WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit branch autonomy

  1. School Autonomy: A Comparison between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Gao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined and compared school autonomy in China and the United States. Based on the international PISA 2012 school data, the authors examined three aspects of school autonomy. We found that in comparison with the United States, (1) principals from China were less likely to have responsibility over eleven school decisions (hiring…

  2. Nurses' autonomy in end-of-life situations in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Maria Cristina; Bousso, Regina Szylit

    2015-11-01

    The intensive care unit environment focuses on interventions and support therapies that prolong life. The exercise by nurses of their autonomy impacts on perception of the role they assume in the multidisciplinary team and on their function in the intensive care unit context. There is much international research relating to nurses' involvement in end-of-life situations; however, there is a paucity of research in this area in Brazil. In the Brazilian medical scenario, life support limitation generated a certain reluctance of a legal nature, which has now become unjustifiable with the publication of a resolution by the Federal Medical Council. In Brazil, the lack of medical commitments to end-of-life care is evident. To understand the process by which nurses exercise autonomy in making end-of-life decisions in intensive care units. Symbolic Interactionism and Corbin and Strauss theory methodology were used for this study. Data were collected through single audio-recorded qualitative interviews with 14 critical care nurses. The comparative analysis of the data has permitted the understanding of the meaning of nurse's experience in exercising autonomy relating to end-of-life decision-making. Institutional ethics approval was obtained for data collection. Participants gave informed consent. All data were anonymized. The results revealed that nurses experience the need to exercise autonomy in intensive care units on a daily basis. Their experience expressed by the process of increase opportunities to exercise autonomy is conditioned by the pressure of the intensive care unit environment, in which nurses can grow, feel empowered, and exercise their autonomy or else can continuously depend on the decisions made by other professionals. Nurses exercise their autonomy through care. They work to create new spaces at the same time that they acquire new knowledge and make decisions. Because of the complexity of the end-of-life situation, nurses must adopt a proactive attitude

  3. SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FINANCIAL AUTONOMY OF THE ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVETERRITORIAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELINDA CENUŞE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania local autonomy is administrative and financial. If local financial resources are not independent from the state budget and they continue to depend on it exclusively and if financial independence remains only a target which has not been materialized in practice, then the administrative autonomy of the communes, towns and counties will not yield the expected results and will still be limited. According to the European Charter of Local Self-Government the financial resources available for the Local Government authorities should be correlated, commensurate with their duties and their decentralized competences. A recent decision of the Romanian Constitutional Court sustains the same idea. Having in mind this CC’s Decision, the provisions of the European Charter of Local Self-Government and the nowadays insolvent Romanian administrative-territorial units, allow me to underline in this paper my opinion that the financial autonomy is the substance of local autonomy.

  4. Controlling and Autonomy-Supportive Parenting in the United States and China: Beyond Children's Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Wang, Meifang; Qu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Research comparing the predictive power of parents' control and autonomy support in the United States and China has relied almost exclusively on children's reports. Such reports may lead to inaccurate conclusions if they do not reflect parents' practices to the same extent in the two countries. A total of 394 American and Chinese children…

  5. Barriers to intensive care unit nurses' autonomy in Iran: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AllahBakhshian, Maryam; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Taleghani, Fariba; Nik, Ahmadreza Yazdan; Abbasi, Saeed; Gholizadeh, Leila

    The acute nature of the intensive care unit (ICU) environment necessitates that urgent clinical decisions are frequently made by the health care team. Therefore, it is important that critical care nurses have the authority to make decisions about their patient care. The purpose of this study was to explore perceived barriers to the practice of professional autonomy from the perspectives of ICU nurses in Iran. In this qualitative study, 28 critical care nurses were interviewed using a semistructured in-depth interview method. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis led to identification of two main themes and five subthemes: (a) the profession-related barriers with two associated subthemes of "lack of capacity to exercise autonomy" and "lack of strong professional bodies"; (b) organizational barriers with the associated subthemes of "role ambiguity," "a directive rather than supportive workplace," and "lack of motivation." ICU nurses in Iran may face many challenges in gaining professional autonomy. The identified inter- and intraprofessional barriers to the exercise of autonomy need to be addressed to promote critical thinking, job satisfaction, and motivation of ICU nurses, which can in turn lead to improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Moral distress, autonomy and nurse-physician collaboration among intensive care unit nurses in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, Maria N K; Albarran, John W; Drigo, Elio; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Kalafati, Maria; Mpouzika, Meropi; Tsiaousis, George Z; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D E

    2014-05-01

    To explore the level of moral distress and potential associations between moral distress indices and (1) nurse-physician collaboration, (2) autonomy, (3) professional satisfaction, (4) intention to resign, and (5) workload among Italian intensive care unit nurses. Poor nurse-physician collaboration and low autonomy may limit intensive care unit nurses' ability to act on their moral decisions. A cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 566 Italian intensive care unit nurses. The intensity of moral distress was 57.9 ± 15.6 (mean, standard deviation) (scale range: 0-84) and the frequency of occurrence was 28.4 ± 12.3 (scale range: 0-84). The mean score of the severity of moral distress was 88.0 ± 44 (scale range: 0-336). The severity of moral distress was associated with (1) nurse-physician collaboration and dissatisfaction on care decisions (r = -0.215, P intention to resign (r = 0.244, P intention of nurses to resign (r = -0. 209, P intention to resign, whereas poor nurse-physician collaboration appears to be a pivotal factor accounting for nurses' moral distress. Enhancement of nurse-physician collaboration and nurses' participation in end-of-life decisions seems to be a managerial task that could lead to the alleviation of nurses' moral distress and their retention in the profession. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Maintaining the Integrity of Public Education: A Comparative Analysis of School Autonomy in the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a critical comparative approach to examining autonomous schooling in the United States and Australia. Amid the market imperatives currently driving education priorities, its focus is on how autonomy can be mobilized in ways that preserve the integrity of public education. Through reference to key debates and research about…

  8. Sustainability of International Branch Campuses in the United Arab Emirates: A Vision for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Angela; Alzouebi, Khadeegha

    2014-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates is developing higher education institutions that will contribute to an educational sector providing premium degree programs. There was a belief that the recognition and achievements these institutions attained over decades in their native land would be transferable in the implementation of international branch campuses.…

  9. Physicians’ perceptions of quality of care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction in Canada, Norway, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We lack national and cross-national studies of physicians’ perceptions of quality of patient care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction to inform clinicians and policymakers. This study aims to compare such perceptions in Canada, the United States (U.S.), and Norway. Methods We analyzed data from large, nationwide, representative samples of physicians in Canada (n = 3,083), the U.S. (n = 6,628), and Norway (n = 638), examining demographics, job satisfaction, and professional autonomy. Results Among U.S. physicians, 79% strongly agreed/agreed they could provide high quality patient care vs. only 46% of Canadian and 59% of Norwegian physicians. U.S. physicians also perceived more clinical autonomy and time with their patients, with differences remaining significant even after controlling for age, gender, and clinical hours. Women reported less adequate time, clinical freedom, and ability to provide high-quality care. Country differences were the strongest predictors for the professional autonomy variables. In all three countries, physicians’ perceptions of quality of care, clinical freedom, and time with patients influenced their overall job satisfaction. Fewer U.S. physicians reported their overall job satisfaction to be at-least-somewhat satisfied than did Norwegian and Canadian physicians. Conclusions U.S. physicians perceived higher quality of patient care and greater professional autonomy, but somewhat lower job satisfaction than their colleagues in Norway and Canada. Differences in health care system financing and delivery might help explain this difference; Canada and Norway have more publicly-financed, not-for-profit health care delivery systems, vs. a more-privately-financed and profit-driven system in the U.S. None of these three highly-resourced countries, however, seem to have achieved an ideal health care system from the perspective of their physicians. PMID:24330820

  10. Physicians' perceptions of quality of care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction in Canada, Norway, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Palmer, Karen S; Solberg, Ingunn B; Voltmer, Edgar; Frank, Erica

    2013-12-15

    We lack national and cross-national studies of physicians' perceptions of quality of patient care, professional autonomy, and job satisfaction to inform clinicians and policymakers. This study aims to compare such perceptions in Canada, the United States (U.S.), and Norway. We analyzed data from large, nationwide, representative samples of physicians in Canada (n = 3,213), the U.S. (n = 6,628), and Norway (n = 657), examining demographics, job satisfaction, and professional autonomy. Among U.S. physicians, 79% strongly agreed/agreed they could provide high quality patient care vs. only 46% of Canadian and 59% of Norwegian physicians. U.S. physicians also perceived more clinical autonomy and time with their patients, with differences remaining significant even after controlling for age, gender, and clinical hours. Women reported less adequate time, clinical freedom, and ability to provide high-quality care. Country differences were the strongest predictors for the professional autonomy variables. In all three countries, physicians' perceptions of quality of care, clinical freedom, and time with patients influenced their overall job satisfaction. Fewer U.S. physicians reported their overall job satisfaction to be at-least-somewhat satisfied than did Norwegian and Canadian physicians. U.S. physicians perceived higher quality of patient care and greater professional autonomy, but somewhat lower job satisfaction than their colleagues in Norway and Canada. Differences in health care system financing and delivery might help explain this difference; Canada and Norway have more publicly-financed, not-for-profit health care delivery systems, vs. a more-privately-financed and profit-driven system in the U.S. None of these three highly-resourced countries, however, seem to have achieved an ideal health care system from the perspective of their physicians.

  11. Are gains in decision-making autonomy during early adolescence beneficial for emotional functioning? The case of the United States and china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lili; Pomerantz, Eva M; Wang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the role of children's decision-making autonomy in their emotional functioning during early adolescence in the United States and China. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M = 12.73 years) reported on the extent to which they versus their parents make decisions about issues children often deem as under their authority. Children also reported on their emotional functioning. American children made greater gains over time in decision-making autonomy than did Chinese children. Initial decision-making autonomy predicted enhanced emotional functioning similarly among American and Chinese children. However, gains over time in decision-making autonomy predicted enhanced emotional functioning more in the United States (vs. China) where such gains were normative.

  12. Autonomy and self-determination theory in different contexts: A comparison of middle school science teachers' motivation and instruction in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura Elizabeth

    This study examined factors that contribute to Chinese and United States middle school science teachers' perceptions of autonomy support. Autonomy is one component of self-determination theory and has been associated with intrinsic motivation. The study used a mixed methods design including quantitative data collected through an online survey and qualitative data collected through open-ended interview questions. The online survey consisted of four assessments related to teachers' self-determination, perceptions of constraints at work, perceptions of students' self-determination, and level of autonomy support for students and allowed for the testing of the structural model developed by Pelletier, Seguin-Levesque, and Legault (2002). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of responses for the combined teacher sample (n=201) was carried out for each of the survey assessments. Significance testing for Chinese (n=107) and U.S. (n=94) teachers, based on the factors resulting from EFA, revealed significant differences in teachers' self-determination and perceptions of constraints at work. No significant differences were found for teachers' perceptions of students' self-determination or level of autonomy support for students. Multiple regression was used to predict teachers' autonomy support for students. For the Chinese teachers, perceptions of constraints at work, teachers' self-determination, and teachers' perceptions of student motivation were found to significantly predict teachers' autonomy support. For the U.S. teachers, teacher motivation was the only significant predictor of teachers' autonomy support. A sub-sample of the Chinese and U.S. science teachers (n=19) were interviewed about their perceived levels of autonomy support, constraints at work, and their students' self determination. The analyses of the interviews showed that teachers in both countries reported that autonomy was important to their motivation and the quality of instruction they provided to students

  13. Are Gains in Decision-Making Autonomy during Early Adolescence Beneficial for Emotional Functioning? The Case of the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lili; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Wang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the role of children's decision-making autonomy in their emotional functioning during early adolescence in the United States and China. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M = 12.73 years) reported on the extent to which they versus their parents make decisions about issues children…

  14. 26 CFR 1.989(c)-1 - Transition rules for certain branches of United States persons using a net worth method of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business units (QBU) branches of United States persons, whose functional currency (as defined in section... that used a net worth method of accounting for their last taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987... section to a QBU branch that used a net worth method of accounting for its last taxable year beginning...

  15. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  16. Student Satisfaction and Student Perceptions of Quality at International Branch Campuses in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens; Huisman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The international branch campus has emerged as a popular form of transnational higher education but to date little research has been undertaken on student perceptions and experiences, other than the student feedback evaluations conducted by institutions. This research employed a survey questionnaire to investigate student perceptions of study at…

  17. Anagogy of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, A L

    2000-07-01

    The philosophical and ethical concept of autonomy is herein examined, ex post facto, using an existential lens to examine the process of a personal friend's dying. Anagogy, defined as interpretation of a word, passage, or text that finds beyond the literal, allegorical, and moral senses a fourth and ultimate spiritual or mystical sense, is intended to enlarge the understanding of the use of autonomy in this case. The idea of personhood linked inextricably to reason is, therefore, understood as empowering an individual to choose among various actions, to define and redefine life goals, and to give priority to selected values and moral tenants, which reveal a moral hermeneutic. Conditions and circumstances, existentially exposed, limit choice in unexpected ways, such that the predicted value of autonomy is vulnerable to misuse or misunderstanding. The intent to respect the dignity of every person is central to the philosophy of Respect for Persons ethics, and assumes that autonomy, as freedom of the moral agent, is a moral duty. Implicit reality of freedom is, in a practical sense, essential to being rational agents who can thereby exercise informed choice. The moral law, law of freedom, involves the autonomy of the will and an ultimate end to which all action is directed. Defined as the highest good, morality unites virtue and happiness by ascribing the ultimate end sought as God. The freedom to use rational will finds principles within its own rational nature. The ability to create maxims is autonomy of the will, which equates with the dignity of persons. My recent experience as a companion to a personal friend with a terminal illness inspired me to re-evaluate the concept of autonomy as it is too often interpreted in modern ethical discourse as a individualistic right of choice as opposed to the hermeneutic of dignity of person. This paper describes a shift of position in understanding the paradox of autonomy in this existential context.

  18. Autonomy @ Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dalsem, William; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    This is a powerpoint presentation that highlights autonomy across the 15 NASA technology roadmaps, including specific examples of projects (past and present) at NASA Ames Research Center. The NASA technology roadmaps are located here: http:www.nasa.govofficesocthomeroadmapsindex.html

  19. Syntactic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-12-01

    The study of adapting and evolving autonomous agents should be based on a complex systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notions of semiotics and situated action is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments.Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and self-organization are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. With this semiotic view of self-organization and symbols, the authors re-think the notion of autonomy of evolving systems, and show that evolutionary systems are characterized by a particular type of syntactic autonomy. Recent developments in emergent computation in cellular automata are discussed as examples of the emergence of syntactic autonomy in computational environments. New experiments emphasizing this syntactic autonomy in cellular automata are presented.

  20. Perceptions of 24/7 In-house Attending Coverage on Fellow Education and Autonomy in a Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Sonal T; Owens, Gabe E; Rajput, Shaili H; Charpie, John R; Kidwell, Kelley M; Mullan, Patricia B

    2015-01-01

    The 24/7 in-house attending coverage is emerging as the standard of care in intensive care units. Implementation costs, workforce feasibility, and patient outcomes resulting from changes in physician staffing are widely debated topics. Understanding the impact of staffing models on the learning environment for medical trainees and faculty is equally warranted, particularly with respect to trainee education and autonomy. This study aims to elicit the perceptions of pediatric cardiology fellows and attendings toward 24/7 in-house attending coverage and its effect on fellow education and autonomy. We surveyed pediatric cardiology fellows and attendings practicing in the pediatric cardiothoracic intensive care unit (PCTU) of a large, university-affiliated medical center, using structured Likert response items and open-ended questions, prior to and following the transition to 24/7 in-house attending coverage. All (100%) trainees and faculty completed all surveys. Both prior to and following transition to 24/7 in-house attending coverage, all fellows, and the majority of attendings agreed that the overnight call experience benefited fellow education. At baseline, trainees identified limited circumstances in which on-site attending coverage would be critical. Preimplementation concerns that 24/7 in-house attending coverage would negatively affect the education of fellows were not reflected following actual implementation of the new staffing policy. However, based upon open-ended questions, fellow autonomy was affected by the new paradigm, with fellows and attendings reporting decreased "appropriateness" of autonomy after implementation. Our prospective study, showing initial concerns about limiting the learning environment in transitioning to 24/7 in-house attending coverage did not result in diminished perceptions of the educational experience for our fellows but revealed an expected decrease in fellow autonomy. The study indirectly facilitated open discussions about

  1. Autonomy and hierarchy in two slave communities: the cases of George (Alabama, United States, 1847 and Lino (Vassouras, Brazil, 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pereira de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks argue that the search for autonomy among slaves necessarily created hierarchies within the community where they were inserted. Through two cases compared, George in U.S. and Lino in Brazil, seeks to show that a notion of slave community was built by the social actors who were part of it

  2. Supra-National Accreditation, Trust and Institutional Autonomy: Contrasting Developments of Accreditation in the United States and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alberto; Rosa, Maria Joao; Tavares, Diana Amado

    2009-01-01

    There have been calls to increase the autonomy of higher education institutions in Europe for a number of years. They have been counterbalanced by demands for increasing accountability and a European quality assurance system. In London in 2007, the European ministers of education decided to implement a European register of accredited quality…

  3. Professional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, A E

    1998-02-01

    Professional autonomy may represent the first step to implementing measures that will allow CRNAs to attain a level of independent practice consistent with their clinical and educational training. Autonomy is regarded as an essential ingredient of professionalism and confers independent function at the individual practitioner level. The principle of autonomy refers to the individual's capacity to make independent decisions based on the assumption that he or she possesses the cognitive, psychological, and emotional faculties to make rational decisions. Nursing practice meets the first two criteria of professionalism--competence and dedication to an important social good. The third criterion of professionalism, autonomy, has been a focal point for controversy since the late nineteenth century, in which obedience to supervisors and physicians remained a central focus of nursing ethics teaching until the advent of feminism in the 1970s. This article presents a thorough analysis of these concepts with some thoughts on how understanding the fundamental precepts and further research may not only help maintain the current level of CRNA professional autonomy but serve to guide us to become more autonomous in the future.

  4. Quantifying morphological parameters of the terminal branching units in a mouse lung by phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongeun Hwang

    Full Text Available An effective technique of phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography was established for the quantitative analysis of the microstructures in the respiratory zone of a mouse lung. Heitzman's method was adopted for the whole-lung sample preparation, and Canny's edge detector was used for locating the air-tissue boundaries. This technique revealed detailed morphology of the respiratory zone components, including terminal bronchioles and alveolar sacs, with sufficiently high resolution of 1.74 µm isotropic voxel size. The technique enabled visual inspection of the respiratory zone components and comprehension of their relative positions in three dimensions. To check the method's feasibility for quantitative imaging, morphological parameters such as diameter, surface area and volume were measured and analyzed for sixteen randomly selected terminal branching units, each consisting of a terminal bronchiole and a pair of succeeding alveolar sacs. The four types of asymmetry ratios concerning alveolar sac mouth diameter, alveolar sac surface area, and alveolar sac volume are measured. This is the first ever finding of the asymmetry ratio for the terminal bronchioles and alveolar sacs, and it is noteworthy that an appreciable degree of branching asymmetry was observed among the alveolar sacs at the terminal end of the airway tree, despite the number of samples was small yet. The series of efficient techniques developed and confirmed in this study, from sample preparation to quantification, is expected to contribute to a wider and exacter application of phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography to a variety of studies.

  5. Addressing Sustainable International Branch Campus Development through an Organizational Structure Lens: A Comparative Analysis of China, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgos, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The growth of international branch campuses (IBCs) in China, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) accounts for a significant portion of the overall growth of IBCs globally. Conversely the largest exporter of IBCs globally is the United States, with several U.S. IBCs located in each of these importing countries. With the intention of focusing…

  6. The characteristics analysis of torque and rotation speed of working unit of branch grinder - introductory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warguła Łukasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrying out a realistic research on working units of machines that grinder waste coming from tree and bush trimming requires designing machines that would be more efficient. It is neccesary both to introduce the analysis of already existing solutions as well as searching for innovative ones that would result in the increase of efficiency, lowering the costs and time needed as well as lower exhaust emission into the atmosphere. The results presented below will be used for the following purposes: the analysis of grinding process that supplies data to cunstruct simulating models that reflect the real working conditions of grinding machines. The results of the experiments will allow to estimate the influence of construction featrures, including the ones connected with automatisation. The importance of the carried out research is also applicable to the analisys of influence of grinding process on the form of flakes that result from the process, energy consumption. It also allows to make conclusions leading to the improvement of the processes that use grinded mass.The construction specifity of ths kind of machines and their working principles results from the fact, that the cutting process they perform concerns orthotropic plant material that has inhomogenic structure and physical-chemical properties requires further analysis. The article presents the construcion of a research stand designed to record the characteristisc of changes of the torque and rotation speed of working unit of mill chopper type MQS2800 Macalister. The introductory research results presented below point out that depending on the position of the sample (along the grain against the mill chopper significantly influences on the form of generated changes of the torque. The research stand that has been designed and constructed allows the analysis of both construction features of the chopper as well via the assessment of grinding process also separte paremeters of processed wood.

  7. Ethical dimensions of quality of life in aging: autonomy vs. collectivism in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P G

    1991-10-01

    Ethical concepts lie at the core of how quality of life in aging is defined and enhanced. Although recent American attention has been largely focused on autonomy as an important value for quality of life in old age, there is real danger in emphasizing personal independence at the expense of community or collectivism. This conceptual analysis compares and contrasts these value orientations in the U.S. and Canada and examines their relationship to the concept of quality of life in aging. It also explores implications of the analysis for expanding our understanding of the importance of value dimensions in comparative gerontology, and suggests ways of integrating individualistic and collectivistic ideals in gerontological policies and programs.

  8. Institutional Financial Autonomy in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szwebs, Witold

    2016-01-01

    The article reveals how university autonomy may in practice prove to be restrictive for units within the university. The need to implement and interpret external regulations and protect the institution may, argued in the paper, lead to a risk averse, conservative approach which is experienced...... by departments as bureaucratic and hampering effective research. Thus autonomy has produced new internal tensions between the central management/administration and the departments which it is argued is counter-productive and not beneficial for research and could be seen as a perverse aspect of greater autonomy....... Indeed because university policy and ‘interference’ is much closer to the researcher than in former less autonomous times and the university may now exercise other direct incentives through resource allocation, promotion and salary enhancement, the department and the individual may view autonomy...

  9. Autonomy as Aesthetic Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lütticken, S.

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines various conceptions of autonomy in relation to recent artistic practices. Starting from the apparent opposition between modernist notions of the autonomy of art and theorizations of political autonomy, the text problematizes the notion of the autonomy of art by using Jacques

  10. Production physiology and morphology of Populus species and their hybrids grown under short rotation. III. Seasonal carbon allocation patterns from branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.E.; Hinckley, T.M.; Stettler, R.F. [Washington Univ., College of Forest Resources, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    A study was carried out to compare highly productive cones, in the Pacific Northwest, in terms of contrasting growth and morphology. The objective of the study was to determine seasonal differences in carbon allocation patterns among 1- and 2-year old trees of Populus deltoides Bartr, and 2 of their interspecific hybrids. The study examined if there are different patterns of carbon allocation associated with the more productive poplar clones, how these patterns vary over the course of the growing season and from the first and the second year, if sylleptic branches vary from proleptic branches in their carbon allocation patterns, if there are the translocation patterns within branches and the degree of branch autonomy that exists with sylleptic and proleptic branches and if these patterns vary during the growing season. Previous findings on general patterns of carbon allocation in poplar clones were confirmed, and new dimensions were introduced regarding differences among branch types and clones. In the first year, carbon export from sylleptic branches increased over the growing season, and they export primarily toward the lower stem and roots. In the second year, important differences in translocation efficiency occurred among branch types with the sylleptic branches contributing more than proleptic branches, on a per unit mass basis, to the growth of the tree. Transport patterns, within branches and among branches of different order, were similar to those in the main stem, with phenology playing an important role in controlling the sink activity of the apical portion of the growing axis. Exchange of photosynthates between adjacent branches of the same order or between branches and main stem leaves are minimal, supporting an hypothesis of branch autonomy. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. University autonomy as sensemaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jonas Krog

    The formal autonomy of universities in Europe has generally increased over recent decades. However, new forms of accountability measures and more indirect state steering have accompanied this development, making it difficult to assess the actual autonomy. The article addresses this problem...... by applying the sensemaking approach to the study of organizational autonomy. Enacted autonomy is suggested as a new conceptualization that challenges the basic assumption in studies on formal autonomy that autonomy is only about external constraints on action. It does so by insisting on the active subjects...... in the enactment of the environment, thereby questioning the validity of a clear distinction between what is internal and what is external to an organization. By acknowledging the subjective dimension of autonomy, a set of stylized identities is developed as a tool for understanding the enactment of autonomy...

  12. Respect for rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebecca L

    2009-12-01

    The standard notion of autonomy in medical ethics does not require that autonomous choices not be irrational. The paper gives three examples of seemingly irrational patient choices and discusses how a rational autonomy analysis differs from the standard view. It then considers whether a switch to the rational autonomy view would lead to overriding more patient decisions but concludes that this should not be the case. Rather, a determination of whether individual patient decisions are autonomous is much less relevant than usually considered in determining whether health care providers must abide by these decisions. Furthermore, respect for rational autonomy entails strong positive requirements of respect for the autonomy of the person as a rational decision maker. The rationality view of autonomy is conceptually stronger than the standard view, allows for a more nuanced understanding of the practical moral calculus involved in respecting patient autonomy, and promotes positive respect for patient autonomy.

  13. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  14. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant's remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data

  15. Regimes of Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Like being able to drive a car, being autonomous is a socially attributed, claimed, and contested status. Normative debates about criteria for autonomy (and what autonomy entitles one to) are best understood, not as debates about what autonomy, at core, really is, but rather as debates about the

  16. Autonomy: Life and Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary-Anne

    This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

  17. The Evolution of Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammers, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    There can be little doubt, at least in the Western world, that autonomy is theruling principle in contemporary bioethics. In spite of its 'triumph' however,the dominance of the utilitarian concept of autonomy is being increasinglyquestioned. In this paper, I explore the nature of autonomy, how it came todisplace the Hippocratic tradition in medicine and how different conceptsof autonomy have evolved. I argue that the reduction of autonomy to'the exercise of personal choice' in medicine has led to a 'tyranny of autonomy' which can be inimical to ethical medical practice rather than conducive to it.I take the case of Kerrie Wooltorton as an illustration of how misplacedadherence to respect for patient autonomy can lead to tragic consequences.An analysis of autonomy based on the work of Rachel Haliburton isdescribed and applied to the role of autonomy in a recent bioethicaldebate--that arising from Savulescu's proposal that conscientious objection by health-care professionals should not be permitted in the NHS. Inconclusion, I suggest Kukla's concept of conscientious autonomy as onepromising pathway to circumvent both the limitations and adverse effectsof the dominance of current (mis)understandings of autonomy in biomedical ethics.

  18. Realized Incomes And Revenues Of Local And Branch (Regional Self-Government Units With Audit Review On Income-Earning Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mahaček

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to other incomes, the incomes of local and branch (regional self-government units are made by the income-earning property as well. Statutory provisions determine their realization. This work presents basic kinds of these incomes with legal foundation, which is the base for their realization. The realization was observed on the county-level for a definite period (from 2003 to 2005. It is important to emphasise that the county-level realization includes the realization of the stated incomes within the frame of cities and communes on their area.

  19. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  20. A formalism for scattering of complex composite structures. I. Applications to branched structures of asymmetric sub-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneborg, Carsten; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2012-01-01

    to structural connectivity is completely decoupled from internal structure of the sub-units. This allows sub-units to be replaced by more complex structures. We illustrate the physical interpretation of the formalism diagrammatically. By applying a self-consistency requirement, we derive the pair distributions...

  1. Autonomy of State Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Niklasson, Birgitta; Roness, Paul

    agencies in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. By using survey data from more than 500 state agencies in the four countries, the article analyses whether there is indeed a Scandinavian style of autonomy and result control and assesses which structural, cultural, and environmental......NPM-doctrines states that ideal-type agencies should have a high level of managerial autonomy, while being controlled through result-based control instruments, like performance contracts. In this article, the authors present a first preliminary attempt to comparatively analyze the autonomy of state...... variables might explain similarities and differences in the autonomy of agencies....

  2. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    on the content of the syllabus. When autonomy is understood in the literal sense, of giving oneself one's own laws, then there is a clear connection. Autonomy is usually connected to politics and a geographically limited territory. Special political rights of minorities - e.g. is the Danish minority party SSW...

  3. Entrepreneurial autonomy and its dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Founding and owning an independent business does not automatically provide the owner/founder with autonomy. Autonomy-motivated entrepreneurs must often make an effort to achieve and maintain autonomy. The aim of this research is to investigate the experience of autonomy, its variations over time,

  4. Changing professional autonomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway......The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway...

  5. Autonomy and hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.; Schicha, H.; Baehre, M.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of autonomy in iodine-deficiency goiter for the development of hyperthyroidism was investigated. (1) In 171 of 426 consecutive patients high-resolution quantitative scintiscans showed signs suggestive of autonomy. With increasing 99mTc uptake by the thyroid their TT3 levels were found to rise progressively during suppression, while their pre-suppression TSH levels dropped progressively. This suggests global sup(99m)Tc uptake by the thyroid during suppression to be a useful indicator of the functional significance of autonomy. (2) Based on 326 patients with hyperthyroidism a system for differentiating between autonomy-related and immunogenic disease was developed and validated prospectively in another 162 patients with hyperthyroidism by assaying for thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAb). TSAb was found to be present in 82% of the 77 patients diagnosed as having immunogenic hyperthyroidism and in only 8% of the 85 patients with autonomy-related hyperthyroidism. Our results support the assumption that autonomy in iodine-deficiency goiter plays a major role in the development of hyperthyroidism, while autoimmune processes appear to be of secondary importance. (Author)

  6. Understanding nurse practitioner autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Sandra A

    2015-02-01

    This Gadamerian hermeneutic study was undertaken to understand the meaning of autonomy as interpreted by nurse practitioners (NPs) through their lived experiences of everyday practice in primary health care. A purposive sample of nine NPs practicing in primary health care was used. Network sampling achieved a broad swath of primary care NPs and practice settings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Because NP autonomy is concerned with gender and marginalization, Gilligan's feminist perspective was utilized during interpretive analysis. Having Genuine NP Practice was the major theme, reflecting the participants' overall meaning of their autonomy. Practicing alone with the patient provided the context within which participants shaped the meaning of Having Genuine NP Practice. Having Genuine NP Practice had four subthemes: relationships, self-reliance, self-empowerment, and defending the NP role. The understanding of Having Genuine NP Practice will enable NPs to articulate their autonomy clearly and better influence healthcare reform. Implications for advanced practice nursing education include integrating findings into classroom discussion to prompt self-reflection of what autonomy means and socialization to the NP role. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. Autonomy in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Literature on the mental capacities and cognitive mechanisms of the great apes has been silent about whether they can act autonomously. This paper provides a philosophical theory of autonomy supported by psychological studies of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie chimpanzee behavior to argue that chimpanzees can act autonomously even though their psychological mechanisms differ from those of humans. Chimpanzees satisfy the two basic conditions of autonomy: (1) liberty (the absence of controlling influences) and (2) agency (self-initiated intentional action), each of which is specified here in terms of conditions of understanding, intention, and self-control. In this account, chimpanzees make knowledge-based choices reflecting a richly information-based and socially sophisticated understanding of the world. Finally, two major theories of autonomy (Kantian theory and two-level theory) are rejected as too narrow to adequately address these issues, necessitating the modifications made in the present approach.

  8. [What is patient autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Guillaume

    What does patient autonomy mean? If an autonomous choice is defined as an objective and rational choice, is the doctor's prescription not always the best route? Our contemporary democracies are marked by moral and religious pluralism which obliges society to respect a multiplicity of choices of existence. Three levels are important in terms of autonomy: a range of intellectual capacities, freedom with regard to constraints (external and internal), the capacity to be in control of one's existence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [From dependency to autonomy, a geriatric pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Antoine; Da Costa Ribeiro, Florence; Pedra, Maryse; Chassaigne, Marie-Christine; Berbon, Caroline

    Preventing dependency is essential in our ageing society. One of its components is the avoidable dependency which develops during a period of hospitalisation. Caregivers play an important role in helping the elderly person regain their autonomy. Various actions have been undertaken on this theme within the gerontology unit of Toulouse university hospital, including the creation of a multi-disciplinary group of experts among the caregivers working in the unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Physicians’ Perceptions of Autonomy across Practice Types: Is Autonomy in Solo Practice a Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y.

    2013-01-01

    Physicians in the United States are now less likely to practice in smaller, more traditional, solo practices, and more likely to practice in larger group practices. Though older theory predicts conflict between bureaucracy and professional autonomy, studies have shown that professions in general, and physicians in particular, have adapted to organizational constraints. However, much work remains in clarifying the nature of this relationship and how exactly physicians have adapted to various organizational settings. To this end, the present study examines physicians’ autonomy experiences in different decision types between organization sizes. Specifically, I ask: In what kinds of decisions do doctors perceive autonomous control? How does this vary by organizational size? Using stacked “spell” data constructed from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey (1996–2005) (n=16,519) I examine how physicians’ perceptions of autonomy vary between solo/two physician practices, small group practices with three to ten physicians, and large practices with ten or more physicians, in two kinds of decisions: logistic-based and knowledge-based decisions. Capitalizing on the longitudinal nature of the data I estimate how changes in practice size are associated with perceptions of autonomy, accounting for previous reports of autonomy. I also test whether managed care involvement, practice ownership, and salaried employment help explain part of this relationship. I find that while physicians practicing in larger group practices reported lower levels of autonomy in logistic-based decisions, physicians in solo/two physician practices reported lower levels of autonomy in knowledge-based decisions. Managed care involvement and ownership explain some, but not all, of the associations. These findings suggest that professional adaptation to various organizational settings can lead to varying levels of perceived autonomy across different kinds of decisions. PMID:24444835

  11. Physicians' perceptions of autonomy across practice types: Is autonomy in solo practice a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in the United States are now less likely to practice in smaller, more traditional, solo practices, and more likely to practice in larger group practices. Though older theory predicts conflict between bureaucracy and professional autonomy, studies have shown that professions in general, and physicians in particular, have adapted to organizational constraints. However, much work remains in clarifying the nature of this relationship and how exactly physicians have adapted to various organizational settings. To this end, the present study examines physicians' autonomy experiences in different decision types between organization sizes. Specifically, I ask: In what kinds of decisions do doctors perceive autonomous control? How does this vary by organizational size? Using stacked "spell" data constructed from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey (1996-2005) (n = 16,519) I examine how physicians' perceptions of autonomy vary between solo/two physician practices, small group practices with three to ten physicians, and large practices with ten or more physicians, in two kinds of decisions: logistic-based and knowledge-based decisions. Capitalizing on the longitudinal nature of the data I estimate how changes in practice size are associated with perceptions of autonomy, accounting for previous reports of autonomy. I also test whether managed care involvement, practice ownership, and salaried employment help explain part of this relationship. I find that while physicians practicing in larger group practices reported lower levels of autonomy in logistic-based decisions, physicians in solo/two physician practices reported lower levels of autonomy in knowledge-based decisions. Managed care involvement and ownership explain some, but not all, of the associations. These findings suggest that professional adaptation to various organizational settings can lead to varying levels of perceived autonomy across different kinds of decisions. Copyright © 2013

  12. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, John; Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    discussion of challenges. The other outcome is the extent to which academic colleagues in a wide-range of disciplines and not directly engaged with research on university autonomy may not perceive or engage with the wider autonomy outcomes of their work and as a result their own case studies may not fully...... identify the autonomy impact real or potential. Many academic staff take for granted university autonomy without questioning its sometimes contradictory assumptions and impacts....

