WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit assessing railway

  1. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  2. Guideline for load and resistance assessment of existing european railway bridges

    OpenAIRE

    JENSEN, Jens S; CASAS, Joan R; KAROUMI, Raid; PLOS, Mario; CREMONA, Christian; MELBOURNE, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Many of the European railway bridges are getting close to the end of their service life. At the same time the railway operators demand higher axle loads for freight trains and higher speeds for passenger trains. This requires new and better approaches for assessing both the railway loads and the resistance of railway bridges. The main objective of the "Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing European Railway Bridges", developed within EU founded project "Sustainable Bridge...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix to Subtitle A - United States Railway Association-Employee Responsibilities and Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accident insurance plan or other employee welfare or benefit plan that is maintained by a business or... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States Railway Association-Employee... Subtitle A, App. Appendix to Subtitle A—United States Railway Association—Employee Responsibilities and...

  4. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizjak Karmen Fifer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world’s total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  5. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  6. Assessing The Impact Of Railway Restructuring In Nigeria | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study presents railway restructuring as a solution option to railway problems in Nigeria. It aims at ascertaining the efficiency of the critical input factors of Nigerian Railway corporation (NRC) while comparing it with that of the restructured developed and best practices railways to establish the basis for restructuring.

  7. Vulnerability assessment and mitigation for the Chinese railway system under floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Ouyang, Min; Peeta, Srinivas; He, Xiaozheng; Yan, Yongze

    2015-01-01

    The economy of China and the travel needs of its citizens depend significantly on the continuous and reliable services provided by its railway system. However, this system is subject to frequent natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, and debris flow. A mechanism to assess the railway system vulnerability under these hazards and the design of effective vulnerability mitigation strategies are essential to the reliable functioning of the railway system. This article proposes a comprehensive methodology to quantitatively assess the railway system vulnerability under floods using historical data and GIS technology. The proposed methodology includes a network representation of the railway system, the generation of flood event scenarios, a method to estimate railway link vulnerability, and a quantitative vulnerability value computation approach. The railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption related to the number of interrupted trains and the durations of interruption. A maintenance strategy to mitigate vulnerability is proposed that simultaneously considers link vulnerability and number of trains using it. Numerical experiments show that the flood-induced vulnerability of the proposed representation of the Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly value in July, and the proposed vulnerability mitigation strategy is more effective compared to other strategies. - Highlights: • We propose a methodology to assess flood-induced railway system vulnerability. • Railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption. • Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly vulnerability in July. • We propose an effective maintenance strategy considering link vulnerability and burden

  8. Structural impact response for assessing railway vibration induced on buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Mouzakis, Harris P.; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos E.

    2018-03-01

    Over the syears, the rapid growth in railway infrastructure has led to numerous environmental challenges. One such significant issue, particularly in urban areas, is ground-borne vibration. A common source of ground-borne vibration is caused by local defects (e.g. rail joints, switches, turnouts, etc.) that generate large amplitude excitations at isolated locations. Modelling these excitation sources is particularly challenging and requires the use of complex and extensive computational efforts. For some situations, the use of experiments and measured data offers a rapid way to estimate the effect of such defects and to evaluate the railway vibration levels using a scoping approach. In this paper, the problem of railway-induced ground vibrations is presented along with experimental studies to assess the ground vibration and ground borne noise levels, with a particular focus on the structural response of sensitive buildings. The behaviour of particular building foundations is evaluated through experimental data collected in Brussels Region, by presenting the expected frequency responses for various types of buildings, taking into account both the soil-structure interaction and the tramway track response. A second study is dedicated to the Athens metro, where transmissibility functions are used to analyse the effect of various Athenian building face to metro network trough comprehensive measurement campaigns. This allows the verification of appropriate vibration mitigation measures. These benchmark applications based on experimental results have been proved to be efficient to treat a complex problem encountered in practice in urban areas, where the urban rail network interacts with important local defects and where the rise of railway ground vibration problems has clearly been identified.

  9. A hierarchical network modeling method for railway tunnels safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Liu, Xumin

    2017-02-01

    Using network theory to model risk-related knowledge on accidents is regarded as potential very helpful in risk management. A large amount of defects detection data for railway tunnels is collected in autumn every year in China. It is extremely important to discover the regularities knowledge in database. In this paper, based on network theories and by using data mining techniques, a new method is proposed for mining risk-related regularities to support risk management in railway tunnel projects. A hierarchical network (HN) model which takes into account the tunnel structures, tunnel defects, potential failures and accidents is established. An improved Apriori algorithm is designed to rapidly and effectively mine correlations between tunnel structures and tunnel defects. Then an algorithm is presented in order to mine the risk-related regularities table (RRT) from the frequent patterns. At last, a safety assessment method is proposed by consideration of actual defects and possible risks of defects gained from the RRT. This method cannot only generate the quantitative risk results but also reveal the key defects and critical risks of defects. This paper is further development on accident causation network modeling methods which can provide guidance for specific maintenance measure.

  10. Life cycle assessment of a railway bridge: comparison of two superstructure designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2013-01-01

    Railway bridges currently encounter the challenges of increasing the load capacity while the environmental sustainability should be achieved. However, it has been realised that the environmental assessment of railway bridges has not been integrated into the decision-making process, the standard g...

  11. Assessment of Stochastic Capacity Consumption in Railway Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2015-01-01

    The railway industry continuously strive to reduce cost and utilise resources optimally. Thus, there is a demand for tools that are able to fast and efficiently provide decision-makers with solutions that can help them achieve their goals. In strategic planning of capacity, this translates...

  12. GPR Laboratory Tests For Railways Materials Dielectric Properties Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In railways Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR studies, the evaluation of materials dielectric properties is critical as they are sensitive to water content, to petrographic type of aggregates and to fouling condition of the ballast. Under the load traffic, maintenance actions and climatic effects, ballast condition change due to aggregate breakdown and to subgrade soils pumping, mainly on existing lines with no sub ballast layer. The main purpose of this study was to validate, under controlled conditions, the dielectric values of materials used in Portuguese railways, in order to improve the GPR interpretation using commercial software and consequently the management maintenance planning. Different materials were tested and a broad range of in situ conditions were simulated in laboratory, in physical models. GPR tests were performed with five antennas with frequencies between 400 and 1800 MHz. The variation of the dielectric properties was measured, and the range of values that can be obtained for different material condition was defined. Additionally, in situ GPR measurements and test pits were performed for validation of the dielectric constant of clean ballast. The results obtained are analyzed and the main conclusions are presented herein.

  13. CAD/CAE-technologies application for assessment of passenger safety on railway transport in emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Shorokhov, S. G.; Bondarenko, O. I.

    2018-03-01

    A possibility of using current software products realizing CAD/CAE-technologies for the assessment of passenger safety in emergency cases on railway transport has been analyzed. On the basis of the developed solid computer model of an anthropometric dummy, the authors carried out an analysis of possible levels of passenger injury during accident collision of a train with an obstacle.

  14. Life cycle assessment of railways and rail transports - Application in environmental product declarations (EPDs) for the Bothnia Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stripple, Haakan; Uppenberg, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    Environmental aspects are today highly important issues in the transport sector especially from a society perspective. Most likely, our society is facing considerable changes in the transport sector due to changes in the energy/environmental situation in the future. Strategic decisions concerning the development of the transport sector must be based on solid facts concerning both the transport infrastructure and the transport traffic on the infrastructure. The transport infrastructure is often complex and difficult to analyse but of great interest in a society perspective. In this project, we have performed a comprehensive view of a modern railway infrastructure system including the traffic on the infrastructure. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been used for the study and several LCA models of the railway system have been designed. Due to the complexity of the models, several general railway component models have been developed. The component models can then be integrated to form a large model of an entire railway system. The component models (sub-models) are: 'Railway track foundation model', 'Railway track model', 'Railway electric power and control system model', 'Railway tunnel model', 'Railway bridge model', 'Railway passenger station and freight terminal model', 'Passenger and freight train model including train operation'. The LCA models have then been used to analyse the environmental performance of the Bothnia Line and to develop Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) for the Bothnia Line

  15. The Accuracy Assessment of Determining the Axis of Railway Track Basing on the Satellite Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Władysław; Specht, Cezary; Chrostowski, Piotr; Palikowska, Katarzyna

    2012-09-01

    In 2009, at the Gdansk University of Technology there have been carried out, for the first time, continuous satellite surveying of railway track by the use of the relative phase method based on geodesic active network ASG-EUPOS and NAVGEO service. Still continuing research works focused on the GNSS multi-receivers platform evaluation for projecting and stock-taking. In order to assess the accuracy of the railway track axis position, the values of deviations of transverse position XTE (Cross Track Error) were evaluated. In order to eliminate the influence of random measurement errors and to obtain the coordinates representing the actual shape of the track, the XTE variable was analyzed by signal analysis methods (Chebyshev low-pass filtering and fast Fourier transform). At the end the paper presents the module of the computer software SATTRACK which currently has been developing at the Gdansk University of Technology. The program serves visualization, assessment and design process of railway track, adapted to the technique of continuous satellite surveying. The module called TRACK STRAIGHT is designed to assess the straight sections. A description of its operation as well as examples of its functions has been presented.

  16. PROFESSIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT DURING PERFORMING OFFICIAL DUTIES OF STATION DIS-PATCHERS ON PRYDNIPROVSK RAILWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nykyforova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To substantiate the importance of psychophysiological selection for the traffic safety prevention, increase of the human factor reliability on the basis of erroneous actions analysis of the Prydniprovsk railway workers of operator type and literature data. Methodology. Studies have been conducted among operation personnel (station dispatchers (n = 62, 32 − women, 30 − men. The method of social survey, psychological techniques using the personal, «NPN-A» (neuropsychic instability − accentuations, individual and typological questionnaire were used. Findings. Typical mistakes of Prydniprovsk railway workers of operator type were analyzed. It was found out that a large group of errors is connected with the failure of staff job descriptions and requirements of labor protection instructions, negligence and carelessness, irresponsible attitude to their duties, inadequate personnel training. Originality. The necessity of new approaches development to the systematic analysis on a quantitative basis of management and assessment of the human factor reliability, which can be provided by professional psychophysiological selection of persons related to traffic safety was grounded. Practical value. The obtained results can be the basis for the development of new methods of physiological investigations concerning occupational selection of railway workers of leading professions. It would accurately predict the performance and reliability of the operators and would provide an opportunity to identify contraindications to the professional activity.

  17. Risk assessment and economic appraisal of protection methods for the Tarascon-Arles railway embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of flood management practices and the reduction of flood risk as proposed under the Plan Rhône project has led to a vast program of flood defence modernization and construction in the lower Rhône valley. One key element of the project involves the construction of a new 9km levee structure parallel to an existing railway line between the towns of Tarascon and Arles (Bouches-du-Rhône, France on the left bank of the Rhône, which has historically been an obstacle to the propagation of flood flows. The new levee is designed to protect the towns of Arles and Tarascon up to the 10−2 annual probability flood event, after which floodwater will flow over a 5km spillway which will be integrated into the structure. In case of overtopping of the spillway via a spillway structure, floodwater is collected in the space between the two embankments and will subsequently flow towards one of ten newly constructed flood discharge structures, spaced at regular intervals in the railway embankment. The levee will form part of a global system of defence which is designed against flooding on the Rhône with an annual probability of occurrence of 10−3. In the event of overtopping of the levee, the railway embankment will be subjected to hydraulic loading and is at risk of damage from flood flows. During the detailed design phase of the project, options were explored for optimizing the permanent protection for the railway embankment. Using results from 2D and 3D hydraulic numerical modelling, a detailed risk assessment of the railway embankment was undertaken to evaluate its vulnerability under different hydraulic loading conditions and for different failure mechanisms using various parameters including water depth, hydraulic load, the duration of flood exposure and flow velocity. A comprehensive understanding of the main mechanisms of embankment damage under hydraulic loading (internal/ external erosion, overtopping, rotational failure etc

  18. ISSUES OF ORGANIZING THE PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION ON US RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Korobiova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on a study of the US railway transport organization management during passenger transportation. Methodology. Studies were carried out on the basis of the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on passenger transportation in the USA. Findings. Negative trends in the work of the passenger complex of the Ukrainian railways are the slowdown in the volumes of transportation, the progressive aging of the rolling stock and the overall activity running at a loss for Ukrzaliznytsia. In this regard, the actual task for domestic rail transport is the implementation of industry reforms. Therefore, the paper presented the study of the experience of organizing the passenger transportation on US railways, whose peculiarity is the extremely high degree of competition between modes of transport. As a result of the conducted analysis for working conditions of the US and Ukrainian railways, the general conditions for the functioning of the railways in both countries connected with passenger transportation securing have been established. It was found that general condition for execution of railway passenger transportation for the United States and Ukraine is the subsidization of this activity and combined use of infrastructure for the freight and passengers’ transportations. In this connection, when developing approaches to reforming the passenger economy of Ukraine's railways, it is advisable to use the experience of the United States in assessing the social effectiveness of rail transport, the impact of passenger transportation on the conditions of freight trains handling, and combined use of railway infrastructure by freight and passenger companies. Originality. The author determined the general trends in the development of passenger railway transportation in the US and Ukraine. Practical value. The resulted methods of organizing the operation of the US railway passenger transportation complex can be adapted to solve

  19. Hygienic assessment of working conditions and occupational risk for workers health at railway transport objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Loginova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed hygienic assessment of working conditions at railway transport over 2011–2015. We detected a decreasing trend in specific weight of working places where physical factors were higher than hygienic standards and where steam and gases content in working area air was higher than maximum permissible concentrations (MPC. Working conditions of locomotive teams remain most unfavorable as per risk factors. We detected that a priori occupation risk for locomotive teams was characterized with parameters varying from moderate to considerable ones. Occupational noise was determined as a priority risk factor making working conditions category a hazardous one and it corresponded to occupational morbidity structure. We detected that sensorineural hearing loss took a leading place in morbidity both in the branch in general and among locomotive team workers. We also clarified that such workers as engine drivers and their assistants (up to 43 % had the greatest specific weight among railway workers with occupational diseases; occupational morbidity among locomotive team workers amounted to 3.0 per 10,000 workers in 2015 while average morbidity among all railway workers amounted to only 1.32 per 10,000 workers. We revealed that occupational diseases were most frequently detected in workers aged 51–60 (51.9 % in 2014 who had worked under hazardous occupational factors influence for longer than 15 years. While there was an overall decreasing trend in occupa-tional morbidity in the branch in 2011–2015 from 1.68 to 1.32 per 10,000 workers, we detected a brunch peculiarity in the risk group, namely, an unsatisfactory trend for growing share of workers with occupational diseases aged 31–40 (from 2.6 % in 2011 to 12 % in 2014 and it requires special attention in terms of risk management.

