [Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Liu, Jie [Key Lab. for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Education Ministry of China, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Dept. of Prosthodontics, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003 (China); Bai, Bing [Dept. of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Liaoning Institute of Dental Research, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Cong [Jiamusi University, Jiamusi 154007 (China)

    2015-01-01

    The cell toxicity and the cell function of Ti–Cu sintered alloys with different Cu contents (2, 5, 10 and 25 wt.%, respectively) have been investigated in comparison with commercial pure titanium in order to assess the influence of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility of the Ti–Cu alloys. The cytotoxicity was studied by examining the MG63 cell response by CCK8 assessment. The cell morphology was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence and observed under scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The cell function was monitored by measuring the AKP activity. It has been shown by the AO/EB morphology results that the cell death on both cp-Ti sample and Ti–Cu samples is due to apoptosis rather than necrosis. Although more apoptotic cells were found on the Ti–2Cu and Ti–5Cu samples, no evidence of Cu content dependent manner of apoptosis has been found. SEM observation indicated very good cell adhesion and spread on the cp-Ti sample and the Ti–Cu samples with different Cu contents. CCK8 results displayed that increase in the Cu content in Ti–Cu alloys does not bring about any difference in the cell viability. In addition, AKP test results indicated that no difference in the differentiation of MG63 was found between the cp-Ti and the Ti–Cu samples and among the Ti–Cu samples. All results indicated that Ti–Cu alloys exhibit very good cell biocompatibility and the Cu content up to 25 wt.% in the Ti–Cu alloys has no influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • The effect of Cu content on the cell biocompatibility has been investigated. • Cu content shows no influence on the cell proliferation. • Cu content shows no effect on the cell differentiation.

  11. National Survey of Genetics Content in Basic Nursing Preparatory Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetteberg, Carol G.; Prows, Cynthia A.; Deets, Carol; Monsen, Rita B.; Kenner, Carole A.

    1999-01-01

    A sample of 879 basic nursing programs was used to identify the type and amount of genetics content in curricula. Recommendations were made for increasing genetics content as a result of the synthesis of the survey data with previously collected data. (25 references) (Author/JOW)

  12. Mesothelioma tumor cells modulate dendritic cell lipid content, phenotype and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne K Gardner

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play an important role in the generation of anti-cancer immune responses, however there is evidence that DCs in cancer patients are dysfunctional. Lipid accumulation driven by tumor-derived factors has recently been shown to contribute to DC dysfunction in several human cancers, but has not yet been examined in mesothelioma. This study investigated if mesothelioma tumor cells and/or their secreted factors promote increases in DC lipid content and modulate DC function. Human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs were exposed to human mesothelioma tumor cells and tumor-derived factors in the presence or absence of lipoproteins. The data showed that immature MoDCs exposed to mesothelioma cells or factors contained increased lipid levels relative to control DCs. Lipid accumulation was associated with reduced antigen processing ability (measured using a DQ OVA assay, upregulation of the co-stimulatory molecule, CD86, and production of the tolerogenic cytokine, IL-10. Increases in DC lipid content were further enhanced by co-exposure to mesothelioma-derived factors and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, but not low-density lipoproteins. In vivo studies using a murine mesothelioma model showed that the lipid content of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ CD8α- DCs, CD4- CD8α- DCs DCs and plasmacytoid DCs increased with tumor progression. Moreover, increasing tumor burden was associated with reduced proliferation of tumor-antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. This study shows that mesothelioma promotes DC lipid acquisition, which is associated with altered activation status and reduced capacity to process and present antigens, which may impair the ability of DCs to generate effective anti mesothelioma T cell responses.

  13. Biology 23. Unit One -- The Cell: Structure and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Not given. SUBJECT MATTER: Biology, the structure and physiology of the cell. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four sections: a) objectives for the unit, b) bibliography, c) activities, and d) evaluation. The guide is directed to the student rather than the teacher. The guide is mimeographed and stapled, with no…

  14. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  15. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell mini power unit for portable application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, F.; Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Passalacqua, E.; Zerbinati, O.

    This paper describes the design, realisation and test of a power unit based on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, operating at room temperature, for portable application. The device is composed of an home made air breathing fuel cell stack, a metal hydride tank for H 2 supply, a dc-dc converter for power output control and a fan for stack cooling. The stack is composed by 10 cells with an active surface of 25 cm 2 and produces a rated power of 15 W at 6 V and 2 A. The stack successfully runs with end-off fed hydrogen without appreciable performance degradation during the time. The final assembled system is able to generate 12 W at 9.5 V, and power a portable DVD player for 3 h in continuous. The power unit has collected about 100 h of operation without maintenance.

  16. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell mini power unit for portable application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, F.; Squadrito, G.; Barbera, O.; Giacoppo, G.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5, 98126 S. Lucia, Messina (Italy); Zerbinati, O. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Dip. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy)

    2007-06-20

    This paper describes the design, realisation and test of a power unit based on a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, operating at room temperature, for portable application. The device is composed of an home made air breathing fuel cell stack, a metal hydride tank for H{sub 2} supply, a dc-dc converter for power output control and a fan for stack cooling. The stack is composed by 10 cells with an active surface of 25 cm{sup 2} and produces a rated power of 15 W at 6 V and 2 A. The stack successfully runs with end-off fed hydrogen without appreciable performance degradation during the time. The final assembled system is able to generate 12 W at 9.5 V, and power a portable DVD player for 3 h in continuous. The power unit has collected about 100 h of operation without maintenance. (author)

  17. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF BAGASSE OF JAGGERY UNIT USING MICROWAVE OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. ANWAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In jaggery making furnaces, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel. Moisture content of bagasse affects its calorific value. So burning of bagasse at suitable level of moisture is essential from the viewpoint of furnace performance. Moisture content can also be used for indirect calculation of fibre content in sugarcane. Normally gravimetric method is used for moisture content determination, which is time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to use microwave oven for drying of bagasse. It took about 20 to 25 minutes for the determination as compared to 8-10 hours in conventional hot air drying method and the results were comparable to the values obtained from hot air drying method.

  18. But science is international! Finding time and space to encourage intercultural learning in a content-driven physiology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    Internationalization of the curriculum is central to the strategic direction of many modern universities and has widespread benefits for student learning. However, these clear aspirations for internationalization of the curriculum have not been widely translated into more internationalized course content and teaching methods in the classroom, particularly in scientific disciplines. This study addressed one major challenge to promoting intercultural competence among undergraduate science students: finding time to scaffold such learning within the context of content-heavy, time-poor units. Small changes to enhance global and intercultural awareness were incorporated into existing assessments and teaching activities within a second-year biomedical physiology unit. Interventions were designed to start a conversation about global and intercultural perspectives on physiology, to embed the development of global awareness into the assessment and to promote cultural exchanges through peer interactions. In student surveys, 40% of domestic and 60% of international student respondents articulated specific learning about interactions in cross-cultural groups resulting from unit activities. Many students also identified specific examples of how cultural beliefs would impact on the place of biomedical physiology within the global community. In addition, staff observed more widespread benefits for student engagement and learning. It is concluded that a significant development of intercultural awareness and a more global perspective on scientific understanding can be supported among undergraduates with relatively modest, easy to implement adaptations to course content.

  19. Microbial fuel cells as pollutant treatment units: Research updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are a device that can convert chemical energy in influent substances to electricity via biological pathways. Based on the consent that MFC technology should be applied as a waste/wastewater treatment unit rather than a renewable energy source, this mini-review discussed recent R&D efforts on MFC technologies for pollutant treatments and highlighted the challenges and research and development needs. Owing to the low power density levels achievable by larger-scale MFC, the MFC should be used as a device other than energy source such as being a pollutant treatment unit.

  20. Comparison of the Content,Uniformity of Dosage Units and Dissolution Rate of Triphasic Oral Contraceptives from Two Pharmaceutical Factories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan LIU; Ying LI; Jian-Ping LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the content,uniformity of dosage units and dissolution rate of triphasic oral contraceptives from two pharmaceutical factories A and B.Methods A High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC)method for the simultaneous determination of levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol was used.The content of levonorgestrel(LNG)was monitored by an UV detector at 247 nm,while ethinylestradiol(EE)was monitored by fluorescence detector with the excitation of 285 nm and emission wavelengths of 310 nm.The dissolution test was performed using the paddle method.Results The content of levonorgestrel(LNG)and ethinylestradiol(EE)in product A was within 100.5%-122.4% while product B within 120.6%-140.9%.The uniformity value of dosage units of tablets from two factories was more than 15.The dissolution rate of tables from two factories was more than 60% within 60 min.Conclusion Only the content of product A was in the ±25% range of label claim.The uniformity of two products was not up to standard.The dissolution rate of the tablets from two products met the requirement of ChP2005.

  1. [Effect of polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on migration and polyamines contents of IEC-6 cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng; Sui, Jing-Jing; Li, Ru-Liu; Zhao, Shi-Qing; Lu, Wen-Biao; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2012-07-01

    To study the effect of polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on migration and polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents of IEC-6 cell. Cell migration model was induced by scratch method in each well,and the polyamines in IEC-6 cell was determined by pre-column derivation high performance liquid chromatography. The polysaccharides inhibited effect on migration and polyamines contents of IEC-6 cells, and on IEC-6 cell migration by DFMO (a polyamines synthesis inhibitor) and the polyamines contents in the cells were observed. The polysaccharides (50 mg/L or 100 mg/L) was able to promote the cell migration, reverse the cell migration inhibition by DFMO, enhance the IEC-6 cell polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents in the process of cell migration and reverse the reduction of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) induced by DFMO. The effect of Radix Glycyrrhizae on the gastrointestinal mucosal damage repairing may be related to increasing polyamine content in cells and promoting cell migration.

  2. Nicotine Content and Physical Properties of Large Cigars and Cigarillos in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Thanner, Meridith Hill; Pickworth, Wallace B; Taylor, Kenneth M; Hull, Lynn C; Schroeder, Megan J

    2017-03-04

    Cigars are combusted tobacco products consisting of filler, binder, and wrapper, which are derived from tobacco. Despite the abundance of literature on the composition of traditional combusted cigarettes, research is limited on the physical and chemical properties of cigars. Therefore, research on cigar properties may be useful to better understand their health impact. In this study, twenty large cigar and cigarillo products were characterized for physical properties (ie, weight, length, and diameter), filler nicotine content, and tobacco pH. Tobacco pH was used to calculate free nicotine content, free nicotine concentration, and percent free nicotine for all cigars using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation. An additional analysis was performed on a second batch of two large cigar and two cigarillo brands to determine within-brand consistency. All analyses were performed in triplicate. The initial analysis of the twenty cigars showed that cigars exhibited wide variation in product size and nicotine content, although tobacco pH was similar across cigars. Furthermore, in the two large cigar and cigarillo brands analyzed a second time, there was considerable within-brand variance in nicotine content and concentration between the first and second analyses. While only a small sample of commercially-available cigars was analyzed, our data suggest there is wide variability in nicotine content and some physical properties in the domestic cigar market. The data may help to inform potential future regulatory decisions related to these products. This study reveals some of the challenges to experimental cigar research and illustrates the need to characterize cigar products (eg, nicotine and tobacco content) before use in clinical studies. Additional studies and characterization of the physical and chemical properties of cigars may be useful to further understand these products' toxicity, abuse potential, and public health impact.

  3. Autografting with CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells: retained engraftment capability and reduced tumour cell content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voso, M T; Hohaus, S; Moos, M; Pförsich, M; Cremer, F W; Schlenk, R F; Martin, S; Hegenbart, U; Goldschmidt, H; Haas, R

    1999-02-01

    The efficacy of an immunomagnetic purging method and the Isolex 300 devices were assessed for selecting CD34+ cells from leukapheresis products of 29 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 39 with multiple myeloma and 34 with breast cancer. The mean purity of the CD34+ cell population was 93.6% and the mean recovery was 67.7%. Following enzymatic cleavage by chymopapain the expression of Thy-1 and Leu-8 was significantly reduced without affecting haematological recovery. The population of selected CD34+ cells of 4/8 patients with follicular lymphoma became PCR-negative. A 2.5 log reduction of tumour cells could be achieved in four patients with multiple myeloma as shown by a quantitative PCR assay. There were no tumour cells detectable in any of the 19 CD34+ cell preparations of patients with breast cancer. In 64 patients who received 94 cycles of high-dose therapy, a mean number of 4.7x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were autografted. The time needed for platelet reconstitution was different when a comparison was made with 156 patients, who had received unmanipulated leukapheresis products (10 v 12 d, P = 0.006). No significant differences with regard to neutrophil recovery were noted. Five patients had a graft failure. Two of them died (on day 78 and 88 following PBSCT), and three patients were rescued with unmanipulated back-up transplants. In conclusion, the immunomagnetic selection of CD34+ cells provides autografts with reduced tumour cell content and an engraftment ability similar to that of unmanipulated autografts.

  4. Sodium content in packaged foods by census division in the United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexandra K; Schieb, Linda J; Yuan, Keming; Maalouf, Joyce; Gillespie, Cathleen; Cogswell, Mary E

    2015-04-02

    Excess sodium intake correlates positively with high blood pressure. Blood pressure varies by region, but whether sodium content of foods sold varies across regions is unknown. We combined nutrition and sales data from 2009 to assess the regional variation of sodium in packaged food products sold in 3 of the 9 US census divisions. Although sodium density and concentration differed little by region, fewer than half of selected food products met Food and Drug Administration sodium-per-serving conditions for labeling as "healthy." Regional differences in hypertension were not reflected in differences in the sodium content of packaged foods from grocery stores.

  5. Zero loss magnetic metamaterials using powered active unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2009-08-31

    We report the design and experimental measurement of a powered active magnetic metamaterial with tunable permeability. The unit cell is based on the combination of an embedded radiofrequency amplifier and a tunable phase shifter, which together control the response of the medium. The measurements show that a negative permeability metamaterial with zero loss or even gain can be achieved through an array of such metamaterial cells. This kind of active metamaterial can find use in applications that are performance limited due to material losses.

  6. A heated vapor cell unit for DAVLL in atomic rubidium

    OpenAIRE

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm-long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field...

  7. A content review of precision agriculture courses in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of what precision agriculture (PA) content is currently taught in North America will help build a better understanding for what PA instructors should incorporate into their classes in the future. The University of Missouri partnered with several universities throughout the nation on a USDA...

  8. Group Counseling with United States Racial Minority Groups: A 25-Year Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark-Rose, Rose M.; Livingston-Sacin, Tina M.; Merchant, Niloufer; Finley, Amanda C.

    2012-01-01

    A 25-year content analysis was conducted of published group work articles that focused on 5 racial groups (African American, Asian American/Pacific Islander, Latino/a, Native American, and Intercultural group). Articles were included if they described an intervention or conceptual model with 1 of the racial groups. The analysis revealed 15 content…

  9. Determination of salt content in hot takeaway meals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Stevenson, Leonard; Davies, Ian G

    2012-10-01

    High sodium intake is associated with negative health outcomes, including an independent correlation with high blood pressure which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A high proportion of sodium intake in the UK is from processed and out of the home food; this includes takeaway food which is increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate salt levels in popular hot takeaway meals. A total of 411 samples of 23 different types of takeaway meals were analysed. Obtained results show the salt content in these kinds of foods is alarmingly high. Comparing medians (interquartile range) for different meal categories, Pizzas contained the highest salt content per portion (9.45 g (6.97-12.83)), followed by Chinese meals (8.07 g (5.47-10.99 g)), Kebabs (6.21 g (4.01-8.35)) and Indian meals (4.73 g (3.61-6.10)). In addition, significant differences in the salt content between meals within the same category were reported. To enable the consumer to meet the UK's target salt intake, a significant reduction in the salt content of hot takeaway meals should be considered.

  10. The relationship between taste and nutrient content in commercially available foods from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, van A.W.B.; Gibbons, Shannon; Koelliker, Yvonne; Civille, Gail V.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.

    2017-01-01

    Taste is often suggested to have a nutrient-signalling function that may be important for food intake regulation, though limited data exists to support this notion. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between taste and nutrient content, and to explore the effect of food form on this rel

  11. The relationship between taste and nutrient content in commercially available foods from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, van A.W.B.; Gibbons, Shannon; Koelliker, Yvonne; Civille, Gail V.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.

    2017-01-01

    Taste is often suggested to have a nutrient-signalling function that may be important for food intake regulation, though limited data exists to support this notion. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between taste and nutrient content, and to explore the effect of food form on this

  12. Group Counseling with United States Racial Minority Groups: A 25-Year Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark-Rose, Rose M.; Livingston-Sacin, Tina M.; Merchant, Niloufer; Finley, Amanda C.

    2012-01-01

    A 25-year content analysis was conducted of published group work articles that focused on 5 racial groups (African American, Asian American/Pacific Islander, Latino/a, Native American, and Intercultural group). Articles were included if they described an intervention or conceptual model with 1 of the racial groups. The analysis revealed 15 content…

  13. Content Analysis of Conceptually Based Physical Education in Southeastern United States Universities and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne Ellen; Greene, Leon; Satinsky, Sonya; Neuberger, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to explore PE in higher education through the offering of traditional activity- and skills-based physical education (ASPE) and conceptually-based physical education (CPE) courses, and to conduct an exploratory content analysis on the CPE available to students in randomized colleges and universities in the…

  14. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells coupled with a biomass gasification unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkiewicz Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of fuelling a solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC with biomass fuels can be realized by coupling a SOFC system with a self-standing gasification unit. Such a solution enables multi-fuel operation, elasticity of the system as well as the increase of the efficiency of small-scale biomass-to-electricity conversion units. A system of this type, consisting of biomass gasification unit, gas purification unit, SOFC stack, anode off-gas afterburner and peripherals was constructed and operated successfully. During the process, biomass fuel (wood chips was gasified with air as gasification agent. The gasifier was capable of converting up to 30 kW of fuel to syngas with efficiencies up to 75%. Syngas leaving the gasification unit is delivered to a medium temperature adsorber for sulphur compounds removal. Steam is added to the purified fuel to maintain steam to carbon ratio higher than 2. The syngas then is passed to a SOFC stack through a fuel preheater. In such a configuration it was possible to operate a commercial 1.3 kW stack within its working regime. Conducted tests confirmed successful operation of a SOFC stack fuelled by biomass-sourced syngas.

  16. The Cell Ontology 2016: enhanced content, modularization, and ontology interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alexander D; Meehan, Terrence F; Bradford, Yvonne M; Brush, Matthew H; Dahdul, Wasila M; Dougall, David S; He, Yongqun; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vasilevsky, Nicole A; Haendel, Melissa A; Blake, Judith A; Mungall, Christopher J

    2016-07-04

    The Cell Ontology (CL) is an OBO Foundry candidate ontology covering the domain of canonical, natural biological cell types. Since its inception in 2005, the CL has undergone multiple rounds of revision and expansion, most notably in its representation of hematopoietic cells. For in vivo cells, the CL focuses on vertebrates but provides general classes that can be used for other metazoans, which can be subtyped in species-specific ontologies. Recent work on the CL has focused on extending the representation of various cell types, and developing new modules in the CL itself, and in related ontologies in coordination with the CL. For example, the Kidney and Urinary Pathway Ontology was used as a template to populate the CL with additional cell types. In addition, subtypes of the class 'cell in vitro' have received improved definitions and labels to provide for modularity with the representation of cells in the Cell Line Ontology and Reagent Ontology. Recent changes in the ontology development methodology for CL include a switch from OBO to OWL for the primary encoding of the ontology, and an increasing reliance on logical definitions for improved reasoning. The CL is now mandated as a metadata standard for large functional genomics and transcriptomics projects, and is used extensively for annotation, querying, and analyses of cell type specific data in sequencing consortia such as FANTOM5 and ENCODE, as well as for the NIAID ImmPort database and the Cell Image Library. The CL is also a vital component used in the modular construction of other biomedical ontologies-for example, the Gene Ontology and the cross-species anatomy ontology, Uberon, use CL to support the consistent representation of cell types across different levels of anatomical granularity, such as tissues and organs. The ongoing improvements to the CL make it a valuable resource to both the OBO Foundry community and the wider scientific community, and we continue to experience increased interest in the

  17. Shifting forest value orientations in the United States, 1980-2001: A computer content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Trevor J. Webb; David P. Fan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines three forest value orientations - clusters of interrelated values and basic beliefs about forests - that emerged from an analysis of the public discourse about forest planning, management, and policy in the United States. The value orientations include anthropocentric, biocentric, and moral/spiritual/aesthetic orientations toward forests. Computer...

  18. Contemporary Development of Academic Reference Librarianship in the United States: A 44-Year Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanrong; Tang, Yingqi; Knight, Carley

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes job advertisements to identify the contemporary development of academic reference librarianship in the United States. Results show that more job openings, higher educational backgrounds, more duties & responsibilities, and variety of titles were assigned to academic reference librarian positions from 1966 through 2009.…

  19. Solution-Processable Organic Molecule for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells with Low Acceptor Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Guo, Bing; Xu, Zhuo; Guo, Xia; Zhang, Maojie; Li, Yongfang

    2015-11-11

    A new planar D2-A-D1-A-D2 structured organic molecule with bithienyl benzodithiophene (BDT) as central donor unit D1 and fluorine-substituted benzothiadiazole (BTF) as acceptor unit and alkyl-dithiophene as end group and donor unit D2, BDT-BTF, was designed and synthesized for the application as donor material in organic solar cells (OSCs). BDT-BTF shows a broad absorption in visible region, suitable highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of -5.20 eV, and high hole mobility of 1.07 × 10(-2) cm(2)/(V s), benefitted from its high coplanarity and strong crystallinity. The OSCs based on BDT-BTF as donor (D) and PC71BM as acceptor (A) at a D/A weight ratio of 3:1 without any extra treatment exhibit high photovoltaic performance with Voc of 0.85 V, Jsc of 10.48 mA/cm(2), FF of 0.66, and PCE of 5.88%. The morphological study by transmission electron microscopy reveals that the blend of BDT-BTF and PC71BM (3:1, w/w) possesses an appropriate interpenetrating D/A network for the exciton separation and charge carrier transport, which agrees well with the good device performance. The optimized D/A weight ratio of 3:1 is the lowest acceptor content in the active layer reported so far for the high-performance OSCs, and the organic molecules with the molecular structure like BDT-BTF could be promising high-performance donor materials in solution-processable OSCs.

  20. Size and Carbon Content of Sub-seafloor Microbial Cells at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Stefan; Morono, Yuki; Littmann, Sten;

    2016-01-01

    determined the volume and the carbon content of microbial cells from a marine sediment drill core retrieved by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), Expedition 347, at Landsort Deep, Baltic Sea. To determine their shape and volume, cells were separated from the sediment matrix by multi-layer density...... centrifugation and visualized via epifluorescence microscopy (FM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Total cell-carbon was calculated from amino acid-carbon, which was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after cells had been purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS......-specific carbon content was 19–31 fg C cell−1, which is at the lower end of previous estimates that were used for global estimates of microbial biomass. The cell-specific carbon density increased with sediment depth from about 200 to 1000 fg C μm−3, suggesting that cells decrease their water content and grow...

  1. Blood oxygen content in microliter samples using an easy-to-build galvanic oxygen cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, B R; Mills, C D

    1981-02-01

    We have designed a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-build and operate apparatus for measuring blood oxygen content. The galvanic oxygen cell (fuel cell) requires as little as 1 microliter of blood and has a measuring time of 1-3 min. It is well suited for measuring oxygen content in fluids low in oxygen inasmuch as the sensitivity of the instrument is variable. Either air or water (at a known temperature and oxygen tension) can be used for calibration. No significant differences in blood oxygen content measured with our cell or the Van Slyke manometric method were found.

  2. FEASIBILITY OF COLLECTING UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD IN JORDAN AND THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL AND NEONATAL FACTORS ON HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Ahmed Hussein

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that it is feasible to collect cord blood units in Jordan with excellent TNC and CD34+ cell content. The volume of cord blood collected was associated with higher TNC count and CD34+ count. Efforts toward establishing public cord blood banks in our area are warranted.

  3. Thermodynamics of Condensed Phases: Formula Unit Volume, "V[subscript m]", and the Determination of the Number of Formula Units, "Z", in a Crystallographic Unit Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Formula unit (or molecular) volume, "V[subscript m]", is related to many thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, so that knowledge of "V[subscript m]" is useful in prediction of such properties for known and even hypothetical materials. The symbol "Z" represents the number of formula units in a crystallographic unit cell; "Z" thus…

  4. Sodium Content in Packaged Foods by Census Division in the United States, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alexandra K.; Schieb, Linda J.; Yuan, Keming; Maalouf, Joyce; Gillespie, Cathleen; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sodium intake correlates positively with high blood pressure. Blood pressure varies by region, but whether sodium content of foods sold varies across regions is unknown. We combined nutrition and sales data from 2009 to assess the regional variation of sodium in packaged food products sold in 3 of the 9 US census divisions. Although sodium density and concentration differed little by region, fewer than half of selected food products met Food and Drug Administration sodium-per-serving c...

  5. THE INFORMATION CONTENT OF THE FARM AND UNIT LEVEL NUTRIENT BALANCES FOR THE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T SOMOGYI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The farm gate balance is well known from the environmental literature. This method is not suitable in every case to show the nutrient load for the environment of agricultural companies that is the reason why unit level internal nutrient balances are applied to express the level of nutrient pollution on the environment. These also help to determine the source of the pollution. With the survey of the nutrient flows within the farm we determine the keystones of nutrient management to control the nutrient load of the pollution sources. On the basis of the results and the controlled data of the unit level internal balances we make recommendations for the most appropriate environmental policy instrument to reduce the nutrient pollution.

  6. Sodium content of popular commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K.C.; Shirley Wasswa-Kintu; Haytowitz, David B; Marlon Daniel; Robin Thomas; Bethany Showell; Melissa Nickle; Roseland, Janet M.; Janelle Gunn; Mary Cogswell; Pehrsson, Pamela R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide baseline estimates of sodium levels in 125 popular, sodium-contributing, commercially processed and restaurant foods in the U.S., to assess future changes as manufacturers reformulate foods. Methods: In 2010–2013, we obtained ~5200 sample units from up to 12 locations and analyzed 1654 composites for sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar), as part of the U.S. Department of Agr...

  7. Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurant Energy, Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content, United States, 1996–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E.; Roberts, Susan B.; Fierstein, Jamie L.; Gary, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excess intakes of energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat are associated with increased risk for cardiometabolic syndrome. Trends in fast-food restaurant portion sizes can inform policy decisions. We examined the variability of popular food items in 3 fast-food restaurants in the United States by portion size during the past 18 years. Methods Items from 3 national fast-food chains were selected: French fries, cheeseburgers, grilled chicken sandwich, and regular cola. Data on energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content were collated from 1996 through 2013 using an archival website. Time trends were assessed using simple linear regression models, using energy or a nutrient component as the dependent variable and the year as the independent variable. Results For most items, energy content per serving differed among chain restaurants for all menu items (P ≤ .04); energy content of 56% of items decreased (β range, −0.1 to −5.8 kcal) and the content of 44% increased (β range, 0.6–10.6 kcal). For sodium, the content of 18% of the items significantly decreased (β range, −4.1 to −24.0 mg) and the content for 33% increased (β range, 1.9–29.6 mg). Absolute differences were modest. The saturated and trans fat content, post-2009, was modest for French fries. In 2013, the energy content of a large-sized bundled meal (cheeseburger, French fries, and regular cola) represented 65% to 80% of a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet, and sodium content represented 63% to 91% of the 2,300-mg-per-day recommendation and 97% to 139% of the 1,500-mg-per-day recommendation. Conclusion Findings suggest that efforts to promote reductions in energy, sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat intakes need to be shifted from emphasizing portion-size labels to additional factors such as total calories, frequency of eating, number of items ordered, menu choices, and energy-containing beverages. PMID:25551184

  8. GreenDelivery: Proactive Content Caching and Push with Energy-Harvesting-based Small Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sheng; Gong, Jie; ZHOU, Zhenyu; Chen, Wei; Niu, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth of mobile multimedia traffic calls for scalable wireless access with high quality of service and low energy cost. Motivated by the emerging energy harvesting communications, and the trend of caching multimedia contents at the access edge and user terminals, we propose a paradigm-shift framework, namely GreenDelivery, enabling efficient content delivery with energy harvesting based small cells. To resolve the two-dimensional randomness of energy harvesting and content requ...

  9. Effect of culturally relevant pedagogy on Latino students' engagement and content mastery on states of matter unit in physical science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jennifer

    This research, in response to the lack of empirical evidence of the impact of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) on Latino students in science education, examined the effect CRP on Latino students' engagement and content mastery. Quantitative research was conducted with a treatment group that received an intervention unit on states of matter with CRP approaches and a comparison group that did not receive the intervention. The sample comprised approximately 189 eighth-grade students from a Southern Californian middle school. The research findings reveal that CRP approaches had a statistically significant positive effect on student engagement of all ethnic groups in this study, particularly Latino students, while CRP approaches had a statistically significant negative effect on Latino students' content mastery. Three recommendations result from this study, including professional development of CRP for educators, professional development of CRP for educational leaders, and using CRP to address multiculturalism.

  10. A chemical screen probing the relationship between mitochondrial content and cell size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimori Kitami

    Full Text Available The cellular content of mitochondria changes dynamically during development and in response to external stimuli, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. To systematically identify molecular probes and pathways that control mitochondrial abundance, we developed a high-throughput imaging assay that tracks both the per cell mitochondrial content and the cell size in confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We screened 28,786 small molecules and observed that hundreds of small molecules are capable of increasing or decreasing the cellular content of mitochondria in a manner proportionate to cell size, revealing stereotyped control of these parameters. However, only a handful of compounds dissociate this relationship. We focus on one such compound, BRD6897, and demonstrate through secondary assays that it increases the cellular content of mitochondria as evidenced by fluorescence microscopy, mitochondrial protein content, and respiration, even after rigorous correction for cell size, cell volume, or total protein content. BRD6897 increases uncoupled respiration 1.6-fold in two different, non-dividing cell types. Based on electron microscopy, BRD6897 does not alter the percent of cytoplasmic area occupied by mitochondria, but instead, induces a striking increase in the electron density of existing mitochondria. The mechanism is independent of known transcriptional programs and is likely to be related to a blockade in the turnover of mitochondrial proteins. At present the molecular target of BRD6897 remains to be elucidated, but if identified, could reveal an important additional mechanism that governs mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover.

  11. Zeroing in on red blood cell unit expiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyalil, Fathima; Irwin, Greg; Ross, Bryony; Manolis, Michael; Enjeti, Anoop K

    2017-09-20

    Expiry of red blood cell (RBC) units is a significant contributor to wastage of precious voluntary donations. Effective strategies aimed at optimal resource utilization are required to minimize wastage. This retrospective study analyzed the strategic measures implemented to reduce expiry of RBC units in an Australian tertiary regional hospital. The measures, which included inventory rearrangement, effective stock rotation, and the number of emergency courier services required during a 24-month period, were evaluated. There was no wastage of RBC units due to expiry over the 12 months after policy changes. Before these changes, approximately half of RBC wastage (261/511) was due to expiry. The total number of transfusions remained constant in this period and there was no increase in the use of emergency couriers. Policy changes implemented were decreasing the RBC inventory level by one-third and effective stock rotation and using a computerized system to link the transfusion services across the area. Effective stock rotation resulted in a reduction in older blood (>28 days) received in the main laboratory rotated from peripheral hospitals, down from 6%-41% to 0%-2.5%. Age-related expiry of blood products is preventable and can be significantly reduced by improving practices in the pathology service. This study provides proof of principle for "zero tolerance for RBC unit expiry" across a large networked blood banking service. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  12. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  13. Sodium content in retail Cheddar, Mozzarella, and process cheeses varies considerably in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S; McCoy, D; Graves, W; Gerard, P D; Clark, S

    2011-03-01

    Reducing the sodium content in cheese is expected to contribute to reducing the overall intake of sodium by US consumers. The purpose of this study was to measure the sodium levels in cheeses that are most commonly purchased by US consumers in the retail market, including brand and private label. A secondary purpose of the study was to generate data that can enable the dairy industry to adopt best practices regarding sodium levels in cheeses. The sodium content of a total of 1,665 samples of Cheddar (650 samples), low moisture part skim (LMPS) Mozzarella (746 samples), and process cheese singles (269 samples) from 4 geographical regions were collected over a period of 3 wk, and were analyzed over a 1-mo period. Process cheese contained the highest mean level of sodium (1,242 mg/100g), followed by string cheese (724 mg/100g). Across Cheddar cheese forms and brands, the mean analytical sodium was 615 mg/100g, with 95% between 474 and 731 mg/100g; label sodium ranged from 600 to 800 mg/100g (mean 648 mg). Across all LMPS Mozzarella forms and brands, the mean analytical sodium was 666 mg/100g, with 95% between 452 and 876 mg/100g; label sodium ranged from 526 to 89 3mg/100g (mean 685 mg). Across all process cheese forms and brands, the mean analytical sodium was 1,242 mg/100g, with 95% between 936 and 1,590 mg/100g; label sodium ranged from 1,185 to 1,740 mg/100g (mean 1,313 mg/100g). These findings demonstrate that manufacturers tended to be conservative with their reporting of sodium on labels. Manufacturers need to reduce variability to better target desired sodium levels, which is an opportunity for better process control, and will enable them to label sodium more accurately.

  14. High content cell-based assay for the inflammatory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-07-01

    Cellular inflammation is a non-specific immune response to tissue injury that takes place via cytokine network orchestration to maintain normal tissue homeostasis. However chronic inflammation that lasts for a longer period, plays the key role in human diseases like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer development. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory pathways may be effective in targeting and modulating their outcome. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that effectively combines the pro-inflammatory features with the pro-apoptotic potential. Increased levels of TNF-α observed during acute and chronic inflammatory conditions are believed to induce adverse phenotypes like glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid profile. Natural products e. g., amygdalin, cinnamic acid, jasmonic acid and aspirin have proven efficacy in minimizing the TNF-α induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Cell lysis-free quantum dot (QDot) imaging is an emerging technique to identify the cellular mediators of a signaling cascade with a single assay in one run. In comparison to organic fluorophores, the inorganic QDots are bright, resistant to photobleaching and possess tunable optical properties that make them suitable for long term and multicolor imaging of various components in a cellular crosstalk. Hence we tested some components of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway during TNF-α induced inflammation and the effects of aspirin in HepG2 cells by QDot multicolor imaging technique. Results demonstrated that aspirin showed significant protective effects against TNF-α induced cellular inflammation. The developed cell based assay paves the platform for the analysis of cellular components in a smooth and reliable way.

  15. Flow microfluorometric DNA content measurements of tissue culture cells and peripheral lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cram, L.S. (Los Alamos Scientific Lab., NM); Lehman, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The difference in DNA content of peripheral lymphocytes from normal males, normal females, and an individual with a 48 (xxxy) chromosome constitution was determined by rapid flow microfluorometric techniques. A similar comparison was performed using tissue culture fibroblasts derived from an individual with a 49 (xxxxy) chromosome constitution and WI-38 cells as a normal control. Less than 60 min were required to isolate the lymphocytes, to stain the cells fluorescently, and to measure the increased DNA content. The measured increase in DNA content is consistent with chromosome DNA analyses and chromosome length measurements.

  16. Effects of Shuanghuangbu on the total protein content and ultrastructure in cultured human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦枝; 邹慧儒; 王小玲; 刘世正; 王永军

    2004-01-01

    Background Successful periodontal regeneration depends on the migration, proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in periodontal defects. The total protein content and the ultrastructure demonstrate the metabolizability and activity of periodontal ligament cells. This study was conducted to observe the effects of Shuanghuangbu, a mixture of medicinal herbs, on the total protein content and the ultrastructure of human periodontal ligament cells.Methods Periodontal ligament cells were grown to confluence and then cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with Shuanghuangbu over the concentration range of 0 to 1000 μg/ml. The total protein content in cultured cells was determined by using Coommasie brilliant blue technique. Periodontal ligament cells were incubated in 0 and 100 μg/ml Shuanghuangbu decoction for 5 days, then observed through transmission electron microscope.Results The total protein content of human periodontal ligament cells increased in each experiment group added 10-1000 μg/ml Shuanghuangbu respectively, and the effect of 100 μg/ml was excellent. Under the transmission electron microscope, there were more rough endoplasmic reticulums and mitochodrias in the experiment group than those in the control group. Conclusion Shuanghuangbu stimulates the protein synthesis of human periodontal ligament cells and improves human periodontal ligament cells' metabolizability and activity.

  17. A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE MISSION STATEMENTS OF IRAN, TURKEY, INDIA AND UNITED STATES PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar AZIZI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies play a critical role in healthcare economy. Articulating mission statement of a Pharmaceutical company results in guiding strategies and activities of the firm. In this survey, mission statements of Iranian, Turkish, Indian and American pharmaceutical companies are analyzed. By using content analysis, frequencies of nine elements of the mission statement according to Fred R. David including: customers, product/service, market, technology, survival/growth/profitability, philosophy, self-perception, public image and employee were investigated. 98 mission statements of pharmaceutical companies (32 iranain companies, 16 Turkish companies, 30 Indian companies, and 20 American companies were analyzed. Simple correspondence analysis was used to extract the perceptual map. Results indicate that two dimensions of perceptual map include: focus of mission (throughput or input/output, and focus of mission elements (market or support. Iranian companies placed on the quarter of throughput /support, American and Turkish companies placed on the quarter of throughput/market. Indian companies placed on the quarter of input and output/market.

  18. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  19. Mechanical behavior of regular open-cell porous biomaterials made of diamond lattice unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S M; Campoli, G; Amin Yavari, S; Sajadi, B; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-06-01

    Cellular structures with highly controlled micro-architectures are promising materials for orthopedic applications that require bone-substituting biomaterials or implants. The availability of additive manufacturing techniques has enabled manufacturing of biomaterials made of one or multiple types of unit cells. The diamond lattice unit cell is one of the relatively new types of unit cells that are used in manufacturing of regular porous biomaterials. As opposed to many other types of unit cells, there is currently no analytical solution that could be used for prediction of the mechanical properties of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cells. In this paper, we present new analytical solutions and closed-form relationships for predicting the elastic modulus, Poisson׳s ratio, critical buckling load, and yield (plateau) stress of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cell. The mechanical properties predicted using the analytical solutions are compared with those obtained using finite element models. A number of solid and porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) specimens were manufactured using selective laser melting. A series of experiments were then performed to determine the mechanical properties of the matrix material and cellular structures. The experimentally measured mechanical properties were compared with those obtained using analytical solutions and finite element (FE) models. It has been shown that, for small apparent density values, the mechanical properties obtained using analytical and numerical solutions are in agreement with each other and with experimental observations. The properties estimated using an analytical solution based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory markedly deviated from experimental results for large apparent density values. The mechanical properties estimated using FE models and another analytical solution based on the Timoshenko beam theory better matched the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  20. 31 CFR 560.511 - Exportation or supply of insubstantial United States content for use in foreign-made products or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... into a foreign-made end product in a country other than the United States or Iran, intended...-made end product: (i) U.S.-origin goods (excluding software) comprise less than 10 percent of the... insubstantial United States content for use in foreign-made products or technology. 560.511 Section...

  1. Whole-Mount DAPI Staining and Measurement of DNA Content in Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittger, Arp; Hülskamp, Martin

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONDuring development, many plant cells undergo endoreduplication, whereby ploidy increases to a multiple of the normal 2C content. For example, trichome development is accompanied by an increase in ploidy to 32C, indicating that trichome cells undergo four rounds of endoreduplication. In the protocol described here, DNA levels, and hence developmental progress in the corresponding cells, are measured by staining the DNA with a fluorescent marker and then quantifying the fluorescence of individual nuclei.

  2. Size-dependence of volatile and semi-volatile organic carbon content in phytoplankton cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRuiz-Halpern

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOC and SOC, measured as exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC, was quantified in 9 phytoplanktonic species that spanned 4 orders of magnitude in cell volume, by disrupting the cells and quantifying the gaseous organic carbon released. EDOC content varied 4 orders of magnitude, from 0.0015 to 14.12 pg C cell-1 in the species studied and increased linearly with increasing phytoplankton cell volume following the equation EDOC (pg C cell-1 = -2.35 x cellular volume (CV, µm3 cell-1 0.90 (± 0.3, with a slope (0.90 not different from 1 indicating a constant increase in volatile carbon as the cell size of phytoplankton increased. The percentage of EDOC relative to total cellular carbon was small but varied 20 fold from 0.28 % to 5.17 %, and no obvious taxonomic pattern in the content of EDOC was appreciable for the species tested. The cell release rate of EDOC is small compared to the amount of carbon in the cell and difficult to capture. Nonetheless, the results point to a potential flux of volatile and semivolatile phytoplankton-derived organic carbon to the atmosphere that has been largely underestimated and deserves further attention in the future.

  3. Cell wall carbohydrates content of pathogenic Candida albicans strain morphological forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Rabczenko, Daniel; Smoleńska-Sym, Gabriela; Kurzatkowski, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the cell wall carbohydrates fraction in blastoconidia grown in YEPD medium at 30 degrees C and in the conglomerate of true hyphae grown in human serum at 37 degrees C. The clinical isolate obtained from a child with widespread C. albicans infection was used in the study. The cells were broken with glass beads, centrifuged to harvest the cell wall followed by subjection to TFA hydrolysis and in the result of that released monosaccharides were detected by HPAEC-PAD. Both, serum and temperature conditions (37 degrees C) affected germination process influencing the cell wall carbohydrates content when incubation in serum was prolonged from 1 to 18 h. The mannan content of blastoconidia was almost twofold higher compared to filamentous forms (149.25 +/- 299.24 vs 77.26 +/- 122.07). The glucan content was threefold lower in blastoconidia compared to hyphae (251.86 +/- 243.44 vs 755.81 +/- 1299.30). The chitin level was fourfold lower in blastoconidia compared to filaments (23.86 +/- 54.09 vs 106.29 +/- 170.12). The reason for the differences in the carbohydrates content may be related to type of morphology induced in different environmental conditions. Among tested carbohydrates, glucan appeared to be present in appreciably larger amounts in both tested morphological fractions. The ultrastructure of the blastoconidial cell wall revealed striking differences compared to the hyphae indicating the carbohydrates content alterations for wall assembly during hyphal growth at alkaline pH and temp. 37 degrees C. The study provided evidence for the relationship between morphogenesis, cell-cell adhesion induced by serum and changes in the level of carbohydrates content.

  4. Investigation on the heavy-metal content of zinc-air button cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Andrea; Richter, Silke; Recknagel, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of a German government project (initiated by the Federal Environment Agency) to check the compliance of commercially available batteries with the German Battery Ordinance concerning their heavy metal contents, 18 different types of commercially available zinc-air button cells were analysed for their cadmium, lead and mercury contents. After microwave assisted dissolution with aqua regia, Cd and Pb were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Hg was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd contents were found to be much lower than the permitted limits; Pb contents were also found to be below the limits. Hg contents were found to be near the limits, and in one case the limit was exceeded.

  5. High-content single-cell analysis on-chip using a laser microarray scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Wu, Yu; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Fan, Rong

    2012-12-07

    High-content cellomic analysis is a powerful tool for rapid screening of cellular responses to extracellular cues and examination of intracellular signal transduction pathways at the single-cell level. In conjunction with microfluidics technology that provides unique advantages in sample processing and precise control of fluid delivery, it holds great potential to transform lab-on-a-chip systems for high-throughput cellular analysis. However, high-content imaging instruments are expensive, sophisticated, and not readily accessible. Herein, we report on a laser scanning cytometry approach that exploits a bench-top microarray scanner as an end-point reader to perform rapid and automated fluorescence imaging of cells cultured on a chip. Using high-content imaging analysis algorithms, we demonstrated multiplexed measurements of morphometric and proteomic parameters from all single cells. Our approach shows the improvement of both sensitivity and dynamic range by two orders of magnitude as compared to conventional epifluorescence microscopy. We applied this technology to high-throughput analysis of mesenchymal stem cells on an extracellular matrix protein array and characterization of heterotypic cell populations. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a laser microarray scanner for high-content cellomic analysis and opens up new opportunities to conduct informative cellular analysis and cell-based screening in the lab-on-a-chip systems.

  6. Porous silicon for micro-sized fuel cell reformer units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presting, H.; Konle, J.; Starkov, V.; Vyatkin, A.; Koenig, U

    2004-04-25

    Randomly, self-organized and ordered anodically etched porous silicon with pore sizes down to hundred nanometers have been fabricated for a variety of automotive applications which range from carrier structures in fuel cell technology up to shower heads for fuel injection in combustion engines. The porous wafers are produced by deep anodic etching which is a very effective and cheap fabrication method compatible to standard Si CMOS fabrication technology. The density of nano- (and micro-) pores can be varied in a wide range by choice of substrate doping level and appropriate electrolyte solution. Surface enlargement up to a factor of 1000 can be achieved [J. Electrochem. Soc. 149 (1) (2002) G70]. After deposition of a catalyst on the inner surface of the pores these structures can be used as an effective catalytic reaction area for the injected hydrocarbons in a micro-steam reformer unit with a small reaction volume. In addition deep anodic etching (DAE) of a pinhole array with very high aspect ratios is demonstrated using a pre-patterned inverted pyramidal array which is produced by lithography and subsequent wet chemical potassium hydroxide (KOH) etch. The structures can also be used as carrier structures for the hydrogen separation membrane of the reforming gas in a reformer unit when a thin layer of palladium is evaporated prior to the anodic etching of the pores. The noble metal foil serves as anode contact during the etch as well as hydrogen separating membrane of the device.

  7. Bioactive Compound Content and Cytotoxic Effect on Human Cancer Cells of Fresh and Processed Yellow Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Raiola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato, as a fresh or processed product, has a high nutritional value due to its content of bioactive components such as phenolic compounds. Few studies describe the effect of processing on antioxidant content and the cancer cell growth inhibition activity. In this study we determined the phenolic and ascorbic acid content of three yellow tomato varieties, before and after thermal processing. Moreover, we determined the antioxidative power and tested the effects of tomato extracts on three human cancer cell lines. We found that the amount of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid decreased in all the samples after processing, whereas the flavonoid content increased after the heat treatment in two samples. A cytotoxic effect of tomato extracts was observed only after processing. This result well correlates with the flavonoid content after processing and clearly indicates that processed yellow tomatoes have a high content of bioactive compounds endowed with cytotoxicity towards cancer cells, thus opening the way to obtain tomato-based functional foods.

  8. Raman spectroscopy as a complementary tool to assess the content uniformity of dosage units in break-scored warfarin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruabarrena, J; Coello, J; Maspoch, S

    2014-04-25

    Due to the side effects of overdosing, the therapeutic dose of warfarin preparations must be very strictly controlled. In order to make it easier for the patient to take the required dose, two different strategies can be followed: The medicine can be commercialized in different dosages and/or tablets can be scored in order to make them easy to split. The splitting of the tablets introduces the question of how to control that the fractions contain the desirable amount of warfarin. The regulations regarding the content uniformity of dosage unit for scored tablets have changed considerably in the last 10 years, and they are still evolving. Warfarin is commercialized under the trademark of Aldocumar in four different preparations, containing 1, 3, 5 and 10 mg sodium warfarin per tablet. All these tablets are also scored, thus suggesting the possibility of splitting. A quantitative Raman method has been developed for the determination of warfarin in tablets and in the potential fragments, taking into account the score lines on the tablet surface. This method is suggested as an auxiliary procedure to verify the uniformity of API distribution in dividable tablets. A combination of a second derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) was used as spectral pre-treatments, and partial least squares (PLS) as the regression algorithm. The relative standard deviation in API content among portions was found to be less than 5%. An HPLC procedure has been used as a reference analytical method.

  9. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Simon; Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-12-14

    To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Cross sectional study. Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA's "traffic light" system for labelling food. No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% Psupermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals.

  10. Stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with low hydrogen content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortmann, C.M.; Hegedus, S.S. (Institute of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Results and conclusions obtained during a research program of the investigation of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon based alloy materials and solar cells fabricated by photo-chemical vapor and glow discharge depositions are reported. Investigation of the effects of the hydrogen content in a-si:H i-layers in amorphous silicon solar cells show that cells with lowered hydrogen content i-layers are more stable. A classical thermodynamic formulation of the Staebler-Wronski effect has been developed for standard solar cell operating temperatures and illuminations. Methods have been developed to extract a lumped equivalent circuit from the current voltage characteristic of a single junction solar cell in order to predict its behavior in a multijunction device.

  11. Identification of resting cells by dual-parameter flow cytometry of statin expression and DNA content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellicciari, C.; Mangiarotti, R.; Bottone, M.G.; Danova, M. [Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Wang, E. [Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Statin, a 57-kDa nuclear protein, has been recognized as a unique marker of quiescent (G{sub 0}) cells; specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against statin have been produced and used to label resting cells in tissue sections and in cultured cells. We present an improved method for the identification of G{sub 0} cells by dual-parameter flow cytometry of statin expression and DNA content. The appropriate technical conditions were set up by using resting and cycling human fibroblasts as a model cell system. Several fixatives proved to be suitable for the immunocytochemical detection of statin; among them, 70% ethanol was selected because this fixation procedure is suitable for DNA staining with intercalating dyes and is routinely used for the immunolabeling of proliferation markers (such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] and Ki-67) and of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation. Following cell permeabilization with detergent, exposure to the antistatin antibody (S-44), and indirect fluorescein isothiocyanate immunolabeling, cells were counterstained for DNA with propidium iodide and analyzed by dual-parameter flow cytometry. In cells from several animal sources (rat thymocytes and C6 glioma cells, mouse 3T3 cells, and human MCF-7 cells), under different experimental conditions, the expression of statin was found to correlate inversely with that of PCNA and Ki-67, and with the BrdUrd labeling index. In dual-parameter flow scattergrams, G{sub 0} (statin positive) cells can be discriminated from the potentially cycling (statin negative) G{sub 1} cells, i.e., within a cell fraction having the same DNA content. This approach can be envisaged as a powerful tool both for monitoring changes in the resting cell fraction and for investigating the process of G{sub 0}-G{sub 1} transition in unperturbed and drug-treated cell populations. 48 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Human pluripotent stem cells on artificial microenvironments: a high content perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyalakshmi eViswanathan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-renewing stem cell populations are increasingly considered as resources for cell therapy and tools for drug discovery. Human pluripotent stem (hPS cells in particular offer a virtually unlimited reservoir of homogeneous cells and can be differentiated towards diverse lineages. Many diseases show impairment in self-renewal or differentiation, abnormal lineage choice or other aberrant cell behavior in response to chemical or physical cues. To investigate these responses, there is a growing interest in the development of specific assays using hPS cells artificial microenvironments and high content analysis. Several hurdles need to be overcome that can be grouped in: (i availability of robust, homogeneous and consistent cell populations as a starting point; (ii appropriate understanding and use of chemical and physical microenvironments; (iii development of assays that dissect the complexity of cell populations in tissues while mirroring specific aspects of their behavior. Here we review recent progress in the culture of hPS cells and we detail the importance of the environment surrounding the cells with a focus on synthetic material and suitable high content analysis approaches. The technologies described if properly combined have the potential to create a paradigm shift in the way diseases are modelled and drug discovery is performed.