  13. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  14. Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Det empiriske udgangspunkt for artiklen "Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi - dansk normal evalueringsforskning som et ikke-autonomt (sub)felt i magtens felt" er en række tekster af fire dominerende danske evalueringsforskere. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er især Pierre Bourdieus teori om...

  15. The economic value of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    We develop an economic theory of "autonomy", which we interpret as the discretion or ability to make a decision that others disagree with. We show that autonomy is essentially an option for the decisionmaker, and can be valued as such. The value of the autonomy option is decreasing in the extent to

  16. Senegal : School Autonomy and Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Senegal has accelerated the decentralization of education since 1996. Budgetary autonomy is latent. Autonomy over the management of operational budgets has been delegated to the communes, but salaries for teachers are managed at the central level. Autonomy in personnel management is latent. Both school directors and teachers are appointed at the central level. The role of the school counci...

  17. Compulsory Autonomy-Promoting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Today, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the development of autonomy in children, but also that this aim should…

  18. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-15

    Autonomy is defined as the capacity to think, decide, and act freely and independently on the basis of such thought and decisions. Three types of autonomy are distinguished: autonomy of thought, which embraces the wide range of human intellectual activities called "thinking for oneself"; autonomy of will, or the capacity to decide to do things on the basis of one's deliberations; and autonomy of action, the absence of which is illustrated by the situation of a patient whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed by curariform drugs and who thus cannot tell the surgeon that the anesthetist has forgotten the nitrous oxide. Autonomy is viewed as a prerequisite for all the virtues, rather than as a virtue in its own right. The arguments of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill concerning the principle of respect for autonomy are summarized as exemplars respectively of the deontological and utilitarian philosophical approaches.

  19. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  20. Law, autonomy and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Lindy; White, Ben; Mathews, Ben

    2010-12-01

    The principle of autonomy underpins legal regulation of advance directives that refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. The primacy of autonomy in this domain is recognised expressly in the case law, through judicial pronouncement, and implicitly in most Australian jurisdictions, through enactment into statute of the right to make an advance directive. This article seeks to justify autonomy as an appropriate principle for regulating advance directives and relies on three arguments: the necessity of autonomy in a liberal democracy; the primacy of autonomy in medical ethics discourse; and the uncontested importance of autonomy in the law on contemporaneous refusal of medical treatment. This article also responds to key criticisms that autonomy is not an appropriate organising principle to underpin legal regulation of advance directives.

  1. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  2. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  3. Autonomy and the emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Tappolet, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Can actions caused by emotions be free and autonomous? The rationalist conception of autonomy denies this. Only actions done in the light of reflective choices can be autonomous and hence free. I argue that the rationalist conception does not make room for akratic actions, that is, free and intentional actions performed against the agent’s best judgement. I then develop an account inspired by Harry Frankfurt and David Shoemaker, according to which an action is autonomous when it is determined...

  4. The Autonomy of Deportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas de Genova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As ostensibly unwanted or undesirable non-citizens, the utter disposability of deportees appears to be finally and conclusively verified by deportation as a sovereign state power’s perfunctory and mundane act of 'taking out the trash.' Hence, it is no accident that, etymologically, the origins of the very word 'deportation' would indicate a carrying away, a removal, a disposal. The eradication of deportees’ individual lives — their personal identities and life trajectories — emerges as a frightfully routine and prosaic fact of deportation. In spite of the sheer violence of the ruptures inflicted though deportation, however, those who have been rendered the objects of this power persistently reassert their own subjectivity. Ethnographic insights into the lived struggles of the deported (as well as their loved ones and communities elucidates the enduring subjectivity of those who have been made the objects of such sovereign acts of state power and subjected to deportation's techniques of eradication, and illustrates the stubborn incorrigibility of human life against the myriad forces that would seek to enforce its precarity and disposability. In the post-deportation condition, we confront anew the elementary and elemental human freedom of movement, and the incorrigibility of the autonomy and subjectivity of migration. Much as the autonomy of migration instigates a contest in which state power never has the first word, what we may now conceive as the autonomy of deportation — an autonomy and subjectivity of the deported within and against their predicaments of deportation — similarly ensures that state power never has the last word, either.

  5. Perspectives on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Yolanda

    2009-09-01

    This department, sponsored by the AONE, presents information to assist nurse leaders in shaping the future of healthcare through creative and innovative leadership. The strategic priorities of AONE anchor the editorial content. They reflect contemporary healthcare and nursing practice issues that challenge nurse executives as they strive to meet the needs of patients. This article describes how 9 Magnet-hospital, chief nursing officers perceive their autonomy and its importance in accomplishing their work.

  6. Autonomy, Trust, and Respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article seeks to explore and analyze the relationship between autonomy and trust, and to show how these findings could be relevant to medical ethics. First, I will argue that the way in which so-called "relational autonomy theories" tie the notions of autonomy and trust together is not entirely satisfying Then, I will introduce the so-called Encapsulated Interest Account as developed by Russell Hardin. This will bring out the importance of the reasons for trust. What good reasons do we have for trusting someone? I will criticize Hardin's business model as insufficiently robust, especially in the context of health care, and then turn to another source of trust, namely, love. It may seem that trust-through-love is much better suited for the vulnerability that is often involved in health care, but I will also show that it has its own deficiencies. Good health care should therefore pay attention to both models of trust, and I will offer some tentative remarks on how to do this. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Autonomy, recognition and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Vitório Cenci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Honneth’s concept of autonomy from two dimensions of his work, distinct, though inseparable. The first one is suggested through the subject’s positive practical self-relation linked to the patterns of reciprocal recognition of love, right and social esteem; the second is formulated as non-centered autonomy opposed to the present-day criticism of the modern autonomous subject encompassing three levels, namely: the capacity of linguistic articulation, the narrative coherence of life and the complementation of being guided by principles with some criteria of moral sensitivity to the context. We defend the position that, by metaphysically anchoring the concept of autonomy onto the intersubjective assumptions of his/her theory of the subject, and exploring it linked to the subject’s positive practical self-relation and to a non-centered meaning, Honneth has managed to renew it, which allows drawing important consequences of such effort to the field of education.

  8. Ignorance, information and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Keywood, K

    2001-09-01

    People have a powerful interest in genetic privacy and its associated claim to ignorance, and some equally powerful desires to be shielded from disturbing information are often voiced. We argue, however, that there is no such thing as a right to remain in ignorance, where a fight is understood as an entitlement that trumps competing claims. This does not of course mean that information must always be forced upon unwilling recipients, only that there is no prima facie entitlement to be protected from true or honest information about oneself. Any claims to be shielded from information about the self must compete on equal terms with claims based in the rights and interests of others. In balancing the weight and importance of rival considerations about giving or withholding information, if rights claims have any place, rights are more likely to be defensible on the side of honest communication of information rather than in defence of ignorance. The right to free speech and the right to decline to accept responsibility to take decisions for others imposed by those others seem to us more plausible candidates for fully fledged rights in this field than any purported right to ignorance. Finally, and most importantly, if the right to autonomy is invoked, a proper understanding of the distinction between claims to liberty and claims to autonomy show that the principle of autonomy, as it is understood in contemporary social ethics and English law, supports the giving rather than the withholding of information in most circumstances.

  9. Autonomy and autonomy competencies: a practical and relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Kim

    2006-10-01

    This essay will address a general philosophical concern about autonomy, namely, that a conception of autonomy focused on freedom of the will alone is inadequate, once we consider the effects of oppressive forms of socialization on individuals' formation of choices. In response to this problem, I will present a brief overview of Diana Meyers's account of autonomy as relational and practical. On this view, autonomy consists in a set of socially acquired practical competencies in self-discovery, self-definition, self-knowledge, and self-direction. This account provides a distinction between choices that express unreflectively internalized social norms and those that are the result of a critical 'self-reading'. I conclude that this practical conception of autonomy makes much higher demands upon nurses (and patients) than has previously been thought. In fact, if nurses are to be expected to genuinely promote autonomy, they are going to need specific training in counselling-type communication skills.

  10. A clade uniting the green algae Mesostigma viride and Chlorokybus atmophyticus represents the deepest branch of the Streptophyta in chloroplast genome-based phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turmel Monique

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae comprise two major phyla: the Streptophyta, containing the charophycean green algae and all land plants, and the Chlorophyta, containing the remaining green algae. Despite recent progress in unravelling phylogenetic relationships among major green plant lineages, problematic nodes still remain in the green tree of life. One of the major issues concerns the scaly biflagellate Mesostigma viride, which is either regarded as representing the earliest divergence of the Streptophyta or a separate lineage that diverged before the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. Phylogenies based on chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes support the latter view. Because some green plant lineages are not represented in these phylogenies, sparse taxon sampling has been suspected to yield misleading topologies. Here, we describe the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequence of the early-diverging charophycean alga Chlorokybus atmophyticus and present chloroplast genome-based phylogenies with an expanded taxon sampling. Results The 152,254 bp Chlorokybus cpDNA closely resembles its Mesostigma homologue at the gene content and gene order levels. Using various methods of phylogenetic inference, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide data sets that were derived from 45 protein-coding genes common to the cpDNAs of 37 green algal/land plant taxa and eight non-green algae. Unexpectedly, all best trees recovered a robust clade uniting Chlorokybus and Mesostigma. In protein trees, this clade was sister to all streptophytes and chlorophytes and this placement received moderate support. In contrast, gene trees provided unequivocal support to the notion that the Mesostigma + Chlorokybus clade represents the earliest-diverging branch of the Streptophyta. Independent analyses of structural data (gene content and/or gene order and of subsets of amino acid data progressively enriched in slow-evolving sites led us to conclude that the latter topology

  11. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?......Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability...... are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new...

  12. Autonomy, Social Interactions and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, Annalisa; Navarra, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The present paper, using a social interactions model, studies the impact of culture on autonomy of immigrants. The results suggest that: (i) immigrants' autonomy is largely influenced by the autonomy of individuals living in a host country; (ii) some immigrants are better off in countries and regions with better institutional environments. The results are robust to sensitivity checks. The contributions of the paper are as follows. First, we estimate a social interactions model that models bot...

  13. A characteristic chondroitin sulfate trisaccharide unit with a sulfated fucose branch exhibits neurite outgrowth-promoting activity: Novel biological roles of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates isolated from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Miharu; Mikami, Tadahisa; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-03

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a class of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that consist of repeating disaccharide unit composed of glucuronic acid (GlcA) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). CS chains are found throughout the pericellular and extracellular spaces and contribute to the formation of functional microenvironments for numerous biological events. However, their structure-function relations remain to be fully characterized. Here, a fucosylated CS (FCS) was isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Its promotional effects on neurite outgrowth were assessed by using isolated polysaccharides and the chemically synthesized FCS trisaccharide β-D-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate) (1-4)[α-l-fucose (2,4-O-disulfate) (1-3)]-β-D-GlcA. FCS polysaccharides contained the E-type disaccharide unit GlcA-GalNAc(4,6-O-disulfate) as a CS major backbone structure and carried distinct sulfated fucose branches. Despite their relatively lower abundance of E unit, FCS polysaccharides exhibited neurite outgrowth-promoting activity comparable to squid cartilage-derived CS-E polysaccharides, which are characterized by their predominant E units, suggesting potential roles of the fucose branch in neurite outgrowth. Indeed, the chemically synthesized FCS trisaccharide was as effective as CS-E tetrasaccharide in stimulating neurite elongation in vitro. In conclusion, FCS trisaccharide units with 2,4-O-disulfated fucose branches may provide new insights into understanding the structure-function relations of CS chains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Architecture for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

    2006-05-01

    In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks

  15. Autonomy, Automation, and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip R.

    1987-02-01

    Aerospace industry interest in autonomy and automation, given fresh impetus by the national goal of establishing a Space Station, is becoming a major item of research and technology development. The promise of new technology arising from research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has focused much attention on its potential in autonomy and automation. These technologies can improve performance in autonomous control functions that involve planning, scheduling, and fault diagnosis of complex systems. There are, however, many aspects of system and subsystem design in an autonomous system that impact AI applications, but do not directly involve AI technology. Development of a system control architecture, establishment of an operating system within the design, providing command and sensory data collection features appropriate to automated operation, and the use of design analysis tools to support system engineering are specific examples of major design issues. Aspects such as these must also receive attention and technology development support if we are to implement complex autonomous systems within the realistic limitations of mass, power, cost, and available flight-qualified technology that are all-important to a flight project.

  16. A cross-cultural comparison of the coexistence and domain superiority of individuating and relating autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Bedford, Olwen; Yang, Yung-Jui

    2009-06-01

    The consensus definition of autonomy in the psychological literature emphasizes self-governance through free volition, not separation or independence from others. Since the concept of self may differ cross-culturally, several researchers have tried to incorporate types of self into the notion of autonomy; however, only the dual model of autonomy has been able to do this while retaining an emphasis on volition. The dual model describes two distinct forms of autonomy-individuating and relating-each with superior function in a specific domain of individual functioning. Individuating autonomy represents a volitional capacity to act against social constraints and offers a route to achieve an independent self-identity by expressing individualistic attributes and distinctions. Relating autonomy represents a volitional capacity to act by emphasizing the harmony of self-in-relation-to-others, the quality of interpersonal relationships, and self-transcendence. These two forms of autonomy have been shown to coexist at the individual level in a Taiwanese sample. This study takes the next step, with a cross-cultural test of the coexistence and domain superiority hypotheses of individuating and relating autonomy. Participants included 306 college students from Taiwan and 183 college students from the United States. Structural equation modelling by multigroup analyses confirmed the cross-cultural equivalence of the two-factor individuating autonomy and relating autonomy measurement model. Across both samples the two forms of autonomy were shown to be mutually inclusive and not exclusive or independent. The domain-superior function of each form of autonomy was also confirmed cross-culturally; each form of autonomy has a dominant, but not necessarily exclusive, domain of functioning. Specifically, individuating autonomy was more associated with intrapersonal than interpersonal domain dependent variables, while relating autonomy was more associated with interpersonal than

  17. Compulsory autonomy-promoting education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schinkel (Anders)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractToday, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the

  18. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  19. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why…

  20. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges traditional approach to university autonomy which is based on four pillars: organisational, financial, human resource, and academic. The main thesis is that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a more holistic view of the complex inter-re...

  1. The Principalship, Autonomy, and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacott, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary discourses in educational administration have exponentially grown the number of adjectival leaderships, challenged traditional organisational structures, and offered autonomy as a solution to performance issues. In this theoretical paper, I ask "what does the principalship look like after autonomy?" Despite the range of…

  2. Teacher Autonomy: Power or Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the issue of teacher autonomy in relation to its potential for freedom or control. It examines the concept of empowerment as applied to education, arguing that, although it is traditionally cast as a means of achieving autonomy, an alternative approach sees empowerment as part of the disciplinary apparatus of late modern…

  3. Intention, autonomy, and brain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2009-07-01

    Informed consent is the practical expression of the doctrine of autonomy. But the very idea of autonomy and conscious free choice is undercut by the view that human beings react as their unconscious brain centres dictate, depending on factors that may or may not be under rational control and reflection. This worry is, however, based on a faulty model of human autonomy and consciousness and needs close neurophilosophical scrutiny. A critique of the ethics implied by the model takes us towards a 'care of the self' view of autonomy and the subject's attunement to the truth as the crux of reasoning rather than the inner mental/neural state views of autonomy and human choice on offer at present.

  4. The Challenge of University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, John; Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduce the reader to the book, providing a historical perspective and a current understanding of university autonomy. While appreciating the central role of the four dimensions of university autonomy – organisational, financial, human resource, and academic – the authors conjecture...... that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a holistic view of the complex inter-relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and, equally, pull in opposite directions. This holistic view is represented in a model of institutional university autonomy......, which is discussed at length in the chapter. The authors conclude by presenting international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are genuinely global....

  5. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges traditional approach to university autonomy which is based on four pillars: organisational, financial, human resource, and academic. The main thesis is that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a more holistic view of the complex inter......-relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and equally pull in opposite directions. The holistic view is expressed in a model of institutional university autonomy that brings together the traditional basic four pillars of autonomy, and five interfaces: government–university; university......–university staff; academic staff–students; university–business; and university–internationalisation. This model is explored through international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are complex, interactive and genuinely...

  6. Neuromodulation, agency and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulation consists in altering brain activity to restore mental and physical functions in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and brain and spinal cord injuries. This can be achieved by delivering electrical stimulation that excites or inhibits neural tissue, by using electrical signals in the brain to move computer cursors or robotic arms, or by displaying brain activity to subjects who regulate that activity by their own responses to it. As enabling prostheses, deep-brain stimulation and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are forms of extended embodiment that become integrated into the individual's conception of himself as an autonomous agent. In BCIs and neurofeedback, the success or failure of the techniques depends on the interaction between the learner and the trainer. The restoration of agency and autonomy through neuromodulation thus involves neurophysiological, psychological and social factors.

  7. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  8. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  9. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  10. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  11. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  12. Effects of women's autonomy on maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh: Evidence from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Rifat; Qureshi, Zaina P; Khan, M Mahmud

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to construct an index of women's autonomy to analyze its effect on maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh. Empirical modeling of the study used instrumental variable (IV) approach to correct for possible endogeneity of women's autonomy variable. Data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 was used for the study. Women's autonomy variable was obtained through factor analysis of variables related to autonomy in decision making regarding healthcare, financial autonomy and freedom of movement. Conditional mixed process (CMP) models were fitted for three maternal healthcare indicators: at least four antenatal care (ANC) by trained personnel, institutional delivery and postnatal care (PNC) by trained personnel. Study sample consisted of 8753 women with 5.5 mean years of schooling. Women with no formal education, of Islamic faith, from poorest wealth quintile, residing in rural areas and with low autonomy used the maternal healthcare least. Marginal effect shows that if women's autonomy score is increased by one unit, probability of maternal healthcare utilization will increase by 0.14 for ANC, 0.14 for institutional delivery, and 0.13 for PNC. Women's autonomy is an important driver of maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh. Results suggest that women participating in social and economic activities enhances their autonomy. Other factors affecting women's autonomy are female literacy, educational attainment and households' economic status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter [Clinic and Policlinic for Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. {sup 131}I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  14. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  15. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131 I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  16. Intramitochondrial autonomy in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, M.; Rajwade, M.S.; Satav, J.G.; Katyare, S.S.; Fatterpaker, P.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The biogenesis of mitochondria in rat liver and their protein turnover has been investigated using 1- 14 C leucine. The results indicate that intramitochondrial autonomy exists both with respect to their genesis and turnover. (M.G.B.)

  17. Site-selective modification of peptides: From "customizable units" to novel α-aryl and α-alkyl glycine derivatives, and components of branched peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Estudillo, Iván; Saavedra, Carlos; Boto, Alicia; Álvarez, Eleuterio

    2015-09-01

    The creation of peptide libraries by site-selective modification of a few peptide substrates would increase the efficiency of discovery processes, but still is a real synthetic challenge. The site-selective modification of small peptides at serine or threonine residues, by using a short scission-addition procedure, allows the preparation of peptides with unnatural α-aryl glycines. In a similar way, the scission of hydroxyproline residues is the key step in the production of optically pure α-alkyl glycines which are precursors or components of branched peptides. With these versatile processes, a single peptide can be transformed into a variety of peptide derivatives. The process takes place under mild conditions, and good global yields are obtained. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 104: 650-662, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Learning for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Jose

    1989-12-01

    There is a need for a new concept of post-literacy which goes beyond the learning of codes. The target population is defined on the basis of their need to be given the capacity to take decisions on essential economic, civic, political and day-to-day aspects of their lives. The main arena of post-literacy lies in the countries of the Third World, where the economic crisis has serious effects on the quality of life and impairs the motivation to learn. Particular reference is made to the concept of participation and to the ability to determine four types of basic educational need: fundamental needs, productivity needs, social service needs and community organization needs. Four Latin American programmes linked to these four types of need are presented and discussed in terms of their particular features: popular participation in decision making; the search for methods and techniques which give the population a certain degree of autonomy; and respect for the cultures and world visions of the communities in the conduct of post-literacy, educational innovation and other activities. The programmes are: post-literacy in Nicaragua (fundamental education needs); research on post-literacy and employment in 13 countries (productivity needs); the CIPCA project for peasants in Piura, on the northern coast of Peru (social service needs); and the `Talking Maps' project developed with the Paez community in Cauca, Colombia (community organization needs).

  19. From Autonomy to Creativity: A Multilevel Investigation of the Mediating Role of Harmonious Passion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, we theorized about and demonstrated, through 2 multilevel field studies, the pivotal role of harmonious passion in translating organizational autonomy support and individual autonomy orientation into job creativity. Results based on 3-level data from 856 members in 111 teams within 23 work units of a porous…

  20. K-12 STEM Educator Autonomy: An Investigation of School Influence and Classroom Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Williams, Thomas O.; Clark, Aaron C.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Sutton, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, teacher autonomy within the formal educational system has been a central topic of discussion among educational stakeholders. This study explored influence over school policy and classroom control (teacher autonomy) among in-service science, technology, and mathematics (STM) educators within the United States. The National…

  1. THE CHALLENGE OF AUTONOMY: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE VARIOUS DIMENSIONS OF AUTONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Cristi IFTENE

    2009-01-01

    There are various dimensions of autonomy (policy, financial, structural, personnel, legal, institutional) as different scholars demonstrated (Christensen 2001, Verhoest et. al. 2004). In the present paper we will focus only on political and financial autonomy. As Yesilkagit and van Thiel demonstrated there is a difference between formal and de facto autonomy. They found that formal autonomy does not reinforce de facto autonomy and that organizations with less autonomy report higher levels of ...

  2. Saturated Branched Chain, Normal Odd-Carbon-Numbered, and n-3 (Omega-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Freshwater Fish in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong Hao; Jackson, James R; Twining, Cornelia; Rudstam, Lars G; Zollweg-Horan, Emily; Kraft, Clifford; Lawrence, Peter; Kothapalli, Kumar; Wang, Zhen; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-10-04

    The fatty acid profiles of wild freshwater fish are poorly characterized as a human food source for several classes of fatty acids, particularly for branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), a major bioactive dietary component known to enter the US food supply primarily via dairy and beef fat. We evaluated the fatty acid content of 27 freshwater fish species captured in the northeastern US with emphasis on the BCFA and bioactive polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) most associated with fish, specifically n-3 (omega-3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Mean BCFA content across all species was 1.0 ± 0.5% (mean ± SD) of total fatty acids in edible muscle, with rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) the highest at >2% BCFA. In comparison, EPA + DHA constituted 28% ± 7% of total fatty acids. Across all fish species, the major BCFA were iso-15:0, anteiso-15:0, iso-16:0, iso-17:0 and anteiso-17:0. Fish skin had significantly higher BCFA content than muscle tissues, at 1.8% ± 0.7%, but lower EPA and DHA. Total BCFA in fish skins was positively related with that in muscle (r 2 = 0.6). The straight chain saturates n-15:0 and n-17:0 which have been identified previously as markers for dairy consumption were relatively high with means of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, and may be an underappreciated marker for seafood intake. Consuming a standardized portion, 70 g (2.5 oz), of wild freshwater fish contributes only small amounts of BCFA, 2.5-24.2 mg, to the American diet, while it adds surprisingly high amounts of EPA + DHA (107 mg to 558 mg).

  3. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is ∼ 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends ∼1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of ∼1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top

  4. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  5. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  6. Professional autonomy and job satisfaction: survey of critical care nurses in mainland Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulou, Katerina K; While, Alison E

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to describe Greek critical care nurses' views on professional autonomy and its relationship with job satisfaction and other work-related variables. Professional autonomy is generally considered a highly desirable nursing attribute and a major factor in nurse job satisfaction. In the critical care environment, a high level of accountability, responsibility and autonomy are required to optimize outcomes of critically unstable patients. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of Greek critical care nurses (n = 431; response rate 70%) in 2007. Data were collected on professional autonomy, job satisfaction, role conflict and role ambiguity. Overall, nurses reported acting moderately autonomously. Younger nurses reported statistically significant lower levels of autonomy. Higher levels of autonomy were reported by female nurses. Multiple logistic regression revealed that appointment level, type of critical care unit and registration with a professional organization were independently associated with autonomy. A positive moderate association was found between reported autonomy, job satisfaction, role conflict and role ambiguity, but there was no relationship between job satisfaction and reported role conflict and role ambiguity. Further education, role enhancement and support are required for nurses working in critical care in Greece if they are to achieve the maximum potential of their professional role. Failure to address the perceptions of professional autonomy may have an impact on staff retention, because of job dissatisfaction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Phase 2 Sampling Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) was contracted by Energy Systems to prepare a Phase II Sampling Plan to describe the field investigation work necessary to address regulatory agency review comments on the Remedial Investigation of the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP)/Upper McCoy Branch, Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 at the Y-12 Plant, conducted by CH2M Hill in 1990. The scope and approach of the field investigation described in this plan specifically focus on deficiencies noted by the regulators in discussions at the comment resolution meeting of May 8, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This Phase II Sampling Plan includes a field sampling plan, a field and laboratory quality assurance project plan, a health and safety plan, a waste management plan, and appendixes providing an update to the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for this site and field and laboratory testing methods and procedures

  8. The Ideal of Moral Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements of the ideal of moral autonomy are discussed in this paper. Such ideal is a key assumption in social practices focused on normative imputation, particularly morality and law. First, a constructivist conception of normativity is introduced, taking reasons as an essential and non-reducible element, and focused on the conceptual features of moral reasons within the normative domain. Then, an idea of moral autonomy based on the self-constitution is developed including three key features: the possibility of responding to reasons based on shared social expectations; the responsibility for certain scope of actions, according to a set of reasons available to the individual and to their maximum extent of expansion; and the need to preserve autonomy as a purpose unifying the set of autonomous actions of moral agents.

  9. Entanglement branching operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an entanglement branching operator to split a composite entanglement flow in a tensor network which is a promising theoretical tool for many-body systems. We can optimize an entanglement branching operator by solving a minimization problem based on squeezing operators. The entanglement branching is a new useful operation to manipulate a tensor network. For example, finding a particular entanglement structure by an entanglement branching operator, we can improve a higher-order tensor renormalization group method to catch a proper renormalization flow in a tensor network space. This new method yields a new type of tensor network states. The second example is a many-body decomposition of a tensor by using an entanglement branching operator. We can use it for a perfect disentangling among tensors. Applying a many-body decomposition recursively, we conceptually derive projected entangled pair states from quantum states that satisfy the area law of entanglement entropy.

  10. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  11. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  12. The ADEPT Framework for Intelligent Autonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricard, Michael; Kolitz, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    ...) architecture for intelligent autonomy. Intelligent autonomy is the ability to plan and execute complex activities in a manner that provides rapid, effective response to stochastic and dynamic mission events...

  13. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  14. Full autonomy; Autarkie im Komplettpaket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2011-05-31

    Normally, those who talk of full solar autonomy refer to the annual balance of a house. Now, architect Timo Leukefeld and Helma Eigenheimbau AG presented a really autonomous solar house which is available on a turnkey basis for 363,000 Euros.

  15. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and

  16. Student Perceptions of Their Autonomy at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, D. C.; Morrell, L. J.; Scott, G. W.

    2018-01-01

    Learner autonomy is a primary learning outcome of Higher Education in many countries. However, empirical evaluation of how student autonomy progresses during undergraduate degrees is limited. We surveyed a total of 636 students' self-perceived autonomy during a period of two academic years using the Autonomous Learning Scale. Our analysis suggests…

  17. School Autonomy, Leadership and Learning: A Reconceptualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin Cheong; Ko, James; Lee, Theodore Tai Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for reconceptualising research on school autonomy to redress the limitations of traditional research, strengthen the conceptual links between school autonomy and learning outcomes and offer a range of new strategies for studying the interplay of school autonomy, leadership and learning.…

  18. Respect for autonomy and technological risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, L.

    2008-01-01

    Technological developments can undermine the autonomy of the individual. Autonomy is one's ability to make and act upon decisions according to one's own moral framework. Respect for autonomy dictates that risks should not be imposed on the individual without her consent. Technological developments

  19. Rawls: The Problem of Autonomy and Coherentism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnora Gondim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the idea of autonomy into that of justice as equality modifies the work of Rawls taken as a whole. Thus, while in the Theory of Justice, a Kantian- type of autonomy is adopted, in Political Liberalism, autonomy is extended to the sphere of the political.

  20. The Connotations of Language Teacher Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ligang

    2017-01-01

    With the research on the development of learner autonomy in foreign language education, teacher autonomy has become a hot topic in the research of foreign language teacher education. However, it is the most difficult question to define language teacher autonomy and any answer to it is likely to be subjective. On the basis of expounding upon the…

  1. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  2. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  3. Branches of the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; O'Neil, Deva; Sun Zheng

    2005-01-01

    With respect to the question of supersymmetry breaking, there are three branches of the flux landscape. On one of these, if one requires small cosmological constant, supersymmetry breaking is predominantly at the fundamental scale; on another, the distribution is roughly flat on a logarithmic scale; on the third, the preponderance of vacua are at very low scale. A priori, as we will explain, one can say little about the first branch. The vast majority of these states are not accessible even to crude, approximate analysis. On the other two branches one can hope to do better. But as a result of the lack of access to branch one, and our poor understanding of cosmology, we can at best conjecture about whether string theory predicts low energy supersymmetry or not. If we hypothesize that are on branch two or three, distinctive predictions may be possible. We comment of the status of naturalness within the landscape, deriving, for example, the statistics of the first branch from simple effective field theory reasoning

  4. Public Health Autonomy: A Critical Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2017-11-01

    The ethical principle of autonomy is among the most fundamental in ethics, and it is particularly salient for those in public health, who must constantly balance the desire to improve health outcomes by changing behavior with respect for individual freedom. Although there are some areas in which there is a genuine tension between public health and autonomy-childhood vaccine mandates, for example-there are many more areas where not only is there no tension, but public health and autonomy come down to the same thing. These areas of overlap are often rendered invisible by a thin understanding of autonomy. Better integrating newer theoretical insights about autonomy into applied ethics can make discussions of public health ethics more rigorous, incisive, and effective. Even more importantly, bringing modern concepts of autonomy into public health ethics can showcase the many areas in which public health and autonomy have the same goals, face the same threats, and can be mutually advanced by the same kinds of solutions. This article provides a schema for relational autonomy in a public health context and gives concrete examples of how autonomy can be served through public-health interventions. It marshals insights from sociology, psychology, and philosophy to advance a theory of autonomy and coercion that recognizes three potential threats to autonomy: threats to choice sets, threats to knowledge, and threats to preferences. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  5. Branches of the Facial Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Geun In; Park, Hye Jin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review the name of the branches, to review the classification of the branching pattern, and to clarify a presence percentage of each branch of the facial artery, systematically. In a PubMed search, the search terms "facial," AND "artery," AND "classification OR variant OR pattern" were used. The IBM SPSS Statistics 20 system was used for statistical analysis. Among the 500 titles, 18 articles were selected and reviewed systematically. Most of the articles focused on "classification" according to the "terminal branch." Several authors classified the facial artery according to their terminal branches. Most of them, however, did not describe the definition of "terminal branch." There were confusions within the classifications. When the inferior labial artery was absent, 3 different types were used. The "alar branch" or "nasal branch" was used instead of the "lateral nasal branch." The angular branch was used to refer to several different branches. The presence as a percentage of each branch according to the branches in Gray's Anatomy (premasseteric, inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, and angular) varied. No branch was used with 100% consistency. The superior labial branch was most frequently cited (95.7%, 382 arteries in 399 hemifaces). The angular branch (53.9%, 219 arteries in 406 hemifaces) and the premasseteric branch were least frequently cited (53.8%, 43 arteries in 80 hemifaces). There were significant differences among each of the 5 branches (P < 0.05) except between the angular branch and the premasseteric branch and between the superior labial branch and the inferior labial branch. The authors believe identifying the presence percentage of each branch will be helpful for surgical procedures.

  6. Enhancing autonomy in paid surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelio, Jennifer; Sorensen, Kelly

    2008-06-01

    The gestational surrogate--and her economic and educational vulnerability in particular--is the focus of many of the most persistent worries about paid surrogacy. Those who employ her, and those who broker and organize her services, usually have an advantage over her in resources and information. That asymmetry exposes her to the possibility of exploitation and abuse. Accordingly, some argue for banning paid surrogacy. Others defend legal permission on grounds of surrogate autonomy, but often retain concerns about the surrogate. In response to the dilemma of a ban versus bald permission, we propose a 'soft law' approach: states should require several hours of education of surrogates--education aimed at informing and enhancing surrogate autonomy.

  7. Epistemic merit, autonomy, and testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús VEGA ENCABO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that both the informer and the hearer in a testimonial situation deserve epistemic merit insofar as they contribute to the collaborative achievement of sharing knowledge. The paper introduces a distinction between the ideals of self-sufficiency and epistemic autonomy. The autonomous exercise of our epistemic agency is very often carried out under strong conditions of epistemic dependence. Testimony exhibits a kind of social dependence that does not threaten the autonomy of the subjects that need to consider their own epistemic capacities. When involved in a testimonial situation, both speaker and hearer declare, at least implicitly, the standings they occupy in an epistemic space and are obliged to recognise certain epistemic requirements.