  20. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  1. Development and management of a radon assessment strategy suitable for underground railway tunnelling projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, C. J.; Frommer, G.; Chan, K.; Auch, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The construction of underground tunnels through radon-bearing rock poses a radiation health risk to tunnelling workers from exposure to radon gas and its radioactive decay products. This paper presents the development and practical application of a radon assessment strategy suitable for the measurement of radon in tunnelling work environments in Hong Kong. The assessment strategy was successfully evaluated on a number of underground railway tunnelling projects over a 3 y period. Radon measurements were undertaken using a combination of portable radon measurement equipment and track etch detectors (TEDs) deployed throughout the tunnels. The radon gas monitoring results were used to confirm that ventilation rates were adequate or identified, at an early stage, when further action to reduce radon levels was required. Exposure dose estimates based on the TED results showed that the exposure of tunnel workers to radon did not exceed 3 mSv per annum for the duration of each project. (authors)

  2. Seismic Hazard Assessment at Esfaraen‒Bojnurd Railway, North‒East of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerifard, S.; Jarahi, H.; Pourkermani, M.; Almasian, M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic hazard at the Esfarayen-Bojnurd railway using the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) method. This method was carried out based on a recent data set to take into account the historic seismicity and updated instrumental seismicity. A homogenous earthquake catalogue was compiled and a proposed seismic sources model was presented. Attenuation equations that recently recommended by experts and developed based upon earthquake data obtained from tectonic environments similar to those in and around the studied area were weighted and used for assessment of seismic hazard in the frame of logic tree approach. Considering a grid of 1.2 × 1.2 km covering the study area, ground acceleration for every node was calculated. Hazard maps at bedrock conditions were produced for peak ground acceleration, in addition to return periods of 74, 475 and 2475 years.

  3. The algorithm for the assessment of functional work capacity of railway workers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okiljević Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of functional work capacity based on the biological function of the body and a specific job demands and job characteristics, determine whether a person is capable to do the job or group of jobs. Evaluation of work capacity (EWC railway workers is conducted according to the program of Regulations for the former and periodic examinations of employees in workplaces with high risk published in the Official Gazette of RS no. 120/ 07 and 655. Regulations on health conditions to be met by railway workers, who are directly involved in railway transport. One of the most common chronic diseases during EWC is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The definition of contraindications for use of railway employees with COPD given by Ordinance 655 is in very general terms, trying to make it easier and improve the quality of assessment of work capacity, we have developed an algorithm for the assessment of work ability among these workers. When doubt the existence of COPD should first prove that the disease exists, according to GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, and for occupational medicine we considered important to clarify and standardize the assessment criteria for EWC, which resulting in a diagnostic algorithm for EWC. It is also important to know which type of job will worker to do. Application of a diagnostic algorithm in EWC will allow optimal assessment of disease severity in railway and other workers suffering of COPD working at the workplace with an increased risk efficacy treatment evaluation; assess compensation of functional defects and determine schedule of periodical examination.

  4. [Formation of working conditions and the problems of hygienic assessment of industrial environmental factors in railway tunnels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurenkova, G V; Lemeshevskaya, E P

    Tunnels are an integral part of the ways and artificial constructions of the railway. Objective assessment of working conditions is important, because current regulations fail to allow to give a definite hygienic assessment of some factors of the production environment of the tunnels. Objective: to reveal the peculiarities of the formation of working conditions in railway tunnels with the subsequent hygienic assessment for the development of preventive measures. Measurement of the factors of working process and working environment is carried out with the use of the certified equipment for the approved the hygienic and sanitary-chemical methods in workplaces in tunnels of the East-Siberian railway. Specific conditions were shown to be formed due to constructive solutions, climate and geographical location, the length of railway tunnels, the composition of the rocks through which the tunnel, the nature of the maintenance tunnels, ventilation system, repetition rate and type of passing rolling stock. All employees from occupational groups from examined tunnels were established to be exposed to high concentrations of aerosols with predominantly fibrogenic action, noise levels, adverse climate (low positive and negative temperatures, high relative humidity and mobility of air), the lack of natural lighting, low levels of artificial light, hard exertion of labor (dynamic physical load, working position, the slopes of the body, movement in space). Additionally, high levels of the vibration, nonionizing and ionizing radiation were typical for jobs of the Baikal and the North-Muya tunnel. There is proposed the algorithm of hygienic assessment of the microclimate, light environment at the working places depending on the time of the works in the underground conditions and constructional features of tunnels, methods of accounting personnel dose rates from natural sources.

  5. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OFWORKING ENVIRONMENT FOR REPAIRERS OF RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK IN PLANT CONDITIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeikina, N A; Kurenkova, G V

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive hygienic assessment of working environment for main occupational groups Railway Car Repair Plant in factory conditions shows that workers are exposed to the impact of factors of chemical nature in concentrations exceeding maximum allowable (lead, manganese, alkali caustic, sulphuric and nitric acids, chromium trioxide, silicon-containing dust, white corundum, diiron trioxide, silicate-organic dust, wood and carbon dusts), the high level of noise, the local vibration, insufficient levels of artificial lighting. The manual work is used, that determines the high severity of the labor process in the most of workers. There was identified the inconsistency of quality and quantitative estimation of the work conditions on chemical factor at implementation of various types of control: certification of workplaces on work conditions, productions and state control. There was given an a priori evaluation of the occupational risk in the three main workshops, there were detected 13 occupations with mild (moderate) risk, 9 occupations with average (significant) risk, 6 professions with high (intolerable) risk category and 1 occupation--with very high (intolerable) risk category. Low indices of occupational diseases according to official statistics were establishedfail to be consistent with a high probability of their occurrence in the production.

  6. The use of conjoint method for assessing the relevance of railway investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika WOJTOWICZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with designing and testing the use of conjoint analysis method, as one of the tool that provides information gathered within carrying out the ex-ante evaluation of railway infrastructure investments. The authors point to a possible area of application of the method and its usefulness for policy-makers. The proposed method has been tested in empirical research, and the results confirmed the usefulness of the data that can be obtained through its use. Originality of undertaken subject arises from the fact that conjoint method has not been used as a component of ex ante evaluations of EU co-funded programmes, which focus on the railway sector investments. The use of the method may help to strengthen the synergy effects between planned to realize within broader programmes investments. The issue has important practical dimension resulting from intensified investments in the railway sector in the countries which benefit from EU cohesion policy’s funds.

  7. Lifecycle Assessments of Railway Bridge Transitions Exposed to Extreme Climate Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadudee Setsobhonkul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Railway track components located at bridge transition zones or approach areas suffer from impact load and vibrations caused by abrupt changes in track stiffness on the bridge and the subgrade. The numerous strategies that can be used to mitigate these abrupt track stiffness changes rely on one of two concepts. The first concept is that of providing a gradual stiffness change, and the second is that of equalizing the track stiffness. A number of such mitigation methods have been developed and implemented over recent decades. Construction activities associated with these methods require various materials, processes, and uses of time, costs, and carbon emissions. In this study, eight of the most common techniques for railway bridge transition mitigation, including under ballast mats (UBMs, soft baseplates, under sleeper pads (USPs, rail pads, embankment treatments, transition slabs, ballast bonding, and wide sleepers, are compared. This study benchmarks the costs and carbon emissions of these eight mitigation techniques over the 50-year lifespan of a railway system subject to identical probabilities of four environmental scenarios: a control case, extremely high temperatures, extremely low temperatures, and flash flooding. This unprecedented study systemically investigates the effectiveness of the mitigation methods while considering the effects of 30 and 100 m bridge span lengths. Our results indicate that railway engineers should adopt different mitigation methods for different scenarios. The soft baseplate is the most appropriate method for a short-span bridge in the control case and the case of flash flooding, while ballast bonding is better for long-span railway bridges. Embankment treatment is recommended for both high- and low-extreme temperatures. However, its applicability is limited when the differential track stiffness is extremely high. Hence, alternatives that are 5–25% more expensive are proposed in parallel. The alternative

  8. Strategic assessment of capacity consumption in railway networks: Framework and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new framework for strategic planning purposes to calculate railway infrastructure occupation and capacity consumption in networks, independent of a timetable. Furthermore, a model implementing the framework is presented. In this model different train sequences...... are obtained efficiently with little input. The case illustrates the model's ability to quantify the capacity gain from infrastructure scenario to infrastructure scenario which can be used to increase the number of trains or improve the robustness of the system....

  9. Towards a whole-network risk assessment for railway bridge failures caused by scour during flood events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb Rob

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Localised erosion (scour during flood flow conditions can lead to costly damage or catastrophic failure of bridges, and in some cases loss of life or significant disruption to transport networks. Here, we take a broad scale view to assess risk associated with bridge scour during flood events over an entire infrastructure network, illustrating the analysis with data from the British railways. There have been 54 recorded events since 1846 in which scour led to the failure of railway bridges in Britain. These events tended to occur during periods of extremely high river flow, although there is uncertainty about the precise conditions under which failures occur, which motivates a probabilistic analysis of the failure events. We show how data from the historical bridge failures, combined with hydrological analysis, have been used to construct fragility curves that quantify the conditional probability of bridge failure as a function of river flow, accompanied by estimates of the associated uncertainty. The new fragility analysis is tested using flood events simulated from a national, spatial joint probability model for extremes in river flows. The combined models appear robust in comparison with historical observations of the expected number of bridge failures in a flood event, and provide an empirical basis for further broad-scale network risk analysis.

  10. The Application of Vibration Accelerations in the Assessment of Average Friction Coefficient of a Railway Brake Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawczuk Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their wide range of friction characteristics resulting from the application of different friction materials and good heat dissipation conditions, railway disc brakes have long replaced block brakes in many rail vehicles. A block brake still remains in use, however, in low speed cargo trains. The paper presents the assessment of the braking process through the analysis of vibrations generated by the components of the brake system during braking. It presents a possibility of a wider application of vibroacoustic diagnostics (VA, which aside from the assessment of technical conditions (wear of brake pads also enables the determination of the changes of the average friction coefficient as a function of the braking onset speed. Vibration signals of XYZ were measured and analyzed. The analysis of the results has shown that there is a relation between the values of the point measures and the wear of the brake pads.

  11. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF WHEELS OF PERSPECTIVE STRUCTURAL SCHEME FOR RAILWAY VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Semenov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to the definition of technical and economic efficiency from the use of wheels of perspective structural scheme in the undercarriage of the rail vehicles (wagon. Methodology. The use efficiency of wheels of promising design scheme by reducing the motion resistance and wear of the wheel flanges is estimated by calculated values of estimated annual economic effect of implementation and payback period of the costs required for the development and implementation of the proposed wheel. Non-recurring costs include the cost associated with conducting research and development work, as well as the additional costs required for the manufacture of wheels of promising design scheme. Findings. In the course of computation and analysis of the economic efficiency from introductions of wheels of promising design concept, carried out on the basis of the initial data for the South-West railway, it was determined the profit which can be obtained by reducing the following operating costs: cost of returning the wheel flange on wheel sets; cost of fuel and energy resources for train traction; the value of the idle of cars in the current uncoupling repair; cost of repairs and current maintenance of rail track. In addition, it can be additionally released a number of cars by reducing their downtime. The calculation of net discounted income is carried out with the following assumptions: calculation period; estimated increase in the cost of wheel sets with wheels of promising constructive scheme compared to the model, the values of net profit for the accounting period, which was calculated by calculating the average value minus the cost of research, development and manufacturing of wheelset park with wheels of new design scheme. For a given billing period, the calculated value of the net discounted income was obtained and the payback period of the project was determined. Originality. The approaches to the perfection of design scheme of wheels

  12. Railway noise annoyance on the railway track in northwest slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultznerova, Alzbeta; Eva, Panulinova; Kucharova, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large high-loaded railway track in Northwest Slovakia. The measurements of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods were taken. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition, the annoyance level and sleep disturbance of residents affected by railway noise were evaluated by a validated questionnaire on a pilot sample of 107 respondents living near the important railway track. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train were extremely high especially at night, clearly exceeding the nighttime limits of equivalent sound pressure level established by the Decree of the Slovak Ministry of Health (No.549/2007) (L Aeq  = 55 dB). Measurements at one point during the night exceeded the limit values of up to 17.4 dB. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which caused irritability, headache, poor concentration, and insomnia. In addition, 19.64% of the residents claimed that nocturnal noise pollution was the most distressing. The results of bivariate analysis showed a higher risk of annoyance especially for railway noise [OR MH  = 7.80 (4.02-15.14)] and the noise from industry [OR MH  = 3.08 (1.72-5.50)] in the exposed location. The effects of railway traffic on annoyance/sleep and psychosocial well-being were evaluated in a few studies. In accordance with our results the railway noise mostly disturbs sleep and rest of the respondents. The pilot survey showed the importance of sleep and rest disturbance by railway noise and the possibilities of getting worse health condition in the future. Noise abatement measures and strategies should, therefore, be implemented in an effective and manageable way increasing the environmental advantages of rail transport.

  13. Seismic assessment of a multi-span steel railway bridge in Turkey based on nonlinear time history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Mehmet F.; Çağlayan, Barlas Ö.

    2018-01-01

    Many research studies have shown that bridges are vulnerable to earthquakes, graphically confirmed by incidents such as the San Fernando (1971 USA), Northridge (1994 USA), Great Hanshin (1995 Japan), and Chi-Chi (1999 Taiwan) earthquakes, amongst many others. The studies show that fragility curves are useful tools for bridge seismic risk assessments, which can be generated empirically or analytically. Empirical fragility curves can be generated where damage reports from past earthquakes are available, but otherwise, analytical fragility curves can be generated from structural seismic response analysis. Earthquake damage data in Turkey are very limited, hence this study employed an analytical method to generate fragility curves for the Alasehir bridge. The Alasehir bridge is part of the Manisa-Uşak-Dumlupınar-Afyon railway line, which is very important for human and freight transportation, and since most of the country is seismically active, it is essential to assess the bridge's vulnerability. The bridge consists of six 30 m truss spans with a total span 189 m supported by 2 abutments and 5 truss piers, 12.5, 19, 26, 33, and 40 m. Sap2000 software was used to model the Alasehir bridge, which was refined using field measurements, and the effect of 60 selected real earthquake data analyzed using the refined model, considering material and geometry nonlinearity. Thus, the seismic behavior of Alasehir railway bridge was determined and truss pier reaction and displacements were used to determine its seismic performance. Different intensity measures were compared for efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency and their component and system fragility curves derived.

  14. Seismic assessment of a multi-span steel railway bridge in Turkey based on nonlinear time history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Yılmaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies have shown that bridges are vulnerable to earthquakes, graphically confirmed by incidents such as the San Fernando (1971 USA, Northridge (1994 USA, Great Hanshin (1995 Japan, and Chi-Chi (1999 Taiwan earthquakes, amongst many others. The studies show that fragility curves are useful tools for bridge seismic risk assessments, which can be generated empirically or analytically. Empirical fragility curves can be generated where damage reports from past earthquakes are available, but otherwise, analytical fragility curves can be generated from structural seismic response analysis. Earthquake damage data in Turkey are very limited, hence this study employed an analytical method to generate fragility curves for the Alasehir bridge. The Alasehir bridge is part of the Manisa–Uşak–Dumlupınar–Afyon railway line, which is very important for human and freight transportation, and since most of the country is seismically active, it is essential to assess the bridge's vulnerability. The bridge consists of six 30 m truss spans with a total span 189 m supported by 2 abutments and 5 truss piers, 12.5, 19, 26, 33, and 40 m. Sap2000 software was used to model the Alasehir bridge, which was refined using field measurements, and the effect of 60 selected real earthquake data analyzed using the refined model, considering material and geometry nonlinearity. Thus, the seismic behavior of Alasehir railway bridge was determined and truss pier reaction and displacements were used to determine its seismic performance. Different intensity measures were compared for efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency and their component and system fragility curves derived.