  13. Breastmilk cell and fat contents respond similarly to removal of breastmilk by the infant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foteini Hassiotou

    Full Text Available Large inter- and intra-individual variations exist in breastmilk composition, yet factors associated with these variations in the short-term are not well understood. In this study, the effects of breastfeeding on breastmilk cellular and biochemical content were examined. Serial breastmilk samples (∼5 mL were collected from both breasts of breastfeeding women before and immediately after the first morning breastfeed, and then at 30-minute intervals for up to 3 hours post-feed on 2-4 mornings per participant. The infant fed from one breast only at each feed. Effects of pump versus hand expression for samples were evaluated. A consistent response pattern of breastmilk cell and fat contents to breastmilk removal was observed. Maximum fat and cell levels were obtained 30 minutes post-feed (P0.05, although large intra-individual variability was noted for protein. Expression mode for samples did not influence breastmilk composition (P>0.05. It is concluded that breastmilk fat content, and thus breast fullness, is closely associated with breastmilk cell content. This will now form the basis for standardization of sampling protocols in lactation studies and investigation of the mechanisms of milk synthesis and cell movement into breastmilk. Moreover, these findings generate new avenues for clinical interventions exploring growth and survival benefits conferred to preterm infants by providing the highest in fat and cells milk obtained at 30 min post-expression.

  14. In Vivo Single-Cell Fluorescence and Size Scaling of Phytoplankton Chlorophyll Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Eva; Nogueira, Enrique; López-Urrutia, Ángel

    2017-04-01

    In unicellular phytoplankton, the size scaling exponent of chlorophyll content per cell decreases with increasing light limitation. Empirical studies have explored this allometry by combining data from several species, using average values of pigment content and cell size for each species. The resulting allometry thus includes phylogenetic and size scaling effects. The possibility of measuring single-cell fluorescence with imaging-in-flow cytometry devices allows the study of the size scaling of chlorophyll content at both the inter- and intraspecific levels. In this work, the changing allometry of chlorophyll content was estimated for the first time for single phytoplankton populations by using data from a series of incubations with monocultures exposed to different light levels. Interspecifically, our experiments confirm previous modeling and experimental results of increasing size scaling exponents with increasing irradiance. A similar pattern was observed intraspecifically but with a larger variability in size scaling exponents. Our results show that size-based processes and geometrical approaches explain variations in chlorophyll content. We also show that the single-cell fluorescence measurements provided by imaging-in-flow devices can be applied to field samples to understand the changes in the size dependence of chlorophyll content in response to environmental variables affecting primary production.IMPORTANCE The chlorophyll concentrations in phytoplankton register physiological adjustments in cellular pigmentation arising mainly from changes in light conditions. The extent of these adjustments is constrained by the size of the phytoplankton cells, even within single populations. Hence, variations in community chlorophyll derived from photoacclimation are also dependent on the phytoplankton size distribution.

  15. Photosynthetic pigments, cell extrusion and relative leaf water content of the castor bean under silicon and salinity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraz, Rener L. de S; Magalhães, Ivomberg D; Beltrão, Napoleão E. de M; Melo, Alberto S. de; Brito Neto, Jósé F. de; Rocha, Maria do S

    2015-01-01

    .... Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the contents of photosynthetic pigments, cell membrane extrusion and the relative water content in the leaves of the castor bean cultivar 'BRS Energia' under...

  16. Prognostic value of partial genetic instability in Neuroblastoma with ? 50% neuroblastic cell content.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims. Better understanding of neuroblastoma genetics will improve with genome-wide techniques. However it is not adequated to perform these analyses in samples with less than 60% neuroblastic cell content. We evaluated the utility of FISH on tissue microarrays (TMA) in detecting partial genetic instability (PGI), focussing on samples with ? 50% neuroblastic cells. Methods and results. Alterations of 11q and 17q were detected by FISH on 369 neuroblastic samples included...

  17. Optical High Content Nanoscopy of Epigenetic Marks Decodes Phenotypic Divergence in Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joseph J.; Bennett, Neal K.; Devita, Mitchel S.; Chahar, Sanjay; Viswanath, Satish; Lee, Eunjee A.; Jung, Giyoung; Shao, Paul P.; Childers, Erin P.; Liu, Shichong; Kulesa, Anthony; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Becker, Matthew L.; Hwang, Nathaniel S.; Madabhushi, Anant; Verzi, Michael P.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2017-01-01

    While distinct stem cell phenotypes follow global changes in chromatin marks, single-cell chromatin technologies are unable to resolve or predict stem cell fates. We propose the first such use of optical high content nanoscopy of histone epigenetic marks (epi-marks) in stem cells to classify emergent cell states. By combining nanoscopy with epi-mark textural image informatics, we developed a novel approach, termed EDICTS (Epi-mark Descriptor Imaging of Cell Transitional States), to discern chromatin organizational changes, demarcate lineage gradations across a range of stem cell types and robustly track lineage restriction kinetics. We demonstrate the utility of EDICTS by predicting the lineage progression of stem cells cultured on biomaterial substrates with graded nanotopographies and mechanical stiffness, thus parsing the role of specific biophysical cues as sensitive epigenetic drivers. We also demonstrate the unique power of EDICTS to resolve cellular states based on epi-marks that cannot be detected via mass spectrometry based methods for quantifying the abundance of histone post-translational modifications. Overall, EDICTS represents a powerful new methodology to predict single cell lineage decisions by integrating high content super-resolution nanoscopy and imaging informatics of the nuclear organization of epi-marks. PMID:28051095

  18. Organic content influences sediment microbial fuel cell performance and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Li, Ruying; Ji, Min; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-11-01

    This study constructed sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with different organic loadings without the amendment of external substrates, and it investigated how such variation affects electricity generation and microbial community structure. Results found sediment characteristics significantly influenced SMFC performance and appropriate organic content is important to maintain stable power outputs. SMFCs with loss of ignition (LOI) of 5% showed the most reliable performance in this study, while high organic content (LOI 10-16%) led to higher but very unstable voltage output because of biogas accumulation and worm activities. SMFCs with low organic content (1-3%) showed low power output. Different bacterial communities were found in SMFCs shown various power generation performance even those with similar organic contents. Thermodesulfovibrionaceae was found closely related to the system startup and Desulfobulbaceae showed great abundance in SMFCs with high power production.

  19. Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk, respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

  20. Comparison of three cell fixation methods for high content analysis assays utilizing quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y; Byrne, S; Bashir, M; Davies, A; Whelan, A; Gun'ko, Y; Kelleher, D; Volkov, Y

    2008-10-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles or quantum dots are being increasingly utilized as fluorescent probes in cell biology both in live and fixed cell assays. Quantum dots possess an immense potential for use in multiplexing assays that can be run on high content screening analysers. Depending on the nature of the biological target under investigation, experiments are frequently required on cells retaining an intact cell membrane or also on those that have been fixed and permeabilized to expose intracellular antigens. Fixation of cell lines before or after the addition of quantum dots may affect their localization, emission properties and stability. Using a high content analysis platform we perform a quantitative comparative analysis of three common fixation techniques in two different cell lines exposed to carboxylic acid stabilized CdTe quantum dots. Our study demonstrates that in prefixed and permeabilized cells, quantum dots are readily internalized regardless of cell type, and their intracellular location is primarily determined by the properties of the quantum dots themselves. However, if the fixation procedures are preformed on live cells previously incubated with quantum dots, other important factors have to be considered. The choice of the fixative significantly influences the fluorescent characteristics of the quantum dots. Fixatives, regardless of their chemical nature, negatively affected quantum dots fluorescence intensity. Comparative analysis of gluteraldehyde, methanol and paraformaldehyde demonstrated that 2% paraformaldehyde was the fixative of choice. The presence of protein in the media did not significantly alter the quantum dot fluorescence. This study indicates that multiplexing assays utilizing quantum dots, despite being a cutting edge tool for high content cell imaging, still require careful consideration of the basic steps in biological sample processing.

  1. Fingerprinting sedimentary and soil units by their natural metal contents: a new approach to assess metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Alessandro; Guermandi, Marina; Marchi, Nazaria; Sammartino, Irene

    2014-12-01

    One of the major issues when assessing soil contamination by inorganic substances is reliable determination of natural metal concentrations. Through integrated sedimentological, pedological and geochemical analyses of 1414 (topsoil/subsoil) samples from 707 sampling stations in the southern Po Plain (Italy), we document that the natural distribution of five potentially toxic metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) can be spatially predicted as a function of three major factors: source-rock composition, grain size variability and degree of soil weathering. Thirteen genetic and functional soil units (GFUs), each reflecting a unique combination of these three variables, are fingerprinted by distinctive geochemical signatures. Where sediment is supplied by ultramafic (ophiolite-rich) sources, the natural contents of Cr and Ni in soils almost invariably exceed the Italian threshold limits designated for contaminated lands (150 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively), with median values around twice the maximum permissible levels (345 mg/kg for Cr and 207 mg/kg for Ni in GFU B5). The original provenance signal is commonly confounded by soil texture, with general tendency toward higher metal concentrations in the finest-grained fractions. Once reliable natural metal concentrations in soils are established, the anthropogenic contribution can be promptly assessed by calculating metal enrichments in topsoil samples. The use of combined sedimentological and pedological criteria to fingerprint GFU geochemical composition is presented here as a new approach to enhance predictability of natural metal contents, with obvious positive feedbacks for legislative purposes and environmental protection. Particularly, natural metal concentrations inferred directly from a new type of pedogeochemical map, built according to the international guideline ISO 19258, are proposed as an efficient alternative to the pre-determined threshold values for soil contamination commonly established by the national

  2. Receptor ganglioside content of three hosts for Sendai virus. MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwell, M A; Fredman, P; Svennerholm, L

    1984-08-01

    Specific gangliosides GD1a, GT1b and GQ1b isolated from brain have been shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus by conferring susceptibility to infection when they are incorporated into receptor-deficient cells (Markwell, M.A.K., Svennerholm, L. and Paulson, J.C. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 5406-5410). The endogenous gangliosides of three commonly used hosts for Sendai virus: MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells were analyzed to determine the amount and type of receptor gangliosides present. In all three cell lines, GM3 was the major ganglioside component. The presence of GM1, GD1a and the more complex homologs of the gangliotetraose series was also established. In cell lines derived from normal tissue, MDBK and MDCK cells, gangliosides contributed 47-65% of the total sialic acid. In HeLa cells, gangliosides contributed substantially less (17% of the total sialic acid). The ganglioside content of each cell line was shown not to be immutable but instead to depend on the state of differentiation, passage number, and surface the cells were grown on. Thus, the ganglioside concentration of undifferentiated MDCK cells was found to be substantially greater than that of MDBK or HeLa cells, but decreased as the MDCK cells underwent differentiation. Changes in culture conditions that were shown to decrease the receptor ganglioside content of the cells resulted in a corresponding decrease in susceptibility to infection. The endogenous oligosialogangliosides present in susceptible host cells were shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus.

  3. Nuclear DNA Content and Chromatin Pattern of Rat Rhabdomyosarcoma Cell Sublines with Different Metastatic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dufer

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a constant need of features able to characterize potentially metastatic cells among the heterogeneous cell subpopulations which constitute a tumor. Image cytometry of metastatic tumor cells give rise to variable results, partly because of a heterogeneous origin of cells, or potential drug effects. The aim of this work was to characterize nuclear changes observed in metastatic cell clones issued in vitro from the same parental cell population The nuclear phenotypes of 6 cell sublines isolated from a rat rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and differing in their metastatic ability were evaluated by image cytometry on Feulgen‐stained preparations. Densitometric [5], geometric [3] and textural [9] features were computed from each nuclear image. For each cell subline, a metastatic score, ranging from 0 to 10, was calculated on the basis of in vitro invasivity data, by measuring the number of pulmonary metastases observed after s.c. graft of tumor cells in rats. Data obtained were compared to karyotype, growth characteristics, and oncogene expressions of cell lines. The nuclear DNA content, the chromosome numbers, the cell sublines doubling times, and the distribution of cells within the cell cycle appear unrelated with this score. On the contrary, increase in metastatic ability is accompanied by changes in chromatin pattern as assessed by textural features. Progressive increase in chromatin condensation can be observed in cell sublines with increasing metastatic score. These results were confirmed by an unsupervised multivariate partitioning of rhabdomyosarcoma cells which identified two separate subsets whose distributions within the analyzed cell lines correlate with their metastatic ability. These data suggest that, in rat rhabdomyosarcoma cell sublines, metastatic ability could be associated with nuclear morphological changes at the level of chromatin texture.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of water content across the Nafion membrane in an operational PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziheng; Martin, Jonathan; Wu, Jinfeng; Wang, Haijiang; Promislow, Keith; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2008-08-01

    Water management is critical to optimize the operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. At present, numerical models are employed to guide water management in such fuel cells. Accurate measurements of water content variation in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are required to validate these models and to optimize fuel cell behavior. We report a direct water content measurement across the Nafion membrane in an operational polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, employing double half k-space spin echo single point imaging techniques. The MRI measurements with T2 mapping were undertaken with a parallel plate resonator to avoid the effects of RF screening. The parallel plate resonator employs the electrodes inherent to the fuel cell to create a resonant circuit at RF frequencies for MR excitation and detection, while still operating as a conventional fuel cell at DC. Three stages of fuel cell operation were investigated: activation, operation and dehydration. Each profile was acquired in 6 min, with 6 μm nominal resolution and a SNR of better than 15.

  5. Quantitative characterization of mitosis-blocked tetraploid cells using high content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Linnette E; Ghosh, Richik N

    2006-08-01

    A range of cellular evidence supporting a G1 tetraploidy checkpoint was obtained from different assay methods including flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and microscopy. Cancer research would benefit if these cellular properties could instead be measured by a single, quantitative, automated assay method, such as high content analysis (HCA). Thus, nocodazole-treated cells were fluorescently labeled for different cell cycle-associated properties, including DNA content, retinoblastoma (Rb) and histone H3 phosphorylation, p53 and p21(WAF1) expression, nuclear and cell sizes, and cell morphology, and automatically imaged, analyzed, and correlated using HCA. HCA verified that nocodazole-induced mitosis block resulted in tetraploid cells. Rb and histone H3 were maximally hyperphosphorylated by 24 h of nocodazole treatment, accompanied by cell and nuclear size decreases and cellular rounding. Cells remained tetraploid and mononucleated with longer treatments, but other targets reverted to G1 levels, including Rb and histone H3 dephosphorylation accompanied by cellular respreading. This was accompanied by increased p53 and p21(WAF1) expression levels. The range of effects accompanying nocodazole-induced block of mitosis and the resulting tetraploid cells' reversal to a pseudo-G1 state can be quantitatively measured by HCA in an automated manner, recommending this assay method for the large-scale biology challenges of modern cancer drug discovery.

  6. High-Content Analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene-Edited Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Carlson-Stevermer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of human cells and tissues holds much promise to advance medicine and biology, but standard editing methods require weeks to months of reagent preparation and selection where much or all of the initial edited samples are destroyed during analysis. ArrayEdit, a simple approach utilizing surface-modified multiwell plates containing one-pot transcribed single-guide RNAs, separates thousands of edited cell populations for automated, live, high-content imaging and analysis. The approach lowers the time and cost of gene editing and produces edited human embryonic stem cells at high efficiencies. Edited genes can be expressed in both pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. This preclinical platform adds important capabilities to observe editing and selection in situ within complex structures generated by human cells, ultimately enabling optical and other molecular perturbations in the editing workflow that could refine the specificity and versatility of gene editing.

  7. High-Content Analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 Gene-Edited Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Stevermer, Jared; Goedland, Madelyn; Steyer, Benjamin; Movaghar, Arezoo; Lou, Meng; Kohlenberg, Lucille; Prestil, Ryan; Saha, Krishanu

    2016-01-12

    CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of human cells and tissues holds much promise to advance medicine and biology, but standard editing methods require weeks to months of reagent preparation and selection where much or all of the initial edited samples are destroyed during analysis. ArrayEdit, a simple approach utilizing surface-modified multiwell plates containing one-pot transcribed single-guide RNAs, separates thousands of edited cell populations for automated, live, high-content imaging and analysis. The approach lowers the time and cost of gene editing and produces edited human embryonic stem cells at high efficiencies. Edited genes can be expressed in both pluripotent stem cells and differentiated cells. This preclinical platform adds important capabilities to observe editing and selection in situ within complex structures generated by human cells, ultimately enabling optical and other molecular perturbations in the editing workflow that could refine the specificity and versatility of gene editing.

  8. Measuring the DNA Content of Cells in Apoptosis and at Different Cell-Cycle Stages by Propidium Iodide Staining and Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Lisa C; Chojnowski, Grace; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-10-03

    All cells are created from preexisting cells. This involves complete duplication of the parent cell to create two daughter cells by a process known as the cell cycle. For this process to be successful, the DNA of the parent cell must be faithfully replicated so that each daughter cell receives a full copy of the genetic information. During the cell cycle, the DNA content of the parent cell increases as new DNA is synthesized (S phase). When there are two full copies of the DNA (G2/M phase), the cell splits to form two new cells (G0/G1 phase). As such, cells in different stages of the cell cycle have different DNA contents. The cell cycle is tightly regulated to safeguard the integrity of the cell and any cell that is defective or unable to complete the cell cycle is programmed to die by apoptosis. When this occurs, the DNA is fragmented into oligonucleosomal-sized fragments that are disposed of when the dead cell is removed by phagocytosis. Consequently apoptotic cells have reduced DNA content compared with living cells. This can be measured by staining cells with propidium iodide (PI), a fluorescent molecule that intercalates with DNA at a specific ratio. The level of PI fluorescence in a cell is, therefore, directly proportional to the DNA content of that cell. This protocol describes the use of PI staining to determine the percentage of cells in each phase of the cell cycle and the percentage of apoptotic cells in a sample.

  9. Super Unit Cells in Aperture-Based Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Tanasković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important class of electromagnetic metamaterials are aperture-based metasurfaces. Examples include extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnets with negative refractive index. We analyze a generalization of such metamaterials where a simple aperture is now replaced by a compound object formed by superposition of two or more primitive objects (e.g., rectangles, circles, and ellipses. Thus obtained “super unit cell” shows far richer behavior than the subobjects that comprise it. We show that nonlocalities introduced by overlapping simple subobjects can be used to produce large deviations of spectral dispersion even for small additive modifications of the basic geometry. Technologically, some super cells may be fabricated by simple spatial shifting of the existing photolithographic masks. In our investigation we applied analytical calculations and ab initio finite element modeling to prove the possibility to tailor the dispersion including resonances for plasmonic nanocomposites by adjusting the local geometry and exploiting localized interactions at a subwavelength level. Any desired form could be defined using simple primitive objects, making the situation a geometrical analog of the case of series expansion of a function. Thus an additional degree of tunability of metamaterials is obtained. The obtained designer structures can be applied in different fields like waveguiding and sensing.

  10. An ergonomic study on the navigation structure and information units of websites with multimedia content. A case study of the Xbox 360 promotional website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Eduardo; de Moraes, Anamaria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an ergonomic study on the navigation structures and information units of entertainment sites with multimedia content. This research is a case study on the XBOX 360 promotional website. It analyzes the presentation of the content on a grid that simulates the spatial displacement of the screen's elements and evaluates the interaction that the page allows for, from the users' point of view.

  11. Folic acid functionalized surface highlights 5-methylcytosine-genomic content within circulating tumor cells

    KAUST Repository

    Malara, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Although the detection of methylated cell free DNA represents one of the most promising approaches for relapse risk assessment in cancer patients, the low concentration of cell-free circulating DNA constitutes the biggest obstacle in the development of DNA methylation-based biomarkers from blood. This paper describes a method for the measurement of genomic methylation content directly on circulating tumor cells (CTC), which could be used to deceive the aforementioned problem. Since CTC are disease related blood-based biomarkers, they result essential to monitor tumor\\'s stadiation, therapy, and early relapsing lesions. Within surface\\'s bio-functionalization and cell\\'s isolation procedure standardization, the presented approach reveals a singular ability to detect high 5-methylcytosine CTC-subset content in the whole CTC compound, by choosing folic acid (FA) as transducer molecule. Sensitivity and specificity, calculated for FA functionalized surface (FA-surface), result respectively on about 83% and 60%. FA-surface, allowing the detection and characterization of early metastatic dissemination, provides a unique advance in the comprehension of tumors progression and dissemination confirming the presence of CTC and its association with high risk of relapse. This functionalized surface identifying and quantifying high 5-methylcytosine CTC-subset content into the patient\\'s blood lead significant progress in cancer risk assessment, also providing a novel therapeutic strategy.© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Content of intrinsic disorder influences the outcome of cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakov, Alexander A; Kurotani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Mariko; Terazawa, Yumiko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Stefanov, Vasily; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-09-11

    Cell-free protein synthesis is used to produce proteins with various structural traits. Recent bioinformatics analyses indicate that more than half of eukaryotic proteins possess long intrinsically disordered regions. However, no systematic study concerning the connection between intrinsic disorder and expression success of cell-free protein synthesis has been presented until now. To address this issue, we examined correlations of the experimentally observed cell-free protein expression yields with the contents of intrinsic disorder bioinformatically predicted in the expressed sequences. This analysis revealed strong relationships between intrinsic disorder and protein amenability to heterologous cell-free expression. On the one hand, elevated disorder content was associated with the increased ratio of soluble expression. On the other hand, overall propensity for detectable protein expression decreased with disorder content. We further demonstrated that these tendencies are rooted in some distinct features of intrinsically disordered regions, such as low hydrophobicity, elevated surface accessibility and high abundance of sequence motifs for proteolytic degradation, including sites of ubiquitination and PEST sequences. Our findings suggest that identification of intrinsically disordered regions in the expressed amino acid sequences can be of practical use for predicting expression success and optimizing cell-free protein synthesis.

  13. Characterization of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Microvesicle Genesis, Morphology and Pluripotent Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Ghoroghi, Shima; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Wu, Hao; Unachukwu, Uchenna John; Einbond, Linda Saxe; Guariglia, Sara; Peinado, Hector; Redenti, Stephen

    2016-01-22

    Microvesicles (MVs) are lipid bilayer-covered cell fragments that range in diameter from 30 nm-1 uM and are released from all cell types. An increasing number of studies reveal that MVs contain microRNA, mRNA and protein that can be detected in the extracellular space. In this study, we characterized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) MV genesis, content and fusion to retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in vitro. Nanoparticle tracking revealed that iPSCs released approximately 2200 MVs cell/hour in the first 12 hrs with an average diameter of 122 nm. Electron and light microscopic analysis of iPSCs showed MV release via lipid bilayer budding. The mRNA content of iPSC MVs was characterized and revealed the presence of the transcription factors Oct-3/4, Nanog, Klf4, and C-Myc. The protein content of iPSCs MVs, detected by immunogold electron microscopy, revealed the presence of the Oct-3/4 and Nanog. Isolated iPSC MVs were shown to fuse with RPCs in vitro at multiple points along the plasma membrane. These findings demonstrate that the mRNA and protein cargo in iPSC MVs have established roles in maintenance of pluripotency. Building on this work, iPSC derived MVs may be shown to be involved in maintaining cellular pluripotency and may have application in regenerative strategies for neural tissue.

  14. Current blocking and current collection in CIGSe solar cells depending on sodium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttnins, Stefan; Daume, Felix [Solarion AG, Leipzig (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig (Germany); Zachmann, Hendrik; Rahm, Andreas [Solarion AG, Leipzig (Germany); Grundmann, Marius [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    IV-curves of thin film solar cells often show non-idealites like voltage dependent carrier collection and current blocking behaviour. Sodium is long known to improve the efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells by increasing V{sub OC} and FF. However, the way in which sodium influences the electrical properties is still under discussion. We investigated the influence of sodium on voltage dependent carrier collection and current blocking behaviour. Losses caused by incomplete photocurrent collection can be reduced by increased sodium content in the CIGSe layer. Current blocking behaviour like the rollover effect is less pronounced with increased sodium content. The influences were analyzed both in detailed illumination intensity and temperature dependent IV-measurements as well as by extensive statistical analysis over thousands of produced flexible CIGSe solar cells. Theoretical models for this dependency were simulated with SCAPS-1D and show good agreement with respective measurements.

  15. Cell Churches and Stem Cell Marketing in South Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipp, Douglas

    2016-05-23

    The commercial provision of putative stem cell-based medical interventions in the absence of conclusive evidence of safety and efficacy has formed the basis of an unregulated industry for more than a decade. Many clinics offering such supposed stem cell treatments include statements about the 'ethical' nature of somatic (often colloquially referred to as 'adult' stem cells) stem cells, in specific contrast to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which have been the subject of intensive political, legal, and religious controversy since their first derivation in 1998. Christian groups-both Roman Catholic and evangelical Protestant-in many countries have explicitly promoted the medical potential and current-day successes in the clinical application of somatic stem cells, lending indirect support to the activities of businesses marketing stem cells ahead of evidence. In this article, I make a preliminary examination of how the structures and belief systems of certain churches in South Korea and the United States, both of which are home to significant stem cell marketing industries, has complemented other factors, including national biomedical funding initiatives, international economic rivalries, permissive legal structures, which have lent impetus to a problematic and often exploitative sector of biomedical commerce.

  16. Single fibre and multifibre unit cell analysis of strength and cracking of unidirectional composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.W.; Zhou, H.W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations of damage evolution in composites reinforced with single and multifibre are presented. Several types of unit cell models are considered: single fibre unit cell, multiple fibre unit cell with one and several damageable sections per fibres, unit cells with homogeneous...... damageable parts in composites (matrix cracks, fibre/matrix interface damage and fibre fracture) was observed in the simulations. The strength of interface begins to influence the deformation behaviour of the cell only after the fibre is broken. In this case, the higher interface layer strength leads...... and inhomogeneous interfaces, etc. Two numerical damage models, cohesive elements, and damageable layers are employed for the simulation of the damage evolution in single fibre and multifibre unit cells. The two modelling approaches were compared and lead to the very close results. Competition among the different...

  17. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J

    2015-09-08

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  18. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B.; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J.

    2015-09-01

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  19. Automated assembling of single fuel cell units for use in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Muminovic, A.; Barz, C.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    The manufacturing of PEMFC stacks (POLYMER ELEKTROLYT MEMBRAN Fuel Cell) is nowadays still done by hand. Over hundreds of identical single components have to be placed accurate together for the construction of a fuel cell stack. Beside logistic problems, higher total costs and disadvantages in weight the high number of components produce a higher statistic interference because of faulty erection or material defects and summation of manufacturing tolerances. The saving of costs is about 20 - 25 %. Furthermore, the total weight of the fuel cells will be reduced because of a new sealing technology. Overall a one minute cycle time has to be aimed per cell at the manufacturing of these single components. The change of the existing sealing concept to a bonded sealing is one of the important requisites to get an automated manufacturing of single cell units. One of the important steps for an automated gluing process is the checking of the glue application by using of an image processing system. After bonding the single fuel cell the sealing and electrical function can be checked, so that only functional and high qualitative cells can get into further manufacturing processes.

  20. A simple high-content cell cycle assay reveals frequent discrepancies between cell number and ATP and MTS proliferation assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ka Yan Chan

    Full Text Available In order to efficiently characterize both antiproliferative potency and mechanism of action of small molecules targeting the cell cycle, we developed a high-throughput image-based assay to determine cell number and cell cycle phase distribution. Using this we profiled the effects of experimental and approved anti-cancer agents with a range mechanisms of action on a set of cell lines, comparing direct cell counting versus two metabolism-based cell viability/proliferation assay formats, ATP-dependent bioluminescence, MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium reduction, and a whole-well DNA-binding dye fluorescence assay. We show that, depending on compound mechanisms of action, the metabolism-based proxy assays are frequently prone to 1 significant underestimation of compound potency and efficacy, and 2 non-monotonic dose-response curves due to concentration-dependent phenotypic 'switching'. In particular, potency and efficacy of DNA synthesis-targeting agents such as gemcitabine and etoposide could be profoundly underestimated by ATP and MTS-reduction assays. In the same image-based assay we showed that drug-induced increases in ATP content were associated with increased cell size and proportionate increases in mitochondrial content and respiratory flux concomitant with cell cycle arrest. Therefore, differences in compound mechanism of action and cell line-specific responses can yield significantly misleading results when using ATP or tetrazolium-reduction assays as a proxy for cell number when screening compounds for antiproliferative activity or profiling panels of cell lines for drug sensitivity.

  1. High-content analysis of single cells directly assembled on CMOS sensor based on color imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Saeki, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-12-15

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor was applied to high-content analysis of single cells which were assembled closely or directly onto the CMOS sensor surface. The direct assembling of cell groups on CMOS sensor surface allows large-field (6.66 mm×5.32 mm in entire active area of CMOS sensor) imaging within a second. Trypan blue-stained and non-stained cells in the same field area on the CMOS sensor were successfully distinguished as white- and blue-colored images under white LED light irradiation. Furthermore, the chemiluminescent signals of each cell were successfully visualized as blue-colored images on CMOS sensor only when HeLa cells were placed directly on the micro-lens array of the CMOS sensor. Our proposed approach will be a promising technique for real-time and high-content analysis of single cells in a large-field area based on color imaging.

  2. High-content analysis screening for cell cycle regulators using arrayed synthetic crRNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strezoska, Žaklina; Perkett, Matthew R; Chou, Eldon T; Maksimova, Elena; Anderson, Emily M; McClelland, Shawn; Kelley, Melissa L; Vermeulen, Annaleen; Smith, Anja van Brabant

    2017-06-10

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been utilized for large-scale, loss-of-function screens mainly using lentiviral pooled formats and cell-survival phenotypic assays. Screening in an arrayed format expands the types of phenotypic readouts that can be used to now include high-content, morphology-based assays, and with the recent availability of synthetic crRNA libraries, new studies are emerging. Here, we use a cell cycle reporter cell line to perform an arrayed, synthetic crRNA:tracrRNA screen targeting 169 genes (>600 crRNAs) and used high content analysis (HCA) to identify genes that regulate the cell cycle. Seven parameters were used to classify cells into cell cycle categories and multiple parameters were combined using a new analysis technique to identify hits. Comprehensive hit follow-up experiments included target gene expression analysis, confirmation of DNA insertions/deletions, and validation with orthogonal reagents. Our results show that most hits had three or more independent crRNAs per gene that demonstrated a phenotype with consistent individual parameters, indicating that our screen produced high-confidence hits with low off-target effects and allowed us to identify hits with more subtle phenotypes. The results of our screen demonstrate the power of using arrayed, synthetic crRNAs for functional phenotypic screening using multiparameter HCA assays. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Unit cell geometry of multiaxial preforms for structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Frank; Lei, Charles; Rahman, Anisur; Du, G. W.; Cai, Yun-Jia

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the yarn geometry of multiaxial preforms. The importance of multiaxial preforms for structural composites is well recognized by the industry but, to exploit their full potential, engineering design rules must be established. This study is a step in that direction. In this work the preform geometry for knitted and braided preforms was studied by making a range of well designed samples and studying them by photo microscopy. The structural geometry of the preforms is related to the processing parameters. Based on solid modeling and B-spline methodology a software package is developed. This computer code enables real time structural representations of complex fiber architecture based on the rule of preform manufacturing. The code has the capability of zooming and section plotting. These capabilities provide a powerful means to study the effect of processing variables on the preform geometry. the code also can be extended to an auto mesh generator for downstream structural analysis using finite element method. This report is organized into six sections. In the first section the scope and background of this work is elaborated. In section two the unit cell geometries of braided and multi-axial warp knitted preforms is discussed. The theoretical frame work of yarn path modeling and solid modeling is presented in section three. The thin section microscopy carried out to observe the structural geometry of the preforms is the subject in section four. The structural geometry is related to the processing parameters in section five. Section six documents the implementation of the modeling techniques into the computer code MP-CAD. A user manual for the software is also presented here. The source codes and published papers are listed in the Appendices.

  4. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. Samples 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Main outcome measures Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA’s “traffic light” system for labelling food. Results No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% P<0.01). The recipes were more likely to comply with the recommended sodium density (36% v 4%, P<0.01), although salt used for seasoning was not assessed. The distributions of traffic light colours under the FSA’s food labelling recommendations differed: the modal traffic light was red for the recipes (47%) and green for ready meals (42%). Overall, the recipes contained significantly more energy (2530 kJ v 2067 kJ), protein (37.5 g v 27.9 g), fat (27.1 g v 17.2 g), and saturated fat (9.2 g v 6.8 g; P<0.01 for all) and significantly less fibre (3.3 g v 6.5 g, P<0.01) per portion than the ready meals. Conclusions Neither recipes created by television chefs nor ready meals sold by three of the leading UK supermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals. PMID:23247976

  5. X-ray powder diffraction data and unit cells of ammonium paratungstate tetrahydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, J.W. van; Verkroost, T.W.; Sonneveld, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    X-Ray powder diffraction data and unit cell parameters of industrially produced, as well as bench scale prepared, ammonium paratungstate tetrahydrate are reported and compared with current Powder Data file (PDF) (1989) patterns. A least-squares refinement resulted in two slightly different unit cell

  6. Cell type and transfection reagent-dependent effects on viability, cell content, cell cycle and inflammation of RNAi in human primary mesenchymal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Hsiao Yin; Vonk, Lucienne A.; Licht, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    The application of RNA interference (RNAi) has great therapeutic potential for degenerative diseases of cartilaginous tissues by means of fine tuning the phenotype of cells used for regeneration. However, possible non-specific effects of transfection per se might be relevant for future clinical......% amidation), for siRNA delivery into primary mesenchymal cells including nucleus pulposus cells, articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as an endogenous model gene to evaluate the extent of silencing by 20 nM or 200 nM siRNA at day...... 3 and day 6 post-transfection. In addition to silencing efficiency, non-specific effects such as cytotoxicity, change in DNA content and differentiation potential of cells were evaluated. Among the four transfection reagents, the commercial liposome-based agent was the most efficient reagent for si...

  7. Alignment between the Physics Content Standard and the Standardized Test: A Comparison among the United States-New York State, Singapore, and China-Jiangsu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Baohui; Liang, Ling L.; Fulmer, Gavin; Kim, Beaumie; Yuan, Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    Alignment between content standards and standardized tests is a significant issue to society, science pedagogy, and test validation. To better understand the issues related to alignment, this study compares the alignment in physics among three education systems: Jiangsu (China), New York State (United States), and Singapore. The same coding…

  8. A high-content platform to characterise human induced pluripotent stem cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leha, Andreas; Moens, Nathalie; Meleckyte, Ruta; Culley, Oliver J.; Gervasio, Mia K.; Kerz, Maximilian; Reimer, Andreas; Cain, Stuart A.; Streeter, Ian; Folarin, Amos; Stegle, Oliver; Kielty, Cay M.; Durbin, Richard; Watt, Fiona M.; Danovi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide invaluable opportunities for future cell therapies as well as for studying human development, modelling diseases and discovering therapeutics. In order to realise the potential of iPSCs, it is crucial to comprehensively characterise cells generated from large cohorts of healthy and diseased individuals. The human iPSC initiative (HipSci) is assessing a large panel of cell lines to define cell phenotypes, dissect inter- and intra-line and donor variability and identify its key determinant components. Here we report the establishment of a high-content platform for phenotypic analysis of human iPSC lines. In the described assay, cells are dissociated and seeded as single cells onto 96-well plates coated with fibronectin at three different concentrations. This method allows assessment of cell number, proliferation, morphology and intercellular adhesion. Altogether, our strategy delivers robust quantification of phenotypic diversity within complex cell populations facilitating future identification of the genetic, biological and technical determinants of variance. Approaches such as the one described can be used to benchmark iPSCs from multiple donors and create novel platforms that can readily be tailored for disease modelling and drug discovery. PMID:26608109

  9. Low-Pt-Content Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Whitacre, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Combinatorial experiments have led to the discovery that a nanophase alloy of Pt, Ru, Ni, and Zr is effective as an anode catalyst material for direct methanol fuel cells. This discovery has practical significance in that the electronic current densities achievable by use of this alloy are comparable or larger than those obtained by use of prior Pt/Ru catalyst alloys containing greater amounts of Pt. Heretofore, the high cost of Pt has impeded the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells. By making it possible to obtain a given level of performance at reduced Pt content (and, hence, lower cost), the discovery may lead to reduction of the economic impediment to commercialization.

  10. Magnesium intracellular content and distribution map in drug-resistant and -sensitive whole cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Malucelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg plays crucial structural and regulatory roles within cells. Despite the extensive amount of data about the biochemistry of Mg, a complete picture of its regulation and cellular homeostasis is lacking. Thanks to recent improvements in third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRFM is becoming a highly sensitive method for mapping elemental distributions in cells. XRFM maps the element content but not the concentration, which is a relevant variable in a biological context. We tackled this issue by combining XRFM with atomic force microscopy that was used to obtain morphological information of the sample. The aim of the present study was to compare the content and the distribution of Mg in drug-resistant and -sensitive tumor cell lines. Our data has shown a massive increase of Mg in LoVo drug-resistant cells. Moreover, the map of intracellular Mg showed marked differences in the pattern distribution between sensitive and resistant cells.

  11. The structure of tissue on cell culture-extracted thyroglobulin is independent of its iodine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delain, E; Aouani, A; Vignal, A; Couture-Tosi, E; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1987-02-01

    The major protein synthesized in vitro by the ovine thyroid cell line OVNIS 6H is the prothyroid hormone thyroglobulin. Purified from serum-free cell culture media using sucrose gradient centrifugation, the thyroglobulin dimer was analysed for iodine content and observed by electron microscopy. In their usual medium, the OVNIS 6H cells produce a very poorly iodinated thyroglobulin containing 0.05 I atom per molecule. When cultured with methimazole or propylthiouracil, two inhibitors of iodide organification, less than 0.007 I atom/molecules was found. These molecules purified from cell cultures were compared to those purified from ovine thyroid tissue containing 26 I atoms/mol. Despite large differences in iodine content, the three preparations all consist of 19 S thyroglobulin dimers with the classical ovoidal shape. The variability in size measurements remains in a 2% range for all thyroglobulin types. Consequently, no real significant variation can be found between the highly iodinated thyroglobulin isolated from tissue, and the poorly or non-iodinated thyroglobulins isolated from cells cultured with or without methimazole or propylthiouracil.

  12. Development and Use of a Web Site with Multimedia Contents as a Complement to Traditional Unit Operations Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Cristian; Muller, Mauricio; Sapag-Hagar, Jaime; Valenzuela, Fernando; Basualto, Carlos; Abugoch, Lilian

    2005-01-01

    The Unit Operations Laboratory offers 2 courses in unit operations. One is a 2-semester course for chemistry and food engineering students that is more demanding because it considers more unit operations and places more emphasis on solving exercises. The other is a 1-semester course for chemistry and pharmacy students that considers fewer unit…

  13. Analysis of Normal Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Contents in Childhood Acute Leukemia Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandrán, Juan Carlos; Vadillo, Eduardo; Dozal, David; Reyes-López, Alfonso; Sandoval-Cabrera, Antonio; Laffont-Ortiz, Merle Denisse; Prieto-Chávez, Jessica L; Vilchis-Ordoñez, Armando; Quintela-Nuñez Del Prado, Henry; Mayani, Héctor; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; López-Martínez, Briceida; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Pelayo, Rosana

    2016-11-01

    Childhood acute leukemias (AL) are characterized by the excessive production of malignant precursor cells at the expense of effective blood cell development. The dominance of leukemic cells over normal progenitors may result in either direct suppression of functional hematopoiesis or remodeling of microenvironmental niches, contributing to BM failure and AL-associated mortality. We undertook this study to investigate the contents and functional activity of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) and their relationship to immune cell production and risk status in AL pediatric patients. Multiparametric flow cytometry of BM aspirates was performed to classify AL on the basis of lineage and differentiation stages and to analyze HSPC and immune cell frequencies. Controlled co-culture systems were conducted to evaluate functional lineage potentials of primitive cells. Statistical correlations and inter-group significant differences were established. Among 113 AL BM aspirates, 26.5% corresponded to ProB, 19.5% to PreB and 32% contain ProB and PreB differentiation stages, whereas nearly 9% of the cases were T- and 13% myeloid-lineage leukemias. We identified ProB-ALL as the subtype endowed with the highest relative contents of HSPC, whereas T-ALL and PreB-ALL showed a critically reduced size of both HSC and MLP compartments. Notably, lower cell frequencies of HSPC in ProB-ALL correlated to high-risk prognosis at disease debut. HSPC abundance at initial diagnosis may aid to predict the clinical course of ALL and to identify high-risk patients. A clearer understanding of their population dynamics and functional properties in the leukemia setting will potentially pave the way for targeted therapies. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing magnetite contents of polymeric magnetic particles dramatically improves labeling of neural stem cell transplant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher F; Rai, Ahmad; Sneddon, Gregor; Yiu, Humphrey H P; Polyak, Boris; Chari, Divya M

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient delivery of therapeutic cells to sites of injury/disease in the central nervous system is a key goal for the translation of clinical cell transplantation therapies. Recently, 'magnetic cell localization strategies' have emerged as a promising and safe approach for targeted delivery of magnetic particle (MP) labeled stem cells to pathology sites. For neuroregenerative applications, this approach is limited by the lack of available neurocompatible MPs, and low cell labeling achieved in neural stem/precursor populations. We demonstrate that high magnetite content, self-sedimenting polymeric MPs [unfunctionalized poly(lactic acid) coated, without a transfecting component] achieve efficient labeling (≥90%) of primary neural stem cells (NSCs)-a 'hard-to-label' transplant population of major clinical relevance. Our protocols showed high safety with respect to key stem cell regenerative parameters. Critically, labeled cells were effectively localized in an in vitro flow system by magnetic force highlighting the translational potential of the methods used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An open source based high content screening method for cell biology laboratories investigating cell spreading and adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Schmandke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adhesion dependent mechanisms are increasingly recognized to be important for a wide range of biological processes, diseases and therapeutics. This has led to a rising demand of pharmaceutical modulators. However, most currently available adhesion assays are time consuming and/or lack sensitivity and reproducibility or depend on specialized and expensive equipment often only available at screening facilities. Thus, rapid and economical high-content screening approaches are urgently needed. RESULTS: We established a fully open source high-content screening method for identifying modulators of adhesion. We successfully used this method to detect small molecules that are able to influence cell adhesion and cell spreading of Swiss-3T3 fibroblasts in general and/or specifically counteract Nogo-A-Δ20-induced inhibition of adhesion and cell spreading. The tricyclic anti-depressant clomipramine hydrochloride was shown to not only inhibit Nogo-A-Δ20-induced cell spreading inhibition in 3T3 fibroblasts but also to promote growth and counteract neurite outgrowth inhibition in highly purified primary neurons isolated from rat cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed and validated a high content screening approach that can be used in any ordinarily equipped cell biology laboratory employing exclusively freely available open-source software in order to find novel modulators of adhesion and cell spreading. The versatility and adjustability of the whole screening method will enable not only centers specialized in high-throughput screens but most importantly also labs not routinely employing screens in their daily work routine to investigate the effects of a wide range of different compounds or siRNAs on adhesion and adhesion-modulating molecules.

  16. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Live Cells Decreased In vitro Methane Production in Intestinal Content of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y L; Liao, X D; Liang, J B; Jahromi, M F; Wang, H; Cao, Z; Wu, Y B

    2013-06-01

    An in vitro gas production technique was used in this study to elucidate the effect of two strains of active live yeast on methane (CH4) production in the large intestinal content of pigs to provide an insight to whether active live yeast could suppress CH4 production in the hindgut of pigs. Treatments used in this study include blank (no substrate and no live yeast cells), control (no live yeast cells) and yeast (YST) supplementation groups (supplemented with live yeast cells, YST1 or YST2). The yeast cultures contained 1.8×10(10) cells per g, which were added at the rates of 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg per ml of the fermented inoculum. Large intestinal contents were collected from 2 Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pigs, mixed with a phosphate buffer (1:2), and incubated anaerobically at 39°C for 24 h using 500 mg substrate (dry matter (DM) basis). Total gas and CH4 production decreased (pyeast. The methane production reduction potential (MRP) was calculated by assuming net methane concentration for the control as 100%. The MRP of yeast 2 was more than 25%. Compared with the control group, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration increased (pyeast supplementation. Quantity of methanogenic archaea per milliliter of inoculum decreased (pyeast supplementation after 24 h of incubation. Our results suggest that live yeast cells suppressed in vitro CH4 production when inoculated into the large intestinal contents of pigs and shifted the fermentation pattern to favor propionate production together with an increased population of acetogenic bacteria, both of which serve as a competitive pathway for the available H2 resulting in the reduction of methanogenic archaea.

  18. [Intracellular gold content of circulating blood cells using various gold compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlinger, J D; Beress, R; Hecker, U

    1984-01-01

    Evidence on the action mechanisms of gold salts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is still inconclusive. The intracellular localization of the place of action is likely. Therefore not only the serum gold levels but also the intracellular concentration of gold are of special interest. We measured the gold concentration in the serum and in the blood cells after in vitro application of aurothiomalate (Tauredon), gold keratinate (Auro-Detoxin) and triethylphosphine-gold (Ridaura) and in blood samples of patients undergoing these gold salts treatments. Cell-bound concentrations were found to vary extensively as a function of the gold compound used. While no or very little gold was present intracellularly after administration of the 2 parenteral drugs, up to 40% of the circulating gold was found to bind to the cells after administration of the triethylphosphine compound for gastro-intestinal absorption. The red cell concentration was more or less the same as that in the extracellular compartment. Gold apparently accumulated in the white cells, because the cell-bound concentration relative to unit volume was up to 20 times higher than the plasma level. The method used did not offer any information on the actual binding site of gold in white cells, i.e. cytoplasm versus nucleus versus cell membrane.

  19. A Novel Automated High-Content Analysis Workflow Capturing Cell Population Dynamics from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Live Imaging Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerz, Maximilian; Folarin, Amos; Meleckyte, Ruta; Watt, Fiona M.; Dobson, Richard J.; Danovi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Most image analysis pipelines rely on multiple channels per image with subcellular reference points for cell segmentation. Single-channel phase-contrast images are often problematic, especially for cells with unfavorable morphology, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Live imaging poses a further challenge, because of the introduction of the dimension of time. Evaluations cannot be easily integrated with other biological data sets including analysis of endpoint images. Here, we present a workflow that incorporates a novel CellProfiler-based image analysis pipeline enabling segmentation of single-channel images with a robust R-based software solution to reduce the dimension of time to a single data point. These two packages combined allow robust segmentation of iPSCs solely on phase-contrast single-channel images and enable live imaging data to be easily integrated to endpoint data sets while retaining the dynamics of cellular responses. The described workflow facilitates characterization of the response of live-imaged iPSCs to external stimuli and definition of cell line–specific, phenotypic signatures. We present an efficient tool set for automated high-content analysis suitable for cells with challenging morphology. This approach has potentially widespread applications for human pluripotent stem cells and other cell types. PMID:27256155

  20. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin

    Full Text Available BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC, and (ii heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  1. Decrease in spermidine content during logarithmic phase of cell growth delays spore formation of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, I; Takada, H; Terao, K; Kakegawa, T; Igarashi, K; Hirose, S

    1994-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis 168M contained a large amount of spermidine during the logarithmic phase of growth, but the amount decreased drastically during the stationary phase. The extracts, prepared from B. subtilis cells harvested in the logarithmic phase, contained activity of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) rather than the activity of ornithine decarboxylase. In the presence of alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific and irreversible inhibitor of ADC, the amount of spermidine in B. subtilis during the logarithmic phase decreased to about 25% of the control cells. Under these conditions, spore formation of B. subtilis 168M delayed greatly without significant inhibition of cell growth. The decrease in spermidine content in the logarithmic phase rather than in the stationary phase was involved in the delay of sporulation. Electron microscopy of cells at 24 hrs. of culture confirmed the delay of spore formation by the decrease of spermidine content. Furthermore, the delay of sporulation was negated by the addition of spermidine. These data suggest that a large amount of spermidine existing during the logarithmic phase plays an important role in the sporulation of B. subtilis.

  2. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Cemal Cagatay; Fontenay, Gerald; Cheng, Qingsu; Chang, Hang; Han, Ju; Parvin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    BioSig3D is a computational platform for high-content screening of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony. BioSig3D also enables visualization of raw and processed 3D volumetric data for quality control, and integrates advanced bioinformatics analysis. The system consists of multiple computational and annotation modules that are coupled together with a strong use of controlled vocabularies to reduce ambiguities between different users. It is a web-based system that allows users to: design an experiment by defining experimental variables, upload a large set of volumetric images into the system, analyze and visualize the dataset, and either display computed indices as a heatmap, or phenotypic subtypes for heterogeneity analysis, or download computed indices for statistical analysis or integrative biology. BioSig3D has been used to profile baseline colony formations with two experiments: (i) morphogenesis of a panel of human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMEC), and (ii) heterogeneity in colony formation using an immortalized non-transformed cell line. These experiments reveal intrinsic growth properties of well-characterized cell lines that are routinely used for biological studies. BioSig3D is being released with seed datasets and video-based documentation.

  3. Teachable, high-content analytics for live-cell, phase contrast movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Samuel V; Watanabe, Hirotada; Lee, James S J

    2010-09-01

    CL-Quant is a new solution platform for broad, high-content, live-cell image analysis. Powered by novel machine learning technologies and teach-by-example interfaces, CL-Quant provides a platform for the rapid development and application of scalable, high-performance, and fully automated analytics for a broad range of live-cell microscopy imaging applications, including label-free phase contrast imaging. The authors used CL-Quant to teach off-the-shelf universal analytics, called standard recipes, for cell proliferation, wound healing, cell counting, and cell motility assays using phase contrast movies collected on the BioStation CT and BioStation IM platforms. Similar to application modules, standard recipes are intended to work robustly across a wide range of imaging conditions without requiring customization by the end user. The authors validated the performance of the standard recipes by comparing their performance with truth created manually, or by custom analytics optimized for each individual movie (and therefore yielding the best possible result for the image), and validated by independent review. The validation data show that the standard recipes' performance is comparable with the validated truth with low variation. The data validate that the CL-Quant standard recipes can provide robust results without customization for live-cell assays in broad cell types and laboratory settings.

  4. Low-EC-Content Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar; Surampudi, Subbarao

    2003-01-01

    Electrolytes comprising LiPF6 dissolved at a concentration of 1.0 M in three different mixtures of alkyl carbonates have been found well suited for use in rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells at low temperatures. These and other electrolytes have been investigated in continuing research directed toward extending the lower limit of practical operating temperatures of Li-ion cells down to -60 C. This research at earlier stages was reported in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the three most recent being "Ethyl Methyl Carbonate as a Cosolvent for Lithium-Ion Cells" (NPO-20605), Vol. 25, Low-EC-Content Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Li-Ion Cells No. 6 (June 2001), page 53; "Alkyl Pyrocarbonate Electrolyte Additives for Li-Ion Cells" (NPO-20775), Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 37; and "Fluorinated Alkyl Carbonates as Cosolvents in Li-Ion Cells (NPO-21076), Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 38. The present solvent mixtures, in terms of volume proportions of their ingredients, are 1 ethylene carbonate (EC) + 1 diethyl carbonate (DEC) + 1 dimethyl carbonate (DMC) + 3 ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC); 3EC + 3DMC + 14EMC; and 1EC + 1DEC + 1DMC + 4EMC. Relative to similar mixtures reported previously, the present mixtures, which contain smaller proportions of EC, have been found to afford better performance in experimental Li-ion cells at temperatures < -20 C.

  5. Genetic parameters for lactation traits of milking ewes: protein content and composition, fat, somatic cells and individual laboratory cheese yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Fuente Luis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of some environmental variation factors and the genetic parameters for total milk traits (fat content, protein content, casein content, serum protein content, lactation mean of individual laboratory cheese yield (LILCY, lactation mean of somatic cell count (LSCC, and milk yield were estimated from the records of 1 111 Churra ewes. Genetic parameters were estimated by multivariate REML. Heritability for fat content was low (0.10 as is usually found in the Churra breed. Heritabilities for protein content, casein content, serum protein content, LILCY, milk yield and somatic cell count were 0.31, 0.30, 0.22, 0.09, 0.26 and 0.11, respectively. The highest heritability estimates were for protein and casein contents. Casein content is not advisable as an alternative to protein content as a selection criterion for cheese yield improvement; it does not have any compelling advantages and its measurement is costly. Our results for LSCC indicated that efforts should focus on improving the level of management rather than selecting for somatic cells, in the actual conditions of the Churra breed.