  8. Autonomy and the akratic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, C J

    1993-01-01

    I argue that the distinction which is current in much writing on medical ethics between autonomous and non-autonomous patients cannot cope comfortably with weak-willed (incontinent) patients. I describe a case involving a patient who refuses a blood transfusion even though he or she agrees that it would be in his or her best interests. The case is discussed in the light of the treatment of autonomy by B Brody and R Gillon. These writers appear to force us to treat an incontinent patient either as autonomous, just like a rational agent whose decisions are in accordance with his beliefs or as non-autonomous, like comatose patients or children. Though neither is entirely satisfactory I opt for describing such patients as autonomous but point out that in cases like this the principle of respect for autonomy does not give a determinate answer about how the patient ought to be treated. PMID:8308874

  9. Reproductive autonomy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive autonomy (RA has been challenged by the availability of genetic information, disability and the ethics of selective reproduction. Utilitarian and rights-based approaches, as well as procreative beneficence (PB fail to provide compelling reasons for infringing RA, and may even be likened to dangerous eugenics. Parents are not morally obliged to prevent the birth of a disabled child. Society should rather adopt inclusivity, recognising and providing persons with disabilities opportunities for capability and worthwhile lives.

  10. The many faces of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Diego

    2012-02-01

    What does autonomy mean from a moral point of view? Throughout Western history, autonomy has had no less than four different meanings. The first is political: the capacity of old cities and modern states to give themselves their own laws. The second is metaphysical, and was introduced by Kant in the second half of the 18th century. In this meaning, autonomy is understood as an intrinsic characteristic of all rational beings. Opposed to this is the legal meaning, in which actions are called autonomous when performed with due information and competency and without coercion. This last meaning, the most frequently used in bioethics, is primarily legal instead of moral. Is there a proper moral meaning of the word autonomy? If so, this would be a fourth meaning. Acts can only be called moral when they are postconventional (using the terminology coined by Lawrence Kohlberg), inner-directed (as expressed by David Riesman), and responsible (according to Hannah Arendt). Such acts are autonomous in this new, fourth, and to my mind, the only one proper, moral meaning. The goal of ethics cannot be other than forming human beings capable of making autonomous and responsible decisions, and doing so because they think this is their duty and not because of any other nonmoral motivation, like comfort, convenience, or satisfaction. The goal of ethics is to promote postconventional and mature human beings. This was what Socrates tried to do with the young people of Athens. And it is also the objective of every course of ethics and of any process of training.

  11. Daily Autonomy Supporting or Thwarting and Students' Motivation and Engagement in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patall, Erika A.; Steingut, Rebecca R.; Vasquez, Ariana C.; Trimble, Scott S.; Pituch, Keenan A.; Freeman, Jen L.

    2018-01-01

    This diary study provided the first classroom-based empirical test of the relations between student perceptions of high school science teachers' various autonomy supporting and thwarting practices and students' motivation and engagement on a daily basis over the course of an instructional unit. Perceived autonomy supporting practices were…

  12. VD-411 branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Karev, A.G.; Mal'tsev, Eh.I.; Morozov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The VD-411 branch driver for CAMAC moduli control by the SM-4 computer is described. The driver realizes data exchange with moduli disposed in 28 crates grouped in 4 branches. Data exchange can be carried out either in the program regime or in the regime of direct access to the memory. Fulfilment of 11 block regimes and one program regime is provided for. A possibility of individual programming of exchange methods in block regimes is left for users for organisation of quicker and most flexible data removal from the CAMAC moduli. In the regime of direct access the driver provides data transmission at the size up to 64 Kwords placing it in the computer memory of 2 M byte. High rate of data transmission and the developed system of interruptions ensure efficient utilization of the VD-411 branch driver at data removal from facilities in high energy physics experiments

  13. Parental Autonomy Support in Two Cultures: The Moderating Effects of Adolescents' Self-Construals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbell-Pierre, Kristine N; Grolnick, Wendy S; Stewart, Andrew L; Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N

    2017-10-23

    Parental autonomy support has been related to positive adolescent outcomes, however, its relation to outcomes in collectivist cultural groups is unclear. This study examined relations of specific autonomy supportive behaviors and outcomes among 401 adolescents (M age  = 12.87) from the United States (N = 245) and collectivist-oriented Ghana (N = 156). It also examined whether adolescents' self-construals moderated the relations of specific types of autonomy support with outcomes. Factor analyses indicated two types of autonomy support: perspective taking/open exchange and allowance of decision making/choice. In both countries, perspective taking/open exchange predicted positive outcomes, but decision making/choice only did so in the United States. With regard to moderation, the more independent adolescents' self-construals, the stronger the relations of decision making/choice to parental controllingness and school engagement. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Autonomy and why you can "Never Let Me Go".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    Kazuo Ishiguro's book Never Let Me Go is a thoughtful and provocative exploration of what it means to be human. Drawing on insights from the hermeneutic-phenomenology of Martin Heidegger, I argue that the movement of Ishiguro's story can be understood in terms of actualising the human potential for autonomous action. Liberal theories take autonomy to be concerned with analytically and ethically isolatable social units directing their lives in accordance with self-interested preferences, arrived at by means of rational calculation. However, I argue that such theories are simplistic abstractions from our human-life world, distorting the fundamental embodied, embedded, and relational nature of autonomy. When we attend closely to our concrete, lived existence we see instead that autonomy is about responding appropriately to others with whom we share a world. As we follow the path of Ishiguro's central character Kathy H., we are shown how an awareness and acceptance of our existential finitude as precarious and fallible creatures is necessary for guiding such appropriate interactions. As Kathy grows and is affirmed into her life-world, which grounds and supports her Being, she moves from heteronomy to autonomy; from being moved by external laws to embodying those laws, thereby becoming autonomous. This is exemplified by her appropriation of the carer role, through which she responds in a fitting way to those with whom she shares her world, bearing the weight of and dwelling responsibly within our human condition.

  15. Planned change or emergent change implementation approach and nurses' professional clinical autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiking, Marie-Louise; Aarts, Leon; Bras, Leo; Grypdonck, Maria; van Linge, Roland

    2017-11-01

    Nurses' clinical autonomy is considered important for patients' outcome and influenced by the implementation approach of innovations. Emergent change approach with participation in the implementation process is thought to increase clinical autonomy. Planned change approach without this participation is thought not to increase clinical autonomy. Evidence of these effects on clinical autonomy is however limited. To examine the changes in clinical autonomy and in personal norms and values for a planned change and emergent change implementation of an innovation, e.g. intensive insulin therapy. Prospective comparative study with two geographically separated nurses' teams on one intensive care unit (ICU), randomly assigned to the experimental conditions. Data were collected from March 2008 to January 2009. Pre-existing differences in perception of team and innovation characteristics were excluded using instruments based on the innovation contingency model. The Nursing Activity Scale was used to measure clinical autonomy. The Personal Values and Norms instrument was used to assess orientation towards nursing activities and the Team Learning Processes instrument to assess learning as a team. Pre-implementation the measurements did not differ. Post-implementation, clinical autonomy was increased in the emergent change team and decreased in the planned change team. The Personal Values and Norms instrument showed in the emergent change team a decreased hierarchic score and increased developmental and rational scores. In the planned change team the hierarchical and group scores were increased. Learning as a team did not differ between the teams. In both teams there was a change in clinical autonomy and orientation towards nursing activities, in line with the experimental conditions. Emergent change implementation resulted in more clinical autonomy than planned change implementation. If an innovation requires the nurses to make their own clinical decisions, an emergent change

  16. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Park, A Young

    2010-01-01

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  17. Intermittency in branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Texas Univ., Austin; Hwa, R.C.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1990-01-01

    The intermittency properties of three branching models have been investigated. The factorial moments show power-law behavior as function of small rapidity width. The slopes and energy dependences reveal different characteristics of the models. The gluon model has the weakest intermittency. (orig.)

  18. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a sing...

  19. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  20. Autonomy and Firefighting: Perceived Competence and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Baley, John; Ponder, Joy; Padilla, Miguel A

    2016-12-01

    In workplace settings, autonomy is implicated in employee motivation as well as supervisor autonomy support. As a profession of risk, firefighters may experience greater levels of stress. A self-determination paradigm was applied to the firefighter workplace. Of particular interest were perceived competence (to perform job duties) and the experience of stress. Firefighters' levels of autonomous and controlled regulation were surveyed, along with their perceptions of the autonomy support of their immediate supervisor. Autonomous regulation was positively related to perceived competence, whereas controlled regulation was negatively related. Higher levels of controlled regulation were also connected with greater stress. In contrast, greater perceived autonomy support was associated with decreased stress. Both perceived competence and stress are related to firefighter motivation and autonomy support. Recommendations are offered to increase autonomy support by chief officers.

  1. Autonomy and the Sources of Political Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Contemporary political liberals argue for extending the scope of reasonable disagreement to include also the principle of autonomy that was central in classical liberal theory. I take outset in Charles Larmore, The Autonomy of Morality (2008), which argues that liberal theory can dispense...... with the commitment to autonomy that one finds in Locke, Kant, and Mill, because "the essential convictions of liberal thought lie at a more fundamental level," namely in the principle of respect for persons. The main question I address is whether we can see the commitment to respect for persons as separable from...... the commitment to autonomy. My focus is the Kantian conception of autonomy, and I argue for understanding this conception practically and politically, rather than metaphysically and theoretically. In this way we can separate the principle of respect for persons from the metaphysical idea of autonomy as self...

  2. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms w...

  3. A Reconfigurable Testbed Environment for Spacecraft Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Jain, Abhinandan

    1996-01-01

    A key goal of NASA's New Millennium Program is the development of technology for increased spacecraft on-board autonomy. Achievement of this objective requires the development of a new class of ground-based automony testbeds that can enable the low-cost and rapid design, test, and integration of the spacecraft autonomy software. This paper describes the development of an Autonomy Testbed Environment (ATBE) for the NMP Deep Space I comet/asteroid rendezvous mission.

  4. From solidarity to autonomy: towards a redefinition of the parameters of the notion of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Starting from examples of concrete situations in France, I show that autonomy and solidarity can coexist only if the parameters of autonomy are redefined. I show on the one hand that in situations where autonomy is encouraged, solidarity nevertheless remains at the foundation of their practices. On the other hand, in situations largely infused with family solidarity, the individual autonomy may be put in danger. Yet, based on my ethnographic observations regarding clinical encounters and medical secrecy, I show that while solidarity may endanger individual autonomy, it does not necessarily endanger autonomy itself. The social practices observable in France reflect the reality of an autonomy that goes beyond the individual, a reality that involves a collective subject and includes solidarity. The opposition between these two values can then be resolved if the content of the notion of autonomy is understood to be dependent on its cultural context of application and on its social use.

  5. The Future of Reproductive Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Josephine; Zacharias, Rachel L

    2017-12-01

    In a project The Hastings Center is now running on the future of prenatal testing, we are encountering clear examples, both in established law and in the practices of individual providers, of failures to respect women's reproductive autonomy: when testing is not offered to certain demographics of women, for instance, or when the choices of women to terminate or continue pregnancies are prohibited or otherwise not supported. But this project also raises puzzles for reproductive autonomy. We have learned that some clinicians and patients do not discuss the fact that prenatal testing can lead to a decision about whether to terminate a pregnancy-they just don't talk about it. And while the decision whether to agree to prenatal screening and diagnostic testing is to be made with women's free and informed consent, many screening tests have been routinized in such a way that some women do not even recall agreeing to testing, while others feel that agreeing to testing is what their clinicians expect of them or that the testing is necessary to protect themselves and their families from the significant financial hardship of raising a child with a disability. In the face of these pressures, can one really say that women are freely choosing to undergo testing or are freely choosing to continue or terminate a pregnancy following receipt of test results? The reality of these pressures is requiring us to consider expanding the scope of our investigation beyond the clinical encounter to the broader context-to think harder about what reproductive autonomy means and how best to enhance it. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  6. Adolescents, Graduated Autonomy, and Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy takes many shapes. The concept of “graduated autonomy” is conceived as comprising several unique features: (1 it is incremental, (2 it is proportional, and (3 it is related to the telos of the life stage during which it occurs. This paper focuses on graduated autonomy in the context of genetic testing during adolescence. Questions can be raised about other life stages as well, and some of these questions will be addressed by discussing a possible fourth characteristic of graduated autonomy, that is, its elasticity. Further scholarship and analysis is needed to refine the concept of graduated autonomy and examine its applications.

  7. Characteristics of Law-Autonomy Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank; Stephan, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines several characteristics of foreign subsidiaries with low autonomy. Data derived from a survey of 381 MNC subsidiaries located in Denmark, Germany and the UK demonstrate that low-autonomy subsidiaries are highly embedded in their respective MNC networks and that they establish ...... relationship between lower autonomy and the production activities carried out by the subsidiary. In fact, low-autonomy subsidiaries appear to be specialized in that they focus on a few value-chain activities and they typically serve as marketing outlets....

  8. An intercultural nursing perspective on autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Ingrid

    2004-01-01

    This article is based on an empirical study regarding ethical challenges in intercultural nursing. The focus is on autonomy and disclosure. Autonomy is a human capacity that has become an important ethical principle in nursing. Although the relationship between autonomy and patients' possibly harmful choices is discussed, the focus is on 'forced' autonomy. Nurses seem to equate respect with autonomy; it seems to be hard to cope with the fact that there are patients who voluntarily undergo treatment but who actively participate neither in the treatment offered nor in making choices regarding that treatment. Nurses' demand for patients to be autonomous may in some cases jeopardize the respect, integrity and human worth that the ethical principle of autonomy is meant to ensure. Even though respect for a person's autonomy is also respect for the person, one's respect for the person in question should not depend on his or her capacity or aptitude to act autonomously. Is autonomy necessarily a universal ethical principle? This article negates this question and, through the issues of culture, individualism versus collectivism, first- and second-order autonomy, communication and the use of family interpreters, and respect, an attempt is made to explain why.

  9. Professional Autonomy versus Corporate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Nygaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism and bureaucracy tend to be understood as incompatible systems of work organization, represented by the ideals of collegiality and auton-omy versus control and supervision. I present a historical case study from early 20th century Norway examining the potential clash between efforts made toward professionalization and bureaucratization in industry. Based on my findings, I argue that there is neither an inherent conflict between professionalism and bureaucracy nor static national trajectories at the level of professional versus bureaucratic work organization.

  10. Motivating Proteges' Personal Learning in Teams: A Multilevel Investigation of Autonomy Support and Autonomy Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Fu, Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the roles of 3 multilevel motivational predictors in proteges' personal learning in teams: an autonomy-supportive team climate, mentors' autonomy support, and proteges' autonomy orientation. The authors followed 305 proteges in 58 teams for 12 weeks and found that all 3 predictors were positively related to the proteges'…

  11. Individual autonomy in work teams : the role of team autonomy, self-efficacy, and social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Vermunt, J.K.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Task autonomy is long recognized as a means to improve functioning of individuals and teams. Taking a multilevel approach, we unravelled the constructs of team and individual autonomy and studied the interplay between team autonomy, self-efficacy, and social support in determining individual

  12. University Reform and Institutional Autonomy: A Framework for Analysing the Living Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Peter; Gornitzka, Åse; Fumasoli, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss recent university reforms aimed at enhancing university autonomy, highlighting various tensions in the underlying reform ideologies. We examine how the traditional interpretation of university autonomy has been expanded in the reform rationales. An analytical framework for studying how autonomy is interpreted and used…

  13. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers

  14. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M., E-mail: john.dealy@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C4 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  15. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  16. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  17. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  18. Agency is Distinct from Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cummins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Both autonomy and agency play central roles in the emerging enactive vocabulary. Although some treat these concepts as practically synonymous, others have sought to be more explicit about the conditions required for agency over and above autonomy. I attempt to be self-conscious about the role of the observer (or scientist in such discussions, and emphasise that the concept of agency, in particular, is deeply entwined with the nature of the observer and the framing of the observation. This is probably well known to enactivists, but runs the risk of being badly misunderstood if it is not made explicit. A heightened awareness of the role of the observer in the attribution of agency may allow us to make advances in questions in which progress is hindered by assuming a single split between subject and object. I argue that human experience is characterized by our embedding in webs of meaning arising from our participation in systems of many sorts, and that this richness demands a corresponding lightness of touch with respect to the identification of agentive subjects.

  19. Autopoiesis: Autology, Autotranscendence and Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and 1990s – particularly in a French context. While his work has remained (to date) at distance from the rising number of suggestions, especi- ally regarding social and cultural theory, that have come out of these debates on self-organization, Castoriadis made a speci¿c and original contribution to them...... ‘reality-modeling’ (John Casti) – whether via cognitive frameworks or models of society and culture. Secondly, attempts to adapt debates within the humanities, e.g. in philosophy, social theory and cultural studies, have tended to end in anti-humanism, ranging from Deleuze and Guattari’s ‘abstract machine......’s philosophy. She argues that a focus on the self-organization of the living being implies not only a distinct move towards an ontology of radical physis in Castoriadis’s later work, but also, along with it, a revised version of his project of autonomy. Autonomy, like autology and the other theme of this issue...

  20. Phase 2 Sampling Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to prepare a Phase H Sampling Plan to describe field investigation work necessary to address regulatory agency review comments on the Remedial Investigation of Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP)/Upper McCoy Branch, Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 at the Y-12 Plant, conducted by CH2M Hill in 1990. The scope and approach of the field investigation described in this plan specifically focus on deficiencies noted by the regulators in discussions at the comment resolution meeting of May 8, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This Phase II Sampling Plan includes a field sampling plan, a field and laboratory quality assurance project plan, a health and safety plan, a waste management plan, and appendixes providing an update to applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for this site and field and laboratory testing methods and procedures. To address deficiencies noted by the regulators, the following activities will be conducted: Background surface soil and surface water/sediment samples will be collected based on statistical considerations for comparison to site data. Existing and new data to be collected will be used to support a human health risk assessment that includes the future homesteader scenario. Biological surveys, samples, and measurements will be collected/conducted to augment existing data and support an ecological risk assessment. Another round of groundwater sampling will be conducted, including on-site wells and the wells on Chestnut Ridge downgradient of the Security Pits. Borings will be completed in the FCAP to collect samples from below the surface depth to describe the chemical characteristics and volume of the ash. The volume of ash associated with sluice channel on Chestnut Ridge will be determined. Soil samples will be corrected below the coal ash in the FCAP and adjacent to sluice channel to evaluate soil contamination and migration of contaminants

  1. WOMEN’S AUTONOMY AND THE FAMILY IN RECENT ROMANIAN POLICY-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE IANCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In my paper I aim to provide an analysis of the relation between women’s autonomy and the family in Romanian recent policy-making. I will focus primarily on policies developed by the Romanian state after Romania’s integration in the European Union with regards to the family and family-related policy domains. My analysis will focus on several variables: 1. the theoretical instruments available for analyzing women’s autonomy in relation to state policies 2. the understanding of the family in Romanian policy-making 3. the interplay between women’s autonomy and the family and how policy-making influences the relation between the two. The analysis will take into consideration the specific Romanian socio-political context in terms of economic conditions, ideological influences and gender relations. Political theory is no stranger to the issue of individual autonomy. In my paper I will focus on recent feminist political theories on gendered accounts of autonomy. These accounts modify the understanding of autonomy and focus on conditions and aspects of autonomy relevant to women’s lives and experiences. The current financial crisis and recent developments in Romanian policy-making will be analyzed in terms of how they affect women’s autonomy. Since much of Romanian policy-making still avoids including gender and gender relations into its explicit justifications, provisions and evaluation, referring to the family as a basic social unit, the gendered consequences for women’s autonomy of such an approach need to be understood and acknowledged. In my analysis I will use both Romanian and European recent policy papers, as well as recent data obtained through social research.

  2. Netherlands: Steady decline in job autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.; Hooftmann, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that job autonomy has predominantly positive effects, such as the prevention of stress, burnout and cardiovascular disease. Employees with a good deal of autonomy generally report better well-being, are more productive, more creative, have more self-esteem and have higher work

  3. Epistemic Autonomy: A Criterion for Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Catherine Elgin proposes a novel principle for identifying epistemic virtue. Based loosely on Kant's Categorical Imperative, it identifies autonomy as our fundamental epistemic responsibility, and defines the epistemic virtues as those traits of character needed to exercise epistemic autonomy. I argue that Elgin's principle fails as a…

  4. Scaffolding Learner Autonomy in Online University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Elisa; Bezanilla, María José

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the question in what ways teachers and course designers can support the development and exertion of learner autonomy among online university students. It advocates that a greater attention to learner autonomy could help more students to complete their course successfully and thus contribute the decrease of the high dropout…

  5. Becoming Autonomous: Nonideal Theory and Educational Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.; Ryg, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomy operates as a key term in debates about the rights of families to choose distinct approaches to education. Yet, what autonomy means is often complicated by the actual circumstances and contexts of schools, families, and children. In this essay, Terri S. Wilson and Matthew A. Ryg focus on the challenges involved in translating an ideal of…

  6. On the Compatibility of Autonomy and Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Holley S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the relation of autonomy to naturally occurring social interactions in two studies: the first investigated college students' interactions with parents, and the second examined interactions across all relationships. Autonomy was significantly related to more positive and naturally occurring interaction, whereas control related more to…

  7. Stories of Human Autonomy, Law, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Considering the relationship between human autonomy, law and technology has deep origins. Both technology studies and legal theory tell origin stories about human autonomy as the prize from either a foundational technological or jurisprudential event. In these narratives either law is considered a second order consequence of technology or…

  8. Changing Light Bulbs: Practice, Motivation, and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    The comment on the Ryan, Lynch, Vansteenkiste, and Deci (2011) article on motivation and autonomy in psychotherapy considers motivation and its role as prerequisite, process variable, or appropriate outcome, speculating that all are appropriate ways to conceptualize motivation in the behavior change process. Autonomy, as a useful addition, refers…

  9. Progress in medicine: autonomy, oughtonomy and nudging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisch, Ignaas

    2011-10-01

    In this article, I argue that we need a new perspective in the debate on autonomy in medicine, to understand many of the problems we face today - dilemmas that are situated at the intersection of autonomy and heteronomy, such as why well informed and autonomous people make unhealthy lifestyle choices. If people do not choose what they want, this is not simply caused by their lack of character or capability, but also by the fact that absolute autonomy is impossible; autonomous individuals are 'contaminated' by heteronymous aspects, by influences from 'outside'. Consequently, there are many good reasons to question the widely accepted hierarchical opposition of autonomy (progress) versus heteronomy (paternalism) in medicine. In an earlier article an analysis is made of the neologism 'oughtonomy' to support the thesis that when it comes down to human existence, autonomy and heteronomy are intertwined, rather than being merely opposites. In this article, I reflect upon how social conditions might improve our 'choice architecture', what Thaler & Sunstein have called 'nudging': how to change individual health choices without being paternalistic? I explore the extent to which both oughtonomy and nudging are able to challenge the question of autonomy in today's medicine. Autonomy may and should be a shared target in today's medicine, but we should never forget that it is always intertwined with heteronomy. Starting from this perspective, progress in medicine demands far more than the increase of autonomy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Buddhism and Autonomy-Facilitating Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Buddhists can consistently support autonomy as an educational ideal. The article defines autonomy as a matter of thinking and acting according to principles that one has oneself endorsed, showing the relationship between this ideal and the possession of an enduring self. Three central Buddhist doctrines of conditioned…

  11. Protecting autonomy as authenticity using Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Willigenburg, Theo; Delaere, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Pre-commitment directives or Ulysses contracts are often defended as instruments that may strengthen the autonomous self-control of episodically disordered psychiatric patients. Autonomy is understood in this context in terms of sovereignty ("governing" or "managing" oneself). After critically analyzing this idea of autonomy in the context of various forms of self-commitment and pre-commitment, we argue that what is at stake in using Ulysses contracts in psychiatry is not autonomy as sovereignty, but autonomy as authenticity. Pre-commitment directives do not function to protect autonomous self-control. They serve in upholding the guidance that is provided by one's deepest identity conferring concerns. We elucidate this concept of autonomy as authenticity, by showing how Ulysses contracts protect the possibility of being "a self."

  12. Autonomy and independence in language learning

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The topics of autonomy and independence play an increasingly important role in language education. They raise issues such as learners' responsibility for their own learning, and their right to determine the direction of their own learning, the skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning and capacity for independent learning and the extents to which this can be suppressed by institutional education. This volume offers new insights into the principles of autonomy and independence and the practices associated with them focusing on the area of EFL teaching. The editors' introduction provides the context and outlines the main issues involved in autonomy and independence. Later chapters discuss the social and political implications of autonomy and independence and their effects on educational structures. The consequences for the design of learner-centred materials and methods is discussed, together with an exploration of the practical ways of implementing autonomy and independence in language ...

  13. Indications for treatment of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on pathophysiological findings and considerations it is attempted to review critically the present state of indications and therapeutic modalities in cases of thyroid autonomy. If hyperthyroidism occurs or has occurred in autonomy, definitive treatment with radioiodine or surgery is indicated. In cases of autonomy with euthyroidism, treatment planning and indication of definite therapy are difficult still today, because the risk to develop hyperthyroidism cannot as yet be sufficiently estimated. A useful indicator in such cases seems to be the percentage of global thyreoidal uptake of 99m-technetium under supression. If autonomy is severe surgical treatment today is superior to radio-iodine therapy, but is associated with a higher rate of manifest hypothyroidism. Further research into both the risk of hyperthyroidism in thyroid autonomy and the optimization of radio-iodine therapy are needed. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Walker, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    Systems capabilities on ISHM (Integrated System Health Management) and autonomy have traditionally been addressed separately. This means that ISHM functions, such as anomaly detection, diagnostics, prognostics, and comprehensive system awareness have not been considered traditionally in the context of autonomy functions such as planning, scheduling, and mission execution. One key reason is that although they address systems capabilities, both ISHM and autonomy have traditionally individually been approached as independent strategies and models for analysis. Additionally, to some degree, a unified paradigm for ISHM and autonomy has been difficult to implement due to limitations of hardware and software. This paper explores a unified treatment of ISHM and autonomy in the context of distributed hierarchical autonomous operations.

  15. The Autonomy Activity Status of Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzikowska, Marlena; Gammelgaard, Jens; Jindra, Björn

    Research concerning the autonomy of subsidiaries has been concentrated on the possession of decision-making rights. Building on the definitional and empirical argumentation, we claim that so understood autonomy has a prospective character, is not equal to the implementation of actual actions (or...... lack of thereof) and neglects the issue of the scope of potential actions. This paper aims to fill in the current literature gap by offering a holistic stance in which we assert that subsidiaries can be meaningfully differentiated according to their levels of autonomy and corresponding actions. We base...... this argumentation on the findings of real option theory and competitive dynamics perspective, develop a typology specific to a subsidiary’s autonomy activity status (the position of a subsidiary in terms of its autonomy level confronted with the extent of actions taken in a corresponding area). We evaluate...

  16. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what...

  17. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  18. [Is autonomy ground of human dignity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo Alvarez-Valdés, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the conditions of autonomy if this is to be the foundation of human dignity. Since Kant Modernity has dissociated nature from morality and has tried to support autonomy in its purely formal aspect. To forget nature has voluntarist consequences that affect the way in which autonomy is understand. But autonomy does not consist of not having links, but of knowing how to assume one's own links freely and to be conscious of one's own limits. Autonomy and liberty are the very thing of the rational being, capable of discerning good and bad, and this must direct our actions. Reason directs as and distances us from reality to recognize the advisable thing in the human being.

  19. Effective means of planning for and implementing autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehof, Lars Adam

    1991-01-01

    Autonomy, self-government, indigenous people, human rights, minority protection, minority rights......Autonomy, self-government, indigenous people, human rights, minority protection, minority rights...

  20. Are the benefits of autonomy satisfaction and the costs of autonomy frustration dependent on individuals' autonomy strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Jasper; van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Audenaert, Elien; De Schryver, Maarten; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-01-29

    From a self-determination theory perspective, individuals are assumed to benefit and suffer from, respectively, the satisfaction and frustration of the psychological need for autonomy, even if they score low on autonomy strength. Yet, previous studies on need strength are scarce, operationalized need strength differently, and produced inconsistent findings. In two studies among 224 South African adults (M age  = 24.13, SD = 4.25; 54.0% male) and 156 Belgian prisoners (M age  = 38.60, SD = 11.68; 88.5% male), we investigated the moderating role of autonomy valuation and desire in the relations of autonomy satisfaction and frustration with a variety of well-being and ill-being indicators. Study 1 provided some evidence for the moderating role of mostly explicit autonomy desire (rather than explicit autonomy valuation). In Study 2, neither explicit nor implicit autonomy desire played a consistent moderating role. Overall, these findings are congruent with a moderate (albeit not with a strong) interpretation of the universality claim made within self-determination theory, provide initial evidence for a differentiation between deficit-based and growth-oriented interpersonal differences in need strength, and indicate that the potential moderating role of need strength deserves continued attention before any firm conclusions can be drawn. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    This book introduces four evaluation studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. For the purpose of these evaluation studies, a research methodology was developed by the EUniAM project team and used by the Task Force teams to collect and analy...... in Moldova. Preliminary findings of the evaluation studies were presented at the International Conference on “A Quest to (Re)define University Autonomy” organized by the EUniAM project. At the same time, these findings had an impact on the context of the new Code of Education....... the data. Unobtrusive data in the form of laws regulating directly or indirectly the higher education system in Moldova, governmental and ministerial decrees, university chapters and organizational structures, and education records were collected and analysed. A total number of 144 documents have been...

  2. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  3. Privacy, autonomy, and public policy: French and North American perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    This article raises the question of whether in both the United States and in France, an individual's autonomy and private decision-making right(s) in matters of health care and access to reproductive technologies can be conciliated with the general interest, and more specifically, the role of the State. Can a full-fledged right to privacy, the ability to exercise one's autonomy, exist alongside the general interest, and depend neither on financial resources like in the United States nor on centralised government decisions or the medical hierarchy like in France? The contrast between these two modern democracies justify the importance of comparing them. I will demonstrate that overlaps do exist: the free exercise of religion and opinion, freedom of expression, the inherent value of each individual. What differs, however, are the institutions and how they provide, protect, promote, or frame access to and expressions of these democratic principles. The impact of the global economy, the exposure of people around the world to each other via the internet, and the mirror effects of social media, blogs, and other such forums, have created new perspectives that countries project onto one another. For example, does France now seem to tout 'autonomy' as a new and important value because it appears to be an 'American success story'? Does the United States now seem to value human rights and a social-democratic approach because of the 'French model'? There seems to be some truth behind these assertions, but as this article will demonstrate, the portrayals of what the 'right to privacy' is in the United States and what 'socialised medicine' is in France are not necessarily fully accurate.

  4. Standby-battery autonomy versus power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications as an energy store to bridge gaps in the primary source of supplied power for a given period of time. In some cases this bridging time, the battery's "autonomy", is fixed by local legislation but it is also often set by historically common practices. However, even if common practice dictates a long autonomy time, we are entering a new era of "cost and benefit realism" underpinned by environmentally friendly policies and we should challenge these historical practices at every opportunity if it can lead to resource and cost savings. In some cases the application engineer has no choice in the design autonomy; either follow a piece of local legislation (e.g. 4 h autonomy for a "life safety" application), or actually work out what is needed! An example of the latter would be for a remote site, off-grid, using integrated wind/solar power (without emergency generator back-up) where you may have to design-in several days' battery autonomy. This short paper proposes that a battery's autonomy should be related to the time expected for the system to be without the primary power source, balanced by the capital costs and commercial risk of power failure. To discuss this we shall consider the factors in selecting the autonomy time and other related aspects for high voltage battery systems used in facility-wide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.

  5. Shared decision-making and patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In patient-centred care, shared decision-making is advocated as the preferred form of medical decision-making. Shared decision-making is supported with reference to patient autonomy without abandoning the patient or giving up the possibility of influencing how the patient is benefited. It is, however, not transparent how shared decision-making is related to autonomy and, in effect, what support autonomy can give shared decision-making. In the article, different forms of shared decision-making are analysed in relation to five different aspects of autonomy: (1) self-realisation; (2) preference satisfaction; (3) self-direction; (4) binary autonomy of the person; (5) gradual autonomy of the person. It is argued that both individually and jointly these aspects will support the models called shared rational deliberative patient choice and joint decision as the preferred versions from an autonomy perspective. Acknowledging that both of these models may fail, the professionally driven best interest compromise model is held out as a satisfactory second-best choice.

  6. Markets & Myths: Autonomy in Public & Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubin Glass

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available

    School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.

    The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.

  7. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  8. Integrating over Higgs branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Shatashvili, S.

    2000-01-01

    We develop some useful techniques for integrating over Higgs branches in supersymmetric theories with 4 and 8 supercharges. In particular, we define a regularized volume for hyperkaehler quotients. We evaluate this volume for certain ALE and ALF spaces in terms of the hyperkaehler periods. We also reduce these volumes for a large class of hyperkaehler quotients to simpler integrals. These quotients include complex coadjoint orbits, instanton moduli spaces on R 4 and ALE manifolds, Hitchin spaces, and moduli spaces of (parabolic) Higgs bundles on Riemann surfaces. In the case of Hitchin spaces the evaluation of the volume reduces to a summation over solutions of Bethe ansatz equations for the non-linear Schroedinger system. We discuss some applications of our results. (orig.)

  9. Oppression, Autonomy and the Impossibility of the Inner Citadel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for a conception of autonomy that takes social oppression seriously without sapping autonomy of its valuable focus on individual self-direction. Building on recent work in relational accounts of autonomy, the paper argues that current conceptions of autonomy from liberal, feminist and critical theorists do not adequately account…

  10. Heteronomous Citizenship: Civic Virtue and the Chains of Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I distinguish personal autonomy from heteronomy, and consider whether autonomy provides a suitable basis for liberalism. I argue that liberal government should not promote autonomy in all its citizens, on the grounds that not all members of liberal democracies require autonomy for a good life. I then outline an alternative option…

  11. How important is Autonomy to Professional Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Mastekaasa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption is that autonomy is crucial to professional workers. I examine this using survey data on a sample of public sector welfare professionals, viz. medical doctors, nurses, teachers, social workers. Comparisons are made with general population data from the International Social Survey Programme. Two methods of assessing the importance of work autonomy are employed; respondents’ direct ratings and statistical associations between work autonomy (and other job characteristics on the one hand and job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the other. Findings: Autonomy is not rated as more important among the professionals than in the general population, and neither is it more strongly related to job satisfaction. Interesting work and workplace social support appear to be more central.