  15. Assess the feasibility of the high-speed railway construction in China by measuring the traffic demand elastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Cao, Yu

    2017-05-01

    The traffic demand elastic is proposed as a new indicator in this study to measure the feasibility of the high-speed railway construction in a more intuitive way. The Matrix Completion (MC) and Semi-Supervised Support Vector Machine (S3VM) are used to realize the measurement and prediction of this index on the basis of the satisfaction investigation on the 326 inter-city railways in china. It is demonstrated that instead of calculating the economic benefits brought by the construction of high-speed railway, this indicator can find the most urgent railways to be improved by directly evaluate the existing railway facilities from the perspective of transportation service improvement requirements.

  16. Effect of Different Structure Type Traffic On Railway Line Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleba Radosław

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article points to methods of analyzing railway traffic conditions based on two parameters: capacity and delay of trains. The impact of the differentiated railway type structure on the capacity of the railway line was presented. Particular attention has been paid to the assessment of commonly used simplifications in analyzes.

  17. Monitoring system for assessment of prestressed railway bridges in the new Lehrter Bahnhof in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Wolfgang R.; Kohlhoff, H.; Knapp, J.; Helmerich, R.

    2003-03-01

    A new central railway station - Lehrter Bahnhof - is being built in Berlin. Because of construction activities in immediate vicinity and because of difficult soil conditions, vertical displacements will be expected. In order to avoid damage to the bridges and to a widely spanned glass roof which will be supported by two concrete bridges these two bridges have to be monitored right from the beginning of construction until commissioning as well as later on for several years. For this purpose, a long-term monitoring concept has been developed. Sensors with excellent long-term stabilty have been chosen to carry out the concept. This paper describes the measuring concept as well as components of the system. Especially techniques to monitor settlements and heaves and to measure strain and inclination of the prestressed concrete bridges are described. All measures are redundantly monitored. Measurements on-site are referenced by measurements on two large-scale beam models well-defined loaded under laboratory and field conditions.

  18. An assessment of available measures to reduce traction energy use in railway networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Heather; Roberts, Clive; Hillmansen, Stuart; Schmid, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Railway networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. • Current energy saving measures are reviewed and categorised by the energy use they target. • The achievable energy savings of different measures are compared dependent on the network type. • The success of a measure depends on the characteristics of the network, vehicle and service. • Measures should be evaluated at system level due to interdependencies. - Abstract: Rail is becoming an increasingly popular choice to satisfy transportation demands locally, nationally and internationally, due to its inherent efficiency and high capacity. Despite this, operators are facing pressure to reduce rail energy consumption to meet efficiency targets, whilst still maintaining service quality and managing increased demand. A number of individual measures have been proposed to reduce energy in the rail sector, often showing good results on specific case studies. It is generally agreed that the attainable savings of a given measure change dependant on the route, vehicle and service characteristics. However, there is little information in the literature specifically regarding which measures are most suitable for given network types, or how they interact. This paper therefore aims to begin evaluating the available measures in terms of their suitability for different systems. Firstly, networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. As traction accounts for the majority of all energy use in the rail sector, the traction flow through a vehicle is considered as the starting point for an evaluation of measures. Current technologies and procedures are reviewed and categorised based on which area of traction use they target. Thought is given to the factors that affect implementation and the networks where they are applied. A key output of this paper is a comparison of the achievable energy savings of different measures dependent on the network type. It is hoped that this will

  19. Yonjung High-Speed Railway Bridge Assessment Using Output-Only Structural Health Monitoring Measurements under Train Speed Changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yonjung Bridge is a hybrid multispan bridge that is designed to transport high-speed trains (HEMU-430X with maximum operating speed of 430 km/h. The bridge consists of simply supported prestressed concrete (PSC and composite steel girders to carry double railway tracks. The structural health monitoring system (SHM is designed and installed to investigate and assess the performance of the bridge in terms of acceleration and deformation measurements under different speeds of the passing train. The SHM measurements are investigated in both time and frequency domains; in addition, several identification models are examined to assess the performance of the bridge. The drawn conclusions show that the maximum deflection and acceleration of the bridge are within the design limits that are specified by the Korean and European codes. The parameters evaluation of the model identification depicts the quasistatic and dynamic deformations of PSC and steel girders to be different and less correlated when higher speeds of the passing trains are considered. Finally, the variation of the frequency content of the dynamic deformations of the girders is negligible when high speeds are considered.

  20. An assessment of the dynamic interaction of the rolling stock and the long-span bridges on high-speed railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dyachenko Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When the high-speed railway traffic is being organized, it becomes necessary to elaborate bridge design standards for high-speed railways. To ensure safety of traffic and reliability of bridges one needs to resolve the dynamic problems of various types of high-speed trains moving along the structures. The article analyzes the magnitude of inertial response as the function of the external stress parameters. A simplified structure assessment technique is offered based on the criterion of passenger comfort while crossing the bridges. The usefulness of the given research arises from the reduction of complexity of the complicated dynamic calculations needed to describe a high-speed train travelling along the artificial structures. Dependences of relative elastic deflection values from the span length are proposed, which allows designing and calculating long-span structures using the simplified dynamic models.

  1. Acoustic energy propagation around railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Petra

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the issues of acoustic energy propagation around railways. The research subject was noise emission spreading into the surroundings during the passage of trains over a directly travelled steel bridge construction. Noise emissions were measured using direct measurements in the field. The measurements were performed in two measurement profiles. The noise exposures A LAE measured near the steel bridge construction were compared against the noise exposures A LAE captured on an open track. From the difference of these data, the noise level of the steel bridge structure was determined. Part of the research was to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction of the railway track superstructure on the acoustic situation in the given section of the railway track. The article describes the methodology of measurements, including the processing and evaluation of measured data. The article points out the noise levels of the steel bridge construction and assesses changes in the acoustic situation after the reconstruction.

  2. Assessment of the Vibrations Effects Caused by Technical Seismicity Due to the Railway traffic on High-sensitivity Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papán, Daniel; Valašková, Veronika; Demeterová, Katarína

    2016-10-01

    The numerical and experimental approach in structural dynamics problems is more and more current nowadays. This approach is applied and solved in many research and developing institutions of the all the world. Vibrations effect caused by passing trains used in manufacturing facilities can affect the quality of the production activity. This effect is possible to be solved by a numerical or an experimental way. Numerical solution is not so financially and time demanding. The main aim of this article is to focus on just experimental measurement of this problem. In this paper, the case study with measurement due to cramped conditions realized in situ is presented. The case study is located close to railway. The vibration effect caused by passing trains on the high-sensitivity machinery contained in this object were observed. The structure was a high-sensitivity machine that was placed in a construction process. For the measurements, the high-sensitivity standard vibrations equipment was used. The assessments of measurements’ results were performed for the technological conditions and Slovak Standard Criteria. Both of these assessments were divided to amplitude and frequency domain. The amplitude criterion is also divided to peak particle velocity and RMS (Root Mean Square). Frequency domain assessment were realised using the frequency response curves obtained from high-sensitivity machinery manufacturer. The frequency limits are established for each axis of triaxle system. The measurement results can be predicted if the vibration have to be reduced. Measurement implemented in the production hall should obtain materials to determine the seismic loading and response of production machinery caused by technical seismicity.

  3. Assessing the influence of wheel defects of a rolling stockon railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich

    2015-05-01

    - slides (potholes, etc.The motion of the wheels with irregularities on the surface of the rail leads to vertical oscillation of the wheel, resulting in the forces of inertia, which is an additional load on the rail. In case of movement of the wheel with isolated roughness on the tread surface of the slide there is a strike, having a very large additional impact on the rail. Such attacks can cause kinked rails, especially in the winter months when there is increased fragility of rail steel, because of lowered temperatures. This is an abnormal phenomenon and occurs relatively rarely, at a small number of isolated irregularities on a wheel of the rolling stock. As correlations connecting the contact force and local deformation in the interaction of the wheel-rail system, we use the quasi-static Hertz’s model, linear-elastic model and two elastoplastic contact models: Alexandrov-Kadomtsev and Kil’chevsky. According to the results of Loktev’s studies ratios of the contact Hertz’s theory are quite suitable for modeling the dynamic effects of wheel and rail for speeds up to 90 km/h for engineering calculations. Since the contact surface is homogeneous and isotropic, the friction forces in the contact zone are not taken into account, the size of the pad is small compared to the dimensions of the contacting bodies and characteristic radii of curvature of the undeformed surfaces, the contacting surfaces are smooth.When train is driving, the position of the wheelset in relation to the rails varies considerably, giving rise to different combinations of the contact areas of the wheel and rail. Even assuming constant axial load the normal voltage will vary considerably because of the differences in the radii of curvature of the contacting surfaces of these zones. Thus, the proposed method allows evaluating the influence of several types of wheel defects on the condition of the rail and the prospects of its use in the upper structure of a railway track on plots with different

  4. An assessment of mode-coupling and falling-friction mechanisms in railway curve squeal through a simplified approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; Squicciarini, Giacomo; Thompson, David; Corradi, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    Curve squeal is one of the most annoying types of noise caused by the railway system. It usually occurs when a train or tram is running around tight curves. Although this phenomenon has been studied for many years, the generation mechanism is still the subject of controversy and not fully understood. A negative slope in the friction curve under full sliding has been considered to be the main cause of curve squeal for a long time but more recently mode coupling has been demonstrated to be another possible explanation. Mode coupling relies on the inclusion of both the lateral and vertical dynamics at the contact and an exchange of energy occurs between the normal and the axial directions. The purpose of this paper is to assess the role of the mode-coupling and falling-friction mechanisms in curve squeal through the use of a simple approach based on practical parameter values representative of an actual situation. A tramway wheel is adopted to study the effect of the adhesion coefficient, the lateral contact position, the contact angle and the damping ratio. Cases corresponding to both inner and outer wheels in the curve are considered and it is shown that there are situations in which both wheels can squeal due to mode coupling. Additionally, a negative slope is introduced in the friction curve while keeping active the vertical dynamics in order to analyse both mechanisms together. It is shown that, in the presence of mode coupling, the squealing frequency can differ from the natural frequency of either of the coupled wheel modes. Moreover, a phase difference between wheel vibration in the vertical and lateral directions is observed as a characteristic of mode coupling. For both these features a qualitative comparison is shown with field measurements which show the same behaviour.

  5. Assessing urban context-induced change in individual activity travel patterns : case study of new railway station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentze, T.A.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Ponjé, M.M.W.; Stams, A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Findings are reported of selective descriptive analyses that were conducted to examine whether the opening of a new railway station had induced any changes in the activity travel patterns of a panel of house holds. In particular, changes in choices related to trip generation, trip chaining,

  6. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  7. Failure and fatigue life assessment of steel railway bridges with brittle material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.

    2014-01-01

    Some existing steel bridges have been constructed from steels with a toughness that does not fulfil the requirements in modern standards. In such a case, standards for bridges do not provide an alternative assessment route. Yet such bridges may still be fit for purpose. This paper presents an

  8. Durability assessment of concrete sheet piling in the 'De Betuweroute' railway line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Polder, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of the durability of prestressed concrete sheet piles under the interference of CP gas pipeline system current, established that due to their low magnitude, these currents do not compromise the required 100-year service life of the structures. The sophisticated numerical modelling tools

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  10. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  11. Hybrid knowledge expert tool for load capacity assessment of railway plate girders with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuŻawa, M.; Bień, J.; Gładysz, M.

    2013-10-01

    Importance of the bridge structures as components of the transportation network is increasing and requires regular development of the management methodology. The main activities are focused on the safety of the users of the transportation network and on the safety of structures, based on monitoring and analysis of the bridge condition changes caused by various types of defects. The paper presents application of the hybrid network technology in the expert tool NOBLA supporting condition assessment of bridge plate girders, taking into account defects of the structures.

  12. Fitness-for-Work Assessment of Train Drivers of Yazd Railway, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Loukzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Transport Commission (NTC classifies train driving as a high-level safety critical job. Objective: To assess fitness-for-work among train drivers in Yazd, central Iran. Methods: We evaluated 152 train drivers for their fitness for duty. The results were then compared with NTC guidelines. Results: 63.8% of subjects were fit for duty, 34.2% fit subject to review, and 2.0% were temporarily unfit. The most common reason for fit subject to review was a Kessler score >19. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 48.0% and 15.0%, respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 69.7%, diabetes 10.0%, impaired fasting glucose 36.0%, and hypertension was 19.0%, respectively. Conclusion: Most studied train drivers can continue their work safely. The prevalence of some risk factors such as overweight and dyslipidemia were high among train drivers. This warrants further evaluation and establishment of control programs.

  13. Structural assessment of a RC Bridge over Sororó river along the Carajás railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. L. Matos

    Full Text Available The Carajás railway is operated by Vale SA and is used to transport the Brazilian production of iron ore mine located in the state of Pará until Itaqui harbor in Maranhão state. With 892 km in length, the railway will be doubled due to the prospect of increased production, which requires verification of the structures of bridges to ensure safety under loading up to 23% larger. The railway bridge in reinforced concrete has five hyperstatic spans with 25 m long and was built over Sororó river in the southeast of Pará. To better evaluate its structural performance under current loadings, several structural elements were monitored with strain gages and the concrete was characterized by non-destructive and destructive testing on the structure. This information was used in a computer model to estimate the future structural behavior. The methodology was satisfactory as the estimated structural performance for future loadings, meeting the recommendations of the Brazilian technical standards.

  14. Environmental impact assessment and environmental audit in large-scale public infrastructure construction: the case of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2009-09-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China's modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China's rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however, we have seen a shift in public concern toward the environmental and ecological effects of such projects, and today governments are required to provide valid environmental impact assessments prior to allowing large-scale construction. The official requirement for the monitoring of environmental conditions has led to an increased number of debates in recent years regarding the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Governmental Environmental Audits (GEAs) as environmental safeguards in instances of large-scale construction. Although EIA and GEA are conducted by different institutions and have different goals and enforcement potential, these two practices can be closely related in terms of methodology. This article cites the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway as an instance in which EIA and GEA offer complementary approaches to environmental impact management. This study concludes that the GEA approach can serve as an effective follow-up to the EIA and establishes that the EIA lays a base for conducting future GEAs. The relationship that emerges through a study of the Railway's construction calls for more deliberate institutional arrangements and cooperation if the two practices are to be used in concert to optimal effect.

  15. Assessment of potential energy efficiency improvements in the traction sector of the Swiss Federal Railways; Potentialermittlung Energieeffizienz Traktion bei den SBB - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Menth, S.; Lerjen, M.

    2007-07-01

    Possibilities to reduce the consumption of 16.7-Hz traction energy of Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) have been investigated. Various proposals have been discussed together with experts of SBB's Passenger, Cargo and Infrastructure divisions. Based on numerical simulations for representative train runs, the total consumption of the SBB network could be calculated and compared with real values. The possible reduction e.g. by energy optimised driving could be derived from this comparison; it is between 3 and 5 % of the specific consumption both for the influence by train driver and by traffic control. Technical measures in traction units and passenger coaches lead to reductions of up to about 3%, depending on the vehicle type. It is important that all measures take into account the extremely dense traffic on SBB's network and do not reduce the attractiveness for the customers. (author)

  16.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  17. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  18. BERN railway station: security assessment under a speed increase of trains from 30 to 40 km h-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribaux, C.; Capron, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of the ''Rail 2000'' project, the CFF (Swiss Railways) would like to increase the speed of trains arriving in Bern station. On the eastern head, this speed would be raised from 30 to 40kmh -1 . The superstructure is formed by a three-storey building which rests on 450mm diameter steel columns.The aim of the present study was: - to determine the security loss of the station superstructure under a train impact on the columns at 40kmh -1 rather than at 30kmh -1 - to propose measures in order to get at 40kmh -1 the same security as at 30kmh -1 Four approaches are dealt with: (1)on the base of accidents statistics and of their cost; (2)review of possible dynamical approaches; (3)equivalent static load (from European railways codes); (4)energy in which, starting from its initial speed, the train loses energy on different obstacles (ballast, platform, protection devices, walls, train's own deformation) and the remaining energy is compared with the maximum energy that the column can dissipate by deformation.The conclusions are presented as a 'security plan' and the proposed protection costs are evaluated. ((orig.))

