WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit branch autonomy

  1. Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about a (supposed) myth which tells the creation of man in reverse order. It is not man being the crown on creation, but the (by) product of a complicated process. The myth simply is called autonomy. The elements of the myth show the backside of human knowledge and with that the connec

  2. Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about a (supposed) myth which tells the creation of man in reverse order. It is not man being the crown on creation, but the (by) product of a complicated process. The myth simply is called autonomy. The elements of the myth show the backside of human knowledge and with that the

  3. SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FINANCIAL AUTONOMY OF THE ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVETERRITORIAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELINDA CENUŞE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania local autonomy is administrative and financial. If local financial resources are not independent from the state budget and they continue to depend on it exclusively and if financial independence remains only a target which has not been materialized in practice, then the administrative autonomy of the communes, towns and counties will not yield the expected results and will still be limited. According to the European Charter of Local Self-Government the financial resources available for the Local Government authorities should be correlated, commensurate with their duties and their decentralized competences. A recent decision of the Romanian Constitutional Court sustains the same idea. Having in mind this CC’s Decision, the provisions of the European Charter of Local Self-Government and the nowadays insolvent Romanian administrative-territorial units, allow me to underline in this paper my opinion that the financial autonomy is the substance of local autonomy.

  4. Controlling and Autonomy-Supportive Parenting in the United States and China: Beyond Children's Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia S.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Wang, Meifang; Qu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Research comparing the predictive power of parents' control and autonomy support in the United States and China has relied almost exclusively on children's reports. Such reports may lead to inaccurate conclusions if they do not reflect parents' practices to the same extent in the two countries. A total of 394 American and Chinese children…

  5. Cell autonomy of HIF effects in Drosophila: tracheal cells sense hypoxia and induce terminal branch sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanin, Lázaro; Dekanty, Andrés; Romero, Nuria; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Gorr, Thomas A; Wappner, Pablo

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila tracheal terminal branches are plastic and have the capacity to sprout out projections toward oxygen-starved areas, in a process analogous to mammalian angiogenesis. This response involves the upregulation of FGF/Branchless in hypoxic tissues, which binds its receptor Breathless on tracheal cells. Here, we show that extra sprouting depends on the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-alpha homolog Sima and on the HIF-prolyl hydroxylase Fatiga that operates as an oxygen sensor. In mild hypoxia, Sima accumulates in tracheal cells, where it induces breathless, and this induction is sufficient to provoke tracheal extra sprouting. In nontracheal cells, Sima contributes to branchless induction, whereas overexpression of Sima fails to attract terminal branch outgrowth, suggesting that HIF-independent components are also required for full induction of the ligand. We propose that the autonomous response to hypoxia that occurs in tracheal cells enhances tracheal sensitivity to increasing Branchless levels, and that this mechanism is a cardinal step in hypoxia-dependent tracheal sprouting.

  6. Analysis on the Offside and Vacancy in the Administration of the Village Party Branch and the Villagers′ Committee in Sichuan Province——Based on Villagers′ Autonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, the researches on the administration scope, the leadership style of the village party branch, the core status of village party branch and the autonomy of villagers′ committee are expounded. On the basis of the empirical investigation of countryside in Sichuan Province, the offside and vacancy of the administration of the "two committees in village" in the villagers′ autonomy are studied tentatively. The results show that the offside and vacancy of the "two committees in village" can be divided into three types, covering the village party branch-dominated, the villagers′ committee-dominated type and the antagonism of the two village committees. The reasons for the offside and vacancy of administration of the "two committees in village" are analyzed, including the fragility of the two committees of the village; the imbalanced power sources of the two committees of the village; the imbalance of the competition for interests of the two committees and the negative effects of traditional politics and culture. The countermeasures are put forward, for example, reinforcing the system construction of rural grassroots organizations; expanding the democratic election modes such as "two-vote system " and "selecting one from the two recommended"; establishing the coordinative and supervisory mechanisms between the two committees in the village and introducing into college-graduate village officials to improve the quality of rural cadres.

  7. Moral distress, autonomy and nurse-physician collaboration among intensive care unit nurses in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, Maria N K; Albarran, John W; Drigo, Elio; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Kalafati, Maria; Mpouzika, Meropi; Tsiaousis, George Z; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D E

    2014-05-01

    To explore the level of moral distress and potential associations between moral distress indices and (1) nurse-physician collaboration, (2) autonomy, (3) professional satisfaction, (4) intention to resign, and (5) workload among Italian intensive care unit nurses. Poor nurse-physician collaboration and low autonomy may limit intensive care unit nurses' ability to act on their moral decisions. A cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 566 Italian intensive care unit nurses. The intensity of moral distress was 57.9 ± 15.6 (mean, standard deviation) (scale range: 0-84) and the frequency of occurrence was 28.4 ± 12.3 (scale range: 0-84). The mean score of the severity of moral distress was 88.0 ± 44 (scale range: 0-336). The severity of moral distress was associated with (1) nurse-physician collaboration and dissatisfaction on care decisions (r = -0.215, P managerial task that could lead to the alleviation of nurses' moral distress and their retention in the profession. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Trajectories of Ethnic-Racial Identity and Autonomy Among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) and autonomy development among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the United States (N = 181; M(age) at Wave 1 = 16.80 years, SD = 1.00) as they transitioned through the first 5 years of parenthood. Trajectories of ERI and autonomy also were examined in relation to psychosocial functioning. Unconditional latent growth models indicated significant growth in autonomy, ERI resolution, and ERI affirmation from middle to late adolescence. Conditional latent growth models indicated that autonomy and ERI exploration growth trajectories were positively associated with psychosocial adjustment. Although adolescent mothers are experiencing transitions that are not normative during adolescence, they also engage in normative developmental processes, and their engagement in such processes is linked with better adjustment.

  9. Civic Engagement in the United States: Roots and Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The adult education and civic education movements are not synonymous, but the two were intertwined during the early years of adult education's formation as a field in the United States. This chapter traces the development of adult civic education in the United States, focusing on the 1920s through the 1950s. First, the roots of civic education…

  10. THE ASYMPTOTIC PROPERTIES OF SUPERCRITICAL BISEXUAL GALTON-WATSON BRANCHING PROCESSES WITH IMMIGRATION OF MATING UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this article the supercritical bisexual Galton-Watson branching processes with the immigration of mating units is considered. A necessary condition for the almost sure convergence, and a sufficient condition for the L1 convergence are given for the process with the suitably normed condition.

  11. Sustainability of International Branch Campuses in the United Arab Emirates: A Vision for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Angela; Alzouebi, Khadeegha

    2014-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates is developing higher education institutions that will contribute to an educational sector providing premium degree programs. There was a belief that the recognition and achievements these institutions attained over decades in their native land would be transferable in the implementation of international branch campuses.…

  12. Efficient branch-and-bound algorithms for the synthesis of minimum-unit heat exchanger networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocsny, D.; Govind, R. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (US))

    1988-01-01

    Several recent schemes have been advanced in the literature for formulating the synthesis of minimum-unit heat exchanger networks as mixed-integer linear programming problems. Until now, no special-purpose algorithms have been proposed for solving the resulting models. In this work, a branch-and-bound algorithm is described, which uses Balinski's relaxation to generate a succession of linear programs, along with the transportation simplex algorithm to solve each subproblem. Careful attention is given to the structuring of constraints to take maximum advantage of the information represented by the process pinch and the problem table residuals. Computational examples are presented which show a substantial performance improvement over currently available general-purpose branch-and-bound codes. The effects of varying the branch selection rules are described.

  13. Teachers' Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    This literature review begins by considering the concept of autonomy. The focus narrows to teacher autonomy specifically and a range of conceptualisations are summarised. Its influences and impact are discussed and the role which teacher autonomy plays in the wider issue of teacher professionalism is addressed. Central influences, including the UK…

  14. Are Gains in Decision-Making Autonomy during Early Adolescence Beneficial for Emotional Functioning? The Case of the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lili; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Wang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the role of children's decision-making autonomy in their emotional functioning during early adolescence in the United States and China. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M = 12.73 years) reported on the extent to which they versus their parents make decisions about issues children…

  15. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about Conflict Resolution, Autonomy, and the Group in Four Countries: United States, Colombia, El Salvador and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Barakkatz, Marlene; Wang, Pei-Lin

    2000-01-01

    This study surveyed 160 preschool teachers in 4 countries regarding views of moral and social conflict resolution, autonomy and a group sense, and general aims of preschools. Findings revealed that all hold similar beliefs regarding intervention in children's conflicts and importance of autonomy in the classroom. Additionally, all viewed the…

  16. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  17. Anagogy of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, A L

    2000-07-01

    The philosophical and ethical concept of autonomy is herein examined, ex post facto, using an existential lens to examine the process of a personal friend's dying. Anagogy, defined as interpretation of a word, passage, or text that finds beyond the literal, allegorical, and moral senses a fourth and ultimate spiritual or mystical sense, is intended to enlarge the understanding of the use of autonomy in this case. The idea of personhood linked inextricably to reason is, therefore, understood as empowering an individual to choose among various actions, to define and redefine life goals, and to give priority to selected values and moral tenants, which reveal a moral hermeneutic. Conditions and circumstances, existentially exposed, limit choice in unexpected ways, such that the predicted value of autonomy is vulnerable to misuse or misunderstanding. The intent to respect the dignity of every person is central to the philosophy of Respect for Persons ethics, and assumes that autonomy, as freedom of the moral agent, is a moral duty. Implicit reality of freedom is, in a practical sense, essential to being rational agents who can thereby exercise informed choice. The moral law, law of freedom, involves the autonomy of the will and an ultimate end to which all action is directed. Defined as the highest good, morality unites virtue and happiness by ascribing the ultimate end sought as God. The freedom to use rational will finds principles within its own rational nature. The ability to create maxims is autonomy of the will, which equates with the dignity of persons. My recent experience as a companion to a personal friend with a terminal illness inspired me to re-evaluate the concept of autonomy as it is too often interpreted in modern ethical discourse as a individualistic right of choice as opposed to the hermeneutic of dignity of person. This paper describes a shift of position in understanding the paradox of autonomy in this existential context.

  18. Syntactic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-12-01

    The study of adapting and evolving autonomous agents should be based on a complex systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notions of semiotics and situated action is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments.Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and self-organization are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. With this semiotic view of self-organization and symbols, the authors re-think the notion of autonomy of evolving systems, and show that evolutionary systems are characterized by a particular type of syntactic autonomy. Recent developments in emergent computation in cellular automata are discussed as examples of the emergence of syntactic autonomy in computational environments. New experiments emphasizing this syntactic autonomy in cellular automata are presented.

  19. Autonomy @ Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dalsem, William; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    This is a powerpoint presentation that highlights autonomy across the 15 NASA technology roadmaps, including specific examples of projects (past and present) at NASA Ames Research Center. The NASA technology roadmaps are located here: http:www.nasa.govofficesocthomeroadmapsindex.html

  20. Autonomy and hierarchy in two slave communities: the cases of George (Alabama, United States, 1847 and Lino (Vassouras, Brazil, 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pereira de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks argue that the search for autonomy among slaves necessarily created hierarchies within the community where they were inserted. Through two cases compared, George in U.S. and Lino in Brazil, seeks to show that a notion of slave community was built by the social actors who were part of it

  1. Branched chain fatty acid content of United States retail cow's milk and implications for dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, R R; Sim, D; O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Bauman, D E; Barbano, D M; Brenna, J T

    2011-07-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 14-18 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 ± 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean ± SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids.

  2. Teacher Autonomy in the United States: Establishing a Standard Definition, Validation of a Nationally Representative Construct and an Investigation of Policy Affected Teacher Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, Kevin Dale

    2012-01-01

    This effort: 1) establishes an autonomy definition uniquely tailored for teaching, 2) validates a nationally generalizable teacher autonomy construct, 3) demonstrates that the model describes and explains the autonomy levels of particular teacher groups, and 4) verifies the construct can represent teacher autonomy in other empirical models. The…

  3. Teacher Autonomy in the United States: Establishing a Standard Definition, Validation of a Nationally Representative Construct and an Investigation of Policy Affected Teacher Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, Kevin Dale

    2012-01-01

    This effort: 1) establishes an autonomy definition uniquely tailored for teaching, 2) validates a nationally generalizable teacher autonomy construct, 3) demonstrates that the model describes and explains the autonomy levels of particular teacher groups, and 4) verifies the construct can represent teacher autonomy in other empirical models. The…

  4. A formalism for scattering of complex composite structures. I. Applications to branched structures of asymmetric sub-units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaneborg, Carsten; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2012-03-14

    We present a formalism for the scattering of an arbitrary linear or acyclic branched structure build by joining mutually non-interacting arbitrary functional sub-units. The formalism consists of three equations expressing the structural scattering in terms of three equations expressing the sub-unit scattering. The structural scattering expressions allow composite structures to be used as sub-units within the formalism itself. This allows the scattering expressions for complex hierarchical structures to be derived with great ease. The formalism is generic in the sense that the scattering due to structural connectivity is completely decoupled from internal structure of the sub-units. This allows sub-units to be replaced by more complex structures. We illustrate the physical interpretation of the formalism diagrammatically. By applying a self-consistency requirement, we derive the pair distributions of an ideal flexible polymer sub-unit. We illustrate the formalism by deriving generic scattering expressions for branched structures such as stars, pom-poms, bottle-brushes, and dendrimers build out of asymmetric two-functional sub-units.

  5. Student Satisfaction and Student Perceptions of Quality at International Branch Campuses in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens; Huisman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The international branch campus has emerged as a popular form of transnational higher education but to date little research has been undertaken on student perceptions and experiences, other than the student feedback evaluations conducted by institutions. This research employed a survey questionnaire to investigate student perceptions of study at…

  6. 26 CFR 1.989(c)-1 - Transition rules for certain branches of United States persons using a net worth method of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Export Trade Corporations § 1.989(c)-1 Transition rules for..., determined on the basis of the QBU branch's books and records as adjusted according to United States...

  7. Policy Implementation:Exploration on Realizing Factors of Basic Unit of Villager Autonomy%政策落地:探索村民自治基本单元的现实因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华胤

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that effective realization of villager autonomy relies on the effectiveness of its basic unit .There has strong realistic foundation to explore the basic unit of autonomy with the way of policy implemen ‐tation .The nearer the policy to the farmers ,the more farmers will participate in the policy ,the more conducive for policy going to village and households ,and the more conducive to form the basic unit of villager autonomy .In fact , to put the basic unit of villager autonomy on the real land for policy implementation will benefit the effective reali ‐zation of villager autonomy ,and will also be helpful to policy implementation .%自治基本单元的有效性决定了村民自治的有效实现。以“政策落地”为现实因素探索村民自治的基本单元要考虑“政策距离”和“政策参与”两个变量。政策距离农民越近,政策参与性越高,越有利于政策进村入户,也越有利于形成自治的基本单元。将自治的基本单元放在真正的政策落地之“地”,便于自治的有效开展,也便于政策落地运行。

  8. Addressing Sustainable International Branch Campus Development through an Organizational Structure Lens: A Comparative Analysis of China, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgos, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The growth of international branch campuses (IBCs) in China, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) accounts for a significant portion of the overall growth of IBCs globally. Conversely the largest exporter of IBCs globally is the United States, with several U.S. IBCs located in each of these importing countries. With the intention of focusing…

  9. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  10. High School Students' Experiences in a Sport Education Unit: The Importance of Team Autonomy and Problem-Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Katelyn; Xihe Zhu,

    2011-01-01

    This study examined high school students' experiences in a Sport Education unit being implemented with smaller teams and fewer roles. The participants included one physical education teacher and her 70 ninth-grade students. Each week, we conducted two to three observations and four to six informal interviews with the participants for over eight…

  11. Measuring the Relative Efficiency in Multi-Component Decision Making Units and its Application to Bank Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Noora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases of data envelopment analysis (DEA, decision making units (DMUs can be separated into different components. These DMUs are called multi-component DMUs, and studying them is known as multi-component DEA. In multi-component DEA some inputs are shared among the components of a DMU, and some components involve into producing some outputs of the DMU. In this paper, we survey measuring the relative efficiency in multi-component DEA. It is shown that using common idea for measuring the efficiency of multi-component DMUs, the relative efficiency of an evaluating DMU may be not obtained. Therefore, present paper proposes a new DEA model which can obtain the relative efficiencies of multi-component DMUs. Some facts about the proposed approach are also provided by theorems. Moreover, the proposed DEA model is compared to another approach in literature utilizing a set of data about 19 bank branches

  12. Regimes of Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Like being able to drive a car, being autonomous is a socially attributed, claimed, and contested status. Normative debates about criteria for autonomy (and what autonomy entitles one to) are best understood, not as debates about what autonomy, at core, really is, but rather as debates about the rel

  13. Regimes of Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Like being able to drive a car, being autonomous is a socially attributed, claimed, and contested status. Normative debates about criteria for autonomy (and what autonomy entitles one to) are best understood, not as debates about what autonomy, at core, really is, but rather as debates about the

  14. Regimes of Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Like being able to drive a car, being autonomous is a socially attributed, claimed, and contested status. Normative debates about criteria for autonomy (and what autonomy entitles one to) are best understood, not as debates about what autonomy, at core, really is, but rather as debates about the rel

  15. Autonomy: Life and Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary-Anne

    This paper uses robot experience to explore key concepts of autonomy, life and being. Unfortunately, there are no widely accepted definitions of autonomy, life or being. Using a new cognitive agent architecture we argue that autonomy is a key ingredient for both life and being, and set about exploring autonomy as a concept and a capability. Some schools of thought regard autonomy as the key characteristic that distinguishes a system from an agent; agents are systems with autonomy, but rarely is a definition of autonomy provided. Living entities are autonomous systems, and autonomy is vital to life. Intelligence presupposes autonomy too; what would it mean for a system to be intelligent but not exhibit any form of genuine autonomy. Our philosophical, scientific and legal understanding of autonomy and its implications is immature and as a result progress towards designing, building, managing, exploiting and regulating autonomous systems is retarded. In response we put forward a framework for exploring autonomy as a concept and capability based on a new cognitive architecture. Using this architecture tools and benchmarks can be developed to analyze and study autonomy in its own right as a means to further our understanding of autonomous systems, life and being. This endeavor would lead to important practical benefits for autonomous systems design and help determine the legal status of autonomous systems. It is only with a new enabling understanding of autonomy that the dream of Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life can be realized. We argue that designing systems with genuine autonomy capabilities can be achieved by focusing on agent experiences of being rather than attempting to encode human experiences as symbolic knowledge and know-how in the artificial agents we build.

  16. The Evolution of Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammers, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    There can be little doubt, at least in the Western world, that autonomy is theruling principle in contemporary bioethics. In spite of its 'triumph' however,the dominance of the utilitarian concept of autonomy is being increasinglyquestioned. In this paper, I explore the nature of autonomy, how it came todisplace the Hippocratic tradition in medicine and how different conceptsof autonomy have evolved. I argue that the reduction of autonomy to'the exercise of personal choice' in medicine has led to a 'tyranny of autonomy' which can be inimical to ethical medical practice rather than conducive to it.I take the case of Kerrie Wooltorton as an illustration of how misplacedadherence to respect for patient autonomy can lead to tragic consequences.An analysis of autonomy based on the work of Rachel Haliburton isdescribed and applied to the role of autonomy in a recent bioethicaldebate--that arising from Savulescu's proposal that conscientious objection by health-care professionals should not be permitted in the NHS. Inconclusion, I suggest Kukla's concept of conscientious autonomy as onepromising pathway to circumvent both the limitations and adverse effectsof the dominance of current (mis)understandings of autonomy in biomedical ethics.

  17. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  18. Autonomy of State Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Niklasson, Birgitta; Roness, Paul

    NPM-doctrines states that ideal-type agencies should have a high level of managerial autonomy, while being controlled through result-based control instruments, like performance contracts. In this article, the authors present a first preliminary attempt to comparatively analyze the autonomy of state...... agencies in four Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. By using survey data from more than 500 state agencies in the four countries, the article analyses whether there is indeed a Scandinavian style of autonomy and result control and assesses which structural, cultural, and environmental...... variables might explain similarities and differences in the autonomy of agencies....

  19. Searching for Effective Villager Autonomy Unit from the Community Perspective%在共同体视阈下寻找有效的村民自治单元

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜

    2014-01-01

    依据滕尼斯的共同体理论,共同体内部因存在着共同地缘、共同血缘、共同文化和共同利益等有机的自治元素,从而起到维系共同体发展的作用。中国经由传统社会长期发展而成的自然村落,因同样具备上述因素而具有自治功能,可视做一种“自在型共同体”和“自治共同体”。村民自治制度作为国家行政管理与社群自治的统一,在其发展过程中出现了自治属性愈益萎缩、行政属性愈益扩张从而导致村民自治“悬空”的状态。其中一个重要原因,根源于“建构型共同体”---行政村这一村民自治单元与自治共同体基础的脱节。各地相继出现的地方性改革和实践,说明村民自治发展已进入探寻自治内在动力的第三阶段。其发展的理想标的应是自治功能与行政功能兼顾的模式。%Based on the Ferdinand Tnnies theory of Community,there exist common geopolitical,com-mon blood,common culture and common interests,and other organic autonomous elements within a com-munity,and they play different roles in maintaining community development.Chinese natural villages e-volved from the traditional society have the above-mentioned factors and thus have self-governing func-tion,and can be viewed as“a nature-type community”and“an autonomous community”.As a combina-tion of state administration and the community autonomy,the villager autonomy system has demonstrated a trend that autonomy property increasingly shrinking and administration property increasingly expanding in the process of its development,resulting in “a vacant state”of villagers autonomy.A major cause of this phenomenon is the villagers autonomy unit has been separated from the village community.The re-forms and practices on villager autonomy have shown that it has entered the third stage to explore the in-herent power of autonomy;and the ideal model should be both functional and administrative

  20. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  1. Current Issues in Teacher Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a review of a selection of the literature in the field of English foreign language teaching related to teacher autonomy. The focus is on the core themes recurring in the literature, which comprise: rationale for teacher autonomy, definitions of the concept, descriptions of an autonomous teacher, recognition of the constraints on autonomy and suggestions for teacher education promoting teacher autonomy.

  2. Technical Assessment: Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-23

    bird or an insect. Likewise, while commercial applications of autonomy for marketing and sales will develop perception systems to observe customers...on instruments providing robotic assisted control during surgical procedures, but also touches areas such powered prosthetics and hospital

  3. Personal autonomy and informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, Lars Oystein

    2009-03-01

    Two ways of understanding the notion of autonomy are outlined and discussed in this article, in order to clarify how and if informed consent requirements in biotechnological research are to be justified by the promotion of personal autonomy: A proceduralist conception linking autonomy with authenticity, and a substantivist conception linking autonomy with control. The importance of distinguishing autonomy from liberty is emphasised, which opens for a possible conflict between respecting the freedom and the autonomy of research participants. It is argued that this has implications for how consent requirements based on different criteria of specificity and understanding should be viewed and justified.

  4. University autonomy as sensemaking: from formal to enacted autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Jonas Krog

    The formal autonomy of universities in Europe has generally increased over recent decades. However, new forms of accountability measures and more indirect state steering have accompanied this development, making it difficult to assess the actual autonomy. The article addresses this problem...... by applying the sensemaking approach to the study of organizational autonomy. Enacted autonomy is suggested as a new conceptualization that challenges the basic assumption in studies on formal autonomy that autonomy is only about external constraints on action. It does so by insisting on the active subjects...... in the enactment of the environment, thereby questioning the validity of a clear distinction between what is internal and what is external to an organization. By acknowledging the subjective dimension of autonomy, a set of stylized identities is developed as a tool for understanding the enactment of autonomy...

  5. FINANCIAL SIDE ANALYSIS OF LOCAL AUTONOMY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICHIM CRISTINEL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Financial side of local autonomy expresses the capacity of local communities to have their own revenue and expenditure budget, distinct from that of the state in which revenues can cover expenses incurred to meet their requirements. The analysis of financial autonomy of administrative-territorial units in Romania is an interesting but complex approach given that some factors are actually difficult to predict and quantify.The purpose of this paper is to clarify the meaning of financial side of local autonomy and analyze this in Romania based on indicators established in recent years for measuring the position of administrative-territorial units in relation to central government.

  6. Physicians' perceptions of autonomy across practice types: Is autonomy in solo practice a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katherine Y

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in the United States are now less likely to practice in smaller, more traditional, solo practices, and more likely to practice in larger group practices. Though older theory predicts conflict between bureaucracy and professional autonomy, studies have shown that professions in general, and physicians in particular, have adapted to organizational constraints. However, much work remains in clarifying the nature of this relationship and how exactly physicians have adapted to various organizational settings. To this end, the present study examines physicians' autonomy experiences in different decision types between organization sizes. Specifically, I ask: In what kinds of decisions do doctors perceive autonomous control? How does this vary by organizational size? Using stacked "spell" data constructed from the Community Tracking Study (CTS) Physician Survey (1996-2005) (n = 16,519) I examine how physicians' perceptions of autonomy vary between solo/two physician practices, small group practices with three to ten physicians, and large practices with ten or more physicians, in two kinds of decisions: logistic-based and knowledge-based decisions. Capitalizing on the longitudinal nature of the data I estimate how changes in practice size are associated with perceptions of autonomy, accounting for previous reports of autonomy. I also test whether managed care involvement, practice ownership, and salaried employment help explain part of this relationship. I find that while physicians practicing in larger group practices reported lower levels of autonomy in logistic-based decisions, physicians in solo/two physician practices reported lower levels of autonomy in knowledge-based decisions. Managed care involvement and ownership explain some, but not all, of the associations. These findings suggest that professional adaptation to various organizational settings can lead to varying levels of perceived autonomy across different kinds of decisions. Copyright © 2013

  7. Automated Autonomy Assessment System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has expressed the need to assess crew autonomy relative to performance and evaluate an optimal level of autonomy that maximizes individual and team performance....

  8. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    discussion of challenges. The other outcome is the extent to which academic colleagues in a wide-range of disciplines and not directly engaged with research on university autonomy may not perceive or engage with the wider autonomy outcomes of their work and as a result their own case studies may not fully...... identify the autonomy impact real or potential. Many academic staff take for granted university autonomy without questioning its sometimes contradictory assumptions and impacts....

  9. Development and validation of a reproductive autonomy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Dworkin, Shari L; Weitz, Tracy A; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-03-01

    No validated measures are currently available to assess women's ability to achieve their reproductive intentions, also referred to as "reproductive autonomy." We developed and validated a multidimensional instrument that can measure reproductive autonomy. We generated a pool of 26 items and included them in a survey that was conducted among 1,892 women at 13 family planning and 6 abortion facilities in the United States. Fourteen items were selected through factor analysis and grouped into 3 subscales to form a Reproductive Autonomy Scale: freedom from coercion; communication; and decision-making. Construct validity was demonstrated by a mixed-effects model in which the freedom from coercion subscale and the communication subscale were inversely associated with unprotected sex in the past three months. This new Reproductive Autonomy Scale offers researchers a reliable instrument with which to assess a woman's power to control matters regarding contraceptive use, pregnancy, and childbearing, and to evaluate interventions to increase women's autonomy domestically and globally.

  10. The economic value of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    We develop an economic theory of "autonomy", which we interpret as the discretion or ability to make a decision that others disagree with. We show that autonomy is essentially an option for the decisionmaker, and can be valued as such. The value of the autonomy option is decreasing in the extent to

  11. Compulsory Autonomy-Promoting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Today, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the development of autonomy in children, but also that this aim should…

  12. Learner Autonomy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article explores whether the perception of learner autonomy that is promoted in language pedagogy is suitable for preparing students to perform successfully in the changed circumstances of the use of English. Recent developments, which include the growing role of English as a lingua franca and computer-mediated communication (CMC), give rise…

  13. Branding and liberal autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlaak, E.

    2011-01-01

    Are you manipulated by branding campaigns? This book addresses this question by drawing on work in both philosophy and psychology. It does so from the perspective of the liberal state. As such, manipulation is understood as the violation of liberal autonomy. The central claims are that, on this defi

  14. Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Det empiriske udgangspunkt for artiklen "Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi - dansk normal evalueringsforskning som et ikke-autonomt (sub)felt i magtens felt" er en række tekster af fire dominerende danske evalueringsforskere. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er især Pierre Bourdieus teori om...

  15. Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Det empiriske udgangspunkt for artiklen "Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi - dansk normal evalueringsforskning som et ikke-autonomt (sub)felt i magtens felt" er en række tekster af fire dominerende danske evalueringsforskere. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er især Pierre Bourdieus teori om...

  16. Autonomy and the principle of respect for autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-15

    Autonomy is defined as the capacity to think, decide, and act freely and independently on the basis of such thought and decisions. Three types of autonomy are distinguished: autonomy of thought, which embraces the wide range of human intellectual activities called "thinking for oneself"; autonomy of will, or the capacity to decide to do things on the basis of one's deliberations; and autonomy of action, the absence of which is illustrated by the situation of a patient whose voluntary muscles are paralyzed by curariform drugs and who thus cannot tell the surgeon that the anesthetist has forgotten the nitrous oxide. Autonomy is viewed as a prerequisite for all the virtues, rather than as a virtue in its own right. The arguments of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill concerning the principle of respect for autonomy are summarized as exemplars respectively of the deontological and utilitarian philosophical approaches.

  17. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  18. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  19. The Autonomy of Deportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas de Genova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As ostensibly unwanted or undesirable non-citizens, the utter disposability of deportees appears to be finally and conclusively verified by deportation as a sovereign state power’s perfunctory and mundane act of 'taking out the trash.' Hence, it is no accident that, etymologically, the origins of the very word 'deportation' would indicate a carrying away, a removal, a disposal. The eradication of deportees’ individual lives — their personal identities and life trajectories — emerges as a frightfully routine and prosaic fact of deportation. In spite of the sheer violence of the ruptures inflicted though deportation, however, those who have been rendered the objects of this power persistently reassert their own subjectivity. Ethnographic insights into the lived struggles of the deported (as well as their loved ones and communities elucidates the enduring subjectivity of those who have been made the objects of such sovereign acts of state power and subjected to deportation's techniques of eradication, and illustrates the stubborn incorrigibility of human life against the myriad forces that would seek to enforce its precarity and disposability. In the post-deportation condition, we confront anew the elementary and elemental human freedom of movement, and the incorrigibility of the autonomy and subjectivity of migration. Much as the autonomy of migration instigates a contest in which state power never has the first word, what we may now conceive as the autonomy of deportation — an autonomy and subjectivity of the deported within and against their predicaments of deportation — similarly ensures that state power never has the last word, either.