  12. Autonomy, nudging and post-truth politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Geoff

    2017-11-16

    In his excellent essay, 'Nudges in a post-truth world', Neil Levy argues that 'nudges to reason', or nudges which aim to make us more receptive to evidence, are morally permissible. A strong argument against the moral permissibility of nudging is that nudges fail to respect the autonomy of the individuals affected by them. Levy argues that nudges to reason do respect individual autonomy, such that the standard autonomy objection fails against nudges to reason. In this paper, I argue that Levy fails to show that nudges to reason respect individual autonomy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Emotional autonomy and depression among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K L

    2000-06-01

    Depression is quite common among young people in Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the association between emotional autonomy and depressive symptomatology among Chinese young people in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 young people between 16 and 18 years of age from a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong. Significant bivariate relationships were found between depressive symptomatology and three dimensions of emotional autonomy (individuation, nondependency on parents, and deidealization of parents). Using multiple regression models, the author found that depressive symptomatology was associated with two aspects of emotional autonomy: individuation and deidealization of parents. Results indicate that the relationships between depressive symptomatology and these three aspects of emotional autonomy are similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

  14. [The medical autonomy of elderly in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Li; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2014-10-01

    The elderly population is increasing rapidly in Taiwan. With the average life expectancy on the rise, the elderly have become major consumers of healthcare products and services. Factors that influence respect for autonomy, a core value of medical ethics, may be related to family, society, and the medical culture. Especially in patients who are already elderly, aging causes declines in physical, mental and societal capacities. Practicing a respect for patient autonomy is particularly challenging for healthcare professionals in Taiwan due the unique culture background of elderly Taiwanese patients. This article reviews and integrates the literature related to the issue of patient autonomy and elaborates on medical decision-making among elderly patients in Taiwan in the contexts of: the disadvantages faced by the elderly, the background of Chinese culture, and the current medical decision-making environment. A few suggestions are proposed to help preserve the medical-decision-making autonomy of elderly patients in Taiwan.

  15. Decision-Making Autonomy and Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vo, Dut; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; de Jong, Gjalt

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how decision-making autonomy affects the possibility and intensity of innovation in subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Subsidiaries are increasingly identified as sources of innovation and as vehicles for cross-border transfer of new competences. The question...... of how much decision-making autonomy subsidiaries should have is a core issue in the management of headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we hypothesize a non-linear relationship between subsidiary’s decision-making autonomy and innovation. We test our...... hypothesis in a multi-country and multiindustry database based on survey evidence of 134 subsidiaries located in five Central and Eastern European countries from 23 home countries. The empirical results provide support for a non-linear U shaped relationship between subsidiary decision-making autonomy...

  16. Fiscal autonomy of urban councils in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAW

    current system of decentralisation entrenches the financial autonomy of urban ..... of the UCA to deploy auditors to inspect the accounts of urban councils ..... Act; the payment of compensation; the liquidation of the principal monies owing on.

  17. Futility, autonomy, and informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trau, J M

    1994-03-01

    If clinicians deem a treatment medically futile, is it appropriate to mention such a treatment to patients? Do healthcare professionals violate informed consent if they do not offer patients an opportunity to decline futile treatments? The notion of futility involves an assessment of patient best interest--both short-term and long-term therapeutic benefit for a patient and the community in which he or she intends to survive and flourish. Although survival interests may be construed as long term, a treatment that offers survival without any promise of flourishing is not the goal of medicine and is futile. Flourishing requires some cognitive and affective function. The goal of informed consent practices is to ensure that patients accept the benefits of treatment with cognizance of the burdens and risks. Given the impact of illness on the emotional and psychological states of patients and their families and their resultant vulnerability, the omission of futile options from treatment plans is logical and exemplifies the best of paternalistic behavior. The claim that requests for futile treatment must be honored is based on a perverse understanding of patient autonomy. Rational medicine demands that patients' requests be reasonable from a clinical perspective, as well as from a subjective one. The practice of informed consent can be implemented as a balance between these two interests.

  18. The efficiency of bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Takbiri; Mohammad Mohammadi; Bahman Naderi

    2015-01-01

    Banking industry has significant contribution in development of economies of developing countries. Most banks execute their operations through different branches. Therefore it is important to measure the relative efficiencies of these branches. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one of the most useful tools in measuring banks’ performance. The present paper aims to extract ranking pattern of banks based on performance evaluation using DEA analysis. In the present research, 120 bank branches o...

  19. Patient autonomy and advance care planning: a qualitative study of oncologist and palliative care physicians' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephanie B; Butow, Phyllis N; Kerridge, Ian; Tattersall, Martin H N

    2018-02-01

    Patients' are encouraged to participate in advance care planning (ACP) in order to enhance their autonomy. However, controversy exists as to what it means to be autonomous and there is limited understanding of how social and structural factors may influence cancer patients' ability to exercise their autonomy. The objective of this study is to explore oncologists' and palliative care physicians' understanding of patient autonomy, how this influences reported enactment of decision-making at the end of life (EOL), and the role of ACP in EOL care. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with consultant oncologists (n = 11) and palliative medicine doctors (n = 7) working in oncology centres and palliative care units across Australia. We found that doctors generally conceptualized autonomy in terms of freedom from interference but that there was a profound disconnect between this understanding of autonomy and clinical practice in EOL decision-making. The clinicians in our study privileged care, relationships and a 'good death' above patient autonomy, and in practice were reluctant to 'abandon' their patients to total non-interference in decision-making. Patient autonomy in healthcare is bounded, as while patients were generally encouraged to express their preferences for care, medical norms about the quality and 'reasonableness' of care, the availability of services and the patients' family relationships act to enhance or limit patients' capacity to realize their preferences. While for many, this disconnect between theory and practice did not diminish the rhetorical appeal of ACP; for others, this undermined the integrity of ACP, as well as its relevance to care. For some, ACP had little to do with patient autonomy and served numerous other ethical, practical and political functions. The ethical assumptions regarding patient autonomy embedded in academic literature and policy documents relating to ACP are disconnected from the realities of clinical care

  20. Autonomy, positive relationships, and IL-6: evidence for gender-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Segerstrom, Suzanne

    2013-05-01

    A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centred aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centred aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research centre for blood draws. In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that moderate autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men. In the US national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, moderate autonomy was again associated with higher IL-6 in men only. Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. What is already known on this subject? A host of previous work indicates that women value relationship-centred aspects of well-being more than men, while men value autonomy-centred aspects of well-being more than women. Further, there is some evidence suggesting that well-being consistent with gender-linked values is more health protective, such that relationships are more protective for women than for men, while

  1. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J; Bradley, S; Nguyen, A N

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  2. Autonomy, Competence and Non-interference

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Joseph T.F.

    2017-01-01

    In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights ...

  3. The Changing Scope of Professional Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Wrede, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter.......Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter....

  4. SOCIOTROPY AND AUTONOMY IN EATING DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Czarniak, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Studies of development psychopathology and psychia try have shown that personality variables are greatly associated with eating disorders. Sociotropy and autonomy may be features that facilitate the occurrence and persistence of the eating disturbances. Theoretical framework for own research was mainly the A. Beck’s concept of autonomy and sociotropy. The aim of the study was to answer the research question whether a person suffering from an eating disorder is characterized by ...

  5. Using Multi-Core Systems for Rover Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Brad; Estlin, Tara; Bornstein, Benjamin; Springer, Paul; Anderson, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Task Objectives are: (1) Develop and demonstrate key capabilities for rover long-range science operations using multi-core computing, (a) Adapt three rover technologies to execute on SOA multi-core processor (b) Illustrate performance improvements achieved (c) Demonstrate adapted capabilities with rover hardware, (2) Targeting three high-level autonomy technologies (a) Two for onboard data analysis (b) One for onboard command sequencing/planning, (3) Technologies identified as enabling for future missions, (4)Benefits will be measured along several metrics: (a) Execution time / Power requirements (b) Number of data products processed per unit time (c) Solution quality

  6. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  7. Understanding critical care nurses' autonomy in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharmeh, Mahmoud

    2017-10-02

    Purpose The aim of this study was to describe Jordanian critical care nurses' experiences of autonomy in their clinical practice. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive correlational design was applied using a self-reported cross-sectional survey. A total of 110 registered nurses who met the eligibility criteria participated in this study. The data were collected by a structured questionnaire. Findings A majority of critical care nurses were autonomous in their decision-making and participation in decisions to take action in their clinical settings. Also, they were independent to develop their own knowledge. The study identified that their autonomy in action and acquired knowledge were influenced by a number of factors such as gender and area of practice. Practical implications Nurse's autonomy could be increased if nurses are made aware of the current level of autonomy and explore new ways to increase empowerment. This could be offered through classroom lectures that concentrate on the concept of autonomy and its implication in practice. Nurses should demonstrate autonomous nursing care at the same time in the clinical practice. This could be done through collaboration between educators and clinical practice to help merge theory to practice. Originality/value Critical care nurses were more autonomous in action and knowledge base. This may negatively affect the quality of patient care and nurses' job satisfaction. Therefore, improving nurses' clinical decision-making autonomy could be done by the support of both hospital administrators and nurses themselves.

  8. Autonomy and informed consent: a mistaken association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurdur

    2007-09-01

    For decades, the greater part of efforts to improve regulatory frameworks for research ethics has focused on informed consent procedures; their design, codification and regulation. Why is informed consent thought to be so important? Since the publication of the Belmont Report in 1979, the standard response has been that obtaining informed consent is a way of treating individuals as autonomous agents. Despite its political success, the philosophical validity of this Belmont view cannot be taken for granted. If the Belmont view is to be based on a conception of autonomy that generates moral justification, it will either have to be reinterpreted along Kantian lines or coupled with a something like Mill's conception of individuality. The Kantian interpretation would be a radical reinterpretation of the Belmont view, while the Millian justification is incompatible with the liberal requirement that justification for public policy should be neutral between controversial conceptions of the good. This consequence might be avoided by replacing Mill's conception of individuality with a procedural conception of autonomy, but I argue that the resulting view would in fact fail to support a non-Kantian, autonomy-based justification of informed consent. These difficulties suggest that insofar as informed consent is justified by respect for persons and considerations of autonomy, as the Belmont report maintained, the justification should be along the lines of Kantian autonomy and not individual autonomy.

  9. Perceived autonomy in the first semester of mathematics studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liebendörfer, Michael; Hochmuth, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We focus on the perceived autonomy of mathematics students in their first semester at university. According to self-determination theory by Deci and Ryan (1985), students have to satisfy their need for autonomy in order to develop intrinsic motivation. Using two facets of autonomy, we analyse interview data to explore which situations foster or hinder the students' perceived autonomy. The main factors affecting students' autonomy are briefly discussed.

  10. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  11. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  12. Controlled Autonomy: Novice Principals' Schema for District Control and School Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jennie M.; Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain insights into how a group of novice principals, all in schools that deployed principles of autonomy as mechanisms for improvement, conceptualized what the authors label "controlled autonomy"--a condition in which school leaders are expected to both make site-based decisions and be accountable…

  13. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  14. "You Have to Care." Perceptions of Promoting Autonomy in Support Settings for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petner-Arrey, Jami; Copeland, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    This study from the south-western United States investigated the perceptions of persons with intellectual disability receiving support and of persons providing support regarding the autonomy of people with intellectual disability. The participants included 10 people with intellectual disability and 10 support workers. Through interviews, this…

  15. Autonomy, Positive Relationships, and IL-6: Evidence for Gender-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centered aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centered aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health-protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. Methods In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States (U.S.) underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research center for blood draws. Results In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that average autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men, providing support for our hypothesis only at above average levels of IL-6. In the U.S. national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, higher autonomy was associated with lower IL-6 in men only. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. PMID:22908985

  16. Adolescent Self-Reported Physical Activity and Autonomy: A Case for Constrained and Structured Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome N. Rachele, Timo Jaakkola, Tracy L. Washington, Thomas F. Cuddihy, Steven M. McPhail

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The provision of autonomy supportive environments that promote physical activity engagement have become popular in contemporary youth settings. However, questions remain about whether adolescent perceptions of their autonomy have implications for physical activity. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between adolescents’ self-reported physical activity and their perceived autonomy. Participants (n = 384 adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were recruited from six secondary schools in metropolitan Brisbane, Australia. Self-reported measures of physical activity and autonomy were obtained. Logistic regression with inverse probability weights were used to examine the association between autonomy and the odds of meeting youth physical activity guidelines. Autonomy (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.49-0.76 and gender (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.83 were negatively associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. However, the model explained only a small amount of the variation in whether youth in this sample met physical activity guidelines (R2 = 0.023. For every 1 unit decrease in autonomy (on an index from 1 to 5, participants were 1.64 times more likely to meet physical activity guidelines. The findings, which are at odds with several previous studies, suggest that interventions designed to facilitate youth physical activity should limit opportunities for youth to make independent decisions about their engagement. However, the small amount of variation explained by the predictors in the model is a caveat, and should be considered prior to applying such suggestions in practical settings. Future research should continue to examine a larger age range, longitudinal observational or intervention studies to examine assertions of causality, as well as objective measurement of physical activity.

  17. Student Autonomy and its Effects on Student Enjoyment in a Traditional Mechanics Course for First-Year Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Janaki I.; Quinlivan, Brendan T.; Simonovich, Jennifer A.; Towers, Emily; Zadik, Oren H.; Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2012-02-01

    In light of recent literature in educational psychology, this study investigates instructional support and students' autonomy at a small technical undergraduate school. Grounded theory is used to analyze twelve semi-structured open-ended interviews about engineering students' experiences in Introductory Mechanics that includes Lecture, Recitation, and Laboratory components. Using data triangulation with each course component as a unit of analysis, this study examines students' course enjoyment as a function of instructional support and autonomy. The Lecture utilizes traditional instructor-centered pedagogy with predominantly passive learning and no student autonomy. The Recitation creates an active learning environment through small group work with a moderate degree of autonomy. The Laboratory is designed around self-guided project-based activities with significant autonomy. Despite these differences, all three course components provide similar levels of instructional support. The data reveal that students enjoy the low autonomy provided by Lecture and Recitations while finding the Laboratory frustrating. Analyses indicate that the differences in autonomy contribute to students' misinterpretation of the three course components' value within the context of the entire course.

  18. 75 FR 14070 - Redelegation of Authority of Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division, to Branch Directors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Attorney General, Civil Division, to Branch Directors, Heads of Offices and United States Attorneys in Civil Division Cases AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division, Department of... General of the Civil Division to branch directors, heads of offices, and United States Attorneys. On May...

  19. Autonomy and the human element in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    productivity. Extended operations can in turn enhance critical technologies and contribute to the competitive economic abilities of the United States. A high degree of automation and autonomy may be required to reduce dependence on ground systems, reduce mission costs, diminish complexity as perceived by the crew, increase mission lifetime and expand mission versatility. However, technologies dealing with heavily automated, long duration habitable spacecraft have not yet been thoroughly investigated by NASA. A highly automated station must amalgamate the diverse capabilities of people, machines, and computers to yield an efficient system which capitalizes on unique human characteristics. The station also must have an initial design which allows evolution to a larger and more sophisticated space presence. In the early years it is likely that AI-based subsystems will be used primarily in an advisory or planning capacity. As human confidence in automated systems grows and as technology advances, machines will take on more critical and interdependent roles. The question is whether, and how much, system autonomy will lead to improved station effectiveness.

  20. The development of autonomy in children's education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of autonomy in the education of the child and focuses on the analysis of empirical data collected in some services for children in North and South of Italy (Trento, Bologna, Caltagirone, through the administration of semi-structured interviews with educators of the nursery and kindergarten teachers. The returned responses were read in the light of the phenomenological paradigm that permitted to highlight two major kinds of considerations: the one refers to as "parents support and encourage the development of the autonomy of their child more in words than deeds"; the other to as the educators and teachers interviewed showed an explicit difficulty to attribute a clear meaning to the concept of adult autonomy. The incoming in this set of considerations first of all emphasize the important role of adult education and its path of reflexivity and growth.

  1. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.

  2. School nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, Marie C; DeSisto, Thomas Patrick

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations, using school nurses and to answer the research question of whether there is a relationship between empowerment and autonomy in school nurses. This study found a positive relationship between the nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy. The school nurses surveyed perceived themselves to have a high degree of autonomy and a moderate degree of empowerment, and they reported that their access to informal power structures was higher than their access to formal power structures in their school systems. School nurses can benefit by understanding factors that can increase their empowerment in the workplace. They need to understand the organizational structure of their workplace to increase their effectiveness and job satisfaction.

  3. Effects of teacher autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Fahlman, Mariane

    2009-03-01

    This study applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of students' autonomous motivation and their perceptions of teacher autonomy support on need satisfaction adjustment, learning achievement, and cardiorespiratory fitness over a 4-month personal conditioning unit. Participants were 253 urban adolescents (121 girls and 132 boys, ages = 12-14 years). Based on a series of multiple regression analyses, perceived autonomy support by teachers significantly predicted students'need satisfaction adjustment and led to learning achievement, especially for students who were not autonomously motivated to learn in physical education. In turn, being more autonomous was directly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness enhancement. The findings suggest that shifts in teaching approaches toward providing more support for students' autonomy and active involvement hold promise for enhancing learning.

  4. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  5. Independence, Interaction, Interdependence and Interrelation: Learner Autonomy in a Web-based Less Commonly Taught Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Kostina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, teaching less commonly taught languages has been a very challenging task due to low student enrollment and the high costs of hiring permanent teaching faculty. Therefore, webbased distance learning (DL is beginning to attract serious attention from the less commonly taught languages profession (Fleming, Hiple and Du, 2002. However, DL classes are often associated with student isolation, where learners are deprived of non-verbal clues, vocal expression, and eye contact that are crucial for foreign language learning (White, 2005. Thus, working in a more isolated context requires higher learner autonomy (White, 2005. This article provides a review of literature on autonomy that exists in the foreign language field, and describes four aspects of autonomy that need to be considered by language teachers while developing their web-based courses. It also offers some practical suggestions for the less commonly taught language instructors that foster autonomy and decrease isolation online.

  6. Spiral branches and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasov, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    Origin of spiral branches of galaxies and formation of stars in them are considered from the point of view of the theory of the gravitational gas condensation, one of comparatively young theories. Arguments are presented in favour of the stellar condensation theory. The concept of the star formation of gas is no longer a speculative hypothesis. This is a theory which assumes quantitative verification and explains qualitatively many facts observed. And still our knowledge on the nature of spiral branches is very poor. It still remains vague what processes give origin to spiral branches, why some galaxies have spirals and others have none. And shapes of spiral branches are diverse. Some cases are known when spiral branches spread outside boundaries of galaxies themselves. Such spirals arise exclusively in the region where there are two or some interacting galaxies. Only first steps have been made in the explanation of the galaxy spiral branches, and it is necessary to carry out new observations and new theoretical calculations

  7. Changing Professional autonomy in the Context of Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi

    The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts......The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts...

  8. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009 Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disre...

  9. The autonomy: A challenge in shared spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena NITRI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as a goal, to study a few up- dated alternatives on the field of Teaching Coaching toe the focus of reflection. From the concept to autonomy we built and implement teaching strategies focussing on the development of autonomous working projects and tutorial systems, whose aim is placed in the creation of shared spaces which allow decision-taking.

  10. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  11. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.; Neef, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  12. The Development of Personal Autonomy throughout Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C.

    2006-01-01

    It is argued here that autonomy entails universal psychological needs pertaining to agency and identity formation, expressed in different ways over different developmental periods. As children develop skills and abilities related to psychological needs for self-expression and competence, they will claim areas related to the exercise of these…

  13. Identity, Motivation and Autonomy in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Terry; Murray, Garold; Gao, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    In this volume researchers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East and North and South America employ a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches in their exploration of the links between identity, motivation, and autonomy in language learning. On a conceptual level the authors explore issues related to agency, metacognition,…

  14. The Charter School Experience: Autonomy in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tonya Senne

    2013-01-01

    While traditional public school and charter school systems continue to undergo dramatic reforms in response to the educational crisis, charter schools are praised as possessing the distinguishing characteristic of maintaining autonomy in exchange for increased accountability (Buckley & Schneider, 2009). The expectations for charter schools are…

  15. Autonomy in the case of enthyreotic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1981-01-01

    To identify, quantify, and exclude thyroidal autonomy, under enthyreotic conditions (positive TRH-test), the in-vivo diagnosing with radionuclides is the only method available to assess the thyroidal trap in connection with the suppression test. Its application is urgently necessary for any goiter patient in the iodine lacking region, the methodical proceeding depends on the individual circumstances. (orig.) [de

  16. On autonomy and participation in rehabilitation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Jong, B.A. de; Ward, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    To explore the concept of autonomy as a basis for social participation, with particular reference to rehabilitation. Method: A study of relevant literature from the field of rehabilitation, building on theory developed in other fields (ethics, social sciences), and deriving important concepts and

  17. How Sex Selection Undermines Reproductive Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tamara Kayali

    2017-06-01

    Non-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a "male brain" or a "female brain". Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting experience they seek with a child of any sex. Yet gender essentialism, a set of unfounded assumptions about the sexes which pervade society and underpin sexism, prevents parents from realising this freedom. In other words, unfounded assumptions about gender constrain not only a child's autonomy, but also the parent's. To date, reproductive autonomy in relation to sex selection has predominantly been regarded merely as the freedom to choose the sex of one's child. This paper points to at least two interpretations of reproductive autonomy and argues that sex selection, by being premised on gender essentialism and/or the social pressure on parents to ensure their children conform to gender norms, undermines reproductive autonomy on both accounts.

  18. Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Practical Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2004-01-01

    This article points out an internal tension, or even conflict, in the conceptual foundations of Harvey Siegel's conception of critical thinking. Siegel justifies critical thinking, or critically rational autonomy, as an educational ideal first and foremost by an appeal to the Kantian principle of respect for persons. It is made explicit that this…

  19. Codes of Ethics and Teachers' Professional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Marina; Maxwell, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the value of adopting a code of professional ethics for teachers. After having underlined how a code of ethics stands to benefits a community of educators--namely, by providing a mechanism for regulating autonomy and promoting a shared professional ethic--the article examines the principal arguments against codes of ethics.…

  20. Educating for Well-Being and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.; Haji, Ishtiyaque

    2008-01-01

    Liberals champion the view that promoting autonomy--seeing to it that our children develop into individuals who are self-governing in the conduct of their lives--is a vital aim of education, though one generally accredited as being subsidiary to well-being. Our prime goal in this article is to provide a partial validation of this liberal ideal…

  1. Agility and adaptive autonomy in networked organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der

    2010-01-01

    In any multi-actor environment, there is an inevitable trade-off between achieving global coordination of activities and respecting the autonomy of the actors involved. Agile and resilient behavior demands dynamic coordination capabilities, but task and resource allocation quickly becomes

  2. Adjustable Autonomy: Controling Influences on Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological developments we foresee future systems where groups of actors coordinate their actions in a dynamic manner to reach their goals. Our aim is to develop a reasoning model for artificial actors in such systems. Starting point is the relation between autonomy of individuals and

  3. Autonomy and the Working-Class Freelance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medway, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In taking into account the realities of the writing process in the ways teachers organize their classrooms, they inescapably find themselves involved with the notion of student autonomy. Some guidelines for supporting independent-minded adolescents in the classroom suggest themselves, and this article provides other suggestions for planning…

  4. Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Autonomy Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report Hui-Min Huang, Elena Messina, James Albus...Level Specification for Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles : Interim Progress Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  5. Autonomy under threat: a revised Frankfurtian account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1970s Harry Frankfurt argued that so-called ‘coercive threats’ cause a violation of their victim's autonomy, thereby excluding him from moral responsibility. A person is therefore not responsible for doing what he is forced to do. Although this seems correct on an intuitive level, I

  6. University Autonomy: Two Fault-Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    The doctrine of university autonomy in the UK contains a least two major "fault-lines" where the structure is inherently weak and there is danger of functional breakdown. The first occurs at the junction between the institution and the state, the second within the institution, where the unity in policy-making between academic and…

  7. Patient autonomy: a view from the kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhkamp, Rita M

    2005-01-01

    In contemporary liberal ethics patient autonomy is often interpreted as the right to self-determination: when it comes to treatment decisions, the patient is given the right to give or withhold informed consent. This paper joins in the philosophical and ethical criticism of the liberal interpretation as it does not regard patient autonomy as a right, rule or principle, but rather as a practice. Patient autonomy, or so I will argue, is realised in the concrete activities of day-to-day health care, in the material and technological context of care, in arrangements of health care institutions, in the physical training of people with disabilities, as well as in the concrete activities of care-giving. This move from conversations in the consultation room to other sites and situations in the practice of care takes seriously the empirical reality of medical care and intends to show that patient autonomy is practically realised in a much richer and more creative way than most ethical theory seems to assume.

  8. Supporting Student Autonomy in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana; Webster, Collin A.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of motivation among students is a common challenge in physical education. Studies drawing on the self-determination theory consistently show that perceived autonomy facilitates adaptive motivation in students, which can lead to a wide range of desired educational outcomes. However, instructional strategies designed to support student…

  9. Autonomi og informeret samtykke i sygeplejepraksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Morville, Annette

    2006-01-01

    is described as freedom from compulsion and other forms of regulatory influence. In relation to autonomy and informed consent, information is a defined nursing responsibility in connection with self-managed nursing duties, nursing research and duties where nurses have had been entrusted with responsibility...

  10. Introducing, Defining and Balancing 'Autonomy vs. Paternalism'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem); A.I. Ogus (Anthony)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAutonomy is generally regarded as the fundamental right of individuals to shape their own future through voluntary action. In private law, it is associated with freedom of contract and the concept of casum sentit dominus (the loss lies where it falls). As such, it is opposed to legal

  11. Construction of a Personal Autonomy Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpfer, D. J. W.

    The inventory contains three factural scales: independence of judgement, moral relativism, and adventurousness. The item pool was based upon descriptions of the need for autonomy (positive) and for independence (negative). The preliminary English form included the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and was completed by 233 English-speaking…

  12. Autonomy and Complexity at Sandia Executive Summary of Academic Alliance Workshop on Autonomy and Complex Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kleban, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Sandia has identified autonomy as a strategic initiative and an important area for providing national leadership. A key question is, “How might autonomy change how we think about the national security challenges we address and the kinds of solutions we deliver?” Three workshops at Sandia early in 2017 brought together internal stakeholders and potential academic partners in autonomy to address this question. The first focused on programmatic applications and needs. The second explored existing internal capabilities and research and development needs. This report summarizes the outcome of the third workshop, held March 3, 2017 in Albuquerque, NM, which engaged Academic Alliance partners in autonomy efforts at Sandia by discussing research needs and synergistic areas of interest within the complex systems and system modeling domains, and identifying opportunities for partnering on laboratory directed and other joint research opportunities.

  13. Autonomy and Interests: The Social Life of a Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddiford, Gordon

    1993-01-01

    Examines the arguments that students should determine their own curriculum. Reviews the case for student autonomy based on philosophical anarchism and Immanuel Kant's views on autonomy. Argues that curriculum should be a result of the shared autonomy of students and teachers. (CFR)

  14. Fathers' Autonomy Support and Social Competence of Sons and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between paternal autonomy support and four aspects of adolescent social competence and responsibility at age 16 were examined using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. With controls on maternal autonomy support, significant relations were observed between paternal autonomy support and three of the four…

  15. "It's My Life": Autonomy and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristín; Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún V; Stefánsdóttir, Ástríður

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, we examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is,…

  16. Lessons for Hospital Autonomy : Implementation in Vietnam from International Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vietnam Ministry of Health; Health Strategy and Policy Institute; World Bank; World Health Organization

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Vietnam sees hospital autonomy policy as important and consistent with current development trends in Vietnam. It is based on government policies as laid out in government Decree on financial autonomy of revenue-generating public service entities; and to 2006, it is replaced by decree on professional, organizational, human resource management and financial autonomy of reve...

  17. Advancing Learner Autonomy in TEFL via Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; Shan, Tan Hui

    2015-01-01

    The present paper begins by situating learner autonomy and collaborative learning as part of a larger paradigm shift towards student-centred learning. Next are brief discussions of learner autonomy and how learner autonomy links with collaborative learning. In the main part of the paper, four central principles of collaborative learning are…

  18. Charter School Autonomy: The Mismatch between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Kara S.

    2007-01-01

    In theory, the charter school concept is based on a trade-off or exchange: greater autonomy for increased accountability. Although charter schools have been operating for more than 10 years, little is known about charter school autonomy in practice. This mixed-methods study used survey and case study data to examine the degree of autonomy of…

  19. LEARNER AUTONOMY IN THE INDONESIAN EFL SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Sri Lengkanawati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learner autonomy in Indonesian educational institutions has not commonly been listed as a teaching-learning objective, and most teachers seem to be hardly acquainted with learner autonomy (LA.  Therefore, it is very essential  to conduct a study of LA as perceived and experienced by school teachers and to find out the importance of LA training for professional development. A questionnaire was used to collect the data about English teachers’ perceptions regarding LA and LA-based practices. In addition, an LA training was conducted to see its significance for professional development.  After the data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, it was found that the participating teachers tended to maintain that autonomy should be inculcated among learners, and that the LA concept should not be misinterpreted as learning without a teacher. Concerning choices and decisions by  the learners, it was believed that learners’ making choices about how they learned and what activities they did, and involving them to decide what and how to learn could promote autonomy among learners. As regards LA-based teaching-learning practices, it was revealed that most teachers desired to implement LA principles in their teaching-learning contexts, although they identified that many of the LA principles were not that feasible to apply in their situation. It was also found that LA training could improve the teachers’ perceptions regarding LA concepts and principles. There were some constraints which could make learner autonomy difficult to develop among Indonesian learners in general: limited time allotted for the implementation of the curriculum, learners’ lack of autonomous learning experience, too much focus on national examinations, and insufficient proficiency of English.  LA-based teaching-learning practices were most desired; however, many were considered as having insufficient feasibility. In this respect, commitment is certainly the key to

  20. [Autonomy and dementia Part II: autonomy and representation: a possible combination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaux, Natalie

    2011-06-01

    This paper, based on a critical review of the medico-social literature, questions the representation of patients with dementia in relation to the autonomy perspectives presented in a previous article. In the canonical perspective of autonomy (defined as a rational decision-making by a stand alone self), the surrogate is the spokeperson of the subject's wills when he was competent because he knows these wills through advance directives or assuming them via substituted judgment. Best patient's interest is then depreciated because it is focused on the present incompetent self. In the relational perspective, where autonomy is constructed through a dialogue with others, the surrogate is the present interlocutor, making the decisions with the patient and care-givers in a way varying with the disease process. He represents the subject with dementia as he was before the disease but also as he has become. Therefore, there is a continuum between autonomy and representation. Autonomy and well being are both the surrogate aims. The relational perspective allows care continuity of patients with dementia even when considered as incompetent. It offers a more balanced perspective on the patient autonomy since it is embedded in all others, and opens a richer view on what good life is, untill the end of dementia.

  1. Using Integration and Autonomy to Teach an Elementary Running Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, J. Brandon; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is an important aspect of overall fitness, health, and wellness, and running can be an excellent lifetime physical activity. One of the most simple and effective means of exercise, running raises heart rate in a short amount of time and can be done with little to no cost for equipment. There are many benefits to running,…

  2. School Autonomy and District Support: How Principals Respond to a Tiered Autonomy Initiative in Philadelphia Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Cox, Amanda Barrett

    2017-01-01

    A tiered autonomy policy was recently implemented in Philadelphia, where select principals were granted autonomy to manage school operations while others were promised greater district support to improve school functioning. This article provides evidence on how principals used their autonomy and the extent of district support for non-autonomous…

  3. Space plasma branch at NRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.) formed the Space Plasma Branch within its Plasma Physics Division on July 1. Vithal Patel, former Program Director of Magnetospheric Physics, National Science Foundation, also joined NRL on the same date as Associate Superintendent of the Plasma Physics Division. Barret Ripin is head of the newly organized branch. The Space Plasma branch will do basic and applied space plasma research using a multidisciplinary approach. It consolidates traditional rocket and satellite space experiments, space plasma theory and computation, with laboratory space-related experiments. About 40 research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, engineers, and technicians are divided among its five sections. The Theory and Computation sections are led by Joseph Huba and Joel Fedder, the Space Experiments section is led by Paul Rodriguez, and the Pharos Laser Facility and Laser Experiments sections are headed by Charles Manka and Jacob Grun.

  4. Coulomb branches with complex singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario

    2018-06-01

    We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.

  5. Assessing Residents' Readiness for OR Autonomy: A Qualitative Descriptive Study of Expert Surgical Teachers' Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong Phoenix; Sullivan, Amy M; Alseidi, Adnan; Kwakye, Gifty; Smink, Douglas S

    Providing resident autonomy in the operating room (OR) is one of the major challenges for surgical educators today. The purpose of this study was to explore what approaches expert surgical teachers use to assess residents' readiness for autonomy in the OR. We particularly focused on the assessments that experts make prior to conducting the surgical time-out. We conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with expert surgical teachers from March 2016 to September 2016. Purposeful sampling and snowball sampling were applied to identify and recruit expert surgical teachers from general surgery residency programs across the United States to represent a range of clinical subspecialties. All interviews were audio-recorded, deidentified, and transcribed. We applied the Framework Method of content analysis, discussed and reached final consensus on the themes. We interviewed 15 expert teachers from 9 institutions. The majority (13/15) were Program or Associate Program Directors; 47% (7/15) primarily performed complex surgical operations (e.g., endocrine surgery). Five themes regarding how expert surgical teachers determine residents' readiness for OR autonomy before the surgical time-out emerged. These included 3 domains of evidence elicited about the resident (resident characteristics, medical knowledge, and beyond the current OR case), 1 variable relating to attending characteristics, and 1 variable composed of contextual factors. Experts obtained one or more examples of evidence, and adjusted residents' initial autonomy using factors from the attending variable and the context variable. Expert surgical teachers' assessments of residents' readiness for OR autonomy included 5 key components. Better understanding these inputs can contribute to both faculty and resident development, enabling increased resident autonomy and preparation for independent practice. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Branch prediction in the pentium family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    1998-01-01

    How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions.......How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions....

  7. A balanced intervention ladder: promoting autonomy through public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P E; West, C

    2015-08-01

    The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Teacher Autonomy Perceptions of Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim KHEZERLOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.

  9. Autonomy, Competence and Non-interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph T F

    2017-12-30

    In light of the variety of uses of the term autonomy in recent bioethics literature, in this paper, I suggest that competence, not being as contested, is better placed to play the anti-paternalistic role currently assigned to autonomy. The demonstration of competence, I will argue, can provide individuals with robust spheres of non-interference in which they can pursue their lives in accordance with their own values. This protection from paternalism is achieved by granting individuals rights to non-interference upon demonstration of competence. In this paper, I present a risk-sensitive account of competence as a means of grounding rights to non-interference. On a risk-sensitive account of competence individuals demonstrate their competence by exercising three capacities to the extent necessary to meet a threshold determined by the riskiness of the decision. These three capacities are the capacity to (i) acquire knowledge, (ii) use instrumental rationality, and (iii) form and revise a life plan.