  19. THE RAILWAYS THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sout'h Africa's armed forces were small, and their material resources ... scheme, contingency planning proceeded. On the outbreak of ... hannesburg); a Railway Operating Company; a Mechanical .... ded his verdict that from the points of view.

  20. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfieri, A.; Groot, R.; Kroon, L.G.; Schrijver, A.

    2006-01-01

    Railway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of rolling

  1. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfieri (Arianna); R. Groot (Rutger); L.G. Kroon (Leo); A. Schrijver (Lex)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRailway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of

  2. Structural Health and Stability Assessment of High-Speed Railways via Thermal Dilation Mapping With Time-Series InSAR Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Xiaoqiong; Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, L; Yang, M.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal dilation is a vital component of deformation along the extensive railway network infrastructure. To monitor subtle deformation, the synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technique has been adopted as a space-borne geodetic tool. However, InSAR applications in railway stability

  3. DC Cable for Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  4. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  5. Subcontracting Railway Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    railway infrastructure manager (InfraMan), whichis subcontracting maintenance tasks to other companies. InfraMan has implemented various central elements in managing their subcontractors. The latter are required to present a safety plan as part of their bid, they must be approved if they are to be awarded...

  6. Current and future flood risk to railway infrastructure in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, Philip; Kellermann, Patric; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Dillenardt, Lisa; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2017-04-01

    Railway infrastructure plays an important role in the transportation of freight and passengers across the European Union. According to Eurostat, more than four billion passenger-kilometres were travelled on national and international railway lines of the EU28 in 2014. To further strengthen transport infrastructure in Europe, the European Commission will invest another € 24.05 billion in the transnational transport network until 2020 as part of its new transport infrastructure policy (TEN-T), including railway infrastructure. Floods pose a significant risk to infrastructure elements. Damage data of recent flood events in Europe show that infrastructure losses can make up a considerable share of overall losses. For example, damage to state and municipal infrastructure in the federal state of Saxony (Germany) accounted for nearly 60% of overall losses during the large-scale event in June 2013. Especially in mountainous areas with little usable space available, roads and railway lines often follow floodplains or are located along steep and unsteady slopes. In Austria, for instance, the flood of 2013 caused € 75 million of direct damage to railway infrastructure. Despite the importance of railway infrastructure and its exposure to flooding, assessments of potential damage and risk (i.e. probability * damage) are still in its infancy compared with other sectors, such as the residential or industrial sector. Infrastructure-specific assessments at the regional scale are largely lacking. Regional assessment of potential damage to railway infrastructure has been hampered by a lack of infrastructure-specific damage models and data availability. The few available regional approaches have used damage models that assess damage to various infrastructure elements (e.g. roads, railway, airports and harbours) using one aggregated damage function and cost estimate. Moreover, infrastructure elements are often considerably underrepresented in regional land cover data, such as

  7. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  8. Synergies of the Liberalization of the Railway Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panák Michal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of transport market brings various effects, which in the context of the assessment of synergies can affect in different ways the company, a customer as such, and transport undertakings operating on the railway transport market as well. This paper provides an innovative perspective on the relationship between liberalization and synergy, defining new types of synergies that have not yet been monitored in the conditions of railway transport. This approach is interesting because of the possibility of assessing the operation of railway undertakings in the open transport market. The eminent is characteristic of integration type synergies and emergence type synergies in relation to railway transport, as well as the breakdown of synergies in relation to the customer and carrier.

  9. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, pfair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  10. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....

  11. Innovative Railway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  12. Assessment of Motor Units in Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Robert D; McCombe, Pamela A

    2017-01-01

    The motor unit comprises the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers that it innervates. Although the true number of motor units is unknown, the number of motor units appears to vary greatly between different muscles and between different individuals. Assessment of the number and function of motor units is needed in diseases of the anterior horn cell and other motor nerve disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most important disease of anterior horn cells. The need for an effective biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has stimulated the study of methods to measure the number of motor units. Since 1970 a number of different methods, including the incremental, F-wave, multipoint, and statistical methods, have been developed but none has achieved widespread applicability. Two methods (MUNIX and the multipoint incremental method) are in current use across multiple centres and are discussed in detail in this review, together with other recently published methods. Imaging with magnetic resonance and ultrasound is increasingly being applied to this area. Motor unit number estimates have also been applied to other neuromuscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy, compression neuropathies, and prior poliomyelitis. The need for an objective measure for the assessment of motor units remains tantalizingly close but unfulfilled in 2016.

  13. HIGH SPEED RAILWAY LINES – FUTURE PART OF CZECH RAILWAY NETWORK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Týfa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper first describes high speed rail generally and explains the relationship between high speed and conventional railway networks (according to the vehicle types in operation on the network. The core of the paper is comprised of the methodology for choosing the best route for a railway line and its application to the high speed railway connection Praha – Brno. The Algorithm used assumes the existence of more route proposals, which could be different in terms of the operational conception, line routing or types of vehicles used. The optimal variant is the one with the lowest daily cost, which includes infrastructure and vehicle costs; investment and operational costs. The results from applying this model confirmed the assumption, that a dedicated high speed railway line, only for high speed trains, has the same or lower investment costs than a line for both high speed and conventional trains. Furthermore, a dedicated high line also has a lower cost for infrastructure maintenance but a higher cost for buying high speed multiple units.

  14. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    In modern railway automatic train protection and automatic train control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. The aim of this work has been developing an innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles able to enhance the performances, in terms of speed and position estimation accuracy, of the classical odometry algorithms, such as the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT). The proposed strategy consists of a sensor fusion between the information coming from a tachometer and an Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU). The sensor outputs have been simulated through a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle. The work has provided the development of a custom IMU, designed by ECM S.p.a, in order to meet their industrial and business requirements. The industrial requirements have to be compliant with the European Train Control System (ETCS) standards: the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a project developed by the European Union to improve the interoperability among different countries, in particular as regards the train control and command systems, fixes some standard values for the odometric (ODO) performance, in terms of speed and travelled distance estimation. The reliability of the ODO estimation has to be taken into account basing on the allowed speed profiles. The results of the currently used ODO algorithms can be improved, especially in case of degraded adhesion conditions; it has been verified in the simulation environment that the results of the proposed localisation algorithm are always compliant with the ERTMS requirements

  15. Assessing the Performance of Business Unit Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 140 managers, we investigate the use of various performance metrics in determining the periodic assessment, bonus decisions, and career paths of business unit managers.We show that the weight on accounting return measures is associated with the authority of these managers, and we

  16. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  17. Case for railway electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, A.N.

    1981-06-10

    The publication earlier this year of the joint BR-DTp final report of the review of main line electrification represented the culmination of over two years work; the study is almost certainly the most complex and comprehensive of this type ever undertaken. Heavy reliance on computer models allowed business analysis over the 34-year timespan of the review to extend to a level of detail that was not expected at the time of the last such investigation, the 1931 Weir Report of the Committee on Main Line Railway Electrification. It is encouraging that, despite the sweeping changes in both technology and economic conditions during the intervening years, the verdict remains highly favourable.

  18. Developing noise control strategies for entire railway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertli, Jakob

    2006-06-01

    The EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49) requires member states to deliver noise maps to the commission by 2007 and action plans by 2008 both for agglomerations as well as for major roads, railways and airports. Noise mitigation projects resulting from action plans are usually very expensive and therefore may threaten the economic viability of the railways in the current harsh competitive transport market, thus hindering sustainable transport policies. It is therefore of vital interest that the action plans and the resulting projects are designed in the most cost-effective way possible. The EU and Union of Railways (UIC) sponsored project Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement noise Reducing measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS) recognized this need and developed a tool, with which such optimal solutions can be obtained for entire railway networks. Since data collection is the most expensive part of the analysis, noise mapping data is ideally collected in such a way that it can be used for the calculation of the different scenarios, from which the most cost-effective action plans are chosen. The paper shows how the STAIRRS tool is used for this purpose and how cost-effectiveness considerations have led to optimal railway noise mitigation strategies in Switzerland and have given a basis for noise related decision making in Luxembourg.

  19. Risk Evaluation of Railway Coal Transportation Network Based on Multi Level Grey Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xifu

    2018-01-01

    The railway transport mode is currently the most important way of coal transportation, and now China’s railway coal transportation network has become increasingly perfect, but there is still insufficient capacity, some lines close to saturation and other issues. In this paper, the theory and method of risk assessment, analytic hierarchy process and multi-level gray evaluation model are applied to the risk evaluation of coal railway transportation network in China. Based on the example analysis of Shanxi railway coal transportation network, to improve the internal structure and the competitiveness of the market.

  20. Methodology for profitability assessment in the case of old rolling stock replacement with new trains in Bulgarian State Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoilov Valeri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology has been developed for assessing the profitability of passenger carriers in the event of a complete or partial replacement of the old rolling stock with new one. The evaluation has taken into account the energy costs, the cost of servicing the train stock, repair costs, the cost of infrastructure charges, the number of days for the movement of trains. A correction coefficient was introduced for bringing the analysed costs closer to the real ones reported in the accounting documents of BDZ-PP Ltd. It was found out that when the rolling stock is completely changed, company’s expenses are expected to decrease by BGN 82 million per year. The most significant share is due to a decrease in energy resources – 51%, followed by repair – 39%, train staff – 17% and infrastructure fees – 16%.

  1. Evaluación de la capacidad ferroviaria del corredor Bogotá – Belencito/An Assessment of Railway Capacity of Corridor Bogotá – Belencito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Márquez Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplican modelos analíticos para evaluar cuatro tipos de capacidad ferroviaria en siete tramos del corredor Bogotá - Belencito. Se identifica el cantón crítico de la red ferroviaria, lo mismo que el tramo de mayor capacidad. Se analiza la capacidad disponible para el tren de cercanías de Bogotá y para un tren de pasajeros entre Tunja y Sogamoso, dadas las condiciones actuales de operación. Se hace un análisis de sensibilidad de la capacidad con respecto a la velocidad de operación y la distancia entre estaciones. Por último, se presentan recomendaciones para aumentar la capacidad ferroviaria del corredorAnalytical models are applied to evaluate four types of railway capacity in seven sections of the corridor Bogotá – Belencito. The critical canton of the railway network is identified, and the higher capacity segment. Given the current operating conditions, we analyzed the available capacity of Bogota’s commuter train and a passenger train between Tunja and Sogamoso. A sensitivity analysis of capacity is done about the operating speed and distance between stations and we then present recommendations to increase railway capacity in the corridor.

  2. GIS-Based Railway Route Selection for the Proposed Kenya-Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a procedure developed for automated railway feasibility analysis based on GIS and Multi-Criteria analysis. Good engineering railway alignment requirements are assessed and suitable factors and constraints for feasibility analysis derived. Relevant digital map layers are then prepared and reclassified ...

  3. Magnetically suspended railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C

    1977-07-28

    The invention concerns the emergency support of a magnetically suspended railway. On failure of the magnetic suspension/tracking system, the vehicles touch down on the rail configuration by means of emergency gliding elements like sliding shoes, skids, or the like. In doing this, the touch-down shock of the emergency gliding elements has to be limited to a force maximum as small as possible. According to the invention a spring-attenuator combination is used for this purpose, the spring characteristic being linear while the attenuator has a square-law characteristic for the compressing and a linear characteristic for the yielding motion. The force maximum thus achieved is exactly half the size of the physically smallest possible force maximum for an emergency gliding element springed without damping.

  4. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...

  5. VoLTE performance in railway scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  6. VoLTE Performance in Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  7. Integrity Evaluation of Railway Bogie Using Infrared Thermography Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk

    2011-01-01

    The lock-in thermography was employed to evaluate the integrity of railway bogies. Prior to the actual application on railway bogies, in order to assess the detectability of known flaws, the calibration reference panel was prepared with various dimensions of artificial flaws. The panel was composed of structural steel, which was the same material with actual bogies. Through lock-in thermography evaluation, the optimal frequency of heat source was determined for the best flaw detection. Based on the defects information, the actual defect assessments on railway bogie were conducted with different types of railway bogies, which were used for the current operation. In summary, the defect assessment results with thermography method showed a good agreement as compared with the conventional inspection techniques. Moreover, it was found that the novel infrared thermography technique could be an effective way for the inspection and the detection of surface defects on bogies since the infrared thermography method provided rapid and non-contact mode for the investigation of railway bogies

  8. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  9. [Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-zhi; Qiu, Peng-hua; Fang, Yuan-min

    2015-08-01

    As a large corridor project, plateau railway has multiple points and passes various sensitive environments along the railway. The determination of the scope of impact on ecological environment from railway construction is often controversial in ecological impact assessment work. Taking the Tangbu-Jiantang section of Li-Xiang Railway as study object, and using present land use map (1:10000) in 2012 and DEM as data sources, corridor cutting degree index ( CCI) and cumulative effect index of corridor (CCEI) were established by topology, buffer zone and landscape metrics methods. Besides, the ecological risk index used for railway construction was improved. By quantitative analysis of characteristics of the spatio-temporal change of landscape pattern and its evolution style at different spatial scales before and after railway construction, the most appropriate evaluation scale of the railway was obtained. Then the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk within this scale before and after railway construction were analyzed. The results indicated that the cutting model and degree of railway corridor to various landscape types could be effectively reflected by CCI, and the exposure and harm relations between risk sources and risk receptors of railway can be measured by CCEI. After the railway construction, the railway corridor would cause a great deal of middle cutting effect on the landscape along the railroad, which would influence wood land and grassland landscape most greatly, while would cause less effect of edge cutting and internal cutting. Landscape indices within the 600 m buffer zone demonstrated the most obvious scale effect, therefore, the 600 m zone of the railway was set as the most suitable range of ecological impact assessment. Before railway construction, the low ecological risk level covered the biggest part of the 600 m assessment zone. However, after the railway construction, the ecological risk increased significantly, and

  10. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L. M., E-mail: LMFisher@niitfa.ru; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V. [National Technical Physics and Automation Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  11. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, L. M.; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered

  12. Freight railway operator timetabling and engine scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Gendreau, M.; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider timetable design at a European freight railway operator. The timetable is designed by choosing the time of service for customer unit train demands among a set of discrete points. These discrete points are all found within the a time-window. The objective of the model...... is to minimize cost while adhering to constraints regarding infrastructure usage, demand coverage, and engine availability. The model is solved by a column generation scheme where feasible engine schedules are designed in a label setting algorithm with time-dependent cost and service times....

  13. Electrical injuries due to railway high tension cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, M; Kay, S

    1985-08-01

    We have noted a large number of young boys being admitted to our Unit with burns due to railway high tension cables. On review of these cases we have noted: most of the burns were due to arcing, there is a high level of ignorance among the population at risk. We propose some ways of preventing these injuries.