  20. Personal autonomy through education

    OpenAIRE

    Beaver, Anthony R.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of personal autonomy as an educational ideal is analysed from its etymological roots of autos and nomos. The autos is shown to be most closely associated with authenticity and this concept is explored from existentialist roots. Authenticity's points of contact with reason are examined and the authentic individual is shown to be a deep, reflective evaluator of his own motives but existentialist radical choice of self is shown to be essentially incoherent. The nomos is linked to rea...

  1. Source ATO - Large Platform Autonomy in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    Platform Demonstrator (APD) GPS/INS Navigation System Automotive Radar Platform and Autonomy System - T2 6 August 2012 7 Navigation Unit RR N...SOURCE ATO - Large Platform Autonomy in Urban Environments N. Joseph Kott (TARDEC) Dariusz Mikulski (TARDEC) Chip DiBerardino (GDRS) Edward...120-F GPS/IRU Scanning LADAR: Very Low Cost LADAR (VLCL) Automotive MMWR Stereo Video: ESO Stereo Module T2 UGV Platform TARDEC developed

  2. Large Platform Autonomy in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    low cost ESO Stereo Video module and a commercially available automotive Millimeter Wave RADAR (MMWR) module. These sensors are shown in Figure 2...SYSTEMS (RS) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 14-16, MICHIGAN LARGE PLATFORM AUTONOMY IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS Chip DiBerardino Edward Mottern Tracy K...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dariusz Mikulski; N. kott; Chip DiBerardino; Edward Mottern; Tracy Van Lierop 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT

  3. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?...

  4. A Reflection on Learner Autonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建平

    2016-01-01

    With the reform in College English teaching in the past 10 years in China, more and more attention have been paid to learner autonomy, which is aimed at improving students' language communicative competence by replacing the traditional grammar-translation method and advocating learner-centered strategies. This literature makes a comprehensive study of learner autonomy in English teaching home and abroad, which helps English teachers home and abroad know more about autonomy.

  5. A cross-cultural comparison of the coexistence and domain superiority of individuating and relating autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Bedford, Olwen; Yang, Yung-Jui

    2009-06-01

    The consensus definition of autonomy in the psychological literature emphasizes self-governance through free volition, not separation or independence from others. Since the concept of self may differ cross-culturally, several researchers have tried to incorporate types of self into the notion of autonomy; however, only the dual model of autonomy has been able to do this while retaining an emphasis on volition. The dual model describes two distinct forms of autonomy-individuating and relating-each with superior function in a specific domain of individual functioning. Individuating autonomy represents a volitional capacity to act against social constraints and offers a route to achieve an independent self-identity by expressing individualistic attributes and distinctions. Relating autonomy represents a volitional capacity to act by emphasizing the harmony of self-in-relation-to-others, the quality of interpersonal relationships, and self-transcendence. These two forms of autonomy have been shown to coexist at the individual level in a Taiwanese sample. This study takes the next step, with a cross-cultural test of the coexistence and domain superiority hypotheses of individuating and relating autonomy. Participants included 306 college students from Taiwan and 183 college students from the United States. Structural equation modelling by multigroup analyses confirmed the cross-cultural equivalence of the two-factor individuating autonomy and relating autonomy measurement model. Across both samples the two forms of autonomy were shown to be mutually inclusive and not exclusive or independent. The domain-superior function of each form of autonomy was also confirmed cross-culturally; each form of autonomy has a dominant, but not necessarily exclusive, domain of functioning. Specifically, individuating autonomy was more associated with intrapersonal than interpersonal domain dependent variables, while relating autonomy was more associated with interpersonal than

  6. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    to a specific group. The question never posed is, if there is a point and in that case at what point the group can actually talk about being autonomous. Is there a minimum in the number of special rights and procedures that has to be reached in order for the package of rights to qualify as ‘granting autonomy...... in the cultural, educational, religious and social sectors which have of course are exercised in a limited territory; however, do not threaten the state's sovereignty in the same way as independent political decisions could do. How far minority rights have the same dimensions, will be another issue. Minorities...

  7. Husbands' labour migration and wives' autonomy, Mozambique 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor; Sevoyan, Arusyak

    2010-11-01

    The separation of migrants from the family unit, as a result of labour migration, can have profound effects on family organization and the lives of family members. Using data from a 2006 survey of 1,680 married women from 56 villages in southern Mozambique, we examined the relationship between men's labour migration and the decision-making autonomy of women who stayed behind. The results show that both men's cumulative migration history and current migration status are positively associated with women's autonomy, and that the effects on autonomy may persist even after the man's return. Three intervening factors-women's employment outside the home, lower fertility, and residential independence from extended family members-did not fully mediate the effects of men's labour migration. This is consistent with the assumption that the migrant's absence has a 'direct' effect on his wife's autonomy.

  8. A framework for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrant, Richard

    2006-10-01

    The development of autonomous planning and control system software often results in a custom design concept and software specific to a particular control application. This paper describes a software framework for orchestrating the planning and execution of autonomous activities of an unmanned vehicle, or a group of cooperating vehicles, that can apply to a wide range of autonomy applications. The framework supports an arbitrary span of autonomous capability, ranging from simple low level tasking, requiring much human intervention, to higher level mission-oriented tasking, requiring much less. The approach integrates the four basic functions of all intelligent devises or agents (plan development, plan monitoring, plan diagnosing, and plan execution), with the mathematical discipline of hierarchical planning and control. The result is a domain-independent software framework, to which domain-dependent modules for planning, monitoring, and diagnosing are easily added. This framework for autonomy, combined with the requisite logic for vehicle control, can then be deployed to realize the desired level of autonomous vehicle operation.

  9. Teacher Perceptions of Curriculum Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Alan

    This study first provides a review of literature relevant to curriculum autonomy and school-based curriculum development, with special emphasis on Australian secondary schools. The second part of the report analyzes Australian secondary school staff's perceptions of: 1) the meaning of curriculum autonomy, 2) the advantages and disadvantages of…

  10. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  11. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life, these

  12. The Principalship, Autonomy, and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacott, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary discourses in educational administration have exponentially grown the number of adjectival leaderships, challenged traditional organisational structures, and offered autonomy as a solution to performance issues. In this theoretical paper, I ask "what does the principalship look like after autonomy?" Despite the range of…

  13. The Principalship, Autonomy, and After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacott, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary discourses in educational administration have exponentially grown the number of adjectival leaderships, challenged traditional organisational structures, and offered autonomy as a solution to performance issues. In this theoretical paper, I ask "what does the principalship look like after autonomy?" Despite the range of…

  14. Compulsory autonomy-promoting education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schinkel (Anders)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractToday, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the

  15. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  16. The care perspective and autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this article I wish to show how care ethics puts forward a fundamental critique on the ideal of independency in human life without thereby discounting autonomy as a moral value altogether. In care ethics, a relational account of autonomy is developed instead. Because care ethics is sometimes crit

  17. Compulsory autonomy-promoting education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schinkel (Anders)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractToday, many liberal philosophers of education worry that certain kinds of education may frustrate the development of personal autonomy, with negative consequences for the individuals concerned, the liberal state, or both. Autonomy liberals hold not only that we should promote the develop

  18. Personal Autonomy and Rational Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, May A.; Shulman, Ernest

    That certain suicides (which can be designated as rational) ought not to be interfered with is closely tied to the notion of the "right to autonomy." Specifically it is because the individual in question has this right that interference is prohibited. A proper understanding of the right to autonomy, while essential to understanding why suicide is…

  19. (Re)Discovering University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and equally pull in opposite directions. The holistic view is expressed in a model of institutional university autonomy that brings together the traditional basic four pillars of autonomy, and five interfaces: government–university; university...

  20. The Challenge of University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    The authors introduce the reader to the book, providing a historical perspective and a current understanding of university autonomy. While appreciating the central role of the four dimensions of university autonomy – organisational, financial, human resource, and academic – the authors conjecture...... that a fuller understanding of university autonomy can only be obtained through a holistic view of the complex inter-relationships between stakeholders and policies which can reinforce and, equally, pull in opposite directions. This holistic view is represented in a model of institutional university autonomy......, which is discussed at length in the chapter. The authors conclude by presenting international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are genuinely global....

  1. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  2. From Autonomy to Creativity: A Multilevel Investigation of the Mediating Role of Harmonious Passion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, we theorized about and demonstrated, through 2 multilevel field studies, the pivotal role of harmonious passion in translating organizational autonomy support and individual autonomy orientation into job creativity. Results based on 3-level data from 856 members in 111 teams within 23 work units of a porous…

  3. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter [Clinic and Policlinic for Nuclear Medicine, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. {sup 131}I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  4. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  5. The Autonomy of Mental Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Efraim; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is research which sought to prove the hypothesis that mental models tend to preserve their autonomy with regard to the originals they are meant to represent. The results of this investigation involving 200 Israeli students are presented. (CW)

  6. Learning for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Jose

    1989-12-01

    There is a need for a new concept of post-literacy which goes beyond the learning of codes. The target population is defined on the basis of their need to be given the capacity to take decisions on essential economic, civic, political and day-to-day aspects of their lives. The main arena of post-literacy lies in the countries of the Third World, where the economic crisis has serious effects on the quality of life and impairs the motivation to learn. Particular reference is made to the concept of participation and to the ability to determine four types of basic educational need: fundamental needs, productivity needs, social service needs and community organization needs. Four Latin American programmes linked to these four types of need are presented and discussed in terms of their particular features: popular participation in decision making; the search for methods and techniques which give the population a certain degree of autonomy; and respect for the cultures and world visions of the communities in the conduct of post-literacy, educational innovation and other activities. The programmes are: post-literacy in Nicaragua (fundamental education needs); research on post-literacy and employment in 13 countries (productivity needs); the CIPCA project for peasants in Piura, on the northern coast of Peru (social service needs); and the `Talking Maps' project developed with the Paez community in Cauca, Colombia (community organization needs).

  7. A clade uniting the green algae Mesostigma viride and Chlorokybus atmophyticus represents the deepest branch of the Streptophyta in chloroplast genome-based phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turmel Monique

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae comprise two major phyla: the Streptophyta, containing the charophycean green algae and all land plants, and the Chlorophyta, containing the remaining green algae. Despite recent progress in unravelling phylogenetic relationships among major green plant lineages, problematic nodes still remain in the green tree of life. One of the major issues concerns the scaly biflagellate Mesostigma viride, which is either regarded as representing the earliest divergence of the Streptophyta or a separate lineage that diverged before the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. Phylogenies based on chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes support the latter view. Because some green plant lineages are not represented in these phylogenies, sparse taxon sampling has been suspected to yield misleading topologies. Here, we describe the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequence of the early-diverging charophycean alga Chlorokybus atmophyticus and present chloroplast genome-based phylogenies with an expanded taxon sampling. Results The 152,254 bp Chlorokybus cpDNA closely resembles its Mesostigma homologue at the gene content and gene order levels. Using various methods of phylogenetic inference, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide data sets that were derived from 45 protein-coding genes common to the cpDNAs of 37 green algal/land plant taxa and eight non-green algae. Unexpectedly, all best trees recovered a robust clade uniting Chlorokybus and Mesostigma. In protein trees, this clade was sister to all streptophytes and chlorophytes and this placement received moderate support. In contrast, gene trees provided unequivocal support to the notion that the Mesostigma + Chlorokybus clade represents the earliest-diverging branch of the Streptophyta. Independent analyses of structural data (gene content and/or gene order and of subsets of amino acid data progressively enriched in slow-evolving sites led us to conclude that the latter topology

  8. Autonomy and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Giusti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo contiene dos partes. En la primera se hace una breve descripción de las carencias de la reflexión moral a las que parece venir al encuentro el concepto de reconocimiento. Charles Taylor y Axel Honneth, protagonistas en estos debates, dan buenas razones para dirigir la discusión hacia el tema del reconocimiento, pero no coinciden ni en su definición, ni en el modo de recuperar la tesis de Hegel, ni tampoco en la forma de tratar la relación entre autonomía y reconocimiento. En la segunda parte se analiza la concepción propiamente hegeliana, con la intención de destacar el nexo esencial, no la ruptura, que existe entre la noción de reconocimiento y el modelo conceptual de la voluntad libre o del espíritu. Abstract:This essay is divided into two parts. The first one is a short description of the deficiencies of moral reflection, which seem to lead the discussion towards the concept of recognition. Charles Taylor and Axel Honneth, two of the protagonists of these debates, give very good reasons for turning the argument towards the issue of recognition, but they do not agree on its definition, on the way to recover the Hegelian thesis, or on how to approach the relationship between autonomy and recognition. The second part constitutes an analysis of the Hegelian conception of recognition, in order to highlight the essential link –rather than the rupture– between the notion of recognition and the conceptual model of free will or spirit.

  9. Autonomy and authenticity of enhanced personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Jan Christoph; Merkel, Reinhard

    2009-07-01

    There is concern that the use of neuroenhancements to alter character traits undermines consumer's authenticity. But the meaning, scope and value of authenticity remain vague. However, the majority of contemporary autonomy accounts ground individual autonomy on a notion of authenticity. So if neuroenhancements diminish an agent's authenticity, they may undermine his autonomy. This paper clarifies the relation between autonomy, authenticity and possible threats by neuroenhancements. We present six neuroenhancement scenarios and analyse how autonomy accounts evaluate them. Some cases are considered differently by criminal courts; we demonstrate where academic autonomy theories and legal reasoning diverge and ascertain whether courts should reconsider their concept of autonomy. We argue that authenticity is not an appropriate condition for autonomy and that new enhancement technologies pose no unique threats to personal autonomy.

  10. Professional autonomy and job satisfaction: survey of critical care nurses in mainland Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulou, Katerina K; While, Alison E

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to describe Greek critical care nurses' views on professional autonomy and its relationship with job satisfaction and other work-related variables. Professional autonomy is generally considered a highly desirable nursing attribute and a major factor in nurse job satisfaction. In the critical care environment, a high level of accountability, responsibility and autonomy are required to optimize outcomes of critically unstable patients. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of Greek critical care nurses (n = 431; response rate 70%) in 2007. Data were collected on professional autonomy, job satisfaction, role conflict and role ambiguity. Overall, nurses reported acting moderately autonomously. Younger nurses reported statistically significant lower levels of autonomy. Higher levels of autonomy were reported by female nurses. Multiple logistic regression revealed that appointment level, type of critical care unit and registration with a professional organization were independently associated with autonomy. A positive moderate association was found between reported autonomy, job satisfaction, role conflict and role ambiguity, but there was no relationship between job satisfaction and reported role conflict and role ambiguity. Further education, role enhancement and support are required for nurses working in critical care in Greece if they are to achieve the maximum potential of their professional role. Failure to address the perceptions of professional autonomy may have an impact on staff retention, because of job dissatisfaction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  12. Clarifying Limbo: Disentangling Indigenous Autonomy from the Mexican Constitutional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprague Ian Flannigan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to U.S. Federal Indian law, which has classified indigenous tribes as “domestic dependent nations” since the early 19th century, Mexican law has only recently begun to define the political and territorial autonomy of indigenous groups. This paper contrasts the Mexican approach to this problem to that of the United States, first describing Mexico’s 2001’s constitutional reforms and their failure to clarify the nature of tribal sovereignty. It then analyzes recent court cases that protect tribal political and territorial autonomy by applying rights to consultation contained in the International Labor Organization’s Indigenous and Tribal People’s Convention 169 (“ILO 169” and the Mexican Constitution. It concludes by arguing that in spite of this effort by the courts, Mexican law still requires a comprehensive legislative or diplomatic resolution of the lack of clarity surrounding the political and territorial autonomy of its indigenous groups.

  13. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  14. Considerations on the role of teacher autonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosalba Cárdenas Ramos

    2016-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing what is involved in teacher autonomy and why it is of paramount importance to understand, develop, and experience autonomy as teachers in order to be able to guide our...

  15. The relationship between the teacher autonomy and learner autonomy support behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Şakir YAZICI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the purpose is to determine the relationship between teachers’ autonomy behaviors and learner autonomy support behaviors. The current study was designed in the survey model. The population of the study is comprised of teachers working in elementary, secondary and high schools located in the city of Muğla, Turkey, and its surrounding districts during the 2015-2016 school year. The sampling of the study consists of 428 teachers selected through disproportional cluster sampling technique. In the study, the Teacher Autonomy Scale and Learner Autonomy Support Behaviors Scale were used as data collection tools. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, correlation and multiple regression analysis were employed. The results of the analyses revealed that the general autonomy behaviors of the teachers are above medium level. The autonomy behavior most frequently exhibited by the teachers is communication autonomy and the least exhibited is professional development autonomy. The teachers are of the opinion that they often demonstrate learner autonomy support behaviors. There is a medium level and same directional correlation between the teacher autonomy and learner autonomy support behaviors. The dimensions of teacher autonomy explain 12% of learner autonomy support behaviors. Communication autonomy and teaching process autonomy are important predictors of learner autonomy support behaviors.

  16. Autonomy Mediated through University-Business Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    -industry (U-I) collaboration in a university autonomy perspective, including the rationale for an increase in the collaboration, a conceptualization of the development, and the impact of the collaboration on university autonomy related especially to academic freedom and financial autonomy. The paper......-sum game, but a relationship with a synergistic potential and with university autonomy as one important parameter in the collaboration formula....

  17. School Autonomy, Leadership and Learning: A Reconceptualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin Cheong; Ko, James; Lee, Theodore Tai Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for reconceptualising research on school autonomy to redress the limitations of traditional research, strengthen the conceptual links between school autonomy and learning outcomes and offer a range of new strategies for studying the interplay of school autonomy, leadership and learning.…

  18. Respect for autonomy and technological risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, L.

    2008-01-01

    Technological developments can undermine the autonomy of the individual. Autonomy is one's ability to make and act upon decisions according to one's own moral framework. Respect for autonomy dictates that risks should not be imposed on the individual without her consent. Technological developments c

  19. Respect for autonomy and technological risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, L.

    2008-01-01

    Technological developments can undermine the autonomy of the individual. Autonomy is one's ability to make and act upon decisions according to one's own moral framework. Respect for autonomy dictates that risks should not be imposed on the individual without her consent. Technological developments c

  20. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...

  1. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural...

  2. Full autonomy; Autarkie im Komplettpaket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2011-05-31

    Normally, those who talk of full solar autonomy refer to the annual balance of a house. Now, architect Timo Leukefeld and Helma Eigenheimbau AG presented a really autonomous solar house which is available on a turnkey basis for 363,000 Euros.

  3. Institutional Financial Autonomy in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szwebs, Witold

    2016-01-01

    –university staff; academic staff–students; university–business; and university–internationalisation. This model is explored through international case studies that give new insights and reinforce our understanding that the issues relating to institutional university autonomy are complex, interactive and genuinely...

  4. University Autonomy: The Ethiopian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Demewoz Admasu

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses and analyzes the state of university autonomy in Ethiopia at a time when the country has embarked on massive expansion of the sector, and universities are established out of urban centers based on regional equity. Legislative provisions and case study reports were reviewed, and lived experiences documented with emphasis on…

  5. Practical education and student autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blik, H.; Harskamp, E. G.; Kuiper-Bakker, E.

    2012-01-01

    Practical education and student autonomy Pupil population in practical education consists mainly of 12-18 year olds with a (slight) mental retardation. The main goal of practical education is to teach these pupils to exercise a profession independently. There are doubts about the effectiveness of te

  6. Privatization, convergence, and institutional autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van M.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the trends incoming for 2011 – greater institutional autonomy, public/private convergence, entrepreneurial management, civic engagement – suggest innovation for hard times, with socio-economic and political rationales increasingly driving borderless developments. Others – open learning and h

  7. Learner Autonomy and New Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, Manuel Jimenez; Fernandez, Jose Maria Perez

    2002-01-01

    Presents paths for theoretical research and practical procedures that may help teachers make new technology pedagogically relevant. Discusses the need to develop learner autonomy to help students process information in meaningful ways and become independent learners by developing effective learning strategies, transfer skills, and a greater sense…

  8. Autonomy of the Regional Minority (Alandic Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia N. Zhdanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the status of autonomy of the regional minority of Åland. The author examines its position in terms of international law and the Finnish national law, the historical and legal questions of the formation and development of autonomy are also highlighted. The modern Finnish legislation on the exclusive legislative powers of the Aland autonomy, its administrative system, the right of domicile, the features of the administrative proceedings are studied in detail. Particular attention is paid to the competence of the autonomy in the light of Finland's membership in the EU. The specifics of the participation of the Aland autonomy in EU affairs is investigated.

  9. Epistemic merit, autonomy, and testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús VEGA ENCABO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that both the informer and the hearer in a testimonial situation deserve epistemic merit insofar as they contribute to the collaborative achievement of sharing knowledge. The paper introduces a distinction between the ideals of self-sufficiency and epistemic autonomy. The autonomous exercise of our epistemic agency is very often carried out under strong conditions of epistemic dependence. Testimony exhibits a kind of social dependence that does not threaten the autonomy of the subjects that need to consider their own epistemic capacities. When involved in a testimonial situation, both speaker and hearer declare, at least implicitly, the standings they occupy in an epistemic space and are obliged to recognise certain epistemic requirements.

  10. The many faces of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Diego

    2012-02-01

    What does autonomy mean from a moral point of view? Throughout Western history, autonomy has had no less than four different meanings. The first is political: the capacity of old cities and modern states to give themselves their own laws. The second is metaphysical, and was introduced by Kant in the second half of the 18th century. In this meaning, autonomy is understood as an intrinsic characteristic of all rational beings. Opposed to this is the legal meaning, in which actions are called autonomous when performed with due information and competency and without coercion. This last meaning, the most frequently used in bioethics, is primarily legal instead of moral. Is there a proper moral meaning of the word autonomy? If so, this would be a fourth meaning. Acts can only be called moral when they are postconventional (using the terminology coined by Lawrence Kohlberg), inner-directed (as expressed by David Riesman), and responsible (according to Hannah Arendt). Such acts are autonomous in this new, fourth, and to my mind, the only one proper, moral meaning. The goal of ethics cannot be other than forming human beings capable of making autonomous and responsible decisions, and doing so because they think this is their duty and not because of any other nonmoral motivation, like comfort, convenience, or satisfaction. The goal of ethics is to promote postconventional and mature human beings. This was what Socrates tried to do with the young people of Athens. And it is also the objective of every course of ethics and of any process of training.

  11. The Summer Robotic Autonomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Illah R.

    2002-01-01

    We offered a first Robotic Autonomy course this summer, located at NASA/Ames' new NASA Research Park, for approximately 30 high school students. In this 7-week course, students worked in ten teams to build then program advanced autonomous robots capable of visual processing and high-speed wireless communication. The course made use of challenge-based curricula, culminating each week with a Wednesday Challenge Day and a Friday Exhibition and Contest Day. Robotic Autonomy provided a comprehensive grounding in elementary robotics, including basic electronics, electronics evaluation, microprocessor programming, real-time control, and robot mechanics and kinematics. Our course then continued the educational process by introducing higher-level perception, action and autonomy topics, including teleoperation, visual servoing, intelligent scheduling and planning and cooperative problem-solving. We were able to deliver such a comprehensive, high-level education in robotic autonomy for two reasons. First, the content resulted from close collaboration between the CMU Robotics Institute and researchers in the Information Sciences and Technology Directorate and various education program/project managers at NASA/Ames. This collaboration produced not only educational content, but will also be focal to the conduct of formative and summative evaluations of the course for further refinement. Second, CMU rapid prototyping skills as well as the PI's low-overhead perception and locomotion research projects enabled design and delivery of affordable robot kits with unprecedented sensory- locomotory capability. Each Trikebot robot was capable of both indoor locomotion and high-speed outdoor motion and was equipped with a high-speed vision system coupled to a low-cost pan/tilt head. As planned, follow the completion of Robotic Autonomy, each student took home an autonomous, competent robot. This robot is the student's to keep, as she explores robotics with an extremely capable tool in the

  12. Autonomy and the Sources of Political Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Contemporary political liberals argue for extending the scope of reasonable disagreement to include also the principle of autonomy that was central in classical liberal theory. I take outset in Charles Larmore, The Autonomy of Morality (2008), which argues that liberal theory can dispense...... with the commitment to autonomy that one finds in Locke, Kant, and Mill, because "the essential convictions of liberal thought lie at a more fundamental level," namely in the principle of respect for persons. The main question I address is whether we can see the commitment to respect for persons as separable from...... the commitment to autonomy. My focus is the Kantian conception of autonomy, and I argue for understanding this conception practically and politically, rather than metaphysically and theoretically. In this way we can separate the principle of respect for persons from the metaphysical idea of autonomy as self...

  13. From solidarity to autonomy: towards a redefinition of the parameters of the notion of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Starting from examples of concrete situations in France, I show that autonomy and solidarity can coexist only if the parameters of autonomy are redefined. I show on the one hand that in situations where autonomy is encouraged, solidarity nevertheless remains at the foundation of their practices. On the other hand, in situations largely infused with family solidarity, the individual autonomy may be put in danger. Yet, based on my ethnographic observations regarding clinical encounters and medical secrecy, I show that while solidarity may endanger individual autonomy, it does not necessarily endanger autonomy itself. The social practices observable in France reflect the reality of an autonomy that goes beyond the individual, a reality that involves a collective subject and includes solidarity. The opposition between these two values can then be resolved if the content of the notion of autonomy is understood to be dependent on its cultural context of application and on its social use.

  14. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  15. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  16. On Learner Autonomy in Foreign Language Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Zhi-ying; LIU Jin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies abroad and at home on learner autonomy have provided a variety of definitions from different perspec⁃tives as a framework of reference for the essence of LA. Therefore, based on the characteristics of LA, ways such as cultivation of LA beliefs and learning strategies, construction of a favorable LA environment and promotion of learner autonomy through teacher autonomy can be employed to foster students’autonomous learning ability.

  17. Characteristics of Law-Autonomy Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; McDonald, Frank; Stephan, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines several characteristics of foreign subsidiaries with low autonomy. Data derived from a survey of 381 MNC subsidiaries located in Denmark, Germany and the UK demonstrate that low-autonomy subsidiaries are highly embedded in their respective MNC networks and that they establish...... relationship between lower autonomy and the production activities carried out by the subsidiary. In fact, low-autonomy subsidiaries appear to be specialized in that they focus on a few value-chain activities and they typically serve as marketing outlets....

  18. Autonomy requirements engineering for space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Vassev, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Advanced space exploration is performed by unmanned missions with integrated autonomy in both flight and ground systems. Risk and feasibility are major factors supporting the use of unmanned craft and the use of automation and robotic technologies where possible. Autonomy in space helps to increase the amount of science data returned from missions, perform new science, and reduce mission costs.Elicitation and expression of autonomy requirements is one of the most significant challenges the autonomous spacecraft engineers need to overcome today. This book discusses the Autonomy Requirements Eng

  19. Internally protected amino sugar equivalents from enantiopure 1,2-oxazines: synthesis of variably configured carbohydrates with C-branched amino sugar units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrengle, Fabian; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-10-18

    A stereodivergent synthesis of differently configured C2-branched 4-amino sugar derivatives was accomplished. The Lewis acid mediated rearrangement of phenylthio-substituted 1,2-oxazines delivered glycosyl donor equivalents that can directly be employed in glycosidation reactions. Treatment with methanol provided internally protected amino sugar equivalents that have been transformed into the stereoisomeric methyl glycosides 28, ent-28, 29, ent-29 and 34 in two simple reductive steps. Reaction with natural carbohydrates or bicyclic amino sugar precursors allowed the synthesis of homo-oligomeric di- and trisaccharides 44, 46 and 47 or a hybrid trisaccharide 51 with natural carbohydrates. Access to a bivalent amino sugar derivative 54 was accomplished by reaction of rearrangement product 10 with 1,5-pentanediol. Alternatively, when a protected L-serine derivative was employed as glycosyl acceptor, the glycosylated amino acid 60 was efficiently prepared in few steps. In this report we describe the synthesis of unusual amino sugar building blocks from enantiopure 1,2-oxazines that can be attached to natural carbohydrates or natural product aglycons to produce new natural product analogues with potential applications in medicinal chemistry.

  20. Motivating Proteges' Personal Learning in Teams: A Multilevel Investigation of Autonomy Support and Autonomy Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Fu, Ping-ping

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the roles of 3 multilevel motivational predictors in proteges' personal learning in teams: an autonomy-supportive team climate, mentors' autonomy support, and proteges' autonomy orientation. The authors followed 305 proteges in 58 teams for 12 weeks and found that all 3 predictors were positively related to the proteges'…

  1. Developing Autonomy and Transitional Paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Faye

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents, in many jurisdictions, have the power to consent to life saving treatment but not necessarily the power to refuse it. A recent defence of this asymmetry is Neil Manson's theory of 'transitional paternalism'. Transitional paternalism holds that such asymmetries are by-products of sharing normative powers. However, sharing normative powers by itself does not entail an asymmetry because transitional paternalism can be implemented in two ways. Manson defends the asymmetry-generating version of transitional paternalism in the clinical context, arguing that it maximizes respect for adolescent autonomy. This article offers an alternative argument in favour of the asymmetry-generating form of transitional paternalism, one that makes appeal to obligations that individuals have to develop self-governance in others. We should share normative powers asymmetrically in the clinical context for three reasons. First, the asymmetric version of transitional paternalism takes seriously duties to support adolescents' developing autonomy, alongside other duties that adults have to young people. It does so by enabling young people to be involved in important decisions that they would otherwise be excluded from. This is of value because participation of this sort is central to the cultivation of their self-governance. Second, only the asymmetric version gives young people a voice in respect of all clinical actions, and only the asymmetric version leaves open the possibility that the coarse lines of legislation might be 'fine-tuned' in individual cases. Third, the asymmetric sharing of normative powers is consistent with the kind of social arrangements that best support autonomy.

  2. Professional Autonomy versus Corporate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Nygaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism and bureaucracy tend to be understood as incompatible systems of work organization, represented by the ideals of collegiality and auton-omy versus control and supervision. I present a historical case study from early 20th century Norway examining the potential clash between efforts made toward professionalization and bureaucratization in industry. Based on my findings, I argue that there is neither an inherent conflict between professionalism and bureaucracy nor static national trajectories at the level of professional versus bureaucratic work organization.

  3. WOMEN’S AUTONOMY AND THE FAMILY IN RECENT ROMANIAN POLICY-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE IANCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In my paper I aim to provide an analysis of the relation between women’s autonomy and the family in Romanian recent policy-making. I will focus primarily on policies developed by the Romanian state after Romania’s integration in the European Union with regards to the family and family-related policy domains. My analysis will focus on several variables: 1. the theoretical instruments available for analyzing women’s autonomy in relation to state policies 2. the understanding of the family in Romanian policy-making 3. the interplay between women’s autonomy and the family and how policy-making influences the relation between the two. The analysis will take into consideration the specific Romanian socio-political context in terms of economic conditions, ideological influences and gender relations. Political theory is no stranger to the issue of individual autonomy. In my paper I will focus on recent feminist political theories on gendered accounts of autonomy. These accounts modify the understanding of autonomy and focus on conditions and aspects of autonomy relevant to women’s lives and experiences. The current financial crisis and recent developments in Romanian policy-making will be analyzed in terms of how they affect women’s autonomy. Since much of Romanian policy-making still avoids including gender and gender relations into its explicit justifications, provisions and evaluation, referring to the family as a basic social unit, the gendered consequences for women’s autonomy of such an approach need to be understood and acknowledged. In my analysis I will use both Romanian and European recent policy papers, as well as recent data obtained through social research.