  6. Measurements of Intracellular Ca2+ Content and Phosphatidylserine Exposure in Human Red Blood Cells: Methodological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro C. Wesseling

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The increase of the intracellular Ca2+ content as well as the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS on the outer cell membrane surface after activation of red blood cells (RBCs by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA has been investigated by a variety of research groups. Carrying out experiments, which we described in several previous publications, we observed some discrepancies when comparing data obtained by different investigators within our research group and also between batches of LPA. In addition, we found differences comparing the results of double and single labelling experiments (for Ca2+ and PS. Furthermore, the results of PS exposure depended on the fluorescent dye used (annexin V-FITC versus annexin V alexa fluor® 647. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate these methodological approaches in more detail to be able to quantify results and to compare data obtained by different research groups. Methods: The intracellular Ca2+ content and the PS exposure of RBCs separated from whole blood have been investigated after treatment with LPA (2.5 µM obtained from three different companies (Sigma-Aldrich, Cayman Chemical Company, and Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.. Fluo-4 and x-rhod-1 have been used to detect intracellular Ca2+ content, annexin V alexa fluor® 647 and annexin V-FITC have been used for PS exposure measurements. Both parameters (Ca2+ content, PS exposure were studied using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results: The percentage of RBCs showing increased intracellular Ca2+ content as well as PS exposure changes significantly between different LPA manufacturers as well as on the condition of mixing of LPA with the RBC suspension. Furthermore, the percentage of RBCs showing PS exposure is reduced in double labelling compared to single labelling experiments and depends also on the fluorescent dye used. Finally, data on Ca2+ content are slightly affected whereas PS exposure data are not affected significantly

  7. Myonuclear transcription is responsive to mechanical load and DNA content but uncoupled from cell size during hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Tyler J; Patel, Rooshil M; McClintock, Timothy S; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; Peterson, Charlotte A; McCarthy, John J

    2016-03-01

    Myofibers increase size and DNA content in response to a hypertrophic stimulus, thus providing a physiological model with which to study how these factors affect global transcription. Using 5-ethynyl uridine (EU) to metabolically label nascent RNA, we measured a sevenfold increase in myofiber transcription during early hypertrophy before a change in cell size and DNA content. The typical increase in myofiber DNA content observed at the later stage of hypertrophy was associated with a significant decrease in the percentage of EU-positive myonuclei; however, when DNA content was held constant by preventing myonuclear accretion via satellite cell depletion, both the number of transcriptionally active myonuclei and the amount of RNA generated by each myonucleus increased. During late hypertrophy, transcription did not scale with cell size, as smaller myofibers (hypertrophy and that myofiber transcription is responsive to DNA content but uncoupled from cell size during hypertrophy.

  8. Influence of Water Stress on Endogenous Hormone Contents and Cell Damage of Maize Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunrong Wang; Aifang Yang; Haiying Yin; Juren Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Phytohormones play critical roles In regulating plant responses to stress. We Investigated the effects of water stress Induced by adding 12% (w/v) polyethylene glycol to the root medium on the levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acid (IAA), zeatin (ZT), and gibberellin3 (GA3) in maize leaves. The results suggested that water stress had significant effects on the four hormone levels. There was a transient increase in the IAA content during the initial stage of adaptation to water stress in maize leaves, but it dropped sharply thereafter in response to water stress. ABA content increased dramatically in maize leaves after 24 h of exposure to water stress, and then the high levels of ABA were maintained to the end, The contents Of ZT and GA3 rapidly declined in maize leaves subjected to water stress. The effects of water stress on chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde levels in maize leaves were also studied. The variation of cell damage was negatively correlated with ZT and GA3 levels in maize leaves under water stress. Thus, we explored the roles of ZT and GA3 on the growth of maize seedlings under water stress by exogenous application. It is possible that both ZT and GA3 were effective in protecting maize seedlings from water stress, which would be of great importance for the improvement of drought tolerance in maize by genetic manipulation.

  9. Taxanes content and cytotoxicity of hazel cells extract after elicitation with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Mitra; Ghanati, Faezeh

    2017-01-01

    The toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been attributed to the generation of Ag(+) ions as well as production of ROS. The latter can elicit defensive response of plant cells in different ways e.g., enhancement of secondary metabolite productions. In the present study this hypothesis was evaluated by assessment of taxanes production by suspension-cultured hazel (Corylus avellana L.) cells after treatment with AgNPs. The cells were treated with different concentrations of AgNPs (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 ppm), in their logarithmic growth phase (d7) and were harvested after 1 weak. The growth of cells and their membrane integrity decreased but extracellular electro conductivity and total dissolved solids increase by AgNPs (probably due to loosening of cell membrane). Treatment of hazel cells with AgNPs (in particular of 5 ppm) rapidly and remarkably increased the yields of two major taxanes, i.e., Taxol and baccatin III; so that 24 h of the treatment their contents reached to 378% and 163% of the control, respectively. Increase of Taxanes was accompanied by the increase of total soluble phenols. The extracts of AgNPs-treated cells were able to inhibit the growth of cancerous HeLa cells and reduce their viability to 60% of the control. The results suggest the elicitation of suspension-cultured hazel cells with AgNPs as a procedure for rapid enhancement of anticancer taxanes biosynthesis by the cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. High content analysis of phagocytic activity and cell morphology with PuntoMorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Hassan; Gao, Han; Dalby-Hansen, Camilla; Peters, Vanessa Ann; Shi, Yan; Brambilla, Roberta

    2017-11-01

    Phagocytosis is essential for maintenance of normal homeostasis and healthy tissue. As such, it is a therapeutic target for a wide range of clinical applications. The development of phenotypic screens targeting phagocytosis has lagged behind, however, due to the difficulties associated with image-based quantification of phagocytic activity. We present a robust algorithm and cell-based assay system for high content analysis of phagocytic activity. The method utilizes fluorescently labeled beads as a phagocytic substrate with defined physical properties. The algorithm employs statistical modeling to determine the mean fluorescence of individual beads within each image, and uses the information to conduct an accurate count of phagocytosed beads. In addition, the algorithm conducts detailed and sophisticated analysis of cellular morphology, making it a standalone tool for high content screening. We tested our assay system using microglial cultures. Our results recapitulated previous findings on the effects of microglial stimulation on cell morphology and phagocytic activity. Moreover, our cell-level analysis revealed that the two phenotypes associated with microglial activation, specifically cell body hypertrophy and increased phagocytic activity, are not highly correlated. This novel finding suggests the two phenotypes may be under the control of distinct signaling pathways. We demonstrate that our assay system outperforms preexisting methods for quantifying phagocytic activity in multiple dimensions including speed, accuracy, and resolution. We provide a framework to facilitate the development of high content assays suitable for drug screening. For convenience, we implemented our algorithm in a standalone software package, PuntoMorph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  12. Damp Heat Treatment of Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells with Different Sodium Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Daume

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term stability is crucial to maturing any photovoltaic technology. We have studied the influence of sodium, which plays a key role in optimizing the performance of Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGSe solar cells, on the long-term stability of flexible CIGSe solar cells on polyimide foil. The standardized procedure of damp heat exposure (85% relative humidity at 85 °C was used to simulate aging of the unencapsulated cells in multiple time steps while they were characterized by current-voltage analysis, capacitance-voltage profiling, as well as electroluminescence imaging. By comparing the aging process to cells that were exposed to heat only, it could be confirmed that moisture plays the key role in the degradation process. We found that cells with higher sodium content suffer from a more pronounced degradation. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate the superposition of an enhancing and a deteriorating mechanism during the aging process. We propose an explanation based on the corrosion of the planar contacts of the solar cell.

  13. Sensitivity to lysosome-dependent cell death is directly regulated by lysosomal cholesterol content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Appelqvist

    Full Text Available Alterations in lipid homeostasis are implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, although the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. We evaluated the impact of cholesterol accumulation, induced by U18666A, quinacrine or mutations in the cholesterol transporting Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1 protein, on lysosomal stability and sensitivity to lysosome-mediated cell death. We found that neurons with lysosomal cholesterol accumulation were protected from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In addition, human fibroblasts with cholesterol-loaded lysosomes showed higher lysosomal membrane stability than controls. Previous studies have shown that cholesterol accumulation is accompanied by the storage of lipids such as sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids and sphingosine and an up regulation of lysosomal associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2, which may also influence lysosomal stability. However, in this study the use of myriocin and LAMP deficient fibroblasts excluded these factors as responsible for the rescuing effect and instead suggested that primarily lysosomal cholesterol content determineD the cellular sensitivity to toxic insults. Further strengthening this concept, depletion of cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin or 25-hydroxycholesterol decreased the stability of lysosomes and cells became more prone to undergo apoptosis. In conclusion, cholesterol content regulated lysosomal membrane permeabilization and thereby influenced cell death sensitivity. Our data suggests that lysosomal cholesterol modulation might be used as a therapeutic strategy for conditions associated with accelerated or repressed apoptosis.

  14. Enterococcus faecalis Glycolipids Modulate Lipoprotein-Content of the Bacterial Cell Membrane and Host Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andreas; Sava, Irina G.; Wobser, Dominique; Bao, Yinyin; Hese, Katrin; Broszat, Melanie; Henneke, Philipp; Becher, Dörte; Huebner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of the cell membrane composition of E. faecalis on its recognition by the host immune system. To this end, we employed an E. faecalis deletion mutant (ΔbgsA) that does not synthesize the major cell membrane glycolipid diglycosyl-diacylglycerol (DGlcDAG). Proteomic analysis revealed that 13 of a total of 21 upregulated surface-associated proteins of E. faecalis ΔbgsA were lipoproteins. This led to a total lipoprotein content in the cell membrane of 35.8% in ΔbgsA compared to only 9.4% in wild-type bacteria. Increased lipoprotein content strongly affected the recognition of ΔbgsA by mouse macrophages in vitro with an increased stimulation of TNF-α production by heat-fixed bacteria and secreted antigens. Inactivation of the prolipoprotein diacylglycerol transferase (lgt) in ΔbgsA abrogated TNF-α induction by a ΔbgsA_lgt double mutant indicating that lipoproteins mediate increased activation of mouse macrophages by ΔbgsA. Heat-fixed ΔbgsA bacteria, culture supernatant, or cell membrane lipid extract activated transfected HEK cells in a TLR2-dependent fashion; the same was not true of wild-type bacteria. In mice infected intraperitoneally with a sublethal dose of E. faecalis we observed a 70% greater mortality in mice infected with ΔbgsA compared with wild-type-infected mice. Increased mortality due to ΔbgsA infection was associated with elevated plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-2. In summary, our results provide evidence that an E. faecalis mutant lacking its major bilayer forming glycolipid DGlcDAG upregulates lipoprotein expression leading to increased activation of the host innate immune system and virulence in vivo. PMID:26172831

  15. Thiamine status in humans and content of phosphorylated thiamine derivatives in biopsies and cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Gangolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thiamine (vitamin B1 is an essential molecule for all life forms because thiamine diphosphate (ThDP is an indispensable cofactor for oxidative energy metabolism. The less abundant thiamine monophosphate (ThMP, thiamine triphosphate (ThTP and adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP, present in many organisms, may have still unidentified physiological functions. Diseases linked to thiamine deficiency (polyneuritis, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome remain frequent among alcohol abusers and other risk populations. This is the first comprehensive study on the distribution of thiamine derivatives in human biopsies, body fluids and cell lines. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thiamine derivatives were determined by HPLC. In human tissues, the total thiamine content is lower than in other animal species. ThDP is the major thiamine compound and tissue levels decrease at high age. In semen, ThDP content correlates with the concentration of spermatozoa but not with their motility. The proportion of ThTP is higher in humans than in rodents, probably because of a lower 25-kDa ThTPase activity. The expression and activity of this enzyme seems to correlate with the degree of cell differentiation. ThTP was present in nearly all brain and muscle samples and in ∼60% of other tissue samples, in particular fetal tissue and cultured cells. A low ([ThTP]+[ThMP]/([Thiamine]+[ThMP] ratio was found in cardiovascular tissues of patients with cardiac insufficiency. AThTP was detected only sporadically in adult tissues but was found more consistently in fetal tissues and cell lines. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The high sensitivity of humans to thiamine deficiency is probably linked to low circulating thiamine concentrations and low ThDP tissue contents. ThTP levels are relatively high in many human tissues, as a result of low expression of the 25-kDa ThTPase. Another novel finding is the presence of ThTP and AThTP in poorly differentiated fast-growing cells

  16. Normalizing for individual cell population context in the analysis of high-content cellular screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-content, high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi offers unprecedented possibilities to elucidate gene function and involvement in biological processes. Microscopy based screening allows phenotypic observations at the level of individual cells. It was recently shown that a cell's population context significantly influences results. However, standard analysis methods for cellular screens do not currently take individual cell data into account unless this is important for the phenotype of interest, i.e. when studying cell morphology. Results We present a method that normalizes and statistically scores microscopy based RNAi screens, exploiting individual cell information of hundreds of cells per knockdown. Each cell's individual population context is employed in normalization. We present results on two infection screens for hepatitis C and dengue virus, both showing considerable effects on observed phenotypes due to population context. In addition, we show on a non-virus screen that these effects can be found also in RNAi data in the absence of any virus. Using our approach to normalize against these effects we achieve improved performance in comparison to an analysis without this normalization and hit scoring strategy. Furthermore, our approach results in the identification of considerably more significantly enriched pathways in hepatitis C virus replication than using a standard analysis approach. Conclusions Using a cell-based analysis and normalization for population context, we achieve improved sensitivity and specificity not only on a individual protein level, but especially also on a pathway level. This leads to the identification of new host dependency factors of the hepatitis C and dengue viruses and higher reproducibility of results.

  17. Advanced Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an advanced composite bipolar plate is proposed for a unitized regenerative fuel cell and electrolyzer system that operates on pure feed streams...

  18. The Portrayal of Older People in Television Advertisements: A Cross-Cultural Content Analysis of the United States and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungkwan; Kim, Bong-Chul; Han, Sangpil

    2006-01-01

    A cross-cultural content analysis of 2,295 prime-time television ads--859 ads from the United States and 1,436 ads from South Korea--was conducted to examine the differences in the portrayal of older people between U.S. and Korean ads. In two countries, the underrepresentation of older people in ads was found in terms of proportions of the actual…

  19. Super Unit Cells in Aperture-Based Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Tanasković; Zoran Jakšić; Marko Obradov; Olga Jakšić

    2015-01-01

    An important class of electromagnetic metamaterials are aperture-based metasurfaces. Examples include extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnets with negative refractive index. We analyze a generalization of such metamaterials where a simple aperture is now replaced by a compound object formed by superposition of two or more primitive objects (e.g., rectangles, circles, and ellipses). Thus obtained “super unit cell” shows far richer behavior than the subobjects that compris...

  20. Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooie, D.T.; Williams, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.

  1. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Tianhuan Luo; Bo Li; Qian Zhao; Ji Zhou

    2015-01-01

    With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3) with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The ...

  2. Recent insights into the cell biology of thyroid angiofollicular units.

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Ides M.; Denef, Jean-François; Lengelé, Benoît; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In thyrocytes, cell polarity is of crucial importance for proper thyroid function. Many intrinsic mechanisms of self-regulation control how the key players involved in thyroid hormone (TH) biosynthesis interact in apical microvilli, so that hazardous biochemical processes may occur without detriment to the cell. In some pathological conditions, this enzymatic complex is disrupted, with some components abnormally activated into the cytoplasm, which can lead to further morphological and functio...

  3. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been one of the most productive classes of drug targets for several decades, and new technologies for GPCR-based discovery promise to keep this field active for years to come. While molecular screens for GPCR receptor agonist- and antagonist-based drugs...... as valuable discovery tools for several years. The application of high content cell-based screening to GPCR discovery has opened up additional possibilities, such as direct tracking of GPCRs, G proteins and other signaling pathway components using intracellular translocation assays. These assays provide...... the capability to probe GPCR function at the cellular level with better resolution than has previously been possible, and offer practical strategies for more definitive selectivity evaluation and counter-screening in the early stages of drug discovery. The potential of cell-based translocation assays for GPCR...

  4. In vivo effects of high-dose steroids on nucleic acid content of immunocompetent cells of renal allograft recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walle, A.J.; Wong, G.Y.; Suthanthiran, M.; Rubin, A.L.; Stenzel, K.H.

    1988-03-01

    High-dose steroids administered to renal allograft recipients for treatment of acute graft rejection episodes may affect cell cycle progression of peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells. DNA synthesis and cellular DNA and RNA contents of PBM cells were measured in 8 patients during clinically stable periods, and in another 10 patients both during acute rejection episodes and during 7 days of administration of high-dose steroids. Improved renal function documented successful reversal of the rejection episodes in the 10 patients. Compared with the stable patients, the rejecting patients had higher numbers of cells undergoing clonal expansion--namely, higher proportions of G1-cells and of proliferating, or S, G2, and M (SG2M) cells. Steroid treatment had no acute effects on proportions of G1 or SG2M cells in vivo or on incorporation of /sup 3/H thymidine by PBM cells in vitro. However, cells in the prereplicative compartment of the cell cycle (G0/1 cells) had significantly lower RNA content within 7 days of treatment with high doses of steroids. The results suggest that steroids do not acutely influence the posttranscriptional synthesis and the contents of nucleic acids of cells undergoing clonal expansion in vivo. The prereplicative phase of allogeneically stimulated PBM cells of renal allograft recipients may therefore be the cell cycle phase most sensitive to steroids in vivo.

  5. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Donald A., E-mail: dafox@uh.edu [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Hamilton, W. Ryan [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Jerry E. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX (United States); Xiao, Weimin [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Miller, Diane B.; O' Callaghan, James P. [Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-NIOSH, Morgantown, WV USA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  6. BioSig3D: High Content Screening of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Models: e0148379

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cemal Cagatay Bilgin; Gerald Fontenay; Qingsu Cheng; Hang Chang; Ju Han; Bahram Parvin

    2016-01-01

    ...) cell culture models that are imaged in full 3D volume. It provides an end-to-end solution for designing high content screening assays, based on colony organization that is derived from segmentation of nuclei in each colony...

  7. Dominant unit CD34+ cell dose predicts engraftment after double-unit cord blood transplantation and is influenced by bank practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtill, Duncan; Smith, Katherine; Devlin, Sean; Meagher, Richard; Tonon, Joann; Lubin, Marissa; Ponce, Doris M; Giralt, Sergio; Kernan, Nancy A; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Stevens, Cladd E; Barker, Juliet N

    2014-11-06

    We investigated the unit characteristics associated with engraftment after double-unit cord blood (CB) transplantation (dCBT) and whether these could be reliably identified during unit selection. Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment in 129 myeloablative dCBT recipients was 95% (95% confidence interval: 90-98%). When precryopreservation characteristics were analyzed, the dominant unit CD34(+) cell dose was the only characteristic independently associated with engraftment (hazard ratio, 1.43; P = .002). When postthaw characteristics were also included, only dominant unit infused viable CD34(+) cell dose independently predicted engraftment (hazard ratio, 1.95; P banks were more likely to have low recovery (P banks and units with cryovolumes other than 24.5 to 26.0 mL were more likely to have poor postthaw viability. Precryopreservation CD34(+) cell dose and banking practices should be incorporated into CB unit selection.

  8. Powerful regulatory systems and post-transcriptional gene silencing resist increases in cellulose content in cell walls of barley

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hwei-Ting; Shirley, Neil J; Singh, Rohan R; Henderson, Marilyn; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Mayo, Gwenda M; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Burton, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to increase cellulose content and improve the stem strength of cereals could have beneficial applications in stem lodging and producing crops with higher cellulose content for biofuel feedstocks. Here, such potential is explored in the commercially important crop barley through the manipulation of cellulose synthase genes (CesA). Results Barley plants transformed with primary cell wall (PCW) and secondary cell wall (SCW) barley cellulose synthase (HvCesA) cDNAs driven b...

  9. Determination of periodontal ligament cell viability in the oral rehydration fluid Gatorade and milks of varying fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkacz, O M; Carnes, D L; Walker, W A

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine if the oral rehydration fluid Gatorade could serve as a suitable temporary storage medium for maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability on avulsed teeth and 2) to determine if fat content is related to maintenance of cell viability when milk is used as the temporary storage medium. PDL cells were cultured from extracted human teeth then incubated over timed intervals from 15 to 210 min in the oral rehydration fluid Gatorade, milks of varying fat content, and saliva. Dulbeco's Modified Eagles Medium served as the positive control while tap water served as the negative control. Cell viability was determined using a colorimetric assay that used Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1. Results using Gatorade yielded cell viability data similar to the negative control, tap water, indicating that this oral rehydration fluid was not suitable as a temporary storage medium for the avulsed tooth. However, the fat content of milk was found to have an effect on cell viability, suggesting that milks with lower fat content may be more appropriate for maintaining PDL cell viability than milks with higher fat content.

  10. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  11. Toward high-content screening of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Eligio F; Willems, Peter H G M; Pellegrini, Mina; Beyrath, Julien; Smeitink, Jan A M; Blanchet, Lionel; Koopman, Werner J H

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria are double membrane organelles involved in various key cellular processes. Governed by dedicated protein machinery, mitochondria move and continuously fuse and divide. These "mitochondrial dynamics" are bi-directionally linked to mitochondrial and cell functional state in space and time. Due to the action of the electron transport chain (ETC), the mitochondrial inner membrane displays a inside-negative membrane potential (Δψ). The latter is considered a functional readout of mitochondrial "health" and required to sustain normal mitochondrial ATP production and mitochondrial fusion. During the last decade, live-cell microscopy strategies were developed for simultaneous quantification of Δψ and mitochondrial morphology. This revealed that ETC dysfunction, changes in Δψ and aberrations in mitochondrial structure often occur in parallel, suggesting they are linked potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss how combining high-content and high-throughput strategies can be used for analysis of genetic and/or drug-induced effects at the level of individual organelles, cells and cell populations. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies.

  12. Synthesis and high content cell-based profiling of simplified analogues of the microtubule stabilizer (+)-discodermolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, Jose M; Giuliano, Kenneth A; Balachandran, Raghavan; Madiraju, Charitha; Curran, Dennis P; Day, Billy W

    2002-12-01

    (+)-Discodermolide, a C24:4, trihydroxylated, octamethyl, carbamate-bearing fatty acid lactone originally isolated from a Caribbean sponge, has proven to be the most potent of the microtubule-stabilizing agents. Recent studies suggest that it or its analogues may have advantages over other classes of microtubule-stabilizing agents. (+)-Discodermolide's complex molecular architecture has made structure-activity relationship analysis in this class of compounds a formidable task. The goal of this study was to prepare simplified analogues of (+)-discodermolide and to analyze their biological activities to expand structure-activity relationships. A small library of analogues was prepared wherein the (+)-discodermolide methyl groups at C-14 and C-16 and the C-7 hydroxyl were removed, and the lactone was replaced by simple esters. The library components were analyzed for microtubule-stabilizing actions in vitro, antiproliferative activity against a small panel of human carcinoma cells, and cell signaling, microtubule architecture and mitotic spindle alterations by a multiparameter fluorescence cell-based screening technique. The results show that even drastic structural simplification can lead to analogues with actions related to microtubule targeting and signal transduction, but that these subtle effects were illuminated only through the high information content cell-based screen.

  13. Adapting human pluripotent stem cells to high-throughput and high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbordes, Sabrina C; Studer, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as a source of cells for drug discovery, cytotoxicity assessment and disease modeling requires their adaptation to large-scale culture conditions and screening formats. Here, we describe a simple and robust protocol for the adaptation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to high-throughput screening (HTS). This protocol can also be adapted to human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and high-content screening (HCS). We also describe a 7-d assay to identify compounds with an effect on hESC self-renewal and differentiation. This assay can be adapted to a variety of applications. The procedure involves the culture expansion of hESCs, their adaptation to 384-well plates, the addition of small molecules or other factors, and finally data acquisition and processing. In this protocol, the optimal number of hESCs plated in 384-well plates has been adapted to HTS/HCS assays of 7 d.

  14. The number of cell types, information content, and the evolution of complex multicellularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J. Niklas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of different cell types (NCT characterizing an organism is often used to quantify organismic complexity. This method results in the tautology that more complex organisms have a larger number of different kinds of cells, and that organisms with more different kinds of cells are more complex. This circular reasoning can be avoided (and simultaneously tested when NCT is plotted against different measures of organismic information content (e.g., genome or proteome size. This approach is illustrated by plotting the NCT of representative diatoms, green and brown algae, land plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates against data for genome size (number of base-pairs, proteome size (number of amino acids, and proteome functional versatility (number of intrinsically disordered protein domains or residues. Statistical analyses of these data indicate that increases in NCT fail to keep pace with increases in genome size, but exceed a one-to-one scaling relationship with increasing proteome size and with increasing numbers of intrinsically disordered protein residues. We interpret these trends to indicate that comparatively small increases in proteome (and not genome size are associated with disproportionate increases in NCT, and that proteins with intrinsically disordered domains enhance cell type diversity and thus contribute to the evolution of complex multicellularity.

  15. High-Content Analysis of Breast Cancer Using Single-Cell Deep Transfer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Chetak; Silva, Luís M; Alexandre, Luís A; Santos, Jorge M

    2016-03-01

    High-content analysis has revolutionized cancer drug discovery by identifying substances that alter the phenotype of a cell, which prevents tumor growth and metastasis. The high-resolution biofluorescence images from assays allow precise quantitative measures enabling the distinction of small molecules of a host cell from a tumor. In this work, we are particularly interested in the application of deep neural networks (DNNs), a cutting-edge machine learning method, to the classification of compounds in chemical mechanisms of action (MOAs). Compound classification has been performed using image-based profiling methods sometimes combined with feature reduction methods such as principal component analysis or factor analysis. In this article, we map the input features of each cell to a particular MOA class without using any treatment-level profiles or feature reduction methods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of DNN in this domain, leveraging single-cell information. Furthermore, we use deep transfer learning (DTL) to alleviate the intensive and computational demanding effort of searching the huge parameter's space of a DNN. Results show that using this approach, we obtain a 30% speedup and a 2% accuracy improvement.

  16. Evaluation of the pneumatic tube system for transportation of packed red cell units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Dhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumatic tube system (PTS is commonly used in hospital settings to transport blood samples to diagnostic laboratories. At our blood center, we receive blood requisitions via the PTS, but units are carried to the ward by human courier. Recently we considered using the PTS for transporting blood units. Since, there are reports of hemolysis in blood samples sent through the PTS, we evaluated this system for transporting red cell units. Aims: The aim was to assess the effect of PTS transport on the quality of packed red cell units. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 red blood cells units (RBC, (25 non-irradiated and 25 irradiated were subjected to transportation through the PTS. The control arm in the study was age-matched RBC units not subjected to PTS transport. Each RBC unit was evaluated for hemoglobin (Hb, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium and plasma hemoglobin (Hb. The paired t-test was used to compare these parameters, and the P value was calculated. Results and Conclusion: The percentage of hemolysis after transportation through PTS was below the recommended guidelines. Delivery of the blood unit to the wrong station, bags lying unattended at the destination were few of the problems that had to be addressed. To conclude, though the PTS is a safe means of transporting blood products with reduction in the turn-around-time, it must be validated before use.

  17. Seladin-1/DHCR24 protects neuroblastoma cells against Aβ toxicity by increasing membrane cholesterol content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, C; Rosati, F; Pensalfini, A; Formigli, L; Nosi, D; Liguri, G; Dichiara, F; Morello, M; Danza, G; Pieraccini, G; Peri, A; Serio, M; Stefani, M

    2008-01-01

    The role of brain cholesterol in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently a matter of debate. Experimental evidence suggests that reducing circulating and brain cholesterol protects against AD, however recent data indicate that low membrane cholesterol results in neurode-generation and that the cholesterol synthesis catalyst seladin-1 is down-regulated in AD-affected brain regions. We previously reported a significant correlation between resistance to amyloid toxicity and content of membrane cholesterol in differing cultured cell types. Here we provide evidence that Aβ42 pre-fibrillar aggregates accumulate more slowly and in reduced amount at the plasma membrane of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells overexpressing seladin-1 or treated with PEG-cholesterol than at the membrane of control cells. The accumulation was significantly increased in cholesterol-depleted cells following treatment with the specific seladin-1 inhibitor 5,22E-cholestadien-3-ol or with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The resistance to amyloid toxicity and the early cytosolic Ca2+ rise following exposure to Aβ42 aggregates were increased and prevented, respectively, by increasing membrane cholesterol whereas the opposite effects were found in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that seladin-1-dependent cholesterol synthesis reduces membrane-aggregate interaction and cell damage associated to amyloid-induced imbalance of cytosolic Ca2+. Our findings extend recently reported data indicating that seladin-1 overexpression directly enhances the resistance to Aβ toxicity featuring seladin-1/DHCR 24 as a possible new susceptibility gene for sporadic AD. PMID:18194465

  18. Control of an afterburner in a diesel fuel cell power unit under variable load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolanc, Gregor; Pregelj, Boštjan; Petrovčič, Janko; Samsun, Remzi Can

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the control system for a catalytic afterburner in a diesel fuel cell auxiliary power unit is presented. The catalytic afterburner is used to burn the non-utilised hydrogen and other possible combustible components of the fuel cell anode off-gas. To increase the energy efficiency of the auxiliary power unit, the thermal energy released in the catalytic afterburner is utilised to generate the steam for the fuel processor. For optimal operation of the power unit in all modes of operation including load change, stable steam generation is required and overall energy balance must be kept within design range. To achieve this, the reaction temperature of the catalytic afterburner must be stable in all modes of operation. Therefore, we propose the afterburner temperature control based on mass and thermal balances. Finally, we demonstrate the control system using the existing prototype of the diesel fuel cell auxiliary power unit.

  19. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Donald A; Hamilton, W Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2011-11-01

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was ≤ 1, ≤ 10, ~25 and ~40 μg/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were ≤ 1 μg/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity.

  20. Multiparametric Cell Cycle Analysis Using the Operetta High-Content Imager and Harmony Software with PhenoLOGIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Massey

    Full Text Available High-content imaging is a powerful tool for determining cell phenotypes at the single cell level. Characterising the effect of small molecules on cell cycle distribution is important for understanding their mechanism of action especially in oncology drug discovery but also for understanding potential toxicology liabilities. Here, a high-throughput phenotypic assay utilising the PerkinElmer Operetta high-content imager and Harmony software to determine cell cycle distribution is described. PhenoLOGIC, a machine learning algorithm within Harmony software was employed to robustly separate single cells from cell clumps. DNA content, EdU incorporation and pHH3 (S10 expression levels were subsequently utilised to separate cells into the various phases of the cell cycle. The assay is amenable to multiplexing with an additional pharmacodynamic marker to assess cell cycle changes within a specific cellular sub-population. Using this approach, the cell cycle distribution of γH2AX positive nuclei was determined following treatment with DNA damaging agents. Likewise, the assay can be multiplexed with Ki67 to determine the fraction of quiescent cells and with BrdU dual labelling to determine S-phase duration. This methodology therefore provides a relatively cheap, quick and high-throughput phenotypic method for determining accurate cell cycle distribution for small molecule mechanism of action and drug toxicity studies.

  1. But Science Is International! Finding Time and Space to Encourage Intercultural Learning in a Content-Driven Physiology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Internationalization of the curriculum is central to the strategic direction of many modern universities and has widespread benefits for student learning. However, these clear aspirations for internationalization of the curriculum have not been widely translated into more internationalized course content and teaching methods in the classroom,…

  2. But science is international! Finding time and space to encourage intercultural learning in a content-driven physiology unit

    OpenAIRE

    Etherington, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Internationalization of the curriculum is central to the strategic direction of many modern universities and has widespread benefits for student learning. However, these clear aspirations for internationalization of the curriculum have not been widely translated into more internationalized course content and teaching methods in the classroom, particularly in scientific disciplines. This study addressed one major challenge to promoting intercultural competence among undergraduate science stude...

  3. An Examination of Doctoral Preparation Information in the United States: A Content Analysis of Counselor Education Doctoral Program Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hongryun; Mulit, Cynthia J.; Visalli, Kelsea M.

    2016-01-01

    Counselor Education (CE) program websites play a role in program fit by helping prospective students learn about the profession, search for programs and apply for admission. Using the 2014 "ACA Code of Ethics'" nine categories of orientation content as its framework, this study explored the information provided on the 63…

  4. Efficiency of the unit cell in rectangular finned tube arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzzoni, Luca; Dall' Olio, Roberto; Spiga, Marco [Bologna Univ., DIENCA, Bologna (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting an investigation concerning the efficiency of the single unit in finned air-cooled heat exchangers with staggered and in-line bundles of rectangular ducts, where a hot process fluid flows inside extended-surface tubes and atmospheric air is circulated outside, over the extended surface. The differential energy equation is numerically solved by a finite difference technique, in order to determine the spatial temperature profiles, then the fin efficiency and the augmentation factor are calculated by a simple numerical integration. The results show that the temperature distribution and the fin performance depend on four dimensionless parameters (m,{beta},p{sub x},p{sub y}), the first accounting for the heat transfer condition, the other ones accounting for the geometry of the extended surface (tube aspect ratio and pitches). Several tables are presented, allowing the efficiency of the extended surface to be deduced as a function of the thermal and geometric parameters. (Author)

  5. THE CONTENTS OF NEUTRAL AND POLAR LIPIDS IN CLOSTRIDIA CELLS UNDER CULTIVATION IN THE PRESENCE OF BUTANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Voychuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the portion of polar and neutral lipids in the cells of Clostridium during their cultivation in the presence of butanol. Four natural isolates of Clostridium genus were studied with flow cytometry approaches. Under the optimal culture conditions, the polar lipids prevailed over neutral ones in bacterial cells; the content of neutral lipids doubled in spores of these microorganisms, while the content of polar ones was reduced. Strains No 1 and No 2 were able to grow at 1% butanol in the medium, and the strain No 4 was at 1.5%. When cultivated in the presence of different concentrations of butanol, the bacterial strains did not differ in such cytomorphological features as granularity and cell size. The quantitative content of polar and neutral lipids in the presence of butanol varied depending on the content of butanol in the medium, however this effect had a strain-specific character and did not show a correlation with the resistance of these bacteria to butanol. So, the content of polar and neutral lipids varied depending on butanol content in the medium. However this effect was strain-specific independently of resistance of these bacteria to butanol. The use of bacterial biomass as a source of lipids for the production of biofuels requires further optimization of the process to increase the content of the neutral lipid fraction in bacterial cells.

  6. Quantification of Cell-Free DNA in Red Blood Cell Units in Different Whole Blood Processing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whole blood donations in Canada are processed by either the red cell filtration (RCF or whole blood filtration (WBF methods, where leukoreduction is potentially delayed in WBF. Fresh WBF red blood cells (RBCs have been associated with increased in-hospital mortality after transfusion. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA is released by neutrophils prior to leukoreduction, degraded during RBC storage, and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. We explored cfDNA levels in RBCs prepared by RCF and WBF and different storage durations. Methods. Equal numbers of fresh (stored ≤14 days and older RBCs were sampled. cfDNA was quantified by spectrophotometry and PicoGreen. Separate regression models determined the association with processing method and storage duration and their interaction on cfDNA. Results. cfDNA in 120 RBC units (73 RCF, 47 WBF were measured. Using PicoGreen, WBF units overall had higher cfDNA than RCF units (p=0.0010; fresh WBF units had higher cfDNA than fresh RCF units (p=0.0093. Using spectrophotometry, fresh RBC units overall had higher cfDNA than older units (p=0.0031; fresh WBF RBCs had higher cfDNA than older RCF RBCs (p=0.024. Conclusion. Higher cfDNA in fresh WBF was observed compared to older RCF blood. Further study is required for association with patient outcomes.

  7. The regulation of total creatine content in a myoblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J E; Kemp, G J; Radda, G K

    1996-05-24

    Total cellular creatine content is an important bioenergetic parameter in skeletal muscle. To understand its regulation we investigated creatine transport and accumulation in the G8 cultured skeletal myoblast line. Like other cell types, these contain a creatine transporter, whose activity, measured using a radiolabelling technique, was saturable (Km = 110 +/- 25 microM) and largely dependent on extracellular [Na+]. To study sustained influences on steady state creatine concentration we measured total cellular creatine content using a fluorimetric method in 48 h incubations. We found that the total cellular creatine content was relatively independent of extracellular creatine concentration, consistent with high affinity sodium-dependent uptake balanced by slow passive efflux. Accordingly, in creatine-free incubations net creatine efflux was slow (5 +/- 1% of basal creatine content per day over 6 days), while creatine content in 48 h incubations was reduced by 28 +/- 13% of control by the Na+, K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain. Creatine accumulation after 48 h was stimulated by treatment with the mixed alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist noradrenaline, the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, the beta 2-agonist clenbuterol and the cAMP analogue N6,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, but was unaffected by the alpha 1 adrenergic agonist methoxamine. The noradrenaline enhancement of creatine accumulation at 48 h was inhibited by the mixed alpha- and beta-antagonist labetalol and by the beta-antagonist propranolol, but was unaffected by the alpha 2 antagonist phentolamine; greater inhibition was caused by the beta 2 antagonist butoxamine than the beta 1 antagonist atenolol. Creatine accumulation at 48 h was increased to 230 +/- 6% of control by insulin and by 140 +/- 13% by IGF-I (both at 3 nM). Creatine accumulation at 48 h was also increased to 280 +/- 40% of control by 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (at 70 microM) and to 220 +/- 35% of control by amylin (60 n

  8. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan; Novacco, Lawrence J.

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  9. Continuous-flow sorting of microalgae cells based on lipid content by high frequency dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Redelman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a continuous-flow cell screening device to isolate and separate microalgae cells (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on lipid content using high frequency (50 MHz dielectrophoresis. This device enables screening of microalgae due to the balance between lateral DEP forces relative to hydrodynamic forces. Positive DEP force along with amplitude-modulated electric field exerted on the cells flowing over the planar interdigitated electrodes, manipulated low-lipid cell trajectories in a zigzag pattern. Theoretical modelling confirmed cell trajectories during sorting. Separation quantification and sensitivity analysis were conducted with time-course experiments and collected samples were analysed by flow cytometry. Experimental testing with nitrogen starveddw15-1 (high-lipid, HL and pgd1 mutant (low-lipid, LL strains were carried out at different time periods, and clear separation of the two populations was achieved. Experimental results demonstrated that three populations were produced during nitrogen starvation: HL, LL and low-chlorophyll (LC populations. Presence of the LC population can affect the binary separation performance. The continuous-flow micro-separator can separate 74% of the HL and 75% of the LL out of the starting sample using a 50 MHz, 30 voltages peak-to-peak AC electric field at Day 6 of the nitrogen starvation. The separation occurred between LL (low-lipid: 86.1% at Outlet # 1 and LC (88.8% at Outlet # 2 at Day 9 of the nitrogen starvation. This device can be used for onsite monitoring; therefore, it has the potential to reduce biofuel production costs

  10. The Daniell cell, Ohm's law, and the emergence of the International System of Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayson, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40 s and flourished in the following decades but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell, but each telegraphy company had their own resistance standard. In 1862, the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873, they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as 109 emu units of resistance and the volt as 108 emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the Joule). As it was, the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By introducing another unit X (where X could be any of the practical electrical units), Giorgi demonstrated that a self-consistent MKSX system was tenable without the need for multiplying factors. Ultimately, the ampere was selected as the fourth unit. It took nearly 60 years, but in 1960, Giorgi's proposal was incorporated as the core of the newly inaugurated International System of Units (SI). This article surveys the physics, physicists, and events that contributed to those developments.

  11. Inferring Toxicological Responses of HepG2 Cells from ToxCast High Content Imaging Data (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the dynamic perturbation of cell states by chemicals can aid in for predicting their adverse effects. High-content imaging (HCI) was used to measure the state of HepG2 cells over three time points (1, 24, and 72 h) in response to 976 ToxCast chemicals for 10 differe...

  12. Effect of {gamma}-ray irradiation of the cell growth and the change of pigment contents of Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Takaharu; Kubodera, Akiko [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science; Kikuchi, Masako; Kawakami, Yasushi

    1997-03-01

    The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to a marine pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were investigated. The diatom is rich in carotenoid pigments, fucoxanthin and {beta}-carotene which are known to have antioxidative activity in vitro. The cell growth and the pigment contents were measured under various irradiation conditions. In every run, the algae grew 20 to 30-fold in 5 days after irradiation of up to 193 Gy, which was acutely fatal to animal body or cells. The cell growth and the pigment contents showed little differences between irradiated samples and its control when they were exposed to gamma-ray of up to 100 Gy for 12 min. But 60 min irradiation gave inhibitory effects on the cell growth and the fucoxanthin content decreased when 1.0 Gy dose was given. Conversely, low doses ranging from 0.2 Gy to 0.5 Gy did simulate the cell growth compared to its control though the doses over 0.5 Gy showed inhibitory effects. In contrast to the cell growth, both the amounts and contents of {beta}-carotene or fucoxanthin, however, considerably decreased under these low doses. Fucoxanthin decreased while {beta}-carotene increased compared to the control when the algae was exposed to gamma-ray for 60 min with over 1.0 Gy. There was no significant correlation between the doses and {beta}-carotene content below 1.0 Gy. (author)

  13. Morphometric Characterization of Rat and Human Alveolar Macrophage Cell Models and their Response to Amiodarone using High Content Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ewelina; Patel, Aateka; Ball, Doug; Klapwijk, Jan; Millar, Val; Kumar, Abhinav; Martin, Abigail; Mahendran, Rhamiya; Dailey, Lea Ann; Forbes, Ben; Hutter, Victoria

    2017-05-24

    Progress to the clinic may be delayed or prevented when vacuolated or "foamy" alveolar macrophages are observed during non-clinical inhalation toxicology assessment. The first step in developing methods to study this response in vitro is to characterize macrophage cell lines and their response to drug exposures. Human (U937) and rat (NR8383) cell lines and primary rat alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using high content fluorescence imaging analysis quantification of cell viability, morphometry, and phospholipid and neutral lipid accumulation. Cell health, morphology and lipid content were comparable (p content. Responses to amiodarone, a known inducer of phospholipidosis, required analysis of shifts in cell population profiles (the proportion of cells with elevated vacuolation or lipid content) rather than average population data which was insensitive to the changes observed. A high content image analysis assay was developed and used to provide detailed morphological characterization of rat and human alveolar-like macrophages and their response to a phospholipidosis-inducing agent. This provides a basis for development of assays to predict or understand macrophage vacuolation following inhaled drug exposure.

  14. Proton Content and Nature in Perovskite Ceramic Membranes for Medium Temperature Fuel Cells and Electrolysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Slodczyk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in environmentally friendly technology has promoted research on green house gas-free devices such as water steam electrolyzers, fuel cells and CO2/syngas converters. In such applications, proton conducting perovskite ceramics appear especially promising as electrolyte membranes. Prior to a successful industrial application, it is necessary to determine/understand their complex physical and chemical behavior, especially that related to proton incorporation mechanism, content and nature of bulk protonic species. Based on the results of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Raman and IR measurements we will show the complexity of the protonation process and the importance of differentiation between the protonic species adsorbed on a membrane surface and the bulk protons. The bulk proton content is very low, with a doping limit (~1–5 × 10−3 mole/mole, but sufficient to guarantee proton conduction below 600 °C. The bulk protons posses an ionic, covalent bond free nature and may occupy an interstitial site in the host perovskite structure.

  15. Development of high-content assays for kidney progenitor cell expansion in transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanker, Subramaniam; Cirio, Maria Cecilia; Vollmer, Laura L; Goldberg, Natasha D; McDermott, Lee A; Hukriede, Neil A; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Reactivation of genes normally expressed during organogenesis is a characteristic of kidney regeneration. Enhancing this reactivation could potentially be a therapeutic target to augment kidney regeneration. The inductive events that drive kidney organogenesis in zebrafish are similar to the initial steps in mammalian kidney organogenesis. Therefore, quantifying embryonic signals that drive zebrafish kidney development is an attractive strategy for the discovery of potential novel therapeutic modalities that accelerate kidney regeneration. The Lim1 homeobox protein, Lhx1, is a marker of kidney development that is also expressed in the regenerating kidneys after injury. Using a fluorescent Lhx1a-EGFP transgene whose phenotype faithfully recapitulates that of the endogenous protein, we developed a high-content assay for Lhx1a-EGFP expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos employing an artificial intelligence-based image analysis method termed cognition network technology (CNT). Implementation of the CNT assay on high-content readers enabled automated real-time in vivo time-course, dose-response, and variability studies in the developing embryo. The Lhx1a assay was complemented with a kidney-specific secondary CNT assay that enables direct measurements of the embryonic renal tubule cell population. The integration of fluorescent transgenic zebrafish embryos with automated imaging and artificial intelligence-based image analysis provides an in vivo analysis system for structure-activity relationship studies and de novo discovery of novel agents that augment innate regenerative processes.

  16. Proton content and nature in perovskite ceramic membranes for medium temperature fuel cells and electrolysers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomban, Philippe; Zaafrani, Oumaya; Slodczyk, Aneta

    2012-07-25

    Recent interest in environmentally friendly technology has promoted research on green house gas-free devices such as water steam electrolyzers, fuel cells and CO2/syngas converters. In such applications, proton conducting perovskite ceramics appear especially promising as electrolyte membranes. Prior to a successful industrial application, it is necessary to determine/understand their complex physical and chemical behavior, especially that related to proton incorporation mechanism, content and nature of bulk protonic species. Based on the results of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QNS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman and IR measurements we will show the complexity of the protonation process and the importance of differentiation between the protonic species adsorbed on a membrane surface and the bulk protons. The bulk proton content is very low, with a doping limit (~1-5 × 10-3 mole/mole), but sufficient to guarantee proton conduction below 600 °C. The bulk protons posses an ionic, covalent bond free nature and may occupy an interstitial site in the host perovskite structure.

  17. Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.

    1985-12-23

    A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

  18. [THE MODEL OF NEUROVASCULAR UNIT IN VITRO CONSISTING OF THREE CELLS TYPES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilazheva, E D; Boytsova, E B; Pozhilenkova, E A; Solonchuk, Yu R; Salmina, A B

    2015-01-01

    There are many ways to model blood brain barrier and neurovascular unit in vitro. All existing models have their disadvantages, advantages and some peculiarities of preparation and usage. We obtained the three-cells neurovascular unit model in vitro using progenitor cells isolated from the rat embryos brain (Wistar, 14-16 d). After withdrawal of the progenitor cells the neurospheres were cultured with subsequent differentiation into astrocytes and neurons. Endothelial cells were isolated from embryonic brain too. During the differentiation of progenitor cells the astrocytes monolayer formation occurs after 7-9 d, neurons monolayer--after 10-14 d, endothelial cells monolayer--after 7 d. Our protocol for simultaneous isolation and cultivation of neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells reduces the time needed to obtain neurovascular unit model in vitro, consisting of three cells types and reduce the number of animals used. It is also important to note the cerebral origin of all cell types, which is also an advantage of our model in vitro.

  19. Effects of Tryptophan Content and Backbone Spacing on the Uptake Efficiency of Cell-Penetrating Peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A.

    2012-07-10

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are able to traverse cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo. Uptake occurs through both endocytotic and nonendocytotic pathways, but the molecular requirements for efficient internalization are not fully understood. Here we investigate how the presence of tryptophans and their position within an oligoarginine influence uptake mechanism and efficiency. Flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence imaging are used to estimate uptake efficiency, intracellular distribution and toxicity in Chinese hamster ovarian cells. Further, membrane leakage and lipid membrane affinity are investigated. The peptides contain eight arginine residues and one to four tryptophans, the tryptophans positioned either at the N-terminus, in the middle, or evenly distributed along the amino acid sequence. Our data show that the intracellular distribution varies among peptides with different tryptophan content and backbone spacing. Uptake efficiency is higher for the peptides with four tryptophans in the middle, or evenly distributed along the peptide sequence, than for the peptide with four tryptophans at the N-terminus. All peptides display low cytotoxicity except for the one with four tryptophans at the N-terminus, which was moderately toxic. This finding is consistent with their inability to induce efficient leakage of dye from lipid vesicles. All peptides have comparable affinities for lipid vesicles, showing that lipid binding is not a decisive parameter for uptake. Our results indicate that tryptophan content and backbone spacing can affect both the CPP uptake efficiency and the CPP uptake mechanism. The low cytotoxicity of these peptides and the possibilities of tuning their uptake mechanism are interesting from a therapeutic point of view. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. [Parameters of fibers cell respiration and desmin content in rat soleus muscle at early stages of gravitational unloading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, T M; Biriukov, N S; Veselova, O M; Larina, I M; Shenkman, B S; Ogneva, I V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the parameters of fibers cell respiration and desmin content in Wistar rat soleus muscle after 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of gravitational unloading. Gravitational unloading was simulated by antiorthostatic hindlimb suspension. The parameters of cell respiration were determined using the polarography, and desmin content was assessed by means of Western blotting. The results showed that the intensity of cell respiration is reduced after three days of gravitational unloading, reaches a minimum level after seven days and slightly increases by the fourteenth day of hindlimb unloading, as well as the content of desmin, which, however, to the fourteenth day returns to the control level. Taking into account that mitochondrial function depends on the state of cytoskeleton the data allow us to assume that early reduction of the intensity of cell respiration under unloading could be caused by degradation of the protein desmin that determines intracellular localization of mitochondria.

  1. Importance of unit cells in accurate evaluation of the characteristics of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzyan, Hassan; Sadeghpour, Narges [Isfahan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-08-01

    Effects of the size of the unit cell on energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies of graphene at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone are studied in the absence and presence of an electric field using density functional theory (DFT) methods (LDA and DFT-PBE functionals with Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) and Troullier-Martins (TM) norm-conserving pseudopotentials). Two types of unit cells containing n{sub c}=4-28 carbon atoms are considered. Results show that stability of graphene increases with increasing size of the unit cell. Energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies all converge above n{sub c}=24 for all functional-pseudopotentials used. Except for the LDA-GTH calculations, application of an electric field of 0.4 and 0.9 V/nm strengths does not change the trends with the size of the unit cell but instead slightly decreases the binding energy of graphene. Results of this study show that the choice of unit cell size and type is critical for calculation of reliable characteristics of graphene.

  2. High-throughput prediction of tablet weight and trimethoprim content of compound sulfamethoxazole tablets for controlling the uniformity of dosage units by NIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanhong; Li, Juan; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Cao, Liya; Luo, Yang; Fan, Qi

    2016-04-15

    This paper establishes a novel method to simultaneously predict the tablet weight (TW) and trimethoprim (TMP) content of compound sulfamethoxazole tablets (SMZCO) by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) regression for controlling the uniformity of dosage units (UODU). The NIR spectra for 257 samples were measured using the optimized parameter values and pretreated using the optimized chemometric techniques. After the outliers were ignored, two PLS models for predicting TW and TMP content were respectively established by using the selected spectral sub-ranges and the reference values. The TW model reaches the correlation coefficient of calibration (R(c)) 0.9543 and the TMP content model has the R(c) 0.9205. The experimental results indicate that this strategy expands the NIR application in controlling UODU, especially in the high-throughput and rapid analysis of TWs and contents of the compound pharmaceutical tablets, and may be an important complement to the common NIR on-line analytical method for pharmaceutical tablets.