  14. Systematic review of research on railway and urban transit system suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L; Bardon, Cécile

    2016-03-15

    We critically review research on railway suicides to inform suicide prevention initiatives and future studies, including who is at risk and why, and behaviours at track locations. Literature was identified from Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and our documentation centre, and contacting 71 railway companies, resulting in 716 articles and eight unpublished reports, with 94 having empirical data on 55 unique studies. Research quality was critically assessed. The quality of studies varies greatly with frequent shortcomings: no justification of sample size, lacking information on the reliability and validity of measures, no explanation nor theoretical understanding of findings. Railway suicides resemble closely people who use other methods, although they tend to be younger. As with other suicide methods, mental health problems are likely to be present. Railway suicide attempters usually die, but most urban transportation systems attempters survive. Railway suicides are rarely impulsive; people usually go to the railway for the purpose of killing themselves. Hotspots have been the focus of some prevention measures. We know little about why people choose railway suicide, but studies of survivors suggest they often thought they would have an immediate, certain and painless death. Media reports on railway suicides can increase their incidence. Most research focuses on the incidence and characteristics of events and attempters. Research has not shown that railway suicides are different from suicides by other means. Better quality research is needed, particularly studies that investigate why people use railways to kill themselves and how railway suicides can be effectively prevented, as well as more evaluations of prevention programmes. Because of significant variations by country and region in characteristics of railway suicides, prevention programmes should conduct a local assessment of the characteristics of attempters and incidents. We need more research on

  15. LTE for Railways: Impact on Performance of ETCS Railway Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    The Global System for Mobile Communications-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with considerable shortcomings in terms of capacity and data transmission capabilities. Because of these shortcomings, GSM-R is becoming the element limiting the number of running trains in areas with high...... train concentration, such as major train stations. Moreover, GSM-R cannot support advanced data services. Hence, modern technologies, such as long-term evolution (LTE), have to be evaluated as possible railway communication technologies to replace GSM-R in the future. This article analyzes...... the characteristics of the LTE railway radio access network in terms of eNodeB (LTE base station) density and eNodeB transmission power. Based on this analysis, a set of computer-based simulation scenarios (e.g., OPNET) with varying numbers of eNodeBs is evaluated regarding the achieved transfer delay and data...

  16. Magnetic levitation railways. 2. enlarged ed. Magnetschwebebahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miedtank, R [comp.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 129 literature references, mostly with German abstracts on: Representation of the magnetic levitation railway (MAGLEV railway) as a fast modern railway; type of design of tracks and stations; manufacture of track supports made of steel and reinforced concrete with the accuracy required for this fast railway system. Introduction of experimental sections and planning study for this means of transport. (orig./HP).

  17. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  18. RESTRUCTURING INDONESIAN RAILWAY – INTEGRATION OR SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utut Widyanto

    2013-05-01

    The study found that the separation model is still the best approach for restructuring Indonesian railway but if looking at the Indonesian railway current condition with its problem of backlog assets it would be better that the separation approach is used in the development of railway in other islands. Keywords: Restructuration, separation, funds, operator.

  19. Discharge from an emergency department observation unit and a surgical assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit.......To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit....

  20. Dynamics of railway bridges, analysis and verification by field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper discusses different aspects of railway bridge dynamics, comprising analysis, modelling procedures and experimental testing. The importance of realistic models is discussed, especially regarding boundary conditions, load distribution and soil-structure interaction. Two theoretical case studies are presented, involving both deterministic and probabilistic assessment of a large number of railway bridges using simplified and computationally efficient models. A total of four experimental case studies are also introduced, illustrating different aspects and phenomena in bridge dynamics. The excitation consists of both ambient vibrations, train induced vibrations, free vibrations after train passages and controlled forced excitation.

  1. Robustness in Railway Operations (RobustRailS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    This study considers the problem of enhancing railway timetable robustness without adding slack time, hence increasing the travel time. The approach integrates a transit assignment model to assess how passengers adapt their behaviour whenever operations are changed. First, the approach considers...

  2. Waiting experience in railway environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hagen, M.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2014-01-01

    At railway stations, waiting time is usually an unavoidable aspect of the journey for train passengers. According to the attentional model of time, pleasant surroundings and other forms of distraction reduce perceived waiting time. Not every individual reacts identically in the same surroundings.

  3. Low-complexity Behavioral Model for Predictive Maintenance of Railway Turnouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkhordari, Pegah; Galeazzi, Roberto; Tejada, Alejandro de Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of railway infrastructures represents a major cost driver for any infrastructure manager since reliability and dependability must be guaranteed at all times. Implementation of predictive maintenance policies relies on the availability of condition monitoring systems able to assess...

  4. RISK VIP: Evaluation of Flood Risk on the French Railway Network Using an Innovative GIS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding can have significant direct and indirect negative effects on a railway network affecting both infrastructure and rail operations. Such impacts include the delaying or cancelling of train services, damage to railway structures or the implementation of costly maintenance and monitoring programs to ensure the safety and performance of the railway system. Identifying sections of railway line at risk from flooding allows appropriate actions to be targeted at specific areas and contributes to an effective asset management plan. Flooding of railway infrastructure can have numerous sources including surface water run-off, insufficient capacity of hydraulic structures or the inundation of embankments located in floodplains. Consequences of flooding include the destabilisation of structures (surface erosion of embankments or the undermining of bridge foundations, differential settlement of structures and damage to the track structure. This paper details an innovative approach developed at the SNCF using a Geographic Information System (GIS model to identify zones of the railway network at risk of different types of flooding. The GIS model RiskVIP has been constructed through the assessment of three distinct components of risk: “Vulnerability” (assessment of the susceptibility of the railway infrastructure to flood conditions, Intensity’ (capacity of a catchment to generate a flood flow, Probability’ (probability of a rainfall event.Through the application of decision trees, the component ‘Intensity’ has been characterised in the model by the physical properties of the catchment intercepted by the railway line (surface area of the catchment, slope and land cover characteristics and “Vulnerability” by the infrastructure itself (type, geometry and the presence of hydraulic structures. In order to evaluate its efficiency at identifying sites at risk of flooding, the model has been tested in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon in France

  5. Impact of service quality management (SQM) practices on Indian railways : study of South Central Railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to present a framework developed for assisting Railways to monitor and : control the quality of services provided to passengers. The study evaluated the passenger Rail Service quality of : Indian Railways by develo...

  6. Real-time Railway Traffic Management : Dispatching in complex, large and busy railway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Railway is an important and sustainable transportation mode, which despite good potentials results in a limited attractiveness, mostly due to the perceived consequences of unreliability. In fact, busy railway networks with frequent and heterogeneous services are highly sensitive to delay

  7. Dynamic response of railway tracks in tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang , T; Duhamel , Denis; Forêt , Gilles; Yin , H.P.; Joyez , P; Caby , R

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Periodically supported beams subjected to a moving load are often used for modelling the railway dynamics and analytical solutions have been developed for such modelling [3, 4]. More complex models can be constructed by including supports with damping or non-linear stiffness elements. This study deals with the dynamical modelling of non-ballasted railways, especially railways in tunnels. The model is developed as a dynamical system of multi-degree of freedom. Under the...

  8. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  9. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  10. 76 FR 59482 - The New Brunswick Railway Company-Continuance in Control Exemption-Maine Northern Railway Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... requirements of 49 U.S.C. 11323-25, for Eastern Maine Railway, a Class III rail common carrier to continue in... Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.; Maine Northern Railway Company--Modified Rail...

  11. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  12. Sustainable railway bridges with higher axle loads:monitoring examples from northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Elfgren, Lennart; Enochsson, Ola; Täljsten, Björn; Paulsson, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring of several railway bridges has been carried out in northern Sweden in order to increase the allowable axle load. The work is part of a European Integrated Project "Sustainable Bridges - Assessment for Future Traffic Demands and Longer Lives". The paper describes the project and gives some examples of applications. Monitoring of several railway bridges has been carried out in northern Sweden in order to increase the allowable axle load. The work is part of a European Integrated P...

  13. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard N [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  14. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Richard N.

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  15. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  16. Bank Units. Assessment and Development Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are new trends in development banking sector especially concerning branches. The e-banking has diminished impact the old fashion branches as main tool finance activity. Now we have units (departments localised at supermarkets and in other strange places. Due to some researches mortgages and insurance polices ought to be sold in traditional branches according to clients preferences. Lafferty Agency researched quality of banking service condition in the UK. Base on this methodology similar case studies were done in Poland.

  17. The keys to Europe : regulating railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of the railways in Europe in the middle of the nineteenth century quickly raised new questions about harmonizing standards to allow them to travel over national borders. Negotiations regarding how to run international railways involved entrepreneurs, engineers, and politicians from

  18. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...

  19. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  20. Railway timetabling from an operations research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); D. Huisman (Dennis); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe Operations Research (OR) models and techniques that can be used for determining (cyclic) railway timetables. We discuss the two aspects of railway timetabling: ($i$) the determination of arrival and departure times of the trains at the stations and other

  1. The Network effects of Railway Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten; Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2006-01-01

    Network effects is when a change at one place in the railway network results in changes elsewhere in the network – maybe even far away from the original change. Railway investments have network effects, and therefore, this paper describes the network effects and how these network effects can...

  2. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  3. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  4. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  5. Sustainability Assessment Using a Unit-based Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sustainability assessment study was performed with three teaching departments at Rhodes University – Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Anthropology, and Accounting. The assessment used a Unit-based Sustainability Assessment Tool (USAT) and was guided by systems thinking and the ontological framework ...

  6. Bruce Unit 2 lay-up engineering assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iley, D.

    1995-01-01

    The overall lay-up program initiated as a result of the strategic decision to shut down Bruce A unit 2 is briefly described as an introduction to the engineering assessment of the unit 2 systems. The assessment has identified the need to prepare 67 system and 9 equipment lay-up specifications. A summary of the selected system specifications is described. A complete summary and the specifications and the status of unit 2 systems and equipment required to support lay-up and/or the other three operating units is available on request due to the volume of the information. Some logistical details of the lay-up implementation plans, results, and problems to date demonstrate the complexity of the lay-up requirements for a nuclear unit in a multi-unit CANDU station. (author)

  7. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Mikael; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Smith, Michael; Gustavsson, Sara; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s.

  8. FEATURES OF THE RESEARCH WORK ELEMENTS DEFORMABILITY OF RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific paper is supposed the determination of basic physical and structural conditions in modeling life cycle of the elements of the railway line for the study of deformation processes as the basis of normative base of the track at the condition of railway safety. Methodology. To achieve the aim principles of the elasticity theory and wave propagation process in the description of the interaction between the track and rolling stock were used. Findings. The basic physical and structural conditions under which it is necessary to carry out the simulation of the life cycle of the elements of the railway line for the study of deformation processes were determined. The basic physical and structural principles of drawing the design schemes of railway track elements for the process assessment of the track deformation work were formulated. The decision correctness and the possibility of the problem solution are proved. Originality. The study of the track reliability questions motivates the development of new models, allow considering it for some developments. There is a need to identify the main physical and structural conditions for assembly design schemes based on assessment and prediction of possible track state changes during its operation. The paper presents the basic principles of physical and structural drafting design schemes of railway line items for which Huygens’ principle is implemented. This principle can be performed only when the four dimensional space: the volume changing over time is considered. Practical value. Analytical models applied in determining the parameters of strength and resistance lines, fully satisfy the task, but can not be used to determine the parameters of track reliability. One of the main impossibility factors of these models is quasidynamic approach. Therefore, as a rule, receive and examine not only dynamic process of a railway track, but also its consequences. Besides, these models are related to

  9. Romania: Cernavoda unit 2. Assessments and evaluations. Annex 9B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Condu, M.

    1999-01-01

    This annex describes the various assessments and evaluations undertaken to confirm economic and technical viability of unit 2. The extent of modifications and improvements arising out of the suspension period are also identified. (author)

  10. Heat stress assessment in artistic glass units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'AMBROSIO Alfano, Francesca Romana; Palella, Boris Igor; Riccio, Giuseppe; Bartalini, Massimo; Strambi, Fabio; Malchaire, Jacques

    2018-04-07

    Heat stress in glass industry is mainly studied in large and highly mechanized manufacturing Units. To the contrary, few studies were carried out in small factories specialized in hand-made products. To stress the need of combined objective and medical surveys in these environments, this paper deals with a simultaneous climatic and physiological investigation of working conditions in artistic crystal glass factories in Tuscany (Italy). The microclimatic monitoring, through a continuous survey has been carried out in early spring. The main physiological parameters (metabolic rate, heart rate, tympanic temperature and water loss) were measured over the whole shifts. The results show that, despite the arduousness of the working conditions, the heat stress levels are physiologically tolerable. The predictions made using the PHS model at the Analysis level described in ISO 15265 agree closely to the observed values, validating the use of PHS model in these conditions. This model was then used to analyse what is likely to be the situation during the summer. It is concluded that the heat constraint will be very high and that some steps must be taken from the spring to monitor closely the exposed workers in the summer and take measures to prevent any heat accident.

  11. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  12. Reinvention, renewal or repetition? the great western railway and occupational safety on Britain’s railways, c.1900-c.1920

    OpenAIRE

    Esbester, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 1913, the Great Western Railway introduced an occupational safety education campaign that appeared to be a radical break with all previous methods of promoting safety in the British industrial workplace. In this paper, I assess the extent to which this “new” campaign reinvented occupational safety education in Britain. I argue that the Great Western combined new techniques of communicating safety messages with the relatively traditional content of those messages. Rather than a simple repet...

  13. Clinical risk assessment in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asefzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical risk management focuses on improving the quality and safety of health care services by identifying the circumstances and opportunities that put patients at risk of harm and acting to prevent or control those risks. The goal of this study is to identify and assess the failure modes in the ICU of Qazvin′s Social Security Hospital (Razi Hospital through Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. Methods: This was a qualitative-quantitative research by Focus Discussion Group (FDG performed in Qazvin Province, Iran during 2011. The study population included all individuals and owners who are familiar with the process in ICU. Sampling method was purposeful and the FDG group members were selected by the researcher. The research instrument was standard worksheet that has been used by several researchers. Data was analyzed by FMEA technique. Results: Forty eight clinical errors and failure modes identified, results showed that the highest risk probability number (RPN was in respiratory care "Ventilator′s alarm malfunction (no alarm" with the score 288, and the lowest was in gastrointestinal "not washing the NG-Tube" with the score 8. Conclusions: Many of the identified errors can be prevented by group members. Clinical risk assessment and management is the key to delivery of effective health care.