  4. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  5. Attachment and autonomy problems in adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, R.G.; van Vroenhoven, S.; Karreman, A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attachment security and autonomy were examined in adults with ADHD. Insecure attachment and autonomy problems were expected to be negatively associated with general psychological functioning. Method: Questionnaires were administered (Relationship Questionnaire, Autonomy-Connectedness Scal

  6. The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, Joseph R; Wellman, Robert J; Ursprung, W W Sanouri A; Sabiston, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Our goal was to create an instrument that can be used to study how smokers lose autonomy over smoking and regain it after quitting. The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale was produced through a process involving item generation, focus-group evaluation, testing in adults to winnow items, field testing with adults and adolescents, and head-to-head comparisons with other measures. The final 12-item scale shows excellent reliability (alphas = .91-.97), with a one-factor solution explaining 59% of the variance in adults and 61%-74% of the variance in adolescents. Concurrent validity was supported by associations with age of smoking initiation, lifetime use, smoking frequency, daily cigarette consumption, history of failed cessation, Hooked on Nicotine Checklist scores, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) nicotine dependence criteria. Potentially useful features of this new instrument include (a) it assesses tobacco withdrawal, cue-induced craving, and psychological dependence on cigarettes; (b) it measures symptom intensity; and (c) it asks about current symptoms only, so it could be administered to quitting smokers to track the resolution of symptoms.

  7. Agency is Distinct from Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cummins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Both autonomy and agency play central roles in the emerging enactive vocabulary. Although some treat these concepts as practically synonymous, others have sought to be more explicit about the conditions required for agency over and above autonomy. I attempt to be self-conscious about the role of the observer (or scientist in such discussions, and emphasise that the concept of agency, in particular, is deeply entwined with the nature of the observer and the framing of the observation. This is probably well known to enactivists, but runs the risk of being badly misunderstood if it is not made explicit. A heightened awareness of the role of the observer in the attribution of agency may allow us to make advances in questions in which progress is hindered by assuming a single split between subject and object. I argue that human experience is characterized by our embedding in webs of meaning arising from our participation in systems of many sorts, and that this richness demands a corresponding lightness of touch with respect to the identification of agentive subjects.

  8. Epistemic Autonomy: A Criterion for Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Catherine Elgin proposes a novel principle for identifying epistemic virtue. Based loosely on Kant's Categorical Imperative, it identifies autonomy as our fundamental epistemic responsibility, and defines the epistemic virtues as those traits of character needed to exercise epistemic autonomy. I argue that Elgin's principle fails as a…

  9. Netherlands: Steady decline in job autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.; Hooftmann, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that job autonomy has predominantly positive effects, such as the prevention of stress, burnout and cardiovascular disease. Employees with a good deal of autonomy generally report better well-being, are more productive, more creative, have more self-esteem and have higher work motivat

  10. Becoming Autonomous: Nonideal Theory and Educational Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terri S.; Ryg, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomy operates as a key term in debates about the rights of families to choose distinct approaches to education. Yet, what autonomy means is often complicated by the actual circumstances and contexts of schools, families, and children. In this essay, Terri S. Wilson and Matthew A. Ryg focus on the challenges involved in translating an ideal of…

  11. Netherlands: Steady decline in job autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.; Hooftmann, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that job autonomy has predominantly positive effects, such as the prevention of stress, burnout and cardiovascular disease. Employees with a good deal of autonomy generally report better well-being, are more productive, more creative, have more self-esteem and have higher work motivat

  12. Scaffolding Learner Autonomy in Online University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Elisa; Bezanilla, María José

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the question in what ways teachers and course designers can support the development and exertion of learner autonomy among online university students. It advocates that a greater attention to learner autonomy could help more students to complete their course successfully and thus contribute the decrease of the high dropout…

  13. Epistemic Autonomy: A Criterion for Virtue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Catherine Elgin proposes a novel principle for identifying epistemic virtue. Based loosely on Kant's Categorical Imperative, it identifies autonomy as our fundamental epistemic responsibility, and defines the epistemic virtues as those traits of character needed to exercise epistemic autonomy. I argue that Elgin's principle fails as a…

  14. Robotics, philosophy and the problems of autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haselager, W.F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Robotics can be seen as a cognitive technology, assisting us in understanding various aspects of autonomy. In this paper I will investigate a difference between the interpretations of autonomy that exist within robotics and philosophy. Based on a brief review of some historical developments I

  15. The False Right to Autonomy in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The ideal of personal autonomy enjoys considerable support in educational theory, but close analysis reveals serious problems with its core analytical and psychological components. The core conception of autonomy authorizes individuals to employ their imaginations in troubling and unhealthy ways that clash with sound ideals of moral character.…

  16. Emotional Autonomy Redux: Revisiting Ryan and Lynch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Susie D.; Steinberg, Laurence

    1993-01-01

    Compared adjustment scores among adolescents who differ in both emotional autonomy and perceptions of parental support. Found that, although adolescents who scored high in both emotional autonomy and relationship support reported more internal distress and behavior problems than less autonomous adolescents, they had higher levels of psychological…

  17. Autonomy by Law: The Only Direction of Institutional Development of Villagers’ Autonomy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchen Mao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The villagers’ autonomy in China, which started from the 1980s, has been limited by the social, especially the political and legal, conditions. Only a partial realization was eventually realized amid the inevitable influence from the central power. As the experience of some rural Chinese areas demonstrates, autonomy by law is the only direction of institutional development of villagers’ autonomy. However, in the current environment of historical habits, legal practice, mental thoughts, economic and social mortality, and politics, the villagers’ autonomy is more easily prone to the power rather than laws. To facilitate autonomy by law, the following strategies thus bear particular importance: (1 improve the legislation system to pave the way for the rule of law; (2 change rural governments’ attitude towards villagers’ autonomy and replace the intrusion by the macro direction; (3 abandon redundant government regulations to guarantee autonomy; (4 establish the system of legal remedy as a legal protection.

  18. Effective means of planning for and implementing autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehof, Lars Adam

    1991-01-01

    Autonomy, self-government, indigenous people, human rights, minority protection, minority rights......Autonomy, self-government, indigenous people, human rights, minority protection, minority rights...

  19. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  20. The Autonomy Activity Status of Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzikowska, Marlena; Gammelgaard, Jens; Jindra, Björn

    Research concerning the autonomy of subsidiaries has been concentrated on the possession of decision-making rights. Building on the definitional and empirical argumentation, we claim that so understood autonomy has a prospective character, is not equal to the implementation of actual actions (or...... lack of thereof) and neglects the issue of the scope of potential actions. This paper aims to fill in the current literature gap by offering a holistic stance in which we assert that subsidiaries can be meaningfully differentiated according to their levels of autonomy and corresponding actions. We base...... this argumentation on the findings of real option theory and competitive dynamics perspective, develop a typology specific to a subsidiary’s autonomy activity status (the position of a subsidiary in terms of its autonomy level confronted with the extent of actions taken in a corresponding area). We evaluate...

  1. The Autonomy Activity Status of Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzikowska, Marlena; Gammelgaard, Jens; Jindra, Björn

    this argumentation on the findings of real option theory and competitive dynamics perspective, develop a typology specific to a subsidiary’s autonomy activity status (the position of a subsidiary in terms of its autonomy level confronted with the extent of actions taken in a corresponding area). We evaluate......Research concerning the autonomy of subsidiaries has been concentrated on the possession of decision-making rights. Building on the definitional and empirical argumentation, we claim that so understood autonomy has a prospective character, is not equal to the implementation of actual actions (or...... lack of thereof) and neglects the issue of the scope of potential actions. This paper aims to fill in the current literature gap by offering a holistic stance in which we assert that subsidiaries can be meaningfully differentiated according to their levels of autonomy and corresponding actions. We base...

  2. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural...

  3. Level of autonomy of Turkish students in the final year of university baccalaureate degree in health related fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagozoglu, Serife

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive type study was conducted for the purpose of determining the level of autonomy of final-year students at Cumhuriyet University Nursing School, School for Health Sciences Midwifery School, Medical Faculty and Doctor of Dentistry Faculty. The research was conducted with a total of 221 students. Two forms were used for data collection in the research. The first was a 25-question personal information form including factors that affect autonomy in university students, which was prepared based on information in the literature. The second was the 30-item autonomy subscale from the Sociotropy/Autonomy Scale (SAS), which was developed by Beck et al (1983). It has been adapted for Turkish and has been tested for validity and reliability by Sahin et al (1993). The research data were loaded on the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) 11.0 program, and then frequency distribution, arithmetic mean, variance analysis (One-Way ANOVA) and Independent-Samples t Test were used in the evaluation of the data. According to the General Autonomy score mean from the SAS used in this study, the students' General Autonomy score mean was 80.94 +/- 15.40, the final year midwifery students had the highest level of autonomy (X = 83.48 +/- 11.98), followed by medical students (X = 81.23 +/- 15.36), nursing students (X = 77.33 +/- 15.19) and dental students (X = 72.90 +/- 14.41). According to the results obtained, the nursing students' level of autonomy was lower than the students' levels of autonomy in the other health-related branches except for dental students.

  4. To Have Control Over or to Be Free From Others? The Desire for Power Reflects a Need for Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Stoker, Janka I; Rink, Floor; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-04-01

    The current research explores why people desire power and how that desire can be satisfied. We propose that a position of power can be subjectively experienced as conferring influence over others or as offering autonomy from the influence of others. Conversely, a low-power position can be experienced as lacking influence or lacking autonomy. Nine studies show that subjectively experiencing one's power as autonomy predicts the desire for power, whereas the experience of influence over others does not. Furthermore, gaining autonomy quenches the desire for power, but gaining influence does not. The studies demonstrated the primacy of autonomy across both experimental and correlational designs, across measured mediation and manipulated mediator approaches, and across three different continents (Europe, United States, India). Together, these studies offer evidence that people desire power not to be a master over others, but to be master of their own domain, to control their own fate.

  5. Do Some People Need Autonomy More Than Others? Implicit Dispositions Toward Autonomy Moderate the Effects of Felt Autonomy on Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Julia; Sheldon, Kennon M; Prentice, Mike; Halusic, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The present studies examined whether implicit or explicit autonomy dispositions moderate the relationship between felt autonomy and well-being. Study 1 (N = 187 undergraduate students) presents an initial test of the moderator hypothesis by predicting flow experience from the interaction of autonomy need satisfaction and autonomy dispositions. Study 2 (N = 127 physically inactive persons) used vignettes involving an autonomy (un)supportive coach to test a moderated mediation model in which perceived coach autonomy support leads to well-being through basic need satisfaction. Again, the effects of need satisfaction on well-being were hypothesized to be moderated by an implicit autonomy disposition. Study 1 showed that individuals with a strong implicit autonomy (but not power or achievement) motive disposition derived more flow experience from felt autonomy than individuals with a weak implicit autonomy disposition. Study 2 revealed that perceived autonomy support from sports coaches, which we experimentally induced with a vignette method, leads to autonomy satisfaction, leading in turn to positive effects on well-being. This indirect effect held at high and average but not low implicit autonomy disposition. The results indicate that the degree to which people benefit from autonomy need satisfaction depends on their implicit disposition toward autonomy.

  6. Autopoiesis: Autology, Autotranscendence and Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ¿ning) problem of modernity. Castoriadis suggests a mutual and complementary relation between subjective and collective autonomy. Bouchet’s interpretation of this is very  radical and in certain respects quite startling. He considers how in modernity emerge spontaneous social orders (like markets or publics...... and 1990s – particularly in a French context. While his work has remained (to date) at distance from the rising number of suggestions, especi- ally regarding social and cultural theory, that have come out of these debates on self-organization, Castoriadis made a speci¿c and original contribution to them...... ‘reality-modeling’ (John Casti) – whether via cognitive frameworks or models of society and culture. Secondly, attempts to adapt debates within the humanities, e.g. in philosophy, social theory and cultural studies, have tended to end in anti-humanism, ranging from Deleuze and Guattari’s ‘abstract machine...

  7. University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    analysed, adding up to approximately 8000 pages. These evaluation studies were conducted by the EUniAM Task Force teams in 2013 and reported in 2014. They commenced at the time when the Government of Moldova made changes to the financial autonomy of universities, allowing them inter alia to open own bank...... the data. Unobtrusive data in the form of laws regulating directly or indirectly the higher education system in Moldova, governmental and ministerial decrees, university chapters and organizational structures, and education records were collected and analysed. A total number of 144 documents have been...... accounts in a bank of their choosing, and keep and transfer the balance for the next reporting year. At this same time, the Ministry of Education together with the higher education community started working on the Code of Education. Although during this period data were a moving target, the Task Force...

  8. Robonaut Mobile Autonomy: Initial Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Goza, S. M.; Tyree, K. S.; Huber, E. L.

    2006-01-01

    A mobile version of the NASA/DARPA Robonaut humanoid recently completed initial autonomy trials working directly with humans in cluttered environments. This compact robot combines the upper body of the Robonaut system with a Segway Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid ideal for interacting with human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereovision to locate human teammates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form complex behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  9. Shared decision-making and patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In patient-centred care, shared decision-making is advocated as the preferred form of medical decision-making. Shared decision-making is supported with reference to patient autonomy without abandoning the patient or giving up the possibility of influencing how the patient is benefited. It is, however, not transparent how shared decision-making is related to autonomy and, in effect, what support autonomy can give shared decision-making. In the article, different forms of shared decision-making are analysed in relation to five different aspects of autonomy: (1) self-realisation; (2) preference satisfaction; (3) self-direction; (4) binary autonomy of the person; (5) gradual autonomy of the person. It is argued that both individually and jointly these aspects will support the models called shared rational deliberative patient choice and joint decision as the preferred versions from an autonomy perspective. Acknowledging that both of these models may fail, the professionally driven best interest compromise model is held out as a satisfactory second-best choice.

  10. Women's reproductive autonomy: medicalisation and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, L

    2006-05-01

    Reproductive autonomy is central to women's welfare both because childbearing takes place in women's bodies and because they are generally expected to take primary responsibility for child rearing. In 2005, the factors that influence their autonomy most strongly are poverty and belief systems that devalue such autonomy. Unfortunately, such autonomy is a low priority for most societies, or is anathema to their belief systems altogether. This situation is doubly sad because women's reproductive autonomy is intrinsically valuable for women and also instrumentally valuable for the welfare of humankind. This paper takes for granted the moral and practical necessity of such autonomy and digs deeper into the question of what such a commitment might entail, focusing on the mid-level policy making that, at least in the US and Canada, plays a significant role in shaping women's options. This paper examines a large teaching hospital's policy on reduction of multifetal pregnancies. The policy permits reduction of triplets to twins, but not twins to a singleton. As there is no morally relevant difference between these two types of reduction, it is evident that inappropriate medicalisation can still limit women's autonomy in undesirable ways.

  11. Standby-battery autonomy versus power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications as an energy store to bridge gaps in the primary source of supplied power for a given period of time. In some cases this bridging time, the battery's "autonomy", is fixed by local legislation but it is also often set by historically common practices. However, even if common practice dictates a long autonomy time, we are entering a new era of "cost and benefit realism" underpinned by environmentally friendly policies and we should challenge these historical practices at every opportunity if it can lead to resource and cost savings. In some cases the application engineer has no choice in the design autonomy; either follow a piece of local legislation (e.g. 4 h autonomy for a "life safety" application), or actually work out what is needed! An example of the latter would be for a remote site, off-grid, using integrated wind/solar power (without emergency generator back-up) where you may have to design-in several days' battery autonomy. This short paper proposes that a battery's autonomy should be related to the time expected for the system to be without the primary power source, balanced by the capital costs and commercial risk of power failure. To discuss this we shall consider the factors in selecting the autonomy time and other related aspects for high voltage battery systems used in facility-wide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.

  12. The Concept of Village Autonomy in Indonesia (Indonesian Constitution Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifqi Ridlo Phahlevy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia was introduced to the term, “village autonomy” in 1970s; however, throughout the past years of establishing autonomous villages in Indonesia, the legislators have not been able to provide any clarity about this concept. Villages, as a legal entity, do not have enough independence to represent themselves as an autonomous unit of community in the state administration system of Indonesia. Article 18B and 28I of the second amendment of The 1945 Constitution of The State of Republic of Indonesia (UUD 45 state that the villages can have independent governments, by giving the alternative of village autonomy. Implementation the Law No. 6 Year 2014 is a part of the effort to realize the message of constitution and hence conception of autonomous villages is expected to be the catalyst for this concept. The presence of this law had a considerable impact on the 2014 presidential elections. Because of this people are concerned that political interests may try to drive and turning the direction and purpose of the law. This study is a part of the research on the implementation of village autonomy policies in Indonesia, and is compiled by using statute and conceptual approach. How To Cite: Phahlevy, R. (2016. The Concept of Village Autonomy in Indonesia (Indonesian Constitution Perspective. Rechtsidee, 3(1, 27-40. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v3i1.151

  13. Melons are branched polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  14. Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosfequr

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes.

  15. Markets & Myths: Autonomy in Public & Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubin Glass

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available

    School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.

    The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.

  16. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  17. Autonomy and the Sources of Political Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Contemporary political liberals argue for extending the scope of reasonable disagreement to include also the principle of autonomy that was central in classical liberal theory. I take outset in Charles Larmore, The Autonomy of Morality (2008), which argues that liberal theory can dispense...... with the commitment to autonomy that one finds in Locke, Kant, and Mill, because "the essential convictions of liberal thought lie at a more fundamental level," namely in the principle of respect for persons. The main question I address is whether we can see the commitment to respect for persons as separable from...

  18. The Approaches to Cultivating College Students' Learning Autonomy of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤娟

    2010-01-01

    Learner autonomy is a mainstream view in recent education research. In our country' s traditional English teaching, students are lack of autonomous learning. Cultivating learner autonomy is essential and urgent. This paper provides some referential autonomy teaching methods for college English teachers to adapt to the requirement of learner autonomy and quality education.

  19. Oppression, Autonomy and the Impossibility of the Inner Citadel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for a conception of autonomy that takes social oppression seriously without sapping autonomy of its valuable focus on individual self-direction. Building on recent work in relational accounts of autonomy, the paper argues that current conceptions of autonomy from liberal, feminist and critical theorists do not adequately account…

  20. Heteronomous Citizenship: Civic Virtue and the Chains of Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I distinguish personal autonomy from heteronomy, and consider whether autonomy provides a suitable basis for liberalism. I argue that liberal government should not promote autonomy in all its citizens, on the grounds that not all members of liberal democracies require autonomy for a good life. I then outline an alternative option…

  1. Proposiciones Sobre Autonomia Universitaria. (Propositions on University Autonomy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Victor M.

    University autonomy is a concept widely discussed and often misunderstood. In the Latin American context, university autonomy has been regarded as something inherent to the nature of the universities. As long as universities exist, the phenomenon of university autonomy will be present . University autonomy should be examined in the light of such…

  2. Decision-Making Autonomy and Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vo, Dut; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; de Jong, Gjalt;

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how decision-making autonomy affects the possibility and intensity of innovation in subsidiaries of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Subsidiaries are increasingly identified as sources of innovation and as vehicles for cross-border transfer of new competences. The question...... of how much decision-making autonomy subsidiaries should have is a core issue in the management of headquarters-subsidiary relationships. Using two complementary theoretical perspectives, we hypothesize a non-linear relationship between subsidiary’s decision-making autonomy and innovation. We test our...... hypothesis in a multi-country and multiindustry database based on survey evidence of 134 subsidiaries located in five Central and Eastern European countries from 23 home countries. The empirical results provide support for a non-linear U shaped relationship between subsidiary decision-making autonomy...

  3. Towards Adjustable Autonomy for the Real World

    CERN Document Server

    Pynadath, D V; Tambe, M; 10.1613/jair.1037

    2011-01-01

    Adjustable autonomy refers to entities dynamically varying their own autonomy, transferring decision-making control to other entities (typically agents transferring control to human users) in key situations. Determining whether and when such transfers-of-control should occur is arguably the fundamental research problem in adjustable autonomy. Previous work has investigated various approaches to addressing this problem but has often focused on individual agent-human interactions. Unfortunately, domains requiring collaboration between teams of agents and humans reveal two key shortcomings of these previous approaches. First, these approaches use rigid one-shot transfers of control that can result in unacceptable coordination failures in multiagent settings. Second, they ignore costs (e.g., in terms of time delays or effects on actions) to an agent's team due to such transfers-of-control. To remedy these problems, this article presents a novel approach to adjustable autonomy, based on the notion of a transfer-of...

  4. Fiscal autonomy of urban councils in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAW

    2 Ministry of Local Government “Fiscal autonomy for urban councils? ... majority of those voting in a referendum chose self-rule rather than being incorporated into the Union of ..... In practice, the Ministers of Local Government and Finance.

  5. How important is Autonomy to Professional Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Mastekaasa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption is that autonomy is crucial to professional workers. I examine this using survey data on a sample of public sector welfare professionals, viz. medical doctors, nurses, teachers, social workers. Comparisons are made with general population data from the International Social Survey Programme. Two methods of assessing the importance of work autonomy are employed; respondents’ direct ratings and statistical associations between work autonomy (and other job characteristics on the one hand and job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the other. Findings: Autonomy is not rated as more important among the professionals than in the general population, and neither is it more strongly related to job satisfaction. Interesting work and workplace social support appear to be more central.

  6. Crew Autonomy Measures and Models (CAMM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SA Technologies will employ a two-part solution including measures and models for evaluating crew autonomy in exploratory space missions. An integrated measurement...

  7. Using Multi-Core Systems for Rover Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Brad; Estlin, Tara; Bornstein, Benjamin; Springer, Paul; Anderson, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Task Objectives are: (1) Develop and demonstrate key capabilities for rover long-range science operations using multi-core computing, (a) Adapt three rover technologies to execute on SOA multi-core processor (b) Illustrate performance improvements achieved (c) Demonstrate adapted capabilities with rover hardware, (2) Targeting three high-level autonomy technologies (a) Two for onboard data analysis (b) One for onboard command sequencing/planning, (3) Technologies identified as enabling for future missions, (4)Benefits will be measured along several metrics: (a) Execution time / Power requirements (b) Number of data products processed per unit time (c) Solution quality

  8. Employee Job Autonomy and Control in a Restructured Extension Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary S. Holz-Clause

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive cross sectional census study identified theperceptions of Extension and Outreach employees of IowaState University in the United States about job autonomy andcontrol after two years of a major restructuring. Employees perceivedautonomy and control over expressing views and ideasabout their work and spending time on the job but perceivedlittle influence over budget allocations and shaping organizationalstrategies. They felt administrators and external funding sourcesinfluenced programming. They perceived contributing most toprogram implementation and marketing. The findings from thisstudy have implications for operations and programming in Extensionand other organizational settings.

  9. The Changing Scope of Professional Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Wrede, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter.......Kapitlet undersøger hvordan lægeprofessionens autonomi ændres i relation til ledelse i sygehuse i Danmark, Norge, Sverige og Finland i tiden fra 1970 og fremefter....

  10. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J.; Bradley, S.; A N Nguyen

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  11. Autonomy and confidentiality: patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalrahman, Ihab Babiker; Osman, Ahmed Mohammed Abdulrahman; Ali, Baraah Mohammed Adham; Mustafa, El Imam ElGhazali Seddik Mohamed; Ali, Eman Esam Hassan; Muneer, Mohamed Siddig Eltayeb

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about patients' opinions about their rights in autonomy and confidentiality concerning their illness and this study was conducted to assess it. This multi-centred, cross-sectional study was conducted in outpatient clinics in Khartoum, Sudan. It was delivered to 295 respondents. Data were managed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS. Eighty-five percent of the patients wanted to know about their conditions, of whom 17% wanted to choose their treatment and 29% believed they had the right to refuse treatment. Most of the respondents would not wish to hide information from their doctors. There was a wide variation at the rate of patients hiding information from their relatives, depending on their diagnosis (HIV 90%, malignancy 16.7% and tuberculosis 0%.) Respondents want to choose their treating doctor, know about their diseases, be consulted before a procedure. They would like to leave technical issues to their treating doctors without jeopardising their own rights. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Exploring autonomy through computational biomodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfreyman, Niall

    2009-07-01

    The question of whether living organisms possess autonomy of action is tied up with the nature of causal efficacy. Yet the nature of organisms is such that they frequently defy conventional causal language. Did the fig wasp select the fig, or vice versa? Is this an epithelial cell because of its genetic structure, or because it develops within the epithelium? The intimate coupling of biological levels of organisation leads developmental systems theory to deconstruct the biological organism into a life-cycle process which constitutes itself from the resources available within a complete developmental system. This radical proposal necessarily raises questions regarding the ontological status of organisms: Does an organism possess existence distinguishable from its molecular composition and social environment? The ambiguity of biological causality makes such questions difficult to answer or even formulate, and computational biology has an important role to play in operationalising the language in which they are framed. In this article we review the role played by computational biomodels in shedding light on the ontological status of organisms. These models are drawn from backgrounds ranging from molecular kinetics to niche construction, and all attempt to trace biological processes to a causal, and therefore existent, source. We conclude that computational biomodelling plays a fertile role in furnishing a proof of concept for conjectures in the philosophy of biology, and suggests the need for a process-based ontology of biological systems.

  13. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  14. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Belder (Tessa); M.H. ter Beek (Maurice); E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProgress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS) generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled

  15. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  16. Branched Polymer Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We show that correlation functions for branched polymers correspond to those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves, as has been widely believed. In particular, the two-point function behaves as 1/p^4, not as 1/p^2. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  17. Effects of Teacher Autonomy Support and Students' Autonomous Motivation on Learning in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Fahlman, Mariane

    2009-01-01

    This study applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of students' autonomous motivation and their perceptions of teacher autonomy support on need satisfaction adjustment, learning achievement, and cardiorespiratory fitness over a 4-month personal conditioning unit. Participants were 253 urban adolescents (121 girls and 132 boys,…

  18. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  19. "You Have to Care." Perceptions of Promoting Autonomy in Support Settings for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petner-Arrey, Jami; Copeland, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    This study from the south-western United States investigated the perceptions of persons with intellectual disability receiving support and of persons providing support regarding the autonomy of people with intellectual disability. The participants included 10 people with intellectual disability and 10 support workers. Through interviews, this…

  20. Effects of Teacher Autonomy Support and Students' Autonomous Motivation on Learning in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Fahlman, Mariane

    2009-01-01

    This study applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of students' autonomous motivation and their perceptions of teacher autonomy support on need satisfaction adjustment, learning achievement, and cardiorespiratory fitness over a 4-month personal conditioning unit. Participants were 253 urban adolescents (121 girls and 132 boys,…

  1. Autonomy-Facilitation or Autonomy-Promotion? The Case of Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corngold, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a critique of Harry Brighouse's "autonomy-facilitating education", which aims to enable students to reflect critically on their lives and society without disposing them to do so. Because it is "character-neutral", this kind of education purportedly avoids some of the controversy surrounding autonomy-promotion. At the same time,…

  2. When Are Mastery Goals More Adaptive? It Depends on Experiences of Autonomy Support and Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benita, Moti; Roth, Guy; Deci, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Mastery goals are generally considered the most adaptive achievement goals. In 2 studies, we tested whether, in line with self-determination theory, participants' experiences of autonomy support and autonomy would affect the relations between mastery goals and psychological outcomes. In Study 1 (an experiment), 117 college students, randomly…

  3. The Relationship between Teacher's Autonomy Support and Students' Autonomy and Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Juan L.; Fernández, Celia; León, Jaime; Grijalvo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    What makes a student feel vital and energetic? Using the self-determination framework, we analyzed how the behavior and feelings of students depend on social factors such as the teachers' attitudes. The goal of the study was to test an integrated sequence over a semester in which teacher's autonomy support acts as a predictor of autonomy, which,…

  4. Learning as Dialogue: The Dependence of Learner Autonomy on Teacher Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David

    1995-01-01

    Discusses learner autonomy in formal language learning contexts. The author considers how autonomy is to be fostered, focusing first on learning strategies and learner training and then on the pedagogical dialogue and role of the teacher. It is argued that learning arises from interaction, which is characterized by interdependence. (26 references)…

  5. SOCIOTROPY AND AUTONOMY IN EATING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of development psychopathology and psychia try have shown that personality variables are greatly associated with eating disorders. Sociotropy and autonomy may be features that facilitate the occurrence and persistence of the eating disturbances. Theoretical framework for own research was mainly the A. Beck’s concept of autonomy and sociotropy. The aim of the study was to answer the research question whether a person suffering from an eating disorder is characterized by a higher level of sociotropy and autonomy than those in risk and the control groups, as well as to emergence the relationship between the severity, sociotropy and autonomy in each group. Methods: The study was conducted within three groups: clini cal (23 girls diagnosed with eating disorders, risk (15 girls, who suffered of binge eating episodes, control (15 girls. The mean age of girls was 17,9 years. A structured clinical interview and Sociotropy - Autonomy Scale (T. Sato were used. Results: Emphasison the autonomous functioning and relationships problems are elevated among girls with eating disorders when compared to girls at risk and the control groups. They are characterized by greater difficulties in experiencing intimacy and trust, emotional distancing and low sensitivity to others, and a high fear of being controlled by the others. The sociotropy scores did not show differences between groups. Correlation analysis endorse no relationship between the intensity of sociotropy and autonomy. Conclusions: Sociotropy and autonomy are independent psychological constructs. Emphasis on the autonomous functioning and interpersonal difficulties may play a more important role in the origin and persistence of eating disorders symptomatology than sociotropy features.

  6. Women and autonomy: using structural analysis of social behavior to find autonomy within connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, S; Johnson, C G

    1989-02-01

    In their work to construct psychological theories about women's development, Carol Gilligan and Jean Baker Miller both highlight the centrality of interpersonal connections in women's lives. As they describe how women's senses of self and morality are organized around relationships, Gilligan and Miller tend to contrast affiliation with autonomy. The message that readers often take from this view is that autonomy has no meaning for women--is somehow beneath them, beyond them, or unnatural to them. Although Miller and Gilligan dichotomize affiliation and autonomy, they also provide numerous examples in which women's feelings of worth, ability, and self-consideration enhance relatedness. We argue that autonomy can be understood as a sense of freedom and personal integrity that encompasses these same characteristics, and we use the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior to clarify how autonomy makes critical contributions to interpersonal connections.