  3. A Survey of N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Jeffrey R; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64-12.0 μg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 μg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%.

  4. New photosensitizer with phenylenebisthiophene central unit and cyanovinylene 4-nitrophenyl terminal units for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikroyannidis, J.A., E-mail: mikroyan@chemistry.upatras.gr [Chemical Technology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece); Suresh, P. [Physics Department, Molecular Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Laboratory, JNV University, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342005 (India); Roy, M.S. [Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342011 (India); Sharma, G.D., E-mail: sharmagd_in@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Molecular Electronic and Optoelectronic Device Laboratory, JNV University, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342005 (India); R and D Centre for Engineering and Science, Jaipur Engineering College, Kukas, Jaipur (Raj.) (India)

    2011-06-30

    Graphical abstract: A novel dye D was synthesized and used as photosensitizer for quasi solid state dye-sensitized solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of 4.4% was obtained which was improved to 5.52% when diphenylphosphinic acid (DPPA) was added as coadsorbent. Display Omitted Highlights: > A new low band gap photosensitizer with cyanovinylene 4-nitrophenyl terminal units was synthesized. > A power conversion efficiency of 4.4% was obtained for the dye-sensitized solar cell based on this photosensitizer. > The power conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell was further improved to 5.52% when diphenylphosphinic acid was added as coadsorbent. - Abstract: A new low band gap photosensitizer, D, which contains 2,2'-(1,4-phenylene) bisthiophene central unit and cyanovinylene 4-nitrophenyl terminal units at both sides was synthesized. The two carboxyls attached to the 2,5-positions of the phenylene ring act as anchoring groups. Dye D was soluble in common organic solvents, showed long-wavelength absorption maximum at 620-636 nm and optical band gap of 1.72 eV. The electrochemical parameters, i.e. the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) (-5.1 eV) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) (-3.3 eV) energy levels of D show that this dye is suitable as molecular sensitizer. The quasi solid state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on D shows a short circuit current (J{sub sc}) of 9.95 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.70 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.64 corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.40% under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiation. The overall PCE has been further improved to 5.52% when diphenylphosphinic acid (DPPA) coadsorbent is incorporated into the D solution. This increased PCE has been attributed to the enhancement in the electron lifetime and reduced recombination of injected electrons with the iodide ions present in the electrolyte with the use of DPPA as coadsorbant. The

  5. Prediction of stress-strain behavior of ceramic matrix composites using unit cell model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the elastic modulus and the stress-strain curve of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs were predicted by using the unit cell model that consists of fiber bundles and matrix. The unit cell model was developed based on the observation of cross sections of CMCs. The elastic modulus of CMCs was calculated from the results of finite element analysis using the developed model. The non-linear behavior of stress-strain curve of CMCs was also predicted by taking the degradation of the elastic modulus into consideration, where the degradation was related to the experimentally measured crack density in CMCs. The approach using the unit cell model was applied to two kinds of CMCs, and good agreement was obtained between the experimental and the calculated results.

  6. Content of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex membranes positively correlates with the proliferative status of brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, David C; Maccioni, Hugo J F; Caputto, Beatriz L

    2009-03-01

    Although the molecular and cellular basis of particular events that lead to the biogenesis of membranes in eukaryotic cells has been described in detail, understanding of the intrinsic complexity of the pleiotropic response by which a cell adjusts the overall activity of its endomembrane system to accomplish these requirements is limited. Here we carried out an immunocytochemical and biochemical examination of the content and quality of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus membranes in two in vivo situations characterized by a phase of active cell proliferation followed by a phase of declination in proliferation (rat brain tissue at early and late developmental stages) or by permanent active proliferation (gliomas and their most malignant manifestation, glioblastomas multiforme). It was found that, in highly proliferative phases of brain development (early embryo brain cells), the content of ER and Golgi apparatus membranes, measured as total lipid phosphorous content, is higher than in adult brain cells. In addition, the concentration of protein markers of ER and Golgi is also higher in early embryo brain cells and in human glioblastoma multiforme cells than in adult rat brain or in nonpathological human brain cells. Results suggest that the amount of endomembranes and the concentration of constituent functional proteins diminish as cells decline in their proliferative activity.

  7. Multiplexed high-content analysis of mitochondrial morphofunction using live-cell microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Eligio F; Smeitink, Jan A M; Beyrath, Julien; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria have a central role in cellular (patho)physiology, and they display a highly variable morphology that is probably coupled to their functional state. Here we present a protocol that allows unbiased and automated quantification of mitochondrial 'morphofunction' (i.e., morphology and membrane potential), cellular parameters (size, confluence) and nuclear parameters (number, morphology) in intact living primary human skin fibroblasts (PHSFs). Cells are cultured in 96-well plates and stained with tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), calcein-AM (acetoxy-methyl ester) and Hoechst 33258. Next, multispectral fluorescence images are acquired using automated microscopy and processed to extract 44 descriptors. Subsequently, the descriptor data are subjected to a quality control (QC) algorithm based upon principal component analysis (PCA) and interpreted using univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. The protocol requires a time investment of ∼4 h distributed over 2 d. Although it is specifically developed for PHSFs, which are widely used in preclinical research, the protocol is portable to other cell types and can be scaled up for implementation in high-content screening.

  8. Reduction in potassium concentration of stored red blood cell units using a resin filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chisa; Heitmiller, Eugenie S; Ness, Paul M; King, Karen E

    2010-09-01

    Hyperkalemia is a serious complication of rapid and massive blood transfusion due to high plasma potassium (K) in stored red blood cell (RBC) units. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) was developed in Japan to remove K by exchanging with sodium (Na). We performed an in vitro evaluation of its efficacy and feasibility of use. Three AS-3 RBC units were filtered by each PAF using gravity; 10 PAFs were tested. Blood group, age, flow rate, and irradiation status were recorded. Total volume, K, Na, Cl, Mg, total Ca (tCa), RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma Hb were measured before and after filtering each unit. Ionized Ca (iCa), pH, and glucose were measured for some units. After filtration, the mean decrease in K was 97.5% in the first RBC unit, 91.2% in the second unit, and 64.4% in the third unit. The mean increases in Na, Mg, and tCa were 33.0, 151.4, and 116.1%, respectively. iCa and pH remained low; glucose was unchanged. RBC count, Hb, and Hct decreased slightly after filtration of first units; plasma Hb was unchanged. After filtration, there was no visual evidence of increased hemolysis or clot formation. The PAF decreased K concentration in stored AS-3 RBC units to minimal levels in the first and second RBC units. Optimally, one filter could be used for 2 RBC units. Although Na increased, the level may not be clinically significant. PAF may be useful for at-risk patients receiving older units or blood that has been stored after gamma irradiation. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Heterogeneity of DNA content and expression of cell cycle genes in axenically growing Entamoeba histolytica HM1:IMSS clone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, S S; Ray, S S; Kennady, K; Pande, G; Lohia, A

    1997-12-01

    The cell division cycle of Entamoeba histolytica was studied using multi-parametric flow cytometry in asynchronous and partially synchronised cells. Dynamic changes in the DNA synthesis and DNA content of axenically growing trophozoites were observed by using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake and DNA specific fluorochromes. It was observed that DNA synthesis in these cells continues beyond the typical S-phase stop point when DNA duplication is complete. Asynchronously growing E. histolytica cells could be synchronised by serum starvation followed by serum re-addition. BrdU incorporation in synchronised cells showed that cell synchrony is maintained for at least one generation time, in which the G1 phase lasts for 2-3 h and the S-phase lasts for 5-6 h. Analysis of our results revealed that E. histolytica trophozoites, growing in axenic medium, are made up of a heterogenous population of euploid and polyploid cells. The number of polyploid cells increases with age of the cells in culture. Expression of putative cell cycle and signal transduction markers was studied using specific antibodies and changes in their expression levels have been correlated with changes in the DNA content. Based upon our results we could identify G1, S and G2 phases of the cell cycle of E. histolytica and also predict the mechanism underlying the generation of polyploidy in these cells, which may have significant effects on its biology and pathogenesis.

  10. Changes of the ganglioside pattern and content in human fibroblasts by high density cell population subculture progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciannamblo, Mariateresa; Chigorno, Vanna; Passi, Alberto; Valaperta, Rea; Zucchi, Ileana; Sonnino, Sandro

    2002-03-01

    In this study we show that the ganglioside content and pattern of human skin fibroblasts change along the process of cell subculture progression by varying the cell density. GM3, GD3 and GD1a were components of the total cell ganglioside mixtures extracted from cells, but GD1a was in all the extracts a minor component or very scant. Other gangliosides present in traces were not characterised. The fibroblast ganglioside content of 52 pools of cells obtained from 5 different cell lines cultured at variable cell density ranged from 2.0 to 13.1 nmoles per mg of cell protein. The molar ratio between GM3 and GD3 varied from 418 to 0.6 in the ganglioside mixtures, as determined by densitometric quantitative analysis after thin layer chromatographic separation. Both the ganglioside content and the GM3/GD3 molar ratio were constant along several passages of subculture progression performed by plating cells collected at confluence. Instead, when the subculture progression was performed by plating cells collected at a few days after reaching confluence, a progressive increase of the ganglioside content was observed. GD3 increased proportionally more than GM3 so that a progressive decrease of the ratio between GM3 and GD3 was observed. In some experiments, GD3 was very scant at the beginning of the progression, while it was near 30% after 5 passages under these conditions. The progressive increase of GD3 along the high density cell population subculture progression was associated to a moderate increase of the mRNA GD3 synthase.

  11. Methylglyoxal alters glucose metabolism and increases AGEs content in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Fernanda; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Silveira, Simone da Luz; Hoefel, Ana Lúcia; Fontoura, Júlia Bijoldo; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Leite, Marina Concli; Perry, Marcos Luiz Santos; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Methylglyoxal is a dicarbonyl compound that is physiologically produced by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. It can lead to cytotoxicity, which is mainly related to Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) formation. Methylglyoxal and AGEs are involved in the pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases (ND) and, in these situations, can cause the impairment of energetic metabolism. Astroglial cells play critical roles in brain metabolism and the appropriate functioning of astrocytes is essential for the survival and function of neurons. However, there are only a few studies evaluating the effect of methylglyoxal on astroglial cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methylglyoxal exposure, over short (1 and 3 h) and long term (24 h) periods, on glucose, glycine and lactate metabolism in C6 glioma cells, as well as investigate the glyoxalase system and AGEs formation. Glucose uptake and glucose oxidation to CO(2) increased in 1 h and the conversion of glucose to lipids increased at 3 h. In addition, glycine oxidation to CO(2) and conversion of glycine to lipids increased at 1 h, whereas the incorporation of glycine in proteins decreased at 1 and 3 h. Methylglyoxal decreased glyoxalase I and II activities and increased AGEs content within 24 h. Lactate oxidation and lactate levels were not modified by methylglyoxal exposure. These data provide evidence that methylglyoxal may impair glucose metabolism and can affect glyoxalase activity. In periods of increased methylglyoxal exposure, such alterations could be exacerbated, leading to further increases in intracellular methylglyoxal and AGEs, and therefore triggering and/or worsening ND.

  12. High light-extraction-efficiency OLED based on photonic crystal slab structures with taper unit cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Rong-jin; WANG Qing-kang

    2006-01-01

    To improve the light-extraction-efficiency of OLED,we introduced PCS (Photonic Crystal Slab) structures into the interface of ITO layer and glass substrate.PCS structures with Taper unit cells are proved to be effective in reducing the energy of guided wave trapped in high refractive index material,and an increase of light-extraction-efficiency to 95.26% is gained.This enhancement is much greater than the traditional PCS with cylinder unit cells (60%-70%).Physical mechanisms of light-extraction-efficiency enhancement in these structures are further discussed.

  13. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Eklou-Lawson, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2010-11-01

    Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transfer of proteins from the small to the large intestine, there is little information on the consequences of the use of such diets on the composition of large intestine content and on epithelial cell morphology and metabolism. Rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein), and absorptive colonocytes were observed by electron microscopy or isolated for enzyme activity studies. The colonic luminal content was recovered for biochemical analysis. Absorbing colonocytes were characterized by a 1.7-fold reduction in the height of the brush-border membranes (P = 0.0001) after HP diet consumption when compared with NP. This coincided in the whole colon content of HP animals with a 1.8-fold higher mass content (P = 0.0020), a 2.2-fold higher water content (P = 0.0240), a 5.2-fold higher protease activity (P = 0.0104), a 5.5-fold higher ammonia content (P = 0.0008), and a more than twofold higher propionate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate content (P hyperproteic diet ingestion causes marked changes both in the luminal environment of colonocytes and in the characteristics of these cells, demonstrating that hyperproteic diet interferes with colonocyte metabolism and morphology. Possible causal relationships between energy metabolism, reduced height of colonocyte brush-border membranes, and reduced water absorption are discussed.

  14. Infocast: A New Paradigm for Collaborative Content Distribution from Roadside Units to Vehicular Networks Using Rateless Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Sardari, Mohsen; Fekri, Faramarz; 10.1109/SAHCN.2009.5168939

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of distributing a large amount of bulk data to a sparse vehicular network from roadside infostations, using efficient vehicle-to-vehicle collaboration. Due to the highly dynamic nature of the underlying vehicular network topology, we depart from architectures requiring centralized coordination, reliable MAC scheduling, or global network state knowledge, and instead adopt a distributed paradigm with simple protocols. In other words, we investigate the problem of reliable dissemination from multiple sources when each node in the network shares a limited amount of its resources for cooperating with others. By using \\emph{rateless} coding at the Road Side Unit (RSU) and using vehicles as data carriers, we describe an efficient way to achieve reliable dissemination to all nodes (even disconnected clusters in the network). In the nutshell, we explore vehicles as mobile storage devices. We then develop a method to keep the density of the rateless codes packets as a function of d...

  15. Investigation of IrO2/Pt Electrocatalysts in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Baglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IrO2/Pt catalysts (at different concentrations were synthesized by incipient wetness technique and characterized by XRD, XRF, and SEM. Water electrolysis/fuel cell performances were evaluated in a 5 cm2 single cell under Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC configuration. The IrO2/Pt composition of 14/86 showed the highest performance for water electrolysis and the lowest one as fuel cell. It is derived that for fuel cell operation an excess of Pt favours the oxygen reduction process whereas IrO2 promotes oxygen evolution. From the present results, it appears that the diffusion characteristics and the reaction rate in fuel cell mode are significantly lower than in the electrolyser mode. This requires the enhancement of the gas diffusion properties of the electrodes and the catalytic properties for cathode operation in fuel cells.

  16. Water proton configurations in structures I, II, and H clathrate hydrate unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Fumihito; Hiratsuka, Masaki; Ohmura, Ryo; Alavi, Saman; Sum, Amadeu K; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2013-03-28

    Position and orientation of water protons need to be specified when the molecular simulation studies are performed for clathrate hydrates. Positions of oxygen atoms in water are experimentally determined by X-ray diffraction analysis of clathrate hydrate structures, but positions of water hydrogen atoms in the lattice are disordered. This study reports a determination of the water proton coordinates in unit cell of structure I (sI), II (sII), and H (sH) clathrate hydrates that satisfy the ice rules, have the lowest potential energy configuration for the protons, and give a net zero dipole moment. Possible proton coordinates in the unit cell were chosen by analyzing the symmetry of protons on the hexagonal or pentagonal faces in the hydrate cages and generating all possible proton distributions which satisfy the ice rules. We found that in the sI and sII unit cells, proton distributions with small net dipole moments have fairly narrow potential energy spreads of about 1 kJ∕mol. The total Coulomb potential on a test unit charge placed in the cage center for the minimum energy∕minimum dipole unit cell configurations was calculated. In the sI small cages, the Coulomb potential energy spread in each class of cage is less than 0.1 kJ∕mol, while the potential energy spread increases to values up to 6 kJ∕mol in sH and 15 kJ∕mol in the sII cages. The guest environments inside the cages can therefore be substantially different in the sII case. Cartesian coordinates for oxygen and hydrogen atoms in the sI, sII, and sH unit cells are reported for reference.

  17. Culture of human cells in experimental units for spaceflight impacts on their behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Moscheni, Claudia; Maier, Jeanette Am; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Because space missions produce pathophysiological alterations such as cardiovascular disorders and bone demineralization which are very common on Earth, biomedical research in space is a frontier that holds important promises not only to counterbalance space-associated disorders in astronauts but also to ameliorate the health of Earth-bound population. Experiments in space are complex to design. Cells must be cultured in closed cell culture systems (from now defined experimental units (EUs)), which are biocompatible, functional, safe to minimize any potential hazard to the crew, and with a high degree of automation. Therefore, to perform experiments in orbit, it is relevant to know how closely culture in the EUs reflects cellular behavior under normal growth conditions. We compared the performances in these units of three different human cell types, which were recently space flown, i.e. bone mesenchymal stem cells, micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells. Endothelial cells are only slightly and transiently affected by culture in the EUs, whereas these devices accelerate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward osteogenic differentiation, in part by increasing the amounts of reactive oxygen species. We conclude that cell culture conditions in the EUs do not exactly mimic what happens in a culture dish and that more efforts are necessary to optimize these devices for biomedical experiments in space. Impact statement Cell cultures represent valuable preclinical models to decipher pathogenic circuitries. This is true also for biomedical research in space. A lot has been learnt about cell adaptation and reaction from the experiments performed on many different cell types flown to space. Obviously, cell culture in space has to meet specific requirements for the safety of the crew and to comply with the unique environmental challenges. For these reasons, specific devices for cell culture in space have been developed. It is important to clarify whether these

  18. Effect of Different Levels of Potassium and Boron on Stress Physiology and Cell Wall Boron Content of Cotton Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiu-Wen; HAO Yan-shu; Lei, Jing; JIANG Cun-cang

    2016-01-01

    To find out the effect of potassium(K) and boron(B) on cotton leaf cell membrane and B distribution and utilization, the membrane relative permeability, MDA, Pro, the content of free B, semi-bound B and bound B and the content of B in cell wall of cotton leaf were analyzed under different K levels with solution culture method in this study. The results showed that in normal K(20 mgK·L-1), B deficiency(0 mgB·L-1) hindered the normal growth and dry mass of shoots, in addition, the membrane rela...

  19. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Ansari, Nariman [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, High-Throughput Technology Development Studio (TDS), Dresden (Germany); Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H. [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Steigemann, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Steigemann@bayer.com [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high-content

  20. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A; Smith, Nancy L; Lee, Chang Y; McHale, Nancy L; Flanagan, Judith A; Ou, Boxin; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2006-05-31

    In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents. Commercially available samples consisted of the top market share products in each of the following six categories: natural cocoa, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized using four different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), vitamin C equivalence antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), total polyphenols, and procyanidins. All composite lots were further characterized for percent nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) and percent fat. Natural cocoas had the highest levels of antioxidant activities, total polyphenols, and procyanidins followed by baking chocolates, dark chocolates and baking chips, and finally milk chocolate and syrups. The results showed a strong linear correlation between NFCS and ORAC (R (2) = 0.9849), total polyphenols (R (2) = 0.9793), and procyanidins (R (2) = 0.946), respectively. On the basis of principal component analysis, 81.4% of the sample set was associated with NFCS, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and procyanidins. The results indicated that, regardless of the product category, NFCS were the primary factor contributing to the level of cocoa antioxidants in the products tested. Results further suggested that differences in cocoa bean blends and processing, with the possible exception of Dutching, are minor factors in determining the level of antioxidants in commercially available cocoa-containing products in the United States.

  1. Free nicotine content and strategic marketing of moist snuff tobacco products in the United States: 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, H R; Koh, H; Connolly, G N

    2008-10-01

    From 2000 to 2006, moist snuff sales have increased and now account for 71% of the smokeless tobacco market. Previous research has shown that major manufacturers of smokeless tobacco products manipulated free nicotine, the form most readily absorbed, to promote tolerance and addiction. This study examines the possibility that company-specific and brand-specific strategies of the major moist snuff manufacturers involve controlling free nicotine content and ease of dosing with products that are designed and targeted to specific groups. This study looks at the current total US moist snuff market with product design data from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health; moist snuff use from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health; market data from ACNielsen; and magazine advertising expenditures from TNS Media Intelligence. (1) The levels of free nicotine of moist snuff products have increased over time for several major manufacturers; (2) the number and variety of sub-brands have increased over time; (3) changes in design, as reflected by variation in free nicotine associated with pH or tobacco leaf, or both, have enhanced the ease and uniformity of dosing; (4) marketing through price and advertising has increased; and (5) youth use has increased. A combination of factors including brand proliferation, control of free nicotine and product design has most likely resulted in the expanded consumption of moist snuff, particularly among young people.

  2. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.

  3. Assessment of Treg and Th17 contents in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and analysis of their correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Pu; Yuan-Yuan Zhou; Wen-Shu Ge; Hui-Lan Hong; Jing-Feng Zhang; Chong Bai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze Treg and Th17 contents in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and their correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics.Methods:Peripheral blood and serum specimens were collected from patients with non-small cell lung cancer and healthy volunteers to detect Treg and Th17 contents in peripheral blood as well as CEA, TSGF, CYFRA21-1, PTX3 and HE4 contents in serum; tumor tissue and paracancer tissue were collected from lung cancer patients to detect mRNA expression of TRIM25, PKM2, Endoglin, Pin1, Stahmin and HMGA2.Results:Treg cell content and Treg/Th17 ratio in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers, and Th17 cell content was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers; the higher the TNM stage and the lower the degree of differentiation, the higher the Treg cell content and Treg/Th17 ratio and the lower the Th17 cell content in peripheral blood; 1 week and 1 month after operation, Treg cell content and Treg/Th17 ratio in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer were lower than those before operation, and Th17 cell content was higher than that before treatment; serum CEA, TSGF, CYFRA21-1, PTX3 and HE4 contents of patients with non-small cell lung cancer were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers and positively correlated with Treg/Th17 ratio; mRNA contents of TRIM25, PKM2, Endoglin, Pin1, Stahmin and HMGA2 in non-small cell lung cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in paracancer tissue and positively correlated with Treg/Th17 ratio.Conclusion:Increased Treg content and decreased Th17 content are related to the occurrence and development of non-small cell lung cancer.

  4. Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Radionuclide Content in Palm Date Fruit of the United Arab Emirates: A Baseline Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubina; Solodov, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to a wider effort of establishing an environmental radiation baseline for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) before the startup of the country's first nuclear reactor in 2017. An investigation of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations in palm dates grown in the UAE was performed. Palm date samples of 10 varieties originating from several local commercial date palm farms of the UAE were collected and analyzed. The study targeted the naturally occurring radionuclides, such as U, Th, and K, in addition to any potential anthropogenic radionuclides, such as Cs and others. Gamma spectrometry revealed measured activity concentrations for U (Ra), Th (Ra), and K that ranged from 0.61 to 0.80 Bq kg, 0.10 to 0.23 Bq kg, and 191 to 362 Bq kg, respectively, on a dry-weight basis, and calculated activity concentrations on a wet basis ranged from 0.52 to 0.69 Bq kg, 0.09 to 0.22 Bq kg, and 168 to 297 Bq kg, respectively. No Cs or other anthropogenic radionuclides could be detected in this study. All measurements were performed using a coaxial HPGe detector with 40% relative efficiency quoted by the manufacturer. Efficiency calibration correction factors were calculated using Angle software.

  5. Acute exercise modulates BDNF and pro-BDNF protein content in immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Andrea; Dimauro, Ivan; Sgrò, Paolo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Magi, Fiorenza; Baldari, Carlo; Guidetti, Laura; Di Luigi, Luigi; Parisi, Paolo; Caporossi, Daniela

    2012-10-01

    Although several studies have shown that immune cells stimulated by in vitro stress are capable to produce neurotrophins, there is still no evidence whether physiological stress, such as exercise, can modulate the in vivo levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). This work investigated whether acute exercise modulates the expression of BDNF, pro-BDNF, and p75(NTR) in the PBMCs of 10 healthy young men who performed a cycling incremental test to exhaustion (MAX) or exercised at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). The PBMC expression of stress response proteins and the level of circulating BDNF, vascular endothelial growth growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor subunit B, basic fibroblast growth factor pro-inflammatory, and anti-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed as well. A major finding is that both sessions of acute exercise regulated the content of BDNF isoforms within PBMCs in a manner related to the physiological stress exerted. Although the pro-BDNF increased after both MAX and IAT protocols, BDNF showed a kinetics dependent on exercise type: MAX induced a 54% protein increase immediately after exercise, followed by a significant drop 60 min after its conclusion (38% lower than the baseline). Differently, in the IAT, BDNF increased significantly up to 75% from the baseline throughout the recovery phase. All physiological parameters, as well as the p75(NTR) receptor and the stress-inducible proteins, were also differently regulated by the two exercise conditions. These data supported the hypothesis that PBMCs might produce and secrete BDNF isoforms, as well as modulate the proteins p75(NTR) , Bcl-xL, hsp90, hsp27, and αB-crystallin, as part of the physiological stress response induced by acute exercise, offering a novel example of bidirectional interaction between nervous and immune systems.

  6. [Prognostic value of cell heterogeneity in cervical cancer determined by digital image analyzer of DNA content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete, I; Gaudi, I; Szerdahelyi, A; Tóth, E; Pulay, T; Szentirmay, Z

    2000-10-01

    Frequency and prognostic value of cell heterogeneity in FIGO 1a-2a cervical cancer was examined, in 66 of patients underwent Wertheim type hysterectomy between 1989 and 1995 in National Institute of Cancer, Budapest, Hungary. A newly developed DNA image analyses (DNACE) was used in paraffin embedded tissues after enzymatic hydrolyses for evaluation of the DNA content in cervical cancer. In 30.3% of examined tissues (20/66) two subgroups was found. There was significant differences in the DNA indexes (DI) between the subgroups (p = 0.0001). In the remaining 69.7% of the cases only one subgroup was present. The frequency of two subgroups was higher between aneuploid (78.4%), or hyperploid (81.5%) type cervical cancer, however there was no significant difference between the two groups. On the other hand there was significant difference in the presence of two subgroups between the well and less differentiated cervical cancer. The frequency was higher between the less differentiated groups (p = 0.02). Looking at the prognostic value of subgroups, there was no significant correlation between the heterogeneity of cervical cancer and FIGO stage, or lymph node metastasis (p = 0.6855), or vascular/lymphatic space infiltration (p = 0.2558), or invasiveness of cancer (0.0823). There was neither significant value found between the outcome of disease and the number of subgroups present (p = 0.8738). It is though that the present of cellular heterogeneity in cervical cancer is connected with the differentiation of the cancer cells, and can be a good prognostic value in the anticipation of the aggressiveness of cervical cancer. Looking at the present result, there was no significant connection between the heterogeneity of cervical cancer and the outcome of the disease, so further examination should be done.

  7. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  8. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  9. Predication of Plastic Flow Characteristics in Ferrite/Pearlite Steel Using a Fern Unit Cell Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Li; Jingtao Han; Jing Liu; Lv Zhang

    2004-01-01

    The flow stress of ferrite/pearlite steel under uni-axial tension was simulated with finite element method (FEM) by applying commercial software MARC/MENTAT. Flow stress curves of ferrite/pearlite steels were calculated based on unit cell model. The effects of volume fraction, distribution and the aspect ratio of pearlite on tensile properties have been investigated.

  10. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  11. Mitigation of Unwanted Forward Narrow-band Radiation from PCBs with a Metamaterial Unit Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of EMI from a PCB is obtained through the use of a metamaterial unit cell. The focus is on the reduction of narrow-band radiation in the forward hemisphere when the resonant element is etched on a layer located between the source of radiation and the ground plane. As opposed to previou...

  12. Recovery Act. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Gail E. [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Gillingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-30

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration Project. Summarizing development of Delphi’s next generation SOFC system as the core power plant to prove the viability of the market opportunity for a 3-5 kW diesel SOFC system. Report includes test and demonstration results from testing the diesel APU in a high visibility fleet customer vehicle application.

  13. Experimental broadband absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-09-09

    We design silicon membranes with nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells that maximize broadband absorption. We fabricate the optimized design and measure the optical absorption. We demonstrate an experimental broadband absorption about 3.5 times higher than an equally-thick thin film.

  14. Enhanced performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with double indium content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Bi-Jun; Chen Xin; Ren Zhi-Wei; Tong Jin-Hui; Wang Xing-Fu; Li Dan-Wei; Zhuo Xiang-Jing

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a multiple quantum well (MQW) InGaN solar cell with double indium content is investigated.It is found that the adoption of a double indium structure can effectively broaden the spectral response of the external quantum efficiencies and optimize the overall performance of the solar cell.Under AM1.5G illumination,the short-circuit current density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency of the solar cell are enhanced by 65% and 13% compared with those of a normal single-indium-content MQW solar cell.These improvements are mainly attributed to the expansion of the absorption spectrum and better extraction efficiency of the photon-generated carriers induced by higher polarization.

  15. Inulin isoforms differ by repeated additions of one crystal unit cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter D; Barclay, Thomas G; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Gerson, Andrea R; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2014-03-15

    Inulin isoforms, especially delta inulin, are important biologically as immune activators and clinically as vaccine adjuvants. In exploring action mechanisms, we previously found regular increments in thermal properties of the seven-member inulin isoform series that suggested regular additions of some energetic structural unit. Because the previous isolates carried additional longer chains that masked defining ranges, these were contrasted with new isoform isolates comprising only inulin chain lengths defining that isoform. The new series began with 19 fructose units per chain (alpha-1 inulin), increasing regularly by 6 fructose units per isoform. Thus the 'energetic unit' equates to 6 fructose residues per chain. All isoforms showed indistinguishable X-ray diffraction patterns that were also identical with known inulin crystals. We conclude that an 'energetic unit' equates to one helix turn of 6 fructose units per chain as found in one unit cell of the inulin crystal. Each isoform chain comprised progressively more helix turns plus one additional fructose and glucose residues per chain.

  16. Question 7: the first units of life were not simple cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Vic; Hunding, Axel; Kepes, Francois; Lancet, Doron; Minsky, Abraham; Raine, Derek; Root-Bernstein, Robert; Sriram, K

    2007-10-01

    Five common assumptions about the first cells are challenged by the pre-biotic ecology model and are replaced by the following propositions: firstly, early cells were more complex, more varied and had a greater diversity of constituents than modern cells; secondly, the complexity of a cell is not related to the number of genes it contains, indeed, modern bacteria are as complex as eukaryotes; thirdly, the unit of early life was an 'ecosystem' rather than a 'cell'; fourthly, the early cell needed no genes at all; fifthly, early life depended on non-covalent associations and on catalysts that were not confined to specific reactions. We present here the outlines of a theory that connects findings about modern bacteria with speculations about their origins.

  17. Plasma α-tocopherol content and its relationship with milk somatic cells count in Italian commercial herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pilotto

    2015-07-01

    We did not observe a correlation between plasmatic vitamin E and somatic cell score, and this can be explained by the low level of somatic cell score (averages 1.64 and 1.26. The lowest value of vitamin E was observed at parturition (1.64 µg/ml and 1.95 µg/ml. A significant (P<0.01 negative (-20% correlation was observed between NEFA serum content and α-tocopherol plasma concentration. Serum selenium content was positively correlated (+42%, P<0.0001 to zinc concentration. Grouping cows on the basis of their plasma α-tocopherol content higher or lower than 3 μg/mL at dry off, SCS at 30 and 60 DIM tended to be higher in lactating animals with lower content of α-tocopherol (1.12 vs. 1.72, P=0.18 at 30d; 0.92 vs. 1.72, P=0.07 at 60d. However, plasma α-tocopherol content at dry off could be usefully correlated with somatic cell count in fresh cows.

  18. High-content imaging with micropatterned multiwell plates reveals influence of cell geometry and cytoskeleton on chromatin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Ty; McNulty, Jason D; Prestil, Ryan; Seymour, Stephanie K; Klann, Tyler; Murrell, Michael; Ashton, Randolph S; Saha, Krishanu

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underpinning cellular responses to microenvironmental cues requires tight control not only of the complex milieu of soluble signaling factors, extracellular matrix (ECM) connections and cell-cell contacts within cell culture, but also of the biophysics of human cells. Advances in biomaterial fabrication technologies have recently facilitated detailed examination of cellular biophysics and revealed that constraints on cell geometry arising from the cellular microenvironment influence a wide variety of human cell behaviors. Here, we create an in vitro platform capable of precise and independent control of biochemical and biophysical microenvironmental cues by adapting microcontact printing technology into the format of standard six- to 96-well plates to create MicroContact Printed Well Plates (μCP Well Plates). Automated high-content imaging of human cells seeded on μCP Well Plates revealed tight, highly consistent control of single-cell geometry, cytoskeletal organization, and nuclear elongation. Detailed subcellular imaging of the actin cytoskeleton and chromatin within live human fibroblasts on μCP Well Plates was then used to describe a new relationship between cellular geometry and chromatin dynamics. In summary, the μCP Well Plate platform is an enabling high-content screening technology for human cell biology and cellular engineering efforts that seek to identify key biochemical and biophysical cues in the cellular microenvironment.

  19. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions.

  20. Impact of image segmentation on high-content screening data quality for SK-BR-3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yizheng

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High content screening (HCS is a powerful method for the exploration of cellular signalling and morphology that is rapidly being adopted in cancer research. HCS uses automated microscopy to collect images of cultured cells. The images are subjected to segmentation algorithms to identify cellular structures and quantitate their morphology, for hundreds to millions of individual cells. However, image analysis may be imperfect, especially for "HCS-unfriendly" cell lines whose morphology is not well handled by current image segmentation algorithms. We asked if segmentation errors were common for a clinically relevant cell line, if such errors had measurable effects on the data, and if HCS data could be improved by automated identification of well-segmented cells. Results Cases of poor cell body segmentation occurred frequently for the SK-BR-3 cell line. We trained classifiers to identify SK-BR-3 cells that were well segmented. On an independent test set created by human review of cell images, our optimal support-vector machine classifier identified well-segmented cells with 81% accuracy. The dose responses of morphological features were measurably different in well- and poorly-segmented populations. Elimination of the poorly-segmented cell population increased the purity of DNA content distributions, while appropriately retaining biological heterogeneity, and simultaneously increasing our ability to resolve specific morphological changes in perturbed cells. Conclusion Image segmentation has a measurable impact on HCS data. The application of a multivariate shape-based filter to identify well-segmented cells improved HCS data quality for an HCS-unfriendly cell line, and could be a valuable post-processing step for some HCS datasets.

  1. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  2. Effect of Nafion ionometer content on proton conductivity in the catalyst layer of proton exchange fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozalevlia, Cihan Cemil; Jian Xie; Xu, Fan [METU MS Mechanical Engineering (United States)], email: cihan.ozalevli@metu.edu.tr, email: jianxie@iupui.edu, email: fanxu@iupui.edu

    2011-07-01

    In the energy conversion sector, proton exchange fuel cells (PEFC's) are among the most promising technologies for the future. The Nafion ionometer is the most important part of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) which is the core technology of the system. The Nafion ionometer is both a proton conductor and a binder for the catalyst layer in the technology. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of the Nafion content in the cathode catalyst layer on the proton conductivity of the MEA. Two MEAs with different Nafion content were prepared following the LANL process and the proton conductivity of the catalyst layer was measured. Results showed a much higher performance of the 28wt. % Nafion MEA than the 10wt. %. This study demonstrated that when the Nafion ionometer content decreases, the performance of the fuel cell decreases; further investigations should be undertaken with Nafion ionometer amounts of 15wt. % to 20wt. %.

  3. SALT ACCLIMATION OF TRITICUM-AESTIVUM BY CHOLINE CHLORIDE - PLANT-GROWTH, MINERAL-CONTENT, AND CELL-PERMEABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MM; STADELMANN, EJ; LEESTADELMANN, OY

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of a salt sensitive line of Triticum aestivum were grown in Hoagland solution supplemented with 100 mM NaCl following a pretreatment with choline chloride (ChCl). Changes in growth, mineral content of roots and shoots, and passive permeability of the cell membrane were measured. Relative g

  4. 柿果实单宁细胞特征与总酚和缩合单宁含量的关系%Correlation between Characteristics of Tannin Cells and Total Phenolics and Condensed Tannins Contents in Persimmon Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宏义; 杨勇; 杨婷婷; 夏乐晗; 王仁梓

    2014-01-01

    In this study,51 accessions of mature persimmon fruits were used as materials to investigate the correlation between characteristics of tannin cells,and total phenolics and condensed tannins contents. The sizes and quantities of the tannin cells were observed with direct extrusion of soft persimmon fruits. A calculating method for determining the volume of tannin cells was explored in unit mass of mature fruits flesh. The total phenolics and condensed tannins contents were measured. The results showed that 1) The size and quantity of tannin cells in PCA ( pollination constant astringent) cultivars were larger,while those of Chinese PCNA ( pollination constant nonastringent ) and Japanese PCNA cultivars except for 'Suruga'were smaller. Part of the PCA cultivars was similar to PVA ( pollination variant astringent) and PVNA (pollination variant nonastringent) cultivars. 2) There was extreme significant (P <0. 01) correlations between the volume of tannin cells and total phenolics content as well as condensed tannins contents of mature persimmon fruit, respectively. 3) Cluster results showed that the volume of tannin cells was able tobe used as an index for classification of different types of persimmon cultivars.

  5. Cell-Free RNA Content in Peripheral Blood as Potential Biomarkers for Detecting Circulating Tumor Cells in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs have been implicated in tumor progression and prognosis. Techniques detecting CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC may help to identify individuals likely to benefit from early systemic treatment. However, the detection of CTCs with a single marker is challenging, owing to low specificity and sensitivity and due to the heterogeneity and rareness of CTCs. Herein, the probability of cell-free RNA content in the peripheral blood as a potential biomarker for detecting CTCs in cancer patients was investigated. An immunomagnetic enrichment of real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR technology for analysis of CTCs in NSCLC patients was also developed. The mRNA levels of four candidate genes, cytokeratin 7 (CK7, E74-like factor 3 (ELF3, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma receptor B4 (EphB4 that were significantly elevated in tumor tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were determined. The expression of CK7 and ELF3 in tumor tissues and EGFR in PBMCs was associated with lymph node metastasis (all p < 0.05. The expression of CK7 in PBMCs was correlated with age and EphB4 in PBMCs correlated with histopathological type, respectively (all p < 0.05. The expression of all four genes in tumor tissues and PBMCs was significantly correlated with the clinical stage (all p < 0.01. Survival analysis showed that the patients with enhanced expression of CK7, ELF3, EGFR, and EphB4 mRNA in PBMCs had poorer disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS than those without (all p < 0.0001. The present study showed that this alteration of cell-free RNA content in peripheral blood might have clinical ramifications in the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC patients.

  6. Patterns in Abundance, Cell Size and Pigment Content of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria along Environmental Gradients in Northern Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fauteux

    Full Text Available There is now evidence that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP bacteria are widespread across aquatic systems, yet the factors that determine their abundance and activity are still not well understood, particularly in freshwaters. Here we describe the patterns in AAP abundance, cell size and pigment content across wide environmental gradients in 43 temperate and boreal lakes of Québec. AAP bacterial abundance varied from 1.51 to 5.49 x 105 cells mL-1, representing <1 to 37% of total bacterial abundance. AAP bacteria were present year-round, including the ice-cover period, but their abundance relative to total bacterial abundance was significantly lower in winter than in summer (2.6% and 7.7%, respectively. AAP bacterial cells were on average two-fold larger than the average bacterial cell size, thus AAP cells made a greater relative contribution to biomass than to abundance. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla concentration varied widely across lakes, and was not related to AAP bacterial abundance, suggesting a large intrinsic variability in the cellular pigment content. Absolute and relative AAP bacterial abundance increased with dissolved organic carbon (DOC, whereas cell-specific BChla content was negatively related to chlorophyll a (Chla. As a result, both the contribution of AAP bacteria to total prokaryotic abundance, and the cell-specific BChla pigment content were positively correlated with the DOC:Chla ratio, both peaking in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes. Our results suggest that photoheterotrophy might represent a significant ecological advantage in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes, where DOC pool is chemically and structurally more complex.

  7. Patterns in Abundance, Cell Size and Pigment Content of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria along Environmental Gradients in Northern Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Lisa; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L; Borrego, Carles M; Garcia-Chaves, Maria Carolina; Del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are widespread across aquatic systems, yet the factors that determine their abundance and activity are still not well understood, particularly in freshwaters. Here we describe the patterns in AAP abundance, cell size and pigment content across wide environmental gradients in 43 temperate and boreal lakes of Québec. AAP bacterial abundance varied from 1.51 to 5.49 x 105 cells mL-1, representing bacterial abundance. AAP bacteria were present year-round, including the ice-cover period, but their abundance relative to total bacterial abundance was significantly lower in winter than in summer (2.6% and 7.7%, respectively). AAP bacterial cells were on average two-fold larger than the average bacterial cell size, thus AAP cells made a greater relative contribution to biomass than to abundance. Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) concentration varied widely across lakes, and was not related to AAP bacterial abundance, suggesting a large intrinsic variability in the cellular pigment content. Absolute and relative AAP bacterial abundance increased with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), whereas cell-specific BChla content was negatively related to chlorophyll a (Chla). As a result, both the contribution of AAP bacteria to total prokaryotic abundance, and the cell-specific BChla pigment content were positively correlated with the DOC:Chla ratio, both peaking in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes. Our results suggest that photoheterotrophy might represent a significant ecological advantage in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes, where DOC pool is chemically and structurally more complex.

  8. Relationship between somatic cell count and lactose content in milk of various species of mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC is an indicator of mammary gland health state. Lactose (L can be reduced with mastitis and SCC increase. Mammary gland health is an essential factor of milk quality. Monitoring of mammary gland health is important for prevention and treatment of milk secretion disorders. The goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between SCC and L in various biological species. 7 sets of individual and bulk milk samples (MSs were analysed (n = 479, 479, 345, 80, 90 and 102 for SCC and L content. 3 sets were with cow (C milk and 1 set with goat (G, 1 with sheep (S and 1 with human (H MSs. The relations in C milk were used as reference. SCC geometric means were markedly lower in C milk (62, 99 and 81 103 . ml−1 and H milk (103 103 . ml−1 as compared to small ruminants (G 3 509 and S 609 103 . ml−1. The mean L values were lower in small ruminants (G 4.36% and S 4.42% as compared to C milk (4.95%, 4.97% and in 1st lactation 5.10% and higher in H milk (5.77%. L contents in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein correlated negatively to SCC (log SCC in all lactations (−0.36 P < 0.001 and −0.33 P < 0.001. L content in 1st lactation correlated with SCC markedly narrower than in cows for all lactations (−0.49 P < 0.001. The SCC×L relationship in G (White short–haired milk (−0.35 P < 0.01 was in good relation to C milk and in S (Tsigai milk (−0.51 P < 0.001 was markedly narrower as in C and G milk. Lower mean SCC in H milk as compared to G and S milk and comparable to C milk did not show significant negative relationship to L which was 0.08 (P > 0.05 for original SCC values. Surprisingly there was not found the SCC×L relationship in H milk which could be comparable to other mammal species milk. It could be caused by bacteriologically negative results in MSs with higher SCC (> 300 103 . ml−1. As well as at C milk also at G and S milk and in contrast to H milk it is possible to use the SCC×L relationship

  9. Antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of Myrciaria floribunda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS A.C. TIETBOHL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd. O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell. Antioxidant activity was determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC assays and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Ethyl acetate extract of M. floribunda exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI between 69.70 and 172.10 µg/mL. For HaCat cell, TGI value was 213.60 µg/mL. M. floribunda showed a strong antioxidant potential: EC50 of 45.89±0.42 µg/mL and 0.55±0.05 mmol TE/g for DPPH and ORAC, respectively. Total phenolic content was 0.23±0.013g gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g extract and exhibited 13.10±1.60% of tannins content. The content of flavonoid was 24.08±0.44% expressed as rutin equivalents. These results provide a direction for further researches about the antitumoral potential of M. floribunda.

  10. Effect of Different Levels of Potassium and Boron on Stress Physiology and Cell Wall Boron Content of Cotton Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Xiu-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To find out the effect of potassium(K and boron(B on cotton leaf cell membrane and B distribution and utilization, the membrane relative permeability, MDA, Pro, the content of free B, semi-bound B and bound B and the content of B in cell wall of cotton leaf were analyzed under different K levels with solution culture method in this study. The results showed that in normal K(20 mgK·L-1, B deficiency(0 mgB·L-1 hindered the normal growth and dry mass of shoots, in addition, the membrane relative permeability, the content of MDA and Pro significantly increased compared with the normal B(0.2 mgB·L-1, and the relative concentration of bound B, R value, cell wall material and the ratio of total cell wall B/leaf B increased by 10.32%, 21.28%, 31.35% and 31.35%, respectively. In contrast, under low K(2 mgK·L-1 supply, B deficiency produced a very significant decrease in the relative concentration of bound B and the ratio of total cell wall B/leaf B. The above results showed that under either K-deficient or K-sufficient condition, B deficiency damaged the cotton leaf cell membrane and cell membrane permeability. In normal B-supplied plants, lacking of B induced more B into the cytoplasm, but increased the proportion of B that combined with the pectic polysaccharides in cell wall. However, under K-deficient treatment, the proportion of B cross-linked pectic polysaccharides in cell wall decreased.

  11. A switchable pH-differential unitized regenerative fuel cell with high performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xu; Xuan, Jin; Leung, Dennis Y. C.; Zou, Haiyang; Li, Jiantao; Wang, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhi

    2016-05-01

    Regenerative fuel cells are a potential candidate for future energy storage, but their applications are limited by the high cost and poor round-trip efficiency. Here we present a switchable pH-differential unitized regenerative fuel cell capable of addressing both the obstacles. Relying on a membraneless laminar flow-based design, pH environments in the cell are optimized independently for different electrode reactions and are switchable together with the cell process to ensure always favorable thermodynamics for each electrode reaction. Benefiting from the thermodynamic advantages of the switchable pH-differential arrangement, the cell allows water electrolysis at a voltage of 0.57 V, and a fuel cell open circuit voltage of 1.89 V, rendering round-trip efficiencies up to 74%. Under room conditions, operating the cell in fuel cell mode yields a power density of 1.3 W cm-2, which is the highest performance to date for laminar flow-based cells and is comparable to state-of-the-art polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  12. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-01-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  13. Symptom burden among patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC: content for a symptom index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevia Parthiv J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has multiple symptoms stemming from disease and treatments. There are few validated scales for evaluating RCC symptoms. Methods A national cross-sectional study of adult RCC patients was conducted from October to December 2003 to define patient-reported RCC symptomology. Participants were asked open-ended questions regarding their signs and symptoms and completed an 86-item pilot questionnaire of physical and psychological symptoms. Patients were asked to rate the relevancy and clarity of each pilot question using a 5-point Likert scale. Subsequent open-ended caregiver interviews and a provider panel relevance ranking contributed additional information. Results The average age of the participants (n = 31 was 55 years; 55% of patients were male, 74% had attended college, and 97% were Caucasian. The five most frequent symptoms among localized-stage patients (n = 14 were irritability (79%, pain (71%, fatigue (71%, worry (71%, and sleep disturbance (64%. Among metastatic patients (n = 17, the five most frequent symptoms were fatigue (82%, weakness (65%, worry (65%, shortness of breath (53%, and irritability (53%. More than 50% of localized and metastatic-stage patients reported pain, weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbance, urinary frequency, worry, and mood disorders as being moderately to highly relevant. Conclusion A brief, self-administered RCC Symptom Index was created that captures the relevant signs and symptoms of both localized and metastatic patients. Pending additional content validation, the Index can be used to assess the signs and symptoms of RCC and the clinical benefit resulting from RCC treatment.

  14. Single-unit transfusions and hemoglobin trigger: relative impact on red cell utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William W; Thakkar, Rajiv N; Gehrie, Eric A; Chen, Weiyun; Frank, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) programs can reduce unnecessary transfusions, but the optimal methods used to achieve this effect are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that encouraging single-unit red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in stable patients would have a greater impact on blood use than compliance with a specific hemoglobin (Hb) transfusion trigger alone. We analyzed blood utilization data at three community hospitals without previous PBM efforts before and after implementing a PBM program. Data were analyzed at monthly intervals to determine the relative impact of a "Why give 2 when 1 will do?" campaign promoting single-unit RBC transfusions and simultaneous efforts to promote evidence-based Hb triggers of 7 or 8 g/dL. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify independent effects of these two interventions on overall RBC utilization. Univariate analysis revealed that both the increase in single-unit transfusions (from 38.0% to 70.9%; p utilization. Multivariate analysis showed that the increase in single-unit transfusions was an independent predictor of decreased RBC utilization, but the Hb triggers of both 7 and 8 g/dL were not. Overall, our PBM efforts decreased RBC utilization from 0.254 to 0.185 units/patient (27.2%) across all three hospitals (p = 0.0009). A campaign promoting single-unit RBC transfusions had a greater impact on RBC utilization than did encouraging a restrictive transfusion trigger. © 2016 AABB.

  15. The Daniell Cell, Ohm's Law and the Emergence of the International System of Units

    CERN Document Server

    Jayson, Joel S

    2015-01-01

    Telegraphy originated in the 1830s and 40s and flourished in the following decades, but with a patchwork of electrical standards. Electromotive force was for the most part measured in units of the predominant Daniell cell. Each company had their own resistance standard. In 1862 the British Association for the Advancement of Science formed a committee to address this situation. By 1873 they had given definition to the electromagnetic system of units (emu) and defined the practical units of the ohm as ${10}^9$ emu units of resistance and the volt as ${10}^8$ emu units of electromotive force. These recommendations were ratified and expanded upon in a series of international congresses held between 1881 and 1904. A proposal by Giovanni Giorgi in 1901 took advantage of a coincidence between the conversion of the units of energy in the emu system (the erg) and in the practical system (the joule) in that the same conversion factor existed between the cgs based emu system and a theretofore undefined MKS system. By in...

  16. A High Power Density, High Efficiency Hydrogen-Chlorine Regenerative Fuel Cell with a Low Precious Metal Content Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Huskinson, Brian; Rugolo, Jason; Mondal, Sujit K.; Aziz, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the performance of a hydrogen-chlorine electrochemical cell with a chlorine electrode employing a low precious metal content alloy oxide electrocatalyst for the chlorine electrode: (Ru_0.09Co_0.91)_3O_4. The cell employs a commercial hydrogen fuel cell electrode and transports protons through a Nafion membrane in both galvanic and electrolytic mode. The peak galvanic power density exceeds 1 W cm^-2, which is twice previous literature values. The precious metal loading of the chlorin...

  17. Under oath: content analysis of oaths administered in ADA-Accredited Dental Schools in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Aaron B; Peterson, Erin M; Edelstein, Burton L

    2009-06-01

    This study reviews and analyzes the content of dental school oaths taken by students in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico in 2006. Each oath was qualitatively reviewed to determine its consistency with each of the five principles set forth in the American Dental Association (ADA)'s Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct. Fifty-eight oaths were received from sixty-one of sixty-six schools in response to information requests regarding use of oaths and manner of administration. Of these, thirty-nine employ one oath, administered at either graduation or ceremonies marking transition to clinical training; twelve employ an oath at both occasions, with five repeating the same oath; and ten have no formal oaths. Eighteen oaths follow the wording of "The Dentist's Pledge," nine follow the "Oath to the Profession/Professional Pledge," three follow the Modern Hippocratic Oath, and twenty-eight are idiosyncratic. All five of the ADA principles (autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity) are addressed in thirteen oaths, four principles in nine oaths, and three or fewer principles in thirty-six oaths. Eleven make reference to care for the underserved. As oath-taking is an opportunity to instill and reinforce to students dentistry's most important ethical obligations, recommendations are offered to make the content more meaningful and comprehensive.