  14. FORMATION OF ESTIMATED CONDITIONS FOR LIFE CYCLE OF DEFORMATION WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of this research is to substantiate the technical limits of the railway track (under reliability status for the formation the regulatory framework for reliability and functional safety of the railway track in Ukraine. Methodology.In order to achieve the goal of research analysis methods of the technical states of elements and trackforms that are typical of operation conditions of the railways in Ukraine were used. Findings.Technical states accordance of elements and trackforms to reliability status under existing regulations was defined. These conditions are based on the track assessments in accordance with the dimensional tape results. The status of each element of the track design affects its deformation work, but the rules are still absent that would connect state of track elements with the state of the track by estimation of the dimensional tape. The reasons on which the limits are not set were established. It was found out which researches are necessary to conduct for their installation. Originality. The classification of the reliability state of a railway track for permitted deviation at the track laying and maintenance was developed. The regulation importance the technical states of ballast section and subgrade for the developed classification was established. Practical value. Ukrzaliznytsia (UZ is a founding member of the Council for Railway Transport of the Commonwealth. This body issued interstate standard State Standard 32192-2013 «Reliability of railway equipment. Basic concepts, terms and definitions». On this basis developed a new interstate standard «Security functional of railway equipment. Terms and definitions». At the same time UZ is a member of the cooperation of railways in International Union of Railway Transport where rules with reliable and safe operation of railways are established in all transport branches. This study will help implement these standards on the railways of Ukraine, improve the

  15. Leukemia and brain tumors in Norwegian railway workers, a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynes, T; Jynge, H; Vistnes, A I

    1994-04-01

    In an attempt to assess whether exposure to electromagnetic fields on Norwegian railways induces brain tumors or leukemia, the authors conducted a nested case-control study of railway workers based on incident cases from the Cancer Registry of Norway in a cohort of 13,030 male Norwegian railway workers who had worked on either electric or non-electric railways. The cohort comprised railway line, outdoor station, and electricity workers. The case series comprised 39 men with brain tumors and 52 men with leukemia (follow-up, 1958-1990). Each case was matched on age with four or five controls selected from the same cohort. The exposure of each study subject to electric and magnetic fields was evaluated from cumulative exposure measures based on present measurements and historical data. Limited information on potential confounders such as creosote, solvents, and herbicides was also collected; information on whether the subject had smoked was obtained by interviews with the subjects or work colleagues. The case-control analysis showed that men employed on electric railways, compared with non-electric ones, had an odds ratio for leukemia of 0.70 (adjusted for smoking) and an odds ratio for brain tumor of 0.87. No significant trend was shown for exposure to either magnetic or electric fields. These results do not support an association between exposure to 16 2/3-Hertz electric or magnetic fields and the risk for leukemia or brain tumors.

  16. 78 FR 56769 - South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways-Intra-Corporate Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Cooper and Berkeley Railroad Company South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35762] South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--The...

  17. Integral Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation for Railway Traction Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garramiola, Fernando; Del Olmo, Jon; Poza, Javier; Madina, Patxi; Almandoz, Gaizka

    2018-05-13

    Due to the increasing importance of reliability and availability of electric traction drives in Railway applications, early detection of faults has become an important key for Railway traction drive manufacturers. Sensor faults are important sources of failures. Among the different fault diagnosis approaches, in this article an integral diagnosis strategy for sensors in traction drives is presented. Such strategy is composed of an observer-based approach for direct current (DC)-link voltage and catenary current sensors, a frequency analysis approach for motor current phase sensors and a hardware redundancy solution for speed sensors. None of them requires any hardware change requirement in the actual traction drive. All the fault detection and isolation approaches have been validated in a Hardware-in-the-loop platform comprising a Real Time Simulator and a commercial Traction Control Unit for a tram. In comparison to safety-critical systems in Aerospace applications, Railway applications do not need instantaneous detection, and the diagnosis is validated in a short time period for reliable decision. Combining the different approaches and existing hardware redundancy, an integral fault diagnosis solution is provided, to detect and isolate faults in all the sensors installed in the traction drive.

  18. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for structural and railway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, H. Y.; Liu, S. Y.; Guan, B. O.; Chung, W. H.; Chan, T. H.; Cheng, L. K.

    2005-02-01

    Historically, due to the high cost of optical devices, fiber-optics sensor systems were only employed in niche areas where conventional electrical sensors are not suitable. This scenario changed dramatically in the last few years following the explosion of the Internet which caused the rapid expansion of the optical fiber telecommunication industry and substantially driven down the cost of optical components. In recent years, fiber-optic sensors and particularly fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have attracted a lot of interests and are being used in numerous applications. We have conducted several field trials of FBG sensors for railway applications and structural monitoring. About 30 FBG sensors were installed on the rail tracks of Kowloon-Canton Railway Corp. for train identification and speed measurements and the results obtained show that FBG sensors exhibit very good performance and could play a major role in the realization of "Smart Railway". FBG sensors were also installed on Hong Kong's landmark TsingMa Bridge, which is the world longest suspension bridge (2.2 km) that carries both trains and regular road traffic. The trials were carried out with a high-speed (up to 20 kHz) interrogation system based on CCD and also with a interrogation unit that based on scanning optical filter (up to 70 Hz). Forty FBGs sensors were divided into 3 arrays and installed on different parts of the bridge (suspension cable, rocker bearing and truss girders). The objectives of the field trial on the TsingMa Bridge are to monitor the strain of different parts of the bridge under railway load and highway load, and to compare the FBG sensors' performance with conventional resistive strain gauges already installed on the bridge. The measured results show that excellent agreement was obtained between the 2 types of sensors.

  19. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  20. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  1. SURVEY RESULTS AND TESTING OF RAILWAY BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. Haniiev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the survey and testing of railway bridges by the State Joint-Stock Railway Company «Uzbekiston Temir Yollari» («Uzbekistan Railways». It is stated that in the existing rules on determination of the capacity of bridges the recommendations on taking into account the cumulative deflection to the moment of technical diagnostics of spans on the bridge capacity are absent. The author states on the need to develop a method for determining the wear of spans on restriction of the residual deflection in the bridge floor slabs.

  2. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  3. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: Results from the ALPNAP-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Lercher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643 we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A, Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A, Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A, Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

  4. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: results from the ALPNAP-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercher, P; Brink, M; Rudisser, J; Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Baulac, M; Defrance, J

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643) we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A), Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A), Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A), Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

  5. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.; Heimiller, D.; Haymes, S.; Musial, W.

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes the offshore wind resource potential for the contiguous United States and Hawaii as of May 2009. The development of this assessment has evolved over multiple stages as new regional meso-scale assessments became available, new validation data was obtained, and better modeling capabilities were implemented. It is expected that further updates to the current assessment will be made in future reports.

  6. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM. ... involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. ... the processed signals to control electromagnetic devices through motor drivers.

  7. High-speed railways in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotani, Y.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of conventional railways in Japan, leading up to the Shinkansen line, which at present runs at speeds up to 210km/h, and will in the future be speeded up to 260km/h. It then goes on to review the development of a superconductive, magnetically levitated train, which will constitute the next generation of railways, running at speeds of up to 500km/h. (author)

  8. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  9. Mine railway equipments management information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Han, K.; Duan, T.; Liu, Z.; Lu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2007-06-15

    Based on client/server and browser/server models, the management information system described realized the entire life-cycle management of mine railway equipment which included universal equipment and special equipment in the locomotive depot, track maintenance division, electrical depot and car depot. The system has other online functions such as transmitting reports, graphics management, statistics, searches, graphics wizard and web propaganda. It was applied in Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd.'s Railway Transport Department. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  10. The liberalisation of the railways in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Trampus, Francesca

    2000-01-01

    It is certainly high time to talk about policy for the railways not only in the Russian Federation but also in Europe, where the railways are vital part of the Community transport sector and need to be promoted and revitalized, especially considering the increasing air-traffic and railroad congestion, the environmental problems, the traffic noise, the accidents and the growing opposition to the unchecked development of the new road infrastructure. Railtrack’s business is supported by state-fu...

  11. Model for Railway Infrastructure Management Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Stojić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The provision of appropriate quality rail services has an important role in terms of railway infrastructure: quality of infrastructure maintenance, regulation of railway traffic, line capacity, speed, safety, train station organization, the allowable lines load and other infrastructure parameters.The analysis of experiences in transforming the railway systems points to the conclusion that there is no unique solution in terms of choice for institutional rail infrastructure management modes, although more than nineteen years have passed from the beginning of the implementation of the Directive 91/440/EEC. Depending on the approach to the process of restructuring the national railway company, adopted regulations and caution in its implementation, the existence or absence of a clearly defined transport strategy, the willingness to liberalize the transport market, there are several different ways for institutional management of railway infrastructure.A hybrid model for selection of modes of institutional rail infrastructure management was developed based on the theory of artificial intelligence, theory of fuzzy sets and theory of multicriteria optimization.KEY WORDSmanagement, railway infrastructure, organizational structure, hybrid model

  12. A Branch-and-Price algorithm for railway rolling stock rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Larsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    How to best reschedule their fleet of rolling stock units during a disruption is an optimization problem regularly faced by railway operators. Despite the problem’s high complexity, it is still usually solved manually. In this paper we propose a path based mathematical formulation and solve...... by the suburban railway operator in Copenhagen, DSB S-tog. When used in combination with a lower bound method taken from the literature we show that near-optimal solutions to this rescheduling problem can be found within a few seconds. Furthermore, we show that the proposed methodology can be used, with minor...

  13. Parameters of passenger facilities according to railway station characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej HAVLENA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents ways and goals of categorization of railway stations and stops in the Czech railway network. The aim of this categorization is to classify railway stations (or stops in the railway network according to a suite of entrance parameters (e.g. municipality population, transfer links, job opportunities, tourist attractiveness. On the basis of these parameters, railway stations and stops will be classified into several categories, which will be used to specify the conclusions for station equipment concerning ticket offices, commercial services, waiting rooms and other accessories. Research results can be used as a support for infrastructure managers and railway operators to optimise the scale of their services.

  14. A comparison of two exact methods for passenger railway rolling stock (re)scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haahr, J.T.; Wagenaar, J.C.; Veelenturf, L.P.; Kroon, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The assignment of rolling stock units to timetable services in passenger railways is an important optimization problem that has been addressed by many papers in different forms. Solution approaches have been proposed for different planning phases: strategic, tactical, and also operational planning.

  15. A Comparison of Two Exact Methods for Passenger Railway Rolling Stock (Re)Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Haahr (Jørgen); J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.P. Veelenturf (Lucas); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe assignment of rolling stock units to timetable services in passenger railways is an important optimization problem that has been addressed by many papers in different forms. Solution approaches have been proposed for different planning phases: strategic, tactical, and also

  16. A comparison of two exact methods for passenger railway rolling stock (re)scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haahr, J.T.; Wagenaar, J.C.; Veelenturf, L.P.; Kroon, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    The assignment of rolling stock units to timetable services in passenger railways is an important optimization problem that has been addressed by many papers in different forms. Solution approaches have been proposed for different planning phases: strategic, tactical, operational, and real-time

  17. The Harmonoise/IMAGINE model for traction noise of powered railway vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Zhang, X.

    2006-01-01

    Traction noise is one of the noise sources of powered railway vehicles such as locomotives, electric- and diesel-powered multiple unit trains and high-speed trains. Especially at speeds below 60 km/h and at idling, but also at acceleration conditions for a wide range of speeds, traction noise can be

  18. Statistical modelling of railway track geometry degradation using Hierarchical Bayesian models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.R.; Teixeira, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Railway maintenance planners require a predictive model that can assess the railway track geometry degradation. The present paper uses a Hierarchical Bayesian model as a tool to model the main two quality indicators related to railway track geometry degradation: the standard deviation of longitudinal level defects and the standard deviation of horizontal alignment defects. Hierarchical Bayesian Models (HBM) are flexible statistical models that allow specifying different spatially correlated components between consecutive track sections, namely for the deterioration rates and the initial qualities parameters. HBM are developed for both quality indicators, conducting an extensive comparison between candidate models and a sensitivity analysis on prior distributions. HBM is applied to provide an overall assessment of the degradation of railway track geometry, for the main Portuguese railway line Lisbon–Oporto. - Highlights: • Rail track geometry degradation is analysed using Hierarchical Bayesian models. • A Gibbs sampling strategy is put forward to estimate the HBM. • Model comparison and sensitivity analysis find the most suitable model. • We applied the most suitable model to all the segments of the main Portuguese line. • Tackling spatial correlations using CAR structures lead to a better model fit

  19. Environmental comparison of a railway bridge with alternative designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2012-01-01

    Railway bridges are complex structures that remain for a long life span and consume large amount of material and energy throughout the life span. All of those lead to considerable resource depletion and environmental burdens. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a comprehensive tool...... for quantifying and assessing the environmental impacts of the products through its whole life cycle. This paper presents a comparative case study between two alternative designs of Banafjäl Bridge: ballast track design and fixed slab track design. The methodology of LCA is utilized as a supporting tool...

  20. Assessment of delirium in the intensive care unit | Kallenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium poses a significant burden on our healthcare, with patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) at an increased risk for developing this disorder. In addition, the ICU environment poses unique challenges in the assessment of delirium. It is paramount that the healthcare provider has an understanding of delirium in ICU, ...

  1. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  2. Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machelski Czesław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces, as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell’s span, geometry (static scheme and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure’s characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.

  3. Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machelski, Czesław

    2015-12-01

    The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness) become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces), as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell's span, geometry (static scheme) and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure's characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.

  4. Noise-induced hearing loss in a longitudinal study of Norwegian railway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Arve; Skogstad, Marit; Johnsen, Torstein Seip; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2016-09-02

    The aim of this study was to analyse longitudinal data to assess the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in Norwegian railway workers. Longitudinal. A major Norwegian railway company. We examined data from the first and last audiograms for the period 1991-2014, from 9640 railway workers with varying occupational noise exposure and with an average observation period of 10 years. The course of hearing acuity in seven groups of railway workers (train drivers, conductors, bus drivers, traffic controllers, train maintenance workers, track maintenance workers and others) were compared with each other and with ISO standards (ISO 1999). The change in hearing threshold during the observation period was 2-3 dB in the 0.5-4 kHz range and 6-7 dB in the 3-6 kHz range adjusted for age and sex, for all occupational groups, which is slightly less than expected (8 dB) according to ISO 1999. The risk of NIHL in Norwegian railway workers during the period 1991-2014 has been negligible. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Railway diagnosis of electric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Vladimir Sergeevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in noise level at cities is increasing the requirements to functional interaction of road users - pedestrians and drivers - with the parameters of the environment as a leading component of Afferentation synthesis in the complicated complex of locomotive activity. City noise is one of the most widespread factors of unfavorable living and working conditions. The noise of high intensity provokes diseases, lowers labor activity. At present, many large cities pay much attention to electric vehicles. The authors present an analysis of the poor state of tram track in areas of high noise and vibration of car and under-sleeper base design. A negative effect of noise and vibration on the formation of urban areas environment is shown as well as the impact of these conditions on the person. The advantages of the application of electric transport are specified, noise displacement curve of railway and under sleeper base is plotted depending on the frequency of the applied load and the modulus of elasticity, as well as under sleeper base vibroacceleration depending on time. The authors offer a systematic study on the basis of a mathematical model of the sources of noise in the process of a tram motion.

  6. A tutorial on fundamental model structures for railway timetable optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This guide explains the role of railway timetables relative to all other railway scheduling activities, and then presents four fundamental timetable formulations suitable for optimization. Timetabling models may be classified according to whether they explicitly model the track structure, and whe......This guide explains the role of railway timetables relative to all other railway scheduling activities, and then presents four fundamental timetable formulations suitable for optimization. Timetabling models may be classified according to whether they explicitly model the track structure...