  10. Focus on energy autonomy in overseas districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billerey, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    As French overseas territories have also had a role of leader in the development of renewable energies, and as the French law on energy transition states that energy autonomy is an objective by 2030 for these territories, with 50 per cent of renewable energies by 2020, this publication proposes an overview of the situation in these territories which still strongly depend on imported energies, notably for transports. The publication outlines the specificities of these islands with respect to the metropolitan territory in terms of electric power system: small territories, high production costs, strong consumption increase. It describes how the new energy policy plans evolutions to reach this autonomy: development of renewable energies and of smart grids, development of vehicles fuelled with electricity, biofuels or hydrogen, management of energy consumption in housing and through the use of renewable energies

  11. [Euthanasia and the paradoxes of autonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2008-01-01

    The principle of respect for autonomy has proved very useful for bioethical arguments in favor of euthanasia. However unquestionable its theoretical efficacy, countless aporiae can be raised when conducting a detailed analysis of this concept, probably checkmating it. Based on such considerations, this paper investigates the principle of autonomy, starting with its origins in Greek and Christian traditions, and then charting some of its developments in Western cultures through to its modern formulation, a legacy of Immanuel Kant. The main paradoxes of this concept are then presented in the fields of philosophy, biology, psychoanalysis and politics, expounding several of the theoretical difficulties to be faced in order to make its applicability possible within the scope of decisions relating to the termination of life.

  12. Autonomy, rationality and the wish to die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D M

    1999-12-01

    Although suicide has traditionally carried a negative sanction in Western societies, this is now being challenged, and while there remains substantial public concern surrounding youth and elder suicide, there is a paradoxical push to relax the prohibition under certain circumstances. Central to the arguments behind this are the principles of respect for autonomy and the importance of rationality. It is argued here that the concepts of rationality and autonomy, while valuable, are not strong enough to substantiate a categorical "right to suicide" and that the concepts of "understandability" and "respect" are more useful and able to provide the foundation for responding to a person expressing a wish to die. Roman suicide, sometimes held as an example of "rational suicide", illustrates the effects of culture, tradition and values on the attitudes to, and the practice of, suicide.

  13. Building up Autonomy Through Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Izquierdo Castillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project conducted with six ninth grade students in a rural public school in Colombia. The purpose of the study was to determine how the implementation of three reading strategies (skimming, scanning, and making predictions, when reading topics selected by learners, helps them to improve their reading comprehension and promotes their autonomy in the learning process. The results show that these learners developed some autonomous features such as making decisions for learning and doing assigned homework, increasing reading awareness and motivation. Additionally, the training on reading strategies allowed them to succeed in their reading comprehension. We conclude that these reading strategies are tools that take learners along the path of autonomy.

  14. [School nutrition and autonomy - challenges and opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Najla Veloso Sampaio; Machado, Neila Maria Viçosa; Soares, Maria Cláudia Veiga; Pinto, Anelise Regina Royer

    2013-04-01

    This study seeks to emphasize school food as an important policy to promote student autonomy by means of food and nutrition education included in the curriculum, integrated with different actors and based on the standpoint of citizenship. It seeks to return to fundamental concepts in the context of school food reflecting on them through theoretical assumptions to identify possible strategies to promote citizenship and autonomy in school. The strategies involved food and nutrition education with the daily presence of quality and suitability in school meals, discussions on the various dimensions of food in the curriculum and integrating food in the pedagogical project extended to various areas of the education system. School food fosters the need for integration of actions, actors and the various social spaces interested in the food issue, such as ministries, education systems, departments and schools, so that they may tackle the demands of contemporary reality in an integrated, systematic, consistent and efficient manner.

  15. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  16. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  17. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  18. Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Autonomy-Supportive Sibling Interactions: The Role of Mothers' and Siblings' Psychological Need Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Loeys, Tom; Mabbe, Elien; Gargurevich, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers' satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother-child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers' psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Demonstration of Human-Autonomy Teaming Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert Jay

    2016-01-01

    Known problems with automation include lack of mode awareness, automation brittleness, and risk of miscalibrated trust. Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) is essential for improving these problems. We have identified some critical components of HAT and ran a part-task study to introduce these components to a ground station that supports flight following of multiple aircraft. Our goal was to demonstrate, evaluate, and refine HAT principles. This presentation provides a brief summary of the study and initial findings.

  20. On autonomy and participation in rehabilitation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardol, M.; Jong, B.A. de; Ward, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    To explore the concept of autonomy as a basis for social participation, with particular reference to rehabilitation. Method: A study of relevant literature from the field of rehabilitation, building on theory developed in other fields (ethics, social sciences), and deriving important concepts and strategies for rehabilitation practice. Results: The focus of rehabilitation for people with a chronic disabling condition is shifting from a biomedical to a client-centred perspective. Conceptions o...

  1. [Carers and the policy for autonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiditch, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Long-time invisible, the role of informal carers in providing assistance to elderly patients losing their autonomy is gaining recognition. A policy in favour of carers coordinated with that aimed at the people being cared for is necessary, but it is struggling to establish itself in France. Some progress can however be seen with the French bill on adapting society to the ageing of the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Autonomy-How much is too much

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-22

    Autonomous Robots Automatically Operated Car (1977) The first demonstration of a driverless car occurred in 1977 in Tsukuba, Japan[19][20] The car ...is autonomy? Brief history of autonomous robots Current field use of robots Current state-of-the-art for autonomous robots Barriers to the use of... autonomous robots Considering the human factor Outlook for the future 19 June 2007 Systems & Software Technology

  3. Autonomy and purity in Kant's moral theory

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Carolyn Jane

    2010-01-01

    Kant believed that the moral law is a law that the rational will legislates. This thesis examines this claim and its broader implications for Kant’s moral theory. Many are drawn to Kantian ethics because of its emphasis on the dignity and legislative authority of the rational being. The attractiveness of this emphasis on the special standing and capacities of the self grounds a recent tendency to interpret Kantian autonomy as a doctrine according to which individual agents create binding ...

  4. Maximing Learning Strategies to Promote Learner Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning a new language is ultimately to be able to communicate with it. Encouraging a sense of responsibility on the part of the learners is crucial for training them to be proficient communicators. As such, understanding the strategies that they employ in acquiring the language skill is important to come to ideas of how to promote learner autonomy. Research recently conducted with three different groups of learners of English at the tertiary education level in Malang indicated that they used metacognitive and social startegies at a high frequency, while memory, cognitive, conpensation, and affective strategies were exercised at a medium frewuency. This finding implies that the learners have acquired some degrees of autonomy because metacognive strategies requires them to independently make plans for their learning activities as well as evaluate the progress, and social strategies requires them to independently enhance communicative interactions with other people. Further actions are then to be taken increase their learning autonomy, that is by intensifying the practice of use of the other four strategy categories, which are not yet applied intensively.

  5. Cognitive Architectures and Autonomy: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thórisson, Kristinn; Helgasson, Helgi

    2012-05-01

    One of the original goals of artificial intelligence (AI) research was to create machines with very general cognitive capabilities and a relatively high level of autonomy. It has taken the field longer than many had expected to achieve even a fraction of this goal; the community has focused on building specific, targeted cognitive processes in isolation, and as of yet no system exists that integrates a broad range of capabilities or presents a general solution to autonomous acquisition of a large set of skills. Among the reasons for this are the highly limited machine learning and adaptation techniques available, and the inherent complexity of integrating numerous cognitive and learning capabilities in a coherent architecture. In this paper we review selected systems and architectures built expressly to address integrated skills. We highlight principles and features of these systems that seem promising for creating generally intelligent systems with some level of autonomy, and discuss them in the context of the development of future cognitive architectures. Autonomy is a key property for any system to be considered generally intelligent, in our view; we use this concept as an organizing principle for comparing the reviewed systems. Features that remain largely unaddressed in present research, but seem nevertheless necessary for such efforts to succeed, are also discussed.

  6. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  7. Module for the organization of a branch of the universal branch driver in the CAMAC standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguen Fuk; Smirnov, V.A.; Khmelevski, E.

    1976-01-01

    A module is elaborated for the organization of a branch of the universal branch driver in the CAMAC standard for the conjugation of a control crate trunk with a branch trunk. A block diagram of the module is described; its principal specifications are given. The universal branch driver system may accomodate up to 10 branch organization modules with one control source module

  8. Youth report of healthcare transition counseling and autonomy support from their rheumatologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Courtney Kellerman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To increase understanding of the healthcare transition (HCT process for young people living with Juvenile Idopathic Arthritis (JIA by examining: 1 the extent to which youth report discussing HCT topics with their rheumatologist and 2 the association between youth perceptions of autonomy support from their rheumatologist and HCT discussions. Methods Data are from an online survey of youth in the United States with rheumatologic conditions (n= 134. HCT discussion was measured by 4 questions from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. Youth perception of autonomy support was measured using a validated 6-item scale. Results One third of the youth (33.7% reported talking to their rheumatologist about transferring to adult medicine. Less than half (40.8% of respondents talked with their rheumatologist about adult healthcare needs, and less than a quarter (22.0% discussed acquiring health insurance as an adult. Nearly two-thirds of respondents (62.7% reported that their rheumatologist usually/always encourages self-care responsibility. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between rheumatologist support for youth autonomy and HCT counseling. Conclusion The low frequency of HCT counseling reported indicates a continuing need to increase awareness among rheumatologist in the USA. The strong associations between rheumatologist’s support for youth autonomy and HCT counseling suggest that developmentally “in-tune” providers may deliver the best guidance about transition planning for youth living with arthritis.

  9. Can job autonomy attenuate the effect of depression on employees' well-being? It may depend on culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liman Man Wai

    2018-04-26

    Depression is one of the leading causes of work disability. Thus, it is important to explore possible ways to reduce its impact on employees. The current research examined whether promoting job autonomy would attenuate the detrimental effect of depression on employees' well-being. Study 1 included the data from 5974 full-time employees from China. Full-time employees living in India, a collectivistic culture, and the United States, an individualistic culture, were recruited online in Study 2. Study 1 revealed that job autonomy moderated the influence of depression on job strain and perceived control mediated this interaction effect. Specifically, job autonomy weakened the detrimental effect of depression on job strain via weakening the association between depression and perceived control. The data from the 258 full-time employees in Study 2 replicated the findings and found that job autonomy had a stronger attenuating effect on the influence of depression in India than it had in the United States. Job autonomy was found to be an effective way to reduce the negative impact of depression on employees' well-being, a finding that should be considered when organizations develop their work policies.

  10. Cambial activity in dry and rainy season on branches from woody species growing in Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen R. Marcati; Silvia R. Machado; Diego Sotto Podadera; Natalia O. Totti de Lara; Fabio Bosio; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal cambial activity was investigated in one- to three-year-old branch modules (branch constructional units) of ten woody species from cerrado sensu stricto, a savanna-like ecosystem, of southernBrazil. Relationships between cambial activity and environmental factors (precipitation, temperature,day length) and leaf production were tested using...

  11. Public Library Websites as Electronic Branches: A Multi-Country Quantitative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Diane L.; Evans, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This paper describes the findings of a study of 1517 public library Websites in Australia, Canada, and the United States over a period of four years. These Websites are referred to as 'electronic branches' of the libraries, thereby extending the definition of physical library branches into the digital realm. The purpose of the…

  12. ‘It’s up to you’: Experimentally manipulated autonomy support for prosocial behavior improves well-being in two cultures over six weeks

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, SK; Della Porta, MD; Jacobs Bao, K; Lee, HC; Choi, I; Lyubomirsky, S

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Previous research has demonstrated a strong link between prosocial behavior – particularly autonomous prosocial behavior – and well-being. Little is known, however, about whether and how autonomy might be boosted in the context of everyday kindnesses. We tested the effect of supporting students’ autonomy on well-being gains from practicing acts of kindness in a six-week randomized experimental study in the United States and South Korea. As predicted, performing kind...

  13. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  14. Branching geodesics in normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2002-01-01

    We study branching extremals of length functionals on normed spaces. This is a natural generalization of the Steiner problem in normed spaces. We obtain criteria for a network to be extremal under deformations that preserve the topology of networks as well as under deformations with splitting. We discuss the connection between locally shortest networks and extremal networks. In the important particular case of the Manhattan plane, we get a criterion for a locally shortest network to be extremal

  15. Cash efficiency for bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Julia Garc?a

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks? branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...

  16. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Acinetobacter baumannii K13 and K73 capsular polysaccharides differ only in K-unit side branches of novel non-2-ulosonic acids: di-N-acetylated forms of either acinetaminic acid or 8-epiacinetaminic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Johanna J; Kasimova, Anastasiya A; Notaro, Anna; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Speciale, Immacolata; Shashkov, Alexander S; De Castro, Cristina; Hall, Ruth M; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2017-11-27

    Structures of capsular polysaccharides of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates carrying KL13 and KL73 gene clusters were established. The closely related KL73 and KL13 gene clusters differ only by one gene in the module responsible for synthesis of the non-2-ulosonic acids. The K13 and K73 polysaccharides differ only in a single side-chain sugar, which is either 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-l-glycero-l-altro- or -d-glycero-l-altro-non-2-ulosonic acid [di-N-acetylated forms of acinetaminic acid (Aci5Ac7Ac) or 8-epiacinetaminic acid (8eAci5Ac7Ac), respectively]. The KL13 also is closely related to the KL12 gene cluster, which contains a different wzy gene encoding the K unit polymerase. Accordingly, the otherwise near identical K units are linked differently via an α-d-FucpNAc-(1 → 4)-d-Galp linkage in K13 and K73 or an α-d-FucpNAc-(1 → 3)-d-GalpNAc linkage in K12. This finding confirms the predicted substrate of the ItrB3 initiating transferase as d-FucpNAc. Glycosyltransferases predicted to catalyse the linkage of d-Galp or d-GalpNAc to l-FucpNAc in the growing K13 and K73 or K12 units, respectively, differ by only two amino acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Euthyroid goitre with and without functional autonomy: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenhinrichs, H.; Emrich, D.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre. Methods: In an area of moderate iodine deficiency 163 goitrous patients without and 179 with functional autonomy all clinically euthyroid were compared by sex, age, signs and symptoms, sonographic results, qualitative and quantitative scintigraphy without and with suppression, TRH test, hormone concentrations and iodine excretion in the urine. Results: Age, signs and symptoms, thyroid volume and structure did not contribute sufficiently to diagnosis. To detect functional autonomy quantitative scintigraphy under suppression was superior to the TRH test. Increased hormone concentrations were observed in 15% of patients with functional autonomy. A global 99m Tc thyroid uptake of ≥3% under suppression indicates a higher risk of spontaneous hyperthyroidism. It was present in 20% of patients with functional autonomy. Conclusion: to diagnose and treat adequately functional autonomy in euthyroid goitre quantitative scintigraphy, determination of TSH and hormone concentrations are inevitable. (orig.) [de

  19. Autonomy and Housing Accessibility Among Powered Mobility Device Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Åse; Lexell, Eva Månsson; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To describe environmental barriers, accessibility problems, and powered mobility device (PMD) users’ autonomy indoors and outdoors; to determine the home environmental barriers that generated the most housing accessibility problems indoors, at entrances, and in the close exterior surroundings; and to examine personal factors and environmental components and their association with indoor and outdoor autonomy. METHOD. This cross-sectional study was based on data collected from a sample of 48 PMD users with a spinal cord injury (SCI) using the Impact of Participation and Autonomy and the Housing Enabler instruments. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used. RESULTS. More years living with SCI predicted less restriction in autonomy indoors, whereas more functional limitations and accessibility problems related to entrance doors predicted more restriction in autonomy outdoors. CONCLUSION. To enable optimized PMD use, practitioners must pay attention to the relationship between client autonomy and housing accessibility problems. PMID:26356666

  20. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  1. Autonomy and job satisfaction for a sample of Greek teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koustelios, Athanasios D; Karabatzaki, Despina; Kousteliou, Ioanna

    2004-12-01

    Analysing the relation between Job Satisfaction and Autonomy in a sample of 300 Greek teachers (114 men and 186 women, 28 to 59 years old) from primary and secondary schools, showed statistically significant positive correlations between Job Satisfaction and Autonomy. Particularly, Autonomy was correlated with Job Itself (.21), Supervision (.22), and the Organizational as a Whole (.27), aspects of Job Satisfaction. Findings are in line with previous studies conducted in different cultural contexts. Percent common variance accounted for is small.

  2. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT) classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  3. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A. Kusurkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion: Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion: Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  4. Learner Autonomy in Language Education : A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of developing learner autonomy in language education hasbeen one of its more prominent themes in Japan as well as in the West. In spite of agreementconcerning its importance, there remains a good deal of uncertainty about its meaning inteaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This paper aims to consider theconcept of learner autonomy amongst different cultures. Autonomy has a social as well as anindividual dimension. The promotion of learner a...

  5. Learner Autonomy in Foreign Language Education and in Cultural Context

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovska, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is a brief review of the theoretical concepts about learner autonomy focusing on highlighting the main themes on learner autonomy in foreign language education and in cultural context as a globalized construct. These themes are based on the concepts of learner responsibility and independence, the importance of the autonomy in foreign language education in both the Western and Eastern style and the role of the culture in the concept of learner independence. The present study ...

  6. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize d...

  7. School staff autonomy and educational performance: within school type evidence

    OpenAIRE

    VERSCHELDE, Marijn; HINDRIKS, Jean; RAYP, Glenn; SCHOORS, Koen

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the effect of school staff autonomy on educational performance. The distinctive feature with existing literature is that we employ variation in autonomy within the same country and within the same school type to reduce the omitted variables problems. To fully capture the informational advantage of local actors, we define autonomy as the operational empowerment of the school’s direction and teachers. The Flemish secondary school system in Belgium is analyzed as it displays uni...

  8. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  9. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.; Combes, A.N.; Short, K.M.; Lefevre, J.; Hamilton, N.A.; Smyth, I.M.; Little, M.H.; Byrne, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  10. Adolescent autonomy revisited: clinicians need clearer guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Joe; Larcher, Victor

    2016-08-01

    In 1996, Brazier and Bridge raised the question 'is adolescent autonomy truly dead and buried' following judicial decisions which had seemed to reverse the Gillick-inspired trend for greater child autonomy in healthcare. Subsequent decisions by the courts have reinforced the view that those below 18 years in England and Wales remain children with limited rights to refuse treatment compared with adults. This is at variance with the daily experience of those working with young people who increasingly seek to actively involve them in making freely informed decisions about their healthcare, in accordance with the principles enunciated in the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child and the UK Children Acts. We review the derivation of the law in England and Wales in this area, in the light of another recent family court judgement enforcing treatment on a 'competent' child without his or her consent and ask: 'How can the Common Law and the ethical practice of those caring for young people have diverged so far?' Either young people can decide whether to have a recommended treatment, or they cannot. Given Ian McEwan's book, the Children Act, has stimulated wider social debate in this area might this be an opportune moment to seek public policy resolution with regards to healthcare decision making by young people? We argue that events since the Gillick case have underlined the need for a comprehensive review of legal policy and practice in this area. While absolute autonomy and freedom of choice are arguably inconsistent with the protection rights that society has agreed are owed to children, healthcare practitioners need clarity over the circumstances in which society expects that autonomous choices of adolescents can be overridden. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G; Verhoeven, Corine J

    2017-11-01

    High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care system and whether they expect a new system of integrated maternity care to affect their experienced job autonomy. A cross-sectional survey. The Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire was used to assess experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals. Data were collected in the Netherlands in 2015. 799 professionals participated of whom 362 were primary care midwives, 240 obstetricians, 93 clinical midwives and 104 obstetric nurses. The mean score for experienced job autonomy was highest for primary care midwives, followed by obstetricians, clinical midwives and obstetric nurses. Primary care midwives scored highest in expecting to lose their job autonomy in an integrated care system. There are significant differences in experienced job autonomy between maternity care professionals. When changing the maternity care system it will be a challenge to maintain a high level of experienced job autonomy for professionals. A decrease in job autonomy could lead to a reduction in job related wellbeing and in satisfaction with care among pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Autonomy and reason: treatment choice in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Mary

    2012-10-01

    The practice of offering choice to those women with breast cancer for whom either breast conserving surgery or mastectomy would be equally beneficial has come to be seen as an important aspect of medical care. As well as improving satisfaction with treatment, this is seen as satisfying the ethical principle of respect for autonomy. A number of studies, however, show that women are not always comfortable with such choice, preferring to leave treatment decisions to their surgeons. A question then arises as to the extent that these women can be seen as autonomous or as exercising autonomy. This paper argues, however, that the understanding of autonomy which is applied in current approaches to breast cancer care does not adequately support the exercise of autonomy, and that the clinical context of care means that women are not able to engage in the kind of reasoning that might promote the exercise of autonomy. Where respect for autonomy is limited to informed consent and choice, there is a danger that women's interests are overlooked in those aspects of their care where choice is not appropriate, with very real, long-term consequences for some women. Promoting the exercise of autonomy, it is argued, needs to go beyond the conception of autonomy as rational individuals making their own decisions, and clinicians need to work with an understanding of autonomy as relational in order to better involve women in their care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. [Autonomy: to what extent is the concept relevant in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, F A

    2012-01-01

    Autonomy is an important concept in psychiatry, but because it is a somewhat abstract and ambiguous notion, it is not applicable in its entirety in a psychiatric context. This becomes obvious in situations where patients are receiving long term care and treatment. To modify the concept of autonomy in such a way that it acquires an extra dimension that renders it applicable to daily psychiatric practice. The literature was reviewed in order to find articles that reveal the tensions that arise between autonomy and dependence in psychiatry and that reflect the human characteristics that are concealed behind the modern concepts of autonomy, freedom and respect for autonomy. Concepts such as person, identity, acknowledgement, dialogical ethics and life histories are used as an addition to the concepts of autonomy of Kant and Mill. A phenomenological and a context sensitive conception of autonomy is needed within the perspective of dialogical ethics. A dialogical perspective requires from psychiatric professionals a susceptibility for what the patient as a human being really has to say. On the basis of a dialogue where there is space and attention for life histories, backgrounds and the potentials of patients, a new perspective can be developed that is shared by the persons involved. In psychiatry, statements about real autonomy and genuine respect for autonomy are only truly meaningful within the context of doctors, nurses and patients. A hermeneutic approach to patients which involves dialogue creates new opportunities in the field of staff-patient relations.

  14. Concept analysis: patient autonomy in a caring context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Catharina; Fagerström, Cecilia; Sivberg, Bengt; Willman, Ania

    2014-10-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of patient autonomy Many problems regarding patient autonomy in healthcare contexts derive from the patient's dependent condition as well as the traditional authoritarian position of healthcare professionals. Existing knowledge and experience reveal a lack of consensus among nurses regarding the meaning of this ethical concept. Concept analysis. Medline, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and PsycINFO were searched (2005-June 2013) using the search blocks 'autonomy', 'patient' and 'nursing/caring'. A total of 41 articles were retrieved. The Evolutionary Method of Concept Analysis by Rodgers was used to identify and construct the meaning of the concept of patient autonomy in a caring context. Five attributes were identified, thus creating the following descriptive definition: 'Patient autonomy is a gradual, time-changing process of (re-)constructing autonomy through the interplay of to be seen as a person, the capacity to act and the obligation to take responsibility for one's actions'. Patient vulnerability was shown to be the antecedent of patient autonomy and arises due to an impairment of a person's physical and/or mental state. The consequences of patient autonomy were discussed in relation to preserving control and freedom. Patient autonomy in a caring context does not need to be the same before, during and after a care episode. A tentative model has been constructed, thus extending the understanding of this ethical concept in a caring context. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The United States and the Kurds: Case Studies in United States Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Peter

    1997-01-01

    ..., between 1969- 1975, and 1990-1996. Both eras saw the United States able to influence events relating to the Kurds in support of a larger regional policy, only to find no easy solution to the Kurdish quest for autonomy...

  16. Autonomie du groupe restreint et performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Nissen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Un groupe est autonome lorsqu'il prend lui-même en charge sa gestion (Abric, 1996 et lorsque celle-ci fonctionne bien. L'autonomie du groupe restreint est une caractéristique revendiquée dans le cadre actuel de l'expansion de dispositifs collaboratifs à distance entre apprenants. La question qui se pose alors est de savoir si un groupe restreint autonome est plus performant qu'un groupe moins autonome. L'autonomie d'un groupe d'apprentissage en ligne est-elle en relation avec la qualité de la réalisation de la tâche ? Est-elle en relation avec les progrès réalisés par les membres du groupe ? Dans le cadre de notre étude expérimentale, menée dans deux dispositifs pédagogiques différents (l'environnement d'apprentissage Babbelnet et une formation sur la plate-forme Acolad, des étudiants ont réalisé en groupes restreints, avec l'accompagnement d'un tuteur, une tâche de type actionnel – en l'occurrence une rédaction en langue étrangère (allemand ou anglais. Pour ce faire, ils disposaient d'aides méthodologiques et linguistiques dans l'environnement pédagogique en ligne. Ils ont interagi par le biais d'Internet au moyen de différents outils de communication. Une analyse de l'interaction qui a eu lieu dans chaque groupe, l'évaluation des rédactions réalisées conjointement, deux tests réalisés respectivement avant et après la phase de travail en groupe ainsi qu'un formulaire auto-administré nous permettent de mettre en lien l'autonomie des groupes, d'une part, et leur performance, voire leur apprentissage, d'autre part. Au vu de cette étude, il apparaît que l'autonomie du groupe n'a pas d'influence directe sur l'apprentissage des groupes restreints. En revanche, un rapport est visible entre l'appréciation du fonctionnement du groupe par ses membres et l'évolution de la performance des groupes.

  17. Learner autonomy, self regulation and metacognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal Çubukcu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Different theories try to explain why some students are more successful than the others. Phenomenologists (Mc Combs, 1989 study self concepts of the students and find such students prone to achieve more. Attributional Theorists (Dweck, 1986; Weiner, 2005 focus on personal outcome such as effort or ability. Metacognitive theorists (Pressley, 2000; Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2007 examine students’ self regulated learning strategies whereas Constructivists (Maxim, 2009; Paris & Byrnes, 1989 believe supportive environments are important to be successful. In this study, the metacognitive theory will be given more importance and the purpose of the article is to find the correlation between self regulation, metacognition and autonomy.

  18. Autonomy and Foreign Policy in Latin America: an Open Debate, an Uncertain Future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Tokatlian

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available After the disappearance of the East-West confrontation, the persistence of the traditional inequality in the North-South divide justifies a revision of the current state of the debate with respect to autonomy in the foreign policy of a peripheral country such as Colombia. In analysing the different viewpoints of the realist and interdependentist theoretical schools and of the international political economy, a basic coincidence can be found in consideringautonomy as something possible, desirable, beneficial and practical for the State. A synthetic analysis of the recent treatment of the theme of autonomy by the most prestigious theorists in latinamerican matters, from O’Donnell, Link and Jaguaribe through to Cepeda or Escudé, via Puig or Drekonja or the present author, Tokatlian together with Pardo, brings to light the persistence of many holes and questions among which one could highlight: - the unit of basic analysis when evaluating the question of autonomy still seems to be the State, without paying attention to the phenomenon of a gradual erosion of the modern system of State-nation and the correlative increase of non-State forces - this state slant permits the notion that absolute sovereignty and political isolation are still viable- the autonomic “dream”, which has a partial explanation in thesecular structural symmetry which has motivated the attempt to overcome it, and the historical experience, which demonstrates that the autonomy of the opposing parties serves the interests and long term needs of the most powerful actors, point out that the relativeautonomy still makes sense while a change is taking place towards a postmodern system Force and wealth aside, as fundamental materials for the exercise of the potential of autonomy on behalf of the peripheral countries, it is in the field of ideas where a crucialsource of power in Latin America remains to be explored.

  19. Dynamic Crack Branching - A Photoelastic Evaluation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    0.41 mPai and a 0.18 MPa, and predicted a theoretical kinking angle of 84°whichagreed well with experimentally measured angle. After crack kinking...Consistent crack branching’at KIb = 2.04 MPaI -i- and r = 1.3 mm verified this crack branching criterion. The crack branching angle predicted by--.’ DD

  20. Resident Autonomy in the Operating Room: Expectations Versus Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Shari L; Sternbach, Joel M; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Bender, Edward M

    2017-09-01

    There is concern about graduating thoracic trainees' independent operative skills due to limited autonomy in training. This study compared faculty and trainee expected levels of autonomy with intraoperative measurements of autonomy for common cardiothoracic operations. Participants underwent frame-of-reference training on the 4-point Zwisch scale of operative autonomy (show and tell → active help → passive help → supervision only) and evaluated autonomy in actual cases using the Zwisch Me!! mobile application. A separate "expected autonomy" survey elicited faculty and resident perceptions of how much autonomy a resident should have for six common operations: decortication, wedge resection, thoracoscopic lobectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, aortic valve replacement, and mitral valve repair. Thirty-three trainees from 7 institutions submitted evaluations of 596 cases over 18 months (March 2015 to September 2016). Thirty attendings subsequently provided their evaluation of 476 of those cases (79.9% response rate). Expected autonomy surveys were completed by 21 attendings and 19 trainees from 5 institutions. The six operations included in the survey constituted 47% (226 of 476) of the cases evaluated. Trainee and attending expectations did not differ significantly for senior trainees. Both groups expected significantly higher levels of autonomy than observed in the operating room for all six types of cases. Although faculty and trainees both expect similar levels of autonomy in the operating room, real-time measurements of autonomy show a gap between expectations and reality. Decreasing this gap will require a concerted effort by both faculty and residents to focus on the development of independent operative skills. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bankruptcy Prediction Based on the Autonomy Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brîndescu Olariu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of the financial ratio analysis suggest the existence of a negative correlation between the autonomy ratio and the bankruptcy risk. Previous studies conducted on a sample of companies from Timis County (largest county in Romania confirm this hypothesis and recommend the autonomy ratio as a useful tool for measuring the bankruptcy risk two years in advance. The objective of the current research was to develop a methodology for measuring the bankruptcy risk that would be applicable for the companies from the Timis County (specific methodologies are considered necessary for each region. The target population consisted of all the companies from Timis County with annual sales of over 10,000 lei (aprox. 2,200 Euros. The research was performed over all the target population. The study has thus included 53,252 yearly financial statements from the period 2007 – 2010. The results of the study allow for the setting of benchmarks, as well as the configuration of a methodology of analysis. The proposed methodology cannot predict with perfect accuracy the state of the company, but it allows for a valuation of the risk level to which the company is subjected.

  2. Mount Athos: Between autonomy and statehood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Dragutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal status of the Mount Athos is characterized by many special features that make it internationally unique legal regime. The author analyzes peculiarities of Mount Athos territorial status, legal position of residents and visitors, as well as organization of Mount Athos authorities. The author concludes that the Mount Athos is characterized by a kind of para-sovereignty. Its autonomy involves not only the internal organization, autonomous governance and religious autonomy, but it also includes many elements of secular life of their visitors. Mount Athos has its own, separate legislative, administrative and judicial powers, while the Statute of the Mount Athos has greater legal force than all the other laws of the Greek state, because the state can not unilaterally change its provisions. Having in mind that the wide self-government is vested in church authorities and that the monks have very specific way of living, the author takes a position that the Mount Athos represent 'monastic state', but without statehood. The author also states that the Mount Athos will be faced with many challenges in the context of spreading of an assimilating, universal conception of human rights.

  3. [Respecting minors' autonomy in child custody cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Rosa, Bárbara; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Child custody decisions are among the most difficult for judges to make. The possibility of child abuse allegations or parents' deviant/ psychopathologic behaviours within this context, make the decision further complicated. Based on jurisprudence the listening of children opinion is a way to protect their best interest. In fact children have the right to express an opinion in all matters affecting their life. It should be given proper consideration to children opinion according with his/her age and maturity. Nonetheless custody disputes are emotionally draining issues. Asking the child to express an opinion during a public hearing, most likely in the presence of both parents, its not recommended because this is a potential stressful experience. Child interviews should take place in a proper environment and be set to their age. Medicine and Psychology have an important role in assessing children cognitive, emotional and volitional abilities, which is essential to properly account their opinions according to autonomy degree. This essay analyses the contribution of medico-legal and/or psychological exams to respect the autonomy of the child in cases of regulation of parental responsibilities. The conclusion is the need to establish a symbiotic relationship between the medical and legal perspectives of the (open) concept of child's best interests.

  4. Joint reproductive autonomy: does Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd provide for a gender-neutral approach to assisted reproductive rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Assisted reproductive technology encompasses methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. Whilst these methods are more commonly used by couples suffering from problems of infertility, some forms of assistance are employed by fertile couples, for example pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. The overall regulatory framework in the UK is predominantly found in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The usual rules relating to consent and autonomy apply and were discussed in depth in Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd and later in Evans v United Kingdom. This paper considers whether the Evans litigation envisages the possibility of further encouraging joint autonomy in the use of zygotes and whether there is a continuing right to autonomy by the party not bearing the pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. DECENTRALIZATION, ELIGIBILITY OF AUTHORITIES AND CONSULTATION OF CITIZENS - EVIDENCE OF THE OCCURRENCE OF AUTONOMY IN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHARIA PETRONELA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Being important for the proper functioning of the management activity conducted at the local public administration level, local autonomy cannot occur without the support coming from other rules of organization and functioning of local administrative system. From this perspective, in this paper we propose to analyze the content of decentralization, eligibility of authorities and consultation of citizens in solving local problems, in order to highlight how each of these principles demonstrates the efficiency of autonomy. Moving power from central public administration authorities to local authorities in the decentralization process, making authorities of administrative-territorial units eligible and the involvement of local community members in solving problems affecting them are clear evidence of the occurrence of autonomy in local public administration management.

  6. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  7. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A . de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, I. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Verhoeven, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  8. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G.; Verhoeven, Corine J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  9. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, I. de; Schellevis, F.G.; Verhoeven, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  10. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, H.; Cronie, D.; Speld, C. van der; Dillen, J. van; Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.; Graaf, J. de; Schellevis, F.; Verhoeven, C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care

  11. 40 CFR 73.86 - State regulatory autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State regulatory autonomy. 73.86 Section 73.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... regulatory autonomy. Nothing in this subpart shall preclude a State or State regulatory authority from...