  7. Student Autonomy and its Effects on Student Enjoyment in a Traditional Mechanics Course for First-Year Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Janaki I.; Quinlivan, Brendan T.; Simonovich, Jennifer A.; Towers, Emily; Zadik, Oren H.; Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2012-02-01

    In light of recent literature in educational psychology, this study investigates instructional support and students' autonomy at a small technical undergraduate school. Grounded theory is used to analyze twelve semi-structured open-ended interviews about engineering students' experiences in Introductory Mechanics that includes Lecture, Recitation, and Laboratory components. Using data triangulation with each course component as a unit of analysis, this study examines students' course enjoyment as a function of instructional support and autonomy. The Lecture utilizes traditional instructor-centered pedagogy with predominantly passive learning and no student autonomy. The Recitation creates an active learning environment through small group work with a moderate degree of autonomy. The Laboratory is designed around self-guided project-based activities with significant autonomy. Despite these differences, all three course components provide similar levels of instructional support. The data reveal that students enjoy the low autonomy provided by Lecture and Recitations while finding the Laboratory frustrating. Analyses indicate that the differences in autonomy contribute to students' misinterpretation of the three course components' value within the context of the entire course.

  8. Promoting Justice and Autonomy in Public Policies to Reduce the Health Consequences of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, David R

    2015-12-01

    Public policies to reduce the extent of obesity in the United States have generated considerable public controversy. The paper examines the implications of proposed policies for the principles of justice and autonomy and key assumptions underlying the major contending positions with respect to the relative weight that should be assigned to them in balancing their respective claims. The analysis traces the crux of the debate regarding the ethical warrant for policies to restrict access to calorie-dense foodstuffs to two key issues: the appeal to different and conflicting theories of justice, and the conflation of autonomy with negative liberty in public debates. After clarifying the ethically relevant characteristics of autonomy that merit defense, the paper concludes with a description of how the capabilities approach to justice may offer a more coherent ethical framework for developing and evaluating policies to address the current obesity epidemic.

  9. Effects of teacher autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Fahlman, Mariane

    2009-03-01

    This study applied self-determination theory to investigate the effects of students' autonomous motivation and their perceptions of teacher autonomy support on need satisfaction adjustment, learning achievement, and cardiorespiratory fitness over a 4-month personal conditioning unit. Participants were 253 urban adolescents (121 girls and 132 boys, ages = 12-14 years). Based on a series of multiple regression analyses, perceived autonomy support by teachers significantly predicted students'need satisfaction adjustment and led to learning achievement, especially for students who were not autonomously motivated to learn in physical education. In turn, being more autonomous was directly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness enhancement. The findings suggest that shifts in teaching approaches toward providing more support for students' autonomy and active involvement hold promise for enhancing learning.

  10. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  11. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  12. School nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, Marie C; DeSisto, Thomas Patrick

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Kanter's Theory of Structural Power in Organizations, using school nurses and to answer the research question of whether there is a relationship between empowerment and autonomy in school nurses. This study found a positive relationship between the nurses' perceptions of empowerment and autonomy. The school nurses surveyed perceived themselves to have a high degree of autonomy and a moderate degree of empowerment, and they reported that their access to informal power structures was higher than their access to formal power structures in their school systems. School nurses can benefit by understanding factors that can increase their empowerment in the workplace. They need to understand the organizational structure of their workplace to increase their effectiveness and job satisfaction.

  13. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.

  14. Autonomy Mediated through University-Business Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    will argue that the rationale for the increase in U-I collaboration is twofold: Firstly, innovation has become the key “productive” and “competitive” factor of a (global) market economy, and as knowledge and managers/experts with high level of competence are key drivers of innovation, universities......Collaboration between universities and industry is on the agenda in most countries. The old formula of theory production and subsequent application in practice has been replaced by a new formula of interaction between theory and practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss the university......-industry (U-I) collaboration in a university autonomy perspective, including the rationale for an increase in the collaboration, a conceptualization of the development, and the impact of the collaboration on university autonomy related especially to academic freedom and financial autonomy. The paper...

  15. UNIVERSITY AUTONOMY: WHAT ACADEMICS THINK ABOUT IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufean, H.,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available University autonomy is close to the heart of academics in higher education institutions around the world. It is centered on the belief that liberalism is the essential philosophy for the freedom in exploring and expanding the frontier of knowledge in every sphere of life and civilization, without the shackles of any agency or government politics and dictates. This paper presents the findings of a study on what academics think about university autonomy, which comprises several components such as governance and management, study programs, research and development, teaching, and student development. The study employed the survey method and involved 611 academics from five premier public universities in Malaysia. This study found that, to a large extent and contrary to popular perception, public universities still do have a high degree of autonomy in several components, particularly in determining study programs to be offered, human resource development, internationalization, collaborative ventures with industries, and research priorities.

  16. Independence, Interaction, Interdependence and Interrelation: Learner Autonomy in a Web-based Less Commonly Taught Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Kostina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, teaching less commonly taught languages has been a very challenging task due to low student enrollment and the high costs of hiring permanent teaching faculty. Therefore, webbased distance learning (DL is beginning to attract serious attention from the less commonly taught languages profession (Fleming, Hiple and Du, 2002. However, DL classes are often associated with student isolation, where learners are deprived of non-verbal clues, vocal expression, and eye contact that are crucial for foreign language learning (White, 2005. Thus, working in a more isolated context requires higher learner autonomy (White, 2005. This article provides a review of literature on autonomy that exists in the foreign language field, and describes four aspects of autonomy that need to be considered by language teachers while developing their web-based courses. It also offers some practical suggestions for the less commonly taught language instructors that foster autonomy and decrease isolation online.

  17. PROMOTING LEARNERS’ AUTONOMY THROUGH INDIVIDUALIZED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Fauziati

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Article basically tries to explore the concept of individualized learning applicable in teachinglearning process which can enhance learners’ autonomy and provides a brief practical guidance onhow to put this concept into classroom practices. There are at least five underlying assumptions oflearning based on this concept, namely: different learning styles, a variety of sources, teacher asfacilitator, integrated learning tasks, and different learning goals. It can be concluded that classroompractices designed based on these concepts can improve learners’ autonomy, such as grouping,projects or tasks, and discussion.

  18. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  19. Multimode geodesic branching components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D.; Voges, E.

    1983-01-01

    Geodesic branching components are investigated for multimode guided wave optics. Geodesic structures with particular properties, e.g. focussing star couplers, are derived by a synthesis technique based on a theorem of Toraldo di Francia. Experimentally, the geodesic surfaces are printed on acrylic glass and are spin-coated with organic film waveguides.

  20. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  1. Changing Professional autonomy in the Context of Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi

    The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts......The Changing autonomy of doctors and civil servants  in Denmark in different institutional contexts...

  2. Iranian ESP Learners' Perceptions of Autonomy in Language Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmadi, Razieyeh

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy regarded challenging in EFL contexts, because of the teacher-fronted learning situation, and as literature suggests there is a need for research in areas related to autonomy to measure students...

  3. Organizations, Autonomy and Leadership: the importance of the context

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    We want to present the place of autonomy and freedom ro take initiatives in the organizations. The response is one balance between control and autonomy. Corporate culture, leadership and corporate social responsibility play one essentiel role in contextual situations.

  4. Applying Metacognitive Theories to Cultivating English Learner Autonomy in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of modern education is to develop students’learner autonomy and make them autonomous and life⁃long learners and many researches have found that learner autonomy is greatly influenced by metacognition. So this paper intends to analyze the present teaching and learning situation in college and give a clear picture of the relationship of learn autonomy and metacognition, trying to find the ways to cultivate learner autonomy through applying metacognitive theories college.

  5. Teacher Role and Learner Autonomy in Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing attention has been drawn to the importance of autonomy in language learning. Autonomy has in fact become a buzzword (Little, 1991) and a central theme in language learning and teaching (Camilleri, 1999). Autonomy entails an attitude towards the learning which bridges the gap between what is taught and how it is applied in real life. It will facilitate learners to apply the knowledge acquired in a given context to different situations. However, learners’ autonomy cannot be analyzed and f...

  6. Education for Autonomy: A Rejoinder to Aviram and Assor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Aviram and Assor try two strategies for rebutting my recent critique of autonomy as an educational aim. First, they argue that my objection to dispositional autonomy fails. Second, they identify and defend a technical sense of autonomy quite different from any that I consider. I show here that there are serious problems with both lines of argument.

  7. Influence-based autonomy levels in agent Decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Meyer, A.P.; Neef, R.M.; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Autonomy is a crucial and powerful feature of agents and it is the subject of much research in the agent field. Controlling the autonomy of agents is a way to coordinate the behavior of groups of agents. Our approach is to look at it as a design problem for agents. We analyze the autonomy of an agen

  8. Measuring the e-Learning Autonomy of Distance Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence that learner autonomy is an important factor in academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated the autonomy of distance education students in e-learning environments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the e-learning autonomy of distance education students who are responsible for their…

  9. Professional autonomy - is it the future of general practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John

    2006-05-01

    Internationally, rising financial costs and increasing expectations of health care delivery have increased regulation and decreased the autonomy of general practitioners and other health care professionals. This article explores professional autonomy within Australian general practice, and outlines the importance of autonomy in systems approaches to organisational change in general practice.

  10. Advancing Learner Autonomy in TEFL via Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; Shan, Tan Hui

    2015-01-01

    The present paper begins by situating learner autonomy and collaborative learning as part of a larger paradigm shift towards student-centred learning. Next are brief discussions of learner autonomy and how learner autonomy links with collaborative learning. In the main part of the paper, four central principles of collaborative learning are…

  11. "It's My Life": Autonomy and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristín; Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún V; Stefánsdóttir, Ástríður

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, we examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is,…

  12. Autonomy and Complexity at Sandia Executive Summary of Academic Alliance Workshop on Autonomy and Complex Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kleban, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Sandia has identified autonomy as a strategic initiative and an important area for providing national leadership. A key question is, “How might autonomy change how we think about the national security challenges we address and the kinds of solutions we deliver?” Three workshops at Sandia early in 2017 brought together internal stakeholders and potential academic partners in autonomy to address this question. The first focused on programmatic applications and needs. The second explored existing internal capabilities and research and development needs. This report summarizes the outcome of the third workshop, held March 3, 2017 in Albuquerque, NM, which engaged Academic Alliance partners in autonomy efforts at Sandia by discussing research needs and synergistic areas of interest within the complex systems and system modeling domains, and identifying opportunities for partnering on laboratory directed and other joint research opportunities.

  13. Agility and adaptive autonomy in networked organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der

    2010-01-01

    In any multi-actor environment, there is an inevitable trade-off between achieving global coordination of activities and respecting the autonomy of the actors involved. Agile and resilient behavior demands dynamic coordination capabilities, but task and resource allocation quickly becomes challengin

  14. Adjustable Autonomy: Controling Influences on Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological developments we foresee future systems where groups of actors coordinate their actions in a dynamic manner to reach their goals. Our aim is to develop a reasoning model for artificial actors in such systems. Starting point is the relation between autonomy of individuals and

  15. The Charter School Experience: Autonomy in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tonya Senne

    2013-01-01

    While traditional public school and charter school systems continue to undergo dramatic reforms in response to the educational crisis, charter schools are praised as possessing the distinguishing characteristic of maintaining autonomy in exchange for increased accountability (Buckley & Schneider, 2009). The expectations for charter schools are…

  16. Adjustable Autonomy: Controling Influences on Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological developments we foresee future systems where groups of actors coordinate their actions in a dynamic manner to reach their goals. Our aim is to develop a reasoning model for artificial actors in such systems. Starting point is the relation between autonomy of individuals and coor

  17. Towards Teachers' Professional Autonomy through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustingorry, Sonia Osses

    2008-01-01

    Educational action research was carried out between 2003 and 2006, focusing on developing high-school teachers' professional autonomy belonging to the scientific area in poor communes of the ninth Region de la Araucana, Chile. The research is contextualized in the Chilean educational reality and based on each of the stages of the action research…

  18. Teacher Autonomy Defined in Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigle, Rosemary R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how online instructors interpret the extent to which they exercise autonomy in an online setting and the subsequent effect it has on perceived teaching quality. In April and May of 2008 a confidential Web survey was e-mailed to randomly selected higher education instructors across the country who were…

  19. Assessment, Autonomy, and Elementary Social Studies Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background/context: In an era of accountability and standardization, elementary social studies is consistently losing its curricular foothold to English/language arts, math, and science instruction. Purpose: This article examines the relationship between elementary teachers' perceptions of instructional autonomy, teaching context, state testing…

  20. The autonomy: A challenge in shared spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena NITRI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as a goal, to study a few up- dated alternatives on the field of Teaching Coaching toe the focus of reflection. From the concept to autonomy we built and implement teaching strategies focussing on the development of autonomous working projects and tutorial systems, whose aim is placed in the creation of shared spaces which allow decision-taking.

  1. The Erosion of University Autonomy in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Examining legislative change between 1997 and 2013, and analyzing the governance of Manitoba's post-secondary system using military concepts of strategy, operations, and tactics, this article argues that there has been a trend since 2006 of a general loss of university autonomy in the province. The article finds that changes in public policy in…

  2. University Autonomy: Two Fault-Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    The doctrine of university autonomy in the UK contains a least two major "fault-lines" where the structure is inherently weak and there is danger of functional breakdown. The first occurs at the junction between the institution and the state, the second within the institution, where the unity in policy-making between academic and…

  3. Legal Aspects of University Autonomy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Nina Beatriz Stocco

    2009-01-01

    State control over higher education has been provided for in the Brazilian legal system since the establishment of the republic, with university autonomy having been the object of six reforms of higher education and various federal decrees up until the federal constitution of 1988, which upheld it in Article 207. In a country with a limited and…

  4. Autonomi og informeret samtykke i sygeplejepraksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Morville, Annette

    2006-01-01

    is described as freedom from compulsion and other forms of regulatory influence. In relation to autonomy and informed consent, information is a defined nursing responsibility in connection with self-managed nursing duties, nursing research and duties where nurses have had been entrusted with responsibility...

  5. Codes of Ethics and Teachers' Professional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Marina; Maxwell, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the value of adopting a code of professional ethics for teachers. After having underlined how a code of ethics stands to benefits a community of educators--namely, by providing a mechanism for regulating autonomy and promoting a shared professional ethic--the article examines the principal arguments against codes of ethics.…

  6. Healthcare architects' professional autonomy: interview case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk-Su; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to understand the nature of an architect's professional power. The central questions were: (1) What is the impact of specialized knowledge on the professional autonomy of architects in general? and (2) What are the relationships between task complexity, specialized knowledge, and the professional autonomy of healthcare architects in particular? To answer these questions, this research utilized interviews and focus groups. Focus groups provided in-depth knowledge on a sub-question: How do real-world situations restrict or reinforce the professional autonomy of healthcare architects? The interviews on this sub-question were project-specific to help gain an understanding of the impact that healthcare design complexity and research utilization have on practice and professional autonomy. Two main relationships were discovered from the interviews and focus groups. One was the relationship between the context of healthcare design complexity and the culture of healthcare design practice. The other was the relationship between changing professional attitudes and the consequences of changes in the profession.

  7. Legal Aspects of University Autonomy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Nina Beatriz Stocco

    2009-01-01

    State control over higher education has been provided for in the Brazilian legal system since the establishment of the republic, with university autonomy having been the object of six reforms of higher education and various federal decrees up until the federal constitution of 1988, which upheld it in Article 207. In a country with a limited and…

  8. Authenticity, Autonomy and Altruism: Keys for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The value of authentic knowing, autonomous behavior and altruistic motivation is presented. Authenticity, autonomy and altruism are primary human capacities and keys for individual and collective transformation. Realizing the full development of these three basic potentialities can serve as goals and standards for well-being. Authenticity,…

  9. The Development of Personal Autonomy throughout Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C.

    2006-01-01

    It is argued here that autonomy entails universal psychological needs pertaining to agency and identity formation, expressed in different ways over different developmental periods. As children develop skills and abilities related to psychological needs for self-expression and competence, they will claim areas related to the exercise of these…

  10. On autonomy and participation in rehabilitation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Jong, B.A. de; Ward, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    To explore the concept of autonomy as a basis for social participation, with particular reference to rehabilitation. Method: A study of relevant literature from the field of rehabilitation, building on theory developed in other fields (ethics, social sciences), and deriving important concepts and st

  11. Introducing, Defining and Balancing 'Autonomy vs. Paternalism'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem); A.I. Ogus (Anthony)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAutonomy is generally regarded as the fundamental right of individuals to shape their own future through voluntary action. In private law, it is associated with freedom of contract and the concept of casum sentit dominus (the loss lies where it falls). As such, it is opposed to legal pat

  12. Supporting Student Autonomy in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Dana; Webster, Collin A.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of motivation among students is a common challenge in physical education. Studies drawing on the self-determination theory consistently show that perceived autonomy facilitates adaptive motivation in students, which can lead to a wide range of desired educational outcomes. However, instructional strategies designed to support student…

  13. The Charter School Experience: Autonomy in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tonya Senne

    2013-01-01

    While traditional public school and charter school systems continue to undergo dramatic reforms in response to the educational crisis, charter schools are praised as possessing the distinguishing characteristic of maintaining autonomy in exchange for increased accountability (Buckley & Schneider, 2009). The expectations for charter schools are…

  14. Autonomy and the Working-Class Freelance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medway, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In taking into account the realities of the writing process in the ways teachers organize their classrooms, they inescapably find themselves involved with the notion of student autonomy. Some guidelines for supporting independent-minded adolescents in the classroom suggest themselves, and this article provides other suggestions for planning…

  15. Introducing, Defining and Balancing 'Autonomy vs. Paternalism'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem); A.I. Ogus (Anthony)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAutonomy is generally regarded as the fundamental right of individuals to shape their own future through voluntary action. In private law, it is associated with freedom of contract and the concept of casum sentit dominus (the loss lies where it falls). As such, it is opposed to legal

  16. Models of knot and stem development in black spruce trees indicate a shift in allocation priority to branches when growth is limited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Duchateau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The branch autonomy principle, which states that the growth of individual branches can be predicted from their morphology and position in the forest canopy irrespective of the characteristics of the tree, has been used to simplify models of branch growth in trees. However, observed changes in allocation priority within trees towards branches growing in light-favoured conditions, referred to as ‘Milton’s Law of resource availability and allocation,’ have raised questions about the applicability of the branch autonomy principle. We present models linking knot ontogeny to the secondary growth of the main stem in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., which were used to assess the patterns of assimilate allocation over time, both within and between trees. Data describing the annual radial growth of 445 stem rings and the three-dimensional shape of 5,377 knots were extracted from optical scans and X-ray computed tomography images taken along the stems of 10 trees. Total knot to stem area increment ratios (KSR were calculated for each year of growth, and statistical models were developed to describe the annual development of knot diameter and curvature as a function of stem radial increment, total tree height, stem diameter, and the position of knots along an annual growth unit. KSR varied as a function of tree age and of the height to diameter ratio of the stem, a variable indicative of the competitive status of the tree. Simulations of the development of an individual knot showed that an increase in the stem radial growth rate was associated with an increase in the initial growth of the knot, but also with a shorter lifespan. Our results provide support for ‘Milton’s Law,’ since they indicate that allocation priority is given to locations where the potential return is the highest. The developed models provided realistic simulations of knot morphology within trees, which could be integrated into a functional-structural model of tree

  17. Learner Autonomy and English Teaching--On Fostering Learner Autonomy in FLT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇

    2005-01-01

    Learner autonomy has been a buzzword in foreign Language teaching in recent years. The concern with teaching and learning has shifted from the teachers' teaching to the students' learning. This paper reports an experiment conducted by the author using tests, questionnaires and interviews in a senior middle school located in Hubei Province. It has proved the promotion of learner autonomy helps to improve students' foreign language proficiency and confidence in learning the language.

  18. PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ VIEWS ON THEIR AUTONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurka Lepičnik Vodopivec

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we discuss primary school teachers’ views of their own autonomy. In the introduction we present the theoretical premises and the views of different authors. In spite of the different views on understanding teacher’s autonomy, it can be summed up it is a complex, multi-layered and important factor of teacher’s activities. It appears at different levels and relations in the education process. Here we highlight the significance of decentralisation of school that influences teacher’s authority and tasks, as with decentralisation the power and responsibility of decision-making is transferred from the national to the school level, which means the significance of school autonomy—and thus also of teachers’ autonomy—is strengthened. In the second part the results of an empirical study carried out on the sample of 104 primary school teachers from 30 randomly selected basic schools in Slovenia are presented. We found primary school teachers estimate they are autonomous in their work. To the largest extent teacher’s autonomy is influenced by regulation in education, by the curriculum, and by professional qualifications, and the least by parents. They link their own autonomy to independence in making decisions about choosing the methods of teaching and the selection of teaching resources they use at the performance level of teaching. According to the estimate of surveyed teachers they have less autonomy in selecting textbooks, which can be attributed to enforcing the policy of joint procurement and to the decisions of school authorities regarding the introduction of the latter into school practice.

  19. Critical branching neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  20. School Autonomy and District Support: How Principals Respond to a Tiered Autonomy Initiative in Philadelphia Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.; Cox, Amanda Barrett

    2017-01-01

    A tiered autonomy policy was recently implemented in Philadelphia, where select principals were granted autonomy to manage school operations while others were promised greater district support to improve school functioning. This article provides evidence on how principals used their autonomy and the extent of district support for non-autonomous…

  1. Desire for Increased Autonomy and Adolescents' Perceptions of Peer Autonomy: "Everyone Else Can; Why Can't I?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined adolescents' personal autonomy beliefs and their perceptions of peer autonomy. Study 1 sampled 527 adolescents (M = 15.40 years) and found that adolescents desired increased autonomy most over personal and multifaceted issues and least over moral and conventional issues. Younger adolescents and girls desired increased autonomy…

  2. Does Parental Autonomy Support Relate to Adolescent Autonomy? An In-Depth Examination of a Seemingly Simple Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousiani, Kyriaki; Van Petegem, Stijn; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Chen, Beiwen

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary research on autonomy development, autonomy has been defined as independence (vs. dependence) or as self-endorsed (vs. controlled) functioning. Analogously, perceived parental autonomy support involves either perceived parental promotion of independence (PI) or perceived parental promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). The…

  3. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  4. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented. We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  5. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  6. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  7. Branched terthiophenes in organic electronics: from small molecules to polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, Martin; Goll, Miriam; Ludwigs, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    A zoo of chemical structures is accessible when the branched unit 2,2':3',2″-terthiophene (3T) is included both in structurally well-defined small molecules and polymer-like architectures. The first part of this review article highlights literature on all-thiophene based branched oligomers including dendrimers as well as combinations of 3T-units with functional moieties for light-harvesting systems. Motivated by the perfectly branched macromolecular dendrimers both electropolymerization as well as chemical approaches are presented as methods for the preparation of branched polythiophenes with different branching densities. Structure-function relationships between the molecular architecture and optical and electronic properties are discussed throughout the article.

  8. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  9. An Exploration of the Concept of Learner Autonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽萍

    2013-01-01

      The concept of learner autonomy is well known as very complex as many scholars put emphasis on differences between his ideas and others’. That no consensus has reached so far puzzles us. However, a good understanding of autonomy is the basis of putting development of autonomy into practice. Through examining common features of different concepts and explaining the relationship between autonomy and its related concepts, the highly condensed qualities of "relativity" and "duality" are put forward and some implications about specific ways of fostering autonomy in Chinese educational context are also discussed.

  10. Women's Autonomy and Attitudes toward Condom Use: A Multicountry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bonita B; Small, Eusebius; Mengo, Cecilia; Ude, Paula

    2017-02-17

    Autonomy gives women the ability to negotiate safe sex and make decisions on their health. This study explores the gender stratification framework to understand the intertwined nature of HIV and women's autonomy using the nationally representative Demographic Health Survey. It examines women's autonomy and attitudes toward condom use for prevention of HIV/AIDS in four culturally diverse countries. Findings from the logistic regression indicate that labor force participation, individual autonomy, and decision making significantly increased the odds of always using a condom during sex in all countries. Promoting prevention policies highlighting women's autonomy may contribute in reducing the spread of HIV infection.

  11. Authenticity and autonomy in deep-brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrope, Alistair

    2014-08-01

    Felicitas Kraemer draws on the experiences of patients undergoing deep-brain stimulation (DBS) to propose two distinct and potentially conflicting principles of respect: for an individual's autonomy (interpreted as mental competence), and for their authenticity. I argue instead that, according to commonly-invoked justifications of respect for autonomy, authenticity is itself in part constitutive of an analysis of autonomy worthy of respect; Kraemer's argument thus highlights the shortcomings of practical applications of respect for autonomy that emphasise competence while neglecting other important dimensions of autonomy such as authenticity, since it shows that competence alone cannot be interpreted as a reliable indicator of an individual's capacity for exercising autonomy. I draw from relational accounts to suggest how respect for a more expansive conception of autonomy might be interpreted for individuals undergoing DBS and in general.

  12. Teacher Autonomy Perceptions of Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim KHEZERLOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.

  13. A balanced intervention ladder: promoting autonomy through public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P E; West, C

    2015-08-01

    The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A variable depth search branching

    OpenAIRE

    Cornillier, Fabien; Pécora, José Eduardo; Charles, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a variable depth search branching, an extension to the local branching for solving Mixed-Integer Programs. Two strategies are assessed, a best improvement strategy and a first improvement strategy. The extensive computational assessment evidences a significant improvement over the local branching for both strategies. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.

  15. Using Integration and Autonomy to Teach an Elementary Running Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, J. Brandon; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular fitness is an important aspect of overall fitness, health, and wellness, and running can be an excellent lifetime physical activity. One of the most simple and effective means of exercise, running raises heart rate in a short amount of time and can be done with little to no cost for equipment. There are many benefits to running,…

  16. Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Autonomy-Supportive Sibling Interactions: The Role of Mothers' and Siblings' Psychological Need Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Loeys, Tom; Mabbe, Elien; Gargurevich, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Autonomy-supportive parenting yields manifold benefits. To gain more insight into the family-level dynamics involved in autonomy-supportive parenting, the present study addressed three issues. First, on the basis of self-determination theory, we examined whether mothers' satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness related to autonomy-supportive parenting. Second, we investigated maternal autonomy support as an intervening variable in the mother-child similarity in psychological need satisfaction. Third, we examined associations between autonomy-supportive parenting and autonomy-supportive sibling interactions. Participants were 154 mothers (M age = 39.45, SD = 3.96) and their two elementary school-age children (M age = 8.54, SD = 0.89 and M age = 10.38, SD = 0.87). Although mothers' psychological need satisfaction related only to maternal autonomy support in the younger siblings, autonomy-supportive parenting related to psychological need satisfaction in both siblings and to an autonomy-supportive interaction style between siblings. We discuss the importance of maternal autonomy support for family-level dynamics.

  17. Effects of branch height on leaf gas exchange, branch hydraulic conductance and branch sap flux in open-grown ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Robert M; Bond, Barbara J; Senock, Randy S; Ryan, Michael G

    2002-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that stomata respond to changes in hydraulic conductance of the flow path from soil to leaf. In open-grown tall trees, branches of different heights may have different hydraulic conductances because of differences in path length and growth. We determined if leaf gas exchange, branch sap flux, leaf specific hydraulic conductance, foliar carbon isotope composition (delta13C) and ratios of leaf area to sapwood area within branches were dependent on branch height (10 and 25 m) within the crowns of four open-grown ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) trees. We found no difference in leaf gas exchange or leaf specific hydraulic conductance from soil to leaf between the upper and lower canopy of our study trees. Branch sap flux per unit leaf area and per unit sapwood area did not differ between the 10- and 25-m canopy positions; however, branch sap flux per unit sapwood area at the 25-m position had consistently lower values. Branches at the 25-m canopy position had lower leaf to sapwood area ratios (0.17 m2 cm-2) compared with branches at the 10-m position (0.27 m2 cm-2) (P = 0.03). Leaf specific conductance of branches in the upper crown did not differ from that in the lower crown. Other studies at our site indicate lower hydraulic conductance, sap flux, whole-tree canopy conductance and photosynthesis in old trees compared with young trees. This study suggests that height alone may not explain these differences.

  18. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  19. Branch formation during organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  20. Cookie branching random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Christian; Kochler, Thomas; Müller, Sebastian; Popov, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk on $\\Z$, where the particles behave differently in visited and unvisited sites. Informally, each site on the positive half-line contains initially a cookie. On the first visit of a site its cookie is removed and particles at positions with a cookie reproduce and move differently from particles on sites without cookies. Therefore, the movement and the reproduction of the particles depend on the previous behaviour of the population of particles. We study the question if the process is recurrent or transient, i.e., whether infinitely many particles visit the origin or not.

  1. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  2. Acronyms of dying versus patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkić, Amina; Zwick, Anna

    2012-06-01

    In medical practice in Germany and several other countries abbreviated orders linked to end-of-life decisions, such as DNR (do not resuscitate), are increasingly used. In order to investigate their legal status, this article gives an overview of the recently passed German law, which regulates the process of end-of-life decision-making and the use of living wills, giving primacy to patient autonomy. Concerning the risk of misinterpretation of acronyms, the article describes the impacts of such orders on patient autonomy and safety and suggests a clear systematic classification of the different DNR orders in order to investigate their legal status under the German law. Their general binding force is to be acknowledged, depending on its origination and the fulfilment of certain requirements.

  3. Governing Urban Development For Local Energy Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Radzi, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Energy independence based on renewable resources has become an important goal for communities around the world. A number of local governments have either achieved such self-sufficiency based on energy autonomy strategies or are pursuing the goal as a determined planning target. This sets an important precedent for others to also consider transforming their conventional energy systems to one based on local renewable energy. While energy models can determine a local area's technical capacity fo...

  4. Cognitive Architectures and Autonomy: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thórisson, Kristinn; Helgasson, Helgi

    2012-05-01

    One of the original goals of artificial intelligence (AI) research was to create machines with very general cognitive capabilities and a relatively high level of autonomy. It has taken the field longer than many had expected to achieve even a fraction of this goal; the community has focused on building specific, targeted cognitive processes in isolation, and as of yet no system exists that integrates a broad range of capabilities or presents a general solution to autonomous acquisition of a large set of skills. Among the reasons for this are the highly limited machine learning and adaptation techniques available, and the inherent complexity of integrating numerous cognitive and learning capabilities in a coherent architecture. In this paper we review selected systems and architectures built expressly to address integrated skills. We highlight principles and features of these systems that seem promising for creating generally intelligent systems with some level of autonomy, and discuss them in the context of the development of future cognitive architectures. Autonomy is a key property for any system to be considered generally intelligent, in our view; we use this concept as an organizing principle for comparing the reviewed systems. Features that remain largely unaddressed in present research, but seem nevertheless necessary for such efforts to succeed, are also discussed.