  18. Repair Effect of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Different Contents of Sulfate Group and Molecular Weights on Damaged HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Bhadja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure–activity relationships and repair mechanism of six low-molecular-weight seaweed polysaccharides (SPSs on oxalate-induced damaged human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 were investigated. These SPSs included Laminaria japonica polysaccharide, degraded Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide, degraded Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide, degraded Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide, Eucheuma gelatinae polysaccharide, and degraded Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharide. These SPSs have a narrow difference of molecular weight (from 1968 to 4020 Da after degradation by controlling H2O2 concentration. The sulfate group (–SO3H content of the six SPSs was 21.7%, 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, 7.0%, and 5.5%, respectively, and the –COOH contents varied between 1.0% to 1.7%. After degradation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of characteristic –SO3H and –COOH groups of polysaccharides. The repair effect of polysaccharides was determined using cell-viability test by CCK-8 assay and cell-morphology test by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results revealed that these SPSs within 0.1–100 μg/mL did not express cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells, and each polysaccharide had a repair effect on oxalate-induced damaged HK-2 cells. Simultaneously, the content of polysaccharide –SO3H was positively correlated with repair ability. Furthermore, the low-molecular-weight degraded polysaccharides showed better repair activity on damaged HK-2 cells than their undegraded counterpart. Our results can provide reference for inhibiting the formation of kidney stones and for developing original anti-stone polysaccharide drugs.

  19. Changes in human bone marrow fat content associated with changes in hematopoietic stem cell numbers and cytokine levels with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuljapurkar, Sonal R; McGuire, Timothy R; Brusnahan, Susan K; Jackson, John D; Garvin, Kevin L; Kessinger, Margaret A; Lane, Judy T; O' Kane, Barbara J; Sharp, John G

    2011-11-01

    Hematological deficiencies increase with aging, including anemias, reduced responses to hematopoietic stress and myelodysplasias. This investigation tested the hypothesis that increased bone marrow (BM) fat content in humans with age was associated with decreased numbers of side population (SP) hematopoietic stem cells, and this decrease correlated with changes in cytokine levels. BM was obtained from the femoral head and trochanteric region of the femur removed at surgery for total hip replacement (N = 100 subjects). In addition, BM from cadavers (N = 36), with no evidence of hip disease, was evaluated for fat content. Whole trabecular marrow samples were ground in a sterile mortar and pestle, and cellularity and lipid content determined. Marrow cells were stained with Hoechst dye and SP profiles were acquired. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured using ELISA. Fat content in the BM of human subjects and cadavers increased with age. The numbers of SP stem cells in BM as well as plasma IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels decreased in correlation with increased BM fat. IL-6 had no relationship to changes in marrow fat. These data suggest that increased BM fat may be associated with a decreased number of SP stem cells and IGF-1 and SDF-1 levels with aging. These data further raise a more general question as to the role of adipose cells in the regulation of tissue stem cells. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Sodium content of processed foods in the United Kingdom: analysis of 44,000 foods purchased by 21,000 households123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelin, Cathy; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Webster, Jacqueline L; Neal, Bruce C; Jebb, Susan A

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the United Kingdom, sodium reduction targets have been set for a large number of processed food categories. Assessment and monitoring are essential to evaluate progress. Objectives: Our aim was to determine whether household consumer panel food-purchasing data could be used to assess the sodium content of processed foods. Our further objectives were to estimate the mean sodium content of UK foods by category and undertake analyses weighted by food-purchasing volumes. Design: Data were obtained for 21,108 British households between October 2008 and September 2009. Purchasing data (product description, product weight, annual purchases) and sodium values (mg/100 g) were collated for all food categories known to be major contributors to sodium intake. Unweighted and weighted mean sodium values were calculated. Results: Data were available for 44,372 food products. The largest contributors to sodium purchases were table salt (23%), processed meat (18%), bread and bakery products (13%), dairy products (12%), and sauces and spreads (11%). More than one-third of sodium purchased (37%) was accounted for by 5 food categories: bacon, bread, milk, cheese, and sauces. For some food groups (bread and bakery, cereals and cereal products, processed meat), purchase-weighted means were 18–35% higher than unweighted means, suggesting that market leaders have higher sodium contents than the category mean. Conclusion: The targeting of sodium reduction in a small number of food categories and focusing on products sold in the highest volumes could lead to large decreases in sodium available for consumption and therefore to gains in public health. PMID:21191142

  1. Sodium content of processed foods in the United Kingdom: analysis of 44,000 foods purchased by 21,000 households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Capelin, Cathy; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Webster, Jacqueline L; Neal, Bruce C; Jebb, Susan A

    2011-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, sodium reduction targets have been set for a large number of processed food categories. Assessment and monitoring are essential to evaluate progress. Our aim was to determine whether household consumer panel food-purchasing data could be used to assess the sodium content of processed foods. Our further objectives were to estimate the mean sodium content of UK foods by category and undertake analyses weighted by food-purchasing volumes. Data were obtained for 21,108 British households between October 2008 and September 2009. Purchasing data (product description, product weight, annual purchases) and sodium values (mg/100 g) were collated for all food categories known to be major contributors to sodium intake. Unweighted and weighted mean sodium values were calculated. Data were available for 44,372 food products. The largest contributors to sodium purchases were table salt (23%), processed meat (18%), bread and bakery products (13%), dairy products (12%), and sauces and spreads (11%). More than one-third of sodium purchased (37%) was accounted for by 5 food categories: bacon, bread, milk, cheese, and sauces. For some food groups (bread and bakery, cereals and cereal products, processed meat), purchase-weighted means were 18-35% higher than unweighted means, suggesting that market leaders have higher sodium contents than the category mean. The targeting of sodium reduction in a small number of food categories and focusing on products sold in the highest volumes could lead to large decreases in sodium available for consumption and therefore to gains in public health.

  2. Alcohol education and training in pre-registration nursing: a national survey to determine curriculum content in the United Kingdom (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Aisha S; Webster, Brian J

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol-related harm impacts significantly on the health of the population. Nurses are often among the first health professionals that many patients with alcohol-related problems come into contact with and have been identified as playing a key role but may be ill-prepared to respond. Future nurses need to have the skills, knowledge and clinical confidence to respond to patients suffering from alcohol-related harm. A pre-registration curriculum that ensures a nursing workforce fit for practice in responding to alcohol-related harm is necessary. To determine the level of alcohol education and training content in the pre-registration curriculum for nursing in the United Kingdom (UK). To establish whether there are variations in the pre-registration curriculum content across the UK. A descriptive study. All 68 UK Higher Education Institutions offering a total of 111 pre-registration courses for nurses were invited to participate in the study. Twenty nine completed questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 26%. The largest number of identified responders were from England (n=15), with 3 from Scotland and 1 each from Wales and Northern Ireland. Nine Universities chose not to identify themselves. An online semi-structured questionnaire survey was used to collect the study data. Teaching of alcohol and alcohol related harm was mainly delivered during the second year of a pre-registration nursing programme provided mainly to adult and mental health students. Overall, the majority of alcohol related content that is provided within the responding pre-registration nursing courses relates to biophysiology, aetiology, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. This study highlights the need for a greater and more relevant focus of alcohol education to pre-registration nursing students of all fields of practice incorporating an integrated approach across all years of study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumour Cell Labelling by Magnetic Nanoparticles with Determination of Intracellular Iron Content and Spatial Distribution of the Intracellular Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Cuschieri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically labelled cells are used for in vivo cell tracking by MRI, used for the clinical translation of cell-base therapies. Studies involving magnetic labelled cells may include separation of labelled cells, targeted delivery and controlled release of drugs, contrast enhanced MRI and magnetic hyperthermia for the in situ ablation of tumours. Dextran-coated super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO ferumoxides are used clinically as an MR contrast agents primarily for hepatic imaging. The material is also widely used for in vitro cell labelling, as are other SPIO-based particles. Our results on the uptake by human cancer cell lines of ferumoxides indicate that electroporation in the presence of protamine sulphate (PS results in rapid high uptake of SPIO nanoparticles (SPIONs by parenchymal tumour cells without significant impairment of cell viability. Quantitative determination of cellular iron uptake performed by colorimetric assay is in agreement with data from the literature. These results on intracellular iron content together with the intracellular distribution of SPIONs by magnetic force microscopy (MFM following in vitro uptake by parenchymal tumour cells confirm the potential of this technique for clinical tumour cell detection and destruction.

  4. EFFECTS OF PERIOPERATIVE CIMETIDINE ADMINISTRATION ON TUMOR CELL NUCLEAR MORPHOMETRY AND DNA CONTENT IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of perioperative cimetidine administration on tumor cell nuclear morphometric parameters and DNA content in patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. Methods: 49 patients with pathologically confirmed gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma were randomized into test group (n=25) and control group (n=24). The test group started oral cimetidine intake 400 mg, tid, 7-10d before operation, followed by standard curative operation. The control group did not receive cimetidine. Tumor specimens were paraffin embedded for microsection and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Feulgen stain. Morphometric studies and DNA content of tumor nuclei were performed on IBAS Image Analyzer. Results: The tumor cell nuclear area (m m2), nuclear perimeter (m m), maximal nuclear diameter (m m) for test group/control group were 23.54 ± 5.08/34.69± 10.08 (Pquintuple ploidy tumor cells for test group/control group were 16.64± 2.58/5.33± 2.14 (P0.50), 12.42± 5.00/14.48± 0.74 (P>0.20), 31.11± 6.86/ 45.97± 3.82 (P<0.005), respectively. Conclusion: Perioperative administration of cimetidine in gasgtrointestinal cancer patients could decrease the nuclear size and raise the percentage of diploid tumor cells, and convert high aneuploid tumor cells into low-aneuploid tumor cells, which might help reduce the invasiveness of tumor cells.

  5. High-content analysis of factors affecting gold nanoparticle uptake by neuronal and microglial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljković, A; Kuehni-Boghenbor, K; Gaschen, V; Schüpbach, G; Mevissen, M; Kinnear, C; Möller, A-M; Stoffel, M H

    2016-09-22

    Owing to their ubiquitous distribution, expected beneficial effects and suspected adverse effects, nanoparticles are viewed as a double-edged sword, necessitating a better understanding of their interactions with tissues and organisms. Thus, the goals of the present study were to develop and present a method to generate quantitative data on nanoparticle entry into cells in culture and to exemplarily demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by analyzing the impact of size, charge and various proteinaceous coatings on particle internalization. N9 microglial cells and both undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to customized gold nanoparticles. After silver enhancement, the particles were visualized by epipolarization microscopy and analysed by high-content analysis. The value of this approach was substantiated by assessing the impact of various parameters on nanoparticle uptake. Uptake was higher in microglial cells than in neuronal cells. Only microglial cells showed a distinct size preference, preferring particles with a diameter of 80 nm. Positive surface charge had the greatest impact on particle uptake. Coating with bovine serum albumin, fetuin or protein G significantly increased particle internalization in microglial cells but not in neuronal cells. Coating with wheat germ agglutinin increased particle uptake in both N9 and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells but not in undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, internalization was shown to be an active process and indicators of caspase-dependent apoptosis revealed that gold nanoparticles did not have any cytotoxic effects. The present study thus demonstrates the suitability of gold nanoparticles and high-content analysis for assessing numerous variables in a stringently quantitative and statistically significant manner. Furthermore, the results presented herein showcase the feasibility of specifically targeting nanoparticles to distinct cell types.

  6. Regulations in the United States for cell transplantation clinical trials in neurological diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhu; Yuanqing Tan; Qi Gu; Weifang Han; Zhongwen Li; Jason S Meyer; Baoyang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to use a systematic approach to evaluate the current utilization, safety, and effectiveness of cell therapies for neurological diseases in human. And review the present regulations, considering United States (US) as a representative country, for cell transplantation in neurological disease and discuss the challenges facing the field of neurology in the coming decades. Methods:A detailed search was performed in systematic literature reviews of cellular‐based therapies in neurological diseases, using PubMed, web of science, and clinical trials. Regulations of cell therapy products used for clinical trials were searched from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Results: Seven most common types of cell therapies for neurological diseases have been reported to be relatively safe with varying degrees of neurological recovery. And a series of regulations in US for cellular therapy was summarized including preclinical evaluations, sourcing material, stem cell manufacturing and characterization, cell therapy product, and clinical trials. Conclusions:Stem cell‐based therapy holds great promise for a cure of such diseases and will value a growing population of patients. However, regulatory permitting activity of the US in the sphere of stem cells, technologies of regenerative medicine and substitutive cell therapy are selective, theoretical and does not fit the existing norm and rules. Compiled well‐defined regulations to guide the application of stem cell products for clinical trials should be formulated.

  7. Fuel cell collaboration in the United States. Follow up report to the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Fuel cell technology continues to grow in the United States, with strong sales in stationary applications and early markets such as data centers, materials handling equipment, and telecommunications sites. New fuel cell customers include Fortune 500 companies Apple, eBay, Coca-Cola, and Walmart, who will use fuel cells to provide reliable power to data centers, stores, and facilities. Some are purchasing multi-megawatt (MW) systems, including three of the largest non-utility purchases of stationary fuel cells in the world by AT and T, Apple and eBay - 17 MW, 10 MW and 6 MW respectively. Others are replacing fleets of battery forklifts with fuel cells. Sysco, the food distributor, has more than 700 fuel cell-powered forklifts operating at seven facilities, with more on order. Mega-retailer Walmart now operates more than 500 fuel cell forklifts at three warehouses, including a freezer facility. Although federal government budget reduction efforts are impacting a wide range of departments and programs, fuel cell and hydrogen technology continues to be funded, albeit at a lower level than in past years. The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently funding fuel cell and hydrogen R and D and has nearly 300 ongoing projects at companies, national labs, and universities/institutes universities. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and DOE's Market Transformation efforts have acted as a government ''catalyst'' for market success of emerging technologies. Early market deployments of about 1,400 fuel cells under the ARRA have led to more than 5,000 additional fuel cell purchases by industry with no DOE funding. In addition, interest in Congress remains high. Senators Richard Blumenthal (D-CT), Chris Coons (D-DE), Lindsey Graham (R-SC) and John Hoeven (R-ND) re-launched the bipartisan Senate Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Caucus in August 2012 to promote the continued development and commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

  8. Study on Unit Cell Models and the Effective Thermal Conductivities of Silica Aerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Li, Zeng-Yao; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, two modified unit cell models, truncated octahedron and cubic array of intersecting square rods with 45-degree rotation, are developed in consideration of the tortuous path of heat conduction in solid skeleton of silica aerogel. The heat conduction is analyzed for each model and the expressions of effective thermal conductivity of the modified unit cell models are derived. Considering the random microstructure of silica aerogel, the probability model is presented. We also discuss the effect of the thermal conductivity of aerogel backbone. The effective thermal conductivities calculated by the proposed probability model are in good agreement with available experimental data when the density of the aerogel is 110 kg/m3.

  9. Bivariate flow cytometric analysis of DNA content versus immunopositivity for ribonucleotide reductase M1 subunit in the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, R; Bottone, M G; Danova, M; Pellicciari, C

    1998-06-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a cytoplasmatic enzyme catalyzing the reduction of all four ribonucleotides to their corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. Its activity strongly correlates to the rate of DNA synthesis. By using a specific monoclonal antibody against the large M1 subunit of RR, we assessed the expression of M1-RR versus DNA content by dual-parameter flow cytometry. The aim of this paper was to compare the variations in the immunopositivity for M1-RR during the cell cycle to the positivity for other cell cycle markers identifying either proliferating cells (Ki-67 and PCNA) or quiescent cells (statin). To do this, normal human embryonic fibroblasts in different growth conditions as well as several other mammalian cell lines (rat C6 glioma cells; mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and B16 melanoma cells; human epithelial EUE cells and mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells) were used. The expression of M1-RR antigen was found to correlate positively with the expression of Ki-67 and PCNA, and negatively with the expression of statin. During early G1 phase, M1-RR becomes detectable by specific antibodies relatively later compared to PCNA and Ki-67; therefore, the lack of immunopositivity for M1-RR cannot be taken as an absolute indication of cell quiescence in G0.

  10. Content Delivery in Fog-Aided Small-Cell Systems with Offline and Online Caching: An Information—Theoretic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammadreza Azimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The storage of frequently requested multimedia content at small-cell base stations (BSs can reduce the load of macro-BSs without relying on high-speed backhaul links. In this work, the optimal operation of a system consisting of a cache-aided small-cell BS and a macro-BS is investigated for both offline and online caching settings. In particular, a binary fading one-sided interference channel is considered in which the small-cell BS, whose transmission is interfered by the macro-BS, has a limited-capacity cache. The delivery time per bit (DTB is adopted as a measure of the coding latency, that is, the duration of the transmission block, required for reliable delivery. For offline caching, assuming a static set of popular contents, the minimum achievable DTB is characterized through information-theoretic achievability and converse arguments as a function of the cache capacity and of the capacity of the backhaul link connecting cloud and small-cell BS. For online caching, under a time-varying set of popular contents, the long-term (average DTB is evaluated for both proactive and reactive caching policies. Furthermore, a converse argument is developed to characterize the minimum achievable long-term DTB for online caching in terms of the minimum achievable DTB for offline caching. The performance of both online and offline caching is finally compared using numerical results.

  11. On the Performance of Hybrid PV/Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwan Dihrab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar hydrogen system is a unique power system that can meet the power requirements for future energy demands. Such a system uses the hydrogen as the energy carrier, which produces energy through the electrolyzer with assistance of the power from the PV during the sunny hours, and then uses stored hydrogen to produce energy through the fuel cell after sunset or on cloudy days. The current study has used premanufactured unitized regenerative fuel cells in which the electrolyzer and the fuel cell function within one cell at different modes. The system components were modeled and the one-day real operational and simulated data has been presented and compared. The measured results showed the ability of the system to meet the proposed load, and the total efficiency was about 4.5%.

  12. Microscopy studies on pronton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes with different ionomer contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Shuang; Solterbeck, Claus Henning; Odgaard, Madeleine;

    2009-01-01

    content in the catalyst layer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out on selective electrodes to provide additional information and confirmed with the AFM results. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed that the electrode containing 30 wt.% ionomer has maximum catalyst utilization....

  13. BioDiff - a neutron diffractometer optimized for crystals with large unit cell dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader, Tobias Erich; Ostermann, Andreas; Monkenbusch, Michael; Laatsch, Bernhard; Jüttner, Philipp; Petry, Winfried; Richter, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The research reactor Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) is a modern high flux neutron source which feeds some 30 state of the art neutron beam instruments. Currently 24 are operational, others in commissioning or under construction. The newly built neutron single crystal diffractometer BIODIFF is especially designed to collect data from crystals with large unit cells. The main field of application is the structural analysis of proteins, especially the determination of hydrogen atom positions. BIOD...

  14. Effects of iron supplementation on red blood cell hemoglobin content in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Schoorl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although a mild degree of anemia is common in the third trimester of pregnancy, it remains a challenge to establish whether a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb concentration is physiological or pathological. The World Health Organization suggested a Hb concentration of 110 g/L to discriminate anemia. Several European investigators recommended Hb cut-off values of between 101-110 g/L. The aim of this study was to establish short-term effects of iron supplementation on the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (Ret-He and red blood cells (RBC-He in case of suspected iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE in the third trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-five subjects with suspected IDE during pregnancy (Hb ≤110g/L, Ret-He <29.6 pg, zinc protoporphyrin >75 mol/mol hem participated in the study. After iron supplementation, reticulocyte counts increased from 0.061±0.015x1012/L to 0.079±0.026x1012/L and Ret-He increased from 23.6±2.8 pg to 28.3±2.6 pg (P=<0.001. RBC-He increased from 26.9±1.9 pg to 27.4±1.8 pg (not significant, NS and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio increased from 0.97±0.06 towards 1.07±0.05 (P=<0.001. Hb concentrations demonstrated an obvious increase from 105±6 g/L towards 115±5 g/L (P≤0.001 after supplementation. An obvious increase in RBC distribution width was observed from 45.0±3.6 fL towards 52.3±7.0 fL (P≤0.001. We recommend that Ret-He and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio be integrated into the protocols for anemia screening and for monitoring effects of iron supplementation during pregnancy. In particular, the parameters should be considered in subjects with Hb results in the controversial range of 101-108 g/L.

  15. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhuan Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3 with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric constant are also measured under different sintering temperatures. The dielectric spectra showed a slight permittivity decrease with the increase of temperature and exhibited a loss of 0.0005, combined with a higher microwave dielectric constant of ~167 and quality factor Q of 2049. Therefore, CaTiO3 is a kind of versatile and potential metamaterial unit cell. The permittivity of CaTiO3 at higher microwave frequency was also examined in the rectangular waveguide and we got the permittivity of 165, creating a new method to test permittivity at higher microwave frequency.

  16. Optimization of a flow cytometric method for the simultaneous measurement of cell surface antigen, DNA content, and in vitro BrdUrd incorporation into normal and malignant hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, M; Thomsen, M; Høyer, M; Hokland, P

    1998-05-01

    We have designed an assay for the simultaneous measurement of cell surface phenotype, S-phase fraction, and DNA content by single laser instrumentation for the purpose of determining the labeling index (LI), duration of S-phase (Ts), and the potential doubling time (Tpot) of leukocyte subpopulations. The procedure was optimized with regard to: mode of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation, selection of suitable leukocyte differentiation antigens (LDAs) as well as PE-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against myeloid cells, overnight permeabilization and fixation (paraformaldehyde 1% and 0.05% Nonidet P40), DNase I treatment (250 Kunitz units), concentration of FITC-conjugated anti-BrdUrd MoAb (dilution 1:5), and DNA staining with 7-amino-actinomycin (7-AAD) (10 microg/ml). We validated this assay by measuring LI, Ts, and Tpot repeatedly in four leukemic cell lines and found these to be stable (coefficients of variation (CV): 0.06, 0.13, and 0.08, respectively). Finally, we employed the assay on different leukocyte preparations from normal donors (including purified CD34 + cells) and patients with malignant myeloid disorders, and we concluded that it will yield valuable data regarding the cell cycle kinetics of subsets of leukocytes in heterogeneous mixtures of hematopoietic cells.

  17. The role of exosomes contents on genetic and epigenetic alterations of recipient cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Golnoush Dehbashi; Khani, Soghra; Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Abbaszadeh-Goudarzi, Kazem; Nazeri, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes, as a mediator of cell-to-cell transfer of genetic information, act an important role in intercommunication between tumor cells and their niche including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, adipocytes and monocytes. Several studies have shown that tumor cells can influence their neighboring cells by releasing exosomes. These exosomes provide signaling cues for stimulation, activation, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Exosomes contain mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNA), and proteins that could be transferred to target cells inducing genetic and epigenetic changes. By facilitating the horizontal transfer of bioactive molecules such as proteins, RNAs and microRNAs, they are now thought to have vital roles in tumor invasion and metastases, inflammation, coagulation, and stem cell renewal and expansion. The aim of this review article is to discuss the significance of exosome-mediated intercellular communication within the tumor biology. PMID:27872698

  18. The role of exosomes contents on genetic and epigenetic alterations of recipient cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnoush Dehbashi Behbahani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes, as a mediator of cell-to-cell transfer of genetic information, act an important role in intercommunication between tumor cells and their niche including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, adipocytes and monocytes. Several studies have shown that tumor cells can influence their neighboring cells by releasing exosomes. These exosomes provide signaling cues for stimulation, activation, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Exosomes contain mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNA, and proteins that could be transferred to target cells inducing genetic and epigenetic changes. By facilitating the horizontal transfer of bioactive molecules such as proteins, RNAs and microRNAs, they are now thought to have vital roles in tumor invasion and metastases, inflammation, coagulation, and stem cell renewal and expansion. The aim of this review article is to discuss the significance of exosome-mediated intercellular communication within the tumor biology.

  19. Time-course determination of plasmid content in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapuça, Elisabete; Azzoni, Adriano R; Prazeres, Duarte M F; Monteiro, Gabriel A; Mergulhão, Filipe J M

    2007-10-01

    A Real-Time PCR method was developed to monitor the plasmid copy number (PCN) in Escherichia coli and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. E. coli was transformed with plasmids containing a ColE1 or p15A origin of replication and CHO cells were transfected with a ColE1 derived plasmid used in DNA vaccination and carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene. The procedure requires neither specific cell lysis nor DNA purification and can be performed in cells, respectively. Analysis of PCN in E. coli batch cultures revealed that the maximum copy number per cell is attained in mid-exponential phase and that this number decreases on average 80% towards the end of cultivation for both types of plasmids. The plasmid content of CHO cells determined 24 h post-transfection was around 3 x 104 copies per cell although only 37% of the cells expressed GFP one day after transfection. The half-life of pDNA was 20 h and around 100 copies/cell were still detected 6 days after transfection.

  20. Systematic Characterization of Cell Cycle Phase-dependent Protein Dynamics and Pathway Activities by High-content Microscopy-assisted Cell Cycle Phenotyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher Bruhn; Torsten Kroll; Zhao-Qi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is coordinated with metabolism, signaling and other complex cel-lular functions. The investigation of cellular processes in a cell cycle stage-dependent manner is often the subject of modern molecular and cell biological research. Cell cycle synchronization and immunostaining of cell cycle markers facilitate such analysis, but are limited in use due to unphysiological experimental stress, cell type dependence and often low flexibility. Here, we describe high-content microscopy-assisted cell cycle phenotyping (hiMAC), which integrates high-resolution cell cycle profiling of asynchronous cell populations with immunofluorescence microscopy. hiMAC is compatible with cell types from any species and allows for statistically pow-erful, unbiased, simultaneous analysis of protein interactions, modifications and subcellular locali-zation at all cell cycle stages within a single sample. For illustration, we provide a hiMAC analysis pipeline tailored to study DNA damage response and genomic instability using a 3–4-day protocol, which can be adjusted to any other cell cycle stage-dependent analysis.

  1. Patterns in Abundance, Cell Size and Pigment Content of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria along Environmental Gradients in Northern Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Lisa; Cottrell, Matthew T.; Kirchman, David L.; Borrego, Carles M.; Garcia-Chaves, Maria Carolina; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are widespread across aquatic systems, yet the factors that determine their abundance and activity are still not well understood, particularly in freshwaters. Here we describe the patterns in AAP abundance, cell size and pigment content across wide environmental gradients in 43 temperate and boreal lakes of Québec. AAP bacterial abundance varied from 1.51 to 5.49 x 105 cells mL-1, representing ecological advantage in highly colored, low-chlorophyll lakes, where DOC pool is chemically and structurally more complex. PMID:25927833

  2. Proteose-peptone content in the milk of Italian Friesian cows with moderate and high somatic cell values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk with elevated somatic cell count has an impaired quality and reduced value, especially for the manufacture of cheese (Schællibaum, 2002. If the milk has a high cell count, the deterioration during syneresis with a longer clotting time and weak curd leads to an increased moisture content and a lower dry matter yield (Politis and Ng-Kwai-Hang, 1988; Urech et al., 1999; Cooney et al., 2000. Most of proteose-peptones (PP and γ-caseins of the milk result from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the native casein (Pâquet, 1989; Bastian and Brown, 1996......

  3. Tryptophan content for monitoring breast cancer cell aggressiveness by native fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Pu, Yang; Xue, Jianpeng; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Xu, Baogang; Achilefu, Samuel; Alfano, R. R.

    2014-03-01

    This study shows tryptophan as the key native marker in cells to determine the level of aggressive cancer in breast cell lines using native fluorescence spectroscopy. An algorithm based on the ratio of tryptophan fluorescence intensity at 340 nm to intensity at 460 nm is associated with aggressiveness of the cancer cells. The higher the ratio is, the more aggressive the tumor towards metastasis.

  4. High-Content Imaging Assays for Identifying Compounds that Generate Superoxide and Impair Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Adherent Eukaryotic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billis, Puja; Will, Yvonne; Nadanaciva, Sashi

    2014-02-19

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced in cells as a result of aerobic metabolism. When there is an excessive production of ROS and the cell's antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed, oxidative stress occurs. The superoxide anion is a type of ROS that is produced primarily in mitochondria but is also generated in other regions of the cell including peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, and cytosol. Here, a high-content imaging assay using the dye dihydroethidium is described for identifying compounds that generate superoxide in eukaryotic cells. A high-content imaging assay using the fluorescent dye tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester is also described to identify compounds that impair mitochondrial membrane potential in eukaryotic cells. The purpose of performing both assays is to identify compounds that (1) generate superoxide at lower concentrations than they impair mitochondrial membrane potential, (2) impair mitochondrial membrane potential at lower concentrations than they generate superoxide, (3) generate superoxide and impair mitochondrial function at similar concentrations, and (4) do not generate superoxide or impair mitochondrial membrane potential during the duration of the assays.

  5. Identifying the differences in mechanisms of mycophenolic acid controlling fucose content of glycoproteins expressed in different CHO cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An; Tsang, Valerie Liu; Markely, Lam R; Kurt, Lutfiye; Huang, Yao-Ming; Prajapati, Shashi; Kshirsagar, Rashmi

    2016-11-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, glycosylation is a critical quality attribute that can modulate the efficacy of a therapeutic glycoprotein. Obtaining a consistent glycoform profile is desired because molecular function can be defined by its carbohydrate structures. Specifically, the fucose content of oligosaccharides in glycoproteins is one of the most important attributes that can significantly affect antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity. It is therefore important to understand the fucosylation pathway and be able to control fucosylation at the desired level to match predecessor materials in late stage and biosimilar programs. Several strategies were explored in this study and mycophenolic acid (MPA) was able to finely modulate the fucose content with the least undesired side effects. However, the response was significantly different between CHO cell lines of different lineages. Further experiments were then performed for a deeper understanding of the mechanism of fucosylation in different CHO cell lines. Results indicated that changes in the intracellular nucleotide involved in fucosylation pathway after MPA treatment are the main cause of the differences in fucosylation level response in different CHO cell lines. Differences in MPA metabolism in the various CHO cell lines directly resulted in different levels of afucosylation measured in antibodies produced by the CHO cell lines. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2367-2376. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Exploratory analysis of particle data using random cells (bins) with fixed contents of observed events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortner, Oliver E-mail: oliver.kortner@cern.ch; Zupancic, Crtomir

    2004-10-01

    We present a simple algorithm to group events observed (rather than predicted) in a bounded region of the multidimensional phase space into bins of fixed and nearly equal content. Thereby the randomness is completely transferred from the observed to the predicted bin contents: with a simple null hypothesis the predicted content of any single bin is random and Erlang distributed. We advocate a particular chi-squared quantity G{sub s}{sup 2} for testing the goodness of fits to data binned in this way. The size of the bins obtained with the algorithm is inversely proportional to the smoothed local event density. This fact facilitates the pattern recognition in multidimensional distributions via contrast enhancement of their one- or two-dimensional projections.

  7. Exploring the Content of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Parents after Paediatric Stem Cell Transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Forinder

    Full Text Available In the present study the aim was to explore the content in a trauma reported in a self-report questionnaire by parents of children with a life threatening illness. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with the aim to explore the specific cognitive and behavioral content of the trauma related symptoms reported by the individual informant. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed with content analysis using a direct approach with a-priori categories according to the B and C categories of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The results give us the picture of a complex situation, where the self-report instrument PCL captured a spectrum of qualitatively different cognitions. The parents described traumatic thoughts and images relating not only to experiences in the past (i.e., truly post-traumatic, but also to current stressors and expected future events.

  8. Low Pt content direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst: nanophase PtRuNiZr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Whitacre, Jay F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a metallic material having catalytic activity that includes synthesizing a material composition comprising a metal content with a lower Pt content than a binary alloy containing Pt but that displays at least a comparable catalytic activity on a per mole Pt basis as the binary alloy containing Pt; and evaluating a representative sample of the material composition to ensure that the material composition displays a property of at least a comparable catalytic activity on a per mole Pt basis as a representative binary alloy containing Pt. Furthermore, metallic compositions are disclosed that possess substantial resistance to corrosive acids.

  9. Modification of Cellular Cholesterol Content Affects Traction Force, Adhesion and Cell Spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Leann L; Oetama, Ratna J; Dembo, Micah; Byfield, F; Hammer, Daniel A; Levitan, Irena; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2010-06-01

    Cellular cholesterol is a critical component of the plasma membrane, and plays a key role in determining the physical properties of the lipid bilayer, such as elasticity, viscosity, and permeability. Surprisingly, it has been shown that cholesterol depletion increases cell stiffness, not due to plasma membrane stiffening, but rather, due to the interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane. This indicates that traction stresses of the acto-myosin complex likely increase during cholesterol depletion. Here we use force traction microscopy to quantify the forces individual cells are exerting on the substrate, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy as well as interference reflection microscopy to observe cell-substrate adhesion and spreading. We show that single cells depleted of cholesterol produce larger traction forces and have large focal adhesions compared to untreated or cholesterol-enriched cells. Cholesterol depletion also causes a decrease in adhesion area for both single cells and monolayers. Spreading experiments illustrate a decrease in spreading area for cholesterol-depleted cells, and no effect on cholesterol-enriched cells. These results demonstrate that cholesterol plays an important role in controlling and regulating the cell-substrate interactions through the actin-plasma membrane complex, cell-cell adhesion, and spreading.

  10. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  11. A Content Analysis of Arabic and English Newspapers Before, During and After the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Campaign in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Elbarazi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer amongst females in the United Arab Emirates (UAE with an estimated incidence of 7.4 per 100,000 persons per year. In March 2008, the Health Authority of Abu Dhabi launched a free school-based campaign to provide all female Emirati students aged 15-17 years in the emirate of Abu Dhabi with the Human Papillomavirus vaccine (HPVV. Despite the proven efficacy of the HPVV in clinical trials, there has been limited research exploring the acceptance of this vaccine within a conservative Islamic society. The media plays a key role in changing beliefs and attitudes towards specific public health initiatives, such as vaccination programmes. The primary aim of this study was to explore the content and communication style of the UAE newspapers (both Arabic and English before, during and after the HPV vaccination programme.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on six national newspapers with the highest circulation figures in the UAE (Arabic: Al Ittihad, Al Khaleej, Emarat El Youm; English: Khaleej Times, The National, Gulf News to retrieve articles related to cervical cancer prevention from January 2000 to May 2013. One bilingual researcher (Arabic-English utilised content analysis to study the subject matter of communication in each article.Results: A total of 79 newspaper articles (N=31 Arabic were included in the study. Content analysis coding revealed five main themes: (i ‘HPV Screening or Vaccination Programmes in the UAE’ (N=30; (ii ‘Cervical Cancer Statistics in the UAE’ (N=22; (iii ‘Aetiology of Cervical Cancer and HPVV Efficacy’ (N=12; (iv ‘Cultural Sensitivity and Misconceptions Surrounding HPVV in School-Aged Females’ (e.g. promoting promiscuity (N=8; and (v ‘Cost- Effectiveness, Efficacy and Safety’ (N=7. Conclusion: The UAE media is playing an important role in raising public awareness about cervical cancer and specific governmental health

  12. Nifedipine Increases Iron Content in WKPT-0293 Cl.2 Cells via Up-Regulating Iron Influx Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang-Shuang; Jiang, Li-Rong; Ling, Yan; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Li, Juan; Ke, Ya

    2017-01-01

    Nifedipine was reported to enhance urinary iron excretion in iron overloaded mice. However, it remains unknown how nifedipine stimulates urinary iron excretion in the kidney. We speculated that nifedipine might inhibit the TfR1/ DMT1 (transferrin receptor 1/divalent metal transporter1)-mediated iron uptake by proximal tubule cells in addition to blocking L-type Ca2+ channels, leading to an increase in iron in lumen-fluid and then urinary iron excretion. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of nifedipine on iron content and expression of TfR1, DMT1 and ferroportin1 (Fpn1) in WKPT-0293 Cl.2 cells of the S1 segment of the proximal tubule in rats, using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer and Western blot analysis, respectively. We demonstrated for the first time that nifedipine significantly enhanced iron content as well as TfR1 and DMT1 expression and had no effect on Fpn1 levels in the cells. We also found that ferric ammonium citrate decreased TfR1 levels, increased Fpn1 expression and had no effect on DMT1 content, while co-treatment with nifedipine and FAC increase TfR1 and DMT1 expression and also had no effect on Fpn1 levels. These findings suggest that the nifedipine-induced increase in cell iron may mainly be due to the corresponding increase in TfR1 and DMT1 expression and also imply that the effects of nifedipine on iron transport in proximal tubule cells can not explain the increase in urinary iron excretion.

  13. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation.

  14. Investigation of cell morphology for disease diagnostics via high content screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatau, Shyam

    2013-03-01

    Ninety percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by metastatic disease, i.e. the spreading of a subset of cells from a primary tumor in an organ to distal sites in other organs. Understanding this progression from localized to metastatic disease is essential for further developing effective therapeutic and treatment strategies. However, despite research efforts, no distinct genetic, epigenetic, or proteomic signature of cancer metastasis has been identified so far. Metastasis is a physical event: through invasion and migration through the dense, tortuous stromal matrix, intravasation, shear forces of blood flow, successful re-attachment to blood vessel walls, migration, the colonization of a distal site, and, finally, reactivation following dormancy, metastatic cells may share precise physical properties. Cell morphology is the most direct physical property that can be measured. In this work, we develop a high throughput cell phenotyping process and investigate the morphological signature of primary tumor cells and liver metastatic pancreatic cancer cells.

  15. Detection of plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) content in peripheral blood and renal tissue of children with henoch-schonlein purpura and its clinical value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Mei Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) content in peripheral blood and renal tissue of children with henoch-schonlein purpura and its clinical value.Methods:30 cases of henoch-schonlein purpura children with renal damage were enrolled in HSPN group, 30 cases of henoch-schonlein purpura children without renal damage were enrolled in NHSPN group, and 30 cases of healthy volunteers were enrolled in the control group. Then contents of pDC, Th2 cell, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 in peripheral blood as well as contents of pDC, Th17 cell, IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23 in renal tissue of three groups were detected.Results: (1) pDC contents in peripheral blood of HSPN group and NHSPN group were lower than those of control group and the decrease of pDC contents in peripheral blood of HSPN group was more obvious; CD304 contents in renal tissue of HSPN group and NHSPN group were higher than those of control group and the increase of CD304 contents in renal tissue of HSPN group was more obvious; (2) Th2 cell as well as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 contents in peripheral blood of HSPN group and NHSPN group were higher than those of control group and the increase of related indexes in peripheral blood of HSPN group was more obvious; Th17 cell as well as IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23 contents in kidney tissue of HSPN group were higher than those of NHSPN group; (3) in peripheral blood, pDC content was negatively correlated with Th2 cell level as well as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 contents, and in renal tissue, pDC content was positively correlated with Th17 cell level as well as IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23 contents. Conclusions:Abnormal pDC content correlates with the pathogenesis of henoch-schonlein purpura, pDC content decreases in peripheral blood and will result in enhancement of Th2 cell function, and pDC content increases in kidney and will result in enhancement of Th17 cell function.

  16. Planar conjugated polymers containing 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene units for efficient polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwu; Kang, Chong; Li, Cuihong; Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Jicheng; Gong, Xue; Zhao, Guangyao; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Bo, Zhishan

    2014-06-01

    Four novel conjugated polymers (P1-4) with 9,10-disubstituted phenanthrene (PhA) as the donor unit and 5,6-bis(octyloxy)benzothiadiazole as the acceptor unit are synthesized and characterized. These polymers are of medium bandgaps (2.0 eV), low-lying HOMO energy levels (below -5.3 eV), and high hole mobilities (in the range of 3.6 × 10(-3) to 0.02 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ). Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) with P1-4:PC71 BM blends as the active layer and an alcohol-soluble fullerene derivative (FN-C60) as the interfacial layer between the active layer and cathode give the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.24%, indicating that 9,10-disubstituted PhA are potential donor materials for high-efficiency BHJ PSCs.

  17. Mechanical properties of regular porous biomaterials made from truncated cube repeating unit cells: Analytical solutions and computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled fabrication of open-cell porous biomaterials based on repeating unit cells. The micro-architecture of the porous biomaterials and, thus, their physical properties could then be precisely controlled. Due to their many favorable properties, porous biomaterials manufactured using AM are considered as promising candidates for bone substitution as well as for several other applications in orthopedic surgery. The mechanical properties of such porous structures including static and fatigue properties are shown to be strongly dependent on the type of the repeating unit cell based on which the porous biomaterial is built. In this paper, we study the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials made from a relatively new unit cell, namely truncated cube. We present analytical solutions that relate the dimensions of the repeating unit cell to the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, and buckling load of those porous structures. We also performed finite element modeling to predict the mechanical properties of the porous structures. The analytical solution and computational results were found to be in agreement with each other. The mechanical properties estimated using both the analytical and computational techniques were somewhat higher than the experimental data reported in one of our recent studies on selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V porous biomaterials. In addition to porosity, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the porous structures were found to be strongly dependent on the ratio of the length of the inclined struts to that of the uninclined (i.e. vertical or horizontal) struts, α, in the truncated cube unit cell. The geometry of the truncated cube unit cell approaches the octahedral and cube unit cells when α respectively approaches zero and infinity. Consistent with those geometrical observations, the analytical solutions presented in this study approached those of the octahedral and cube unit cells when

  18. Semiautomatic High-Content Analysis of Complex Images from Cocultures of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Macrophages: A CellProfiler Showcase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeper, Matthias; Braun-Dullaeus, Ruediger C; Weinert, Sönke

    2017-08-01

    Automatization in microscopy, cell culture, and the ease of digital imagery allow obtainment of more information from single samples and upscaling of image-based analysis to high-content approaches. Simple segmentation algorithms of biological imagery are nowadays widely spread in biomedical research, but processing of complex sample structures, for example, variable sample compositions, cell shapes, and sizes, and rare events remains a difficult task. As there is no perfect method for image segmentation and fully automatic image analysis of complex content, we aimed to succeed by identification of unique and reliable features within the sample. Through exemplary use of a coculture of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and macrophages (MPs), we demonstrate how rare interactions within this highly variable sample type can be analyzed. Because of limitations in immunocytochemistry in our specific setup, we developed a semiautomatic approach to examine the interaction of lipid-laden MPs with VSMCs under hypoxic conditions based on nuclei morphology by high-content analysis using the open-source software CellProfiler ( www.cellprofiler.org ). We provide evidence that, in comparison with fully automatic analysis, a low threshold within the analysis workflow and subsequent manual control save time, while providing more objective and reliable results.

  19. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an in balance between the strength (structural integrity....... slender armour units can be studied. by load-cell technique. Moreover, the paper presents DoJos design diagrams for the prediction of both breakage and hydraulic stability...

  20. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an inbalance between the strength (structural integrity...... on slender armour units can be studied by load-cell technique. Moreover, the paper presents Dolos design diagrams for the prediction of both breakage and hydraulic stability....

  1. Influence of Selenium Content in the Culture Medium on Protein Profile of Yeast Cells Candida utilis ATCC 9950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kieliszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential trace element for human health and it has been recognized as a component of several selenoproteins with crucial biological functions. It has been identified as a component of active centers of many enzymes, as well as integral part of biologically active complexes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content and amino acid profile of the protein of fodder yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 cultured in media control and experimental enriched selenium. Protein analysis was performed using SDS-PAGE method consisting of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. The highest contents of soluble protein (49,5 mg/g were found in yeast cells after 24-hour culture conducted in control (YPD medium. In the presence of selenium there were determined small amounts of protein content. With increasing time of yeast culture (to 72 hours the control and experimental media were reported to reduce soluble protein content. In electropherogram proteins from control cultures was observed the presence of 10 protein fractions, but in all the experimental cultures (containing 20, 30, and 40 mg/L selenium of 14 protein fractions. On the basis of the molecular weights of proteins, it can be concluded that they were among others: selenoprotein 15 kDa and selenoprotein 18 kDa.

  2. Photosynthetic pigments, cell extrusion and relative leaf water content of the castor bean under silicon and salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rener L. de S. Ferraz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe castor bean crop plays an important social, environmental and economic role, especially due to possibility of its use as feedstock for the generation of clean energy. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the contents of photosynthetic pigments, cell membrane extrusion and the relative water content in the leaves of the castor bean cultivar ‘BRS Energia’ under silicon and salinity levels. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Cotton, in a completely randomized design, in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, and the treatments consisted of four silicon levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L-1 and four water salinity levels of (ECw 0, 2, 4 and 6 dS m-1, with three replicates. The gradual increase in salinity levels reduced the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, relative water content in the leaves and increased cell membrane extrusion. The increase in the concentration of silicon reduced the harmful effects of salts on the analysed variables in the castor bean ‘BRS Energia’.

  3. Effect of serotonin on the expression of antigens and DNA levels in Yersinia pestis cells with different plasmid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueva, Svetlana N.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Schukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.

    2004-08-01

    Using flow cytometry (FCM) the influence of exogenous serotonin on culture growth, DNA content and fluorescence intensity of cells binding FITC-labelled plague polyclonal immunoglobulins was studied in Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-), Yersinia pestis KM 216 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst+). The results have been obtained by FCM showed serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-) culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 at 28°C at concentration of 10-5 M. The presence of 10-5 M serotonin in nutrient broth could modulate DNA content in 37°C growing population of plague microbe independently of their plasmid content. Serotonin have been an impact on the distribution pattern of the cells according to their phenotypical characteristics, which was reflected in the levels of population heterogeneity in the intensity of specific immunofluorescence determined by FMC.

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Wind River Basin Province (035) Assessment Units Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of production...

  5. Failure mechanisms of additively manufactured porous biomaterials: Effects of porosity and type of unit cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhodapour, J; Montazerian, H; Darabi, A Ch; Anaraki, A P; Ahmadi, S M; Zadpoor, A A; Schmauder, S

    2015-10-01

    Since the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, regular porous biomaterials have emerged as promising candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds owing to their controllable pore architecture and feasibility in producing scaffolds from a variety of biomaterials. The architecture of scaffolds could be designed to achieve similar mechanical properties as in the host bone tissue, thereby avoiding issues such as stress shielding in bone replacement procedure. In this paper, the deformation and failure mechanisms of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) biomaterials manufactured by selective laser melting from two different types of repeating unit cells, namely cubic and diamond lattice structures, with four different porosities are studied. The mechanical behavior of the above-mentioned porous biomaterials was studied using finite element models. The computational results were compared with the experimental findings from a previous study of ours. The Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage model was implemented in the finite element models to simulate the failure of the additively manufactured scaffolds under compression. The computationally predicted stress-strain curves were compared with the experimental ones. The computational models incorporating the Johnson-Cook damage model could predict the plateau stress and maximum stress at the first peak with less than 18% error. Moreover, the computationally predicted deformation modes were in good agreement with the results of scaling law analysis. A layer-by-layer failure mechanism was found for the stretch-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the cubic unit cell, while the failure of the bending-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the diamond unit cells, was accompanied by the shearing bands of 45°.

  6. Identified metabolic signature for assessing red blood cell unit quality is associated with endothelial damage markers and clinical outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordbar, Aarash; Johansson, Pär I.; Paglia, Giuseppe;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been interest in determining whether older red blood cell (RBC) units have negative clinical effects. Numerous observational studies have shown that older RBC units are an independent factor for patient mortality. However, recently published randomized clinical trials have...

  7. Analysis of DNA Content of Various Types of Spermatogenic Cells in Rat after Testicular Heating with Flow Cytometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duo XU; Wei-jie ZHU; Zi-neng WANG; Da-nian QIN

    2005-01-01

    Objective To measure DNA contents of spermatogenic cells and analyze the efficiency of spermatogenesis aftef testicular heating in ratMethods Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into experimental group (43 ℃, 30 min) and control group (22 ℃, 30 min). According to day 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 10, 25, 35 and 50 after local testicular heating, every group was divided into 8 subgroups:experimental subgroups (n=6) and control subgroups (n=4). DNA contents of various types of germ cells were observed with flow cytometry (FCM) in all groups.Results Compared with control groups, percentages of 4C cell (primary spermatocyte)in 0. 5 -35 d groups and percentages of 1 C cell (spermatid and sperm) in 6-50 d groups significantly decreased in experimental groups (P<0. 05), and percentages of 2C cell (spermatogonium and second spermatocyte) in 3 -35 d experimental groups increased significantly after heating (P<0. 05). 4C:2C in all of 8 experimental groups and 1C:2C in 3-35 d experimental groups were down (P<0. 05), and in 1 d experimental group 1C:4C was up after heating (P<0. 05).Conclusions After being heated, the number of spermatocyte firstly decreased, and then that of spermatid and sperm decreased too. Heat influences several stages in spermatogenesis and results in suppression of spermatogenesis. Flow cytometry is an effective method for researching on the change of spermatogenesis and has significance on mechanism about changing of spermatogenic cells induced by heat.

  8. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-20

    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  9. Unit Cell Structure of Crystal Polytypes in InAs and InSb Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegner, Dominik; Panse, Christian; Mandl, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    , wurtzite, and 4H polytypes for InAs and InSb nanowires, using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results are compared to density functional theory calculations. Experiment and theory show that the occurrence of hexagonal bilayers tends to stretch the distances of atomic layers...... parallel to the c axis and to reduce the in-plane distances compared to those in zinc blende. The change of the lattice parameters scales linearly with the hexagonality of the polytype, defined as the fraction of bilayers with hexagonal character within one unit cell....

  10. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, N.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form.

  11. Carbonated apatites obtained by the hydrolysis of monetite: influence of carbonate content on adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Ilse Y; Van den Vreken, Natasja M F; Declercq, Heidi A; Cornelissen, Maria J; Verbeeck, Ronald M H

    2010-04-01

    The influence of the carbonate content in apatites on the adhesion and the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was investigated. B-type carbonated apatites (DCAps) were prepared by the hydrolysis of monetite (CaHPO(4), DCP) in solutions with a carbonate concentration ranging from 0.001 to 0.075 mol l(-1). Stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (DCAp0) was synthesized in carbonate-free solution. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the compacted DCAps and cell adhesion and proliferation were analysed after 24h and 7 days, respectively, using a MTS assay and fluorescence microscopy. Cell adhesion tends to increase with increasing carbonate content for carbonate contents between 0 and 6.9 wt.% and levels out to an acceptable value (+ or - 50% compared to the control) for carbonate contents between 6.9 and 16.1 wt.%. Only DCAps with a carbonate content equal to or higher than 11% support high cell proliferation comparable to the control. On the latter DCAps, the cells have a spread morphology and form a near-confluent layer. A decrease in charge density and crystallinity at the apatite surface, as well as the formation of more spheroidal crystals with increasing carbonate content, might attribute to changes in composition and three-dimensional structure of the protein adsorption layer and hence to the observed cell behaviour. Consequently, only DCAps with a high carbonate content, mimicking early in vivo mineralization, are possible candidates for bone regeneration.

  12. Nuclear DNA content and ultrastructure of secretory cells of Vicia faba L. stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Wróbel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of study was the level of nuclear DNA and the ultrastructural transformations in the secretory cells of the stigma in Vicia faba L. It has been found that the stigmal cells which are active in biogenesis and exudate secretion are diploid cells whose differentiation starts from 2C DNA level. The presence of a population of nuclei with an amount DNA of about 2.5 C suggests that the metabolic activity of those cells may be regulated through supplementary incomplete replication. The ultrastructural transformations of secretory cells point to three stages of biogenesis and secretion of exudate. Stage I, before the start of the cell's secretory functions, is characterized by the development of the protein synthesizing apparatus and the activity of dictyosomes. In development stage II vesicular electron-transparent exudate is secreted. Stage III of exudate biogenesis is production of lipids. They form mainly in the plastids and are secreted with the involvement of the cell's vacuolar system.