  12. Attachment, Autonomy, and Emotional Reliance: A Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a test of a multilevel model investigating how attachment security and autonomy contribute to emotional reliance, or the willingness to seek interpersonal support. Participants ("N" = 247) completed online measures of attachment, autonomy, emotional reliance, and vitality with respect to several everyday…

  13. The Need for Authenticity-Based Autonomy in Medical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lucie

    2017-08-11

    The notion of respect for autonomy dominates bioethical discussion, though what qualifies precisely as autonomous action is notoriously elusive. In recent decades, the notion of autonomy in medical contexts has often been defined in opposition to the notion of autonomy favoured by theoretical philosophers. Where many contemporary theoretical accounts of autonomy place emphasis on a condition of "authenticity", the special relation a desire must have to the self, bioethicists often regard such a focus as irrelevant to the concerns of medical ethics, and too stringent for use in practical contexts. I argue, however, that the very condition of authenticity that forms a focus in theoretical philosophy is also essential to autonomy and competence in medical ethics. After tracing the contours of contemporary authenticity-based theories of autonomy, I consider and respond to objections against the incorporation of a notion of authenticity into accounts of autonomy designed for use in medical contexts. By looking at the typical problems that arise when making judgments concerning autonomy or competence in a medical setting, I reveal the need for a condition of authenticity-as a means of protecting choices, particularly high-stakes choices, from being restricted or overridden on the basis of intersubjective disagreement. I then turn to the treatment of false and contestable beliefs, arguing that it is only through reference to authenticity that we can make important distinctions in this domain. Finally, I consider a potential problem with my proposed approach; its ability to deal with anorexic and depressive desires.

  14. Dutch dilemmas: Decentralization, school autonomy and professionalization of teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, P.; Wesselingh, A.

    1995-01-01

    The policy of decentralisation of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science is aimed at increasing the autonomy of schools. This policy is also considered an appropriate strategy for the revitalisation of the teaching profession. Decentralisation, school autonomy and professionalisation

  15. A Study of Autonomy English Learning on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yunsheng

    2008-01-01

    With the variety of environment and method of English learning, Autonomy English learning on the Internet is playing a more and more important role in modern English learning. It challenges the traditional learning approach, and also is forwardness. This paper points out that autonomy English learning on the Internet facilitates the improvement of…

  16. On the relations between parents' ideals and children's autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Schinkel, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents' ideals can enhance children's autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children's autonomy. After describing the concept of ideals and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of

  17. Relations among Autonomy, Attribution Style, and Happiness in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Susan L.; Chang, Kelly B.; Miller, Kristen S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a personal sense of autonomy supports individuals' success in a variety of domains, but information regarding these processes remains unclear. This paper attempts to establish a link between personal autonomy and cognitive processes, in the form of attributions for success and failure, in establishing a sense of subjective…

  18. "The Pleasure Is All Mine": Music and Female Sexual Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Strube, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To analyze sexual autonomy this paper concentrates on the recent concept of relational autonomy, which is different from the classic tradition in its multilevel perspective on persons as embodied, desiring, creative as well as rational creatures. I then apply this concept to music asking in which way women performers are both relational and (sexually) autonomous.

  19. Measuring local autonomy: A decision-making approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke, F.; Willemse, R.

    2006-01-01

    In studies on central-local relations it is common to assess local autonomy in a deductive way. The extent of local autonomy is determined by measuring the central legal and financial competence, after which the remaining room for local decision-making is determined. The outcome of this indirect

  20. Review of "Charter School Autonomy: A Half-Broken Promise"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulosino, Charisse

    2010-01-01

    This report concludes that autonomy is a prerequisite for innovative and effective charter schools to emerge. Especially important is freedom from external bureaucratic control. Yet there is nothing in this report that addresses levels of autonomy in relationship to financial performance, resource allocation practices, academic results, and other…

  1. Documenting Different Domains of Promotion of Autonomy in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Pelucchi, Sara; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Parental promotion of autonomy for offspring well-being has been widely recognized in developmental psychology. Recent studies, however, show that this association varies across cultures. Such variation may reflect inappropriate measurement of this dimension of parenting. Therefore, three existing measures of promotion of autonomy were used to…

  2. Issues of promoting learner autonomy in EFL context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichugova Inna L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focuded on investigating the phenomenon of learner autonomy, which has mostly been explored in Europe and the USA and is now attracting attention of researchers and academics in many other countries including Russia. Learner autonomy through a focus on learner reflection and taking responsibility for one’s own learning processes has become a central concern in the recent history of language teaching. However, many language teachers, who are committed to concepts of learnercentredness and autonomy, struggle with the ways to foster learner autonomy or at least to encourage the idea of learner autonomy in language classroom. The study aims at investigating what the most important issues which have a great impact on developing learner autonomy are. Having given special attention to conditions which can insure development of learner autonomy, a model covering seven issues relating to the subject matter has been designed. The authors state that such aspects as choice, goals and needs, support, emotional climate, learning strategies, learner attitude and motivation, and self-esteem should be considered as the goal to promote learner autonomy in EFL context.

  3. the doctrine of party autonomy in international commercial arbitration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    provoke discussions in many fora on the applicability of party autonomy in international ... questions, this article analyses the principle of party autonomy. The ultimate aim of .... 12 Odoe, (n 1) 48; English Arbitration Act 1996 s 6. 13 Odoe ibid ...

  4. Workload Measurement in Human Autonomy Teaming: How and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is an invited talk on autonomy and workload for an AFRL Blue Sky workshop sponsored by the Florida Institute for Human Machine Studies. The presentation reviews various metrics of workload and how to move forward with measuring workload in a human-autonomy teaming environment.

  5. School Autonomy, Leadership and Student Achievement: Reflections from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarivirta, Toni; Kumpulainen, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide national information on school autonomy, leadership and student achievements in Finland. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a literature review on Finnish studies focusing on school autonomy, leadership and student achievement. The studies have been reviewed on the basis of a content…

  6. Italian Adaptation of the "Autonomy and Relatedness Coding System"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ingoglia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the applicability of the observational technique developed by Allen and colleagues (Allen, Hauser, Bell, & O’Connor, 1994; Allen, Hauser, et al., 2003 to investigate the issues of autonomy and relatedness in parent-adolescent relationship in the Italian context. Thirty-five mother-adolescent dyads participated to a task in which they discussed a family issue about which they disagree. Adolescents were also administered a self-report measure assessing their relationship with mothers. Mothers reported significantly higher levels of promoting and inhibiting autonomy, and promoting relatedness behaviors than their children. Results also suggested a partial behavioral reciprocity within the dyads, regarding promoting and inhibiting relatedness, and inhibiting autonomy. Finally, mothers’ inhibiting autonomy behaviors positively correlated to teens’ perception of their relationship as conflicting; adolescents’ inhibiting and promoting autonomy and inhibiting relatedness behaviors positively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness, while promoting relatedness behaviors negatively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness. The results suggest that, for Italian mothers, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with being involved in a more negative relationship with their children, even if not characterized by open hostility, while for Italian adolescents, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with threatening the closeness of the relationship. Globally, the findings suggest that the application of this observational procedure may help our understanding of youth autonomy and relatedness development in Italy, but they leave unanswered questions regarding its appropriate adaptation and the role played by cultural differences.

  7. Autonomy of nurse practitioners in primary care: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min; De Gagne, Jennie C

    2016-03-01

    This integrative review of the existing literature was conducted to identify dimensions related to nurse practitioner (NP) autonomy and to recommend future areas of research related to the important topic of NP autonomy in this era of cost-conscious healthcare reform. Articles were identified from the following databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, Google Scholar, and EBSCO. Over 24 articles were found; 12 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria of research conducted with NPs, physicians, and patients. The results revealed three categories of association with regard to NP autonomy: job satisfaction, patient satisfaction, and physician-NP collaboration. This review was undertaken to advance understanding of autonomy among NPs and the dynamics involved in their delivery of care. Further research into the associations between NP autonomy and its dimensions are necessary to indicate a future direction to the NP role. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    is understood as something we should presume everyone possesses, it provides a strong basis for equal respect among people from diverse cultures. A Kantian conception of autonomy can justify the right to freedom of expression while it at the same time requires that we in the exercise of freedom of expression......Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more...... complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disrespect for diversity only when it is understood as a character ideal that must be promoted as an end in itself. If it by contrast...

  9. Patient autonomy and informed consent in critically lll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Zoran M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient autonomy has been a cornerstone of contemporary clinical ethics since the Nuremberg trial, especially in American school of bioethics. Topic: Patient autonomy has been defined in the Nuremberg Code, and re-defined in the Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report and Barcelona Declaration. Founders and followers of the rights-oriented bioethics (for example, Hellegers, Beauchamp and Childers have established and promoted the patient autonomy as the main principle of bio(medical ethics since 1970s. However, there is a lot of controversy surrounding such a principle, especially in vulnerable patients. We aimed at evaluating the real meaning and value of patient autonomy in critical care settings regarding the communication between health workers and their patients and families. Conclusion: Protection of patients autonomy in critically ill is a complex issue. Careful benefit-risk assessment is needed in order to find the most appropriate way of obtaining the informed consent, proxy consent or to omit or delay it.

  10. [Psychiatric advance directives and the role of autonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Daniel L; Crocker, Anne G

    2009-01-01

    Although psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are grounded in the ethics of autonomy, the relationship between the two is unclear. PADs are legal documents that allow individuals with mental illness to record their treatment preferences should they become incompetent in the future. The relationship between autonomy and PADs has been discussed in ethical, legal, and philosophical terms, but has not been clearly operationalized for clinical purposes. Autonomy is a fundamental ethical value that includes having the independence from outside controlling influences and the mental capacity to direct one's personal actions. Individuals with mental illness sometimes require assistance to understand their ethical and legal rights with respect to autonomous choice, and professional stakeholders need education regarding the importance of autonomy for clinical practice. Competency to consent to treatment is the mental prerequisite that ensures individuals with mental illness are able to complete PADs with insight, whereas autonomy is the value that empowers individuals to work towards their recovery.

  11. Intelligent autonomy for unmanned naval systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Marc

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development and demonstration of intelligent autonomy technologies for control of heterogeneous unmanned naval air and sea vehicles and describes some of the current limitations of such technologies. The focus is on modular technologies that support highly automated retasking and fully autonomous dynamic replanning for up to ten heterogeneous unmanned systems based on high-level mission objectives, priorities, constraints, and Rules-of-Engagement. A key aspect of the demonstrations is incorporating frequent naval operator evaluations in order to gain better understanding of the integrated man/machine system and its tactical utility. These evaluations help ensure that the automation can provide information to the user in a meaningful way and that the user has a sufficient level of control and situation awareness to task the system as needed to complete complex mission tasks. Another important aspect of the program is examination of the interactions of higher-level autonomy algorithms with other relevant components that would be needed within the decision-making and control loops. Examples of these are vision and other sensor processing algorithms, sensor fusion, obstacle avoidance, and other lower level vehicle autonomous navigation, guidance, and control functions. Initial experiments have been completed using medium and high-fidelity vehicle simulations in a virtual warfare environment and inexpensive surrogate vehicles in flight and in-water demonstrations. Simulation experiments included integration of multi-vehicle task allocation, dynamic replanning under constraints, lower level autonomous vehicle control, automatic assessment of the impact of contingencies on plans, management of situation awareness data, operator alert management, and a mixed-initiative operator interface. In-water demonstrations of a maritime situation awareness capability were completed in both a river and a harbor environment using unmanned surface

  12. Why job autonomy matters for young companies' performance: company maturity as a moderator between job autonomy and company performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Howaldt, J.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.O.; Jansen, E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the positive impact of job autonomy has been widely shown for individual-level employee outcomes, research on job autonomy and company-level outcomes has been surprisingly scarce. Therefore, among 3,311 companies in the Netherlands, we investigate the relationship between employees' job

  13. LEARNER AUTONOMY ON ESSAY WRITING ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hafidz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Learner autonomy on writing is independently teaching and learning that keeps students’ control to explore their knowledge and experiences in written language, find out and evaluate their errors based on the conceptual courses to make accurately simple essay. The aim was to know the effectiveness of the learner autonomy on writing accuracy. This quantitative research conducted in one group pretest and posttest design. The number of samples was 21 students in Bangkalan. The instrument were tests to gain students’ writing score before and after treatment. Researcher statistically analyzed the data using SPSS 23 version by running a Paired Samples Test. The result shown the means of pretes score was 66,83 and posttest score was 74,57, Paired Samples Correlations was 0,614 (strong correlation. Significance was 0,005, it means that  a (0,05 is higher than r value (0,005 with high variance of mean value (14,091. As a result, the hypothesis (H1­ was received that learner autonomy contributed effectively to learners’ in organizing own ideas (Ene, 2006 such as making a topic  map becomes some explanable sub-topics, writing down main and supporting idea, clustering some objects, editing next and learners  absolutely accumulate some selected vocabularies inappropriate topics  (Chengping W, 2008. Keyword: Learner Autonomy, Learning process, outcomes Absrak: Pembelajaran otonomi  adalah pembelajaran mandiri yang mengontrol mahasiswa untuk menyampaikan gagasan dan pengalamannya, mencatat dan mengevaluasi kesalahan yang terjadi dalam penulisan esai sederhana berdasarkan pembelajaran yang tersetruktur. Tujuan adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas pembelajaran otonomi terhadap akurasi tulisan secara statistik. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan desain tes awal dan akhir. Jumlah sampel terdiri dari 21 siswa di Bangkalan. Isntrumen yang digunakan adalah tes untuk mengetahui hasil nilai mahasiswa sebelum dan sesudah melakukan

  14. Reconceptualizing Autonomy: A Relational Turn in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  15. Euthanasia--he illusion of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartling, O J

    2006-03-01

    The paper deals with some of the more common arguments used for the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. It looks at these arguments from an ethical and philosophical point of view. First, the argument that to offer a person the possibility of euthanasia is to respect that person's autonomy is questionable. Can a person's decision on euthanasia be really autonomous? If euthanasia were legal everybody would be conscious of this option: the patient, the doctor, the family and the nursing staff. Thus, there could be indirect pressure on the patient to make a decision. The choice is meant to be free but the patient is not free not to make the choice. Secondly, a choice that seeks to alleviate suffering and thus improve life by annihilating it is irrational. Thirdly, autonomy as to one's own death is hardly exercised freely. Even an otherwise competent person may not be competent in deciding on his own death on account of despair, hopelessness, fear or maybe a feeling of being weak, superfluous and unwanted. This is a very uncertain base for decision-making, especially in the irrevocable decision of euthanasia. Finally, a competent person usually makes any choice in a responsible way and after due consideration; a 'good' decision should consider and respect the wishes and feelings of others. This will be no less the case in making a decision on the so-called free choice of euthanasia. Thus 'normal' behaviour in decision making will only add to the tendency of the already depressed person to feel a burden on his family, the staff and even on society.

  16. Model Based Autonomy for Robust Mars Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, James A.; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Williams, Brian C.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Space missions have historically relied upon a large ground staff, numbering in the hundreds for complex missions, to maintain routine operations. When an anomaly occurs, this small army of engineers attempts to identify and work around the problem. A piloted Mars mission, with its multiyear duration, cost pressures, half-hour communication delays and two-week blackouts cannot be closely controlled by a battalion of engineers on Earth. Flight crew involvement in routine system operations must also be minimized to maximize science return. It also may be unrealistic to require the crew have the expertise in each mission subsystem needed to diagnose a system failure and effect a timely repair, as engineers did for Apollo 13. Enter model-based autonomy, which allows complex systems to autonomously maintain operation despite failures or anomalous conditions, contributing to safe, robust, and minimally supervised operation of spacecraft, life support, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and power systems. Autonomous reasoning is central to the approach. A reasoning algorithm uses a logical or mathematical model of a system to infer how to operate the system, diagnose failures and generate appropriate behavior to repair or reconfigure the system in response. The 'plug and play' nature of the models enables low cost development of autonomy for multiple platforms. Declarative, reusable models capture relevant aspects of the behavior of simple devices (e.g. valves or thrusters). Reasoning algorithms combine device models to create a model of the system-wide interactions and behavior of a complex, unique artifact such as a spacecraft. Rather than requiring engineers to all possible interactions and failures at design time or perform analysis during the mission, the reasoning engine generates the appropriate response to the current situation, taking into account its system-wide knowledge, the current state, and even sensor failures or unexpected behavior.

  17. ACPSEM (NZ Branch) annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The 1998 annual meeting of the New Zealand Branch of the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine was held at the Christchurch School of Medicine over 26-27 November 1998, and attracted a record number of around 45 registrations. The meeting serves a number of purposes but one of the primary ones is to bring together scientists in medicine from around the country to compare notes on practices and advances, particularly in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology physics. Following the meeting format established over recent years, separate workshops were devoted to radiotherapy physics and developments in the regional centres represented, and to practical issues relating to medical physics in diagnostic radiology. The workshops were held in parallel with presentations of scientific papers covering a wide range of topics, but with about half relating to engineering applications in medicine. (author)

  18. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  19. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  20. The influence of flexible branches in flexible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    . The unit cell of the new phase was determined to be monoclinic with a statistical disorder in the arrangement of up and down chains. Both these phases occur because of the nature of the side branch in P4MP1. (author)

  1. Field electron emission from branched nanotubes film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Baoqing; Tian Shikai; Yang Zhonghai

    2005-01-01

    We describe the preparation and analyses of films composed of branched carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs were grown on a Ni catalyst film using chemical vapor deposition from a gas containing acetylene. From scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, the branched structure of the CNTs was determined; the field emission characteristics in a vacuum chamber indicated a lower turn on field for branched CNTs than normal CNTs

  2. Authenticity and autonomy in deep-brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrope, Alistair

    2014-08-01

    Felicitas Kraemer draws on the experiences of patients undergoing deep-brain stimulation (DBS) to propose two distinct and potentially conflicting principles of respect: for an individual's autonomy (interpreted as mental competence), and for their authenticity. I argue instead that, according to commonly-invoked justifications of respect for autonomy, authenticity is itself in part constitutive of an analysis of autonomy worthy of respect; Kraemer's argument thus highlights the shortcomings of practical applications of respect for autonomy that emphasise competence while neglecting other important dimensions of autonomy such as authenticity, since it shows that competence alone cannot be interpreted as a reliable indicator of an individual's capacity for exercising autonomy. I draw from relational accounts to suggest how respect for a more expansive conception of autonomy might be interpreted for individuals undergoing DBS and in general. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Autonomy and social functioning of recently admitted nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paque, Kristel; Goossens, Katrien; Elseviers, Monique; Van Bogaert, Peter; Dilles, Tinne

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines recently admitted nursing home residents' practical autonomy, their remaining social environment and their social functioning. In a cross-sectional design, 391 newly admitted residents of 67 nursing homes participated. All respondents were ≥65 years old, had mini-mental state examination ≥18 and were living in the nursing home for at least 1 month. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and validated measuring tools. The mean age was 84, 64% were female, 23% had a partner, 80% children, 75% grandchildren and 59% siblings. The mean social functioning score was 3/9 (or 33%) and the autonomy and importance of autonomy score 6/9 (or 67%). More autonomy was observed when residents could perform activities of daily living more independently, and cognitive functioning, quality of life and social functioning were high. Residents with depressive feelings scored lower on autonomy and social functioning compared to those without depressive feelings. Having siblings and the frequency of visits positively correlated with social functioning. In turn, social functioning correlated positively with quality of life. Moreover, a higher score on social functioning lowered the probability of depression. Autonomy or self-determination and maintaining remaining social relationships were considered to be important by the new residents. The remaining social environment, social functioning, quality of life, autonomy and depressive feelings influenced each other, but the cause--effect relation was not clear.

  4. Are there limits to respect for autonomy in bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roubaix, Malcolm

    2008-06-01

    I discuss the significance of respect for personal autonomy in bioethics with reference to its practical expression: rational informed patient choice. The question is whether, given the apparent practical limitations to this notion, bioethical autonomy should be seen as an absolute. After a historical review of informed consent and its development, I discuss the requirements for informed consent. Some inherent tensions are evaluated, as is the applicability of the notion that in order to be legitimate, autonomy should do some ethical work. Limits to the notion of informed consent are explored with reference to six examples: the right of women to reproductive autonomy; the autonomy of legally minor Jehovah's Witnesses; autonomy in cosmetic surgery; inappropriate treatment; autonomy and human medical research, and euthanasia and other end-of-life options. The discussion is within a South African framework with reference to other jurisdictions and decisions where appropriate. I conclude that whilst some unusual instances of limitation of bioethical informed consent might be ethically justifiable, the arguments presented point to the opposite: the unfounded limitation of informed consent.

  5. Relational autonomy: moving beyond the limits of isolated individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jennifer K; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2014-02-01

    Although clinicians may value respecting a patient's or surrogate's autonomy in decision-making, it is not always clear how to proceed in clinical practice. The confusion results, in part, from which conception of autonomy is used to guide ethical practice. Reliance on an individualistic conception such as the "in-control agent" model prioritizes self-sufficiency in decision-making and highlights a decision-maker's capacity to have reason transcend one's emotional experience. An alternative model of autonomy, relational autonomy, highlights the social context within which all individuals exist and acknowledges the emotional and embodied aspects of decision-makers. These 2 conceptions of autonomy lead to different interpretations of several aspects of ethical decision-making. The in-control agent model believes patients or surrogates should avoid both the influence of others and emotional persuasion in decision-making. As a result, providers have a limited role to play and are expected to provide medical expertise but not interfere with the individual's decision-making process. In contrast, a relational autonomy approach acknowledges the central role of others in decision-making, including clinicians, who have a responsibility to engage patients' and surrogates' emotional experiences and offer clear guidance when patients are confronting serious illness. In the pediatric setting, in which decision-making is complicated by having a surrogate decision-maker in addition to a patient, these conceptions of autonomy also may influence expectations about the role that adolescents can play in decision-making.

  6. The impact of financial constraints and incentives on professional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Marjoribanks, Tim

    2003-01-01

    General practice has been the subject of extensive reforms over the 1990s in Australia as elsewhere. Reforms have attempted to improve quality and contain the overall cost of health care, and have often been seen as reducing the autonomy of medical professionals. This paper examines the impact of financial constraints and incentives introduced during the 1990s on Australian GPs' perceptions of autonomy. An existing seven component definition of autonomy and six themes that emerged from reviewing publications were used to construct focus group questions. A total of 25 GPs participated in four focus groups. Those who participated believe that their financial autonomy has been diminished by policy changes and consumer expectations. They also perceive that their ability to control clinical decisions, which they regard as the most important aspect of professional autonomy, has been reduced along with financial autonomy. Organized medicine in Australia sees financial accountability and clinical decision making as polar opposites, and has continued to argue that fee-for-service payment is the only appropriate method of remuneration, despite increasing evidence that this does not guarantee clinical autonomy. Major changes to the financing of general practice in Australia are required to address the concerns of GPs, governments and patients.

  7. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  8. Twentieth-Century Latin American Literary Studies and Cultural Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1920s, when scholars first began to specialize in Latin American writing, the subject of Latin American literary studies has grown from a small subset of Spanish and Portuguese literary research and teaching to become the largest field within Hispanism and a significant presence in comparative literature. The expansion of their place in the academic world has often prompted students of Latin American literature to wonder whether, in being swept into the mainstream, their field has not left out of account the historical situations of Latin American nations. These reflections lead critics back to a problem that has troubled Latin American thinkers since Independence: the achievement, or erosion, of cultural autonomy. Though undeniably close to major powers, the Latin American nations are unequal partners in trade and cultural exchange. Corresponding to their uneven and shifting relations with Europe and later the United States, their cultural life evolves following a distinctive historical dynamic. This article considers recent efforts by scholars and essayists to characterize the features that distinguish Latin America from more politically and economically advantaged nations. Special attention goes to those scholars who, drawing on anthropological research, examine communicative and expressive practices of indigenous origin, and those who borrow from economic theory to view Latin America as shaped by its history of dependence on more powerful nations and regions.

  9. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  10. [Branches of the National Institute of Hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    National Epidemiological Institute (National Institute of Hygiene, from 7th September 1923) was established in 1918 in Warsaw and acted at national level. Its actions in the field of diseases combat were supported by bacteriological stations and vaccine production in voivodeship cities, which were taken charge of by the state, and names "National Epidemiological Institutes". According to the ministers resolution from 6th July 1921,Epidemiological Institutes were merged to National Central Epidemiological Institutes (PZH), the epidemiological institutes outside Warsaw were named branches, which were to be located in every voivodeship city, according to the initial organizational resolutions. There were country branches of NCEI in: Cracow, Lwów, Lódź, Toruń, Lublin, and Wilno in the period 1919-1923. New branches in Poznań (1925), Gdynia(1934), Katowice (Voivodeship Institute of Hygiene (1936), Luck (1937), Stanisławów (1937), Kielce(1938), and Brześć/Bug (Municipal Station acting as branch of National Central Epidemiological Institute. Branches were subordinated to NCEI-PZH) in Warsaw where action plans and unified research and diagnostic method were established and annual meeting of the country branches managers took place. All branches cooperated with hospitals, national health services, district general practitioners and administration structure in control of infectious diseases. In 1938, the post of branch inspector was established, the first of whom was Feliks Przesmycki PhD. Branches cooperated also with University of Cracow, University of Lwów and University of Wilno. In 1935, National Institutes of Food Research was incorporated in PZH, Water Department was established, and these areas of activity began to develop in the branches accordingly. In 1938 there were 13 branches of PZH, and each had three divisions: bacteriological, food research and water research. Three branches in Cracow, Kielce and Lublin worked during World War II under German

  11. Clinical guidelines and the fate of medical autonomy in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolt, S G

    1997-04-01

    Conceptually, clinical guidelines and professional autonomy have a paradoxical relationship. Despite being the quintessence of medical knowledge at the corporate level, guidelines diminish the clinical autonomy of individual practitioners, and therefore threaten medicine's justification for its autonomy. Theorists have argued that professional autonomy will be retained through elite dominance of practitioners, while comparative research suggests that economic autonomy can be traded off to retain clinical autonomy. Under government pressure to regulate the growth of Ontario physicians' fee-for-service public expenditure, the profession's representative organization, the Ontario Medical Association (OMA), promoted voluntary clinical guidelines, hoping to both constrain costs and preserve professional control over the content of medical care. The OMA collaborated with the Ministry of Health in developing guidelines and establishing a provincial centre for health service research. Ontario's practitioners disregarded the OMA's exhortations to implement clinical guidelines, suggesting that in the absence of external constraints, practitioners can subvert elite dominance. However, practitioners' unchecked clinical and economic autonomy, combined with evidence of wide provincial variations in medical care, served to legitimize the government's increasingly unilateral control over the schedule of insured medical services, and, in 1993, their imposition of a global cap on physicians' fee-for-service income pool. When analysed in the context of ongoing Ministry-OMA relations, the failure of the OMA's guidelines strategy to constrain medical service costs has expedited an overall decline in medical autonomy in Ontario. The emergence and course of Ontario's clinical guidelines movement is consistent with the view that medical autonomy is contingent upon broad class forces, and the conceptualization of professional organizations as instruments for mediated occupational control.

  12. Perceived Autonomy Support in the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Bauer, Daniel J; Meyer-Kalos, Piper; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Addington, Jean; Schooler, Nina R; Glynn, Shirley M; Gingerich, Susan; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    This study examined perceived support for autonomy-the extent to which individuals feel empowered and supported to make informed choices-among participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether NAVIGATE, the active treatment studied in RAISE ETP, was associated with greater improvements in perceived autonomy support over the two-year intervention, compared with community care, and to examine associations between perceived autonomy support and quality of life and symptoms over time and across treatment groups. This study examined perceived autonomy support among the 404 individuals with first-episode psychosis who participated in the RAISE ETP trial (NAVIGATE, N=223; community care, N=181). Three-level conditional linear growth modeling was used given the nested data structure. The results indicated that perceived autonomy support increased significantly over time for those in NAVIGATE but not in community care. Once treatment began, higher perceived autonomy support was related to higher quality of life at six, 12, and 18 months in NAVIGATE and at 12, 18, and 24 months in community care. Higher perceived autonomy support was related to improved scores on total symptoms and on excited symptoms regardless of treatment group and time. Overall, perceived autonomy support increased in NAVIGATE but not for those in community care and was related to improved quality of life and symptoms across both treatment groups. Future research should examine the impact of perceived autonomy support on a wider array of outcomes, including engagement, medication adherence, and functioning.

  13. Parental autonomy support and ethnic culture identification among second-generation immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Neetu S; Sheldon, Kennon M

    2008-08-01

    Born and raised in the United States, children of immigrants often face conflict over whether to endorse the norms and traditions of the family's country of origin (the natal culture) or those of mainstream U.S. society (the host culture). The authors hypothesized that when immigrant parents allow children to make their own choices concerning their cultural identity, their children will be more likely to internalize the natal culture and will experience greater well-being. Ninety-nine college-aged 2nd-generation immigrants rated their well-being, perceptions of their mother's and father's autonomy support, and their endorsement of both natal and U.S. cultures. Results demonstrated that paternal, but not maternal, autonomy support predicted greater well-being and greater endorsement of the natal culture and that immersion in the natal culture predicted some indices of well-being. Several explanations for the possibly greater significance of paternal versus maternal autonomy support in the context of immigrant families are considered.

  14. [Physician and autonomy: on time perception and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Is it true that haste is sneaking into medicine? In this article, it is argued that it mainly concerns the perception of being rushed, which is caused by a loss of autonomy of the modern physician. In the fifties, physicians were busy as well, but because they enjoyed a greater degree of autonomy compared to their contemporary colleagues, they did not experience this in a negative way. Due to increased bureaucracy and the introduction of market dynamics, the medical profession has lost autonomy, which in turn led to a loss of job satisfaction.

  15. Does Country Context Distance Determine Subsidiary Decision-Making Autonomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Gjalt; Van Vo, Dut; Marek, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    enterprises, highlighting the importance of such intra-firm collaboration. The division of decision-making autonomy is a core issue in the management of headquarters–subsidiary relationships. The main contribution of our paper is that we confront two valid theoretical frameworks – business network theory......We studied an underrepresented area in the international business (IB) literature: the effect of country context distance on the distribution of decision-making autonomy across headquarters and foreign affiliates. Foreign affiliates directly contribute to the competitive advantages of multinational...... approach to the study of subsidiary decision-making autonomy...

  16. Autonomy and exclusion among Danish prisoners in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    2018-01-01

    A prison sentence necessarily means that the person receiving the sentence is in essential ways excluded from the surrounding society. This exclusion means fewer choices and, in the long run, this may affect the person’s ability to actively make choices – therefore, autonomy is an important theme...... choices as well as a high degree of autonomy on the part of the individual inmate. This article focuses on the interplay between exclusion and autonomy in relation to Danish prison inmates who are in education. Alongside this, a more general insight into the educational life of Danish prisoners...

  17. Health equality, social justice and the poverty of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newdick, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    How does the concept of autonomy assist public responses to 'lifestyle' diseases? Autonomy is fundamental to bioethics, but its emphasis on self-determination and individuality hardly supports public health policies to eat and drink less and take more exercise. Autonomy rejects a 'nanny' state. Yet, the cost of non-communicable diseases is increasing to individuals personally and to public health systems generally. Health care systems are under mounting and unsustainable pressure. What is the proper responsibility of individuals, governments and corporate interests working within a global trading environment? When public health care resources are unlikely to increase, we cannot afford to be so diffident to the cost of avoidable diseases.

  18. Evaluation of Existing Situation of University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Gulieva, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces four studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. At the same time it discusses the methodology employed in the study, provide a brief introduction to the higher education sector in Moldova and summaries key findings fro...... the evaluation of organizational, financial, HR and academic autonomy in Moldova.......This chapter introduces four studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. At the same time it discusses the methodology employed in the study, provide a brief introduction to the higher education sector in Moldova and summaries key findings from...

  19. Materials Process Design Branch. Work Unit Directive (WUD) 54

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LeClair, Steve

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the Manufacturing Research WUD 54 are to 1) conduct in-house research to develop advanced materials process design/control technologies to enable more repeatable and affordable manufacturing capabilities and 2...

  20. Introduction to the police scientific development branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botten, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)

  1. Bank branch operating efficiency: evaluation with data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Talebi Zarinkamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of similar units has been a popular research especially when the units were mostly non-financial. Even, similar financial units may not be necessarily evaluated based on traditional financial figures such as return of equities, return of assets, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of 30 branches of an Iranian bank named Bank Mellat. The study considers four inputs including operating expenses, interest paid, capital expenditures and fixed assets. In addition, we use customers’ bank deposit, commissions and loans paid as output parameters. Using three different data envelopment analyses, the study measures the relative efficiencies of all units. The preliminary results indicate that most banks were working under desirable level of efficiency.

  2. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  3. Don’t Always Prefer My Chosen Objects: Low Level of Trait Autonomy and Autonomy Deprivation Decreases Mere Choice Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhe; Tao, Tuoxin; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Choice effect is a robust phenomenon in which even “mere choice” that does not include actual choosing actions could result in more preference for the self-chosen objects over other-chosen objects. In the current research, we proposed that autonomy would impact the mere choice effect. We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesis. The results showed that the mere choice effect measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT) significantly decreased for participants with lower levels of trait autonomy (Study 1) and when participants were primed to experience autonomy deprivation (Study 2). The theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27148132

  4. Threats to Autonomy in Consumer Societies and Their Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret; Steutel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The development of autonomy in children is a central concern of liberal philosophers of education. We endorse the liberal intuition that autonomy matters and that it is an appropriate aim of education. However, we divert from autonomy liberals, who defend a rather limited and demanding conception of autonomy that is closely connected with skills…

  5. Geometrical scaling, furry branching and minijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Scaling properties and their violations in hadronic collisions are discussed in the framework of the geometrical branching model. Geometrical scaling supplemented by Furry branching characterizes the soft component, while the production of jets specifies the hard component. Many features of multiparticle production processes are well described by this model. 21 refs

  6. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that…

  7. Conformal branching rules and modular invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)

  8. Aeroacoustics of pipe systems with closed branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonon, D.; Hirschberg, A.; Golliard, J.; Ziada, S.

    2011-01-01

    Flow induced pulsations in resonant pipe networks with closed branches are considered in this review paper. These pulsations, observed in many technical applications, have been identified as self-sustained aeroacoustic oscillations driven by the instability of the flow along the closed branches. The

  9. Branching miter joints : principles and artwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, T.; Verhoeff, K.; Hart, G.W.; Sarhangi, R.