  5. Lunar and Mars Exploration: The Autonomy Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Cynthia M.; Schuh, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Long duration space flight crews have relied heavily on almost constant communication with ground control mission support. Ground control teams provide vehicle status and system monitoring, while offering near real time support for specific tasks, emergencies, and ensuring crew health and well being. With extended exploration goals to lunar and Mars outposts, real time communication with ground control teams and the ground s ability to conduct mission monitoring will be very limited compared to the resources provided to current International Space Station (ISS) crews. An operational shift toward more autonomy and a heavier reliance on the crew to monitor their vehicle and operations will be required for these future missions. NASA s future exploration endeavors and the subsequent increased autonomy will require a shift in crew skill composition, i.e. engineer, doctor, mission specialist etc. and lead to new training challenges and mission scenarios. Specifically, operational and design changes will be necessary in many areas including: Habitat Infrastructure and Support Systems, Crew Composition, Training, Procedures and Mission Planning. This paper will specifically address how to apply ISS lessons learned to further use ISS as a test bed to address decreased amounts of ground support to achieve full autonomous operations for lunar and Mars missions. Understanding these lessons learned and applying them to current operations will help to address the future impacts of increased crew autonomy for the lunar and Mars outposts and pave the way for success in increasingly longer mission durations.

  6. Does Remuneration for Plasma Compromise Autonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lucie

    2015-12-01

    In accordance with a recent statement released by the World Health Organization, the Canadian province of Ontario is moving to ban payment for plasma donation. This is partially based on contentions that remuneration for blood and blood products undermines autonomy and personal dignity. This paper is dedicated to evaluating this claim. I suggest that traditional autonomy-based arguments against commodification of human body parts and substances are less compelling in the context of plasma donation in Canada, but that there is another autonomy-based objection to paid plasma donation that has not received sufficient attention. Namely, the stigma that surrounds exchanging plasma for payment makes it difficult to make an autonomous decision to engage in this activity. I suggest that this problem can be overcome in one of two ways; by banning payment for plasma, or by reducing the stigma surrounding this practice. I provide an indication of how we might work to achieve the latter, contending that this possibility should be taken seriously, due to the difficulties in achieving a sufficient supply of plasma without remuneration.

  7. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  8. Personal autonomy and the flexible school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Aharon

    1993-09-01

    The paper starts by emphasizing the importance of the ideal of personal autonomy as a central educational aim within liberal-democratic thought. Although this ideal has been accorded different meanings in the past 200 years, this paper focuses on J. S. Mill's view of autonomy - a very influential view within the liberal tradition and one still relevant for us today. The basic educational recommendation stemming from Mill's view of this ideal is the need to encourage "experimentation in living" by young people to enable them to discover their authentic wishes, capabilities and interests and to exercise themselves in the formation of "life-plans". The paper points to the sharp contradiction between democratic educational thought and practice: between the ideal of autonomy and the prevailing rigid and closed school structure which usually prevents true experimentation in living. It explains this contradiction as stemming from didactic and social considerations that were valid in industrial democratic societies. The paper's main claim is that due to the electronic revolution and its social consequences, the validity of these considerations is drastically and rapidly eroding in post-industrial democratic societies, and that, therefore, a much more flexible and open school structure is today not only desirable but also didactically and socially possible. The paper ends by presenting the "School as a Communications Center" model of a flexible school that reflects the above rationale. This model is now in the first stage of its implementation at a comprehensive high-school in Beer-Sheva, Israel.

  9. Autonomie, Qualitat von Schulen und staatliche Steuerung: Chancen und Risiken von Schulautonomie (Autonomy, the Quality of Schools, and State Control: Chances and Risks of "School Autonomy").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dietlind; Rolff, Hans-Gunther

    1997-01-01

    Sketches major arguments in the discussion on school autonomy and links these with debates on school quality. Argues that although autonomy may entail debureaucratization, it does not require the withdrawal of the state. Shows how concepts of market and competition in pedagogical contexts differ from those in economic contexts. (DSK)

  10. Motivating protégés' personal learning in teams: a multilevel investigation of autonomy support and autonomy orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Fu, Ping-Ping

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the roles of 3 multilevel motivational predictors in protégés' personal learning in teams: an autonomy-supportive team climate, mentors' autonomy support, and protégés' autonomy orientation. The authors followed 305 protégés in 58 teams for 12 weeks and found that all 3 predictors were positively related to the protégés' personal learning in teams and that an autonomy-supportive team climate augmented the effects of mentors' autonomy support and protégés' autonomy orientation on protégés' personal learning in teams. Protégés' personal learning in teams mediated the interactive effects of an autonomy-supportive team climate with mentors' autonomy support or protégés' autonomy orientation on protégés' behavioral and attitudinal outcomes, including their organizational citizenship behaviors and job involvement. The findings of this study provide business researchers and practitioners with valuable insights into the management of autonomy.

  11. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  12. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  13. Integrating over Higgs branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nekrasov, N. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatashvili, S. [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    We develop some useful techniques for integrating over Higgs branches in supersymmetric theories with 4 and 8 supercharges. In particular, we define a regularized volume for hyperkaehler quotients. We evaluate this volume for certain ALE and ALF spaces in terms of the hyperkaehler periods. We also reduce these volumes for a large class of hyperkaehler quotients to simpler integrals. These quotients include complex coadjoint orbits, instanton moduli spaces on R{sup 4} and ALE manifolds, Hitchin spaces, and moduli spaces of (parabolic) Higgs bundles on Riemann surfaces. In the case of Hitchin spaces the evaluation of the volume reduces to a summation over solutions of Bethe ansatz equations for the non-linear Schroedinger system. We discuss some applications of our results. (orig.)

  14. Working-time autonomy as a management practice

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Allowing workers to control their work hours (working-time autonomy) is a controversial policy for worker empowerment, with concerns that range from increased shirking to excessive intensification of work. Empirical evidence, however, supports neither view. Recent studies find that working-time autonomy improves individual and firm performance without promoting overload or exhaustion from work. However, if working-time autonomy is incorporated into a system of family-friendly workplace practi...

  15. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A.; Croiset, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT) classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching. PMID:25953033

  16. Adaptive Introspection and Deployment for Robust Long Duration Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Duration Autonomy Nathan Michael, Sebastian Scherer Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh PA, 15213-3890 phone: (412) 268...7816 fax: (412) 268-1338 email: nmichael@cmu.edu, scherer@cmu.edu Award Number: N000141310821 LONG-TERM GOALS Long duration autonomy ...integrative experimental framework toward evaluating the approaches developed through the first two tasks. Task 1: Introspection for Robust Autonomy

  17. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A. Kusurkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion: Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion: Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  18. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT) classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  19. Autonomy or dependence – or both?: perspectives from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Joe; Camfield, Laura; Gough, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The idea of personal autonomy is central to many accounts of\\ud eudaimonic well-being. Yet it is often criticized as a Western concept celebrating individualism and independence over group obligations and interdependence or dependence. This paper rejects this view and argues that coherent accounts of autonomy must always recognize the interdependence of people in groups, and that autonomy can coexist with substantial relationships of dependence. It illustrates this drawing on evidence from Ba...

  20. Patient autonomy and relatives' right to know genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbar, Roy

    2007-12-01

    One of the most difficult issues doctors face is a conflict between their professional duties. Such a conflict may arise when doctors know that information has implications not only for patients but also for family members but their duty of confidentiality prevents them from disclosing it. A comparative analysis of English and Israeli medical law reveals that the doctors' duty is based on two principles: a liberal perception of patient autonomy and an overriding utilitarian principle of prevention of harm. However, socio-medical research indicates that these principles do not entirely reflect the views of patients and doctors and are too narrow to deal with the complex situations in practice. Thus, it is argued that the doctor's legal duty of confidentiality should be reconsidered and qualified when it concerns the family. It is suggested that if medical law seeks to recognize the various interests family members have in genetic information then we should consider a different approach, founded on a relational interpretation of autonomy and communitarian notions of solidarity and moral responsibility. This approach perceives confidentiality and privacy as embracing the family unit, based on the view that close relatives are not entirely outside the private sphere of the individual but rather are integral to his or her identity. Thus, to the utilitarian mechanism available in medical law this approach adds a social criterion: The effect any decision (to disclose or not to disclose) will have on the familial relationship and on the dynamics of the particular family. This will provide a more flexible and workable alternative for doctors to resolve familial tensions over access to genetic information.

  1. The Development of Learner Autonomy in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨粉平

    2012-01-01

      Learner autonomy has been gradually acknowledged as one of the ultimate goals of language learning and teaching. Thus, it becomes a necessity to cultivate students' learner autonomy in foreign language teaching. It can practice students' independency and cultivate students' aptitude. The present paper defines learner autonomy and elaborates the factors contributing to its development, such as strategies, attitudes, motivation, etc. It is hoped that the modern English teaching can be received by great many students. Ultimately, language is learnt by individuals and then learners can use their own language. In teaching practice, we should pay attention to develop the learner autonomy.

  2. Learning to Foster Autonomy: The Role of Teacher Education Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayo Reinders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increased appreciation of the interrelationship between learner autonomy and teacher autonomy, both in the classroom and in the self-access centre. One obvious impact on learners’ autonomy is their teachers’ understanding of what autonomy means, and their ability to implement it in the classroom. Especially for beginning teachers, knowledge of learner autonomy is likely to be shaped in large part by the professional training they receive and the amount of attention given to the topic during their teacher education. It is therefore important to ask to what extent teacher training courses prepare teachers for fostering autonomy, including those teachers working in self-access centres. This study attempts to answer that question by critically investigating a range of popular teacher training course materials widely used in professional programmes worldwide. We apply an evaluative framework to identify 1 what information teachers are given about learner autonomy, and 2 the extent to which the materials cover the teaching of different skills for independent learning. Perhaps surprisingly, despite the growing interest in autonomy, it was found that the selected books included almost no information about learner autonomy at all and did not, with one or two minor exceptions, focus on the development of skills for supporting autonomous learning.

  3. Autonomy and reason: treatment choice in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Mary

    2012-10-01

    The practice of offering choice to those women with breast cancer for whom either breast conserving surgery or mastectomy would be equally beneficial has come to be seen as an important aspect of medical care. As well as improving satisfaction with treatment, this is seen as satisfying the ethical principle of respect for autonomy. A number of studies, however, show that women are not always comfortable with such choice, preferring to leave treatment decisions to their surgeons. A question then arises as to the extent that these women can be seen as autonomous or as exercising autonomy. This paper argues, however, that the understanding of autonomy which is applied in current approaches to breast cancer care does not adequately support the exercise of autonomy, and that the clinical context of care means that women are not able to engage in the kind of reasoning that might promote the exercise of autonomy. Where respect for autonomy is limited to informed consent and choice, there is a danger that women's interests are overlooked in those aspects of their care where choice is not appropriate, with very real, long-term consequences for some women. Promoting the exercise of autonomy, it is argued, needs to go beyond the conception of autonomy as rational individuals making their own decisions, and clinicians need to work with an understanding of autonomy as relational in order to better involve women in their care.

  4. Women's Status, Autonomy, and Fertility in Transitional Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Samari, Goleen

    2015-01-01

    Among the 22 Arab countries, Egypt ranks amongst the worst for the treatment of women. Additionally, in the last 6 years, fertility surged to a 20-year high of 3.5 births per woman. Poorer women’s status and autonomy is often linked to high fertility; however, little is known about the factors that shape women’s autonomy and fertility in Egypt. This study evaluates determinants of women’s autonomy and the relationship between autonomy and fertility over time in a representative, longitudinal ...

  5. Oughtonomy in healthcare. A deconstructive reading of Kantian autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisch, Ignaas

    2010-11-01

    For years now, autonomy has been discussed as one of the central values in health care. Understood as self-realization, it is opposed to paternalism which is conceived as an intolerable occurrence of heteronomy. Although different concepts have been developed to nuance this opposition, when it comes to health care discourse, heteronomy is still the enemy of autonomy. In our article, we defend the thesis that autonomy is only achievable as heteronomy. We are not arguing for an expansion of the meaning of autonomy, but are attempting to conduct an analysis which lays bare the 'disrupting' attendance of heteronomy within the principle of autonomy. Autonomy does not begin where heteronomy ends, but can only begin if heteronomy is already involved. To emphasize this, we prefer to elaborate a new concept: 'oughtonomy'. This concept is inspired by Jacques Derrida's distinction between 'difference' and 'differance'. We will develop the concept of oughtonomy from a deconstructive reading of Kant's idea of autonomy, inspired by philosophers such as Jacob Rogozinski, Jean-Luc Nancy and others. In addition to a first exploration of this concept, this article also discusses the possible consequences of oughtonomy for current debates concerning health care. Our quest for a new understanding of autonomy is motivated by the concern that, although the accent on autonomy as self-realization and independence has many advantages, we should also bear in mind the countless disadvantages.

  6. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  7. Adolescent autonomy revisited: clinicians need clearer guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Joe; Larcher, Victor

    2016-08-01

    In 1996, Brazier and Bridge raised the question 'is adolescent autonomy truly dead and buried' following judicial decisions which had seemed to reverse the Gillick-inspired trend for greater child autonomy in healthcare. Subsequent decisions by the courts have reinforced the view that those below 18 years in England and Wales remain children with limited rights to refuse treatment compared with adults. This is at variance with the daily experience of those working with young people who increasingly seek to actively involve them in making freely informed decisions about their healthcare, in accordance with the principles enunciated in the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child and the UK Children Acts. We review the derivation of the law in England and Wales in this area, in the light of another recent family court judgement enforcing treatment on a 'competent' child without his or her consent and ask: 'How can the Common Law and the ethical practice of those caring for young people have diverged so far?' Either young people can decide whether to have a recommended treatment, or they cannot. Given Ian McEwan's book, the Children Act, has stimulated wider social debate in this area might this be an opportune moment to seek public policy resolution with regards to healthcare decision making by young people? We argue that events since the Gillick case have underlined the need for a comprehensive review of legal policy and practice in this area. While absolute autonomy and freedom of choice are arguably inconsistent with the protection rights that society has agreed are owed to children, healthcare practitioners need clarity over the circumstances in which society expects that autonomous choices of adolescents can be overridden.

  8. Exploring human autonomy effectiveness: Project logic and its effects on individual autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); M.R. Muñiz Castillo (Mirtha)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe have proposed elsewhere an alternative analytical framework for project evaluation and a criterion of ‘human autonomy effectiveness’ to examine the effects of aid projects on the lives, opportunities and capacities of participants (Muñiz Castillo & Gasper, 2009). A project is human-au

  9. Respect for personal autonomy, human dignity, and the problems of self-directedness and botched autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores the value of respect for personal autonomy in relation to clearly immoral and irrational acts committed freely and intentionally by competent people. Following Berlin's distinction between two kinds of liberty and Darwall's two kinds of respect, it is argued that coercive suppression of nonautonomous, irrational, and self-harming acts of competent persons is offensive to their human dignity, but not disrespectful of personal autonomy. Irrational and immoral choices made by competent people may claim only the negative liberty to be left alone. Lives disposed to autonomy are worthy of solidarity and active support in addition to the right of free choice and action. Autonomous premeditated desires (distinguished from mere consent) may embody transcendental choices, which transcend consideration of physical and psychological well-being. Choices made by incompetent persons (e.g., children and the mentally disabled) are not related to autonomy, but to self-directedness. The value of human dignity confers protection to self-directedness, but not at the expense of other vital interests.

  10. The Relationship between Teacher's Autonomy Support and Students' Autonomy and Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Juan L.; Fernández, Celia; León, Jaime; Grijalvo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    What makes a student feel vital and energetic? Using the self-determination framework, we analyzed how the behavior and feelings of students depend on social factors such as the teachers' attitudes. The goal of the study was to test an integrated sequence over a semester in which teacher's autonomy support acts as a predictor of…

  11. Autonomie, reconnaissance et stress au travail

    OpenAIRE

    Loriol, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Pour rendre compte des conditions responsables du stress et des atteintes à la santé mentale dans le travail, la psychologie sociale se réfère principalement à deux modèles théoriques : le modèle de Karasek en termes d'exigences et d'autonomie et celui de Siegrist qui met en relation l'investissement dans le travail et la reconnaissance. Le manque de reconnaissance est devenu une plainte fréquente de la part d'un grand nombre de salariés. Cela peut rendre compte de l'augmentation, ces 20 dern...

  12. Learner Autonomy, Self Regulation and Metacognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feryal CUBUKCU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Different theories try to explain why some students are more successful than the others. Phenomenologists (Mc Combs, 1989 study self concepts of the students and find such students prone to achieve more. Attributional Theorists (Dweck, 1986; Weiner, 2005 focus on personal outcome such as effort or ability. Metacognitive theorists (Pressley, 2000; Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2007 examine students’ self regulated learning strategies whereas Constructivists (Maxim, 2009; Paris & Byrnes, 1989 believe supportive environments are important to be successful. In this study, the metacognitive theory will be given more importance and the purpose of the article is to find the correlation between self regulation, metacognition and autonomy.

  13. DECENTRALIZATION, ELIGIBILITY OF AUTHORITIES AND CONSULTATION OF CITIZENS - EVIDENCE OF THE OCCURRENCE OF AUTONOMY IN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAHARIA PETRONELA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Being important for the proper functioning of the management activity conducted at the local public administration level, local autonomy cannot occur without the support coming from other rules of organization and functioning of local administrative system. From this perspective, in this paper we propose to analyze the content of decentralization, eligibility of authorities and consultation of citizens in solving local problems, in order to highlight how each of these principles demonstrates the efficiency of autonomy. Moving power from central public administration authorities to local authorities in the decentralization process, making authorities of administrative-territorial units eligible and the involvement of local community members in solving problems affecting them are clear evidence of the occurrence of autonomy in local public administration management.

  14. Joint reproductive autonomy: does Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd provide for a gender-neutral approach to assisted reproductive rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Assisted reproductive technology encompasses methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. Whilst these methods are more commonly used by couples suffering from problems of infertility, some forms of assistance are employed by fertile couples, for example pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. The overall regulatory framework in the UK is predominantly found in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990. The usual rules relating to consent and autonomy apply and were discussed in depth in Evans v Amicus Healthcare Ltd and later in Evans v United Kingdom. This paper considers whether the Evans litigation envisages the possibility of further encouraging joint autonomy in the use of zygotes and whether there is a continuing right to autonomy by the party not bearing the pregnancy.

  15. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  16. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  17. 31 CFR 359.71 - What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Miscellaneous Provisions § 359.71 What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches? (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches are fiscal agents of the United States..., Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 925 Grand...

  18. 31 CFR 351.86 - What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Miscellaneous Provisions § 351.86 What is the role of Federal Reserve Banks and Branches? (a) Federal Reserve Banks and Branches are fiscal agents of the United States...), Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. Federal Reserve Bank of...

  19. How do pressure from above, mindset and motivation influence the autonomy supportive teaching style?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Tineke; Kamans, Elanor; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Wolfensberger, Marca

    2016-01-01

    Presentation Self Determination Conference in Victoria BC, 2-5 June 2016 Autonomy supportive teachers provide autonomy, structure learning activities and connect with their students (Belmont, Skinner, Wellborn, & Connell, 1988). Autonomy supportive teachers increase students levels of intrinsic moti

  20. How do pressure from above, mindset and motivation influence the autonomy supportive teaching style?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Marca Wolfensberger; Drs. Tineke Kingma; Dr. Elanor Kamans; Dr. Marjolein Heijne-Penninga

    2016-01-01

    Presentation Self Determination Conference in Victoria BC, 2-5 June 2016 Autonomy supportive teachers provide autonomy, structure learning activities and connect with their students (Belmont, Skinner, Wellborn, & Connell, 1988). Autonomy supportive teachers increase students levels of intrinsic moti

  1. How do pressure from above, mindset and motivation influence the autonomy supportive teaching style?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Marca Wolfensberger; Drs. Tineke Kingma; Dr. Elanor Kamans; Dr. Marjolein Heijne-Penninga

    2016-01-01

    Presentation Self Determination Conference in Victoria BC, 2-5 June 2016 Autonomy supportive teachers provide autonomy, structure learning activities and connect with their students (Belmont, Skinner, Wellborn, & Connell, 1988). Autonomy supportive teachers increase students levels of intrinsic

  2. Extending an Olive Branch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Why the Obama administration is trying to repair relations with the Muslim world After finishing his busy schedule at the G20 summit, the NATO summit, and the summit between the lEuropean Union and the United States, U.S. President Barack Obama arrived in Ankara on April 5 for a two-day visit to

  3. L’AUTONOMIE DU CONTRAT DE TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana CĂLIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The autonomy of the transport contract was developed over time having as basis few elements of legislation. Practice was the one that, in need of moving goods and persons, outlined the elements that are the basis of the transport contract. It was said that it is a civil or a commercial contract, which is distinguished by the quality of trader or non-trader of the carter. The essential element that distinguishes it from other contracts is that during the execution of the transport contract there are involved three persons, namely: the consignor, the carter and the consignee.The legal form and the autonomy of the transport contract result from the fact that there is a real and a consensual contract, that has an economic content in different ways; the parties of the transport contract must understand that the general conditions on the ability to control the consent lawfully expressed, has a determined object, licit and moral feature and the form required by law. It is a commutative contract. The transport contract is concluded in written form. E. Cristoforeanu, Constantin Stătescu, Cezare Vivante investigated about the autonomy’s development and stability of the transport contract. Such distinguished personalities expressed their opinions regarding the definition of transport contract as an autonomous contract, even though it borrowed elements of civil law and commercial law.

  4. 村民自治视域下的道德自治%Moral Autonomy under Villagers' Autonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫琴

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of villagers' autonomy in rural areas should contain.the full content of so- cial development, namely, political autonomy, economic autonomy, cultural autonomy, moral autonomy, etc.. Moral autonomy is the foundation and prerequisite. The rule of virtue as a concept of governing the country is divided into two modes: moral heteronomy and moral autonomy. So far, our country' s rule of virtue is still at the stage of moral heteronomy, the real moral autonomy has not yet been realized. Before the implementation of villagers' moral autonomy, it is very difficult to establish the true sense of the mod- ern, democratic autonomy model in rural China. The prerequisite for villagers' moral autonomy is the es- tablishment of the awareness of moral subjectivity, the key is to enhance the public spirit.%农村推行的村民自治,应包含社会发展的全部内容,即政治自治、经济自治、文化自治、道德自治等。道德自治是农村村民自治的基础和前提。德治作为一种治国的理念,分道德他治和道德自治两种模式。目前,我国的德治还处在道德他治阶段,真正的道德自治还未实现。在村民道德自治实现以前,中国农村很难建立起真正意义上的现代民主自治模式。村民道德自治的前提是道德主体意识的确立,其关键是公共精神的弘扬。

  5. Autonomous functioning of the goitre; Funktionelle Autonomie der Schilddruese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emrich, D. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin

    1994-12-01

    The article summarizes the status of knowledge on functional autonomy of the thyroid gland from the standpoint of definition, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment. (orig.) [Deutsch] In einer Uebersicht werden die bisherigen Befunde und Kenntnisse ueber die funktionelle Autonomie der Schilddruese unter den Gesichtspunkten Definition, Pathogenese und Pathophysiologie, Epidemiologie, Diagnostik und Therapie zusammengefasst. (orig.)

  6. Issues of promoting learner autonomy in EFL context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichugova Inna L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focuded on investigating the phenomenon of learner autonomy, which has mostly been explored in Europe and the USA and is now attracting attention of researchers and academics in many other countries including Russia. Learner autonomy through a focus on learner reflection and taking responsibility for one’s own learning processes has become a central concern in the recent history of language teaching. However, many language teachers, who are committed to concepts of learnercentredness and autonomy, struggle with the ways to foster learner autonomy or at least to encourage the idea of learner autonomy in language classroom. The study aims at investigating what the most important issues which have a great impact on developing learner autonomy are. Having given special attention to conditions which can insure development of learner autonomy, a model covering seven issues relating to the subject matter has been designed. The authors state that such aspects as choice, goals and needs, support, emotional climate, learning strategies, learner attitude and motivation, and self-esteem should be considered as the goal to promote learner autonomy in EFL context.

  7. Autonomy and the Student Experience in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicholas Ron

    2013-01-01

    The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a Self-Determination Theory perspective with two studies. Study I, a correlational study, investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (vs. controlling) students…

  8. Worker autonomy and the drama of digital networks in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This essay considers the impact of digital networks in organizations on worker autonomy. Worker autonomy, the control that workers have over their own work situation, is claimed in this essay to be a key determinant for the quality of work, as well as an important moral goal. Digital networks pose s

  9. Worker Autonomy and the Drama of Digital Networks in Organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breij, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This essay considers the impact of digital networks in organizations on worker autonomy. Worker autonomy, the control that workers have over their own work situation, is claimed in this essay to be a key determinant for the quality of work, as well as an important moral goal. Digital networks pose s

  10. Relations among Autonomy, Attribution Style, and Happiness in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Susan L.; Chang, Kelly B.; Miller, Kristen S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a personal sense of autonomy supports individuals' success in a variety of domains, but information regarding these processes remains unclear. This paper attempts to establish a link between personal autonomy and cognitive processes, in the form of attributions for success and failure, in establishing a sense of…

  11. 40 CFR 73.86 - State regulatory autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State regulatory autonomy. 73.86 Section 73.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... regulatory autonomy. Nothing in this subpart shall preclude a State or State regulatory authority...

  12. Discovery learning and learner autonomy development in secondary vocational school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芩利

    2015-01-01

    It is imperative to cultivate learner autonomy in secondary vocational school and discovery learning is a good choice.The author reviews the definition and principle of discovery learning and learning autonomy,concludes the adaptation of discovery learning from characteristics of vocational students,andfinally illustrates an example in teaching.

  13. An Investigation of Learner Autonomy in Turkish EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the teachers' perceptions as to what extent learners should be involved in decision making processes concerning the general aspects of learner autonomy. The primary aim of the research was to find out learning autonomy perceptions of Turkish prospective teachers of English. It is also aimed to explore the effect of gender…

  14. Teaching for Learner Autonomy: The Teacher's Role and Sociocultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feryok, Anne

    2013-01-01

    What is the role of the teacher in developing learner autonomy? The limited research in this area is seldom situated in theory and often based on self-reported data. This study is situated in sociocultural theory and draws on two constructs, the zone of proximal development and imitation, to explain the teacher's role in developing autonomy. The…

  15. The Portfolio Effect: Enhancing Turkish ELT Student-Teachers' Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Rana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the use of portfolios to develop ELT major student-teachers' autonomy. The research was carried out for 14 weeks with twenty-one 3rd grade student-teachers in the English Language Teaching Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey. To evaluate the impact of portfolios on fostering the participants' autonomy, data…

  16. Evaluation of Existing Situation of University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces four studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. At the same time it discusses the methodology employed in the study, provide a brief introduction to the higher education sector in Moldova and summaries key findings from...... the evaluation of organizational, financial, HR and academic autonomy in Moldova....

  17. Evaluation of Existing Situation of University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces four studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. At the same time it discusses the methodology employed in the study, provide a brief introduction to the higher education sector in Moldova and summaries key findings from...... the evaluation of organizational, financial, HR and academic autonomy in Moldova....

  18. Transactional Distance and Autonomy in a Distance Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiloudis, G.; Koutsouba, M.; Giossos, Y.; Mavroidis, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the transactional distance between the students and the tutor as well as the autonomy of students in a postgraduate course of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). The aim of the paper is to examine how the relation between autonomy and transactional distance evolves during an academic year and how this relation is affected by…

  19. Iranian EFL Students' Emotional Intelligence and Autonomy in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify EFL learners' conceptions of autonomy and whether their autonomy was correlated with their emotional intelligence. The research was carried out with the participation of 110 learners at Distance Education University in Urmia, Iran. Questionnaires were emailed to the participants. Results of statistical analyses…

  20. Higher Education Governance and University Autonomy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of the paper is to examine the scope of university autonomy and extent of government control on higher education (HE) through mapping out the complexity of centralised decentralisation of HE. It consists of three major parts. University autonomy is critically analysed in the first section by examining regulative rules and opinions…

  1. Academic Autonomy for Adult Degree Programs: Independence with Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Judson

    2012-01-01

    North Park University's adult program has moved steadily from a centralized governance structure toward a more distributed structure in many ways. The School of Adult Learning hires its own faculty, some of whom are full time in the adult program. The school also has autonomy over academic policy. Ultimately, this academic autonomy has fostered…

  2. Relations among Autonomy, Attribution Style, and Happiness in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Susan L.; Chang, Kelly B.; Miller, Kristen S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a personal sense of autonomy supports individuals' success in a variety of domains, but information regarding these processes remains unclear. This paper attempts to establish a link between personal autonomy and cognitive processes, in the form of attributions for success and failure, in establishing a sense of subjective…

  3. Documenting Different Domains of Promotion of Autonomy in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Pelucchi, Sara; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Parental promotion of autonomy for offspring well-being has been widely recognized in developmental psychology. Recent studies, however, show that this association varies across cultures. Such variation may reflect inappropriate measurement of this dimension of parenting. Therefore, three existing measures of promotion of autonomy were used to…

  4. Maternal autonomy and low birth weight in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Priyanka; Anderson, Alex K

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) is a major public health issue in India (30.0%) and is the highest among South-Asian countries. Maternal autonomy or the mother's status in the household indicates her decision-making power with respect to movement, finance, healthcare use, and other household activities. Evidence suggests that autonomy of the mother is significantly associated with the child's nutritional status. Although previous studies in India reported the determinants of LBW, literature on the association between mother's autonomy and birth weight are lacking. This study, therefore, aims to examine the influence of maternal autonomy on birth weight of the newborn. The study, a secondary data analysis, examined data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Family Survey (NFHS 3) of India. A maternal autonomy score was created through proximal component factor analysis and categorized as high, medium, and low autonomy levels. The main outcome variable included birth weight of the index child obtained from health cards and mother's recall. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results from the study indicate that 20.0% of the index children included in the analysis were born at LBW. Low maternal autonomy was an independent predictor of LBW (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.53, p=0.007) after adjusting for other factors, and medium autonomy level was not significant. These findings clearly indicate the importance of empowering women in India to combat the high incidence of LBW.

  5. Learner Autonomy and Learning Strategies in EFL Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭薇

    2009-01-01

    Autonomy is one of the goals of EFL teaching.And strategy training is an important approach to developing autonomy.This paper briefly reviews the theories and researches on learning strategies,including the definitions,classifications of the learning strategies,and how to prepare for and implement strategy training.

  6. Discovery learning and learner autonomy development in secondary vocational school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芩利

    2015-01-01

    It is imperative to cultivate learner autonomy in secondary vocational school and discovery learning is a good choice.The author reviews the definition and principle of discovery learning and learning autonomy,concludes the adaptation of discovery learning from characteristics of vocational students,and finally illustrates an example in teaching.