  13. Multiparametric High Content Analysis for assessment of neurotoxicity in differentiated neuronal cell lines and human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Melinda S; Graham, James R; Ball, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    The potential for adverse neurotoxic reactions in response to therapeutics and environmental hazards continues to prompt development of novel cell-based assays to determine neurotoxic risk. A challenge remains to characterize and understand differences between assays and between neuronal cellular models in their responses to neurotoxicants if scientists are to determine the optimal model, or combination of models, for neurotoxicity screening. Most studies to date have focused on developmental neurotoxicity applications. This study reports the development of a robust multiparameter High Content Analysis (HCA) assay for neurotoxicity screening in three differentiated neuronal cell models - SH-SY5Y, PC12 and human embryonic stem cell-derived hN2™ cells. Using a multiplexed detection reagent panel (Hoechst nuclear stain; antibodies against βIII-Tubulin and phosphorylated neurofilament subunit H, and Mitotracker(®) Red CMXRos), a multiparametric HCA assay was developed and used to characterize a test set of 36 chemicals. HCA data generated were compared to data generated using MTT and LDH assays under the same assay conditions. Data showed that multiparametric High Content Analysis of differentiated neuronal cells is feasible, and represents a highly effective method for obtaining large quantities of robust data on the neurotoxic effects of compounds compared with cytotoxicity assays like MTT and LDH. Significant differences were observed between the responses to compounds across the three cellular models tested, illustrating the heterogeneity in responses to neurotoxicants across different cell types. This study provides data strongly supporting the use of cellular imaging as a tool for neurotoxicity assessment in differentiated neuronal cells, and provides novel insights into the neurotoxic effects of a test set of compounds upon differentiated neuronal cell lines and human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of extra and intracellular content from some lytic enzymes related with carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. root cell wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixta Tulia Martínez Peralta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of some enzymes related to cell wall (polygalacturonase, the pectate lyase, protease and xylanase in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. roots as well as the activity levels were determined. These levels were analyzed in different cellular places: the intercellular fluid that is part of apoplast, the symplast, and the total level (apoplast and symplast in carnation roots. Two methods were tested to extract the intercellular fluid. To obtain the intracellular content (symplast and total extract (apoplast+symplast, three methods were tested, using as extracting solution  i phosphate buffer, ii phosphate buffer + PVPP,  iii before the extraction with phosphate buffer, the carnation roots were washed with acetone.  The results showed the effect of different extracting solutions in the enzymatic activities and in the protein content. A new only one step method is proposed to extract the four enzymes and make the comparative analysis of enzymatic activity.

  15. Loss of Selenium-Binding Protein 1 Decreases Sensitivity to Clastogens and Intracellular Selenium Content in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changhui; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan T. Y.; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesize that SBP1 sequesters cellular selenium and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down SBP1 expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells by employing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach. Reduced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat and camptothecin, reactive oxygen species content, and intracellular retention of selenium after selenomethionine treatment were observed in SBP1 shRNA HeLa cells. Results from Western analyses showed that treatment of HeLa cells with selenomethionine resulted in increased SBP1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of SBP1 rendered HeLa cells increased expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 but not glutathione peroxidase-4 protein levels and accelerated migration from a wound. Altogether, SBP1 retains supplemental selenium and sensitizes HeLa cancer cells to clastogens, suggesting a new cancer treatment strategy by sequestering selenium through SBP1. PMID:27404728

  16. Cell wall water content has a direct effect on extensibility in growing hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evered, Carol; Majevadia, Bhavita; Thompson, David Stuart

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that spacing between cellulose microfibrils within plant cell walls may be an important determinant of their mechanical properties. A consequence of this hypothesis is that the water content of cell walls may alter their extensibility and that low water potentials may directly reduce growth rates by reducing cell wall spacing. This paper describes a number of experiments in which the water potential of frozen and thawed growing hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were altered using solutions of high molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) or Dextran while their extension under constant stress was monitored using a creep extensiometer (frozen and thawed tissue was used to avoid confounding effects of turgor or active responses to the treatments). Clear reductions in extensibility were observed using both PEG and Dextran, with effects observed in hypocotyl segments treated with PEG 35 000 solutions with osmotic pressures of > or =0.21 MPa suggesting that the relatively mild stresses required to reduce water potentials of plants in vivo by 0.21 MPa may be sufficient to reduce growth rates via a direct effect on wall extensibility. It is noted, therefore, that the water binding capacity of plant cell walls may be of ecophysiological importance. Measurements of cell walls of sunflower hypocotyls using scanning electron microscopy confirmed that treatment of hypocotyls with PEG solutions reduced wall thickness, supporting the hypothesis that the spatial constraint of movement of cellulose microfibrils affects the mechanical properties of the cell wall.

  17. High-content, high-throughput analysis of cell cycle perturbations induced by the HSP90 inhibitor XL888.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Lyman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many proteins that are dysregulated or mutated in cancer cells rely on the molecular chaperone HSP90 for their proper folding and activity, which has led to considerable interest in HSP90 as a cancer drug target. The diverse array of HSP90 client proteins encompasses oncogenic drivers, cell cycle components, and a variety of regulatory factors, so inhibition of HSP90 perturbs multiple cellular processes, including mitogenic signaling and cell cycle control. Although many reports have investigated HSP90 inhibition in the context of the cell cycle, no large-scale studies have examined potential correlations between cell genotype and the cell cycle phenotypes of HSP90 inhibition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a novel high-content, high-throughput cell cycle assay and profiled the effects of two distinct small molecule HSP90 inhibitors (XL888 and 17-AAG [17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin] in a large, genetically diverse panel of cancer cell lines. The cell cycle phenotypes of both inhibitors were strikingly similar and fell into three classes: accumulation in M-phase, G2-phase, or G1-phase. Accumulation in M-phase was the most prominent phenotype and notably, was also correlated with TP53 mutant status. We additionally observed unexpected complexity in the response of the cell cycle-associated client PLK1 to HSP90 inhibition, and we suggest that inhibitor-induced PLK1 depletion may contribute to the striking metaphase arrest phenotype seen in many of the M-arrested cell lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis of the cell cycle phenotypes induced by HSP90 inhibition in 25 cancer cell lines revealed that the phenotypic response was highly dependent on cellular genotype as well as on the concentration of HSP90 inhibitor and the time of treatment. M-phase arrest correlated with the presence of TP53 mutations, while G2 or G1 arrest was more commonly seen in cells bearing wt TP53. We draw

  18. Metabolically Engineered Fungal Cells With Increased Content Of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of fatty acids and particularly to the production of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in genetically engineered fungal cells, in particular, to metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  19. Auxiliary power unit based on a solid oxide fuel cell and fuelled with diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeremy; Boltze, Matthias

    An auxiliary power unit (APU) is presented that is fuelled with diesel, thermally self-sustaining, and based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The APU is rated at 1 kW electrical, and can generate electrical power after a 3 h warm-up phase. System features include a "dry" catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer, a 30 cell SOFC stack with an open cathode, and a porous-media afterburner. The APU does not require a supply of external water. The SOFC stack is an outcome of a development partnership with H.C. Starck GmbH and Fraunhofer IKTS, and is discussed in detail in an accompanying paper.

  20. Root cause analysis of the degradation in a unitized regenerative fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Amit C.; Meenakshi, S.; Ghosh, Prakash C.

    2017-03-01

    The present study emphasizes the possible modes of failure of a unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) when operated in fuel cell as well as in electrolysis mode at different temperatures viz. 30 °C and 60 °C. The carbon based catalyst (Pt/C) and diffusion layers are used to characterize the degradation of the URFCs. The electrolysis mode of operation is found to dominate the root cause of failure with increase in temperature. Agglomeration and loss of catalyst along with delamination of electrode from membrane are observed. Membrane degradation owing to it's structural as well as chemical damage is seen to be prominent at higher temperature. Characterization techniques such as SEM, TEM and ICP-AES confirm the study showcasing the effect.

  1. Optimizing energy management of decentralized photovoltaic. Fuel cell - direct storage - power supply units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocklisch, Thilo; Schufft, Wolfgang; Bocklisch, Steffen [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (TUC) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a new optimizing energy management concept for decentralized power supply units. Main goal is the coordinated utilization of dynamically controllable combined-heat-and-power-plants (e.g. fuel cell cogeneration plants) and electrochemical direct storages (e.g. future electric car batteries) for the active balancing of fluctuating renewable energy generation (e.g. building integrated photovoltaics) and fluctuation electricity consumption. The self-utilization and partial storage of renewable energy helps to stabilize the grid in a ''bottom-up'' approach. The new energy mangement concept features a three-layer control structure, which aims for the optimization of the power flows, minimizing the fuel consumption and the dynamic stress imposed onto the fuel cell. (orig.)

  2. Retinol increases catalase activity and protein content by a reactive species-dependent mechanism in Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Bittencourt Pasquali, Matheus Augusto; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; de Souza, Luiz Fernando; de Oliveira, Ramatis Birnfeld; Klamt, Fábio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2008-07-10

    Vitamin A (retinol) is widely used as an antioxidant in therapeutic interventions and dietary supplementations. However, the redox properties of retinoids have been the subject of intense debate in the last few years, as recent works observed deleterious effects caused by retinol supplementation in clinical trials. In the present work, we show that retinol treatment (7 microM, 24 h) led to catalase (EC 1.11.1.6; CAT) activation in cultured Sertoli cells by increasing its protein content in a reactive species-dependent manner. Retinol treatment also increased cell lipoperoxidation, assessed by determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and intracellular reactive species production, determined by the real-time dihydrochlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA) assay. However, no alterations on CAT mRNA expression (assessed by RT-PCR) were observed, indicating an effect independent of CAT gene-transcription regulation. Importantly, all the effects induced by retinol were inhibited by the antioxidant Trolox, a hydrophilic analogue of alpha-tocopherol. These results show for the first time that retinol increases CAT activity by a redox-dependent modulation of its protein content in a cell culture model. CAT activity or expression are widely used as indexes of oxidative stress in biological systems; since no changes in CAT mRNA expression were detected in these conditions, the use of CAT gene-transcription activation when assessing oxidative stress should be re-evaluated.

  3. Membrana shrapnelli of maturing rats. The occurrence of mast cells, and histamine content in relation to otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemar, L; Alm, P E; Bloom, G D; Hellström, S; Stenfors, L E

    1984-01-01

    The membrana shrapnelli or pars flaccida of 12 day old rats is thick (84 micron) and almost completely fills the lateral attic compartment. Histologically it is characterized by a thickened layer of stratified squamous epithelium and a lamina propria whereas an inner epithelial lining is difficult to discern. Mast cells are numerous and distributed throughout the lamina propria. At day 21 and day 30 the thickness of the pars flaccida is reduced and histologically it resembles that of the adult. Mast cells are mainly located in the vicinity of blood vessels and in a layer just beneath the squamous epithelium. The number of mast cells per unit area of pars flaccida is considerably higher in young rats as compared to adults. At day 12 their number is roughly 2.1 times that of the adult and at day 21 and 30 about 1.5 times. Except for a slightly raised level of histamine at day 30 the concentration of histamine in the pars flaccida of young rats did not differ from values obtained in the adult. Previous experimental studies have indicated that mast cells in the pars flaccida may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OME. It is interesting to note that the pars flaccida of young rats contains more mast cells than that of the adult. Should this also be the case in the pars flaccida of young humans it is tempting to suggest that mast cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of OME in children too.

  4. Spherical TiO2 aggregates with different building units for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Su, Xunjia; Hou, Genliang; Bi, Song; Xiao, Zhou; Jia, Haipeng

    2013-09-07

    Tailoring the architectures of spherical TiO2 aggregates is crucial to obtain superior photovoltaic properties and promote their application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Herein, we synthesized spherical TiO2 aggregates using different building units, including nanocrystallites, nanorods, nanosheets, and nanotubes, via a hydrothermal method, and studied the effect of the building units on the performances of DSSCs. The aggregates assembled by uniform nanosheet and nanotube building units were synthesized with the use of spherical TiO2 nanorod aggregates as titanium sources in an alkaline hydrothermal reaction. Compared with TiO2 nanoparticles, the spherical TiO2 aggregates possess higher surface area, more efficient light scattering ability, and better electron transport properties. Among the four types of spherical TiO2 aggregates; the nanorod, nanotube, and nanosheet aggregates demonstrate better electron transport properties than the nanocrystallite aggregates; the nanotube and nanosheet aggregates exhibit more efficient light scattering than the nanocrystallite and nanorod aggregates; and the nanotube aggregates show the highest surface area. Thus the DSSC based on nanotube aggregates exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 7.48%, which is 16.0%, 9.7%, and 19.5% higher than those of the DSSCs based on the nanosheet, nanorod, and nanocrystallite aggregates, respectively.

  5. Microscopy studies on pronton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes with different ionomer contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Shuang; Solterbeck, Claus Henning; Odgaard, Madeleine

    2009-01-01

    of the electrode was well displayed in the topography and phase images. The particle and pore size (Z) distributions showed the most frequent values at 30-40 nm and 20-30 nm, respectively. The particle size corresponds to the size of the carbon support for the platinum catalyst. Catalyst agglomeration was observed...... in high ionomer content electrodes. The surface potential images showed distinct difference to the topography images. The overall grain size was seen to increase, the pore volume to decrease, the surface roughness to decrease, and the surface potential variation to increase with the increase of ionomer...

  6. Cell type and transfection reagent-dependent effects on viability, cell content, cell cycle and inflammation of RNAi in human primary mesenchymal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Hsiao Yin; Vonk, Lucienne A.; Licht, Ruud;

    2014-01-01

    application. In the current study, we selected two synthetic transfection reagents, a cationic lipid-based commercial reagent Lipofectamine RNAiMAX and polyethylenimine (PEI), and two naturally-derived transfection reagents, namely the polysaccharides chitosan (98% deacetylation) and hyaluronic acid (20......% amidation), for siRNA delivery into primary mesenchymal cells including nucleus pulposus cells, articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as an endogenous model gene to evaluate the extent of silencing by 20 nM or 200 nM siRNA at day...

  7. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  8. Imaging the impact on cuprate superconductivity of varying the interatomic distances within individual crystal unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, J A; Lee, Jinho; Wang, M; McElroy, K; Fujita, K; Andersen, B M; Hirschfeld, P J; Eisaki, H; Uchida, S; Davis, J C

    2008-03-04

    Many theoretical models of high-temperature superconductivity focus only on the doping dependence of the CuO(2)-plane electronic structure. However, such models are manifestly insufficient to explain the strong variations in superconducting critical temperature, T(c), among cuprates that have identical hole density but are crystallographically different outside of the CuO(2) plane. A key challenge, therefore, has been to identify a predominant out-of-plane influence controlling the superconductivity, with much attention focusing on the distance d(A) between the apical oxygen and the planar copper atom. Here we report direct determination of how variations in interatomic distances within individual crystalline unit cells affect the superconducting energy-gap maximum Delta of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta). In this material, quasiperiodic variations of unit cell geometry occur in the form of a bulk crystalline "supermodulation." Within each supermodulation period, we find approximately 9 +/- 1% cosinusoidal variation in local Delta that is anticorrelated with the associated d(A) variations. Furthermore, we show that phenomenological consistency would exist between these effects and the random Delta variations found near dopant atoms if the primary effect of the interstitial dopant atom is to displace the apical oxygen so as to diminish d(A) or tilt the CuO(5) pyramid. Thus, we reveal a strong, nonrandom out-of-plane effect on cuprate superconductivity at atomic scale.

  9. Intra-unit-cell nematic charge order in the titanium-oxypnictide family of superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Benjamin A.; Bozin, Emil S.; Hu, Hefei; Zhu, Yimei; Nozaki, Yasumasa; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uemura, Yasutomo J.; Yin, Wei-Guo; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the role played by broken-symmetry states such as charge, spin and orbital orders in the mechanism of emergent properties, such as high-temperature superconductivity, is a major current topic in materials research. That the order may be within one unit cell, such as nematic, was only recently considered theoretically, but its observation in the iron-pnictide and doped cuprate superconductors places it at the forefront of current research. Here, we show that the recently discovered BaTi2Sb2O superconductor and its parent compound BaTi2As2O form a symmetry-breaking nematic ground state that can be naturally explained as an intra-unit-cell nematic charge order with d-wave symmetry, pointing to the ubiquity of the phenomenon. These findings, together with the key structural features in these materials being intermediate between the cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconducting materials, render the titanium oxypnictides an important new material system to understand the nature of nematic order and its relationship to superconductivity.

  10. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie; Eklou, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Andriamihaja M, Davila A, Eklou-Lawson M, Petit N, Delpal S, Allek F, Blais A, Delteil C, Tome D, Blachier F. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299: G1030-G1037, 2010. First published August 5, 2010; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00149.2010.-Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transf...

  11. Effect of polyamine analogues on hypusine content in JURKAT T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, R J; Weimar, W R; Müller, R; Zimmerman, C O; McCosar, B H; Yao, H; Smith, R E

    1998-09-24

    The availability of synthetic hypusine and deoxyhypusine has made it possible to develop analytical methods which allow for the measurement of these compounds in various tissues. The methods involve dansylation of extracts from the pellet remaining after perchloric acid precipitation of cell or tissue homogenates, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, the impact of four polyamine analogues, N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM), N1,N14-diethylhomospermine (DEHSPM), 1,6,12-triazadodecane [(4,5) triamine], and 1,7, 13-triazatridecane [(5,5) triamine], on hypusine levels in a human T-cell line (JURKAT) is evaluated. All four analogues are active in controlling cell growth and compete well with spermidine for the polyamine transport apparatus. After 144 h of exposure to JURKAT cells, DENSPM reduces putrescine to below detectable limits and spermidine to 10% of the level in control cells. The other three analogues diminish both putrescine and spermidine to below detectable limits. The effectiveness with which the compounds lower spermine levels is DENSPM > DEHSPM > (4,5) triamine > (5,5) triamine. The analogues decrease the activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase in a similar fashion. Of the four polyamines, DENSPM and DEHSPM are potent at lowering intracellular hypusine levels after 144 h: 59 +/- 9% and 73 +/- 12% of control levels, respectively. The other two analogues have marginal effects.

  12. Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein increases copper content in HEK293 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suazo, Miriam; Hodar, Christian; Morgan, Carlos [INTA, Laboratorio de Bioinformatica y Expresion Genica, Universidad de Chile, El Libano 5524, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Cerpa, Waldo [Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneracion (CARE), Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia ' Joaquin V. Luco' (CRCP), MIFAB, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Cambiazo, Veronica [INTA, Laboratorio de Bioinformatica y Expresion Genica, Universidad de Chile, El Libano 5524, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Millenium Nucleus CGC, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Inestrosa, Nibaldo C. [Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneracion (CARE), Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia ' Joaquin V. Luco' (CRCP), MIFAB, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Mauricio, E-mail: mgonzale@inta.cl [INTA, Laboratorio de Bioinformatica y Expresion Genica, Universidad de Chile, El Libano 5524, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-05-15

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in mammalian tissues and plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease. However, its physiological function remains elusive. Cu{sup 2+} binding and reduction activities have been described in the extracellular APP135-156 region, which might be relevant for cellular copper uptake and homeostasis. Here, we assessed Cu{sup 2+} reduction and {sup 64}Cu uptake in two human HEK293 cell lines overexpressing APP. Our results indicate that Cu{sup 2+} reduction increased and cells accumulated larger levels of copper, maintaining cell viability at supra-physiological levels of Cu{sup 2+} ions. Moreover, wild-type cells exposed to both Cu{sup 2+} ions and APP135-155 synthetic peptides increased copper reduction and uptake. Complementation of function studies in human APP751 transformed Fre1 defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells rescued low Cu{sup 2+} reductase activity and increased {sup 64}Cu uptake. We conclude that Cu{sup 2+} reduction activity of APP facilitates copper uptake and may represent an early step in cellular copper homeostasis.

  13. Engineering temporal accumulation of a low recalcitrance polysaccharide leads to increased C6 sugar content in plant cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E; Loqué, Dominique; Lao, Jeemeng; Catena, Michela; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Herter, Thomas; Yang, Fan; Harholt, Jesper; Ebert, Berit; Baidoo, Edward E K; Keasling, Jay D; Scheller, Henrik V; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Ronald, Pamela C

    2015-09-01

    Reduced cell wall recalcitrance and increased C6 monosaccharide content are desirable traits for future biofuel crops, as long as these biomass modifications do not significantly alter normal growth and development. Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a cell wall polysaccharide only present in grasses and related species among flowering plants, is comprised of glucose monomers linked by both β-1,3 and β-1,4 bonds. Previous data have shown that constitutive production of MLG in barley (Hordeum vulgare) severely compromises growth and development. Here, we used spatio-temporal strategies to engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants to accumulate significant amounts of MLG in the cell wall by expressing the rice CslF6 MLG synthase using secondary cell wall and senescence-associated promoters. Results using secondary wall promoters were suboptimal. When the rice MLG synthase was expressed under the control of a senescence-associated promoter, we obtained up to four times more glucose in the matrix cell wall fraction and up to a 42% increase in saccharification compared to control lines. Importantly, these plants grew and developed normally. The induction of MLG deposition at senescence correlated with an increase of gluconic acid in cell wall extracts of transgenic plants in contrast to the other approaches presented in this study. MLG produced in Arabidopsis has an altered structure compared to the grass glucan, which likely affects its solubility, while its molecular size is unaffected. The induction of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in senescing tissues offers a novel engineering alternative to enhance cell wall properties of lignocellulosic biofuel crops.

  14. Hepatic granulomas induced by Schistosoma mansoni in mice deficient for connexin 43 present lower cell proliferation and higher collagen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloris, Silvia Catarina Salgado; Mesnil, Marc; Reis, Viviane Neri de Souza; Sakai, Mônica; Matsuzaki, Patrícia; Fonseca, Evelise de Souza Monteiro; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Avanzo, José Luís; Sinhorini, Idércio Luiz; Guerra, José Luiz; Costa-Pinto, Frederico Azevedo; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; Dagli, Maria Lúcia Zaidan

    2007-03-06

    Granuloma formation involves a coordinated interaction between monocytes and macrophages, epithelioid cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and fibroblasts. It has been established that extracellular communication via cytokines is important for the assembly of granulomas. However, the importance of gap junctions and intercellular communication to granuloma formation and development had never been assessed. Connexins are proteins that form gap junctions, and connexin 43 (Cx43) is present in macrophages, lymphoid cells, myelogenous cells, fibroblasts and others. We analyzed the effect of heterologous deletion of Gja1 (Cx43 gene) on the formation and development of hepatic granulomas induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Heterozygous (Cx43(+/-)) and wild-type (Cx43(+/+)) mice were infected subcutaneously with S. mansoni cercarie and evaluated after 6, 8 and 12 weeks. Granuloma cells express Cx43, as revealed by real-time PCR in isolated granulomas, and by immunohistochemistry. Cx43 expression was reduced in Cx43(+/-) mice, as expected. No differences in the average area of granulomas or number of cells per granuloma were observed between mice of different genotypes. However, granuloma cells from Cx43(+/-) mice displayed a reduced index of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling at 8 and 12 weeks post-infection. Moreover, Cx43(+/-) granulomas unexpectedly presented a higher degree of fibrosis, quantified by morphometric analysis in Sirius Red-stained slides. Our results indicate that the deletion of one allele of the Cx43 gene, and possibly the reduced gap junction intercellular communication capacity (GJIC), may impair the interactions between granuloma cells, reducing their proliferation and increasing their collagen content, thereby modifying the characteristics of S. mansoni granuloma in mice.

  15. Fuel cell collaboration in the United States. A report to the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide members of the Danish Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells with information regarding collaborative opportunities in the United States. The report is designed to provide an overview of key issues and activities and to provide guidance on strategies for finding U.S. research and commercial partners and gaining access to the U.S. market. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the key drivers of policy at the federal and state government levels regarding hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and provides a perspective of the U.S. industry and key players. It also suggests three general pathways for accessing U.S. opportunities: enhancing visibility; developing vendor relationships; and establishing a formal presence in the U.S. The next sections summarize focus areas for commercial and research activity that currently are of the greatest interest in the U.S. Section 2 describes major programs within the federal government and national laboratories, and discusses various methods for identifying R and D funding opportunities, with an overview of federal acquisition regulations. Section 3 reviews the efforts of several state governments engaging the fuel cell industry as an economic driver and presents an overview of acquisition at the state level. Section 4 discusses university research and development (R and D) and university-industry partnerships. There are 12 appendices attached to the report. These appendices provide more detailed information regarding the key federal government agencies involved in fuel cells and hydrogen, state-specific policies and activities, national laboratories and universities, and other information regarding the fuel cell and hydrogen industry in the U.S. (Author)

  16. Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Substantial Reduction of Lead Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Fan, Jiandong; Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Cuiling; Mai, Yaohua

    2016-10-01

    Despite organometal halide perovskite solar cells have recently exhibited a significant leap in efficiency, the Sn-based perovskite solar cells still suffer from low efficiency. Here, a series homogeneous CH3NH3Pb(1-x)SnxI3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) perovskite thin films with full coverage were obtained via solvent engineering. In particular, the intermediate complexes of PbI2/(SnI2)•(DMSO)x were proved to retard the crystallization of CH3NH3SnI3, thus allowing the realization of high quality Sn-introduced perovskite thin films. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of as-prepared solar cells were demonstrated to extend a broad absorption minimum over 50% in the wavelength range from 350 to 950 nm accompanied by a noteworthy absorption onset up to 1050 nm. The CH3NH3Pb0.75Sn0.25I3 perovskite solar cells with inverted structure were consequently realized with maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.12%.

  17. Toward high-content screening of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannetti, E.F.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Pellegrini, M.; Beyrath, J.D.; Smeitink, J.; Blanchet, L.M.; Koopman, W.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are double membrane organelles involved in various key cellular processes. Governed by dedicated protein machinery, mitochondria move and continuously fuse and divide. These "mitochondrial dynamics" are bi-directionally linked to mitochondrial and cell functional state in space and time

  18. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Riis, Simon; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Paoli, Frank de; Vissing, Kristian

    2014-10-15

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P hypertrophy correlated with whole muscle hypertrophy exclusively following Conc training (P eccentric resistance training while type II fiber hypertrophy was accentuated when combining concentric resistance training with whey protein supplementation.

  19. Screening of siRNA nanoparticles for delivery to airway epithelial cells using high-content analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hibbitts, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Aims: Delivery of siRNA to the lungs via inhalation offers a unique opportunity to develop a new treatment paradigm for a range of respiratory conditions. However, progress has been greatly hindered by safety and delivery issues. This study developed a high-throughput method for screening novel nanotechnologies for pulmonary siRNA delivery. Methodology: Following physicochemical analysis, the ability of PEI–PEG–siRNA nanoparticles to facilitate siRNA delivery was determined using high-content analysis (HCA) in Calu-3 cells. Results obtained from HCA were validated using confocal microscopy. Finally, cytotoxicity of the PEI–PEG–siRNA particles was analyzed by HCA using the Cellomics® multiparameter cytotoxicity assay. Conclusion: PEI–PEG–siRNA nanoparticles facilitated increased siRNA uptake and luciferase knockdown in Calu-3 cells compared with PEI–siRNA.

  20. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Riis, Simon

    2014-01-01

    -specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose......Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type......) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P

  1. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids control productions of superoxide and nitrogen oxide and insulin content in INS-1E cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano, M F; Leonelli, M; Curi, R; R Carpinelli, A

    2016-12-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. Dietary depletion of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with pancreatic islet dysfunction and insulin resistance in rats. Herein, the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on pancreatic beta cell redox state and function were investigated. INS-1E insulin-secreting cells were incubated with EPA and DHA in combination with palmitic acid, and productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and insulin were measured. The involvement of the NADPH oxidase complex in ROS production and expression of the antioxidant enzymes was also investigated. After incubation for 1 or 48 h, productions of superoxide (by hydroethidine method), nitric oxide (by 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate-DAF-2DA assay), insulin (by radioimmunoassay), and expressions (by western blot analysis) of glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1) and gp91(PHOX) were measured. EPA and DHA reduced superoxide production after 1-h incubation. After 48 h, palmitic acid reduced superoxide production that was normalized by EPA treatment. Palmitic acid increased NO production that was reverted by EPA and DHA. Palmitic acid increased insulin secretion after 48 h, whereas both omega-3 fatty acids increased intracellular insulin content. EPA and DHA enhanced GPx-1 expression as well as gp91(PHOX) glycosylated form. In conclusion, EPA and DHA increased intracellular insulin content and antioxidant enzymatic defense capacity and decreased pro-oxidant generating activities that are associated with maintenance of pancreatic beta cell redox state in response to palmitic acid.

  3. High-content screening of drug-induced cardiotoxicity using quantitative single cell imaging cytometry on microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Su Chul; Pal, Sukdeb; Han, Eunyoung; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-01-07

    Drug-induced cardiotoxicity or cytotoxicity followed by cell death in cardiac muscle is one of the major concerns in drug development. Herein, we report a high-content quantitative multicolor single cell imaging tool for automatic screening of drug-induced cardiotoxicity in an intact cell. A tunable multicolor imaging system coupled with a miniaturized sample platform was destined to elucidate drug-induced cardiotoxicity via simultaneous quantitative monitoring of intracellular sodium ion concentration, potassium ion channel permeability and apoptosis/necrosis in H9c2(2-1) cell line. Cells were treated with cisapride (a human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel blocker), digoxin (Na(+)/K(+)-pump blocker), camptothecin (anticancer agent) and a newly synthesized anti-cancer drug candidate (SH-03). Decrease in potassium channel permeability in cisapride-treated cells indicated that it can also inhibit the trafficking of the hERG channel. Digoxin treatment resulted in an increase of intracellular [Na(+)]. However, it did not affect potassium channel permeability. Camptothecin and SH-03 did not show any cytotoxic effect at normal use (≤300 nM and 10 μM, respectively). This result clearly indicates the potential of SH-03 as a new anticancer drug candidate. The developed method was also used to correlate the cell death pathway with alterations in intracellular [Na(+)]. The developed protocol can directly depict and quantitate targeted cellular responses, subsequently enabling an automated, easy to operate tool that is applicable to drug-induced cytotoxicity monitoring with special reference to next generation drug discovery screening. This multicolor imaging based system has great potential as a complementary system to the conventional patch clamp technique and flow cytometric measurement for the screening of drug cardiotoxicity.

  4. Correlation of subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy with weight, pathohistologic finding and oxyphil cell content of parathyroid glands in parathyroid hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugonjić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Parathyroid hyperplasia (PHP is defined as an absolute increase in the mass of parenchymal cells of the parathyroid gland. PHP is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. The enlargement of parathyroid glands (PG is usually asymmetric, resulting in a “dominant“ gland. In order to confirm the diagnosis, at least two glands should be examined histologically. Subtotal parathyroidectomy, i.e. removal of the three PG and leaving a small remnant of the forth, is the treatment of choice. High percent of PHP recurrence imposes the need for preoperative high sensitivity localizing procedures. Parathyroid scintigraphy localizes about 60% of hyperplastic glands. The aim of this study was to correlate findings of subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy (SPS with weight, pathohistologic finding and oxyphil cell (OC content of PG in patients with primary, secondary and tertiary parathyroid hyperplasia. Methods. Twenty-seven patients with primary/secondary PHP underwent SPS before surgery. Scintigraphic results were graded from 1-5, in relation to the degree of uptake. SPS graded 3, 4 and 5 were considered positive. The number and weight of operated PG were evaluated macroscopically. Pathohistologic and cellular types were defined on standard stained hematoxylin-eosin slides. OC content was defined as a percent of OC and graded from 1 to 3: grade 1 < 10%, grade 2 ≥ 10% and grade 3 ≥ 20% of OC. Results. SPS localized dominant gland in all patients with sensitivity 100%, and 51 from 73 hyperplastic PG, with sensitivity per gland of 70%. PG weighed 0.1 g to 6.7 g (median 1 g. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.0001 was found between the SPS results and PG weight. A significant positive correlation was found between PG weight and OC content (p = 0.0002. An insignificant correlation was found between SPS and OC content. Thirty-eight PG had < 10% of OC, 32 PG had < 10% and 3 PG had ≥ 20% of OC. Four patients had diffuse PHP and 23

  5. Impact of the irregular microgeometry of polyurethane foam on the macroscopic acoustic behavior predicted by a unit-cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutres, O; Ouisse, M; Atalla, N; Ichchou, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of the macroscopic sound absorption behavior of highly porous polyurethane foams using two unit-cell microstructure-based models recently developed by Doutres, Atalla, and Dong [J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064901 (2011); J. Appl. Phys. 113, 054901 (2013)]. In these models, the porous material is idealized as a packing of a tetrakaidecahedra unit-cell representative of the disordered network that constitutes the porous frame. The non-acoustic parameters involved in the classical Johnson-Champoux-Allard model (i.e., porosity, airflow resistivity, tortuosity, etc.) are derived from characteristic properties of the unit-cell and semi-empirical relationships. A global sensitivity analysis is performed on these two models in order to investigate how the variability associated with the measured unit-cell characteristics affects the models outputs. This allows identification of the possible limitations of a unit-cell micro-macro approach due to microstructure irregularity. The sensitivity analysis mainly shows that for moderately and highly reticulated polyurethane foams, the strut length parameter is the key parameter since it greatly impacts three important non-acoustic parameters and causes large uncertainty on the sound absorption coefficient even if its measurement variability is moderate. For foams with a slight inhomogeneity and anisotropy, a micro-macro model associated to cell size measurements should be preferred.

  6. Graphene-derived Fe/Co-N-C catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells: Effects of the methanol concentration and ionomer content on cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Cheol; Choi, Chang Hyuck

    2017-08-01

    Non-precious metal catalysts (typically Fe(Co)-N-C catalysts) have been widely investigated for use as cost-effective cathode materials in low temperature fuel cells. Despite the high oxygen reduction activity and methanol-tolerance of graphene-based Fe(Co)-N-C catalysts in an acidic medium, their use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) has not yet been successfully implemented, and only a few studies have investigated this topic. Herein, we synthesized a nano-sized graphene-derived Fe/Co-N-C catalyst by physical ball-milling and a subsequent chemical modification of the graphene oxide. Twelve membrane-electrode-assemblies are fabricated with various cathode compositions to determine the effects of the methanol concentration, ionomer (i.e. Nafion) content, and catalyst loading on the DMFC performance. The results show that a graphene-based catalyst is capable of tolerating a highly-concentrated methanol feed up to 10.0 M. The optimized electrode composition has an ionomer content and catalyst loading of 66.7 wt% and 5.0 mg cm-2, respectively. The highest maximum power density is ca. 32 mW cm-2 with a relatively low PtRu content (2 mgPtRu cm-2). This study overcomes the drawbacks of conventional graphene-based electrodes using a nano-sized graphene-based catalyst and further shows the feasibility of their potential applications in DMFC systems.

  7. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  8. Using a microfluidic device for high-content analysis of cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Wang, Chiaochun Joanne; Levchenko, Andre

    2009-06-16

    Quantitative analysis and understanding of signaling networks require measurements of the location and activities of key proteins over time, at the level of single cells, in response to various perturbations. Microfluidic devices enable such analyses to be conducted in a high-throughput and in a highly controlled manner. We describe in detail how to design and use a microfluidic device to perform such information-rich experiments.

  9. Cell type and transfection reagent-dependent effects on viability, cell content, cell cycle and inflammation of RNAi in human primary mesenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hsiao-yin; Vonk, Lucienne A; Licht, Ruud; van Boxtel, Antonetta M G; Bekkers, Joris E J; Kragten, Angela H M; Hein, San; Varghese, Oommen P; Howard, Kenneth A; Öner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Creemers, Laura B

    2014-01-01

    The application of RNA interference (RNAi) has great therapeutic potential for degenerative diseases of cartilaginous tissues by means of fine tuning the phenotype of cells used for regeneration. However, possible non-specific effects of transfection per se might be relevant for future clinical appl

  10. Effect of lecithin content blend with poly (L-lactic acid) on viability and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhonghua [Cardiac Surgery, First Hospital of Tsinghua University, No.6 Jiuxianqiao 1st Road, Beijing (China); Wu Qingyu, E-mail: wuqingyu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Cardiac Surgery, First Hospital of Tsinghua University, No.6 Jiuxianqiao 1st Road, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-01

    Lecithin constitutes a natural mixture of phospholipids and neutral lipids and plays critical roles in cellular membrane structure and cellular signaling. In this study, lecithin was blended with poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) for modifying the surface of PLLA because it might obtain appropriate hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. The modified PLLA films were manufactured using conventional solvent-casting technique. The hydrophilicity clearly increased with an increase of lecithin content in the polymer blends, as determined by measuring the water contact angle (WCA). The cytocompatibility and any potential cytotoxic effects were studied over 7 days by seeding mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the films of PLLA containing 0-15% lecithin (wt.%), in comparison with tissue culture plates (TCPs). Cell viability and proliferation were assessed using WST-8, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell morphology was studied by toluidine blue and propidium iodide staining. This results obtained above suggested that 5%lecithin-containing PLLA films could possess the optimal hydrophilicity, higher adhesion and proliferation of MSCs for a prolonged period and did not demonstrate any significant toxic effects to cells. The study showed that the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the modified PLLA were markedly improved by directly introducing lecithin into the polymer without the use of multiple synthetic steps. The information obtained should be useful for future research in vascular tissue engineering (VTE).

  11. Adaptation of a Cell-Based High Content Screening System for the In-Depth Analysis of Celiac Biopsy Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sarah E J; Mohamed, Bashir M; Elliott, Louise; Davies, Anthony Mitchell; Feighery, Conleth F; Kelly, Jacinta; Dunne, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The IN Cell Analyzer 1000 possesses several distinguishing features that make it a valuable tool in research today. This fully automated high content screening (HCS) system introduced quantitative fluorescent microscopy with computerized image analysis for use in cell-based analysis. Previous studies have focused on live cell assays, where it has proven to be a powerful and robust method capable of providing reproducible, quantitative data. Using HCS as a tool to investigate antigen expression in duodenal biopsies, we developed a novel approach to tissue positioning and mapping. We adapted IN Cell Analyzer 1000's image acquisition and analysis software for the investigation of tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and smooth muscle alpha-actin (SM α-actin) staining in paraffin-embedded duodenal tissue sections from celiac patients and healthy controls. These innovations allowed a quantitative analysis of cellular structure and protein expression. The results from routine biopsy material indicated the intensity of protein expression was altered in celiac disease compared to normal biopsy material.

  12. Mineralization Content Alters Osteogenic Responses of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Hydroxyapatite/Polycaprolactone Composite Nanofiber Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketul C. Popat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic tissue scaffolds have a high potential impact for patients experiencing osteogenesis imperfecta. Using electrospinning, tissue scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite/polycaprolactone (HAp/PCL composite nanofibers were fabricated with two different HAp concentrations—1% and 10% of the solid scaffold weight. After physico-chemical scaffold characterization, rat bone marrow stromal cells were cultured on the composite scaffolds in maintenance medium and then in osteogenic medium. Quantitative PCR, colorimetric assays, immunofluorescent labeling, and electron microscopy measured osteogenic cell responses to the HAp/PCL scaffolds. In maintenance conditions, both Hap/PCL scaffolds and control scaffolds supported cell colonization through seven days with minor differences. In osteogenic conditions, the 10% HAp scaffolds exhibited significantly increased ALP assay levels at week 3, consistent with previous reports. However, qPCR analysis demonstrated an overall decrease in bone matrix-associated genes on Hap/PCL scaffolds. Osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescent microscopy revealed a trend that both mineralized scaffolds had greater amounts of both proteins, though qPCR results indicated the opposite trend for osteopontin. Additionally, type I collagen expression decreased on HAp scaffolds. These results indicate that cells are sensitive to minor changes in mineral content within nanofibers, even at just 1% w/w, and elucidating the sensing mechanism may lead to optimized osteogenic scaffold designs.

  13. High-content live cell imaging with RNA probes: advancements in high-throughput antimalarial drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Serena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, a major public health issue in developing nations, is responsible for more than one million deaths a year. The most lethal species, Plasmodium falciparum, causes up to 90% of fatalities. Drug resistant strains to common therapies have emerged worldwide and recent artemisinin-based combination therapy failures hasten the need for new antimalarial drugs. Discovering novel compounds to be used as antimalarials is expedited by the use of a high-throughput screen (HTS to detect parasite growth and proliferation. Fluorescent dyes that bind to DNA have replaced expensive traditional radioisotope incorporation for HTS growth assays, but do not give additional information regarding the parasite stage affected by the drug and a better indication of the drug's mode of action. Live cell imaging with RNA dyes, which correlates with cell growth and proliferation, has been limited by the availability of successful commercial dyes. Results After screening a library of newly synthesized stryrl dyes, we discovered three RNA binding dyes that provide morphological details of live parasites. Utilizing an inverted confocal imaging platform, live cell imaging of parasites increases parasite detection, improves the spatial and temporal resolution of the parasite under drug treatments, and can resolve morphological changes in individual cells. Conclusion This simple one-step technique is suitable for automation in a microplate format for novel antimalarial compound HTS. We have developed a new P. falciparum RNA high-content imaging growth inhibition assay that is robust with time and energy efficiency.

  14. Investigation of Content, Stoichiometry and Transfer of miRNA from Human Neural Stem Cell Line Derived Exosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Stevanato

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small (30-100 nm membrane vesicles secreted by a variety of cell types and only recently have emerged as a new avenue for cell-to-cell communication. They are natural shuttles of RNA and protein cargo, making them attractive as potential therapeutic delivery vehicles. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs which regulate biological processes and can be found in exosomes. Here we characterized the miRNA contents of exosomes derived from human neural stem cells (hNSCs. Our investigated hNSC line is a clonal, conditionally immortalized cell line, compliant with good manufacturing practice (GMP, and in clinical trials for stroke and critical limb ischemia in the UK (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01151124, NCT02117635, and NCT01916369. By using next generation sequencing (NGS technology we identified the presence of a variety of miRNAs in both exosomal and cellular preparations. Many of these miRNAs were enriched in exosomes indicating that cells specifically sort them for extracellular release. Although exosomes have been proven to contain miRNAs, the copy number quantification per exosome of a given miRNA remains unclear. Herein we quantified by real-time PCR a highly shuttled exosomal miRNA subtype (hsa-miR-1246 in order to assess its stoichiometry per exosome. Furthermore, we utilized an in vitro system to confirm its functional transfer by measuring the reduction in luciferase expression using a 3' untranslated region dual luciferase reporter assay. In summary, NGS analysis allowed the identification of a unique set of hNSC derived exosomal miRNAs. Stoichiometry and functional transfer analysis of one of the most abundant identified miRNA, hsa-miR-1246, were measured to support biological relevance of exosomal miRNA delivery.

  15. Bilirubin activates transcription of HIF-1α in human proximal tubular cells cultured in the physiologic oxygen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Gyun; Ahn, Shin-Young; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is influenced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Effect of bilirubin on HIF-1 expression in proximal tubular cells was investigated under physiological oxygen concentration, which is relative hypoxic condition mimicking oxygen content in the medulla of renal tissue. The human kidney (HK2) cells were cultured in 5% oxygen with or without bilirubin. HIF-1α protein expression was increased by bilirubin treatment at 0.01-0.2 mg/dL concentration. The messenger RNA expression of HIF-1α was increased by 1.69±0.05 folds in the cells cultured with 0.1 mg/dL bilirubin, compared to the control cells. The inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR, PI3K/AKT, and ERK 1/2 pathways did not attenuate increased HIF-1α expression by bilirubin. HIF-1α expression decreased by 10 µM exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); scavenger of ROS with or without bilirubin in the HK2 cells increased HIF-1α concentration more than that in the cells without bilirubin. Exogenous H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation of P70S6 kinase, which was completely reversed by bilirubin treatment. Knockdown of NOX4 gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased HIF-1α mRNA expression. In coonclusion, bilirubin enhances HIF-1α transcription as well as the up-regulation of HIF-1α protein translation through the attenuation of ROS and subunits of NADPH oxidase.

  16. Investigation of Content, Stoichiometry and Transfer of miRNA from Human Neural Stem Cell Line Derived Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanato, Lara; Thanabalasundaram, Lavaniya; Vysokov, Nickolai; Sinden, John D

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small (30-100 nm) membrane vesicles secreted by a variety of cell types and only recently have emerged as a new avenue for cell-to-cell communication. They are natural shuttles of RNA and protein cargo, making them attractive as potential therapeutic delivery vehicles. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs which regulate biological processes and can be found in exosomes. Here we characterized the miRNA contents of exosomes derived from human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Our investigated hNSC line is a clonal, conditionally immortalized cell line, compliant with good manufacturing practice (GMP), and in clinical trials for stroke and critical limb ischemia in the UK (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01151124, NCT02117635, and NCT01916369). By using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology we identified the presence of a variety of miRNAs in both exosomal and cellular preparations. Many of these miRNAs were enriched in exosomes indicating that cells specifically sort them for extracellular release. Although exosomes have been proven to contain miRNAs, the copy number quantification per exosome of a given miRNA remains unclear. Herein we quantified by real-time PCR a highly shuttled exosomal miRNA subtype (hsa-miR-1246) in order to assess its stoichiometry per exosome. Furthermore, we utilized an in vitro system to confirm its functional transfer by measuring the reduction in luciferase expression using a 3' untranslated region dual luciferase reporter assay. In summary, NGS analysis allowed the identification of a unique set of hNSC derived exosomal miRNAs. Stoichiometry and functional transfer analysis of one of the most abundant identified miRNA, hsa-miR-1246, were measured to support biological relevance of exosomal miRNA delivery.

  17. Automated high-content assay for compounds selectively toxic to Trypanosoma cruzi in a myoblastic cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alonso-Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a very important public health problem in Latin America where it is endemic. Although mostly asymptomatic at its initial stage, after the disease becomes chronic, about a third of the infected patients progress to a potentially fatal outcome due to severe damage of heart and gut tissues. There is an urgent need for new drugs against Chagas disease since there are only two drugs available, benznidazole and nifurtimox, and both show toxic side effects and variable efficacy against the chronic stage of the disease.Genetically engineered parasitic strains are used for high throughput screening (HTS of large chemical collections in the search for new anti-parasitic compounds. These assays, although successful, are limited to reporter transgenic parasites and do not cover the wide T. cruzi genetic background. With the aim to contribute to the early drug discovery process against Chagas disease we have developed an automated image-based 384-well plate HTS assay for T. cruzi amastigote replication in a rat myoblast host cell line. An image analysis script was designed to inform on three outputs: total number of host cells, ratio of T. cruzi amastigotes per cell and percentage of infected cells, which respectively provides one host cell toxicity and two T. cruzi toxicity readouts. The assay was statistically robust (Z´ values >0.6 and was validated against a series of known anti-trypanosomatid drugs.We have established a highly reproducible, high content HTS assay for screening of chemical compounds against T. cruzi infection of myoblasts that is amenable for use with any T. cruzi strain capable of in vitro infection. Our visual assay informs on both anti-parasitic and host cell toxicity readouts in a single experiment, allowing the direct identification of compounds selectively targeted to the parasite.

  18. Algorithm and program for precise determination of unit-cell parameters of single crystal taking into account the sample eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudka, A. P.; Smirnova, E. S.; Verin, I. A.; Bolotina, N. B.

    2017-07-01

    A technique has been developed to refine the unit-cell parameters of single crystals with minimization of the influence of instrumental errors on the result. The corresponding computational procedure HuberUB is added to the software package of Huber-5042 diffractometer with a point detector and closedcycle helium cryostat Displex DE-202. The parameters of unit cell, its orientation, the goniometer zero angles, the sample eccentricity, the distances in the goniometer, and the radiation wavelength were refined by the nonlinear least-squares method, which allows imposition of constraints on the unit-cell parameters, depending on the crystal symmetry. The technique is approved on a LuB12 single crystal. The unit-cell parameters are determined in a temperature range of 20-295 K, with an absolute error not larger than 0.0004 Å (the relative error is of 5 × 10-5). The estimates of the unit-cell parameters obtained by the proposed method are evidenced to be unbiased. Some specific features of the behavior of parameters in the ranges of 120-140 and 20-50 K are revealed, which correlate with the anomalies of the physical properties of the crystal.

  19. Exfoliation of natural van der Waals heterostructures to a single unit cell thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velický, Matěj; Toth, Peter S.; Rakowski, Alexander M.; Rooney, Aidan P.; Kozikov, Aleksey; Woods, Colin R.; Mishchenko, Artem; Fumagalli, Laura; Yin, Jun; Zólyomi, Viktor; Georgiou, Thanasis; Haigh, Sarah J.; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Dryfe, Robert A. W.

    2017-02-01

    Weak interlayer interactions in van der Waals crystals facilitate their mechanical exfoliation to monolayer and few-layer two-dimensional materials, which often exhibit striking physical phenomena absent in their bulk form. Here we utilize mechanical exfoliation to produce a two-dimensional form of a mineral franckeite and show that the phase segregation of chemical species into discrete layers at the sub-nanometre scale facilitates franckeite's layered structure and basal cleavage down to a single unit cell thickness. This behaviour is likely to be common in a wider family of complex minerals and could be exploited for a single-step synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures, as an alternative to artificial stacking of individual two-dimensional crystals. We demonstrate p-type electrical conductivity and remarkable electrochemical properties of the exfoliated crystals, showing promise for a range of applications, and use the density functional theory calculations of franckeite's electronic band structure to rationalize the experimental results.

  20. Prognosis of Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgaard, Sidsel Christy; Nielsen, Jonas; Lindmark, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a procedure with inherent complications and intensive care may be necessary. We evaluated the short- and long-term outcomes of the HSCT recipients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We...... ventilation had a statistically significant effect on in-ICU (p = 0.02), 6-month (p = 0.049) and 1-year (p = 0.014) mortality. Renal replacement therapy also had a statistically significant effect on in-hospital (p = 0.038) and 6-month (p = 0.026) mortality. Short ICU admissions, i.e. ... to the ICU was confirmed in our study. Mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy and an ICU admission of ≥10 days were each risk factors for mortality in the first year after ICU admission....

  1. An explicit algorithm for fully flexible unit cell simulation with recursive thermostat chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Cho, Maenghyo

    2008-10-28

    Through the combination of the recursive multiple thermostat (RMT) Nose-Poincare and Parrinello-Rahman methods, the recursive multiple thermostat chained fully flexible unit cell (RMT-NsigmaT) molecular dynamics method is proposed for isothermal-isobaric simulation. The RMT method is known to have the advantage of achieving the ergodicity that is required for canonical sampling of the harmonic oscillator. Thus, an explicit time integration algorithm is developed for RMT-NsigmaT. We examine the ergodicity for various parameters of RMT-NsigmaT using bulk and thin film structures with different numbers of copper atoms and thicknesses in various environments. Through the numerical simulations, we conclude that the RMT-NsigmaT method is advantageous in the cases of lower temperatures.

  2. A diesel fuel processor for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsun, Remzi Can; Krekel, Daniel; Pasel, Joachim; Prawitz, Matthias; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-07-01

    Producing a hydrogen-rich gas from diesel fuel enables the efficient generation of electricity in a fuel-cell-based auxiliary power unit. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in diesel reforming. One issue encountered is the stable operation of water-gas shift reactors with real reformates. A new fuel processor is developed using a commercial shift catalyst. The system is operated using optimized start-up and shut-down strategies. Experiments with diesel and kerosene fuels show slight performance drops in the shift reactor during continuous operation for 100 h. CO concentrations much lower than the target value are achieved during system operation in auxiliary power unit mode at partial loads of up to 60%. The regeneration leads to full recovery of the shift activity. Finally, a new operation strategy is developed whereby the gas hourly space velocity of the shift stages is re-designed. This strategy is validated using different diesel and kerosene fuels, showing a maximum CO concentration of 1.5% at the fuel processor outlet under extreme conditions, which can be tolerated by a high-temperature PEFC. The proposed operation strategy solves the issue of strong performance drop in the shift reactor and makes this technology available for reducing emissions in the transportation sector.