  7. Assessment of teamwork during structured interdisciplinary rounds on medical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kevin J; Boudreau, Yvonne N; Creden, Amanda J; Slade, Maureen E; Williams, Mark V

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary rounds (IDR) provide a means to assemble hospital team members and improve collaboration. Little is known about teamwork during IDR. To evaluate and characterize teamwork during IDR. Cross-sectional observational study. Six medical units which had implemented structured interdisciplinary rounds (SIDR). We adapted the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool, a behaviorally anchored rating scale shown to be reliable and valid in surgical settings. OTAS provides scores ranging from 0 to 6 (0 = problematic behavior; 6 = exemplary behavior) across 5 domains (communication, coordination, cooperation/backup behavior, leadership, and monitoring/situational awareness) and for prespecified subteams. Two researchers conducted direct observations using the adapted OTAS tool. We conducted 7-8 independent observations for each unit (total = 44) and 20 joint observations. Inter-rater reliability was excellent at the unit level (Spearman's rho = 0.75), and good across domains (rho = 0.53-0.68) and subteams (rho = 0.53-0.76) with the exception of the physician subteam, for which it was poor (rho = 0.35). Though teamwork scores were generally high, we found differences across units, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) 4.5 (3.9-4.9) for the lowest and 5.4 (5.3-5.5) for the highest performing unit (P teamwork during SIDR across units, domains, and most subteams. Variation in performance suggests a need to improve consistency of teamwork and emphasizes the importance of leadership. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  8. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  9. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...... and can be applied as decision support in different stages of the urban railway alignment planning....

  10. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section... EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in scope... bylaws of such organizations, shall be employers within the meaning of the act. (a) An organization doing...

  11. The Research on Safety Management Information System of Railway Passenger Based on Risk Management Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenmin; Jia, Yuanhua

    2018-01-01

    Based on the risk management theory and the PDCA cycle model, requirements of the railway passenger transport safety production is analyzed, and the establishment of the security risk assessment team is proposed to manage risk by FTA with Delphi from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The safety production committee is also established to accomplish performance appraisal, which is for further ensuring the correctness of risk management results, optimizing the safety management business processes and improving risk management capabilities. The basic framework and risk information database of risk management information system of railway passenger transport safety are designed by Ajax, Web Services and SQL technologies. The system realizes functions about risk management, performance appraisal and data management, and provides an efficient and convenient information management platform for railway passenger safety manager.

  12. Dynamic Characteristics of a New Machine for Fatigue Testing of Railway Axles – Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel FRYDRÝŠEK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There were done some proposal calculations for a new testing machine. This new testing machine is determined for a dynamic fatigue testing of railway axles. The railway axles are subjected to bending and rotation (centrifugal effects. For the right proposition of a new machine is very important to know the basic dynamic characteristics of whole system. These dynamic characteristics are solved via FEM (MSC.Marc/Mentat software in combination with SBRA (Simulation-Based Reliability Assessment Method (probabilistic Monte Carlo approach, Anthill and Python software. The proposed dimensions and springs of a new machine for fatigue testing of railway axles were used for manufacturing. Application of the SBRA method connected with FEM in these areas is a new and innovative trend in mechanics. This paper is continuation of former work (i.e. easier deterministic approach already presented in this journal in 2007.

  13. Economic Functions Proposal of Urgency Prioritization of Investment Projects of Operated Railway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitoňák Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the article is to describe the proposals of economic functions within the prioritization of urgency investments of operated railway bridges within a comprehensive evaluation of existing bridges. The purpose of the paper is a comprehensive assessment of existing bridges and to define determinants and determinants of decision-making and designing a mechanism of decision-making procedures of prioritized infrastructure measures in the form of repairs and reconstructions of bridges resulting from the records of supervising activities based not only on technical but also economic aspects to the railway infrastructure manager.

  14. 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David; Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Iida, Masanobu; Nelson, James; Thompson, David; Tielkes, Thorsten; Towers, David; Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held on 9 – 13 September, 2013, in Uddevalla, Sweden. The event, which was jointly organized by the Competence Centre Chalmers Railway Mechanics (CHARMEC) and the Departments of Applied Mechanics and Applied Acoustics at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, covered a broad range of topics in the field of railway noise and vibration, including: prospects, legal regulations and perceptions; wheel and rail noise; prediction, measurements and monitoring; ground-borne vibration; squeal noise and structure-borne noise; and aerodynamic noise generated by high-speed trains. Further topics included: resilient track forms; grinding, corrugation and roughness; and interior noise and sound barriers. This book, which consists of a collection of peer-reviewed papers originally submitted to the workshop, not only provides readers with an overview of the latest developments in the field, but also offers scientists and engineers essent...

  15. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail......, resulting in problems for safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore, it should be avoided in everyday operation. Furthermore, the creation of multiple solution branches suggests that the critical speed of a vehicle should be determined from a comprehensive analysis of the various kinds of possible...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  16. 76 FR 6517 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35461] Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a Class III carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption \\1\\ under 49 CFR 1150.41 to...

  17. Risk assessment and management approaches on mental health units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, P

    2013-11-01

    This exploratory and descriptive study took place in one Canadian province. The study aimed to: (1) to identify and describe the nature and extent of current risk assessment and management approaches used in the adult inpatient mental health and forensic units; and (2) to identify good practice and shortfalls in the nature and extent of the approaches currently utilized. Data were collected from 48 participants through nine focus groups. Participants reported that they used a clinical approach to risk assessment. They had also not considered risk assessment and management as a proactive structured process. Education and training was also limited and skills were developed over time through practice. Five keys issues are discussed as important: reliance on clinical judgement alone is not the best choice to make; the need to consider risk as a whole concept; risk management being more reactive than proactive; education and training; and client involvement in risk assessment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  19. Power System Unbalance due to Railway Electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Vikelgaard, Henrik; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    The decision to electrify the main part of the Danish railway at the same time where the supply and generation of electrical power in Denmark moves to a more decentralized structure, raises concerns regarding the balanced and secure operation of the power grid. Adverse effects include, among others......, the lifetime reduction of rotating machines and the malfunction of HVDC converters. Toward this direction, this paper aims to review the challenges and mitigation solutions with respect to voltage unbalance, focusing on the conditions relevant to the electrification of the Danish railway....

  20. Use of ecological exposure units in ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, R.; Myers, O.; Gallegos, A.; Breshears, D.; Ebinger, M.

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites that are being evaluated for cleanup under CERCLA or RCRA requirements is to focus on the immediate impacts at or adjacent to a site. While this may be acceptable in some situations, it is not ecologically defensible in situations where there are numerous contaminated sites in proximity to each other. In the latter case, transport from the sites, potential cumulative effects, and wide-ranging receptors must be considered. The concept of the Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU) has been proposed to address this situation. Ecological Exposure Units are defined on the basis of ecological considerations and each EEU may contain several to many contaminated sites. The initial steps involved in performing ecological risk assessments using the EEU approach include (1) selection of appropriate receptors and assessment endpoints, and (2) geographical definition of EEUs. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, receptors have been identified and EEUs have been defined for these receptors. GIS is being used as a tool to map EEUs. Receptors include representatives from threatened or endangered species, species reflecting status of ecological health, species with social or cultural relevance, and other species of concern. After definition of EEUs, cumulative impacts of all stressors at all sites within each EEU must be evaluated. The two major advantages to performing ecological risk assessments using this approach are that risk assessments are performed in a more scientifically defensible manner because they are performed on ecologically defined units and that resources are used optimally by minimizing redundant remedial activities

  1. Railway power supply - free of crises and independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigert, E.

    1981-01-01

    The German Federal Railway realizes 84% of its transport performance by electric traction. The prevailing primary energy source of the railway electric power supply is coal, but the DB uses also furnace gas, nuclear energy and hydroelectric power. The shave of mineral oil lies by about 5%. The public utilities deliver about 15%. The dispersed situation of the power stations and converter stations over the whole supply area offers the advantage of short transport distances. Therefore the 110-kV-railway mains especially meets distribution demands. Very useful is the compound operation with the Austrian Federal Railways and the Swiss Federal Railways. (orig.) [de

  2. Human Error Probabilites (HEPs) for generic tasks and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) selected for railway operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    This report describes an HRA (Human Reliability Assessment) of six generic tasks and four Perfor-mance Shaping Factors (PSFs) targeted at railway operations commissioned by Banedanmark. The selection and characterization of generic tasks and PSFs are elaborated by DTU Management in close...

  3. In search of a railway Europe : transnational railway developments in interwar Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anastasiadou, E.

    2009-01-01

    Most conventional histories that address the creation and development of railway networks start from national developments. Recent scholarship on this topic, however, has stressed the importance of formulating a transnational perspective on technological developments and infrastructural developments

  4. Assessment of Delirium in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Educational Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith M; Van Aman, M Nancy; Schneiderhahn, Mary Elizabeth; Edelman, Robin; Ercole, Patrick M

    2017-05-01

    Delirium is an acute brain dysfunction associated with poor outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Critical care nurses play an important role in the prevention, detection, and management of delirium, but they must be able to accurately assess for it. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) instrument is a reliable and valid method to assess for delirium, but research reveals most nurses need practice to use it proficiently. A pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the success of a multimodal educational strategy (i.e., online learning module coupled with standardized patient simulation experience) on critical care nurses' knowledge and confidence to assess and manage delirium using the CAM-ICU. Participants (N = 34) showed a significant increase (p education. No statistical change in knowledge of delirium existed following the education. A multimodal educational strategy, which included simulation, significantly added confidence in critical care nurses' performance using the CAM-ICU. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(5):239-244. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TOXIC CHEMICAL DISPERSION AFTER ACCIDENT AT RAILWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This research focuses on the development of an applied numerical model to calculate the dynamics of atmospheric pollution in the emission of dangerous chemical substances in the event of transportation by railway. Methodology. For the numerical simulation of transport process of the dangerous chemical substance in the atmosphere the equation of convection-diffusion pollutant transport is used. This equation takes into account the effect of wind, atmospheric diffusion, the power of emission source, as well as the movement of the source of emission (depressurized tank on the process of pollutant dispersion. When carrying out computing experiment one also takes into account the profile of the speed of the wind flow. For the numerical integration of pollutant transport in the atmosphere implicit finite-difference splitting scheme is used. The numerical calculation is divided into four steps of splitting and at each step of splitting the unknown value of the concentration of hazardous substance is determined by the explicit running account scheme. On the basis of the numerical model it was created the code using the algorithmic language FORTRAN. One conducted the computational experiments to assess the level of air pollution near the railway station «Illarionovo» in the event of a possible accident during transportation of ammonia. Findings. The proposed model allows you to quickly calculate the air pollution after the emission of chemically hazardous substance, taking into account the motion of the emission source. The model makes it possible to determine the size of the land surface pollution zones and the amount of pollutants deposited on a specific area. Using the developed numerical model it was estimated the environmental damage near the railway station «Illarionovo». Originality. One can use the numerical model to calculate the size and intensity of the chemical contamination zones after accidents on transport. Practical value

  6. Quantitative Methods for Assessment of Railway Timetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd Hermann

    performance indicators (KPIs) was developed foreach criterion. A total of 13 KPIs are presented. Their practical applicability has been successfully tested onexamples of real-life Danish timetables. The thesis recommends a revised timetabling process at railwayinfrastructure manager Rail Net Denmark (in...

  7. Existing Noise Level at Railway Stations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway transportation known as one of the most environmental friendly transportation mode. However, the significance problems of railway transportation are noise pollution and negatively impact the wellbeing of the whole community. Unfortunately, there has been lack of public awareness about the noise level produce by the railway transportation in Malaysia. This study investigates the noise level produced by railway transportation in Malaysia specifically by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB. Methods of collecting existing noise level at railway stations in Malaysia are briefly discussed in this study. The finding indicates that the noise level produced by the railway transportation in Malaysia which is by KTMB is considered as dangerous to human being and also exceed the noise limit that has been assigned by Department of Environment Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Malaysia. A better noise barrier and improved material should be developed to mitigate the existing noise level produced by railway transportations in Malaysia.

  8. Railway safety climate: a study on organizational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-09-07

    The safety climate of an organization is considered a leading indicator of potential risk for railway organizations. This study adopts the perceptual measurement-individual attribute approach to investigate the safety climate of a railway organization. The railway safety climate attributes are evaluated from the perspective of railway system staff. We identify four safety climate dimensions from exploratory factor analysis, namely safety communication, safety training, safety management and subjectively evaluated safety performance. Analytical results indicate that the safety climate differs at vertical and horizontal organizational levels. This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence of the multilevel safety climate in a railway organization, presents possible causes of the differences under various cultural contexts and differentiates between safety climate scales for diverse workgroups within the railway organization. This information can be used to improve the safety sustainability of railway organizations and to conduct safety supervisions for the government.

  9. Assessing RN-to-RN peer review on clinical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Judith A; Wickline, Mary A; Deetz, Jill; Berry, Elise S

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to measure informal registered nurse (RN)-to-RN peer review (defined as collegial communication about the quality of nursing care) at the work-unit level. Survey design with cluster sampling of 28 hospital or ambulatory care units (n = 541 respondents). Results were compared with existing patient safety and satisfaction data. A chi-squared test was used to compare responses against nurse characteristics. Nurses agreed that RN-to-RN peer review takes place on their units, but no correlation with patient safety and satisfaction data was found. Misunderstandings about the meaning of peer review were evident. Open-ended comments revealed barriers to peer review: fear of retribution, language barriers and lack of professionalism. Nurses need clarification of peer review. Issues with common language in a professional environment need to be addressed and nurses can learn collaboration from each other's cultures. Managers should support RN-to-RN peer review on clinical units. Methods used here may be useful to assess current departmental nurse peer review. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Track Detection in Railway Sidings Based on MEMS Gyroscope Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broquetas, Antoni; Comerón, Adolf; Gelonch, Antoni; Fuertes, Josep M.; Castro, J. Antonio; Felip, Damià; López, Miguel A.; Pulido, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns. PMID:23443376

  11. Aggregation of carbon dioxide sequestration storage assessment units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Drew, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a national assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resources, mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Pre-emission capture and storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one potential method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact of global climate change. Like many large-scale resource assessments, the area under investigation is split into smaller, more manageable storage assessment units (SAUs), which must be aggregated with correctly propagated uncertainty to the basin, regional, and national scales. The aggregation methodology requires two types of data: marginal probability distributions of storage resource for each SAU, and a correlation matrix obtained by expert elicitation describing interdependencies between pairs of SAUs. Dependencies arise because geologic analogs, assessment methods, and assessors often overlap. The correlation matrix is used to induce rank correlation, using a Cholesky decomposition, among the empirical marginal distributions representing individually assessed SAUs. This manuscript presents a probabilistic aggregation method tailored to the correlations and dependencies inherent to a CO2 storage assessment. Aggregation results must be presented at the basin, regional, and national scales. A single stage approach, in which one large correlation matrix is defined and subsets are used for different scales, is compared to a multiple stage approach, in which new correlation matrices are created to aggregate intermediate results. Although the single-stage approach requires determination of significantly more correlation coefficients, it captures geologic dependencies among similar units in different basins and it is less sensitive to fluctuations in low correlation coefficients than the multiple stage approach. Thus, subsets of one single-stage correlation matrix are used to aggregate to basin, regional, and national scales.

  12. The State of the Railways in SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the railways at many key points in Natal and the ... feking to a point just north of the Orange River on the Cape Main Line ... occupied to a point some three miles north of .... All photographs supplied by the Publicity and Travel Department of the.

  13. Electromagnetic compatibility in railways. Analysis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunsola, Ade [Parsons Group International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Mariscotti, Andrea [Genoa Univ. (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applied to railway systems. Focuses on the principles and application of EMC concepts to railway signalling, communications, power/traction and rolling stocks. Written by leading experts in the field. A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process from the beginning. The link is represented by standards and their correct application, as a support to analysis, testing and demonstration.