  7. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more...

  8. Relations among Autonomy, Attribution Style, and Happiness in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Susan L.; Chang, Kelly B.; Miller, Kristen S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a personal sense of autonomy supports individuals' success in a variety of domains, but information regarding these processes remains unclear. This paper attempts to establish a link between personal autonomy and cognitive processes, in the form of attributions for success and failure, in establishing a sense of subjective…

  9. Women's autonomy and maternal health-seeking behavior in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemicael, Gebremariam; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their health seeking behavior in Ethiopia. We hypothesize that women with higher autonomy are more likely to seek health care during pregnancy and delivery than those with lower autonomy. The paper also examines whether the autonomy-health utilization relationship is influenced by individual (education, work status, religion) and, household (wealth and rural-urban residence) level factors, all of which are important for both autonomy and health-care utilization. Results indicate that women's autonomy remains significant even after adjusting for other individual and household variables. Besides autonomy, our results highlight other individual and household level influences on the health seeking behaviors of women in Ethiopia. Results also demonstrate the need to look beyond individual level factors when examining the health seeking behaviors of women in Ethiopia. The statistical significance of some individual-level measures, such as education means it cannot be used as proxy for women's autonomy. This calls for policy makers not only to empower women, but also provide them with better formal education.

  10. Does less autonomy erode women's health? Yes. No. Maybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Craig; Brewis, Alexandra; Pike, Ivy

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of health is a central objective of human biology and related fields. Female autonomy is hypothesized to be an important determinant of women's health as well as demographic outcomes. The literature relating women's health to their everyday autonomy has produced conflicting results, and this may be due in part to the application of different measures of autonomy and different measures of health. Using secondary data from a large nationally representative study, this study examines the relationship between multiple measures of female autonomy and three measures of wellbeing among women living in Uzbekistan (n = 5,396). The multivariate results show that women's autonomy related to freedom of movement is associated with lower levels of depression symptomatology and lower systolic blood pressure. Respondents who assert that women should have control over their bodies also had lower odds of high depression symptoms and lower diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, women with greater decision-making autonomy were more likely to be classified as having high depressive symptomatology and higher diastolic blood pressure. Building on recent work, we suggest that these associations might reflect varying levels of agreement between men and women, and we provide some limited evidence to support this. This study stands as a theoretical and methodological cautionary note by suggesting that the relationship between autonomy and health is complex. Further, if differences in gender agreement underlie differences in the predictive accuracy of autonomy scales, then human biology researchers will need to begin collecting identical data from men and women.

  11. Italian Adaptation of the "Autonomy and Relatedness Coding System"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ingoglia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the applicability of the observational technique developed by Allen and colleagues (Allen, Hauser, Bell, & O’Connor, 1994; Allen, Hauser, et al., 2003 to investigate the issues of autonomy and relatedness in parent-adolescent relationship in the Italian context. Thirty-five mother-adolescent dyads participated to a task in which they discussed a family issue about which they disagree. Adolescents were also administered a self-report measure assessing their relationship with mothers. Mothers reported significantly higher levels of promoting and inhibiting autonomy, and promoting relatedness behaviors than their children. Results also suggested a partial behavioral reciprocity within the dyads, regarding promoting and inhibiting relatedness, and inhibiting autonomy. Finally, mothers’ inhibiting autonomy behaviors positively correlated to teens’ perception of their relationship as conflicting; adolescents’ inhibiting and promoting autonomy and inhibiting relatedness behaviors positively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness, while promoting relatedness behaviors negatively correlated to open confrontation, rejection and coolness. The results suggest that, for Italian mothers, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with being involved in a more negative relationship with their children, even if not characterized by open hostility, while for Italian adolescents, behaviors linked to autonomy seem to be associated with threatening the closeness of the relationship. Globally, the findings suggest that the application of this observational procedure may help our understanding of youth autonomy and relatedness development in Italy, but they leave unanswered questions regarding its appropriate adaptation and the role played by cultural differences.

  12. School Autonomy, Leadership and Student Achievement: Reflections from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarivirta, Toni; Kumpulainen, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide national information on school autonomy, leadership and student achievements in Finland. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a literature review on Finnish studies focusing on school autonomy, leadership and student achievement. The studies have been reviewed on the basis of a content…

  13. Foucault, Educational Research and the Issue of Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssen, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This article seeks to demonstrate a particular application of Foucault's philosophical approach to a particular issue in education: that of personal autonomy. The paper surveys and extends the approach taken by James Marshall in his book "Michel Foucault: Personal Autonomy and Education." After surveying Marshall's writing on the issue I extend…

  14. Dutch dilemmas: Decentralization, school autonomy and professionalization of teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, P.; Wesselingh, A.

    1995-01-01

    The policy of decentralisation of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science is aimed at increasing the autonomy of schools. This policy is also considered an appropriate strategy for the revitalisation of the teaching profession. Decentralisation, school autonomy and professionalisation a

  15. Merger and autonomy: reaping the benefits of both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D B

    1987-01-01

    Although often reluctant to risk loss of autonomy and control, Catholic health care organizations should consider the opportunities to accommodate local autonomy and affiliation or merger. As the acute care industry consolidates into increasingly larger systems, the price of maintaining absolute autonomy may be too high. Organizations must ask: How much autonomy can we afford? Do the benefits of complete autonomy outweigh its disadvantages in light of marketplace pressures to join into larger organizations? Alliances and joint ventures allow participants to retain a significant degree of autonomy, but long-term benefits are limited. Mergers and affiliations, however, do offer long-term benefits, and they may be structured to achieve an appropriate balance between autonomy and centralized control. By selecting among organizational and functional options, sponsors, boards, and managers can preserve characteristics they consider essential. A broad range of organizational and functional options is available, which ensure flexibility if used correctly. Organizational options include mergers, consolidations, and affiliations, which may make use of parent and superparent organizations, operating corporations, and management companies. Functional options include the use of management divisions, membership powers, voting rights, nomination and election provisions, and ex officio positions. The combination of options that will best resolve conflict between consolidation and autonomy depends on specific circumstances.

  16. Documenting Different Domains of Promotion of Autonomy in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Pelucchi, Sara; Fincham, Frank D.

    2012-01-01

    Parental promotion of autonomy for offspring well-being has been widely recognized in developmental psychology. Recent studies, however, show that this association varies across cultures. Such variation may reflect inappropriate measurement of this dimension of parenting. Therefore, three existing measures of promotion of autonomy were used to…

  17. Attachment, Autonomy, and Emotional Reliance: A Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a test of a multilevel model investigating how attachment security and autonomy contribute to emotional reliance, or the willingness to seek interpersonal support. Participants ("N" = 247) completed online measures of attachment, autonomy, emotional reliance, and vitality with respect to several everyday…

  18. Recognition Denial, Need for Autonomy, and Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Some adolescents develop an especially strong need for autonomy, desiring to be "their own boss" and determined to follow their own rules. Previous research indicates that an exaggerated need for autonomy is associated with aggression and other problem behaviors. Yet little is known about the origins of such "me-first" attitudes. Why do some young…

  19. Zen and the art of physician autonomy maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinertsen, James L

    2003-06-17

    The miracles of scientific medicine propelled physicians to an unparalleled level of clinical autonomy during the 20th century. During the past 20 years, physician autonomy has been declining, in part because the public has become aware that physicians are not consistently applying all of the science they know. One of medicine's most cherished professional values, individual clinical autonomy, is an important cause of the sometimes suboptimal performance in the timely and consistent application of clinical science; thus, it contributes to the decline in overall professional autonomy. This paper calls for physicians to practice the science of medicine as a profession so that society will allow physicians to continue practicing the art of medicine as individual professionals. In a Zen-like paradox, physicians must give up autonomy in order to regain it.

  20. FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN PARADIGM OF THE PERSONAL AUTONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikova Eleonora Yurievna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the interrelation of a personal autonomy and professional identity. The purpose of research consists in revealing predictors of professional identity as initiation of a personal autonomy of student's youth. Methodology / Approach / Methods. The discourse-analysis on a problem of a personal autonomy and professional identity, toolkit of psychological diagnostics (diagnostic techniques of a level of subjective control, personal orientation and life sense orientations, creative potential, tolerance index and statuses of professional identity, mathematic analysis of the received empirical data have been used for achievement of the purpose. The results of research show and prove correlation of such factors of an personal autonomy as the responsibility, creative potential, tolerance, values of sense life and status of professional identity. Practical implications. The results of research can be applied in higher school's educational practice for development of a personal autonomy of training youth.

  1. Iranian ESP Learners’ Perceptions of Autonomy in Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieyeh Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy regarded challenging in EFL contexts, because of the teacher-fronted learning situation, and as literature suggests there is a need for research in areas related to autonomy to measure students’ perceptions and evaluate their preparation before the implementation. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not, this group of law major students attending English for specific purposes course are ready to be involved in autonomous language learning. For this reason Learner Autonomy Questionnaire designed based on Chan, Humphreys, and Spratt (2002’s Autonomy Questionnaire and Oxford (1990’s Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL and distributed among 133 law major students at the Law Department of University of Guilan. The analysis of results showed that ESP students are not ready for autonomy and they gave most of the important decisions of their learning to their teachers.

  2. Learner Autonomy in University English Classrooms: Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew Yen Dwee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While much has been written on the concept and development of learner autonomy, limited studies have investigated the perceptions and classroom practices of teachers in fostering learner autonomy. This paper sets out to examine what teachers think about learner autonomy as well as the strategies they use to develop autonomous learners in a university setting using a qualitative approach. Five English teachers were selected using purposive sampling and a semi-structured interview was conducted with each of them to obtain in-depth data on their perceptions and teaching practices revolving around autonomous learning. The findings revealed that although university teachers possessed a fair understanding of what learner autonomy involves, there was a lack of focus in terms of developing learner autonomy in the classroom due to a number of challenges such as lack of teacher readiness, passive student attitude as well as the relevance and timing of English courses within the university curriculum.

  3. 'It's my life': autonomy and people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristín; Stefánsdóttir, Guðrún V; Stefánsdóttir, Ástríður

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses autonomy in the lives of adults with intellectual disabilities. The article draws on inclusive research in Iceland with 25 women and 16 men and employs ideas of relational autonomy from the perspectives of the Nordic relational approach to disability. In this article, we examine autonomy in relation to private life, that is, homes and daily activities. The article demonstrates how practices have improved with time and seem less paternalistic. However, the article also demonstrates that the assistance people with intellectual disabilities receive in their homes often has institutional qualities, and they are often met with belittling perspectives from staff and family members. Furthermore, many did not have access to important information needed to develop individual autonomy and independence, including making their own choices. The research findings suggest that people with intellectual disabilities can with appropriate support develop individual autonomy and make their own choices.

  4. Why job autonomy matters for young companies' performance: company maturity as a moderator between job autonomy and company performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Howaldt, J.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.O.; Jansen, E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the positive impact of job autonomy has been widely shown for individual-level employee outcomes, research on job autonomy and company-level outcomes has been surprisingly scarce. Therefore, among 3,311 companies in the Netherlands, we investigate the relationship between employees' job aut

  5. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  6. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  7. [The assessment of autonomy in elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaim, C; Froger, J; Compan, B; Pélissier, J

    2005-07-01

    The assessment of autonomy in elderly people relies on various instruments that aim to evaluate and follow up patients, to measure the burden of care for the medical staff, or to properly distribute health budgets. In this article, we describe 3 clinical scales traditionally employed by gerontologists and specialists in geriatric rehabilitation. We intentionally left out generic scales such as the Barthel index and the Functional Independence Measure, which are well known by physiatrists. The Katz index is a scale of Activities of Daily Living, and the Lawton test is a scale of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. We paid special attention to the AGGIR classification, which is the actual legal instrument for evaluating dependency in elderly in France, and whose first application is health resources management.

  8. Defense Science Board Summer Study on Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Autonomy completed  its information gathering in August 2015. The report was cleared for open  publication by the DoD Office of  Security  Review on June 1...operation  CRASH  Clean‐Slate Design of Resilient, Adaptive,  Secure  Hosts  DARPA  Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency  DCA  defensive counter air...DIA  Defense Intelligence Agency  DISA  Defense Information Systems Agency  DLA  Defense Logistics Agency  DNS   domain name service  DoD  Department

  9. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Lockerby, Duncan A.

    2016-07-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray's law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray's law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows.

  10. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  11. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  12. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  13. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  14. Radiation effects on branched polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    We observed crosslinking and scission caused by gamma radiation in linear and branched polysilanes which have from 5% to 33% of the branching points. The crosslinking reactions become predominant for the irradiation with branching density increasing. The cleavage did not take place exclusively at the branching points and branching polysilanes are sensitive to radiation extraordinary as compared with linear polysilane from a careful study of the radiolysis products of a series of polysilanes. This is due to the increasing Si {center_dot} contributing to the crosslinking reaction and that they are not resonance-stabilized by double bonds as the reaction mechanism in the irradiated polysilanes. However, the gelation curve in linear PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} is almost consistent with that in branching PMPS, indicating that the size of chemical track is responsible for the gel fraction. The crosslinking G value for high molecular weight PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} was drastically decreased as compared with that for low molecular weight. It suggests that there are a large number of intramolecular crosslinking points for high molecular weight PMPS. (author)

  15. Bolivie, de l'autonomie à l'éclatement ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Blanchard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Le référendum sur l'autonomie départementale qui s'est tenu le 4 mai 2008 dans le département de Santa Cruz, à l'est de la Bolivie, semble menacer l'unité du pays. La crise politique qui en a résulté témoigne de la fracture croissante qui sépare la Bolivie des hautes terres, bastion du président Evo Morales, emblème de la nouvelle gauche latino-américaine et de la défense des droits des peuples indigènes, et la Bolivie plus riche des plaines qui revendique son autonomie.On the 4th of may 2008, a referendum was held in the department of Santa Cruz, in eastern Bolivia : the results seem to threaten the country's unity. The ongoing political crisis is a sign of the growing gap dividing Bolivia. The poor Bolivian highlands are Evo Morales's electoral basis - the president, leader of the new Latin-American political leftwing, is an eager defender of the rights of indigenous people -, whereas the wealthier and whiter lowlands are claiming for more autonomy.

  16. Clinical guidelines and the fate of medical autonomy in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolt, S G

    1997-04-01

    Conceptually, clinical guidelines and professional autonomy have a paradoxical relationship. Despite being the quintessence of medical knowledge at the corporate level, guidelines diminish the clinical autonomy of individual practitioners, and therefore threaten medicine's justification for its autonomy. Theorists have argued that professional autonomy will be retained through elite dominance of practitioners, while comparative research suggests that economic autonomy can be traded off to retain clinical autonomy. Under government pressure to regulate the growth of Ontario physicians' fee-for-service public expenditure, the profession's representative organization, the Ontario Medical Association (OMA), promoted voluntary clinical guidelines, hoping to both constrain costs and preserve professional control over the content of medical care. The OMA collaborated with the Ministry of Health in developing guidelines and establishing a provincial centre for health service research. Ontario's practitioners disregarded the OMA's exhortations to implement clinical guidelines, suggesting that in the absence of external constraints, practitioners can subvert elite dominance. However, practitioners' unchecked clinical and economic autonomy, combined with evidence of wide provincial variations in medical care, served to legitimize the government's increasingly unilateral control over the schedule of insured medical services, and, in 1993, their imposition of a global cap on physicians' fee-for-service income pool. When analysed in the context of ongoing Ministry-OMA relations, the failure of the OMA's guidelines strategy to constrain medical service costs has expedited an overall decline in medical autonomy in Ontario. The emergence and course of Ontario's clinical guidelines movement is consistent with the view that medical autonomy is contingent upon broad class forces, and the conceptualization of professional organizations as instruments for mediated occupational control.

  17. Functional autonomy of distant-acting human enhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2009-02-19

    Many human genes are associated with dispersed arrays of transcriptional enhancers that regulate their expression in time and space. Studies in invertebrate model systems have suggested that these elements function as discrete and independent regulatory units, but the in vivo combinatorial properties of vertebrate enhancers remain poorly understood. To explore the modularity and regulatory autonomy of human developmental enhancers, we experimentally concatenated up to four enhancers from different genes and used a transgenic mouse assay to compare the in vivo activity of these compound elements with that of the single modules. In all of the six different combinations of elements tested, the reporter gene activity patterns were additive without signs of interference between the individual modules, indicating that regulatory specificity was maintained despite the presence of closely-positioned heterologous enhancers. Even in cases where two elements drove expression in close anatomical proximity, such as within neighboring subregions of the developing limb bud, the compound patterns did not show signs of cross-inhibition between individual elements or novel expression sites. These data indicate that human developmental enhancers are highly modular and functionally autonomous and suggest that genomic enhancer shuffling may have contributed to the evolution of complex gene expression patterns in vertebrates

  18. Twentieth-Century Latin American Literary Studies and Cultural Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1920s, when scholars first began to specialize in Latin American writing, the subject of Latin American literary studies has grown from a small subset of Spanish and Portuguese literary research and teaching to become the largest field within Hispanism and a significant presence in comparative literature. The expansion of their place in the academic world has often prompted students of Latin American literature to wonder whether, in being swept into the mainstream, their field has not left out of account the historical situations of Latin American nations. These reflections lead critics back to a problem that has troubled Latin American thinkers since Independence: the achievement, or erosion, of cultural autonomy. Though undeniably close to major powers, the Latin American nations are unequal partners in trade and cultural exchange. Corresponding to their uneven and shifting relations with Europe and later the United States, their cultural life evolves following a distinctive historical dynamic. This article considers recent efforts by scholars and essayists to characterize the features that distinguish Latin America from more politically and economically advantaged nations. Special attention goes to those scholars who, drawing on anthropological research, examine communicative and expressive practices of indigenous origin, and those who borrow from economic theory to view Latin America as shaped by its history of dependence on more powerful nations and regions.

  19. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disrespect for diversity only when it is understood as a character ideal that must be promoted as an end in itself. If it by contrast...... is understood as something we should presume everyone possesses, it provides a strong basis for equal respect among people from diverse cultures. A Kantian conception of autonomy can justify the right to freedom of expression while it at the same time requires that we in the exercise of freedom of expression...

  20. INCREASING METROLOGICAL AUTONOMY OF IN-PLANT MEASURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Mykyychuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors offer to solve the problem of providing traceability of measurements by increasing metrological autonomy of in-plant measuring systems. The paper shows the expedience of increasing metrological autonomy by creating a "virtual" reference. There are analysed possible variants of implementation of the "virtual" reference, which will provide high metrological stability of measurements at insignificant additional expenses. The authors point out the necessity of creation of universal technical and programmatic means of mutual comparison for the in-plant measuring systems to increase the reliability of measurements in the conditions of metrological autonomy.

  1. Authenticity or autonomy? When deep brain stimulation causes a dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Felicitas

    2013-12-01

    While deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease has typically raised ethical questions about autonomy, accountability and personal identity, recent research indicates that we need to begin taking into account issues surrounding the patients' feelings of authenticity and alienation as well. In order to bring out the relevance of this dimension to ethical considerations of DBS, I analyse a recent case study of a Dutch patient who, as a result of DBS, faced a dilemma between autonomy and authenticity. This case study is meant to point out the normatively meaningful tension patients under DBS experience between authenticity and autonomy.

  2. Principles of branch formation and branch patterning in Hydrozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra produces buds which separate from the parent. Other Hydrozoa produce branches which remain connected to the parent, thus forming a colony. Some Hydrozoa grow by means of an organ that is like a shoot apical meristem. Others display a sympodial type of growth. In this article, I propose that these different types of branches are organized by a common pattern-forming system. This system has self-organizing properties. It causes branch tip formation and is kept active in the tip when the tip finally differentiates into a hypostome of a polyp. The system does not cause structure formation directly but rather, determines a tissue property called positional value, in such a way that a gradient of values forms in the tissue of the bud or branch. The local value determines the local morphodynamic processes, including differentiation of the hypostome (highest positional value), tentacles and basal disc and of the exoskeleton pattern along the shoot. A high positional value favors the onset of a new self-organizing process and by lateral inhibition, such a process prevents the initiation of a further process in its surroundings. Small quantitative differences in the range of the signals involved determine whether a bud or a branch forms and whether monopodial and sympodial growth follows.

  3. The Relationship between University Autonomy and Funding in England and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to re-examine the effects of funding on university autonomy since the relationship between university autonomy and funding is likely to be interpreted as a linear effect; namely, the more funding the greater autonomy. Such a simplistic vision is less than complete since it ignores the complicated nature of university autonomy. The…

  4. Don't Always Prefer My Chosen Objects: Low Level of Trait Autonomy and Autonomy Deprivation Decreases Mere Choice Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eShang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Choice effect is a robust phenomenon in which even mere choice that does not include actual choosing actions could result in more preference for the self-chosen objects over other-chosen objects. In the current research, we proposed that autonomy would impact the mere choice effect. We conducted two studies to examine the hypothesis. The results showed that the mere choice effect measured by Implicit Association Test (IAT significantly decreased for participants with lower levels of trait autonomy (Study 1 and when participants were primed to experience autonomy deprivation (Study 2. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  5. Photovoltaic measurements and performance branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, S. E.; Dippo, P.

    1990-05-01

    The Photovoltaic (PV) Measurements and Performance Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) provides comprehensive PV materials, device and component characterization, measurement, fabrication, and modeling research and support for the international PV research community in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's PV m goals. The progress of the Branch is summarized. The seven technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups; Surface and Interface Analysis, Materials Characterization, Device Development, Electro-Optical Characterization, Cell Performance, Advanced Module Testing and Performance, and Surface and Interface Modification and Stability. The main research projects completed in FY 1989 are highlighted including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of the more than 80 branch-originated journal and conference publications which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 130 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  6. Effect of Autonomy Support on Self-Determined Motivation in Elementary Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Chang, Senlin Chen, Kun-Wei Tu, Li-Kang Chi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the quasi-experimental design, this study examined the effect of autonomy support on self-determined motivation in elementary school physical education (PE students. One hundred and twenty six participants were assigned to either the autonomy support group (n = 61 or the control group (n = 65 for a six-week intervention period. Perceived teacher autonomy, perceived autonomy in PE, and self-determined motivation in PE were pre- and post-tested using validated questionnaires. Significant increases in perceived teacher autonomy and perceived autonomy in PE were observed in the autonomy support group, but not in the control group. Intrinsic motivation was higher in the autonomy support group than that in the control group. From an experimental perspective, these findings suggest that the autonomy support was successfully manipulated in the PE classes, which in turn increased the students’ perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation.

  7. Effect of Autonomy Support on Self-Determined Motivation in Elementary Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chen, Senlin; Tu, Kun-Wei; Chi, Li-Kang

    2016-09-01

    Using the quasi-experimental design, this study examined the effect of autonomy support on self-determined motivation in elementary school physical education (PE) students. One hundred and twenty six participants were assigned to either the autonomy support group (n = 61) or the control group (n = 65) for a six-week intervention period. Perceived teacher autonomy, perceived autonomy in PE, and self-determined motivation in PE were pre- and post-tested using validated questionnaires. Significant increases in perceived teacher autonomy and perceived autonomy in PE were observed in the autonomy support group, but not in the control group. Intrinsic motivation was higher in the autonomy support group than that in the control group. From an experimental perspective, these findings suggest that the autonomy support was successfully manipulated in the PE classes, which in turn increased the students' perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation.

  8. The Function of Autonomy in Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩辰

    2014-01-01

    Language teaching is a basic part of teaching and teachers’attention paid to it has been increasing.Researchers focus on learners’autonomy have been increasing and that is exactly the major concern of this research.

  9. Why Does China Adopt the System of Regional Ethnic Autonomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic autonomous areas have been set up throughout China where ethnic minorities live china practices regional autonomy for ethnic minorities, not other policies. It is the right choice based on China’s basic conditions.

  10. Onboard autonomy on the Three Corner Sat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S.; Engelhardt, B.; Knight, R.; Rabideau, G.; Sherwood, R.

    2001-01-01

    Three Corner Sat (3CS) is a mission of three university nanosatellites scheduled for launch on September 2002. The 3CS misison will utilize significan onboard autonomy to perform onboard science data validation and replanning.

  11. System-Level Autonomy Trust Enabler (SLATE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project will achieve trusted, reconfigurable, intelligent autonomy through system-level validation. The goal is to design and develop a representation and...

  12. the doctrine of party autonomy in international commercial arbitration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    1. INTRODUCTION. Conflict is unavoidable in human relationships. ..... efficiency and fairness in the dispute resolution process while allowing parties to exercise ..... evolved to act as checks and balances on the principle of party autonomy,.

  13. The relations between secrecy, rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Andreas A J; Van Assen, Marcel A L M; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two attachment-related variables on secrecy: rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness. We hypothesized that rejection sensitivity is positively associated with secrecy, and autonomy-connectedness negatively with rejection sensitivity and secrecy. These hypotheses were generally corroborated in a sample of 303 university students. Moreover, we found that autonomy-connectedness at least partly explained the association between rejection sensitivity and secrecy. Self-awareness was negatively related to secrecy, suggesting that being aware of what one needs and thinks and being able to realize one's needs in social interactions reduce the tendency to keep secrets. In addition, interesting gender effects were found suggesting that men have a higher tendency to have secrets than women after controlling for the effects of autonomy-connectedness and rejection sensitivity. Our findings deepen the insight into possible reasons behind established associations between rejection sensitivity and secrecy, and may have clinical implications.

  14. Systematization of nursing care in the perspective of professional autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Benchimol Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the perception of nurses about the systematization of nursing care in the perspective of professional autonomy. Methods: a descriptive and exploratory research, carried out with 24 nurses at five inpatient clinics of a large-scale public teaching hospital, through a structured questionnaire evaluated by experts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: nurses claimed that the systematization of nursing care promotes autonomy, emphasizing that the pursuit of knowledge for the development of systematization of nursing care is supported by an exchange of experiences among colleagues. Conclusion: applying the systematization of nursing care generates autonomy, demonstrating that nurses become more apt in developing it, thereby resulting in increased professional autonomy.

  15. The Impact of Autonomy Technology on Spacecraft Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, E. B., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Autonomy technology for high-level, closed-loop control of spacecraft offers considerable benefits to space-flight projects. Those benefits can enable whole new classes of missions; however, they are not without cost.

  16. Between Autonomy and Vulnerability : the Space of Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McDonald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of the contemporary alterglobalization movement increasingly emphasize dimensions of autonomy, whose ultimate origins lie in theories of agency understood as sovereignty. This paper argues that critical dimensions of the alterglobalization movement involve practices of embodied action and forms of responsibility that point beyond autonomy, to a paradigm of relational vulnerability. Recognising this is central to understanding ethics, agency, and subjectivity and to understanding movements as a space of experience.

  17. Research on the Judicial Relief System of Villagers’ Autonomy Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Starting from the division of the functions of the village committee,the use of self-government rights of the villagers was examined in view of the different functions.Judicial remedies should be screened whether or not the exercise of autonomy,as well as the main disputes in order to determine the specific litigation.The responsibility determination of the villagers’ autonomy rights prosecution in different circumstances is put forward.

  18. Direct-to-consumer genomics on the scales of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayena, Effy

    2015-04-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic services have generated enormous controversy from their first emergence. A dramatic recent manifestation of this is the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) cease and desist order against 23andMe, the leading provider in the market. Critics have argued for the restrictive regulation of such services, and even their prohibition, on the grounds of the harm they pose to consumers. Their advocates, by contrast, defend them as a means of enhancing the autonomy of those same consumers. Autonomy emerges as a key battle-field in this debate, because many of the 'harm' arguments can be interpreted as identifying threats to autonomy. This paper assesses whether DTC genomic services are a threat to, or instead, an enhancement of, personal autonomy. It deploys Joseph Raz's account of personal autonomy, with its emphasis on choice from a range of valuable options. It then seeks to counter claims that DTC genomics threatens autonomy because it involves manipulation in contravention of consumers' independence or because it does not generate valuable options which can be meaningfully engaged with by consumers. It is stressed that the value of the options generated by DTC genomics should not be judged exclusively from the perspective of medical actionability, but should take into consideration plural utilities. Finally, the paper ends by broaching policy recommendations, suggesting that there is a strong autonomy-based argument for permitting DTC genomic services, and that the key question is the nature of the regulatory conditions under which they should be permitted. The discussion of autonomy in this paper helps illuminate some of these conditions.

  19. The Decisonal Autonomy Defending the Right to Die With Dignity

    OpenAIRE

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas; Daniela Zilio

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to verify the possibility that the terminal patient, provided with decisional autonomy, can claim the right to die with dignity. To achieve the intent, it was done a bibliographic exploratory-explanatory research, qualitative, using the deductive method. Concluding that, even if the subject is polemic, the decisional autonomy deserves to be considered, including in the execution of the right to die with dignity, since it is intended to safeguard the human being in the most i...

  20. Trusted Autonomy and Cognitive Cyber Symbiosis: Open Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Abbass, Hussein A.; Petraki, Eleni; Merrick, Kathryn; Harvey, John; Barlow, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers two emerging interdisciplinary, but related topics that are likely to create tipping points in advancing the engineering and science areas. Trusted Autonomy (TA) is a field of research that focuses on understanding and designing the interaction space between two entities each of which exhibits a level of autonomy. These entities can be humans, machines, or a mix of the two. Cognitive Cyber Symbiosis (CoCyS) is a cloud that uses humans and machines for decision-making. In ...

  1. Women’s Autonomy in the Context of Rural Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zeba Ayesha Sathar; Shahnaz Kazi

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores the elements that constitute women’s autonomy in rural Pakistan. Hitherto most research on women’s status in Pakistan has either been restricted to proxy measures of women’s status generally or to the urban areas. Community or region, each of which has distinctive features, have an overriding influence on this subject. Northern Punjabi women have lower economic autonomy but greater mobility and decision-making authority than women in Southern Punjab. Gender systems at the v...

  2. Systematization of nursing care in the perspective of professional autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Benchimol Ferreira; Milca Severino Pereira; Adenicia Custódio Silva e Souza; Carlos Cristiano Oliveira de Faria Almeida; Alexandre Chater Taleb

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the perception of nurses about the systematization of nursing care in the perspective of professional autonomy. Methods: a descriptive and exploratory research, carried out with 24 nurses at five inpatient clinics of a large-scale public teaching hospital, through a structured questionnaire evaluated by experts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: nurses claimed that the systematization of nursing care promotes autonomy, emphasizing that the pursuit...