  3. Variation of Hydroxyapatite Content in Soft Gelatin Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahsai Kantawong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a common material used in tissue engineering and hydroxyapatite (HA has a composition and structure similar to natural bone mineral. HA is also used to increase the adhesion ability of scaffolds. The physical and mechanical properties of gelatin, together with the chemical properties of HA, can affect cell differentiation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs upon culturing on gelatin composite with HA. Low amounts of HA were introduced into the gelatin in order to modulate properties of gelatin. Three types of hydrogel were fabricated by glutaraldehyde crosslinking before lyophilization to produce the porous 3D structure: (1 pure gelatin, (2 0.5 mg/ml HA in gelatin, and (3 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin. The fabricated hydrogels were used as scaffolds to cultivate HMSCs for two periods - 24 hours and 3 weeks. The results showed that all types of fabricated hydrogels could be used to cultivate HMSCs. Changes of gene expressions indicated that the HMSCs cultured on the 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin showed neuronal lineage-specific differentiation.

  4. Soil Organic Matter Map of Europe. Estimates of soil organic matter content of the topsoil of FAO-Unesco soil units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; Bouwman AF; Thewessen TJM

    1993-01-01

    One of the threats to groundwater is the leaching of pesticides. A major factor determining the migration of most pesticides in soil is their organic matter content. Using classification criteria, data on organic matter content in European and American soil profiles are described, and common knowled

  5. Soil Organic Matter Map of Europe. Estimates of soil organic matter content of the topsoil of FAO-Unesco soil units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; Bouwman AF; Thewessen TJM

    1993-01-01

    One of the threats to groundwater is the leaching of pesticides. A major factor determining the migration of most pesticides in soil is their organic matter content. Using classification criteria, data on organic matter content in European and American soil profiles are described, and common knowl

  6. High-content, high-throughput screening for the identification of cytotoxic compounds based on cell morphology and cell proliferation markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Martin

    Full Text Available Toxicity is a major cause of failure in drug discovery and development, and whilst robust toxicological testing occurs, efficiency could be improved if compounds with cytotoxic characteristics were identified during primary compound screening. The use of high-content imaging in primary screening is becoming more widespread, and by utilising phenotypic approaches it should be possible to incorporate cytotoxicity counter-screens into primary screens. Here we present a novel phenotypic assay that can be used as a counter-screen to identify compounds with adverse cellular effects. This assay has been developed using U2OS cells, the PerkinElmer Operetta high-content/high-throughput imaging system and Columbus image analysis software. In Columbus, algorithms were devised to identify changes in nuclear morphology, cell shape and proliferation using DAPI, TOTO-3 and phosphohistone H3 staining, respectively. The algorithms were developed and tested on cells treated with doxorubicin, taxol and nocodazole. The assay was then used to screen a novel, chemical library, rich in natural product-like molecules of over 300 compounds, 13.6% of which were identified as having adverse cellular effects. This assay provides a relatively cheap and rapid approach for identifying compounds with adverse cellular effects during screening assays, potentially reducing compound rejection due to toxicity in subsequent in vitro and in vivo assays.

  7. A randomized comparison of hemoglobin content-based versus standard (unit-based) red blood cell transfusion policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilla, Erden; Toprak, Selami Koçak; Civriz Bozdağ, Sinem; Topçuoğlu, Pervin; Arslan, Önder

    2015-02-20

    Amaç: Eritrosit süspansiyonu (ES) ünitelerinin hacimleri standart kriterlerle belirlenmişse de hemoglobin (Hb) içerikleri farklıdır. Halen klinik rutin transfüzyon uygulamaları, eritrosit süspansiyonlarının ünite sayısına dayanmaktadır. Biz bu çalışma ile iki yöntemin etkinliklerini karşılaştırmayı amaçladık. Materyal ve Metod: Ortanca yaşı 46 (19-75) olan 89 hastaya (55 erkek; 34 kadın) 178 transfüzyon epizodu; 92’ si çalışma, 86’ sı kontrol kolun olarak randomize edildi. 51 hasta 1, 38 hasta ≥2 epizotta değerlendirildi (ortanca 3; 1-7). Hesaplamalar kan bankalarımızda kullanılan, Hemosoft İşletim Sistemi’yle yapıldı. Çalışma kolunda alıcı; boy, güncel kilo, güncel ve hedef Hb verileri ile gerekli Hb miktarı hesaplandı. Uygun ünite bulunamayanlarda (başarısız) ve kontrol kolunda istenen sayıda ES ünitesi gönderildi. Bulgular: Çalışma kolunda 38 epizotta ES ünitesi isteme göre %19.8 olarak azaldı. Uygun Hb içeriğinde ünite bulma başarısı; düşük kilolu, kısa boylu hastalarda ve ES stok sayısı fazla olduğunda; daha yüksek bulundu. Hedeflenen Hb değerine ulaşma oranları; çalışma ve kontrol kolunda (p=0,1), başarılı ve başarısız gruplarda (p=0,3), kontrol kolu ve başarısız grupta (p= 0,4); istatistiksel olarak benzer bulundu. Ünite Hb içeriği ve hedef Hb’e ulaşma ilişkisinin, anlamlı olduğu gösterildi (p=0,01). Raf ömrü ve hedef Hb’e ulaşma ilişkisi anlamsızdı (p=0,7). Sonuç: Hb içeriğine dayalı ve ünite sayısına dayalı ES transfüzyonlarının, etkinliklerinin benzerdir ve Hb içeriğine dayalı transfüzyon ile ünite sayısı azaltılabilir.

  8. Fuel cell system including a unit for electrical isolation of a fuel cell stack from a manifold assembly and method therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley; Dana A. , Farooque; Mohammad , Davis; Keith

    2007-10-02

    A fuel cell system with improved electrical isolation having a fuel cell stack with a positive potential end and a negative potential, a manifold for use in coupling gases to and from a face of the fuel cell stack, an electrical isolating assembly for electrically isolating the manifold from the stack, and a unit for adjusting an electrical potential of the manifold such as to impede the flow of electrolyte from the stack across the isolating assembly.

  9. A novel electrosynthesis cell with a compressed graphite powder cathode and minimal organic solvent content: Application to the Reformatsky reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areias, Madalena C.C.; Navarro, Marcelo; Bieber, Lothar W.; Diniz, Flamarion B. [Laboratorio de Eletrossintese Organica, DQF CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, av. Prof. Luis Freire S/N, 50740-901 Recife (Brazil); Leonel, Eric; Cachet-Vivier, Christine; Nedelec, Jean-Yves [Equipe Electrochimie et Synthese Organique, ICMPE CNRS UMR 7182, Universite Paris 12, 2 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2008-09-20

    A Reformatsky reaction has been employed as a model by which to highlight the advantages of a novel type of undivided electrosynthesis cell working with a content of organic solvent at least 10-times lower than that used in conventional cells. The cathode was formed from compressed graphite powder and was impregnated with a mixture of ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate and benzaldehyde dissolved in a minimal volume of organic solvent. The cell was filled with aqueous KBr solution, and the electrolysis carried out at a constant potential corresponding to the reduction of the bromoester. Several parameters were optimized with respect to the yield of coupling product, including the ratio of bromoester to benzaldehyde, the pressure of compaction of the electrode powder inside the cavity, and the influence of the cathodic material. Ethyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropionate was obtained in a yield of up to 86%, and ethyl isobutyrate was the only by-product. A number of other model substrates have been investigated in order to determine the scope and limitations of this new methodology. (author)

  10. Effects of Spent Pot Liner on mitotic activity and nuclear DNA content in meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; de Campos, José Marcello Salabert; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2012-09-30

    Industrial waste usually contains complex mixtures of mutagenic chemicals. Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a complex solid waste from the aluminum industry, which is composed of organics, fluoride salts, inorganic cyanides, metals, and sodium. Due to the toxicity of these compounds, this study sought to use cytogenetics and flow cytometry to assess the effects of SPL on cell cycle parameters and DNA content in meristematic cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of leachates from SPL-soil mixtures were used for the study: 0, 10, and 25%. Roots were collected and analyzed after 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 h of exposure to the above SPL leachates. The results showed an overall mitodepressive effect accompanied by an increased percentage of condensed nuclei and genomic instability as evidenced by the presence of cellular/chromosomal abnormalities. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling revealed nuclei with fragmented DNA, a marker of programmed cell death. This study also addressed the question of reversibility of the effects of SPL and found that 36 h of exposure to 25% SPL seemed to be the point at which the effects on the induction of apoptosis became irreversible.

  11. Rebamipide increases mucin-like substance contents and periodic acid Schiff reagent-positive cells density in normal rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Hiroki; Takeji, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Shinohara, Hisashi

    2012-06-01

    The effects of rebamipide on the number of periodic acid Schiff reagent (PAS)-positive cells in the conjunctiva, the mucin content in the cornea and conjunctiva of normal rabbits, and desiccation-induced corneal damage in vivo were examined. Rebamipide (0.1%-3%) was applied 6 times a day for 14 days, and the PAS-positive cell count in the bulbar conjunctiva was measured by impression cytology. The amount of conjunctival and corneal mucin-like substances was measured by Alcian blue binding. The corneal damage model was created by desiccation from air flow at room temperature. The level of corneal damage was determined by scoring the area stained with rose bengal and fluorescein dye. Rebamipide increased the number of PAS-positive cells in the conjunctiva when instilled at concentrations of 0.3% or higher, and 1% rebamipide increased the amount of mucin-like substances of the conjunctiva and cornea. Moreover, 1% rebamipide was also found to lower the rose bengal scores of the cornea in the corneal damage model by desiccation. Rebamipide is a possible candidate drug for treatment of cornea and conjunctival epithelial damage due to its mucin-like substance increasing action, for instance, in the treatment of dry eye disease.

  12. Bidirectional relationship of mast cells-neurovascular unit communication in neuroinflammation and its involvement in POCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nana; Zhang, Xiang; Dong, Hongquan; Hu, Youli; Qian, Yanning

    2017-03-30

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been hypothesized to be mediated by surgery-induced neuroinflammation, which is also a key element in the pathobiology of neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and neuropsychiatric disorders. There is extensive communication between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS). Inflammation resulting from activation of the innate immune system cells in the periphery can impact central nervous system behaviors, such as cognitive performance. Mast cells (MCs), as the"first responders" in the CNS, can initiate, amplify, and prolong other immune and nervous responses upon activation. In addition, MCs and their secreted mediators modulate inflammatory processes in multiple CNS pathologies and can thereby either contribute to neurological damage or confer neuroprotection. Neuroinflammation has been considered to be linked to neurovascular dysfunction in several neurological disorders. This review will provide a brief overview of the bidirectional relationship of MCs-neurovascular unit communication in neuroinflammation and its involvement in POCD, providing a new and unique therapeutic target for the adjuvant treatment of POCD.

  13. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  14. The influence of electrospun fibre scaffold orientation and nano-hydroxyapatite content on the development of tooth bud stem cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manen, E.H. van; Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Vazquez, B.; Yang, F.; Ji, W.; Yu, N.; Spear, D.J.; Jansen, J.A.; Yelick, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    In stem cell-based dental tissue engineering, the goal is to create tooth-like structures using scaffold materials to guide the dental stem cells. In this study, the effect of fiber alignment and hydroxyapatite content in biodegradable electrospun PLGA scaffolds have been investigated. Fiber orienta

  15. The influence of electrospun fibre scaffold orientation and nano-hydroxyapatite content on the development of tooth bud stem cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manen, E.H. van; Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Vazquez, B.; Yang, F.; Ji, W.; Yu, N.; Spear, D.J.; Jansen, J.A.; Yelick, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    In stem cell-based dental tissue engineering, the goal is to create tooth-like structures using scaffold materials to guide the dental stem cells. In this study, the effect of fiber alignment and hydroxyapatite content in biodegradable electrospun PLGA scaffolds have been investigated. Fiber

  16. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells: The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahmadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited, primarily because of the challenge in fabricating porous biomaterials with arbitrarily complex morphological designs. In the present work, we studied the relationship between relative density (RD of porous Ti6Al4V EFI alloy and five compressive properties of the material, namely elastic gradient or modulus (Es20–70, first maximum stress, plateau stress, yield stress, and energy absorption. Porous structures with different RD and six different unit cell configurations (cubic (C, diamond (D, truncated cube (TC, truncated cuboctahedron (TCO, rhombic dodecahedron (RD, and rhombicuboctahedron (RCO were fabricated using selective laser melting. Each of the compressive properties increased with increase in RD, the relationship being of a power law type. Clear trends were seen in the influence of unit cell configuration and porosity on each of the compressive properties. For example, in terms of Es20–70, the structures may be divided into two groups: those that are stiff (comprising those made using C, TC, TCO, and RCO unit cell and those that are compliant (comprising those made using D and RD unit cell.

  17. High content analysis of human fibroblast cell cultures after exposure to space radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieriks, Birger; De Vos, Winnok; Meesen, Geert; Van Oostveldt, Kaat; De Meyer, Tim; Ghardi, Myriam; Baatout, Sarah; Van Oostveldt, Patrick

    2009-10-01

    Space travel imposes risks to human health, in large part by the increased radiation levels compared to those on Earth. To understand the effects of space radiation on humans, it is important to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms. While general dosimetry describes average radiation levels accurately, it says little about the actual physiological impact and does not provide biological information about individual cellular events. In addition, there is no information about the nature and magnitude of a systemic response through extra- and intercellular communication. To assess the stress response in human fibroblasts that were sent into space with the Foton-M3 mission, we have developed a pluralistic setup to measure DNA damage and inflammation response by combining global and local dosimetry, image cytometry and multiplex array technology, thereby maximizing the scientific output. We were able to demonstrate a significant increase in DNA double-strand breaks, determined by a twofold increase of the gamma-H2AX signal at the level of the single cell and a threefold up-regulation of the soluble signal proteins CCL5, IL-6, IL-8, beta-2 microglobulin and EN-RAGE, which are key players in the process of inflammation, in the growth medium.

  18. Partitioning experiments in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell: volatile content in the Earth's core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jephcoat, Andrew P; Bouhifd, M Ali; Porcelli, Don

    2008-11-28

    The present state of the Earth evolved from energetic events that were determined early in the history of the Solar System. A key process in reconciling this state and the observable mantle composition with models of the original formation relies on understanding the planetary processing that has taken place over the past 4.5Ga. Planetary size plays a key role and ultimately determines the pressure and temperature conditions at which the materials of the early solar nebular segregated. We summarize recent developments with the laser-heated diamond anvil cell that have made possible extension of the conventional pressure limit for partitioning experiments as well as the study of volatile trace elements. In particular, we discuss liquid-liquid, metal-silicate (M-Sil) partitioning results for several elements in a synthetic chondritic mixture, spanning a wide range of atomic number-helium to iodine. We examine the role of the core as a possible host of both siderophile and trace elements and the implications that early segregation processes at deep magma ocean conditions have for current mantle signatures, both compositional and isotopic. The results provide some of the first experimental evidence that the core is the obvious replacement for the long-sought, deep mantle reservoir. If so, they also indicate the need to understand the detailed nature and scale of core-mantle exchange processes, from atomic to macroscopic, throughout the age of the Earth to the present day.

  19. Dynamic heterogeneity of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in embryonic stem cell populations captured by single-cell 3D high-content analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajbakhsh, Jian, E-mail: tajbakhshj@cshs.org [Chromatin Biology Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Translational Cytomics Group, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Stefanovski, Darko [Translational Cytomics Group, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19348 (United States); Tang, George [Chromatin Biology Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Translational Cytomics Group, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Wawrowsky, Kolja [Translational Cytomics Group, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Liu, Naiyou; Fair, Jeffrey H. [Department of Surgery and UF Health Comprehensive Transplant Center, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32608 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Cell-surface markers and transcription factors are being used in the assessment of stem cell fate and therapeutic safety, but display significant variability in stem cell cultures. We assessed nuclear patterns of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC, associated with pluripotency), a second important epigenetic mark, and its combination with 5-methylcytosine (5mC, associated with differentiation), also in comparison to more established markers of pluripotency (Oct-4) and endodermal differentiation (FoxA2, Sox17) in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) over a 10-day differentiation course in vitro: by means of confocal and super-resolution imaging together with 3D high-content analysis, an essential tool in single-cell screening. In summary: 1) We did not measure any significant correlation of putative markers with global 5mC or 5hmC. 2) While average Oct-4 levels stagnated on a cell-population base (0.015 lnIU/day), Sox17 and FoxA2 increased 22-fold and 3-fold faster, respectively (Sox17: 0.343 lnIU/day; FoxA2: 0.046 lnIU/day). In comparison, global DNA methylation levels increased 4-fold faster (0.068 lnIU/day), and global hydroxymethylation declined at 0.046 lnIU/day, both with a better explanation of the temporal profile. 3) This progression was concomitant with the occurrence of distinct nuclear codistribution patterns that represented a heterogeneous spectrum of states in differentiation; converging to three major coexisting 5mC/5hmC phenotypes by day 10: 5hmC{sup +}/5mC{sup −}, 5hmC{sup +}/5mC{sup +}, and 5hmC{sup −}/5mC{sup +} cells. 4) Using optical nanoscopy we could delineate the respective topologies of 5mC/5hmC colocalization in subregions of nuclear DNA: in the majority of 5hmC{sup +}/5mC{sup +} cells 5hmC and 5mC predominantly occupied mutually exclusive territories resembling euchromatic and heterochromatic regions, respectively. Simultaneously, in a smaller subset of cells we observed a tighter colocalization of the two cytosine variants, presumably

  20. County-based estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal manure in the United States for 1982, 1987, and 1992.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains county estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus content of animal wastes produced annually for the years 1982, 1987, and 1992. The estimates are...

  1. Multiplexed quantitative high content screening reveals that cigarette smoke condensate induces changes in cell structure and function through alterations in cell signaling pathways in human bronchial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Charleata A; Hamm, Jonathan T

    2009-07-10

    Human bronchial cells are one of the first cell types exposed to environmental toxins. Toxins often activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and protein kinase C (PKC). We evaluated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, activates PKC-alpha and NF-kappaB, and concomitantly disrupts the F-actin cytoskeleton, induces apoptosis and alters cell function in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Compared to controls, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to doses of 30mug/ml CSC significantly activated PKC-alpha, while CSC doses above 20mug/ml CSC significantly activated NF-kappaB. As NF-kappaB was activated, cell number decreased. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced a decrease in cell size and an increase in cell surface extensions including filopodia and lamellipodia. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced F-actin rearrangement such that stress fibers were no longer prominent at the cell periphery and throughout the cells, but relocalized to perinuclear regions. Concurrently, CSC induced an increase in the focal adhesion protein vinculin at the cell periphery. CSC doses above 30mug/ml induced a significant increase in apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells evidenced by an increase in activated caspase 3, an increase in mitochondrial mass and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. As caspase 3 increased, cell number decreased. CSC doses above 30mug/ml also induced significant concurrent changes in cell function including decreased cell spreading and motility. CSC initiates a signaling cascade in human bronchial epithelial cells involving PKC-alpha, NF-kappaB and caspase 3, and consequently decreases cell spreading and motility. These CSC-induced alterations in cell structure likely prevent cells from performing their normal function thereby contributing to smoke-induced diseases.

  2. Phenolic content of Sicilian virgin olive oils and their effect on MG-63 human osteoblastic cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Martínez, O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was, first, to investigate the influence of olive variety and elevation of orchards on the phenolic compound content of Sicilian virgin olive oils (VOOs and, second, to investigate the effects of VOO phenolic extracts on osteoblast cell growth using the human MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. Olive oil phenolic content and its effect on human osteosarcoma cell proliferation varied according to the type of cultivar and the grove altitude. This variation was also observed within the same type of cultivar. This observation demonstrates that the cultivar and the grove location can significantly affect the chemical composition and bioactivity of virgin olive oil. Although this study supports the hypothesis that virgin olive oil phenolic fractions exert a beneficial effect on bone health, further studies assessing the in vivo accessibility of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds to osteoblast cells should be carried out.El objetivo del presente trabajo es investigar la influencia de la variedad y la altitud del cultivo en el contenido fenólico de aceites de oliva virgen Sicilianos. Asimismo, se ha investigado el efecto de los extractos fenólicos de los aceites en el crecimiento de osteoblastos usando la línea celular de osteosarcoma humano MG-63. El contenido fenólico y el efecto de los extractos analizados en la proliferación de la línea celular osteoblástica muestra una variabilidad consistente de acuerdo con el tipo y la altitud del cultivo. Estos datos demuestran que estas características pueden afectar significativamente la composición química y los efectos en salud del aceite de oliva virgen. Los resultados de este trabajo soportan la hipótesis de que las fracciones fenólicas de los aceites de oliva vírgenes ejercen un efecto beneficioso en la salud ósea. Asimismo, se deben realizar más estudios que establezcan la accesibilidad in vivo de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva virgen a las células osteoblásticas.

  3. Brain histaminergic system in mast cell-deficient (Ws/Ws) rats: histamine content, histidine decarboxylase activity, and effects of (S) alpha-fluoromethylhistidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, K; Maeyama, K; Alam, K; Sakurai, E; Onoue, H; Kasugai, T; Kitamura, Y; Watanabe, T

    1995-08-01

    The mast cell-deficient [Ws/Ws (White spotting in the skin)] rat was investigated with regard to the origin of histamine in the brain. No mast cells were detected in the pia mater and the perivascular region of the thalamus of Ws/Ws rats by Alcian Blue staining. The histamine contents and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activities of various brain regions of Ws/Ws rats were similar to those of +/+ rats except the histamine contents of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. As the cerebral cortex and cerebellum have meninges that are difficult to remove completely, the histamine contents of these two regions may be different between Ws/Ws and +/+ rats. We assume that the histamine content of whole brain with meninges in Ws/Ws rats is < 60% of that in +/+ rats. So we conclude that approximately half of the histamine content of rat brain is derived from mast cells. Next, the effects of (S) alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH), a specific inhibitor of HDC, on the histamine contents and HDC activities of various regions of the brain were examined in Ws/Ws rats. In the whole brain of Ws/Ws rats, 51 and 37% of the histamine content of the control group remained 2 and 6 h, respectively, after FMH administration (100 mg/kg of body weight). Therefore, we suggest that there might be other histamine pools including histaminergic neurons in rat brain.

  4. High content analysis platform for optimization of lipid mediated CRISPR-Cas9 delivery strategies in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Benjamin; Carlson-Stevermer, Jared; Angenent-Mari, Nicolas; Khalil, Andrew; Harkness, Ty; Saha, Krishanu

    2016-04-01

    Non-viral gene-editing of human cells using the CRISPR-Cas9 system requires optimized delivery of multiple components. Both the Cas9 endonuclease and a single guide RNA, that defines the genomic target, need to be present and co-localized within the nucleus for efficient gene-editing to occur. This work describes a new high-throughput screening platform for the optimization of CRISPR-Cas9 delivery strategies. By exploiting high content image analysis and microcontact printed plates, multi-parametric gene-editing outcome data from hundreds to thousands of isolated cell populations can be screened simultaneously. Employing this platform, we systematically screened four commercially available cationic lipid transfection materials with a range of RNAs encoding the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Analysis of Cas9 expression and editing of a fluorescent mCherry reporter transgene within human embryonic kidney cells was monitored over several days after transfection. Design of experiments analysis enabled rigorous evaluation of delivery materials and RNA concentration conditions. The results of this analysis indicated that the concentration and identity of transfection material have significantly greater effect on gene-editing than ratio or total amount of RNA. Cell subpopulation analysis on microcontact printed plates, further revealed that low cell number and high Cas9 expression, 24h after CRISPR-Cas9 delivery, were strong predictors of gene-editing outcomes. These results suggest design principles for the development of materials and transfection strategies with lipid-based materials. This platform could be applied to rapidly optimize materials for gene-editing in a variety of cell/tissue types in order to advance genomic medicine, regenerative biology and drug discovery. CRISPR-Cas9 is a new gene-editing technology for "genome surgery" that is anticipated to treat genetic diseases. This technology uses multiple components of the Cas9 system to cut out disease-causing mutations

  5. Characterizing the DNA Damage Response by Cell Tracking Algorithms and Cell Features Classification Using High-Content Time-Lapse Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Georgescu

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the kinetics of DNA repair have been estimated using immunocytochemistry by labeling proteins involved in the DNA damage response (DDR with fluorescent markers in a fixed cell assay. However, detailed knowledge of DDR dynamics across multiple cell generations cannot be obtained using a limited number of fixed cell time-points. Here we report on the dynamics of 53BP1 radiation induced foci (RIF across multiple cell generations using live cell imaging of non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A expressing histone H2B-GFP and the DNA repair protein 53BP1-mCherry. Using automatic extraction of RIF imaging features and linear programming techniques, we were able to characterize detailed RIF kinetics for 24 hours before and 24 hours after exposure to low and high doses of ionizing radiation. High-content-analysis at the single cell level over hundreds of cells allows us to quantify precisely the dose dependence of 53BP1 protein production, RIF nuclear localization and RIF movement after exposure to X-ray. Using elastic registration techniques based on the nuclear pattern of individual cells, we could describe the motion of individual RIF precisely within the nucleus. We show that DNA repair occurs in a limited number of large domains, within which multiple small RIFs form, merge and/or resolve with random motion following normal diffusion law. Large foci formation is shown to be mainly happening through the merging of smaller RIF rather than through growth of an individual focus. We estimate repair domain sizes of 7.5 to 11 µm2 with a maximum number of ~15 domains per MCF10A cell. This work also highlights DDR which are specific to doses larger than 1 Gy such as rapid 53BP1 protein increase in the nucleus and foci diffusion rates that are significantly faster than for spontaneous foci movement. We hypothesize that RIF merging reflects a "stressed" DNA repair process that has been taken outside physiological conditions when

  6. Inhibition of Autophagy Enhances Curcumin United light irradiation-induced Oxidative Stress and Tumor Growth Suppression in Human Melanoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Tianhui; Tian, Yan; Mei, Zhusong; Guo, Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin carcinoma, which possesses fast propagating and highly invasive characteristics. Curcumin is a natural phenol compound that has various biological activities, such as anti-proliferative and apoptosis-accelerating impacts on tumor cells. Unfortunately, the therapeutical activities of Cur are severely hindered due to its extremely low bioavailability. In this study, a cooperative therapy of low concentration Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation was performed to inspect the synergistic effects on the apoptosis, proliferation and autophagy in human melanoma A375 cell. The results showed that red united blue light irradiation efficaciously synergized with Cur to trigger oxidative stress-mediated cell death, induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation. Meanwhile, Western blotting revealed that combined disposure induced the formation of autophagosomes. Conversely, inhibition of the autophagy enhanced apoptosis, obstructed cell cycle arrest and induced reversible proliferation arrest to senescence. These findings suggest that Cur combined with red united blue light irradiation could generate photochemo-preventive effects via enhancing apoptosis and triggering autophagy, and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy convert reversible arrested cells to senescence, therefore reducing the possibility that damaged cells might escape programmed death. PMID:27502897

  7. Cell wall glycosidase activities and protein content variations during fruit development and ripening in three texture contrasted tomato cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konozy, Emadeldin H.E.; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Excessive softening is the main factor limiting fruit shelf life and storage. It is generally acceptable now that softening of fruit which occurs during the ripening is due to synergistic actions of several enzymes on cell wall polysaccharides. As a subject for this study, we have assayed some glycosidase activities using three tomato species (Lycopersicon esculentum) contrasted for their texture phenotypes; the cherry tomato line Cervil (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme), a common taste tomato line Levovil (S. lycopersicum Mill.) and VilB a modern line, large, firmer and with good storage capability. Four glycosidase activities namely α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, β-mannosidase and β-glucosidase were extracted from tomato’s cell wall of the three species. Cell wall protein from fruits pericarp was extracted and compared among the three cultivars at the following stages; 14 days post anthesis (14DPA) fruit; 21 days post anthesis (21DPA), turning (breaker), red and over ripe. When glycolytic activities were also compared among these cultivars at the precited development stages, gross variations were noticed from stage to stage and also from species to species in accordance with the fruit firmness status. Interestingly, VilB cultivar, the firmer among the other two, though possessed the highest total protein content, exhibited the lowest enzymatic activities. Taken together, these results may therefore allow us to conclude that studies of glycolytic activities in a single tomato cultivar cannot be generalized to all species. On the other hand, relating fruit development to glycosidase activities should logically be coupled to these enzymes from cell wall compartment. PMID:23961187

  8. Excretion of polyamines in alfalfa and tobacco suspension-cultured cells and its possible role in maintenance of intracellular polyamine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvikrová, Milena; Gemperlová, Lenka; Eder, Josef; Zazímalová, Eva

    2008-07-01

    Changes in polyamines (PAs) in cells and cultivation media of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tobacco bright yellow 2 (BY-2) (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell suspension cultures were studied over their growth cycles. The total content of PAs (both free and conjugated forms) was nearly 10 times higher in alfalfa, with high level of free putrescine (Put) (in exponential growth phase it represented about 65-73% of the intracellular Put pool). In contrast, the high content of soluble Put conjugates was found in tobacco cells (in exponential phase about 70% of the intracellular Put). Marked differences occurred in the amount of PAs excreted into the cultivation medium: alfalfa cells excreted at the first day after inoculation 2117.0, 230.5, 29.0 and 88.0 nmol g(-1) of cell fresh weight (FW) of Put, spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and cadaverine (Cad), respectively, while at the same time tobacco cells excreted only small amount of Put and Spd (12.7 and 2.4 nmol g(-1) FW, respectively). On day 1 the amounts of Put, Spd, Spm and Cad excreted by alfalfa cells represented 21, 38, 12 and 15% of the total pool (intra- plus extra-cellular contents) of Put, Spd, Spm and Cad, respectively. In the course of lag-phase and the beginning of exponential phase the relative contents of extracellular PAs continually decreased (with the exception of Cad). On day 10, the extracellular Put, Spd, Spm and Cad still represented 11.3, 10.9, 2.1 and 27% of their total pools. The extracellular PAs in tobacco cells represented from day 3 only 0.1% from their total pools. The possible role of PA excretion into the cultivation medium in maintenance of intracellular PA contents in the cells of the two cell culture systems, differing markedly in growth rate and PA metabolism is discussed.

  9. Growth Factor Independence-1 (Gfi1) Is Required for Pancreatic Acinar Unit Formation and Centroacinar Cell Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Nyeng, Pia; Xiao, Fan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The genetic specification of the compartmentalized pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit is poorly understood. Growth factor independence-1 (Gfi1) is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor that regulates hematopoietic stem cell maintenance, pre-T-cell differentiation, formation...... of pancreatic acinar cells as well as the centroacinar cells (CACs) in Gfi1(-/-) mice when compared with wild-type littermates. Pancreatic endocrine differentiation, islet architecture, and function were unaffected. Organ domain patterning and the formation of ductal cells occurred normally during the murine...... of granulocytes, inner ear hair cells, and the development of secretory cell types in the intestine. As GFI1/Gfi1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreas, we characterized the potential function of Gfi1 in mouse pancreatic development. METHODS: Gfi1 knockout mice were analyzed at histological and molecular...

  10. Effect of Content of Sulfate Groups in Seaweed Polysaccharides on Antioxidant Activity and Repair Effect of Subcellular Organelles in Injured HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the repair effect of subcellular structure injuries of the HK-2 cells of four degraded seaweed polysaccharides (DSPs, namely, the degraded Porphyra yezoensis, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, Sargassum fusiform, and Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharides. The four DSPs have similar molecular weight, but with different content of sulfate groups (i.e., 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, and 5.5%, resp.. The damaged model was established using 2.8 mmol/L oxalate to injure HK-2 cells, and 60 μg/mL of various DSPs was used to repair the damaged cells. With the increase of sulfate group content in DSPs, the scavenging activity of radicals and their reducing power were all improved. Four kinds of DSPs have repair effect on the subcellular organelles of damaged HK-2 cells. After being repaired by DSPs, the release amount of lactate dehydrogenase was decreased, the integrity of cell membrane and lysosome increased, the Δψm increased, the cell of G1 phase arrest was inhibited, the proportion of S phase increased, and cell apoptotic and necrosis rates were significantly reduced. The greater the content of sulfate group is, the stronger is the repair ability of the polysaccharide. These DSPs, particularly the polysaccharide with higher sulfate group content, may be a potential drug for the prevention and cure of kidney stones.

  11. Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content Per 1,000 Kilocalories: Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurants, United States, 2000–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E.; Roberts, Susan B.; Fierstein, Jamie L.; Gary, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intakes of sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat remain high despite recommendations to limit these nutrients for cardiometabolic risk reduction. A major contributor to intake of these nutrients is foods prepared outside the home, particularly from fast-food restaurants. Methods We analyzed the nutrient content of frequently ordered items from 3 US national fast-food chains: fried potatoes (large French fries), cheeseburgers (2-oz and 4-oz), and a grilled chicken sandwich. We used an archival website to obtain data on sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat content for these items from 2000 through 2013. The amount of each nutrient per 1,000 kcal was calculated to determine whether there were trends in product reformulation. Results Sodium content per 1,000 kcal differed widely among the 3 chains by food item, precluding generalizations across chains. During the 14-year period, sodium content per 1,000 kcal for large French fries remained high for all 3 chains, although the range narrowed from 316–2,000 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2000 to 700–1,420 mg per 1,000 kcal in 2013. Among the items assessed, cheeseburgers were the main contributor of saturated fat, and there was little change in content per 1,000 kcal for this item during the 14-year period. In contrast, there was a sharp decline in saturated and trans fat content of large French fries per 1,000 kcal. Post-2009, the major contributor of trans fat per 1,000 kcal was cheeseburgers; trans fat content of this item remained stable during the 14-year period. Conclusion With the exception of French fries, little evidence was found during the 14-year period of product reformulation by restaurants to become more consistent with dietary guidance to reduce intakes of sodium and saturated fat. PMID:25551183

  12. Fiber Type-Specific Satellite Cell Content in Cyclists Following Heavy Training with Carbohydrate and Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Alec I.; D'Lugos, Andrew C.; Saunders, Michael J.; Gworek, Keith D.; Luden, Nicholas D.

    2016-01-01

    The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO). In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n = 8) performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto “control” condition) and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT–120% increase in average training duration) followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT–reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs. normal training). Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after ICT and again following RVT. Immunofluorescent microscopy was used to quantify SCs (Pax7+), myonuclei (DAPI+), and myosin heavy chain I (MyHC I). Data are expressed as percent change ± 90% confidence limits. The 10-day block of ICTCHO increased MyHC I SC content (35 ± 28%) and myonuclear density (16 ± 6%), which remained elevated following RVTCHO (SC = 69 ± 50% vs. PRE; Nuclei = 17 ± 15% vs. PRE). MyHC II SC and myonuclei were not different following ICTCHO, but were higher following RVTCHO (SC = +33 ± 31% vs. PRE; Nuclei = 15 ± 14% vs. PRE), indicating a delayed response compared to MyHC I fibers. The MyHC I SC pool increased following ICTPRO (37 ± 37%), but without a concomitant increase in myonuclei. There were no changes in MyHC II SC or myonuclei following ICTPRO. Collectively, these trained endurance cyclists possessed a relatively large pool of SCs that facilitated rapid (MyHC I) and delayed (MyHC II) satellite cell proliferation and myonuclear accretion under carbohydrate conditions. The current findings strengthen the growing body of evidence demonstrating alterations in satellite cell number in the absence of hypertrophy. Satellite cell pool expansion is typically viewed as an advantageous response to

  13. Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of common beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-processing methods caused significant (pphytic acid content (PAC) values in all bean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal processing. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different processing methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal processing caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans.

  14. Effects of Dexamethasone on Satellite Cells and Tissue Engineered Skeletal Muscle Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syverud, Brian C; VanDusen, Keith W; Larkin, Lisa M

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineered skeletal muscle has potential for application as a graft source for repairing soft tissue injuries, a model for testing pharmaceuticals, and a biomechanical actuator system for soft robots. However, engineered muscle to date has not produced forces comparable to native muscle, limiting its potential for repair and for use as an in vitro model for pharmaceutical testing. In this study, we examined the trophic effects of dexamethasone (DEX), a glucocorticoid that stimulates myoblast differentiation and fusion into myotubes, on our tissue engineered three-dimensional skeletal muscle units (SMUs). Using our established SMU fabrication protocol, muscle isolates were cultured with three experimental DEX concentrations (5, 10, and 25 nM) and compared to untreated controls. Following seeding onto a laminin-coated Sylgard substrate, the administration of DEX was initiated on day 0 or day 6 in growth medium or on day 9 after the switch to differentiation medium and was sustained until the completion of SMU fabrication. During this process, total cell proliferation was measured with a BrdU assay, and myogenesis and structural advancement of muscle cells were observed through immunostaining for MyoD, myogenin, desmin, and α-actinin. After SMU formation, isometric tetanic force production was measured to quantify function. The histological and functional assessment of the SMU showed that the administration of 10 nM DEX beginning on either day 0 or day 6 yielded optimal SMUs. These optimized SMUs exhibited formation of advanced sarcomeric structure and significant increases in myotube diameter and myotube fusion index, compared with untreated controls. Additionally, the optimized SMUs matured functionally, as indicated by a fivefold rise in force production. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the addition of DEX to our process of engineering skeletal muscle tissue improves myogenesis, advances muscle structure, and increases force production in the

  15. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Vakili

    Full Text Available On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea. Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  16. Highly Efficient and Exceptionally Durable CO2 Photoreduction to Methanol over Freestanding Defective Single-Unit-Cell Bismuth Vanadate Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Gu, Bingchuan; Jiao, Xingchen; Sun, Yongfu; Zu, Xiaolong; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Wenguang; Wang, Chengming; Feng, Zimou; Ye, Bangjiao; Xie, Yi

    2017-03-08

    Unearthing an ideal model for disclosing the role of defect sites in solar CO2 reduction remains a great challenge. Here, freestanding gram-scale single-unit-cell o-BiVO4 layers are successfully synthesized for the first time. Positron annihilation spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence unveil their distinct vanadium vacancy concentrations. Density functional calculations reveal that the introduction of vanadium vacancies brings a new defect level and higher hole concentration near Fermi level, resulting in increased photoabsorption and superior electronic conductivity. The higher surface photovoltage intensity of single-unit-cell o-BiVO4 layers with rich vanadium vacancies ensures their higher carriers separation efficiency, further confirmed by the increased carriers lifetime from 74.5 to 143.6 ns revealed by time-resolved fluorescence emission decay spectra. As a result, single-unit-cell o-BiVO4 layers with rich vanadium vacancies exhibit a high methanol formation rate up to 398.3 μmol g(-1) h(-1) and an apparent quantum efficiency of 5.96% at 350 nm, much larger than that of single-unit-cell o-BiVO4 layers with poor vanadium vacancies, and also the former's catalytic activity proceeds without deactivation even after 96 h. This highly efficient and spectrally stable CO2 photoconversion performances hold great promise for practical implementation of solar fuel production.

  17. Stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with low hydrogen content. Annual subcontract report, 1 March 1991--31 January 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortmann, C.M.; Hegedus, S.S. [Institute of Energy Conversion, Newark, DE (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Results and conclusions obtained during a research program of the investigation of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon based alloy materials and solar cells fabricated by photo-chemical vapor and glow discharge depositions are reported. Investigation of the effects of the hydrogen content in a-si:H i-layers in amorphous silicon solar cells show that cells with lowered hydrogen content i-layers are more stable. A classical thermodynamic formulation of the Staebler-Wronski effect has been developed for standard solar cell operating temperatures and illuminations. Methods have been developed to extract a lumped equivalent circuit from the current voltage characteristic of a single junction solar cell in order to predict its behavior in a multijunction device.

  18. Investigation of potential fluctuating intra-unit cell magnetic order in cuprates by μ SR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, A.; Akintola, K.; Potma, M.; Ishikado, M.; Eisaki, H.; Hardy, W. N.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Sonier, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    We report low temperature muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) measurements of the high-transition-temperature (Tc) cuprate superconductors Bi2 +xSr2 -xCaCu2O8 +δ and YBa2Cu3O6.57 , aimed at detecting the mysterious intra-unit cell (IUC) magnetic order that has been observed by spin-polarized neutron scattering in the pseudogap phase of four different cuprate families. A lack of confirmation by local magnetic probe methods has raised the possibility that the magnetic order fluctuates slowly enough to appear static on the time scale of neutron scattering, but too fast to affect μ SR or nuclear magnetic resonance signals. The IUC magnetic order has been linked to a theoretical model for the cuprates, which predicts a long-range ordered phase of electron-current loop order that terminates at a quantum crictical point (QCP). Our study suggests that lowering the temperature to T ˜25 mK and moving far below the purported QCP does not cause enough of a slowing down of fluctuations for the IUC magnetic order to become detectable on the time scale of μ SR . Our measurements place narrow limits on the fluctuation rate of this unidentified magnetic order.

  19. Results and analysis of saltstone cores taken from saltstone disposal unit cell 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    As part of an ongoing Performance Assessment (PA) Maintenance Plan, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has developed a sampling and analyses strategy to facilitate the comparison of field-emplaced samples (i.e., saltstone placed and cured in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU)) with samples prepared and cured in the laboratory. The primary objectives of the Sampling and Analyses Plan (SAP) are; (1) to demonstrate a correlation between the measured properties of laboratory-prepared, simulant samples (termed Sample Set 3), and the field-emplaced saltstone samples (termed Sample Set 9), and (2) to validate property values assumed for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) PA modeling. The analysis and property data for Sample Set 9 (i.e. six core samples extracted from SDU Cell 2A (SDU2A)) are documented in this report, and where applicable, the results are compared to the results for Sample Set 3. Relevant properties to demonstrate the aforementioned objectives include bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC), and radionuclide leaching behavior.

  20. The modeling of a standalone solid-oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, N.; Li, Q.; Sun, X.; Khaleel, M. A.

    In this research, a Simulink model of a standalone vehicular solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) auxiliary power unit (APU) is developed. The SOFC APU model consists of three major components: a controller model; a power electronics system model; and an SOFC plant model, including an SOFC stack module, two heat exchanger modules, and a combustor module. This paper discusses the development of the nonlinear dynamic models for the SOFC stacks, the heat exchangers and the combustors. When coupling with a controller model and a power electronic circuit model, the developed SOFC plant model is able to model the thermal dynamics and the electrochemical dynamics inside the SOFC APU components, as well as the transient responses to the electric loading changes. It has been shown that having such a model for the SOFC APU will help design engineers to adjust design parameters to optimize the performance. The modeling results of the SOFC APU heat-up stage and the output voltage response to a sudden load change are presented in this paper. The fuel flow regulation based on fuel utilization is also briefly discussed.

  1. Fungal spore concentrations in two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) units containing distinct air control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, C P; Miron, D; Silla, L M R; Pasqualotto, A C

    2013-04-01

    Invasive fungal diseases have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in haematological patients. In this study air samples were collected in two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) units, in which distinct air-control systems were in place. In hospital 1 no high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter was available whereas in hospital 2 HSCT rooms were equipped with HEPA filters, with positive air pressure in relation to the corridor. A total of 117 samples from rooms, toilets and corridors were obtained during December 2009 to January 2011, using a six-stage Andersen sampler. In both hospitals, the concentration of potentially pathogenic fungi in the air was reduced in patients' rooms compared to corridors (P < 0·0001). Despite the presence of a HEPA filter in hospital 2, rooms in both hospitals showed similar concentrations of potentially pathogenic fungi (P = 0·714). These findings may be explained by the implementation of additional protective measures in hospital 1, emphasizing the importance of such measures in protected environments.

  2. High-temperature superconductivity in one-unit-cell FeSe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziqiao; Liu, Chaofei; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Since the dramatic enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature (T c) was reported in a one-unit-cell FeSe film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate (1-UC FeSe/STO) by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), related research on this system has become a new frontier in condensed matter physics. In this paper, we present a brief review on this rapidly developing field, mainly focusing on the superconducting properties of 1-UC FeSe/STO. Experimental evidence for high-temperature superconductivity in 1-UC FeSe/STO, including direct evidence revealed by transport and diamagnetic measurements, as well as other evidence from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), are overviewed. The potential mechanisms of the enhanced superconductivity are also discussed. There are accumulating arguments to suggest that the strengthened Cooper pairing in 1-UC FeSe/STO originates from the interface effects, specifically the charge transfer and coupling to phonon modes in the TiO2 plane. The study of superconductivity in 1-UC FeSe/STO not only sheds new light on the mechanism of high-temperature superconductors with layered structures, but also provides an insight into the exploration of new superconductors by interface engineering.

  3. Giant repeater F-wave in patients with anterior horn cell disorders. Role of motor unit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I K; el-Abd, M A

    1997-01-01

    Conventional F-wave responses as well as single motor unit F-wave responses together with the volitionally recruited motor unit action potentials (MUAP) were studied in hand and feet muscles of 10 healthy subjects and 32 patients with anterior horn cell disorders. The amplitude of the largest F-wave (Fl) was significantly greater in the affected patients compared with healthy subjects. Giant repeater F-wave responses "up to 4 mV" were recorded in muscles having volitionally recruited giant MUAPs. Although, the group mean percentage of motor unit F-wave responses per stimulation in all tested orthodromic MUAPs was significantly decreased in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, the group mean percentage of motor unit F-wave responses per stimulation in all tested orthodromic MUAPs that gave motor unit F-wave response was significantly increased compared with healthy subjects. The responding orthodromic MUAP gave identical motor unit F-wave response, even for complex polyphasic units. Enhanced monosynaptic (H-) reflex, proximal axon reflex (A-wave), and repetitive muscle response as possible explanations for the giant F-wave responses could be discounted. The electrophysiologic behavior of the giant late responses described here fits well with the criteria of F-waves modulated by newly formed distal (and or proximal) axonal branching.

  4. Does the intracellular ionic concentration or the cell water content (cell volume) determine the activity of TonEBP in NIH3T3 cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Schou, Kenneth; Friis, Martin Barfred

    2008-01-01

    of the present investigation was to investigate whether cell shrinkage or high intracellular ionic concentration induced the activation of TonEBP. We designed a model system for isotonically shrinking cells over a prolonged period of time. Cells swelled in hypotonic medium and performed a regulatory volume......Cl(-) co-transporter, and Gadolinium inhibited shrinkage-activated Na(+) channels. Cells remained shrunken for at least 4 hours (isotonically shrunken cells). The activity of TonEBP was investigated with a Luciferase assay after isotonic shrinkage and after shrinkage in a high NaCl hypertonic medium......(+) than isotonically shrunken cells. This strongly suggested that an increase in intracellular ionic concentration and not cell shrinkage is involved in TonEBP activation....

  5. A multivariate mixed model system for wood specific gravity and moisture content of planted loblolly pine stands in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alex Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2012-01-01

    Specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) both have a strong influence on the quantity and quality of wood fiber. We proposed a multivariate mixed model system to model the two properties simultaneously. Disk SG and MC at different height levels were measured from 3 trees in 135 stands across the natural range of loblolly pine and the stand level values were used...

  6. Separation of two sub-groups with different DNA content after treatment of T-47D breast cancer cells with low dose-rate irradiation and intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikalsen, Stine Gyland; Jeppesen Edin, Nina; Sandvik, Joe Alexander; Pettersen, Erik Olai

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that combined treatment with internal ultra-low dose-rate irradiation selectively inactivated hypoxic T-47D breast cancer cells after three to five weeks of treatment. However, 2-3% of the hypoxic cells were found to survive and restart proliferation upon re-oxygenation. Purpose To investigate the metastatic potential and characteristics of radiosensitivity of these surviving cells, named T - 47 DS. Material and Methods The T - 47 DS cells were grown in ambient air without irradiation. A cloning experiment identified two sub-groups with different DNA content ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Furthermore, radiosensitivity and presence of hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) was measured by Co-60 challenge irradiation and relative migration was determined by scratch assays. Results The two subpopulations of T - 47 DS had different DNA content; one had abnormally high DNA content ([Formula: see text]) and one had DNA content similar to wild-type T-47D cells ([Formula: see text]). HRS was surprisingly present in cells of the cloned population [Formula: see text], but was absent in cells of both [Formula: see text] and T - 47 DS. The radio response of T - 47 DS, [Formula: see text] at higher radiation doses were similar to that of T-47D cells, and neither subpopulation showed increased migration compared with wild-type T-47D. Conclusion No increase in the risk of metastasis was found and only slight changes in radiosensitivity in response to conventional clinical doses was observed. Thus, the data suggest that if ultra-low dose-rate irradiation is used for targeting the hypoxic tumor fraction, conventional high dose-rate irradiation can be used to eradicate eventual surviving cells as well as cells in the well oxygenated areas of the tumor.

  7. Lower Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) Protein Content in Mononuclear Cells Is Associated with Better Survival in Patients with Hemodialysis Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) converts superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Human data on SOD2 protein content in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are sparse and mortality data are lacking. We investigated SOD2 protein content in monocytes from patients with hemodialysis therapy (n = 81), CKD stage 1–5 (n = 120), and healthy controls (n = 13) using in-cell Western assays. SOD2 protein decreased from CKD stage 1 until stage 4 whereas it increased again in stage 5 with and without hemodialysis. SOD2 gene expression, analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, was not significantly different between the groups. Elevating cellular superoxide production reduced SOD2 protein content. This effect was abolished by the superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol. Using gelelectrophoresis and Western blot we did not detect nitrotyrosine modifications of SOD2 in CKD. Finally, in patients with CKD stage 5 with hemodialysis therapy higher than median SOD2 protein content was associated with higher all-cause mortality. In conclusion, SOD2 protein content declined in CKD until stage 4 while SOD2 gene expression did not. Increased cellular superoxide anion production might affect SOD2 protein content. In advanced CKD (stage 5) SOD2 protein content increased again, but higher than median SOD2 protein content in these patients did not confer a survival benefit. PMID:27630759

  8. Lower Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2 Protein Content in Mononuclear Cells Is Associated with Better Survival in Patients with Hemodialysis Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Krueger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 converts superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Human data on SOD2 protein content in chronic kidney disease (CKD are sparse and mortality data are lacking. We investigated SOD2 protein content in monocytes from patients with hemodialysis therapy (n=81, CKD stage 1–5 (n=120, and healthy controls (n=13 using in-cell Western assays. SOD2 protein decreased from CKD stage 1 until stage 4 whereas it increased again in stage 5 with and without hemodialysis. SOD2 gene expression, analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, was not significantly different between the groups. Elevating cellular superoxide production reduced SOD2 protein content. This effect was abolished by the superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol. Using gelelectrophoresis and Western blot we did not detect nitrotyrosine modifications of SOD2 in CKD. Finally, in patients with CKD stage 5 with hemodialysis therapy higher than median SOD2 protein content was associated with higher all-cause mortality. In conclusion, SOD2 protein content declined in CKD until stage 4 while SOD2 gene expression did not. Increased cellular superoxide anion production might affect SOD2 protein content. In advanced CKD (stage 5 SOD2 protein content increased again, but higher than median SOD2 protein content in these patients did not confer a survival benefit.