    2010-01-01

    A miter joint connects two beams, typically of the same cross section, at an angle such that the longitudinal beam edges continue across the joint. When more than two beams meet in one point, like in a tree, we call this a branching joint. In a branching miter joint, the beams’ longitudinal edges

  10. Branching bisimulation congruence for probabilistic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, N.; Georgievska, S.; Aldini, A.; Baier, C.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of branching bisimulation for the alternating model of probabilistic systems is not a congruence with respect to parallel composition. In this paper we first define another branching bisimulation in the more general model allowing consecutive probabilistic transitions, and we prove that

  11. Prebiotic branched galacto-oligosaccharides (gos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts van Bueren-Brandt, Alica; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates to galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) compositions and the use thereof. Provided is the use of a GOS composition comprising branched and linear GOS species having a degree of polymerization (DP) of 3, wherein the branched DP3 GOS species are present in excess of linear DP3 GOS

  12. the search for local government autonomy in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    autonomous. Keywords: Search, local government, autonomy, pathways and realization .... time. 6 There were, for instance, the Native Authority Ordinance, the Native Revenue .... Construction and maintenance of primary schools; and e.

  13. Emotional autonomy and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2003-12-01

    The author examined the association between emotional autonomy and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents living in Hong Kong. The respondents were 512 adolescents, 16 to 18 years of age, who were interviewed for a cross-sectional study. Three dimensions of emotional autonomy including individuation, nondependency on parents, and de-idealization of parents were significantly and positively correlated with the amount of problem behavior the participants engaged in during the past 6 months. Using a simple linear multiple regression model, the author found that problem behavior was associated with only one aspect of emotional autonomy-individuation. Results indicated that the relationship between problem behavior and three aspects of emotional autonomy was similar in both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

  14. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders: functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 15 years, several concepts have been developed to further improve the outcome of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy. Results of radioiodine therapy in functional autonomy are considerably better than in Graves' disease. All of the currently-applied concepts offer healing rates of 75-100%, but they differ considerably in the hypothyreosis rates attained. The target volume can be precisely determined by sonography only in unifocal autonomy. In the case of multifocal and disseminated autonomy, the entire thyroid is taken as the target volume and the focal dose is reduced ('dosimetric compromise'). TcTUs-based dose concepts calculate the functionally autonomous volume from the TcTUs and replace the target volume by sonography, in the TcTUs-adapted dose concepts, sonographic target volume is left and the focal dose varied in dependence of the suppression uptake. The objective is to attain a high rate of success with a low rate of hypothyreosis. (orig.)

  15. Innovations in Computer Generated Autonomy at the MOVES Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiles, John

    2001-01-01

    The M6VES Institute's Computer-Generated Autonomy Group has focused on a research goal of modeling intensely complex and adaptive behavior while at the same time making the behavior far easier to create and control...

  16. the Effect of Egyptian Married Women's Decision-Making Autonomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    women's autonomy influences their use of modern contraception methods and to determine the mediating effect of education .... attention should be given to other social ..... possibly due to their greater exposure to media, ... prohibited in Islam.

  17. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Marrie H.J.; Van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method: Participants

  18. Autonomy-connectedness mediates sex differences in symptoms of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine if autonomy-connectedness, capacity for self-governance under the condition of connectedness, would mediate sex differences in symptoms of various mental disorders (depression, anxiety, eating disorders, antisocial personality disorder). Method Participants (N

  19. Developing child autonomy in pediatric healthcare: towards an ethical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martakis, Kyriakos; Brand, Helmut; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The changes initiated by the new National Civil and Commercial Code in Argentina underline the pediatric task to empower children's and adolescents' developing autonomy. In this paper, we have framed a model describing autonomy in child healthcare. We carried out a literature review focusing on i) the concept of autonomy referring to the absolute value of the autonomous individual, and ii) the age-driven process of competent decisionmaking development. We summarized our findings developing a conceptual model that includes the child, the pediatrician and the parents. The pediatricianchild relationship is based on different forms of guidance and cooperation, resulting in varying levels of activity and passivity. Parental authority influences the extent of autonomy, based on the level of respect of the child's moral equality. Contextual, existential, conceptual, and socialethical conditions shall be considered when applying the model to facilitate dialogue between pediatricians, children, parents and other actors. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  20. Impact of stone branch number on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of staghorn calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shiyong; Li, Li; Liu, Ranlu; Qiao, Baomin; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong

    2014-02-01

    To determine the impact of staghorn calculi branch number on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Retrospectively, we evaluated 371 patients (386 renal units) who underwent PNL for staghorn calculi. All calculi were showed with CT three-dimensional reconstruction (3DR) imaging preoperatively. From 3DR images, the number of stone branching into minor renal calices was recorded. According to the number, patients were divided into four groups. Group 1: the branch number 2-4; Group 2: the branch number 5-7; Group 3: the branch number 8-10; Group 4: the branch number >10. The number of percutaneous tract, operative time, staged PNL, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hospital stay, complications, main stone composition, and stone clearance rate were compared. A significantly higher ratio of multitract (pPNL (pPNL for calculi with a stone branch number ≥5. There was no statistical difference in intraoperative blood loss (p=0.101) and main stone composition (p=0.546). There was no statistically meaningful difference among the four groups based on the Clavien complication system (p=0.46). With the stone branch number more than five, the possibility of multitract and staged PNL, lower rate of stone clearance, and a longer postoperative hospital stay increases for staghorn calculi.

  1. Synthesis and properties of highly branched Jatropha curcas L. oil derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Louis; Ardiyanti, Agnes R.; Schuur, Boelo; Manurung, Robert; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis and properties of a number of novel branched Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) derivatives containing vicinal di-ester units in the fatty acid chains are reported. Both the length (acetyl vs. hexanoyl) and the stereochemistry of the vicinal di-ester units (cis vs. trans) were varied. The

  2. Student Evaluation of University Image Attractiveness and Its Impact on Student Attachment to International Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    In many countries and regions around the world international students now weigh up the potential advantages and disadvantages of undertaking their higher education at an international branch campus rather than at a home campus located in a traditional destination such as the United States or United Kingdom. The aim of the research is to identify…

  3. Contingency Management with Human Autonomy Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert J.; Lachter, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Automation is playing an increasingly important role in many operations. It is often cheaper faster and more precise than human operators. However, automation is not perfect. There are many situations in which a human operator must step in. We refer to these instances as contingencies and the act of stepping in contingency management. Here we propose coupling Human Autonomy Teaming (HAT) with contingency management. We describe two aspects to HAT, bi-directional communication, and working agreements (or plays). Bi-directional communication like Crew Resource Management in traditional aviation, allows all parties to contribute to a decision. Working agreements specify roles and responsibilities. Importantly working agreements allow for the possibility of roles and responsibilities changing depending on environmental factors (e.g., situations the automation was not designed for, workload, risk, or trust). This allows for the automation to "automatically" become more autonomous as it becomes more trusted and/or it is updated to deal with a more complete set of possible situations. We present a concrete example using a prototype contingency management station one might find in a future airline operations center. Automation proposes reroutes for aircraft that encounter bad weather or are forced to divert for environmental or systems reasons. If specific conditions are met, these recommendations may be autonomously datalinked to the affected aircraft.

  4. Coercive treatment and autonomy in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, Manne; Helgesson, Gert

    2008-02-01

    There are three lines of argument in defence of coercive treatment of patients with mental disorders: arguments regarding (1) societal interests to protect others, (2) the patients' own health interests, and (3) patient autonomy. In this paper, we analyse these arguments in relation to an idealized case, where a person with a mental disorder claims not to want medical treatment for religious reasons. We also discuss who should decide what in situations where patients with mental disorders deny treatment on seemingly rational grounds. We conclude that, in principle, coercive treatment cannot be defended for the sake of protecting others. While coercive actions can be acceptable in order to protect close family and others, medical treatment is not justified for such reasons but should be given only in the interest of patients. Coercive treatment may be required in order to promote the patient's health interests, but health interests have to waive if they go against the autonomous interests of the patient. We argue that non-autonomous patients can have reasons, rooted in their deeply-set values, to renounce compulsory institutional treatment, and that such reasons should be respected unless it can be assumed that their new predicaments have caused them to change their views.

  5. Reconfigurable Autonomy for Future Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughes, Guy

    Extra-terrestrial Planetary rover systems are uniquely remote, placing constraints in regard to communication, environmental uncertainty, and limited physical resources, and requiring a high level of fault tolerance and resistance to hardware degradation. This thesis presents a novel self-reconfiguring autonomous software architecture designed to meet the needs of extraterrestrial planetary environments. At runtime it can safely reconfigure low-level control systems, high-level decisional autonomy systems, and managed software architecture. The architecture can perform automatic Verification and Validation of self-reconfiguration at run-time, and enables a system to be self-optimising, self-protecting, and self-healing. A novel self-monitoring system, which is non-invasive, efficient, tunable, and autonomously deploying, is also presented. The architecture was validated through the use-case of a highly autonomous extra-terrestrial planetary exploration rover. Three major forms of reconfiguration were demonstrated and tested: first, high level adjustment of system internal architecture and goal; second, software module modification; and third, low level alteration of hardware control in response to degradation of hardware and environmental change. The architecture was demonstrated to be robust and effective in a Mars sample return mission use-case testing the operational aspects of a novel, reconfigurable guidance, navigation, and control system for a planetary rover, all operating in concert through a scenario that required reconfiguration of all elements of the system.

  6. [Adult learning, professional autonomy and individual commitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardell-Alentá, H

    The concept of 'andragogy' is the basis of the adult education which is different from pedagogy in several aspects, particularly in the autonomy of the adult learner in choosing the educational programmes and the methodologies and sites in where learning occurs. This happens very often in the worksite. The professionals have to learn permanently during their active lives in order to maintain their competence updated. In this sense, continuing education correlates with continuing professional development, which is an attempt to enlarge the traditional domains of continuing education. Continuing education must be clearly differentiated from formal education, which is a requirement for granting professional degrees or titles. Very often it arises from the changing health needs and for this reason is necessary to avoid the institutionalization of continuing education programmes. Professional associations should be actively involved in providing and accrediting continuing education-continuing professional development programmes, because this involvement is an essential component of the professionals' self-regulation in the context of the current medical professionalism ideology.

  7. Marketing human organs: the autonomy paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P A; Thomasma, D C; Daar, A S

    1996-03-01

    The severe shortage of organs for transplantation and the continual reluctance of the public to voluntarily donate has prompted consideration of alternative strategies for organ procurement. This paper explores the development of market approaches for procuring human organs for transplantation and considers the social and moral implications of organ donation as both a "gift of life" and a "commodity exchange." The problematic and paradoxical articulation of individual autonomy in relation to property rights and marketing human body parts is addressed. We argue that beliefs about proprietorship over human body parts and the capacity to provide consent for organ donation are culturally constructed. We contend that the political and economic framework of biomedicine, in western and non-western nations, influences access to transplantation technology and shapes the form and development of specific market approaches. Finally, we suggest that marketing approaches for organ procurement are and will be negotiated within cultural parameters constrained by several factors: beliefs about the physical body and personhood, religious traditions, economic conditions, and the availability of technological resources.

  8. Learner autonomy development through digital gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Playing digital games is undeniably a popular leisure activity, and digital gaming is also gaining academic attention and recognition for enhancing digital literacies and learning motivation. One tricky issue when exploring digital gaming in Asian contexts is the popularity of English and Japanese games. Though Chinese and Korean online games are readily available, many of the more popular commercial off-the-shelf (COTS digital games are in English and Japanese. Students in Hong Kong are required to take English as a foreign language, which resulted in a huge range of proficiency, but Japanese is not offered at public schools. So, most Hong Kong gamers are playing foreign language games. Yet language barriers do not diminish the market demand for foreign language digital games. This paper explores the phenomenon of digital gaming in foreign languages. Based on findings from an on-going research project with ten undergraduate video gamers (F=4, M=6, this paper argues that gamers exercise learner autonomy by managing their gaming both as leisure and learning experiences.

  9. The Chains on All My People Are the Chains on Me: Restrictions to Collective Autonomy Undermine the Personal Autonomy and Psychological Well-Being of Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachanoff, Frank J; Taylor, Donald M; Caouette, Julie; Khullar, Thomas H; Wohl, Michael J A

    2018-01-11

    Four studies assessed the potentially detrimental effects that restrictions to collective autonomy (i.e., a group's freedom to determine and practice its own identity) may have for the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members. In Study 1, using 3 distinct samples (NSample1a = 123, NSample1b = 129, NSample1c = 370), correlational and cross-cultural evidence indicates that perceived restrictions to the collective autonomy of one's group is directly associated with reduced personal autonomy, and indirectly associated with diminished well-being through personal autonomy. In Study 2 (N = 411), a longitudinal assessment of group members over 3 time-points during a 4-month period found that group members who perceived greater collective autonomy restriction also experienced reduced personal autonomy, and in turn, reduced psychological well-being over time. In Study 3 (N = 255), group members described a time during which their ingroup had (or did not have) its collective autonomy unduly restricted by other groups. Participants who were primed to think that their group lacked collective autonomy reported reduced feelings of personal autonomy, and reduced psychological well-being (compared with those primed to think their group had collective autonomy). In Study 4 (N = 389), collective autonomy was manipulated within the context of an intensive laboratory simulation. Collective autonomy-restricted group members experienced less personal autonomy than those who did not have their collective autonomy restricted. Together these findings suggest that restrictions to a group's collective autonomy may have detrimental consequences for the personal autonomy and psychological well-being of group members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Exploring the relationship between university internationalization and university autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gullieva, Valeria

    This paper explores a research gap at the intersection of university internationalization and university autonomy. A process model of university internationalization is put forward whereby the process of university internationalization is mediated by university internationalization capacity...... and moderated by target country institutional autonomy and globalization; and entry modes, timing and pace, as well as product mix of internationalization define university’s internationalization pattern. A systematic review is conducted to identify empirical studies at this intersection. One of the questions...

  11. Direct-to-consumer genomics on the scales of autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayena, Effy

    2015-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic services have generated enormous controversy from their first emergence. A dramatic recent manifestation of this is the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) cease and desist order against 23andMe, the leading provider in the market. Critics have argued for the restrictive regulation of such services, and even their prohibition, on the grounds of the harm they pose to consumers. Their advocates, by contrast, defend them as a means of enhancing the autonomy of those same consumers. Autonomy emerges as a key battle-field in this debate, because many of the ‘harm’ arguments can be interpreted as identifying threats to autonomy. This paper assesses whether DTC genomic services are a threat to, or instead, an enhancement of, personal autonomy. It deploys Joseph Raz's account of personal autonomy, with its emphasis on choice from a range of valuable options. It then seeks to counter claims that DTC genomics threatens autonomy because it involves manipulation in contravention of consumers’ independence or because it does not generate valuable options which can be meaningfully engaged with by consumers. It is stressed that the value of the options generated by DTC genomics should not be judged exclusively from the perspective of medical actionability, but should take into consideration plural utilities. Finally, the paper ends by broaching policy recommendations, suggesting that there is a strong autonomy-based argument for permitting DTC genomic services, and that the key question is the nature of the regulatory conditions under which they should be permitted. The discussion of autonomy in this paper helps illuminate some of these conditions. PMID:24797610

  12. Teacher autonomy in the era of New Public Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how upper secondary school teachers perceive and respond to the consequences for their professional autonomy of recent school reforms and restructurings. Based on empirical material from interviews of 119 teachers in three studies conducted between 2002 and 2014, the findings indicate that teacher autonomy has been reduced by school reforms and restructurings since the late 1980s. Regardless of their individual aims, these reforms have collectively created a power struct...

  13. Managing the accountability-autonomy tensions in university research commercialisation

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Anil K.; Northcott, Deryl; Parker, Lee D.

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates organisational responses to emerging concerns about how accountability–autonomy tensions can be managed within the context of university research commercialisation. The findings suggest that changed expectations of university research practices, which result from the introduction of a commercialisation logic, can be managed via the homogenisation of research goals and strategies. The successful management of accountability–autonomy tensions also depends on utilising ...

  14. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Wreen, M J

    1991-01-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assign...

  15. Factors Contributing to Learners’ Autonomy in EFL Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Endah Tabiati

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This study aims to discover factors that assist learners develop their autonomy in EFL reading. The approach employed is qualitative involving EFL learners in an English Department of the Faculty of Cultural Studies, Brawijaya University Malang. There are two stages in the study: the subject selection stage intended to gain potential subjects and the main study intended to find the answer of the research questions. The findings of the study show that the autonomy of EFL learners in ...

  16. Monetary Autonomy in Select Asian Economies : Role of International Reserves

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Taguchi; Geethanjali Nataraj; Pravakar Sahoo

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in monetary autonomy and its interaction with financial integration, currency regime and foreign reserves for the past two decades in select Asian countries viz., Thailand, Korea, Indonesia, Philippines, and India. Our main findings are as follows : First, Thailand, Korea and Indonesia, who experienced the change in currency regime towards a floating regime, have lowered the sensitivities of their interest rates (have raised monetary autonomy) after the regime c...

  17. Between Autonomy and Vulnerability : the Space of Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin McDonald

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of the contemporary alterglobalization movement increasingly emphasize dimensions of autonomy, whose ultimate origins lie in theories of agency understood as sovereignty. This paper argues that critical dimensions of the alterglobalization movement involve practices of embodied action and forms of responsibility that point beyond autonomy, to a paradigm of relational vulnerability. Recognising this is central to understanding ethics, agency, and subjectivity and to understanding move...

  18. Between Autonomy and Vulnerability : the Space of Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McDonald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of the contemporary alterglobalization movement increasingly emphasize dimensions of autonomy, whose ultimate origins lie in theories of agency understood as sovereignty. This paper argues that critical dimensions of the alterglobalization movement involve practices of embodied action and forms of responsibility that point beyond autonomy, to a paradigm of relational vulnerability. Recognising this is central to understanding ethics, agency, and subjectivity and to understanding movements as a space of experience.

  19. Effect of Autonomy Support on Self-Determined Motivation in Elementary Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chen, Senlin; Tu, Kun-Wei; Chi, Li-Kang

    2016-09-01

    Using the quasi-experimental design, this study examined the effect of autonomy support on self-determined motivation in elementary school physical education (PE) students. One hundred and twenty six participants were assigned to either the autonomy support group (n = 61) or the control group (n = 65) for a six-week intervention period. Perceived teacher autonomy, perceived autonomy in PE, and self-determined motivation in PE were pre- and post-tested using validated questionnaires. Significant increases in perceived teacher autonomy and perceived autonomy in PE were observed in the autonomy support group, but not in the control group. Intrinsic motivation was higher in the autonomy support group than that in the control group. From an experimental perspective, these findings suggest that the autonomy support was successfully manipulated in the PE classes, which in turn increased the students' perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation.

  20. Effect of Autonomy Support on Self-Determined Motivation in Elementary Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Chang, Senlin Chen, Kun-Wei Tu, Li-Kang Chi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the quasi-experimental design, this study examined the effect of autonomy support on self-determined motivation in elementary school physical education (PE students. One hundred and twenty six participants were assigned to either the autonomy support group (n = 61 or the control group (n = 65 for a six-week intervention period. Perceived teacher autonomy, perceived autonomy in PE, and self-determined motivation in PE were pre- and post-tested using validated questionnaires. Significant increases in perceived teacher autonomy and perceived autonomy in PE were observed in the autonomy support group, but not in the control group. Intrinsic motivation was higher in the autonomy support group than that in the control group. From an experimental perspective, these findings suggest that the autonomy support was successfully manipulated in the PE classes, which in turn increased the students’ perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation.

  1. Volitional Trust, Autonomy Satisfaction, and Engagement at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyns, Marita; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2018-02-01

    This study tested a structural model that identifies the nature of relationships between trust, autonomy satisfaction, and personal engagement at work. A cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample ( n = 252) was used. The Behavioral Trust Inventory, Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. While reliance-based trust did not have a significant influence on engagement, disclosure-based trust in a focal leader was found to predict satisfaction of autonomy needs and employee engagement. Mediation analyses revealed that satisfaction of the need for autonomy facilitates the influence of trust on work outcomes. More specifically, disclosure (a dimension of trust) impacted engagement via autonomy satisfaction. Overall, the model explained 44% of total variance in engagement, to which the variables proportionately contributed as follows: autonomy satisfaction = 79.58%, disclosure = 18.22%, and reliance = 2.20%. The findings provide possible directions for how leaders can leverage trust to facilitate autonomy support and higher levels of engagement.

  2. Radioiodine-treatment (RIT) of functional thyroidal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Becker, W.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1942, therapy with radioiodine (RIT) has gained a major role in the treatment of benign thyroid disorders, notably hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease or toxic multinodular goitre (thyroid autonomy). In iodine deficient areas thyroid autonomy accounts for 40-50% of all cases with hyperthyroidism. RIT has become a cost-effective first-line procedure in autonomy-patients with latent or overt hyperthyroidism, especially in the absence of a large goitre, after thyroid surgery and in elderly patients with associated conditions who carry a high intra- or perioperative risk. Decisions concerning the definitive treatment of thyroid autonomy should take into account previous episodes of hyperthyroidism, objective parameters of risk stratification in euthyroid patients as well as concomitant diseases and the probability of iodine exposure in the future. In Central Europe the majority of investigators prefer to estimate the therapeutic activity individually by a radioiodine test. TCTUs (global 99m-Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression) - based dose concepts have been proven to be highly effective in the elimination of autonomy and carry a low (< 10%) risk of postradioiodtherapeutic hypothyroidism. Radioiodine therapy for autonomy has been found to be both effective and safe and without major early or late side effects. The most frequent complication is hypothyroidism requiring lifelong follow-up. (author)

  3. What does respect for the patient's autonomy require?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kam-Yuen

    2013-11-01

    Personal autonomy presupposes the notion of rationality. What is not so clear is whether, and how, a compromise of rationality to various degrees will diminish a person's autonomy. In bioethical literature, three major types of threat to the rationality of a patient's medical decision are identified: insufficient information, irrational beliefs/desires, and influence of different framing effects. To overcome the first problem, it is suggested that patients be provided with information about their diseases and treatment choices according to the objective standard. I shall explain how this should be finessed. Regarding the negative impact of irrational beliefs/desires, some philosophers have argued that holding irrational beliefs can still be an expression of autonomy. I reject this argument because the degree of autonomy of a decision depends on the degree of rationality of the beliefs or desires on which the decision is based. Hence, to promote patient autonomy, we need to eliminate irrational beliefs by the provision of evidence and good arguments. Finally, I argue that the way to smooth out the framing effects is to present the same information in different perspectives: it is too often assumed that medical information can always be given in a complete and unadorned manner. This article concludes with a cautionary note that the protection of patient autonomy requires much more time and effort than the current practice usually allows. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  6. Controlling the autonomy of a reconnaissance robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgalarrondo, Andre; Dufourd, Delphine; Filliat, David

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we present our research on the control of a mobile robot for indoor reconnaissance missions. Based on previous work concerning our robot control architecture HARPIC, we have developed a man machine interface and software components that allow a human operator to control a robot at different levels of autonomy. This work aims at studying how a robot could be helpful in indoor reconnaissance and surveillance missions in hostile environment. In such missions, since a soldier faces many threats and must protect himself while looking around and holding his weapon, he cannot devote his attention to the teleoperation of the robot. Moreover, robots are not yet able to conduct complex missions in a fully autonomous mode. Thus, in a pragmatic way, we have built a software that allows dynamic swapping between control modes (manual, safeguarded and behavior-based) while automatically performing map building and localization of the robot. It also includes surveillance functions like movement detection and is designed for multirobot extensions. We first describe the design of our agent-based robot control architecture and discuss the various ways to control and interact with a robot. The main modules and functionalities implementing those ideas in our architecture are detailed. More precisely, we show how we combine manual controls, obstacle avoidance, wall and corridor following, way point and planned travelling. Some experiments on a Pioneer robot equipped with various sensors are presented. Finally, we suggest some promising directions for the development of robots and user interfaces for hostile environment and discuss our planned future improvements.

  7. Autonomy in robots and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, T

    1997-06-01

    The word "autonomous" has become widely used in artificial intelligence, robotics, and, more recently, artificial life and is typically used to qualify types of systems, agents, or robots: we see terms like "autonomous systems," "autonomous agents," and "autonomous robots." Its use in these fields is, however, both weak, with no distinctions being made that are not better and more precisely made with other existing terms, and varied, with no single underlying concept being involved. This ill-disciplined usage contrasts strongly with the use of the same term in other fields such as biology, philosophy, ethics, law, and human rights, for example. In all these quite different areas the concept of autonomy is essentially the same, though the language used and the aspects and issues of concern, of course, differ. In all these cases the underlying notion is one of self-law making and the closely related concept of self-identity. In this paper I argue that the loose and varied use of the term autonomous in artificial intelligence, robotics, and artificial life has effectively robbed these fields of an important concept. A concept essentially the same as we find it in biology, philosophy, ethics, and law, and one that is needed to distinguish a particular kind of agent or robot from those developed and built so far. I suggest that robots and other agents will have to be autonomous, i.e., self-law making, not just self-regulating, if they are to be able effectively to deal with the kinds of environments in which we live and work: environments which have significant large scale spatial and temporal invariant structure, but which also have large amounts of local spatial and temporal dynamic variation and unpredictability, and which lead to the frequent occurrence of previously unexperienced situations for the agents that interact with them.

  8. Patient autonomy in home care: Nurses' relational practices of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gaby

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, new healthcare policies are transforming healthcare practices towards independent living and self-care of older people and people with a chronic disease or disability within the community. For professional caregivers in home care, such as nurses, this requires a shift from a caring attitude towards the promotion of patient autonomy. To explore how nurses in home care deal with the transformation towards fostering patient autonomy and self-care. Research design and context: A case study was conducted in a professional development course ('learning circle') for home care nurses, including participant observations and focus groups. The theoretical notion of 'relational agency' and the moral concept of 'practices of responsibility' were used to conduct a narrative analysis on the nurses' stories about autonomy. Eight nurses, two coaches and two university lecturers who participated in the learning circle. Ethical considerations: Informed consent was sought at the start of the course and again, at specific moments during the course of the learning circle. Three main themes were found that expressed the moral demands experienced and negotiated by the nurses: adapting to the person, activating patients' strengths and collaboration with patients and informal caregivers. On a policy and organisational level, the moral discourse on patient autonomy gets intertwined with the instrumental discourse on healthcare budget savings. This is manifested in the ambiguities the nurses face in fostering patient autonomy in their daily home care practice. To support nurses, critical thinking, moral sensitivity and trans-professional working should be part of their professional development. The turn towards autonomy in healthcare raises moral questions about responsibilities for care. Promoting patient autonomy should be a collaborative endeavour and deliberation of patients, professional and informal caregivers together.

  9. A biochemistry laboratory course designed to enhance students autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laboratory sessions are responsible for promoting instrumentation skills desirable in biochemistry and biochemistry related careers. They are traditionally based on experimental protocols that lead to the expected results, and students usually have not autonomy to plan and execute their experiments. GOALS: This work aimed to enhance a traditional biochemistry lab course, applying pre-lab quizzes on protein biochemistry and lab techniques in order to have students better prepared to plan, execute and interpret experiments. This approach also aims to bring the laboratory sessions into an inquiry-based environment capable to improve students’ independent capabilities in 2 autonomy domains: learning and communication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Online quizzes are delivered one week before each laboratory session, containing questions regarding the experimental techniques and theoretical basis related to them. Laboratory activities are presented in an inquiry-based approach where the first class of each activity is dedicated to plan experiments in order to answer the research questions presented by instructors. Activities are also organized in order to enhance students’ autonomy. The first activity is the simplest and more instructor-controlled and the last one is the most complex and less driven, transferring gradually to students the responsibility for their decisions in laboratory, supporting students’ autonomy. RESULTS: Online quizzes allowed instructors to identify students’ difficulties and to timely intervene. Scientific reports presented by students at the end of each activity showed that they performed better on less driven activities in which autonomy support were more complex than in the instructor controlled activities. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific reports analysis reveals students capabilities related to different scopes of autonomy, such as: discuss different strategies; find multiple solutions to solve problems; make their

  10. Evidence-Responsiveness and the Ongoing Autonomy of Treatment Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Steven

    2017-06-14

    To be an autonomous agent is to determine one's own path in life. However, this cannot plausibly be seen as a one-off affair. An autonomous agent does not merely set herself on a particular course and then lock the steering wheel in place, so to speak, but must maintain some form of ongoing control over her direction in life-must keep her eyes on the road and her hands on the wheel. Circumstances often change in important and unexpected ways, after all, and it is reasonable to think that a crucial part of autonomy consists of the ability and disposition to recognize and properly respond to such changes. This implies, I contend, that a patient whose initial decision to undergo a given treatment satisfied plausible requirements of autonomy, but who is now unable to recognize that available evidence indicates the need to reconsider her medical situation and options has come to lack autonomy with respect to her desire to continue that treatment. However, and despite its importance with respect to both theoretical understandings of autonomy and applications of the concept to clinical ethics, this ongoing aspect of autonomy has received little attention. This paper aims to go some way toward remedying that. I first critically review two of the few theories of autonomy that do address "evidence-responsiveness" so as to identify and elaborate what I take to be the most promising way in which to account for this aspect of autonomy. After considering and responding to a possible objection to the evidence-responsiveness condition I propose, I conclude by discussing its clinical implications. That condition, I argue, is not merely theoretically sound, but can and should be applied to clinical practice.

  11. Instructors' Support of Student Autonomy in an Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicholas; Webb, David

    2014-12-01

    The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a self-determination theory perspective. A correlational study investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (versus controlling) students perceived their instructors to be. An autonomy-supportive instructor acknowledges students' perspectives and feelings and provides students with information and opportunities for choice while minimizing external pressures (e.g., incentives or deadlines). It was found that the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was positively correlated with student interest and enjoyment in learning physics (β =0.31***) and negatively correlated with student anxiety about taking physics (β =-0.23**). It was also positively correlated with how autonomous (versus controlled) students' reasons for studying physics became over the duration of the course (i.e., studying physics more because they wanted to versus had to; β =0.24***). This change in autonomous reasons for studying physics was in turn positively correlated with student performance in the course (β =0.17*). Additionally, the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was directly correlated with performance for those students entering the course with relatively autonomous reasons for studying physics (β =0.25**). In summary, students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy supportive tended to have a more favorable motivational, affective, and performance experience in the course. The findings of the present study are consistent with experimental studies in other contexts that argue for autonomy-supportive instructor behaviors as the cause of a more favorable student experience.

  12. Systems autonomy technology: Executive summary and program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, John S (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Strategy approved by the President and Congress in 1984 sets for NASA a major goal of conducting effective and productive space applications and technology programs which contribute materially toward United States leadership and security. To contribute to this goal, OAST supports the Nation's civil and defense space programs and overall economic growth. OAST objectives are to ensure timely provision of new concepts and advanced technologies, to support both the development of NASA missions in space and the space activities of industry and other organizations, to utilize the strengths of universities in conducting the NASA space research and technology program, and to maintain the NASA centers in positions of strength in critical space technology areas. In line with these objectives, NASA has established a new program in space automation and robotics that will result in the development and transfer and automation technology to increase the capabilities, productivity, and safety of NASA space programs including the Space Station, automated space platforms, lunar bases, Mars missions, and other deep space ventures. The NASA/OAST Automation and Robotics program is divided into two parts. Ames Research Center has the lead role in developing and demonstrating System Autonomy capabilities for space systems that need to make their own decisions and do their own planning. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has the lead role for Telerobotics (that portion of the program that has a strong human operator component in the control loop and some remote handling requirement in space). This program is intended to be a working document for NASA Headquarters, Program Offices, and implementing Project Management.

  13. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  14. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  15. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  16. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira; Hayashi, Mayumi; Ito, Shotaro; Goseki, Raita; Higashihara, Tomoya; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic

  17. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  18. AGB [asymptotic giant branch]: Star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Asymptotic giant branch stars are red supergiant stars of low-to-intermediate mass. This class of stars is of particular interest because many of these stars can have nuclear processed material brought up repeatedly from the deep interior to the surface where it can be observed. A review of recent theoretical and observational work on stars undergoing the asymptotic giant branch phase is presented. 41 refs

  19. Multiprogrammation fast branch driver for microcomputer MICRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Josef; Lacroix, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the FIFO memories of the microcomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC programm (command, test, read, write) is loaded in the 1K FIFO buffer of the Micral before execution time and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,5μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape [fr

  20. Conformations and solution properties of star-branched polyelectrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisov, O.V.; Zhulina, E.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Ballauff, M.; Muller, A.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of star-like polyelectrolytes (PEs) exhibit distinctive features that originate from the topological complexity of branched macromolecules. In a salt-free solution of branched PEs, mobile counterions preferentially localize in the intramolecular volume of branched macroions.

  1. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  2. Regions’ Economic Autonomy in the New Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Bochko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discloses the understanding of new reality (normality for Russia that consists in the strengthening of the role of a man-personality and in the expansion of the economic autonomy of the territories in their interaction with the federal center. The rationale is based on a hypothesis according to which in the conditions of new reality, the increase of the well-being of the population and the overcoming of economic inequality between the territories are provided by the expansion of their economic independence as it leads to the increase of their intellectual, engineering and manufacturing potential. In the research, the author used the basic concepts of the classical economic theory, the theory of behavioural economics, interdisciplinary approach and statistical grouping method. The dynamics of the economic independence of the territories, which is manifested in the decrease in a number of donor regions and the socio-economic dividing of the territories, is shown. The assumption is proved that the consequences of the territorial stratification are the restraining of the growth of their socio-economic development and possibility probable emergence of «regional peripheral economy» with the property of the dependence of the periphery on the center, the decrease in a local initiative, the inhibition of technological development. The need to use the social psychology of the population, the psychological sets of economic development, «the second invisible hand of the market» and soft power to overcome the «regional peripheral economy» is revealed. The result of the research is the proof that the expansion of the economic independence of the territories is not only the increase of the self-isolation of regions and municipalities, but also the need to save the considerable part of the income from the production of goods and services created by the local population under control of the regional and municipal authorities and direct it to the

  3. Measuring the e-Learning Autonomy of Distance Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Firat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided evidence that learner autonomy is an important factor in academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated the autonomy of distance education students in e-learning environments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the e-learning autonomy of distance education students who are responsible for their own learning. For this purpose, as the first step of the study, an e-learning autonomy scale was developed. Analyses of the validity and reliability of the scale were carried out with the participation of 1,152 distance education students from Anadolu University, Open Education System. The scale has an internal consistency coefficient of α = 0.952 and a single factorial model that explains 66.58% of the total variance. The scale was implemented with 3,293 students from 42 different programs. According to the findings, student autonomy in e-learning environments is directly proportional to level of ICT use but not affected by program or gender.