  3. Direct-to-consumer genomics on the scales of autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayena, Effy

    2015-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic services have generated enormous controversy from their first emergence. A dramatic recent manifestation of this is the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) cease and desist order against 23andMe, the leading provider in the market. Critics have argued for the restrictive regulation of such services, and even their prohibition, on the grounds of the harm they pose to consumers. Their advocates, by contrast, defend them as a means of enhancing the autonomy of those same consumers. Autonomy emerges as a key battle-field in this debate, because many of the ‘harm’ arguments can be interpreted as identifying threats to autonomy. This paper assesses whether DTC genomic services are a threat to, or instead, an enhancement of, personal autonomy. It deploys Joseph Raz's account of personal autonomy, with its emphasis on choice from a range of valuable options. It then seeks to counter claims that DTC genomics threatens autonomy because it involves manipulation in contravention of consumers’ independence or because it does not generate valuable options which can be meaningfully engaged with by consumers. It is stressed that the value of the options generated by DTC genomics should not be judged exclusively from the perspective of medical actionability, but should take into consideration plural utilities. Finally, the paper ends by broaching policy recommendations, suggesting that there is a strong autonomy-based argument for permitting DTC genomic services, and that the key question is the nature of the regulatory conditions under which they should be permitted. The discussion of autonomy in this paper helps illuminate some of these conditions. PMID:24797610

  4. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  5. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-01-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  6. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  7. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  8. Volitional Trust, Autonomy Satisfaction, and Engagement at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyns, Marita; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2017-01-01

    This study tested a structural model that identifies the nature of relationships between trust, autonomy satisfaction, and personal engagement at work. A cross-sectional survey design with a convenience sample ( n = 252) was used. The Behavioral Trust Inventory, Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. While reliance-based trust did not have a significant influence on engagement, disclosure-based trust in a focal leader was found to predict satisfaction of autonomy needs and employee engagement. Mediation analyses revealed that satisfaction of the need for autonomy facilitates the influence of trust on work outcomes. More specifically, disclosure (a dimension of trust) impacted engagement via autonomy satisfaction. Overall, the model explained 44% of total variance in engagement, to which the variables proportionately contributed as follows: autonomy satisfaction = 79.58%, disclosure = 18.22%, and reliance = 2.20%. The findings provide possible directions for how leaders can leverage trust to facilitate autonomy support and higher levels of engagement.

  9. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Religious Belonging, Religious Agency, and Women's Autonomy in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T

    2015-09-01

    Women's autonomy has frequently been linked with women's opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women's autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition-Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women's religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women's empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings.

  11. What does respect for the patient's autonomy require?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kam-Yuen

    2013-11-01

    Personal autonomy presupposes the notion of rationality. What is not so clear is whether, and how, a compromise of rationality to various degrees will diminish a person's autonomy. In bioethical literature, three major types of threat to the rationality of a patient's medical decision are identified: insufficient information, irrational beliefs/desires, and influence of different framing effects. To overcome the first problem, it is suggested that patients be provided with information about their diseases and treatment choices according to the objective standard. I shall explain how this should be finessed. Regarding the negative impact of irrational beliefs/desires, some philosophers have argued that holding irrational beliefs can still be an expression of autonomy. I reject this argument because the degree of autonomy of a decision depends on the degree of rationality of the beliefs or desires on which the decision is based. Hence, to promote patient autonomy, we need to eliminate irrational beliefs by the provision of evidence and good arguments. Finally, I argue that the way to smooth out the framing effects is to present the same information in different perspectives: it is too often assumed that medical information can always be given in a complete and unadorned manner. This article concludes with a cautionary note that the protection of patient autonomy requires much more time and effort than the current practice usually allows.

  12. Supporting Increased Autonomy for a Mars Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, Tara; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Dan; Bornstein, Ben; Judd, Michele; Anderson, Robert C.; Nesnas, Issa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture and a set of technology for performing autonomous science and commanding for a planetary rover. The MER rovers have outperformed all expectations by lasting over 1100 sols (or Martian days), which is an order of magnitude longer than their original mission goal. The longevity of these vehicles will have significant effects on future mission goals, such as objectives for the Mars Science Laboratory rover mission (scheduled to fly in 2009) and the Astrobiology Field Lab rover mission (scheduled to potentially fly in 2016). Common objectives for future rover missions to Mars include the handling of opportunistic science, long-range or multi-sol driving, and onboard fault diagnosis and recovery. To handle these goals, a number of new technologies have been developed and integrated as part of the CLARAty architecture. CLARAty is a unified and reusable robotic architecture that was designed to simplify the integration, testing and maturation of robotic technologies for future missions. This paper focuses on technology comprising the CLARAty Decision Layer, which was designed to support and validate high-level autonomy technologies, such as automated planning and scheduling and onboard data analysis.

  13. Empathy as a sense of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Rosfort, René

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine Jaspers' ambiguous approach to empathy. We start by situating Jaspers' notion of empathic understanding in the context of contemporary philosophical discussions of empathy. We distinguish a phenomenological approach to interpersonal understanding from two influential accounts of other minds, namely, theory-theory and simulation-theory, and then we contrast Jaspers' notion of empathic understanding with a phenomenological approach. We distinguish two basic kinds of empathy, a prereflective nonconative kind and a more reflective conative kind. Then we argue that Jaspers' philosophical conception of human nature as restless and undefinable autonomy makes him reject any kind of comprehensive attempt to understand other people. We try to make sense of this rejection by discussing the epistemological and ethical nature of his notorious 'theorem of incomprehensibility'. This eventually leads us, by way of conclusion, to sketch a method required for making sense of those experiences that cannot be understood via ordinary empathy. The key notion of this method is called 'second-order empathy'. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Learner autonomy development through digital gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Playing digital games is undeniably a popular leisure activity, and digital gaming is also gaining academic attention and recognition for enhancing digital literacies and learning motivation. One tricky issue when exploring digital gaming in Asian contexts is the popularity of English and Japanese games. Though Chinese and Korean online games are readily available, many of the more popular commercial off-the-shelf (COTS digital games are in English and Japanese. Students in Hong Kong are required to take English as a foreign language, which resulted in a huge range of proficiency, but Japanese is not offered at public schools. So, most Hong Kong gamers are playing foreign language games. Yet language barriers do not diminish the market demand for foreign language digital games. This paper explores the phenomenon of digital gaming in foreign languages. Based on findings from an on-going research project with ten undergraduate video gamers (F=4, M=6, this paper argues that gamers exercise learner autonomy by managing their gaming both as leisure and learning experiences.

  15. Marketing human organs: the autonomy paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P A; Thomasma, D C; Daar, A S

    1996-03-01

    The severe shortage of organs for transplantation and the continual reluctance of the public to voluntarily donate has prompted consideration of alternative strategies for organ procurement. This paper explores the development of market approaches for procuring human organs for transplantation and considers the social and moral implications of organ donation as both a "gift of life" and a "commodity exchange." The problematic and paradoxical articulation of individual autonomy in relation to property rights and marketing human body parts is addressed. We argue that beliefs about proprietorship over human body parts and the capacity to provide consent for organ donation are culturally constructed. We contend that the political and economic framework of biomedicine, in western and non-western nations, influences access to transplantation technology and shapes the form and development of specific market approaches. Finally, we suggest that marketing approaches for organ procurement are and will be negotiated within cultural parameters constrained by several factors: beliefs about the physical body and personhood, religious traditions, economic conditions, and the availability of technological resources.

  16. [Adult learning, professional autonomy and individual commitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardell-Alentá, H

    The concept of 'andragogy' is the basis of the adult education which is different from pedagogy in several aspects, particularly in the autonomy of the adult learner in choosing the educational programmes and the methodologies and sites in where learning occurs. This happens very often in the worksite. The professionals have to learn permanently during their active lives in order to maintain their competence updated. In this sense, continuing education correlates with continuing professional development, which is an attempt to enlarge the traditional domains of continuing education. Continuing education must be clearly differentiated from formal education, which is a requirement for granting professional degrees or titles. Very often it arises from the changing health needs and for this reason is necessary to avoid the institutionalization of continuing education programmes. Professional associations should be actively involved in providing and accrediting continuing education-continuing professional development programmes, because this involvement is an essential component of the professionals' self-regulation in the context of the current medical professionalism ideology.

  17. Psychiatric institutions, their architecture, and the politics of regional autonomy in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Leslie

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the planning process and architecture of two public psychiatric institutions built around 1900 in Trieste and Lower Austria. From 1864, the building of new asylums was the responsibility of Crown land governments, which by the end of the nineteenth century had emerged as sites of power and self-presentation by minority groups and new political parties. At the same time, the area of asylum planning was establishing itself as a branch of asylum psychiatry and promoting the idea of the asylum as model settlement, contributing to social reform. I analyse the interaction of psychiatrists, architects and government officials involved in planning the two institutions in the context of Crown land governments' self-positioning within the empire and internationally (especially in relation to Italy and Germany). The Trieste asylum planners were working for a government controlled by Italian nationalists, but their desire for a 'modern' asylum turned them towards German models. The Christian Social government in Lower Austria sought to supplant Germany as the leader in this branch of science. The spatial arrangement and visual articulation of the two asylums is interpreted in the context of the interaction of psychiatry and the politics of regional autonomy.

  18. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  19. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  20. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  1. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  2. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  3. Autonomy in robots and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, T

    1997-06-01

    The word "autonomous" has become widely used in artificial intelligence, robotics, and, more recently, artificial life and is typically used to qualify types of systems, agents, or robots: we see terms like "autonomous systems," "autonomous agents," and "autonomous robots." Its use in these fields is, however, both weak, with no distinctions being made that are not better and more precisely made with other existing terms, and varied, with no single underlying concept being involved. This ill-disciplined usage contrasts strongly with the use of the same term in other fields such as biology, philosophy, ethics, law, and human rights, for example. In all these quite different areas the concept of autonomy is essentially the same, though the language used and the aspects and issues of concern, of course, differ. In all these cases the underlying notion is one of self-law making and the closely related concept of self-identity. In this paper I argue that the loose and varied use of the term autonomous in artificial intelligence, robotics, and artificial life has effectively robbed these fields of an important concept. A concept essentially the same as we find it in biology, philosophy, ethics, and law, and one that is needed to distinguish a particular kind of agent or robot from those developed and built so far. I suggest that robots and other agents will have to be autonomous, i.e., self-law making, not just self-regulating, if they are to be able effectively to deal with the kinds of environments in which we live and work: environments which have significant large scale spatial and temporal invariant structure, but which also have large amounts of local spatial and temporal dynamic variation and unpredictability, and which lead to the frequent occurrence of previously unexperienced situations for the agents that interact with them.

  4. Controlling the autonomy of a reconnaissance robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgalarrondo, Andre; Dufourd, Delphine; Filliat, David

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we present our research on the control of a mobile robot for indoor reconnaissance missions. Based on previous work concerning our robot control architecture HARPIC, we have developed a man machine interface and software components that allow a human operator to control a robot at different levels of autonomy. This work aims at studying how a robot could be helpful in indoor reconnaissance and surveillance missions in hostile environment. In such missions, since a soldier faces many threats and must protect himself while looking around and holding his weapon, he cannot devote his attention to the teleoperation of the robot. Moreover, robots are not yet able to conduct complex missions in a fully autonomous mode. Thus, in a pragmatic way, we have built a software that allows dynamic swapping between control modes (manual, safeguarded and behavior-based) while automatically performing map building and localization of the robot. It also includes surveillance functions like movement detection and is designed for multirobot extensions. We first describe the design of our agent-based robot control architecture and discuss the various ways to control and interact with a robot. The main modules and functionalities implementing those ideas in our architecture are detailed. More precisely, we show how we combine manual controls, obstacle avoidance, wall and corridor following, way point and planned travelling. Some experiments on a Pioneer robot equipped with various sensors are presented. Finally, we suggest some promising directions for the development of robots and user interfaces for hostile environment and discuss our planned future improvements.

  5. A biochemistry laboratory course designed to enhance students autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laboratory sessions are responsible for promoting instrumentation skills desirable in biochemistry and biochemistry related careers. They are traditionally based on experimental protocols that lead to the expected results, and students usually have not autonomy to plan and execute their experiments. GOALS: This work aimed to enhance a traditional biochemistry lab course, applying pre-lab quizzes on protein biochemistry and lab techniques in order to have students better prepared to plan, execute and interpret experiments. This approach also aims to bring the laboratory sessions into an inquiry-based environment capable to improve students’ independent capabilities in 2 autonomy domains: learning and communication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Online quizzes are delivered one week before each laboratory session, containing questions regarding the experimental techniques and theoretical basis related to them. Laboratory activities are presented in an inquiry-based approach where the first class of each activity is dedicated to plan experiments in order to answer the research questions presented by instructors. Activities are also organized in order to enhance students’ autonomy. The first activity is the simplest and more instructor-controlled and the last one is the most complex and less driven, transferring gradually to students the responsibility for their decisions in laboratory, supporting students’ autonomy. RESULTS: Online quizzes allowed instructors to identify students’ difficulties and to timely intervene. Scientific reports presented by students at the end of each activity showed that they performed better on less driven activities in which autonomy support were more complex than in the instructor controlled activities. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific reports analysis reveals students capabilities related to different scopes of autonomy, such as: discuss different strategies; find multiple solutions to solve problems; make their

  6. Instructors' Support of Student Autonomy in an Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicholas; Webb, David

    2014-12-01

    The role of autonomy in the student experience in a large-enrollment undergraduate introductory physics course was studied from a self-determination theory perspective. A correlational study investigated whether certain aspects of the student experience correlated with how autonomy supportive (versus controlling) students perceived their instructors to be. An autonomy-supportive instructor acknowledges students' perspectives and feelings and provides students with information and opportunities for choice while minimizing external pressures (e.g., incentives or deadlines). It was found that the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was positively correlated with student interest and enjoyment in learning physics (β =0.31***) and negatively correlated with student anxiety about taking physics (β =-0.23**). It was also positively correlated with how autonomous (versus controlled) students' reasons for studying physics became over the duration of the course (i.e., studying physics more because they wanted to versus had to; β =0.24***). This change in autonomous reasons for studying physics was in turn positively correlated with student performance in the course (β =0.17*). Additionally, the degree to which students perceived their instructors as autonomy supportive was directly correlated with performance for those students entering the course with relatively autonomous reasons for studying physics (β =0.25**). In summary, students who perceived their instructors as more autonomy supportive tended to have a more favorable motivational, affective, and performance experience in the course. The findings of the present study are consistent with experimental studies in other contexts that argue for autonomy-supportive instructor behaviors as the cause of a more favorable student experience.

  7. Systems autonomy technology: Executive summary and program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, John S (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The National Space Strategy approved by the President and Congress in 1984 sets for NASA a major goal of conducting effective and productive space applications and technology programs which contribute materially toward United States leadership and security. To contribute to this goal, OAST supports the Nation's civil and defense space programs and overall economic growth. OAST objectives are to ensure timely provision of new concepts and advanced technologies, to support both the development of NASA missions in space and the space activities of industry and other organizations, to utilize the strengths of universities in conducting the NASA space research and technology program, and to maintain the NASA centers in positions of strength in critical space technology areas. In line with these objectives, NASA has established a new program in space automation and robotics that will result in the development and transfer and automation technology to increase the capabilities, productivity, and safety of NASA space programs including the Space Station, automated space platforms, lunar bases, Mars missions, and other deep space ventures. The NASA/OAST Automation and Robotics program is divided into two parts. Ames Research Center has the lead role in developing and demonstrating System Autonomy capabilities for space systems that need to make their own decisions and do their own planning. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has the lead role for Telerobotics (that portion of the program that has a strong human operator component in the control loop and some remote handling requirement in space). This program is intended to be a working document for NASA Headquarters, Program Offices, and implementing Project Management.

  8. Optimal branching asymmetry of hydrodynamic pulsatile trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florens, Magali; Sapoval, Bernard; Filoche, Marcel

    2011-04-29

    Most of the studies on optimal transport are done for steady state regime conditions. Yet, there exists numerous examples in living systems where supply tree networks have to deliver products in a limited time due to the pulsatile character of the flow, as it is the case for mammalian respiration. We report here that introducing a systematic branching asymmetry allows the tree to reduce the average delivery time of the products. It simultaneously increases its robustness against the inevitable variability of sizes related to morphogenesis. We then apply this approach to the human tracheobronchial tree. We show that in this case all extremities are supplied with fresh air, provided that the asymmetry is smaller than a critical threshold which happens to match the asymmetry measured in the human lung. This could indicate that the structure is tuned at the maximum asymmetry level that allows the lung to feed all terminal units with fresh air.

  9. Gauge Theories on the Coulomb Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, John H.

    We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in AdS5 × S5 with N units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the U(1) factor of 𝒩 = 4 U(N + 1) super Yang-Mills theory, spontaneously broken to U(N) × U(1) by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a highly effective action (HEA). We construct an SL(2, Z) multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that they reproduce the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a soliton bubble, which is interpreted as a phase boundary.

  10. Gauge Theories on the Coulomb branch

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, John H

    2014-01-01

    We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ with $N$ units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the $U(1)$ factor of ${\\cal N} =4$ $U(N+1)$ super Yang--Mills theory, spontaneously broken to $U(N) \\times U(1)$ by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a `highly effective action' (HEA). We construct an $SL(2,Z)$ multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that it reproduces the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a `soliton bubble', which is interpreted as a phase boundary.

  11. Streamers in air splitting into three branches

    CERN Document Server

    Heijmans, L C J; van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the branching of positive streamers in air and present the first systematic investigation of splitting into more than two branches. We study discharges in 100 mbar artificial air that is exposed to voltage pulses of 10 kV applied to a needle electrode 160 mm above a grounded plate. By imaging the discharge with two cameras from three angles, we establish that about every 200th branching event is a branching into three. Branching into three occurs more frequently for the relatively thicker streamers. In fact, we find that the surface of the total streamer cross-sections before and after a branching event is roughly the same.

  12. Autonomy Support, Self-Regulation, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Amy A.; Powers, Theodore A.; Koestner, Richard; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social support is believed to contribute to weight loss success, yet the type of support received is rarely assessed. To develop more effective weight loss interventions, examinations of the types of support that are associated with positive outcomes are needed. Self-Determination Theory suggests that support for an individual’s autonomy is beneficial and facilitates internalization of autonomous self-regulation. We examined whether autonomy support and directive forms of support were associated with weight loss outcomes in a larger randomized controlled trial. Method Adults (N = 201; 48.9 ± 10.5 years; 78.1% women) participating in a weight loss trial were assessed at 0, 6, and 18 months. Autonomy support (AS), directive support, and autonomous self-regulation (ASR) were measured at 0 and 6 months and examined in relation to 18-month weight loss outcomes. Results Baseline AS and ASR did not predict outcomes; however, AS and ASR at 6 months positively predicted 18-month weight losses (ps Autonomy support predicted better weight loss outcomes while some forms of directive support hindered progress. Weight loss trials are needed to determine whether family members and friends can be trained to provide autonomy support and whether this is more effective than programs targeting more general or directive forms of support. PMID:23730718

  13. Patient autonomy in chronic care: solving a paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reach G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Reach Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital AP-HP, and EA 3412, CRNH-IdF, Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France Abstract: The application of the principle of autonomy, which is considered a cornerstone of contemporary bioethics, is sometimes in obvious contradiction with the principle of beneficence. Indeed, it may happen in chronic care that the preferences of the health care provider (HCP, who is largely focused on the prevention of long term complications of diseases, differ from those, more present oriented, preferences of the patient. The aims of this narrative review are as follows: 1 to show that the exercise of autonomy by the patient is not always possible; 2 where the latter is not possible, to examine how, in the context of the autonomy principle, someone (a HCP can decide what is good (a treatment for someone else (a patient without falling into paternalism. Actually this analysis leads to a paradox: not only is the principle of beneficence sometimes conflicting with the principle of autonomy, but physician's beneficence may enter into conflict with the mere respect of the patient; and 3 to propose a solution to this paradox by revisiting the very concepts of the autonomous person, patient education, and trust in the patient–physician relationship: this article provides an ethical definition of patient education. Keywords: preference, autonomy, person, reflexivity, empathy, sympathy, patient education, trust, respect, care

  14. Measuring the e-Learning Autonomy of Distance Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Firat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided evidence that learner autonomy is an important factor in academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated the autonomy of distance education students in e-learning environments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the e-learning autonomy of distance education students who are responsible for their own learning. For this purpose, as the first step of the study, an e-learning autonomy scale was developed. Analyses of the validity and reliability of the scale were carried out with the participation of 1,152 distance education students from Anadolu University, Open Education System. The scale has an internal consistency coefficient of α = 0.952 and a single factorial model that explains 66.58% of the total variance. The scale was implemented with 3,293 students from 42 different programs. According to the findings, student autonomy in e-learning environments is directly proportional to level of ICT use but not affected by program or gender.

  15. Autonomy and dignity: a discussion on contingency and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brussel, Leen

    2014-06-01

    With dying increasingly becoming a medicalised experience in old age, we are witnessing a shift from concern over death itself to an interest in dying 'well'. Fierce discussions about end-of-life decision making and the permissibility of medical intervention in dying, discursively structured around the notion of a 'good' death, are evidence of this shift. This article focuses on 'autonomy' and 'dignity' as key signifiers in these discussions. Rather than being fully fixed and stable, both signifiers are contingent and carry a variety of meanings within different discursive projects. The article aims to distinguish the varieties of these signifiers by elaborating existing theoretical perspectives on autonomy and dignity, and also, starting from a perspective on mass media as sites of meaning production and contestation, to study the contingency of autonomy and dignity in Belgian newspaper coverage of four prominent euthanasia cases. By means of a discourse-theoretical textual analysis, this study exposes a dominant--yet contested--articulation of rational-personal autonomy and of dignity in external terms as something that can be obtained, retained or lost, rather than in terms of intrinsic human integrity. These logics of representation reflect a more general late modern dominance of liberal autonomy and of dignity as being closely connected to self-identity, but at the same time result in limited visibility of alternative ways of experiencing an autonomous and dignified death.

  16. DETERMINATION OF BRANCHING DISTRIBUTION IN HIGH cis-1,4-POLYBUTADIENE BY GPC AND AUTOMATIC VISCOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Benhui; JIN Riguang

    1984-01-01

    Based on the methods reported by Ambler and Kraus, a method has been developed for the determination of long-chain branching distribution in polymers by the combined use of GPC and intrinsic viscosity data of polymer fractions. In this method, gi, λi, Gi, mi, the weight percentage of polymer that is branched, etc. can be used simultaneously to characterize the distribution, degree and content of branching in polymers. Some relations between molecular weight polydispersity and branching polydispersity in Nickel-based high cis-1,4-polybutadiene samples are discussed. It was found that the number of long branches λ per unit molecular weight is a function of molecular weight and all of the samples are highly branched at a molecular weight of about 106.

  17. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  18. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  19. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Regions’ Economic Autonomy in the New Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Bochko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discloses the understanding of new reality (normality for Russia that consists in the strengthening of the role of a man-personality and in the expansion of the economic autonomy of the territories in their interaction with the federal center. The rationale is based on a hypothesis according to which in the conditions of new reality, the increase of the well-being of the population and the overcoming of economic inequality between the territories are provided by the expansion of their economic independence as it leads to the increase of their intellectual, engineering and manufacturing potential. In the research, the author used the basic concepts of the classical economic theory, the theory of behavioural economics, interdisciplinary approach and statistical grouping method. The dynamics of the economic independence of the territories, which is manifested in the decrease in a number of donor regions and the socio-economic dividing of the territories, is shown. The assumption is proved that the consequences of the territorial stratification are the restraining of the growth of their socio-economic development and possibility probable emergence of «regional peripheral economy» with the property of the dependence of the periphery on the center, the decrease in a local initiative, the inhibition of technological development. The need to use the social psychology of the population, the psychological sets of economic development, «the second invisible hand of the market» and soft power to overcome the «regional peripheral economy» is revealed. The result of the research is the proof that the expansion of the economic independence of the territories is not only the increase of the self-isolation of regions and municipalities, but also the need to save the considerable part of the income from the production of goods and services created by the local population under control of the regional and municipal authorities and direct it to the

  1. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  2. LOCAL PUBLIC 0 EXPENDITURE AUTONOMY – MEASURING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BILAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The decentralization process was continuous in Romania starting with 1990, generating the implication of local authorities in local public finance, as a result of exclusives, shared and delegate competences and, so, the necessity of ensuring a good management of resources and expenditures. Therefore, the decentralization of competences / responsibilities from State to local governments was a major Romanian political theme and a first rank component of management of local public finance, as main driving instrument for local development. Specific legal framework of local responsibilities is established both to European and national level. Researchers based on regulation and practice have tried to quantify the responsibilities developing different models to measure local revenue and expenditures autonomy. The paper aims is to identify some models for measuring local expenditure autonomy and to apply for Romania. The study is oriented to measure local expenditure autonomy in Romania using Bell, Ebel, Kaiser and Rojchaichainthorn's model.

  3. Social Support in Intimate Relationships: The Role of Relationship Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don, Brian P; Hammond, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    Prior research on effective support interactions in intimate relationships often focuses on support provision rather than how people seek support. The current study investigated how differences in relationship autonomy-authentic and self-determined relationship motivations-predicted the behavior and outcomes of couples ( N = 80) in support interactions. Results indicated that support seekers' motivation and behavior were the primary contributor to effective support interactions. Support seekers who were autonomously motivated tended to seek support in a more direct and positive manner, which in turn promoted greater levels of emotional, informational, and tangible support from their partners. The relationship autonomy of both the support provider and the support seeker also predicted better subjective experiences regardless of behavior, such as perceiving the interaction as more supportive. These results illustrate how relationship autonomy promotes well-being in relationships via support seeking behaviors, as well as positive interpretations and experiences of important relationship interactions.

  4. Examining Evidence for Autonomy and Relatedness in Urban Inuit Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Kelly E; Hastings, Paul D; Smylie, Janet K; Prince, Conrad

    2009-12-01

    Inuit have experienced significant lifestyle changes in the past 50 years. Most recently, urbanization has resulted in greater numbers of Inuit living in urban centres in southern Canada. Little is known about Inuit parenting, and nothing has been published on Inuit parenting in an urban context. The present study sought to address this gap by describing the parenting of Inuit living in a large Canadian city and examining emergent themes for evidence of autonomy and relatedness. In partnership with the Tungasuvvingat Inuit Family Resource Centre, 39 Inuit parents completed an interview about their parenting experiences. Based on interviews, major parenting themes included: child characteristics; parenting behaviours and beliefs; affection and love; stressors; and responsive and respectful parenting. The majority of parenting themes linked to relatedness, although there was evidence of autonomy in both parenting behaviours and child characteristics. Results are interpreted in light of the autonomy-relatedness framework and theoretical implications of findings are discussed.

  5. The Impact of Autonomy on Women’s Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyle Ortiz-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kabeer’s simple and illustrative definition of empowerment is “the expansion in people’s ability to make strategic life choices in a context where this ability was previously denied to them” (Kabeer, 1999: 437. Women’s empowerment, then, is conceptualized as an increase in agency over time. Little is it known about the importance of the effect of ‘self directed motivations and desires’ and autonomy on women’s agency. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationships among women’s autonomy and labor force participation along with their effects on women’s agency in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. For this, we use the structural equation modeling approach. Our results reveal that women’s autonomy and participation in the labor market positively influence their agency levels.

  6. [The social representation of nurse's professional autonomy in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Antônio Marcos Tosoli; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina

    2005-01-01

    The object of this study was the nurse's professional autonomy and had the following specific objectives: describe and analyze the social representations of the nurses 'professional role and analyze the professional autonomy-dependence binomial. As theoretical methodological reference it was chose the Social Representations Theory It was proceeded in-depth interviews with 30 nurses of the basic health system from a county in Rio de Janeiro state. To the data analysis it was used the Alceste 4.5 software. The software generated five classes, two express the professional formation/absorption and three the professional. Practice. The analytical categories were constituted from the dimensions in which the social representations express themselves: the conceptions, the positions and the professional practices autonomy.

  7. The interplay between autonomy and dignity: summarizing patients voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmar, Charlotte

    2013-11-01

    Patients have to be respected with dignity as the masters of their own lives. The problem, however, is that autonomy may become so dominant and the fundamental value of caring in professional nursing that the patient's dignity is affected. The aim of this article is to point out some of the issues with the interplay between autonomy, also called self-management and dignity. Given voice to the patient perspective the background is provided by cases from research conducted through qualitative interviews with patients and expanded by summarizing empirical research concerning the interplay between autonomy and dignity. The search strategy and the research question gave five empirical research papers and three theoretical studies and concept analyses. A concise overview of the relevant research contains information about all the major elements of the studies. The background research and an interpretative summary address new issues to be taken into account in dignity conserving care.

  8. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  9. The history of autonomy in medicine from antiquity to principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Toni C

    2017-06-10

    Respect for Autonomy (RFA) has been a mainstay of medical ethics since its enshrinement as one of the four principles of biomedical ethics by Beauchamp and Childress' in the late 1970s. This paper traces the development of this modern concept from Antiquity to the present day, paying attention to its Enlightenment origins in Kant and Rousseau. The rapid C20th developments of bioethics and RFA are then considered in the context of the post-war period and American socio-political thought. The validity and utility of the RFA are discussed in light of this philosophical-historical account. It is concluded that it is not necessary to embrace an ethic of autonomy in order to guard patients from coercion or paternalism, and that, on the contrary, the dominance of autonomy threatens to undermine those very things which have helped doctors come to view and respect their patients as persons.

  10. Notes on patients with disabilities autonomy in Spanish law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, María Luisa

    2013-12-01

    The U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities recognizes as the first of its general principles the "Respect for inherent dignity, individual autonomy including the freedom to make one's own choice, and independence of persons" (Art.3.a). With regard to health, States Parties recognize that persons with disabilities have the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health without being discriminated on the basis of disability (Article 25), which includes requiring health professionals to provide care of the same quality to persons with disabilities as to others, including on the basis of free and informed consent (subsection d).These guidelines must enlighten the interpretation of the Spanish legal system as for the scope of autonomy of people with disabilities. Nevertheless, they still bear some handicaps in order to preserve their autonomy from third-party interferences.

  11. Can Institutions of Autonomy Become Potentially “Subversive Institutions”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurko Hrvoje

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Institutions of autonomy3 in ethnically heterogeneous states have been conceived as a compromise between a desire to safeguard state unity and to partially accommodate the grievances of ethno-linguistic minorities. However, in practice, the institutions of autonomy often turn into a nucleus of a proto state of the ethno-linguistic minority. Instead of resolving the minority issue and stabilising the central state, they strengthen the local nationalism and secessionism, acting as centrifugal forces, or “subversive institutions”. Recently these processes have been noticed in several ethnically heterogeneous, developed Western democracies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether, and how, the institutions of autonomy influence the rise of peripheral nationalism and secessionism.