  9. Lower Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) Protein Content in Mononuclear Cells Is Associated with Better Survival in Patients with Hemodialysis Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Katharina; Shen, Jianlin; Maier, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin; Scholze, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) converts superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Human data on SOD2 protein content in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are sparse and mortality data are lacking. We investigated SOD2 protein content in monocytes from patients with hemodialysis therapy (n = 81), CKD stage 1-5 (n = 120), and healthy controls (n = 13) using in-cell Western assays. SOD2 protein decreased from CKD stage 1 until stage 4 whereas it increased again in stage 5 with and without hemodialysis. SOD2 gene expression, analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, was not significantly different between the groups. Elevating cellular superoxide production reduced SOD2 protein content. This effect was abolished by the superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol. Using gelelectrophoresis and Western blot we did not detect nitrotyrosine modifications of SOD2 in CKD. Finally, in patients with CKD stage 5 with hemodialysis therapy higher than median SOD2 protein content was associated with higher all-cause mortality. In conclusion, SOD2 protein content declined in CKD until stage 4 while SOD2 gene expression did not. Increased cellular superoxide anion production might affect SOD2 protein content. In advanced CKD (stage 5) SOD2 protein content increased again, but higher than median SOD2 protein content in these patients did not confer a survival benefit.

  10. Combined administration of levetiracetam and valproic acid attenuates age-related hyperactivity of CA3 place cells, reduces place field area, and increases spatial information content in aged rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitsek, Jonathan; Ratner, Marcia H; Stewart, Tara; Eichenbaum, Howard; Farb, David H

    2015-12-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of functional inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA.

  11. Acute stress modulates the histamine content of mast cells in the gastrointestinal tract through interleukin-1 and corticotropin-releasing factor release in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutamene, Helene; Theodorou, Vassilia; Fioramonti, Jean; Bueno, Lionel

    2003-12-15

    Stress results in activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and affects illnesses such as neuroinflammatory syndrome. In vivo acute stress (restraint stress) induces gastrointestinal function disturbances through colonic mast cell activation. This study investigated the effect of acute stress in histamine content of colonic mast cells, and the central role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in this effect. After a restraint stress session colonic segments were isolated and submitted to three protocols: (i) determination of histamine levels by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after incubation with 48/80 compound, (ii) evaluation by histology of mucosal mast cell (MMC) number and (iii) determination of histamine immunoreactivity of MMC. These procedures were conducted (1) in sham or stressed rats, (2) in stressed rats previously treated with intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) IL-1ra or alpha-helical CRF9-41, (3) in naive rats pretreated with I.C.V. rhIL-1beta or CRF and (4) in rats treated with central IL-1beta and CRF plus alpha-helical CRF and IL-1ra, respectively (cross-antagonism reaction). Acute stress increases histamine content in colonic mast cells, without degranulation. I.C.V. pretreatment with IL-1ra or alpha-helical CRF9-41 blocked stress-induced mast cell histamine content increase. Both I.C.V. rhIL-1beta and CRF injections reproduced the stress-linked changes. I.C.V. treatment with CRF antagonist blocked I.C.V. rhIL-1beta-induced mast cell histamine content increase, whereas central IL-1ra did not affect stress events induced by I.C.V. CRF administration. These results suggest that in rats acute stress increases colonic mast cell histamine content. This effect is mediated by the release in cascade in the brain first of IL-1 and secondly of CRF.

  12. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells: The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.M.; Yavari, S.A.; Wauthle, R.; Pouran, B.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited, primari

  13. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures.

  14. Theoretical characterization and design of small molecule donor material containing naphthodithiophene central unit for efficient organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yu-Ai; Geng, Yun; Li, Hai-Bin; Jin, Jun-Ling; Wu, Yong; Su, Zhong-Min

    2013-07-15

    To seek for high-performance small molecule donor materials used in heterojunction solar cell, six acceptor-donor-acceptor small molecules based on naphtho[2,3-b:6,7-b']dithiophene (NDT) units with different acceptor units were designed and characterized using density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. Their geometries, electronic structures, photophysical, and charge transport properties have been scrutinized comparing with the reported donor material NDT(TDPP)2 (TDPP  =  thiophene-capped diketopyrrolopyrrole). The open circuit voltage (V(oc)), energetic driving force(ΔE(L-L)), and exciton binding energy (E(b)) were also provided to give an elementary understanding on their cell performance. The results reveal that the frontier molecular orbitals of 3-7 match well with the acceptor material PC61 BM, and compounds 3-5 were found to exhibit the comparable performances to 1 and show promising potential in organic solar cells. In particular, comparing with 1, system 7 with naphthobisthiadiazole acceptor unit displays broader absorption spectrum, higher V(oc), lower E(b), and similar carrier mobility. An in-depth insight into the nature of the involved excited states based on transition density matrix and charge density difference indicates that all S1 states are mainly intramolecular charge transfer states with the charge transfer from central NDT unit to bilateral acceptor units, and also imply that the exciton of 7 can be dissociated easily due to its large extent of the charge transfer. In a word, 7 maybe superior to 1 and may act as a promising donor candidate for organic solar cell. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fermi surface properties of paramagnetic NpCd{sub 11} with a large unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Yoshiya; Aoki, Dai; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Haga, Yoshinori; Sakai, Hironori; Ikeda, Shugo; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Nakamura, Akio; Onuki, Yoshichika [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Settai, Rikio [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Takeuchi, Tetsuya [Cryogenic Center, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamagami, Hiroshi, E-mail: yhomma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    We succeeded in growing a high-quality single crystal of NpCd{sub 11} with the cubic BaHg{sub 11}-type structure by the Cd-self flux method. The lattice parameter of a = 9.2968(2) A and crystallographic positions of the atoms were determined by x-ray single-crystal structure analysis. From the results of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat experiments, this compound is found to be a 5f-localized paramagnet with the singlet ground state in the crystalline electric field (CEF) scheme. Fermi surface properties were measured using the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) technique. Long-period oscillations were observed in the dHvA frequency range of 9.1 x 10{sup 5} to 1.9 x 10{sup 7} Oe, indicating small cross-sectional areas of Fermi surfaces, which is consistent with a small Brillouin zone based on a large unit cell. From the results of dHvA and magnetoresistance experiments, the Fermi surface of NpCd{sub 11} is found to consist of many kinds of closed Fermi surfaces and a multiply-connected-like Fermi surface, although the result of energy band calculations based on the 5f-localized Np{sup 3+}(5f{sup 4}) configuration reveals the existence of only closed Fermi surfaces. The corresponding cyclotron effective mass is small, ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m{sub 0}, which is consistent with a small electronic specific heat coefficient {gamma} {approx_equal} 10mJ/K{sup 2{center_dot}}mol, revealing no hybridization between the 5f electrons and conduction electrons.

  16. Carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP) as an O2(*-) generator induces apoptosis via the depletion of intracellular GSH contents in Calu-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong Hwan; Kim, Suhn Hee; Kim, Sung Zoo; Park, Woo Hyun

    2009-02-01

    Carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP) is an uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotic cells. Here, we investigated an involvement of O(2)(*-) and GSH in FCCP-induced Calu-6 cell death and examined whether ROS scavengers rescue cells from FCCP-induced cell death. Levels of intracellular O(2)(*-) were markedly increased depending on the concentrations (5-100 microM) of FCCP. A depletion of intracellular GSH content was also observed after exposing cells to FCCP. Stable SOD mimetics, Tempol and Tiron did not change the levels of intracellular O(2)(*-), apoptosis and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). Treatment with thiol antioxidants, NAC and DTT, showed the recovery of GSH depletion and the reduction of O(2)(*-) levels in FCCP-treated cells, which were accompanied by the inhibition of apoptosis. In contrast, BSO, a well-known inhibitor of GSH synthesis, aggravated GSH depletion, oxidative stress of O(2)(*-) and cell death in FCCP-treated cells. Taken together, our data suggested that FCCP as an O(2)(*-) generator, induces apoptosis via the depletion of intracellular GSH contents in Calu-6 cells.

  17. In vitro fertilization and stem cell harvesting from human embryos: the law and practice in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, C Christopher

    2010-07-01

    The challenges before science and medicine are these: science must explore the natural world as thoroughly as possible, while still honoring, protecting, serving and preserving the subject of its investigations, and the human beings for whom it is a tool; medicine must confront disease and disability as effectively as possible, while also honoring, protecting, and preserving those beings for whom it serves - all of those beings, not just some, or even most, at the potential expense of others. These goals are challenged by embryo-destructive human embryonic stem cell research. The human embryo is a human being as clearly defined by embryology, and as such should be protected by the codes governing human subject research. However, because of the "potential" benefits offered by pluripotent stem cells, coupled with abortion politics and a very poorly regulated infertility industry, United States governmental advisory commissions and the scientific, medical, and political communities have attempted to define away the humanity of the human embryo, with a few notable exceptions. Because infertility treatments in the United States are poorly regulated, there are large numbers of supernumerary embryos in cryopreservation. However, only a tiny portion of these will ever be potentially available for research, and thus are not a realistic source of the cells necessary to provide treatments to the millions who might benefit from proposed stem cell based therapies. Cloning will not be the answer either, given the millions of women who must be exploited to provide sufficient numbers of eggs to generate the cloned cell lines. Moreover, the disposition decisions parents must make for their extra embryos are often agonizing, and not uncommonly change. The use of supernumerary embryos as a source for human embryonic stem cells is unethical, will never be a sufficient source for the medical treatments expected from stem cell research, and is often a source of great distress for the

  18. In vitro fertilization and stem cell harvesting from human embryos: the law and practice in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christopher Hook

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenges before science and medicine are these: science must explore the natural world as thoroughly as possible, while still honoring, protecting, serving and preserving the subject of its investigations, and the human beings for whom it is a tool; medicine must confront disease and disability as effectively as possible, while also honoring, protecting, and preserving those beings for whom it serves – all of those beings, not just some, or even most, at the potential expense of others. These goals are challenged by embryo-destructive human embryonic stem cell research. The human embryo is a human being as clearly defined by embryology, and as such should be protected by the codes governing human subject research. However, because of the “potential” benefits offered by pluripotent stem cells, coupled with abortion politics and a very poorly regulated infertility industry, United States governmental advisory commissions and the scientific, medical, and political communities have attempted to define away the humanity of the human embryo, witha few notable exceptions. Because infertility treatments in the United States are poorly regulated, there are large numbersof supernumerary embryos in cryopreservation. However, only a tiny portion of these will ever be potentially available for research, and thus are not a realistic source of the cells necessary to provide treatments to the millions who might benefit from proposed stem cell based therapies. Cloning willnot be the answer either, given the millions of women who must be exploited to provide sufficient numbers of eggs to generate the cloned cell lines. Moreover, the disposition decisions parents must make for their extra embryos are often agonizing, and not uncommonly change.The use of supernumerary embryos as a source for human embryonic stem cells is unethical, will never be a sufficient source for the medical treatments expected from stem cell research, and is often a source of

  19. Frequency and Risk Factors Associated with Cord Graft Failure after Transplant with Single-Unit Umbilical Cord Cells Supplemented by Haploidentical Cells with Reduced-Intensity Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Stephanie B; Liu, Hongtao; Shore, Tsiporah; Fan, Yun; Bishop, Michael; Cushing, Melissa M; Gergis, Usama; Godley, Lucy; Kline, Justin; Larson, Richard A; Martinez, Guadalupe; Mayer, Sebastian; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Stock, Wendy; Wickrema, Amittha; van Besien, Koen; Artz, Andrew S

    2016-06-01

    Delayed engraftment and cord graft failure (CGF) are serious complications after unrelated cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), particularly when using low-cell-dose UCB units. The haplo-cord HSCT approach allows the use of a lower dose single UCB unit by co-infusion of a CD34(+) selected haploidentical graft, which provides early transient engraftment while awaiting durable UCB engraftment. We describe the frequency, complications, and risk factors of CGF after reduced-intensity conditioning haplo-cord HSCT. Among 107 patients who underwent haplo-cord HSCT, 94 were assessable for CGF, defined as risk of CGF. We conclude that assessing chimerism at day 30 may foretell impending CGF, and avoidance of high haploidentical cell doses may reduce risk of CGF after haplo-cord HSCT. However, long-term survival is possible after CGF because of predominant haploidentical or mixed chimerism and hematopoietic function.

  20. Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units. Final report; Udvikling af integrerede DMFC og PEM braendselscelle enheder. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odgaard, M. (IRD Fuel Cell Technology, Svendborg (DK))

    2007-06-15

    The 36-month long project 'Development of integrated DMFC and PEM fuel cell units' has been completed. The project goal was to develop a completely new MEA concept for integrated PEM and DMFC unit cells with enhanced power density and in this way obtain a price reduction. The integrated unit cell consists of a MEA, a gas diffusion layer with flow fields completed with bipolar plates and seals. The main focus of the present project was to: 1) Develop new catalyst materials fabricated by the use of FSD (flame spray deposition method). 2) Optimisation of the state-of-the-art MEA materials and electrode structure. 3) Implementation of a model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM fuel cells. Results and progress obtained in the project established that the individual unit cell components were able to meet and follow the road map of LT-PEM FC regarding electrode catalyst loading and fulfilled the targets for Year 2006. The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: The project has resulted in some important successes. The highlights are as follows: 1) MEA structure knowledge acquired in the project provide a sound basis for further progress. 2) A novel method for the synthesis of electrode by using flame spray synthesis was explored. 3) Electrochemical and catalytic behaviours of catalysts activity for CH{sub 3}OH explored. 4) Implementation of a sub model to account for the CO poisoning of PEM FC has been developed. 5) Numerical study of the flow distribution in FC manifolds was developed and completed with experimental data. 6) The electrode catalyst loading targets for year 2006 achieved. 7) The DMFC MEA performance has been improved by 35%. 8) Optimisation of the MEAs fabrication process has been successfully developed. 9) A new simple flow field design has been designed. 10) A procedure for integrated seals has been developed (au)

  1. High-performance membrane-electrode assembly with an optimal polytetrafluoroethylene content for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gisu; Kim, MinJoong; Han, Junyoung; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Shul, Yong-Gun; Cho, EunAe

    2016-08-01

    Although high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) have a high carbon monoxide tolerance and allow for efficient water management, their practical applications are limited due to their lower performance than conventional low-temperature PEMFCs. Herein, we present a high-performance membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) with an optimal polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content for HT-PEMFCs. Low or excess PTFE content in the electrode leads to an inefficient electrolyte distribution or severe catalyst agglomeration, respectively, which hinder the formation of triple phase boundaries in the electrodes and result in low performance. MEAs with PTFE content of 20 wt% have an optimal pore structure for the efficient formation of electrolyte/catalyst interfaces and gas channels, which leads to high cell performance of approximately 0.5 A cm-2 at 0.6 V.

  2. The Chilean wild raspberry (Rubus geoides Sm.) increases intracellular GSH content and protects against H2O2 and methylglyoxal-induced damage in AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Ávila, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Mardones, Claudia; von Baer, Dietrich; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean raspberry Rubus geoides Sm. (Rosaceae) is a native species occurring in the Patagonia. Five R. geoides samples were assessed for phenolic content and composition, antioxidant activity, effect on total reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and protective effect against H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced stress in epithelial gastric AGS cells. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS profiles allowed the tentative identification of 39 phenolics including flavonol glycosides and tannins. R. geoides presented higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than Rubus idaeus. Two out of the five phenolic enriched R. geoides extracts (PEEs) exhibited better antioxidant activity than R. idaeus in the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. A significant cytoprotective activity was observed when AGS cells were pre-incubated with extracts and subsequently challenged with H2O2 or MGO. Treatment with the PEEs increased the intracellular GSH content. R. geoides fruit extracts may induce the activation of intracellular protection mechanisms against oxidative and dicarbonyl-induced stress.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Arsenic Trioxide on Growth and Telomerase Activity of SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 Hepatocarcinoma Cells and Determination of their GSH Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Ren; Hong Li; Yuan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the inhibitory effect of arsenic trioxide on growth and telomerase activity of BEL-7402 and SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells, and to measure their GSH level.METHODS Cell culture and trypan blue exclusion were used to examine the inhibitory effect of arsenic trioxide on BEL-7402 and SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma lines. A GSH kit and telomerase kit were used to mearsure the GSH content in cells and telomerase activity.RESULTS The growth of BEL-7402 cells was significantly inhibited at a level of 0.50 μmol/L of arsenic trioxide by 24 h. The inhibitory effect increased with time and concetration of arsenic trioxide. The telomerase activity of BEL-7402 cells was also significantly inhibited at a level of 0.50 μmol/L of arsenic trioxide by 24 h, after which the inhibitory effect increased with time. On the other hand, at 24 h of incubation a level of 2.00 μmol/L of arsenic trioxide was required to significantly inhibit growth of SMMC-7721 cells, and only after 48 h with 2.00 μmol/L of arsenic trioxide did telomerase activity significantly decline. The GSH content of the BEL-7402 and SMMC-7721 cells was 18.7±1.4 and 50.8±5.2 nmol/mg protein respectively, a significant difference.CONCLUSION Different concentrations of arsenic trioxide are required to inhibit growth and telomerase activity of SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402cells. Perhaps BEL-7402 cells are more sensitive to arsenic trioxide because of their low level of GSH content, which results in a low capacity for oxidation-reduction and poorer detoxification mechanisms in BEL-7402 cells.

  4. DNA content and methylation of p16, DAPK and RASSF1A gene in tumour and distant, normal mucosal tissue of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Chen, Fu; Castro, Juan; Elmberger, Göran; Rutqvist, Lars Erik; Lewin, Freddi; Turesson, Ingela; Lundgren, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Long-term survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients has not improved significantly during the last 20 years and recurrent disease is frequently observed. In this study, the potential presence of pre-malignant cells or rare malignant cells at the time of diagnosis in HNSCC was investigated. Fifty-nine biopsies obtained from 41 HNSCC patients were analysed. Eighteen of these biopsies were normal mucosal tissue, located at least 5 cm from the tumour margin. DNA content and DNA methylation of p16, DAPK and RASSF1A was examined. Thirty-nine out of 41 (95%) tumour biopsies showed p16 methylation and 21 (51%) of them displayed aneuploidy. Of 18 distant normal mucosal biopsies, 6 (33%) of these showed evidence of aneuploidy and 15(83%) of them showed methylated p16 genes. Among paired samples, the highest frequencies of DNA methylation were found in tumours with aneuploidy. Regardless of DNA content, methylation at DAPK, RASSF1A or p16 were found in the corresponding distant mucosal biopsies. The cells with abnormal DNA content or DNA methylation in mucosal tissue were not detected clinically or by pathological macroscopic and microscopic examination. Thus, distant mucosal tissue DNA content and DNA methylation analyses in combination with histopathology will provide a better prognostic base for the evaluation and treatment of HNSCC patients.

  5. Passive leg movement enhances interstitial VEGF protein, endothelial cell proliferation, and eNOS mRNA content in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    were analyzed for mRNA content of VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The passive leg movement caused an increase (P dialysate...... to cultured endothelial cells revealed that dialysate obtained during leg movement induced a 3.2-fold higher proliferation rate (P dialysate obtained at rest. Passive movement also enhanced (P

  6. 78 FR 13876 - Content Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Content Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its content policy. A list of the questions and issues...

  7. Legal content of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, adopted by the united nations general assembly by resolution 45/158 of 18 December 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author makes a detailed analysis of the legal contents of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant workers and their Families, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in the Resolution 45/158 of December 1990. The objectives of the Convention, the personal spehere of application, the Human Rights of all migrant workers and their families wether they be regular of iregular are presented throughout the article. Finally, the practical effectiveness of the Convention is analyzed concluding with the importance of its ratification by the largest number of States possible.

  8. Visualization of Content Release from Cell Surface-Attached Single HIV-1 Particles Carrying an Extra-Viral Fluorescent pH-Sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sood

    Full Text Available HIV-1 fusion leading to productive entry has long been thought to occur at the plasma membrane. However, our previous single virus imaging data imply that, after Env engagement of CD4 and coreceptors at the cell surface, the virus enters into and fuses with intracellular compartments. We were unable to reliably detect viral fusion at the plasma membrane. Here, we implement a novel virus labeling strategy that biases towards detection of virus fusion that occurs in a pH-neutral environment-at the plasma membrane or, possibly, in early pH-neutral vesicles. Virus particles are co-labeled with an intra-viral content marker, which is released upon fusion, and an extra-viral pH sensor consisting of ecliptic pHluorin fused to the transmembrane domain of ICAM-1. This sensor fully quenches upon virus trafficking to a mildly acidic compartment, thus precluding subsequent detection of viral content release. As an interesting secondary observation, the incorporation of the pH-sensor revealed that HIV-1 particles occasionally shuttle between neutral and acidic compartments in target cells expressing CD4, suggesting a small fraction of viral particles is recycled to the plasma membrane and re-internalized. By imaging viruses bound to living cells, we found that HIV-1 content release in neutral-pH environment was a rare event (~0.4% particles. Surprisingly, viral content release was not significantly reduced by fusion inhibitors, implying that content release was due to spontaneous formation of viral membrane defects occurring at the cell surface. We did not measure a significant occurrence of HIV-1 fusion at neutral pH above this defect-mediated background loss of content, suggesting that the pH sensor may destabilize the membrane of the HIV-1 pseudovirus and, thus, preclude reliable detection of single virus fusion events at neutral pH.

  9. THE FEATURES OF CONNEXINS EXPRESSION IN THE CELLS OF NEUROVASCLAR UNIT IN NORMAL CONDITIONS AND HYPOXIA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Morgun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess a role of connexin 43 (Cx43 and associated molecule CD38 in the regulation of cell-cell interactions in the neurovascular unit (NVU in vitro in physiological conditions and in hypoxia.Materials and methods. The study was done using the original neurovascular unit model in vitro. The NVU consisted of three cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and cerebral endothelial cells derived from rats. Hypoxia was induced by incubating cells with sodium iodoacetate for 30 min at37 °C in standard culture conditions.Results. We investigated the role of connexin 43 in the regulation of cell interactions within the NVU in normal and hypoxic injury in vitro. We found that astrocytes were characterized by high levels of expression of Cx43 and low level of CD38 expression, neurons demonstrated high levels of CD38 and low levels of Cx43. In hypoxic conditions, the expression of Cx43 and CD38 in astrocytes markedly increased while CD38 expression in neurons decreased, however no changes were found in endothelial cells. Suppression of Cx43 activity resulted in down-regulation of CD38 in NVU cells, both in physiological conditions and at chemical hypoxia.Conclusion. Thus, the Cx-regulated intercellular NAD+-dependent communication and secretory phenotype of astroglial cells that are the part of the blood-brain barrier is markedly changed in hypoxia.

  10. Tool for Generation of MAC/GMC Representative Unit Cell for CMC/PMC Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Pineda, Evan J.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes a recently developed analysis tool that enhances the resident capabilities of the Micromechanics Analysis Code with the Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) 4.0. This tool is especially useful in analyzing ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), where higher fidelity with improved accuracy of local response is needed. The tool, however, can be used for analyzing polymer matrix composites (PMCs) as well. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. The software package has been built around the concept of the generalized method of cells (GMC). The computer code is developed with a user friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, application of simulated thermomechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material have been automated to increase the user friendliness, as well as to make it more robust in terms of input preparation and code execution. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within the software, wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Thus, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. The primary focus of the current effort is to provide a graphical user interface (GUI) capability that generates a number of different user-defined repeating unit cells (RUCs). In addition, the code has provisions for generation of a MAC/GMC-compatible input text file that can be merged with any MAC/GMC input file tailored to analyze composite materials. Although the primary intention was to address the three different constituents and phases that are usually present in CMCs-namely, fibers, matrix, and interphase-it can be easily modified to address two-phase polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials where an interphase is absent. Currently, the

  11. Indium phosphide solar cell research in the United States: Comparison with non-photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of the InP solar cell research program are presented. Homojunction cells with efficiencies approaching 19 percent are demonstrated, while 17 percent is achieved for ITO/InP cells. The superior radiation resistance of the two latter cell configurations over both Si and GaAs cells has been shown. InP cells aboard the LIPS3 satellite show no degradation after more than a year in orbit. Computed array specific powers are used to compare the performance of an InP solar cell array to solar dynamic and nuclear systems.

  12. Tunable Multifunctional Thermal Metamaterials: Manipulation of Local Heat Flux via Assembly of Unit-Cell Thermal Shifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwanwoo; Kang, Sunggu; Lee, Howon; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-01-20

    Thermal metamaterials, designed by transformation thermodynamics are artificial structures that can actively control heat flux at a continuum scale. However, fabrication of them is very challenging because it requires a continuous change of thermal properties in materials, for one specific function. Herein, we introduce tunable thermal metamaterials that use the assembly of unit-cell thermal shifters for a remarkable enhancement in multifunctionality as well as manufacturability. Similar to the digitization of a two-dimensional image, designed thermal metamaterials by transformation thermodynamics are disassembled as unit-cells thermal shifters in tiny areas, representing discretized heat flux lines in local spots. The programmed-reassembly of thermal shifters inspired by LEGO enable the four significant functions of thermal metamaterials-shield, concentrator, diffuser, and rotator-in both simulation and experimental verification using finite element method and fabricated structures made from copper and PDMS. This work paves the way for overcoming the structural and functional limitations of thermal metamaterials.

  13. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Saraf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (∼10–12 unit cells thick epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and substrate roughness of ∼1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.

  14. Tunable Multifunctional Thermal Metamaterials: Manipulation of Local Heat Flux via Assembly of Unit-Cell Thermal Shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwanwoo; Kang, Sunggu; Lee, Howon; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-01-01

    Thermal metamaterials, designed by transformation thermodynamics are artificial structures that can actively control heat flux at a continuum scale. However, fabrication of them is very challenging because it requires a continuous change of thermal properties in materials, for one specific function. Herein, we introduce tunable thermal metamaterials that use the assembly of unit-cell thermal shifters for a remarkable enhancement in multifunctionality as well as manufacturability. Similar to the digitization of a two-dimensional image, designed thermal metamaterials by transformation thermodynamics are disassembled as unit-cells thermal shifters in tiny areas, representing discretized heat flux lines in local spots. The programmed-reassembly of thermal shifters inspired by LEGO enable the four significant functions of thermal metamaterials—shield, concentrator, diffuser, and rotator—in both simulation and experimental verification using finite element method and fabricated structures made from copper and PDMS. This work paves the way for overcoming the structural and functional limitations of thermal metamaterials. PMID:28106156

  15. Compact Circularly Polarized Patch Antenna Using a Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line Unit-Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Geng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A compact circularly polarized (CP patch antenna using a composite right/left-handed (CRLH transmission line (TL unit-cell is proposed. The CRLH TL unit-cell includes a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR for shunt inductance and a gap loaded with a circular-shaped slot for series capacitance. The CSRR can decrease the TM10 mode resonance frequency, thus reducing the electrical size of the proposed antenna. In addition, the asymmetry of the CSRR brings about the TM01 mode, which can be combined with the TM10 mode by changing the slot radius. The combination of these two orthogonal modes with 90° phase shift makes the proposed antenna provide a CP property. The experimental results show that the proposed antenna has a wider axial ratio bandwidth and a smaller electrical size than the reported CP antennas. Moreover, the proposed antenna is designed without impedance transformer, 90° phase shift, dual feed and ground via.

  16. Effect of light wavelength on cell growth, content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in cell suspension cultures of Thevetia peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, J P; Zapata, K; Rojano, B; Arias, M

    2016-10-01

    Thevetia peruviana (T. peruviana) has been considered as a potentially important plant for industrial and pharmacological application. Among the number of compounds which are produced by T. peruviana, antioxidants and polyphenols are of particular interest due to their benefits on human health. Cell suspension cultures of T. peruviana were established under different conditions: 1) constant illumination (24h/day) at different light wavelengths (red, green, blue, yellow and white), 2) darkness and 3) control (12h/12h: day light/dark) to investigate their biomass, substrate uptake, polyphenols production and oxidizing activity. The results showed biomass concentrations between 17.1g dry weight (DW)/l (green light) and 18.2g DW/l (control) after 13days. The cultures that grew under green light conditions consumed completely all substrates after 10days, while other cultures required at least 13days or more. The total phenolic content was between 7.21 and 9.46mg gallic acid (GA)/g DW for all light conditions. In addition the ferric reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid antioxidant activity ranged from 5.41-6.58mg ascorbic acid (AA)/g DW and 82.93-110.39μmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. Interestingly, the samples which grew under the darkness presented a higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity when compared to the light conditions. All together, these results demonstrate the extraordinary effect of different lighting conditions on polyphenols production and antioxidant compounds by T. peruviana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interfacing of science, medicine and law: The stem cell patent controversy in the United States and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya eDavey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The patent eligibility of stem cells – particularly those derived from human embryos – has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US.

  18. Effect of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on the Degradability of Random Poly(butylene terephthalate-co-aliphatic dicarboxylates Having a High Content of Terephthalic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Heidarzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Copolyesters derived from 1,4-butanediol and constituted also of aliphatic and aromatic dicarboxylate units in a molar ratio of 3:7 were synthesized by a two-step polycondensation procedure. Succinic, adipic, and sebacic acids were specifically selected as the aliphatic component whereas terephthalic acid was chosen as the aromatic moiety. The second synthesis step was a thermal transesterification between the corresponding homopolymers, always attaining a random distribution as verified by NMR spectroscopy. Hybrid polymer composites containing 2.5 wt % of hydroxyapatite (HAp were also prepared by in situ polymerization. Hydroxyl groups on the nanoparticle surface allowed the grafting of polymer chains in such a way that composites were mostly insoluble in the typical solvents of the parent copolyesters. HAp had some influence on crystallization from the melt, thermal stability, and mechanical properties. HAp also improved the biocompatibility of samples due to the presence of Ca2+ cations and the damping effect of phosphate groups. Interestingly, HAp resulted in a significant increase in the hydrophilicity of samples, which considerably affected both enzymatic and hydrolytic degradability. Slight differences were also found in the function of the dicarboxylic component, as the lowest degradation rates was found for the sample constituted of the most hydrophobic sebacic acid units.

  19. Red cell storage age policy for patients with sickle cell disease: A survey of transfusion service directors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafin, Matthew S; Singavi, Arun K; Irani, Mehraboon S; Puca, Kathleen E; Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa; Field, Joshua J

    2016-02-01

    In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the effects of the red cell storage lesion are not well defined. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of transfusion services that limit red cell units by storage age for patients with SCD. We developed a 22 question survey of transfusion service director opinions and their corresponding blood bank policies. Target subjects were systematically identified on the AABB website. Responses were recorded in SurveyMonkey and summarized using standard statistical techniques. Ninety transfusion service directors responded to the survey. Response rate was 22%. Only 23% of respondents had storage age policies in place for patients with SCD, even though 36% of respondents consider older units to be potentially harmful in this patient population. Of those with a policy, a less-than 15 day storage age requirement was most often used (75%), but practices varied, and most respondents (65%) agreed that evidence-based guidelines regarding storage age are needed for patients with SCD. Policies, practices and opinions about the risks of older units for patients with SCD vary. As patients with SCD may have unique susceptibilities to features of the red cell storage lesion, prospective studies in this population are needed to determine best practice.

  20. EFFECT OF SEVERITY OF SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS ON SOMATIC CELL COUNT AND LACTOSE CONTENTS OF BUFFALO MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SHARIF, T. AHMAD, M. Q. BILAL1, A. YOUSAF AND G. MUHAMMAD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of severity of sub-clinical mastitis on somatic cell count (SCC and lactose contents of milk in 100 apparently healthy dairy buffaloes. Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT was used to determine the severity of sub-clinical mastitis which was graded as Negative (N, Traces (T, mild clumping (P1, moderate clumping (P2 and heavy clumping (P3. Mean milk SCC (x 105 at SFMT scores N, T, P1, P2 and P3 were 2.06 + 1.09, 3.73 + 0.96, 9.69 + 4.05, 31.97 + 10.26 and 121.01 + 23.71 per ml, respectively. Using the same scoring, mean values of milk lactose were 5.10 + 0.09, 4.81 + 0.10, 4.66 + 0.08, 3.92 + 0.05 and 2.66 + 0.37 percent, respectively. Percent increases of mean SCC in T, P1, P2 and P3 groups with respect to N (control were 81.47, 370.51, 1451.71 and 5773.41, respectively. Percent decreases of mean lactose in T, P1, P2 and P3 groups with respect to N (control were 5.54, 8.52, 22.98 and 47.81, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated non-significant difference of mean SCC in N and T groups, while there was highly significant (P<0.01 difference in mean SCC among P1, P2 and P3 groups and also with respect to N. Similarly, there was a significant (P<0.05 difference of mean lactose among T, P1, P2 and P3 groups and also with respect to control/ negative group.

  1. Single Cell Proteomics Using Frog (Xenopus laevis) Blastomeres Isolated from Early Stage Embryos, Which Form a Geometric Progression in Protein Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Dubiak, Kyle M; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Zhang, Zhenbin; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W; Dovichi, Norman J

    2016-07-05

    Single cell analysis is required to understand cellular heterogeneity in biological systems. We propose that single cells (blastomeres) isolated from early stage invertebrate, amphibian, or fish embryos are ideal model systems for the development of technologies for single cell analysis. For these embryos, although cell cleavage is not exactly symmetric, the content per blastomere decreases roughly by half with each cell division, creating a geometric progression in cellular content. This progression forms a ladder of single-cell targets for the development of successively higher sensitivity instruments. In this manuscript, we performed bottom-up proteomics on single blastomeres isolated by microdissection from 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, 32-, and 50-cell Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) embryos. Over 1 400 protein groups were identified in single-run reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry from single balstomeres isolated from a 16-cell embryo. When the mass of yolk-free proteins in single blastomeres decreased from ∼0.8 μg (16-cell embryo) to ∼0.2 μg (50-cell embryo), the number of protein group identifications declined from 1 466 to 644. Around 800 protein groups were quantified across four blastomeres isolated from a 16-cell embryo. By comparing the protein expression among different blastomeres, we observed that the blastomere-to-blastomere heterogeneity in 8-, 16-, 32-, and 50-cell embryos increases with development stage, presumably due to cellular differentiation. These results suggest that comprehensive quantitative proteomics on single blastomeres isolated from these early stage embryos can provide valuable insights into cellular differentiation and organ development.

  2. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in association with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust during wintertime: from a population enquiry to cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Pieters

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM of benzo(apyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (± SD 0.95 ± 0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25(th-75(th percentile: 390.7-767.3 and 1385 ng/g dust (25(th-75(th percentile: 1000-1980 in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: -15.16 to -4.2; p = 0.002 for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was -7.3% (95% CI: -13.71 to -0.42; p = 0.04. Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(apyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans.

  3. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in association with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust during wintertime: from a population enquiry to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Nicky; Koppen, Gudrun; Smeets, Karen; Napierska, Dorota; Plusquin, Michelle; De Prins, Sofie; Van De Weghe, Hendrik; Nelen, Vera; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Hoet, Peter; Schoeters, Greet; Nawrot, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that are formed in combustion processes. At the cellular level, exposure to PAHs causes oxidative stress and/or some of it congeners bind to DNA, which may interact with mitochondrial function. However, the influence of these pollutants on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content remains largely unknown. We determined whether indoor exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage as represented by blood mtDNA content. Blood mtDNA content (ratio mitochondrial/nuclear DNA copy number) was determined by real-time qPCR in 46 persons, both in winter and summer. Indoor PAH exposure was estimated by measuring PAHs in sedimented house dust, including 6 volatile PAHs and 8 non-volatile PAHs. Biomarkers of oxidative stress at the level of DNA and lipid peroxidation were measured. In addition to the epidemiologic enquiry, we exposed human TK6 cells during 24 h at various concentrations (range: 0 to 500 µM) of benzo(a)pyrene and determined mtDNA content. Mean blood mtDNA content averaged (± SD) 0.95 ± 0.185. The median PAH content amounted 554.1 ng/g dust (25(th)-75(th) percentile: 390.7-767.3) and 1385 ng/g dust (25(th)-75(th) percentile: 1000-1980) in winter for volatile and non-volatile PAHs respectively. Independent for gender, age, BMI and the consumption of grilled meat or fish, blood mtDNA content decreased by 9.85% (95% CI: -15.16 to -4.2; p = 0.002) for each doubling of non-volatile PAH content in the house dust in winter. The corresponding estimate for volatile PAHs was -7.3% (95% CI: -13.71 to -0.42; p = 0.04). Measurements of oxidative stress were not correlated with PAH exposure. During summer months no association was found between mtDNA content and PAH concentration. The ability of benzo(a)pyrene (range 0 µM to 500 µM) to lower mtDNA content was confirmed in vitro in human TK6 cells. Based on these findings, mtDNA content can be a target of PAH toxicity in humans.

  4. Mourning of professionals in a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation unit Luto de profissionais em uma unidade de transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira Rodrigues

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The transplant of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCT is a procedure that can either retrieve the patient's life or lead him/her to death. No avoiding death can bring to the professionals the experience of mourning and their limits. Objective: To understand the process of mourning experienced by health professionals who work in a HSCT Unit. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical-qualitative study with eight professionals from a HSCT Unit. Semi structured interviews were performed and the material was subjected to qualitative content analysis. Results: The results indicate that the professionals in a HSCT Unit experience the mourning when they observe slow processes of death and when the patient’s suffering becomes too intense. Conclusion: The process of mourning of the professional is still not recognized and there is little opportunity for public expression to facilitate the experience of mourning.Introdução: O transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas (TCTH é um procedimento que pode tanto recuperar a vida do paciente quanto conduzi-lo ao óbito. Não conseguir evitar a morte pode trazer ao profissional à vivência do luto e de seus limites. Objetivo: Compreender o processo de luto vivenciado pelos profissionais da saúde de uma Unidade TCTH. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo clínico-qualitativo de 8 profissionais de uma unidade de TCTH. Foram realizadas entrevistas semidirigidas e o material foi submetido à análise qualitativa de conteúdo. Resultados: Os resultados indicam que os profissionais de uma unidade de TCTH vivenciam o luto quando verificam processos lentos de morte e quando o sofrimento do paciente se torna muito intenso. Conclusão: O processo do luto do profissional ainda não é reconhecido e existe pouca oportunidade de expressão pública para facilitar a vivência desse luto.

  5. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moinul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH metamaterial (MTM unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm3, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4–12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  6. On the Effect of Unit-Cell Parameters in Predicting the Elastic Response of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of unit-cell geometrical parameters in predicting elastic properties of a typical wood plastic composite (WPC. The ultimate goal was obtaining the optimal values of representative volume element (RVE parameters to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of the WPC. For each unit cell, defined by a given combination of the above geometrical parameters, finite element simulation in ABAQUS was carried out, and the corresponding stress-strain curve was obtained. A uniaxial test according to ASTM D638-02a type V was performed on the composite specimen. Modulus of elasticity was determined using hyperbolic tangent function, and the results were compared to the sets of finite element analyses. Main effects of RVE parameters and their interactions were demonstrated and discussed, specially regarding the inclusion of two adjacent wood particles within one unit cell of the material. Regression analysis was performed to mathematically model the RVE parameter effects and their interactions over the modulus of elasticity response. The model was finally employed in an optimization analysis to arrive at an optimal set of RVE parameters that minimizes the difference between the predicted and experimental moduli of elasticity.

  7. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Moinul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Samsuzzaman, Md; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Misran, Norbahiah; Mansor, Mohd Fais

    2015-01-23

    A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB) microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH) metamaterial (MTM) unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR) with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm³, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4-12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  8. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Moinul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Samsuzzaman, Md.; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Misran, Norbahiah; Mansor, Mohd Fais

    2015-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB) microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH) metamaterial (MTM) unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR) with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm3, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4–12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications. PMID:28787945

  9. Intra-unit-cell magnetic correlations near optimal doping in YBa2Cu3O6.85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin-Thro, L; Sidis, Y; Wildes, A; Bourges, P

    2015-07-03

    The pseudo-gap phenomenon in copper oxide superconductors is central to any description of these materials as it prefigures the superconducting state itself. A magnetic intra-unit-cell order was found to occur just at the pseudo-gap temperature in four cuprate high-Tc superconducting families. Here we present polarized neutron-scattering measurements of nearly optimally doped YBa2Cu3O6.85, carried out on two different spectrometers, that reveal several features. The intra-unit-cell order consists of finite-sized planar domains that are very weakly correlated along the c axis. At high temperature, only the out-of-plane magnetic components correlate, indicating a strong Ising anisotropy. An aditional in-plane response develops at low temperature, giving rise to an apparent tilt of the magnetic moment. The discovery of these two regimes puts stringent constraints, which are tightly bound to the pseudo-gap physics, on the intrinsic nature of intra-unit-cell order.

  10. Effect of O horizon and Forest Harvest Residue Manipulations on Soil Organic Matter Content and Composition of a Loblolly Pine Plantation in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J.; Mack, J.; Dewey, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. While the forest floor is never purposely removed during operational harvesting and site preparation, they could become in high demand as bioenergy markets develop. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of forest-floor manipulation on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil size/density fractionation and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations

  11. Pantethine Alters Lipid Composition and Cholesterol Content of Membrane Rafts, With Down-Regulation of CXCL12-Induced T Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijsel-Bonnello, Manuel; Acar, Niyazi; Molino, Yves; Bretillon, Lionel; Khrestchatisky, Michel; de Reggi, Max; Gharib, Bouchra

    2015-10-01

    Pantethine, a natural low-molecular-weight thiol, shows a broad activity in a large range of essential cellular pathways. It has been long known as a hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic agent. We have recently shown that it exerts a neuroprotective action in mouse models of cerebral malaria and Parkinson's disease through multiple mechanisms. In the present study, we looked at its effects on membrane lipid rafts that serve as platforms for molecules engaged in cell activity, therefore providing a target against inappropriate cell response leading to a chronic inflammation. We found that pantethine-treated cells showed a significant change in raft fatty acid composition and cholesterol content, with ultimate downregulation of cell adhesion, CXCL12-driven chemotaxis, and transendothelial migration of various T cell types, including human Jurkat cell line and circulating effector T cells. The mechanisms involved include the alteration of the following: (i) CXCL12 binding to its target cells; (ii) membrane dynamics of CXCR4 and CXCR7, the two CXCL12 receptors; and (iii) cell redox status, a crucial determinant in the regulation of the chemokine system. In addition, we considered the linker for activation of T cells molecule to show that pantethine effects were associated with the displacement from the rafts of the acylated signaling molecules which had their palmitoylation level reduced.. In conclusion, the results presented here, together with previously published findings, indicate that due to its pleiotropic action, pantethine can downregulate the multifaceted process leading to pathogenic T cell activation and migration.

  12. Quantitative proteomic analysis of exosome protein content changes induced by hepatitis B virus in Huh-7 cells using SILAC labeling and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Wu, Yanxin; Duan, Jinlin; Ma, Yanchun; Shen, Zhongliang; Wei, Lili; Cui, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Junqi; Xie, Youhua; Liu, Jing

    2014-12-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV-mediated pathogenesis is only partially understood, but X protein (HBx) reportedly possesses oncogenic potential. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with diverse functions released by various cells including hepatocytes, and HBV harnesses cellular exosome biogenesis and export machineries for virion morphogenesis and secretion. Therefore, HBV infection might cause changes in exosome contents with functional implications for both virus and host. In this work, exosome protein content changes induced by HBV and HBx were quantitatively analyzed by SILAC/LC-MS/MS. Exosomes prepared from SILAC-labeled hepatoma cell line Huh-7 transfected with HBx, wildtype, or HBx-null HBV replicon plasmids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Systematic analyses of MS data and confirmatory immunoblotting showed that HBx overexpression and HBV, with or without HBx, replication in Huh-7 cells indeed caused marked and specific changes in exosome protein contents. Furthermore, specific changes in protein contents were also detected in exosomes purified from HBV-infected patients' sera compared with control sera negative for HBV markers. These results illustrate a new aspect of interactions between HBV and the host and provide the foundation for future research into roles played by exosomes in HBV infection and pathogenesis.

  13. 对二甲苯吸附分离装置吸附剂水含量控制分析%AN ANALYSIS OF CONTROLLING WATER CONTENT IN ADSORBENT OF p-XYLENE SEPARATION UNIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余富海

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the water balance in para-xylene separation unit is discussed. The effect of water in adsorbent on the stability and selective adsorption performance of the adsorbent is analyzed, finally, measures for keeping the optimal water content of adsorbent are put forward, such as proper controlling the amount of water injection, monitoring the water content in feed and tracing water balance daily, to prolong the service life of adsorbent and ensure a safety running of the unit under optimum conditions.%讨论对二甲苯吸附分离装置的水平衡,分析水对对二甲苯吸附剂稳定性和选择性吸附性能的影响,提出保持吸附剂最佳水含量的措施:注水量控制、进料水含量控制和水平衡控制等,以保证吸附剂的运行安全,优化装置运行,延长吸附剂使用寿命.

  14. Differential effects of ornithine enantiomers on the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, polyamines content, and growth of tobacco cells under osmotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Morteza; Ghanati, Faezeh; Fakhari, Ali Reza; Yousefzadeh Borojeni, Laleh; Safari, Masoumeh

    2013-10-01

    Ornithine (Orn) plays an essential role in the metabolism of plant cells through incorporation in polyamines biosynthesis, the urea cycle and nitrogen metabolism. Herein, we show that Orn enantiomers have different effects on anti-oxidant enzymes activities, polyamines and proline biosynthesis and also an alleviation effect of osmotic stresses on tobacco cells. The type of stress has a significant impact on the function of L- and D-Orn for improvement of the stress effect on the cells. Under saline conditions, both enantiomers restored cell growth, though D-Orn was more beneficial to some extent. This was accompanied with a higher biosynthesis of putrescine, proline, and up-regulated activity of certain anti-oxidant enzymes by D-Orn. Under drought stress conditions, a distinct differential behavior emerged and only L-Orn showed an alleviative effect on the cell growth. Regulation of hydrogen peroxide content via the activity of catalase/peroxidase and production of osmolytes, e.g., proline and fructans, was dependent on the type of enantiomers. Activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and production of malondialdehyde from cell membranes were differently regulated following treatment with either Orn enantiomer. The results suggest that management of H2 O2 content is a determining feature of the function of Orn enantiomers in tobacco cells under salinity and drought stress conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparison of dual-energy CT-derived iodine content and iodine overlay of normal, inflammatory and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma cervical lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Ahmed M. [Johan Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main, Hessen (Germany); Mansoura University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mansoura (Egypt); Razek, A.A. [Mansoura University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mansoura (Egypt); Kerl, J.M.; Nour-Eldin, N.E.; Bauer, Ralf; Vogl, Thomas J. [Johan Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main, Hessen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT)-derived iodine content and iodine overlay could differentiate between normal, inflammatory and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cervical lymph nodes. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Sixteen patients with normal lymph nodes, 20 patients with enlarged nodes draining deep cervical inflammations and 23 patients with pathologically proved metastatic SCC nodes who underwent contrast enhanced DECT were retrospectively identified. Iodine content and overlay of 36 normal, 43 inflammatory and 52 metastatic lymph nodes were calculated using circular regions of interest and compared among the three groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of iodine content and overlay for diagnosis of metastatic nodes. Iodine content (mg/ml) was significantly lower for metastatic lymph nodes (2.34 ± 0.45) than for normal (2.86 ± 0.37) and inflammatory (3.53 ± 0.56) lymph nodes, P < 0.0001. Iodine overlay (HU) was also significantly lower for metastatic lymph nodes (47 ± 11.6) than normal (57.4 ± 8.2) and inflammatory nodes (69.3 ± 11.5), P < 0.0001. The areas under the ROC curve for iodine content and iodine overlay were 0.923 and 0.896. DECT-derived iodine content and overlay differ significantly among normal, inflammatory and metastatic SCC cervical lymph nodes. (orig.)

  16. Fuel Cell Backup Power Unit Configuration and Electricity Market Participation: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-13

    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory industry-inspired Laboratory Directed Research and Development project evaluates the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., balancing, ancillary services, demand response). The work is intended to evaluate the integration of thousands of under-utilized, clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems that are already installed in cell towers for potential grid and ancillary services.

  17. Reaggregation of human, chick, and human embryonic brain cells. Factors influencing the formation of a histiotypic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodin, Z; Fleischmannová, V; Hájková, B; Faltin, J; Hartman, J

    1981-01-01

    1. Aggregation of embryo human, mouse, and chick brain cells was studied. The optimum age interval of donors from different species was determined. 2. The significance of different dissociation procedures (mild trypsinisation followed by sieving, trypsinisation + DNA digestion, mechanical dissociation in 1 or 2 steps, and Ca2+ chelation by EGTA) for the rate of aggregation was estimated. A significant reduction of aggregation was observed after one step mechanical dissociation. Nonspecific adhesion of cells on DNA molecules was found only during the first stages of aggregation. 3. The curve of aggregation kinetics follows the curve of floculation kinetics. 90% free cells disappear from the medium after 2 h of aggregation and a large number of microaggregates are formed which condense after 20 to 24 h into compact aggregates. The time course of aggregation was similar for all cells dissociated by different means. Small differences in the rate of aggregation, caused by dissociation procedures, were apparent only during the first stages of aggregation. 4. The histiotypic unit formed by aggregation of human, mouse, and chick embryo brain cells exhibits some common and some specific features. During aggregation a multiple structural reconstruction takes place and a limited number of cells are exchanged or sorted out from aggregates into the medium. 5. The structural organisation of aggregates from differently dissociated cells differs in several aspects. This indicates that membrane surface structures are influenced differently by dissociation and behave differently during distinct stages of aggregation.

  18. Comparison of dual-energy CT-derived iodine content and iodine overlay of normal, inflammatory and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma cervical lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Ahmed M; Razek, A A; Kerl, J Matthias; Nour-Eldin, N E; Bauer, Ralf; Vogl, Thomas J

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT)-derived iodine content and iodine overlay could differentiate between normal, inflammatory and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cervical lymph nodes. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Sixteen patients with normal lymph nodes, 20 patients with enlarged nodes draining deep cervical inflammations and 23 patients with pathologically proved metastatic SCC nodes who underwent contrast enhanced DECT were retrospectively identified. Iodine content and overlay of 36 normal, 43 inflammatory and 52 metastatic lymph nodes were calculated using circular regions of interest and compared among the three groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of iodine content and overlay for diagnosis of metastatic nodes. Iodine content (mg/ml) was significantly lower for metastatic lymph nodes (2.34 ± 0.45) than for normal (2.86 ± 0.37) and inflammatory (3.53 ± 0.56) lymph nodes, P overlay (HU) was also significantly lower for metastatic lymph nodes (47 ± 11.6) than normal (57.4 ± 8.2) and inflammatory nodes (69.3 ± 11.5), P overlay were 0.923 and 0.896. DECT-derived iodine content and overlay differ significantly among normal, inflammatory and metastatic SCC cervical lymph nodes. • Derived iodine content can be calculated from contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT. • Derived iodine content and iodine overlay could help characterise cervical lymph nodes. • Iodine parameters were significantly lower in metastatic lymph nodes than normal/inflammatory lymph nodes. • Iodine content appears more sensitive than iodine overlay for lymph node characterisation.

  19. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCA7 Regulates NKT Cell Development and Function by Controlling CD1d Expression and Lipid Raft Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowyhed, Heba N.; Chandra, Shilpi; Kiosses, William; Marcovecchio, Paola; Andary, Farah; Zhao, Meng; Fitzgerald, Michael L.; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Hedrick, Catherine C.

    2017-01-01

    ABCA7 is an ABC transporter expressed on the plasma membrane, and actively exports phospholipid complexes from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of membranes. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a subpopulation of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens in the context of CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. In this study, we demonstrate that ABCA7 regulates the development of NKT cells in a cell-extrinsic manner. We found that in Abca7−/− mice there is reduced expression of CD1d accompanied by an alteration in lipid raft content on the plasma membrane of thymocytes and antigen presenting cells. Together, these alterations caused by absence of ABCA7 negatively affect NKT cell development and function. PMID:28091533

  20. High-content image informatics of the structural nuclear protein NuMA parses trajectories for stem/progenitor cell lineages and oncogenic transformation.<