  4. ARMD Strategic Thrust 6: Assured Autonomy for Aviation Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark; Holbrook, Jon; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with the external community and other government agencies, NASA will develop enabling technologies, standards, and design guidelines to support cost-effective applications of automation and limited autonomy for individual components of aviation systems. NASA will also provide foundational knowledge and methods to support the next epoch. Research will address issues of verification and validation, operational evaluation, national policy, and societal cost-benefit. Two research and development approaches to aviation autonomy will advance in parallel. The Increasing Autonomy (IA) approach will seek to advance knowledge and technology through incremental increases in machine-based support of existing human-centered tasks, leading to long-term reallocation of functions between humans and machines. The Autonomy as a New Technology (ANT) approach seeks advances by developing technology to achieve goals that are not currently possible using human-centered concepts of operation. IA applications are mission-enhancing, and their selection will be based on benefits achievable relative to existing operations. ANT applications are mission-enabling, and their value will be assessed based on societal benefit resulting from a new capability. The expected demand for small autonomous unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) provides an opportunity for development of ANT applications. Supervisory autonomy may be implemented as an expansion of the number of functions or systems that may be controlled by an individual human operator. Convergent technology approaches, such as the use of electronic flight bags and existing network servers, will be leveraged to the maximum extent possible.

  5. Autonomy and dignity: a discussion on contingency and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brussel, Leen

    2014-06-01

    With dying increasingly becoming a medicalised experience in old age, we are witnessing a shift from concern over death itself to an interest in dying 'well'. Fierce discussions about end-of-life decision making and the permissibility of medical intervention in dying, discursively structured around the notion of a 'good' death, are evidence of this shift. This article focuses on 'autonomy' and 'dignity' as key signifiers in these discussions. Rather than being fully fixed and stable, both signifiers are contingent and carry a variety of meanings within different discursive projects. The article aims to distinguish the varieties of these signifiers by elaborating existing theoretical perspectives on autonomy and dignity, and also, starting from a perspective on mass media as sites of meaning production and contestation, to study the contingency of autonomy and dignity in Belgian newspaper coverage of four prominent euthanasia cases. By means of a discourse-theoretical textual analysis, this study exposes a dominant--yet contested--articulation of rational-personal autonomy and of dignity in external terms as something that can be obtained, retained or lost, rather than in terms of intrinsic human integrity. These logics of representation reflect a more general late modern dominance of liberal autonomy and of dignity as being closely connected to self-identity, but at the same time result in limited visibility of alternative ways of experiencing an autonomous and dignified death.

  6. Recentralization within decentralization: County hospital autonomy under devolution in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyara, Anthony M.; Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2013, Kenya transitioned into a devolved system of government with a central government and 47 semi-autonomous county governments. In this paper, we report early experiences of devolution in the Kenyan health sector, with a focus on public county hospitals. Specifically, we examine changes in hospital autonomy as a result of devolution, and how these have affected hospital functioning. Methods We used a qualitative case study approach to examine the level of autonomy that hospitals had over key management functions and how this had affected hospital functioning in three county hospitals in coastal Kenya. We collected data by in-depth interviews of county health managers and hospital managers in the case study hospitals (n = 21). We adopted the framework proposed by Chawla et al (1995) to examine the autonomy that hospitals had over five management domains (strategic management, finance, procurement, human resource, and administration), and how these influenced hospital functioning. Findings Devolution had resulted in a substantial reduction in the autonomy of county hospitals over the five key functions examined. This resulted in weakened hospital management and leadership, reduced community participation in hospital affairs, compromised quality of services, reduced motivation among hospital staff, non-alignment of county and hospital priorities, staff insubordination, and compromised quality of care. Conclusion Increasing the autonomy of county hospitals in Kenya will improve their functioning. County governments should develop legislation that give hospitals greater control over resources and key management functions. PMID:28771558

  7. Patient autonomy in chronic care: solving a paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reach G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Reach Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital AP-HP, and EA 3412, CRNH-IdF, Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France Abstract: The application of the principle of autonomy, which is considered a cornerstone of contemporary bioethics, is sometimes in obvious contradiction with the principle of beneficence. Indeed, it may happen in chronic care that the preferences of the health care provider (HCP, who is largely focused on the prevention of long term complications of diseases, differ from those, more present oriented, preferences of the patient. The aims of this narrative review are as follows: 1 to show that the exercise of autonomy by the patient is not always possible; 2 where the latter is not possible, to examine how, in the context of the autonomy principle, someone (a HCP can decide what is good (a treatment for someone else (a patient without falling into paternalism. Actually this analysis leads to a paradox: not only is the principle of beneficence sometimes conflicting with the principle of autonomy, but physician's beneficence may enter into conflict with the mere respect of the patient; and 3 to propose a solution to this paradox by revisiting the very concepts of the autonomous person, patient education, and trust in the patient–physician relationship: this article provides an ethical definition of patient education. Keywords: preference, autonomy, person, reflexivity, empathy, sympathy, patient education, trust, respect, care

  8. Ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch, 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) required assessment of all current and former solid waste management units. Following guidelines under RCRA and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation (RI) was required of the Y-12 Plant for their filled coal ash pond (FCAP) and associated areas on McCoy Branch. The RI process was initiated and assessments were presented. Because the disposal of coal ash in the ash pond, McCoy Branch, and Rogers Quarry was not consistent with the Tennessee Water Quality Act, several remediation steps were implemented between 1986 and 1994 for McCoy Branch to address disposal problems. The required ecological risk assessments of McCoy Branch watershed included provisions for biological monitoring of the watershed. The objectives of the biological monitoring were to (1) document changes in biological quality of McCoy Branch after completion of a pipeline bypassing upper McCoy Branch and further, after termination of all discharges to Rogers Quarry, (2) provide guidance on the need for additional remediation, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of implemented remedial actions. The data from the biological monitoring program may also determine whether the goals of protection of human health and the environment of McCoy Branch are being accomplished.

  9. Ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch, 1989-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) required assessment of all current and former solid waste management units. Such a RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) was required of the Y-12 Plant for their Filled Coal Ash Pond on McCoy Branch. Because the disposal of coal ash in the ash pond, McCoy Branch, and Rogers Quarry was not consistent with the Tennessee Water Quality Act, several remediation steps were implemented or planned for McCoy Branch to address disposal problems. The McCoy Branch RFI plan included provisions for biological monitoring of the McCoy Branch watershed. The objectives of the biological monitoring were to: (1) document changes in biological quality of McCoy Branch after completion of a pipeline and after termination of all discharges to Rogers Quarry, (2) provide guidance on the need for additional remediation, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of implemented remedial actions. The data from the biological monitoring program will also determine if the classified uses, as identified by the State of Tennessee, of McCoy Branch are being protected and maintained. This report discusses results from toxicity monitoring of snails fish community assessment, and a Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessment.

  10. The appearance of Kant's deontology in contemporary Kantianism: concepts of patient autonomy in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, B

    1999-02-01

    Kant's concept of autonomy and the Kantian notion of autonomy are often conflated in bioethics. However, the contemporary Kantian notion has very little at all to do with Kant's original. In order to further bioethics discourse on autonomy, I critically distinguish the contemporary Kantian notion from Kant's original concept of moral autonomy. I then evaluate the practical relevance of both concepts of autonomy for use in bioethics. I argue that it is not appropriate to appeal to either concept toward assessing which patients we ought to respect as autonomous. Finally, I sketch criteria for what I take to be a more promising concept of autonomy for patients.

  11. Focusing on relationships, not information, respects autonomy during antenatal consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Nathalie; Payot, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Policy statements regarding antenatal consultations for preterm labour are guided by physicians' concerns for upholding the legal doctrine of informed consent, through the provision of standardised homogeneous medical information. This approach, led by classical in-control conceptions of patient autonomy, conceives moral agents as rational, independent, self-sufficient decision-makers. Recent studies on these antenatal consultations have explored patients' perspectives, and these differ from guidelines' suggestions. Relational autonomy - which understands moral agents as rational, emotional, creative and interdependent - resonates impressively with these new data. A model for antenatal consultations is proposed. This approach encourages clinicians to explore individual patients' lived experiences and engage in trusting empowering relationships. Moreover, it calls on physicians to enhance patients' relational autonomy by becoming advocates for their patients within healthcare institutions and professional organisations, while calling for broadscale policy changes to encourage further funding and support in investigations of the patient's voice. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Education and Reproductive Autonomy: The Case of Married Nigerian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princewill, Chitu Womehoma; De Clercq, Eva; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Jegede, Ayodele Samuel; Wangmo, Tenzin; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the influence of education on the exercise of married women's reproductive autonomy. We carried out 34 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with purposively sampled married Ikwerre women in Rivers State, Nigeria. The participants were between the ages of 22 and 60, had different educational backgrounds, and were in monogamous and polygynous marriages. Data were analyzed using MAXQDA 11 software. We found that although formal education enhanced women's ability to exercise reproductive autonomy, the culture of demanding absolute respect for men remains a major barrier. Formal education provides women with the knowledge that they need in order to access adequate health services for themselves and their children. Participants also believed that educating men was critical for the exercise of women's reproductive autonomy. The cultural aspects that promote female subordination and patriarchy should be addressed more openly in Nigeria.

  13. Our experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Otakar

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the author presents his experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies. The objectives of this study were to establish the efficacy and determine the adverse effects of radioiodine therapy of patients with thyroid functional autonomies. The main pathologic attribute of thyroid functional autonomies is the loss of regulation in the axis of hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid. The main cause of functional autonomy of the thyroid is iodine deficiency. Over a period of 30 years (1974-2004) 799 patients (age from 33 to 86 years; average age 58.7 years; the female: male ration was 7.4:1) with unifocal functional autonomy (UFA), multifocal functional autonomy (MFA) and disseminated functional autonomy (DFA) received at least one treatment of radioiodine. For diagnostics and the evaluation of radioiodine therapeutic effect of functional autonomies a thyroid scintigraphy is the basic and necessary procedure. In some patients a common scintigraphy with special imaging modulation, in some patients a scintigraphy after suppression or stimulation by means of thyroid hormones or TSH were done. We have also performed a thyroid ultrasonography, an assessment of a serum level of a total and free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, TSH, radioiodine accumulation test, estimation of radioiodine effective half-life, in some patients TRH-TSH test. The follow-up examinations were done in all patients after 4-6 months, another examination after one year in 545 patients and after two years in 254 patients. One therapeutic dose received 733 patients (91.74%) and it was sufficient for an elimination of functional autonomies. Some patients were retreated if there was the evidence of small or no treatment effect and no elimination of functional autonomies. Two radioiodine treatments received 62 patients (7.76%) and three treatments 4 patients (0.5%). We advocate individual pre-therapeutic dosimetry to determine the activity necessary to achieve a

  14. Effective Autonomy, Organisational Relationships and Skilled Jobs in Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank; Tüselmann, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how the proportion of skilled jobs in subsidiaries is influenced by resource gaps created by subsidiary development. Design/methodology/approach – This paper develops a range of propositions that connect the constructs of effective autonomy...... implications – The conceptual model can help parent company managers assess the likely effects of developments in effective autonomy and organisational relationships in their subsidiaries. Subsidiary managers can assess the possible impact of such factors as development of entrepreneurial activities......, specialization within the multinational corporation supply chain and enhancement of absorptive capacity on the proportion of skilled jobs. Originality/value – This paper is the first to describe subsidiary development from a skilled job perspective. It further develops the concept of autonomy and introduces...

  15. A Feasible Approach for Implementing Greater Levels of Satellite Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Steve; Zetocha, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a means for achieving increasingly autonomous satellite operations. We begin with a brief discussion of the current state-of-the-art in satellite ground operations and flight software, as well as the real and perceived technical and political obstacles to increasing the levels of autonomy on today's satellites. We then present a list of system requirements that address these hindrances and include the artificial intelligence (AI) technologies with the potential to satisfy these requirements. We conclude with a discussion of how the space industry can use this information to incorporate increased autonomy. From past experience we know that autonomy will not just "happen," and we know that the expensive course of manually intensive operations simply cannot continue. Our goal is to present the aerospace industry with an analysis that will begin moving us in the direction of autonomous operations.

  16. LOCAL PUBLIC 0 EXPENDITURE AUTONOMY – MEASURING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BILAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The decentralization process was continuous in Romania starting with 1990, generating the implication of local authorities in local public finance, as a result of exclusives, shared and delegate competences and, so, the necessity of ensuring a good management of resources and expenditures. Therefore, the decentralization of competences / responsibilities from State to local governments was a major Romanian political theme and a first rank component of management of local public finance, as main driving instrument for local development. Specific legal framework of local responsibilities is established both to European and national level. Researchers based on regulation and practice have tried to quantify the responsibilities developing different models to measure local revenue and expenditures autonomy. The paper aims is to identify some models for measuring local expenditure autonomy and to apply for Romania. The study is oriented to measure local expenditure autonomy in Romania using Bell, Ebel, Kaiser and Rojchaichainthorn's model.

  17. Autonomy among physically frail older people in nursing home settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Puggaard, Lis

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing autonomy is recognised to promote health and well-being for all age groups. Perceived lack of control has been found to be detrimental to physical and mental health. There is a lack of evidence-based knowledge elucidating how frail older people in nursing home settings...... participants aged 65 years or older were included in the study. All the participants were restricted in performing at least one P-ADL activity unassisted and had a Mini Mental State Examination-score above 16. Perceived autonomy was measured at baseline, after 12 weeks and after 24 weeks by The Autonomy Sub......-dimension in the Measure of Actualisation of Potential test. Programmes were based on participants' individual assessment of their most important daily activities. Staff at all nursing homes who usually organize physical training, social or creative activities carried out individually tailored programmes using their usual...

  18. A cybernetic theory of morality and moral autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J

    2001-04-01

    Human morality may be thought of as a negative feedback control system in which moral rules are reference values, and moral disapproval, blame, and punishment are forms of negative feedback given for violations of the moral rules. In such a system, if moral agents held each other accountable, moral norms would be enforced effectively. However, even a properly functioning social negative feedback system could not explain acts in which individual agents uphold moral rules in the face of contrary social pressure. Dr. Frances Kelsey, who withheld FDA approval for thalidomide against intense social pressure, is an example of the degree of individual moral autonomy possible in a hostile environment. Such extreme moral autonomy is possible only if there is internal, psychological negative feedback, in addition to external, social feedback. Such a cybernetic model of morality and moral autonomy is consistent with certain aspects of classical ethical theories.

  19. The history of autonomy in medicine from antiquity to principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Toni C

    2018-03-01

    Respect for Autonomy (RFA) has been a mainstay of medical ethics since its enshrinement as one of the four principles of biomedical ethics by Beauchamp and Childress' in the late 1970s. This paper traces the development of this modern concept from Antiquity to the present day, paying attention to its Enlightenment origins in Kant and Rousseau. The rapid C20th developments of bioethics and RFA are then considered in the context of the post-war period and American socio-political thought. The validity and utility of the RFA are discussed in light of this philosophical-historical account. It is concluded that it is not necessary to embrace an ethic of autonomy in order to guard patients from coercion or paternalism, and that, on the contrary, the dominance of autonomy threatens to undermine those very things which have helped doctors come to view and respect their patients as persons.

  20. The Impact of Autonomy on Women’s Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyle Ortiz-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kabeer’s simple and illustrative definition of empowerment is “the expansion in people’s ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them” (Kabeer, 1999: 437. Women’s empowerment, then, is conceptualized as an increase in agency over time. Little is it known about the importance of the effect of ‘self directed motivations and desires’ and autonomy on women’s agency. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationships among women’s autonomy and labor force participation along with their effects on women’s agency in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. For this, we use the structural equation modeling approach. Our results reveal that women’s autonomy and participation in the labor market positively influence their agency levels.

  1. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  2. Child Schooling in Ethiopia: The Role of Maternal Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Tesfaye Alemayehu; Mohanty, Itismita

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of maternal autonomy on child schooling outcomes in Ethiopia using a nationally representative Ethiopian Demographic and Health survey for 2011. The empirical strategy uses a Hurdle Negative Binomial Regression model to estimate years of schooling. An ordered probit model is also estimated to examine age grade distortion using a trichotomous dependent variable that captures three states of child schooling. The large sample size and the range of questions available in this dataset allow us to explore the influence of individual and household level social, economic and cultural factors on child schooling. The analysis finds statistically significant effects of maternal autonomy variables on child schooling in Ethiopia. The roles of maternal autonomy and other household-level factors on child schooling are important issues in Ethiopia, where health and education outcomes are poor for large segments of the population.

  3. Teaching quality: High school students' autonomy and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jaime; Medina-Garrido, Elena; Ortega, Miriam

    2018-05-01

    How teachers manage class learning and interact with students affects students’ motivation and engagement. However, it could be that the effect of students’ representation of teaching quality on the students’ motivation varies between classes. Students from 90 classes participated in the study. We used multilevel random structural equation modeling to analyze whether the relationship of the students’ perception of teaching quality (as an indicator of the students’ mental representation) and students’ motivation varies between classes, and if this variability depends on the class assessment of teaching quality (as an indicator of teaching quality). The effect of teachers’ structure on the regression slope of student perception of student competence was .127. The effect of teachers’ autonomy support on the regression slope of student perception of student autonomy was .066. With this study we contribute a more detailed description of the relationship between teaching quality, competence and autonomy.

  4. Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence: a self-determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Valery; Ryan, Richard M; Kim, Youngmee; Kaplan, Ulas

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of self-determination theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and cultural descriptions drawn from H. C. Triandis (1995), the authors hypothesized that (a) individuals from different cultures internalize different cultural practices; (b) despite these differences, the relative autonomy of individuals' motivation for those practices predicts well-being in all 4 cultures examined; and (c) horizontal practices are more readily internalized than vertical practices across all samples. Five hundred fifty-nine persons from South Korea, Russia, Turkey and the United States participated. Results supported the hypothesized relations between autonomy and well-being across cultures and gender. Results also suggested greater internalization of horizontal relative to vertical practices. Discussion focuses on the distinction between autonomy and individualism and the relative fit of cultural forms with basic psychological needs.

  5. Limits to relational autonomy--the Singaporean experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha; Watkinson, Deborah S; Beng, Ng Lee

    2015-05-01

    Recognition that the Principle of Respect for Autonomy fails to work in family-centric societies such as Singapore has recently led to the promotion of relational autonomy as a suitable framework within which to place healthcare decision making. However, empirical data, relating to patient and family opinions and the practices of healthcare professionals in Confucian-inspired Singapore, demonstrate clear limitations on the ability of a relational autonomy framework to provide the anticipated compromise between prevailing family decision-making norms and adopted Western led atomistic concepts of autonomy. Evidence suggests that despite a growing infusion of Western influence, there is still little to indicate any major shift to individual decision making, particularly in light of the way society and healthcare are structured. Similarly, the lack of employing a shared decision-making model and data that discredit the notion that the complex psychosocial and cultural factors that affect the decision making may be considered "content neutral" not only prevents the application of relational autonomy but questions the viability of the values behind the Principle of Respect for Autonomy. Taking into account local data and drawing upon a wider concept of personhood that extends beyond prevailing family-centric ideals along with the complex interests that are focused upon the preservation of the unique nature of personhood that arises from the Ring Theory of Personhood, we propose and "operationalize" the employing of an authoritative welfare-based approach, within the confines of best interest decision making, to better meet the current care needs within Singapore. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The impact of patient autonomy on older adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamched, Keerthi R; Hao, Wei; Song, Peter X; Carpenter, Laurie; Steinberg, Joel; Baptist, Alan P

    2018-05-03

    Understanding patient preferences and desire for involvement in making medical decisions is important when managing chronic conditions. Previous studies have utilized the Autonomy Preference Index (API) in younger asthmatic patients to evaluate these preferences. To identify factors associated with autonomy, and to determine if autonomy is related to asthma outcomes among older adults. 189 older adults (>55 yr) with persistent asthma were included. Preferences for autonomy were assessed using the API, with a higher score indicating higher desire for autonomy. Scores were separated into two domains of 'information seeking' and 'decision making' preferences. The separated scores were correlated with asthma outcomes and demographic variables. To control for confounding factors, a linear regression analysis was performed. Higher 'decision making' preference scores correlated with female gender (p=0.007), higher education level (p=0.01), and lower depression scores (p=0.04). Regarding outcomes, 'decision making' scores positively correlated with asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) scores (p=0.01). On linear regression analysis, the AQLQ score remained significantly associated with 'decision making' preference scores (p=0.03). There was no association with asthma control test scores, spirometry values, and healthcare utilization. 'Information seeking' preference scores correlated with education level (p=0.03), but there was no correlation with asthma outcomes. Older asthmatic adults with a greater desire for involvement in decision making have a higher asthma related quality of life. Future studies with the intention to increase patient autonomy may help establish a causal relationship. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Negotiating autonomy at the margins of the state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recent processes of decentralization have dramatically changed local political configurations and access to resources throughout Indonesia. In particular, the resource-rich regions at the margins of the state have, in the name of regional autonomy, experienced new spaces for manoeuvre in their cl......Recent processes of decentralization have dramatically changed local political configurations and access to resources throughout Indonesia. In particular, the resource-rich regions at the margins of the state have, in the name of regional autonomy, experienced new spaces for manoeuvre...

  8. Professional Autonomy and Security Risks of Journalists in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Garcés Prettel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between professional autonomy and security risks of journalists in Colombia. A correlational-transversal research was conducted with a sample of 751 journalists who filled out the questionnaire “Worlds of Journalism Study”. The results show significant differences on the attacks received by the journalists depending on gender, news beat, region, news media, years of experience, capacity and educational level of journalists. Attacks on journalists correlates positively with the autonomy to publish and write news on governments, armed forces, criminal gangs and structural social problems (poverty, status of ethnic minorities, socioeconomic inequality, environmental damage the latter being a predictor of high risk security.

  9. Robot Science Autonomy in the Atacama Desert and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Wettergreen, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Science-guided autonomy augments rovers with reasoning to make observations and take actions related to the objectives of scientific exploration. When rovers can directly interpret instrument measurements then scientific goals can inform and adapt ongoing navigation decisions. These autonomous explorers will make better scientific observations and collect massive, accurate datasets. In current astrobiology studies in the Atacama Desert we are applying algorithms for science autonomy to choose effective observations and measurements. Rovers are able to decide when and where to take follow-up actions that deepen scientific understanding. These techniques apply to planetary rovers, which we can illustrate with algorithms now used by Mars rovers and by discussing future missions.

  10. Enhancing Learner Autonomy in an On-line Editing Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Wong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Little (1999 argues that in formal educational contexts, “the basis of learner autonomy is acceptance of responsibility for one’s own learning” (p.11. An autonomous learner takes responsibility for various aspects of learning (Benson & Voller, 1997; Holec, 1981. This study examines how learner autonomy opportunities were provided at various stages of writing in an on-line editing programme for a group of electronic engineering students and how the students took charge of their language learning when receiving feedback on their technical writing. The impact on their own learning effectiveness of the decisions students made is also discussed.

  11. Representations of Patients' Experiences of Autonomy in Graphic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschaepe, Mark

    2018-02-01

    I advocate using graphic medicine in introductory medical ethics courses to help trainees learn about patients' experiences of autonomy. Graphic narratives about this content offer trainees opportunities to gain insights into making diagnoses and recommending treatments. Graphic medicine can also illuminate aspects of patients' experiences of autonomy differently than other genres. Specifically, comics allow readers to consider visual and text-based representations of a patient's actions, speech, thoughts, and emotions. Here, I use Ellen Forney's Marbles: Mania, Depression, Michelangelo, and Me: A Graphic Memoir and Peter Dunlap-Shohl's My Degeneration: A Journey Through Parkinson's as two examples that can serve as pedagogical resources. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Autonomy and Vulnerability of Elderly People: Emblematic Judicial Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isolina Dabove

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the private autonomy of older people when they are in situations of dependency according to the “Law of Old Age”. For this, the author presents the autonomy system: the capacity, the will, the guardianship and the schemes of support, assistance and representation according to the Argentinean Civil and Commercial Code, in force since August 2015, its scope and the jurisprudence. In addition, it is considered the recent Inter-American Convention on the Protection of the Human Rights of Older Persons (CIDHPM of the OAS, in force since January 11, 2017.

  13. Designing Autonomy: Opportunities for New Wildness in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Bradley; Martin, Laura J; Ellis, Erle C

    2017-03-01

    Maintaining wild places increasingly involves intensive human interventions. Several recent projects use semi-automated mediating technologies to enact conservation and restoration actions, including re-seeding and invasive species eradication. Could a deep-learning system sustain the autonomy of nonhuman ecological processes at designated sites without direct human interventions? We explore here the prospects for automated curation of wild places, as well as the technical and ethical questions that such co-creation poses for ecologists, conservationists, and designers. Our goal is to foster innovative approaches to creating and maintaining the autonomy of evolving ecological systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The autonomy of religions from the state: the normative framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carp, Radu

    2010-01-01

    The principle of the autonomy of religious cults from the state is found in many of the Constitutions of European states and it has also been asserted by ECHR. In the case of Romania, this principle was noted for the first time by the 1869 Organic Statute of the Romanian Greek Orthodox Church of Hungary and Transylvania. This was not the case after 1918 when the term autonomy cannot be found in the 1923 Constitution, the 1928 Law on the general regime of religions or in the 1925 Statute of th...

  15. An agent-based Model of Energy Autonomy in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Huijie, Li; Pfenning, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Ein kurzer sozio-techischer Einblick in dasw Verständnis und die damit verbundenen Risiken von Energie-Autonomie. Auf lokaler Ebene mündet das Bestreben nach Autonomie in einer systemischen Anomie, auf regionaler Ebene finden sich Synergieeffekte, auf nationaler Ebene sind Energiekooperationen sinnvoll und effektiv. Die Risiken liegen in einer Schaffung von Überkapazitäten und erhöhten Kosten. Die Chancen liegen in Kooperation und Synergien für ein funktionierendes, sicheres EE-EVS.

  16. The Decisonal Autonomy Defending the Right to Die With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the possibility that the terminal patient, provided with decisional autonomy, can claim the right to die with dignity. To achieve the intent, it was done a bibliographic exploratory-explanatory research, qualitative, using the deductive method. Concluding that, even if the subject is polemic, the decisional autonomy deserves to be considered, including in the execution of the right to die with dignity, since it is intended to safeguard the human being in the most intimate aspects of one’s life and, because, choose the death with dignity doesn’t mean to give up from the right to life.

  17. The Myth of Cognitive AgencySubpersonal thinking as a cyclically recurring loss of mental autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Metzinger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This metatheoretical paper investigates mind wandering from the perspective of philosophy of mind. It has two central claims. The first is that on a conceptual level, mind wandering can be fruitfully described as a specific form of mental autonomy loss. The second is that most of what we call conscious thought is better analysed as a subpersonal process that more often than not lacks crucial properties traditionally taken to be the hallmark of personal-level cognition, such as mental agency, explicit, consciously experienced goal-directedness, or availability for veto control. I claim that for roughly two thirds of our life-time we do not possess mental autonomy (M-autonomy in this sense. Empirical data from research on mind wandering and nocturnal dreaming clearly show that phenomenally represented cognitive processing is mostly an automatic, non-agentive process and that personal-level cognition is an exception rather than the rule. This raises an interesting new version of the mind-body problem: How is subpersonal cognition causally related to personal-level thought? More fine-grained phenomenological descriptions for what we called conscious thought in the past are needed, as well as a functional decomposition of umbrella terms like mind wandering into different target phenomena and a better understanding of the frequent dynamic transitions between spontaneous, task-unrelated thought and meta-awareness.. In an attempt to lay some very first conceptual foundations for the now burgeoning field of research on mind wandering, the third section proposes two new criteria for individuating single episodes of mind-wandering, namely, the self-representational blink (SRB and a sudden shift in the phenomenological unit of identification (UI. I close by specifying a list of potentially innovative research goals that could serve to establish a stronger connection between mind wandering research and philosophy of mind.

  18. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  19. Thermoelectric effects in disordered branched nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piriatinskiy, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    We shall develop formalism of thermal and electrical transport in Si1 - x Gex and BiTe nanowires. The key feature of those nanowires is the possibility of dendrimer type branching. The branching tree can be of size comparable to the short wavelength of phonons and by far smaller than the long wavelength of conducting electrons. Hence it is expected that the branching may suppress thermal and let alone electrical conductance. We demonstrate that the morphology of branches strongly affects the electronic conductance. The effect is important to the class of materials known as thermoelectrics. The small size of the branching region makes large temperature and electrical gradients. On the other hand the smallness of the region would allow the electrical transport being ballistic. As usual for the mesoscopic systems we have to solve macroscopic (temperature) and microscopic ((electric potential, current)) equations self-consistently. Electronic conductance is studied via NEGF formalism on the irreducible electron transfer graph. We also investigate the figure of merit ZT as a measure of the suppressed electron conductance.

  20. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Rutgers, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are ∼170 kV cm -1 in air and ∼100 kV cm -1 in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  1. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl; Rutgers, W.R. [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2002-09-07

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are {approx}170 kV cm{sup -1} in air and {approx}100 kV cm{sup -1} in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  2. Relations of Behavioral Autonomy to Health Outcomes Among Emerging Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of behavioral autonomy to psychological, behavioral, and physical health among emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Methods High school seniors with (n = 118) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed online questionnaires for three consecutive years. Behavioral autonomy, psychological health, risk behaviors, and diabetes outcomes were assessed. Regression analyses were conducted to predict Time 2 and 3 outcomes, controlling for Time 1 outcomes. Results There were no group differences in behavioral autonomy. Behavioral autonomy predicted better psychological health but only for emerging adults without diabetes. Behavioral autonomy was related to increased risk behavior for both groups. Behavioral autonomy was unrelated to self-care but predicted better glycemic control for females. Conclusions Behavioral autonomy may be beneficial for psychological health, but is related to increased risk behavior. The implications of behavioral autonomy for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes require careful consideration. PMID:25157070

  3. Computational models of airway branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2017-07-01

    The bronchial network of the mammalian lung consists of millions of dichotomous branches arranged in a highly complex, space-filling tree. Recent computational models of branching morphogenesis in the lung have helped uncover the biological mechanisms that construct this ramified architecture. In this review, we focus on three different theoretical approaches - geometric modeling, reaction-diffusion modeling, and continuum mechanical modeling - and discuss how, taken together, these models have identified the geometric principles necessary to build an efficient bronchial network, as well as the patterning mechanisms that specify airway geometry in the developing embryo. We emphasize models that are integrated with biological experiments and suggest how recent progress in computational modeling has advanced our understanding of airway branching morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of Tau Lepton Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, N.

    2003-12-19

    We present {tau}{sup -} lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample of {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} events, we examine the resonance structure of the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270) and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the {tau}{sup -} lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, {mu}, {pi}, and K.

  6. Demographic and Socio-Economic Determinants of Local Financial Autonomy in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Dănuţ Vasile JEMNA; Mihaela ONOFREI; Elena CIGU

    2013-01-01

    Local autonomy is a rarely explored concept in the literature, still holding an increasing importance in the current context of Romania’s development in the European Union. In this paper we attempt to provide an overall survey on the financial dimension of local autonomy, assuming that local autonomy cannot be implemented, unless local authorities have adequate financial resources. In this study we also analyze the possibility to measure the local revenue autonomy and to identify the variable...

  7. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...... relativity. The correspondence underpins the point that Prior’s later development of branching time may be understood as a crucial part of his attempt at the formulating a conceptual framework integrating basic human notions of time and free choice....

  8. Electronic branching ratio of the τ lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Procario, M.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Jones, C.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Nandi, S.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yelton, J.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Sadoff, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Γ(τ→e bar ν e ν τ )/Γ 1 , where Γ 1 is the τ decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231±0.0044±0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the τ lepton to electrons, B e =0.192±0.004±0.006

  9. A new ripplon branch in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanatarov, I.V.; Tanatarov, I.V.; Adamenko, I.N.; Nemchenko, K.E.; Wyatt, A.F.G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the dispersion relation of ripplons, on the surface of superfluid helium, using the dispersive hydrodynamics approach and find a new ripplon branch. We obtain analytical equation for the dispersion relation and analytic expressions for the limiting cases. The probabilities of decay of unstable ripplons above the roton gap into rotons are derived. A numerical solution for the ripplon dispersion curve is obtained. The new ripplon branch is found at energies just below the instability point of the bulk spectrum, and is investigated; its stability is discussed.

  10. Time constraints and autonomy at work in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.

    1998-01-01

    Time constraints and job autonomy are seen as two major dimensions of work content. These two dimensions play a major role in controlling psychosocial stress at work. The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EFILWC) has asked NIA TNO to prepare a report on time

  11. The Argument for a Narrow Conception of 'Religious Autonomy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    This article argues for a both horizontal and vertical narrow concept of collective freedom of Religion. The most recent ECtHR judgments as well as the US Supreme Court Hosanna-Tabor case leads theory to establish religious autonomy based on parallel legal roders. Nordic theory has been based...

  12. Managerial autonomy, optimal security issuance and capital structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we address two related puzzles: (i) why do firms issue equity when stock prices are high and (ii) why do firms so often not issue securities to counteract the mechanical effect of their stock returns on their leverage ratios? Our theory builds on the importance of managerial autonomy

  13. Professional autonomy and the normative structure of medical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, Jan; Jochemsen, Henk

    2000-01-01

    Professional autonomy is often described as a claim of professionals that has to serve primarily their own interests. However, it can also be seen as an element of a professional ideal that can function as a standard for professional, i.e. medical practice. This normative understanding of the

  14. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  15. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…

  16. Faculty Work: Moving beyond the Paradox of Autonomy and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Freedom to pursue one's intellectual interests, known as professional autonomy, is a valued and longstanding faculty tradition. Profound changes in society and the academy, however, suggest new values may be emerging. Collaboration, for example, is increasingly vital to success outside of the academy, and faculty culture, long an…

  17. Autonomy and Accountability in Standards-Based Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Watson

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the effects of one urban school district's efforts to increase the autonomy and accountability of schools and teams of teachers through a standards-based reform known as team- based schooling. Team-based schooling is designed to devolve decision-making authority down to the school level by increasing teachers' autonomy to make decisions. Increased accountability is enacted in the form of a state-level standards-based initiative. Based on our evaluation over a two-year period involving extensive fieldwork and quantitative analysis, we describe the ways that teachers, teams and school administrators responded to the implementation of team-based schooling. What are the effects of increasing school-level autonomy and accountability in the context of standards- based reform? Our analysis highlights several issues: the "lived reality" of teaming as it interacts with the existing culture within schools, the ways that teachers respond to the pressures created by increased internal and external accountability, and the effects of resource constraints on the effectiveness of implementation. We conclude by using our findings to consider more broadly the trade-off between increased autonomy and accountability on which standards-based reforms like team-based schooling are based.

  18. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  19. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning and Language Learner Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the modern age of exponential knowledge growth and accelerating technological development, the need to engage in lifelong learning is becoming increasingly urgent. Successful lifelong learning, in turn, requires learner autonomy, or "the capacity to take control of one's own learning" (Benson, 2011, p. 58), including all relevant…

  20. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic condition.…