  12. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  13. Autonomy Architectures for a Constellation of Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    example, one mission proposed to succeed DS3 would have 18 spacecraft flying in formation in order to detect earth-sized planets orbiting other stars. A proposed magnetospheric constellation would involve 5 to 500 spacecraft in Earth orbit to measure global phenomena within the magnetosphere. This work describes and compares three autonomy architectures for a system that continuously plans to control a fleet of spacecraft using collective mission goals instead of goals or command sequences for each spacecraft. A fleet of self-commanding spacecraft would autonomously coordinate itself to satisfy high level science and engineering goals in a changing partially-understood environment making feasible the operation of tens or even a hundred spacecraft (such as for interferometry or plasma physics missions). The easiest way to adapt autonomous spacecraft research to controlling constellations involves treating the constellation as a single spacecraft. Here one spacecraft directly controls the others as if they were connected. The controlling "master" spacecraft performs all autonomy reasoning, and the slaves only have real-time subsystems to execute the master's commands and transmit local telemetry/observations. The executive/diagnostics module starts actions and the master's real-time subsystem controls the action either locally or remotely through a slave. While the master/slave approach benefits from conceptual simplicity, it relies on an assumption that the master spacecraft's executive can continuously monitor the slaves' real-time subsystems, and this relies on high-bandwidth highly-reliable communications. Since unintended results occur fairly rarely, one way to relax the bandwidth requirements involves only monitoring unexpected events in spacecraft. Unfortunately, this disables the ability to monitor for unexpected events between spacecraft and leads to a host of coordination problems among the slaves. Also, failures in the communications system can result in losing

  14. Caring in nursing homes to promote autonomy and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Maria; Häggström, Elisabeth; Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Pöder, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    Autonomy and participation are threatened within the group of older people living in nursing homes. Evidence suggests that healthcare personnel act on behalf of older people but are still excluding them from decision-making in everyday care. The purpose was to describe registered nurses' experience of caring for older people in nursing homes to promote autonomy and participation. A descriptive design with a phenomenological approach was used. Data were collected by semi-structured individual interviews. Analysis was inspired by Giorgi's method. Participants and research context: A total of 13 registered nurses from 10 nursing homes participated. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval was obtained from the Regional Research Ethics Committee. Informed consent was achieved and confidentiality guaranteed. The essence of caring for older people in nursing homes to promote autonomy and participation consisted of registered nurses' awareness of older people's frailty and the impact of illness to support health and well-being, and awareness of acknowledgement in everyday life and trusting relationships. Paying attention to older people by being open to the persons' wishes were aspects that relied on registered nurses' trusting relationships with older people, their relatives and surrounding healthcare personnel. The awareness reflected challenges in caring to promote older people's right to autonomy and participation in nursing homes. Registered nurses' strategies, hopes for and/or concerns about development of everyday life in nursing homes were revealed and mirrored their engagement in caring for older people. Awareness of older people's frailty in nursing homes and the importance of maintained health and well-being were described as the main source for promoting autonomy and participation. Everyday life and care in nursing homes needs to be addressed from both older people's and healthcare personnel's perspectives, to promote autonomy and participation for residents

  15. Limits to relational autonomy--the Singaporean experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha; Watkinson, Deborah S; Beng, Ng Lee

    2015-05-01

    Recognition that the Principle of Respect for Autonomy fails to work in family-centric societies such as Singapore has recently led to the promotion of relational autonomy as a suitable framework within which to place healthcare decision making. However, empirical data, relating to patient and family opinions and the practices of healthcare professionals in Confucian-inspired Singapore, demonstrate clear limitations on the ability of a relational autonomy framework to provide the anticipated compromise between prevailing family decision-making norms and adopted Western led atomistic concepts of autonomy. Evidence suggests that despite a growing infusion of Western influence, there is still little to indicate any major shift to individual decision making, particularly in light of the way society and healthcare are structured. Similarly, the lack of employing a shared decision-making model and data that discredit the notion that the complex psychosocial and cultural factors that affect the decision making may be considered "content neutral" not only prevents the application of relational autonomy but questions the viability of the values behind the Principle of Respect for Autonomy. Taking into account local data and drawing upon a wider concept of personhood that extends beyond prevailing family-centric ideals along with the complex interests that are focused upon the preservation of the unique nature of personhood that arises from the Ring Theory of Personhood, we propose and "operationalize" the employing of an authoritative welfare-based approach, within the confines of best interest decision making, to better meet the current care needs within Singapore. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The Myth of Cognitive AgencySubpersonal thinking as a cyclically recurring loss of mental autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Metzinger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This metatheoretical paper investigates mind wandering from the perspective of philosophy of mind. It has two central claims. The first is that on a conceptual level, mind wandering can be fruitfully described as a specific form of mental autonomy loss. The second is that most of what we call conscious thought is better analysed as a subpersonal process that more often than not lacks crucial properties traditionally taken to be the hallmark of personal-level cognition, such as mental agency, explicit, consciously experienced goal-directedness, or availability for veto control. I claim that for roughly two thirds of our life-time we do not possess mental autonomy (M-autonomy in this sense. Empirical data from research on mind wandering and nocturnal dreaming clearly show that phenomenally represented cognitive processing is mostly an automatic, non-agentive process and that personal-level cognition is an exception rather than the rule. This raises an interesting new version of the mind-body problem: How is subpersonal cognition causally related to personal-level thought? More fine-grained phenomenological descriptions for what we called conscious thought in the past are needed, as well as a functional decomposition of umbrella terms like mind wandering into different target phenomena and a better understanding of the frequent dynamic transitions between spontaneous, task-unrelated thought and meta-awareness.. In an attempt to lay some very first conceptual foundations for the now burgeoning field of research on mind wandering, the third section proposes two new criteria for individuating single episodes of mind-wandering, namely, the self-representational blink (SRB and a sudden shift in the phenomenological unit of identification (UI. I close by specifying a list of potentially innovative research goals that could serve to establish a stronger connection between mind wandering research and philosophy of mind.

  17. The myth of cognitive agency: subpersonal thinking as a cyclically recurring loss of mental autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzinger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This metatheoretical paper investigates mind wandering from the perspective of philosophy of mind. It has two central claims. The first is that, on a conceptual level, mind wandering can be fruitfully described as a specific form of mental autonomy loss. The second is that, given empirical constraints, most of what we call “conscious thought” is better analyzed as a subpersonal process that more often than not lacks crucial properties traditionally taken to be the hallmark of personal-level cognition - such as mental agency, explicit, consciously experienced goal-directedness, or availability for veto control. I claim that for roughly two thirds of our conscious life-time we do not possess mental autonomy (M-autonomy) in this sense. Empirical data from research on mind wandering and nocturnal dreaming clearly show that phenomenally represented cognitive processing is mostly an automatic, non-agentive process and that personal-level cognition is an exception rather than the rule. This raises an interesting new version of the mind-body problem: How is subpersonal cognition causally related to personal-level thought? More fine-grained phenomenological descriptions for what we called “conscious thought” in the past are needed, as well as a functional decomposition of umbrella terms like “mind wandering” into different target phenomena and a better understanding of the frequent dynamic transitions between spontaneous, task-unrelated thought and meta-awareness. In an attempt to lay some very first conceptual foundations for the now burgeoning field of research on mind wandering, the third section proposes two new criteria for individuating single episodes of mind-wandering, namely, the “self-representational blink” (SRB) and a sudden shift in the phenomenological “unit of identification” (UI). I close by specifying a list of potentially innovative research goals that could serve to establish a stronger connection between mind wandering research and

  18. Enhancing Learner Autonomy in an On-line Editing Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Wong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Little (1999 argues that in formal educational contexts, “the basis of learner autonomy is acceptance of responsibility for one’s own learning” (p.11. An autonomous learner takes responsibility for various aspects of learning (Benson & Voller, 1997; Holec, 1981. This study examines how learner autonomy opportunities were provided at various stages of writing in an on-line editing programme for a group of electronic engineering students and how the students took charge of their language learning when receiving feedback on their technical writing. The impact on their own learning effectiveness of the decisions students made is also discussed.

  19. Professional Autonomy and Security Risks of Journalists in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Garcés Prettel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between professional autonomy and security risks of journalists in Colombia. A correlational-transversal research was conducted with a sample of 751 journalists who filled out the questionnaire “Worlds of Journalism Study”. The results show significant differences on the attacks received by the journalists depending on gender, news beat, region, news media, years of experience, capacity and educational level of journalists. Attacks on journalists correlates positively with the autonomy to publish and write news on governments, armed forces, criminal gangs and structural social problems (poverty, status of ethnic minorities, socioeconomic inequality, environmental damage the latter being a predictor of high risk security.

  20. The Decisonal Autonomy Defending the Right to Die With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the possibility that the terminal patient, provided with decisional autonomy, can claim the right to die with dignity. To achieve the intent, it was done a bibliographic exploratory-explanatory research, qualitative, using the deductive method. Concluding that, even if the subject is polemic, the decisional autonomy deserves to be considered, including in the execution of the right to die with dignity, since it is intended to safeguard the human being in the most intimate aspects of one’s life and, because, choose the death with dignity doesn’t mean to give up from the right to life.

  1. Robot Science Autonomy in the Atacama Desert and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Wettergreen, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Science-guided autonomy augments rovers with reasoning to make observations and take actions related to the objectives of scientific exploration. When rovers can directly interpret instrument measurements then scientific goals can inform and adapt ongoing navigation decisions. These autonomous explorers will make better scientific observations and collect massive, accurate datasets. In current astrobiology studies in the Atacama Desert we are applying algorithms for science autonomy to choose effective observations and measurements. Rovers are able to decide when and where to take follow-up actions that deepen scientific understanding. These techniques apply to planetary rovers, which we can illustrate with algorithms now used by Mars rovers and by discussing future missions.

  2. Robot Science Autonomy in the Atacama Desert and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Wettergreen, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Science-guided autonomy augments rovers with reasoning to make observations and take actions related to the objectives of scientific exploration. When rovers can directly interpret instrument measurements then scientific goals can inform and adapt ongoing navigation decisions. These autonomous explorers will make better scientific observations and collect massive, accurate datasets. In current astrobiology studies in the Atacama Desert we are applying algorithms for science autonomy to choose effective observations and measurements. Rovers are able to decide when and where to take follow-up actions that deepen scientific understanding. These techniques apply to planetary rovers, which we can illustrate with algorithms now used by Mars rovers and by discussing future missions.

  3. Progress report for the project: Comparison of the response of mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Benes, S.E.; Phelps, S.P.; Loeffler, A.T.

    1990-09-01

    This progress report details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) performance regarding the projects Comparison of the Response of Mature Branches and Seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to Atmospheric Pollution'' and Effects of Ozone, acid Precipitation, and Their Interactions on Mature Branches and Seedlings of Ponderosa Pine'' for the months of November 1989 to June 1990. During the last eight months, we have initiated ozone and acid precipitation exposures, and we began intensive growth, morphological, and physiological measurements. During these major physiological measurement periods, we measured photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, respiration, antioxidant activity, pigmentation, and foliar nutrient concentration. We have also concluded the analysis of our branch autonomy experiment, which we conducted in the fall. We determined that virtually no carbon is exported among branches in close proximity to one another. This conclusion assists in validating the approach of using branches and branch exposure chambers as a means of assessing the effects of air pollution on mature trees of Ponderosa pine. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Women’s Autonomy and Its Correlates in Western Nepal: A Demographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tulsi Ram Bhandari; Raman Kutty, V.; Sundari Ravindran, T. K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite various efforts for enhancing women's autonomy in developing countries, many women are deprived of their capacity in decision-making on their household affairs as well as social issues. This paper aimed to examine women's autonomy and its associated factors in the Kapilvastu district of Nepal. We measured women's autonomy using a recently developed women's autonomy measurement scale from June to October 2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic multivariate modeling t...

  5. Personal autonomy, good care, informed consent and human dignity--some reflections from a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Aart

    2009-09-01

    Respecting and protecting personal autonomy requires that autonomy is interpreted in conjunction with the principle of good care in a way consistent with (the aspirations enshrined in) human dignity. This leads to a principled and relational approach towards personal autonomy. This implies an active role of health care providers, as councillors of patients, and a personalised way of obtaining informed consent, to maximally ensure the enjoying personal autonomy.

  6. Towards food autonomy: connectivity and self-help groups in Hisar, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: self-help groups, connectivity, food autonomy, peasants, micro-enterprise Towards Food Autonomy: Connectivity and Self-help Groups in Hisar, India PhD Thesis Shweta Singh Rural Sociology Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands Abstract Food autonomy

  7. What Happened to Autonomy? Visual art practices in the creative industries Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Dillen (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis concerns the autonomy of visual artists in an era of a booming creative economy and simultaneously declining governmental support for the arts and culture. The research is particularly directed toward the concept of autonomy. On the one hand, there is social autonomy, whi

  8. On the Relations between Parents' Ideals and Children's Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents' ideals can enhance children's autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children's autonomy. After describing the concept of "ideals" and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of autonomy, de Ruyter and…

  9. School Autonomy and Accountability in Thailand: Does the Gap between Policy Intent and Implementation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…

  10. Principals' Self-Efficacy: Relations with Job Autonomy, Job Satisfaction, and Contextual Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, perceived job autonomy, job satisfaction, and perceived contextual constraints to autonomy. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Job autonomy, job satisfaction, and contextual…

  11. On the Development of Chinese College Students’English Listening Autonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鸿雁

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses issues related to listening autonomy including the definition of listening and autonomy. The foster of listening involve the collaborated effort of the listening teacher and student. Meanwhile three specific ways to improve listen⁃ing autonomy are presented – keeping a listening diary, extensive listening and forming a listening online community.

  12. Teachers' Autonomy in Today's Educational Climate: Current Perceptions from an Acceptable Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Luman E. G.; Yoshida, Roland K.

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluated the psychometric properties of Friedman's (1999) Teacher Work-Autonomy Scale (TWA) to determine whether it was an acceptable instrument to measure U.S. teacher autonomy in the present educational context. A second purpose was to ascertain the current status of teachers' perceptions of their autonomy from a sample of U.S.…

  13. Teachers' Autonomy in Today's Educational Climate: Current Perceptions from an Acceptable Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Luman E. G.; Yoshida, Roland K.

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluated the psychometric properties of Friedman's (1999) Teacher Work-Autonomy Scale (TWA) to determine whether it was an acceptable instrument to measure U.S. teacher autonomy in the present educational context. A second purpose was to ascertain the current status of teachers' perceptions of their autonomy from a sample of U.S.…

  14. Towards a New Professionalism in School? A Comparative Study of Teacher Autonomy in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgoy, Ingrid; Homme, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Local autonomy is one of the recent trends in reforms of compulsory education. However, several parallel trends such as individual accountability, performance and visibility challenge professional autonomy. The aim of this article is to explore how accountability and transparency reforms affect teacher autonomy in Norway and Sweden. The authors…

  15. The Role of Teachers in Promoting Learner Autonomy in Secondary Schools in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Saleema M.

    2017-01-01

    Today, learner autonomy is considered as a desirable goal in language education. The movement towards learner-centered approaches has resulted in more emphasis on the benefits of learner autonomy in the success of language education. The objective of the study was to investigate the roles of the teachers in promoting learner autonomy in Saudi EFL…

  16. Publiek, ik veracht u…enigszins : Discursieve autonomie in Nederland rond 1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Ivo; Ham, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Recent literary scholarship usually distinguishes between two types of autonomy. Institutional autonomy concerns the creation of a professional and independent literary field, whereas poetical autonomy points to ideas about the self-legitimizing power of literary artworks. In the Netherlands both fo

  17. Syrian Kurdish Autonomy: A Decisive Strategy for Bashar al-Assad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    University of Texas Press, 2014), 213. 2 The author will first present an analysis of Iraqi Kurdish territorial autonomy , drawing parallels between...Marc Weller and Katherine Nobbs, Asymmetrical Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), 22...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Syrian Kurdish Autonomy : A Decisive Strategy for Bashar al-Assad

  18. Understanding the Transition of Public Universities to Institutional Autonomy in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagintayeva, Aida; Kurakbayev, Kairat

    2015-01-01

    Although institutional autonomy has recently received significant attention from scholars and policy-makers in much of the world, few studies have been made of the universities in transition towards institutional autonomy in post-Soviet countries. Autonomy and its related concept of public accountability are relatively new phenomena in…

  19. Seeking Moral Autonomy in a Chinese Context: A Study of Elementary Moral Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lena; Misco, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explored Chinese moral education standards for grades one and two by using the heuristic of moral autonomy and by employing a typology of moral autonomy, one based on Kantian and Deweyan ideas about moral autonomy and agency. Given the larger charge for all of schooling to develop independence, problem-solving, and creativity…

  20. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE AUTONOMY RATIO AND THE RETURN ON EQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    Considering the relationship between the autonomy ratio and the bankruptcy risk as well as the relationship between the autonomy ratio and the return on equity, it is concluded that the optimum value of the autonomy ratio is placed within the interval [50%; 100%].

  1. Publiek, ik veracht u…enigszins : Discursieve autonomie in Nederland rond 1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Ivo; Ham, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Recent literary scholarship usually distinguishes between two types of autonomy. Institutional autonomy concerns the creation of a professional and independent literary field, whereas poetical autonomy points to ideas about the self-legitimizing power of literary artworks. In the Netherlands both fo

  2. Publiek, ik veracht u... enigszins: discursieve autonomie in Nederland rond 1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, L.; Nieuwenhuis, I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent literary scholarship usually distinguishes between two types of autonomy. Institutional autonomy concerns the creation of a professional and independent literary field, whereas poetical autonomy points to ideas about the self-legitimizing power of literary artworks. In the Netherlands both fo

  3. Who Makes the Choice? Rethinking the Role of Autonomy and Relatedness in Chinese Children's Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Hua; Lam, Shui-Fong

    2008-01-01

    The importance of autonomy for children's motivation in collectivistic cultures has been debated hotly. With the understanding that autonomy is not equivalent to freedom of choice, 4 studies addressed this debate by investigating how socioemotional relatedness, choice, and autonomy were related to Chinese children's motivation. Study 1 (N = 56,…

  4. Effect of Autonomy Support on Self-Determined Motivation in Elementary Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chen, Senlin; Tu, Kun-Wei; Chi, Li-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Using the quasi-experimental design, this study examined the effect of autonomy support on self-determined motivation in elementary school physical education (PE) students. One hundred and twenty six participants were assigned to either the autonomy support group (n = 61) or the control group (n = 65) for a six-week intervention period. Perceived teacher autonomy, perceived autonomy in PE, and self-determined motivation in PE were pre- and post-tested using validated questionnaires. Significant increases in perceived teacher autonomy and perceived autonomy in PE were observed in the autonomy support group, but not in the control group. Intrinsic motivation was higher in the autonomy support group than that in the control group. From an experimental perspective, these findings suggest that the autonomy support was successfully manipulated in the PE classes, which in turn increased the students’ perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation. Key points The SDT is a relevant theoretical framework for elementary school physical education. Using the quasi-experimental research design, this study is one of the earlies studies supporting that elementary school PE teachers can manipulate the instructional context using the SDT to increase students’ perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation. Increasing students’ perceived autonomy may not lead to significant changes in other SDT constructs (i.e., amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, and identified regulation). PMID:27803624

  5. Dignity, dependence and relational autonomy for older people living in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolo Heggestad, Anne Kari; Høy, Bente; Wilhelm Rehnsfeldt, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    Dignity is a core concept in nursing care . In earlier theories on dignity, close links have been drawn between dignity and autonomy, and autonomy has been closely related to independence . These traditional understandings of dignity and autonomy may be challenged when an individual moves into a ...

  6. Free to Lead: Autonomy in Highly Successful Charter Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ableidinger, Joe; Hassel, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Autonomy is a key component of the charter school concept. By allowing charter schools to have autonomy over decisions concerning finance, personnel, scheduling, curriculum and instruction, states have enabled many of these schools to produce stellar results for their students. This issue brief explores autonomy at five excellent charter schools…

  7. Towards food autonomy: connectivity and self-help groups in Hisar, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: self-help groups, connectivity, food autonomy, peasants, micro-enterprise Towards Food Autonomy: Connectivity and Self-help Groups in Hisar, India PhD Thesis Shweta Singh Rural Sociology Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands Abstract Food autonomy requ

  8. The Practice of Promoting Primary Pupils' Autonomy: Examples of Teacher Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some authors consider the ultimate purpose of Assessment for Learning to be the promotion of pupils' autonomy. But the concept of autonomy is problematic and teachers' attempts to promote autonomy in the classroom can seem both vague and impractical. Purpose: In this paper, following Ecclestone (2002), I suggest that a full definition…

  9. Shifting Dimensions of Autonomy in Students' Research and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, John; Sabir, Fizza; Thomas, Judith

    2017-01-01

    This study considers the conceptual space, or extent of autonomy, given to coursework Masters students before, during and after a Business Ethics course that explicitly developed and assessed their research skills. This vocationally oriented and academically challenging course used the "Research Skill Development framework" as its…

  10. Autonomy and Accountability in Standards-Based Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Watson

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the effects of one urban school district's efforts to increase the autonomy and accountability of schools and teams of teachers through a standards-based reform known as team- based schooling. Team-based schooling is designed to devolve decision-making authority down to the school level by increasing teachers' autonomy to make decisions. Increased accountability is enacted in the form of a state-level standards-based initiative. Based on our evaluation over a two-year period involving extensive fieldwork and quantitative analysis, we describe the ways that teachers, teams and school administrators responded to the implementation of team-based schooling. What are the effects of increasing school-level autonomy and accountability in the context of standards- based reform? Our analysis highlights several issues: the "lived reality" of teaming as it interacts with the existing culture within schools, the ways that teachers respond to the pressures created by increased internal and external accountability, and the effects of resource constraints on the effectiveness of implementation. We conclude by using our findings to consider more broadly the trade-off between increased autonomy and accountability on which standards-based reforms like team-based schooling are based.

  11. The Pivotal Role of Adolescent Autonomy in Secondary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Christopher A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Gregory, Anne; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Student engagement is an important contributor to school success, yet high school students routinely describe themselves as disengaged. Identifying factors that alter (increase) engagement is a key aspect of improving support for student achievement. This study investigated students' perceptions of autonomy, teacher connection, and academic…

  12. Political autonomy and independence: theory and experimental evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Brandts, J.

    2007-01-01

    We study the process by which subordinated regions of a country can obtain a more favourable political status. In our theoretical model a dominant and a dominated region first interact through a voting process that can lead to different degrees of autonomy. If this process fails then both regions en

  13. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning and Language Learner Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the modern age of exponential knowledge growth and accelerating technological development, the need to engage in lifelong learning is becoming increasingly urgent. Successful lifelong learning, in turn, requires learner autonomy, or "the capacity to take control of one's own learning" (Benson, 2011, p. 58), including all relevant…

  14. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  15. Dispositional and Situational Autonomy as Moderators of Mood and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yinghe; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that mood can influence creativity, the controversy about the effects of positive and negative moods has raged for years. This study investigated how the relationship between induced mood and creativity is moderated by dispositional and situational autonomy. It contrasted the different moderating effects of the…

  16. Teacher Autonomy Support: Does It Hinder Motivation among Thai Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amrita; Hashim, Rosna Awang; Noman, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article examined the relevance of teacher autonomy support [TAS] among Thai students. It is based on a study conducted to compare the effects of TAS on motivation among Thai students. The issue of motivation among Asian students has invited controversy as few cross-cultural relativists have claimed that Asian students get motivated…

  17. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  18. Cognitive Distortions and Autonomy among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of university students' cognitive distortions in their sense of autonomy. One hundred and three third-year university students from Shanghai, The People's Republic of China, responded to the Cognitive Distortion Scales [Briere, J. (2000). "Cognitive Distortion Scales: Professional…

  19. EU Law Autonomy Versus European Fundamental Rights Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    rights protection. It argues that the concerns for EU law autonomy expressed in the Opinion for the most part are unwarranted and that the Court, through the use of classic constitutionalist language, seeks to position EU law as the superior European fundamental rights regime. The article furthermore...

  20. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…

  1. University Autonomy in a Third-Generation University in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikewuyo, M. Olalekan; Ilusanya, Gboyega

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the level of autonomy in one of Nigeria's third-generation universities. Findings indicated that generally government intervention was rated as not unreasonable. Specifically, the study discovered that government never exerts any influence on the appointment, discipline, tenure and dismissal of staff; entry standards and pass…

  2. Promoting Teacher Autonomy through University-School Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the pursuit of teachers-as-researchers has become an ideal for developing teacher autonomy to which many in the world of curriculum development and language teacher education try to promote (Benson, 2001). Nevertheless, research into how teachers learn to do research has been scarce, and there are pressing needs for…

  3. Variables Influencing Teacher Autonomy, Administrative Coordination, and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Caleb; Moore, Jana E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Schools often vary in how they balance teacher autonomy (TA) and administrative control, and research suggests that there may be several context-specific variables which may be influential. The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of program variables on the level of TA, administrative coordination, and administration-staff…

  4. Patient autonomy in chronic care: solving a paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reach, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The application of the principle of autonomy, which is considered a cornerstone of contemporary bioethics, is sometimes in obvious contradiction with the principle of beneficence. Indeed, it may happen in chronic care that the preferences of the health care provider (HCP), who is largely focused on the prevention of long term complications of diseases, differ from those, more present oriented, preferences of the patient. The aims of this narrative review are as follows: 1) to show that the exercise of autonomy by the patient is not always possible; 2) where the latter is not possible, to examine how, in the context of the autonomy principle, someone (a HCP) can decide what is good (a treatment) for someone else (a patient) without falling into paternalism. Actually this analysis leads to a paradox: not only is the principle of beneficence sometimes conflicting with the principle of autonomy, but physician’s beneficence may enter into conflict with the mere respect of the patient; and 3) to propose a solution to this paradox by revisiting the very concepts of the autonomous person, patient education, and trust in the patient–physician relationship: this article provides an ethical definition of patient education. PMID:24376345

  5. Does Country Context Distance Determine Subsidiary Decision-Making Autonomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Gjalt; Van Vo, Dut; Marek, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    enterprises, highlighting the importance of such intra-firm collaboration. The division of decision-making autonomy is a core issue in the management of headquarters–subsidiary relationships. The main contribution of our paper is that we confront two valid theoretical frameworks – business network theory...

  6. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…

  7. the Effect of Egyptian Married Women's Decision-Making Autonomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Women with intermediate and high autonomy were 1.19 (95%CI 1.04-1.35) and 1.32 (95% CI 1.18-. 1.49) more likely to ... L'éducation et l'emploi des femmes ne médiatisent pas cette relation. ... disability adjusted life years(DALYs)6. A study ...

  8. Feminism and Psychological Autonomy: A Study in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Susan R.; Eisenstein, Hester

    Women seeking to realize the feminist goal of autonomy, defined as self-interested decision-making, encounter conflict and anxiety. This study reports a group experience, using life-space drawings and force-field analyses to reduce anxiety and foster autonomous decision-making. Of the 15 women participants in the year-long study, 100% reported at…

  9. Local government autonomy and development of localities in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OSA IDEHEN

    The topical issue of local government (LG) autonomy in Nigeria in relation to the ... challenges for LGs' developmental efforts in the localities. ... the substantial control of local governments (LGs) is aimed at staff, institutional and financial matters, ... as shall be shown below, are full of stories of woes about their problems.

  10. University and Government in Mexico: Autonomy in an Authoritarian System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel C.

    The relationship between the authoritarian state and higher education in Mexico is examined in this case study. Focus is on the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) since it receives 40 percent of the federal budget for higher education, which makes it a prime example of autonomy within an authoritarian political system. Using three…

  11. Promoting Teacher Autonomy through University-School Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the pursuit of teachers-as-researchers has become an ideal for developing teacher autonomy to which many in the world of curriculum development and language teacher education try to promote (Benson, 2001). Nevertheless, research into how teachers learn to do research has been scarce, and there are pressing needs for…

  12. Literatuur, autonomie en engagement: pleidooi voor een nieuw paradigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooden, A.

    2015-01-01

    De hedendaagse literatuur en literatuurbeschouwing zijn teveel losgezongen van de buitenwereld, zo luidt een veelgehoorde klacht. Maatschappelijk betrokken, geëngageerde literatuur lijkt daarmee iets van het verleden. De oorzaak van deze situatie zou liggen in autonomie die schrijvers en critici

  13. Perceived Autonomy of Robots: Effects of Appearance and Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Peeters, M.M.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in technology, the world around us contains an increasing number of robots, intelligent virtual agents, and other intelligent systems. These systems all have a certain degree of autonomy. For the people who interact with an intelligent system it is important to obtain a good understa

  14. Closeness, autonomy, equity, and relationship satisfaction in lesbian couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, KMG; Buunk, BP

    1996-01-01

    It is often assumed that in lesbian relationships a high degree of closeness is reached at the expense of autonomy of the partners. The present study among 119 Dutch lesbian couples examined the effect on relational satisfaction of two dimensions of closeness, emotional dependency and intimacy, and

  15. Enclosures Abound: Black Cultural Autonomy, Prison Regime and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Since slavery, attempted enclosures upon Black spaces of cultural production and autonomy (i.e. music, language, art) have manifested in various forms. In the context of the post-industrial terrain of urban southern California, the formation of the prison is the dominant model of forced enclosure in the lives of Black people. Moving beyond the…

  16. Girls' Schooling, Women's Autonomy and Fertility Change in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Roger, Ed.; Basu, Alaka M., Ed.

    Most of the papers in this volume were presented at a workshop in New Delhi (India) in April 1993, although some revisions and additions are included. Presenting primary evidence from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh and existing survey and census data, the papers in this collection explore interrelated issues of women's autonomy, female…

  17. Creating Community through the Enhancement of Women's Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Health and welfare agencies are increasingly accommodating the women's movement by cultivating interpersonal skills and competencies and moving away from traditional gender roles and forms of community. The emphasis is on helping women acquire autonomy and develop new forms of community. (SK)

  18. Autonomy, competence and relatedness in foreign language learning through Facebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbari, E.; Pilot, A.; Simons, P.R.J.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explain differences between a group learning English on a Facebook page and a face-to-face group in terms of self-determination theory (SDT). SDT focuses on three main variables, which improve self-determination and motivation outside but also inside the classroom: autonomy, com

  19. Space autonomy as migration of functionality: the mars case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, T.; Bos, A.; Neerincx, M.; Soler, A.O.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops Grandjean and Lecouat's insight that spacecraft autonomy can be seen as the migration of functionality from the ground segment to the space segment. Their insight is extended to manned planetary exploration missions and applied to an IT-based crew assistant for supporting manned

  20. Closeness, autonomy, equity, and relationship satisfaction in lesbian couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, KMG; Buunk, BP

    1996-01-01

    It is often assumed that in lesbian relationships a high degree of closeness is reached at the expense of autonomy of the partners. The present study among 119 Dutch lesbian couples examined the effect on relational satisfaction of two dimensions of closeness, emotional dependency and intimacy, and