  14. Design of railway obstacle detection prototype

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xungu, Sipho A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Survey Inspection Device (SID) test prototype platform to serve as an early warning system for locomotives and was to travel 2km ahead of a locomotive in order to inspect the railway for possible obstacles such as human beings, livestock and collisions...

  15. Monitoring of transition zones in railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, B.; Priest, J.; Holscher, P.; Powrie, W.

    2009-01-01

    Transitions between railway track on embankments or natural ground and fixed structures such as bridges and culverts often require substantial additional maintenance to preserve line, level and ride quality. This extra maintenance not only increases costs but also causes delays. Despite its

  16. Introducing gaming simulation in the Dutch railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the Dutch railways in the domain of capacity management and traffic control is increasingly difficult to implement because of the large interconnectedness of all processes and separation into different institutions and organizations. Meanwhile there is a push for quality improvements

  17. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  18. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER... conclusion reached the question will be submitted to the Interstate Commerce Commission for determination...

  19. Performance communication of the Belgian railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form of

  20. Resolving instability in railway timetabling problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besinovic, Nikola; Quaglietta, E.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    A growth of the railway transportation demand is forecasted in the next decades which needs an increase of network capacity. Where possible, infrastructure upgrading can release extra capacity, although in some cases this is not enough to satisfy the entire transportation demand unless optimised

  1. Assessment of Clinical Practices for Crushing Medication in Geriatric Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil, M; Nghiem, D; Colas, M; Bourry, S; Poisson-Salomon, A-S; Rezigue, H; Trivalle, C

    2017-01-01

    To assess the modification of the form of medication and evaluate staff observance of good clinical practices. One-day assessment of clinical practices. 17 geriatrics units in the 3 Teaching Hospitals of Paris-Sud (APHP), France. Elderly in-patients with difficulties swallowing capsules and tablets. Assessment of target-patient prescriptions and direct observation of nurses' medical rounds. 155/526 in-patients (29.5%) were unable to swallow tablets or capsules: 98 (40.3%) in long-term care, 46 patients (23.8%) in the rehabilitation unit and 11 (12.2%) in the acute care unit (p = .005). In thirty-nine (27.3%) of the 143 prescriptions studied all tablets were safe to crush and all capsules were safe to open. In 104 cases, at least one medication could not be safely modified, including 26 cases (18.2%) in which none of the prescribed drugs were safe to crush or open. In 48.2% of the 110 medications that were crushed, crushing was forbidden, and presented a potential threat in 12.7% of cases or a reduced efficacy in 8.2% of cases. Crushing methods were rarely appropriate: no specific protective equipment was used (81.8%), crushing equipment was shared between patients without cleaning (95.1%), medications were spilled or lost (69.9%). The method of administration was appropriate (water, jellified water) in 25% of the cases, questionable (soup, coffee, compote, juice, cream) in 55% of the cases and unacceptable (laxative) in 21% of the cases. Management of drug prescriptions in patients with swallowing difficulties is not optimal, and may even have iatrogenic effects. In this study, 12.7% of the modifications of the drug form could have been harmful. Doctors, pharmacists and nurses need to reevaluate their practices.

  2. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Miller-Klein, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s' standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  3. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Pope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient′s bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s′ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013 with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  4. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S.; Miller-Klein, Erik T.

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s’ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered. PMID:26780959

  5. Noise annoyance through railway traffic - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta Zannin, Paulo Henrique; Bunn, Fernando

    2014-01-08

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large Latin American city. Measurements were taken of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods with and without blowing their horns. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition - annoyance of the residents - affected by railway noise, was evaluated based on interviews. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train with its horn blowing are extremely high, clearly exceeding the daytime limits of equivalent sound pressure level - Leq = 55 dB(A) - established by the municipal laws No 10.625 of the city of Curitiba. The Leq = 45 dB (A) which is the limit for the night period also are exceeded during the passage of trains. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which causes irritability, headaches, poor concentration and insomnia, and 88% of them claimed that nocturnal noise pollution is the most distressing. This study showed that the vast majority of residents surveyed, (69%) believe that the noise of the train can devalue their property.

  6. Application of FMEA method in railway signalling projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmel Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the FMEA method application, which is relevant in verification of design of two separated railway signalling systems. The efficiency of the method at the stage of the design was discussed. The method was identified as an important element of safety management process and as safety analysis method, which is included in the Safety Case and is applied for the sake of safety arguments and its assessment. Safety process management comprises several phases and appropriate actions, linked with each other in the way to create safety life cycle consistent with system life cycle. The safety case is a set of documents demonstrating that the product is compliant with defined safety requirements including analysis that indicates the correctness of the design and the correct reaction of the system to the failures, with appropriate and requested fail-safe reaction. It is necessary that railway signalling system should fulfil SIL4 requirement and remain safe in case of occurrence any kind of single failure of the equipment considered as possible.

  7. Develop railway engineering modules in UTK civil engineering undergraduate and graduate courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The importance of railway transport has long been recognized. However, no railway : engineering courses have been provided in the UTK civil engineering curricula. The : objective of this education project is to develop some railway engineering module...

  8. Methodology for quantification of waste generated in Spanish railway construction works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán Báez, Ana de; Villoria Sáez, Paola; Río Merino, Mercedes del; García Navarro, Justo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two equations for C and D waste estimation in railway construction works are developed. ► Mixed C and D waste is the most generated category during railway construction works. ► Tunnel construction is essential to quantify the waste generated during the works. ► There is a relationship between C and D waste generated and railway functional units. ► The methodology proposed can be used to obtain new constants for other areas. - Abstract: In the last years, the European Union (EU) has been focused on the reduction of construction and demolition (C and D) waste. Specifically, in 2006, Spain generated roughly 47 million tons of C and D waste, of which only 13.6% was recycled. This situation has lead to the drawing up of many regulations on C and D waste during the past years forcing EU countries to include new measures for waste prevention and recycling. Among these measures, the mandatory obligation to quantify the C and D waste expected to be originated during a construction project is mandated. However, limited data is available on civil engineering projects. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to improve C and D waste management in railway projects, by developing a model for C and D waste quantification. For this purpose, we develop two equations which estimate in advance the amount, both in weight and volume, of the C and D waste likely to be generated in railway construction projects, including the category of C and D waste generated for the entire project.

  9. Communication Technologies Support to Railway Infrastructure and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R), which is state-of-the-art railway mobile communication technology, is gradually replacing legacy analogue radio systems. Although GSM-R is an unquestionable achievement in terms of European railway interoperability, from a telecommunication point of view, it is an obsolete...... are considered to replace GSM-R in the future. This thesis is focused on Long Term Evolution (LTE) as one of the most likely successors to GSM-R. As a technology designed for commercial purposes, LTE has to be investigated specifically in railway environment. Using computer-based simulations, the LTE network...... important railway applications: European Train Control System (ETCS) signalling and railway-specific voice communication. Therefore, LTE is technically capable of replacing GSM-R as the communication network for the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). Moreover, the simulation results show...

  10. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  11. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew J.; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-08-11

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  12. Model of traffic access mode and railway station choice of suburban railway system in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor RAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the establishment of a model of understanding the access mode and railway station choice of Slovenian passengers. Therefore, a model has been designed to predict the determination of existing decision making preferences of railway users about the access mode and railway station choice with a stated preference survey and face to face method. The target group in the survey were railway passengers in the suburban environment that use the rail for work and school purposes. The total number of respondents was 412. The survey showed that most passengers access the railway station with car (60,2%, by foot (26,2%, with public transport (bus – 8,3% and with bike (5,3%. Average distance to the station is 4,9 km, average time of access is 10,5 min. Upon exit most passengers walk to the final destination (84,5%, use the public transport (bus – 14,1%, car (1,2% or bike (0,2%. Average time from exit of the train to final destination is 13,1 min, average distance is 1,58 km.

  13. “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting station of Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprise and its surface waste water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Teplykh, Svetlana; Gorshkalev, Pavel; Bystranova, Anastasia

    2017-10-01

    Surface water disposal is one of the most relevant problems for Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprises. Waste water must be quickly removed with special drainage devices and water drainage facilities (culverts, slope drains, pipes, ditches, etc.). During “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting watse water is aggregated on railroad tracks. It leads to track bed structure sagging, roadbed washaway and damages to point switches. In this paper the authors describe a concrete system of waste water disposal from railway service enterprises. This system is realized through culverts readjusted at the foot of ballast section. Thereafter, the collected water is pumped into a water collector and to local sewage waste-disposal plants. For railway stations with three or more tracks surface runoff diversion scheme depends on topography, railway tracks types, flow discharge and is compiled individually for each object. This paper examines “Sapsan”-carriages defrosting station of Nizhniy Novgorod railway service enterprise. It presents a technology scheme and equipment consisting of Sand catcher LOS-P, Oil catcher LOS-N, pressure-tight flotation unit; drain feed pump; solution-consuming tank of the coagulant, the solution-consuming tank of flocculant. The proposed technology has been introduced into the project practice.

  14. Design and Development of Black Box for Analyzing Accidents in Indian Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka DUBEY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Black box also known as engine data recorder (EDR is a device for recording and analyzing train engine status for generation a report and analyzing train accidents. EDR is an application of embedded systems based on sensors, microcontroller, memory, serial interface and display unit. In the present paper designing of EDR with their technical specifications is provided. There railway electric engine WAP-7 is used in present study.

  15. Assessing Stream Ecosystem Condition in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, John M.; Kaufmann, Philip R.; Herlihy, Alan T.; Paulsen, Steven G.

    2009-09-01

    When the U.S. Congress passed the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in 1972, later amended by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977, it tasked the newly created U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the states, with periodically assessing the quality of U.S. waters and reporting on progress toward meeting the goals of the CWA. In subsequent decades, reviews by various governmental and nongovernmental organizations consistently have found available water quality data and reporting to be inadequate to evaluate the nation's progress [Shapiro et al., 2008]. In response to these concerns, in 1989 EPA's Office of Research and Development initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to develop and demonstrate scientific tools to monitor the status of, and trends in, U.S. aquatic resources and environmental stressors affecting them. Recent EPA-led efforts involve monitoring wadeable perennial streams (streams or rivers shallow enough to be wadeable during seasonal low flows), which make up an estimated 90% of the total length of all perennial flowing waters in the United States [EPA, 2006]. Selected results from the first national survey of these streams, the national Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) [EPA, 2006; Paulsen et al., 2008], illustrate how such surveys can provide critical information to guide management of this important resource. Nonmonitoring applications of data from the WSA and earlier regional surveys show the wide-ranging applicability of these rich data sets.

  16. Meteorological tools in support to the railway security system on the Calabria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Gabriele, Salvatore; Iovine, Giulio; Baldini, Luca; Chiravalloti, Francesco; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Marcello Mario; Milani, Lisa; Procopio, Antonio; Roberto, Nicoletta; Tiesi, Alessandro; Agostino, Mario; Niccoli, Raffaele; Stassi, Sergio; Rago, Valeria

    2017-04-01

    RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot project co-funded by the Italian Railway Company - RFI S.p.A. and conceived for the mitigation of the hydrological risk along the Calabria railways. RAMSES aims at improving the forecast of very short life-cycle convection systems, responsible of intense and localized rainfalls affecting small catchment areas, which are often underestimated by the numerical weather models and even non-adequately detected by the network of sparse raingauges. The RAMSES operational design is based on a synergistic and integrated architecture, providing a series of information able to identify the most active convective cells and monitoring their evolution in terms of vertical structure, rain intensity and geo-hydrological effects at ground (debris flow, landslides, collapses of bridges, erosion of the ballast). The RAMSES meteorological component is designed to identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on dual-polarization weather radar and Meteosat data. In support of this quasi-real time analysis, the numerical model WRF provides the weather forecast at 3-6 hours range by ingesting, through the assimilation system LAPS, the observational data (rain gauges, ground weather stations, radar, satellites) in order to improve the initial condition. Finally, the hydraulic flow modeling is used to assess the ground effects in terms of landslide susceptibility, rainfall-runoff intensity, debris impact on the drainage network and evaluate of risk along the railway track.

  17. A model to quantify the resilience of mass railway transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjetey-Bahun, Kpotissan; Birregah, Babiga; Châtelet, Eric; Planchet, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Traditional risk management approaches focus on perturbation events' likelihood and their consequences. However, recent events show that not all perturbation events can be foreseen. The concept of resilience has been introduced to measure not only the system's ability to absorb perturbations, but also its ability to rapidly recover from perturbations. In this work, we propose a simulation-based model for quantifying resilience in mass railway transportation systems by quantifying passenger delay and passenger load as the system's performance indicators. We integrate all subsystems that make up mass railway transportation systems (transportation, power, telecommunication and organisation subsystems) and their interdependencies. The model is applied to the Paris mass railway transportation system. The model's results show that since trains continue running within the system even by decreasing their speed, the system remains resilient. During the normal operation of the system as well as during perturbation, the model shows similarities with reality. The perturbation management plan that consists of setting up temporary train services on part of the impacted line while repairing the failed system's component is considered in this work. We also assess the extent to which some resilient system's capacities (i.e. absorption, adaptation and recovery) can increase the resilience of the system. - Highlights: • The need of resilience quantification models in sociotechnical systems. • We propose a simulation-based model. • This model is applied to Paris mass railway transportation system.

  18. Derailment-based Fault Tree Analysis on Risk Management of Railway Turnout Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, Serdar; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; An, Min; Gigante-Barrera, Ángel

    2017-10-01

    Railway turnouts are fundamental mechanical infrastructures, which allow a rolling stock to divert one direction to another. As those are of a large number of engineering subsystems, e.g. track, signalling, earthworks, these particular sub-systems are expected to induce high potential through various kind of failure mechanisms. This could be a cause of any catastrophic event. A derailment, one of undesirable events in railway operation, often results, albeit rare occurs, in damaging to rolling stock, railway infrastructure and disrupt service, and has the potential to cause casualties and even loss of lives. As a result, it is quite significant that a well-designed risk analysis is performed to create awareness of hazards and to identify what parts of the systems may be at risk. This study will focus on all types of environment based failures as a result of numerous contributing factors noted officially as accident reports. This risk analysis is designed to help industry to minimise the occurrence of accidents at railway turnouts. The methodology of the study relies on accurate assessment of derailment likelihood, and is based on statistical multiple factors-integrated accident rate analysis. The study is prepared in the way of establishing product risks and faults, and showing the impact of potential process by Boolean algebra.

  19. Towards a real-time Structural Health Monitoring of railway bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Vagnoli, Matteo; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John

    2017-01-01

    More than 350,000 railway bridges are present on the European railway network, making them a key infrastructure of the whole railway network. Railway bridges are continuously exposed to changing environmental threats, such as wind, floods and traffic load, which can affect safety and reliability of the bridge. Furthermore, a problem on a bridge can affect the whole railway network by increasing the vulnerability of the geographic area, served by the railway network. In this paper a Bayesian B...

  20. Assessment of microwave-based clinical waste decontamination unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P N; Hanley, M J

    1994-12-01

    A clinical waste decontamination unit that used microwave-generated heat was assessed for operator safety and efficacy. Tests with loads artificially contaminated with aerosol-forming particles showed that no particles were detected outside the machine provided the seals and covers were correctly seated. Thermometric measurement of a self-generated steam decontamination cycle was used to determine the parameters needed to ensure heat disinfection of the waste reception hopper, prior to entry for maintenance or repair. Bacterial and thermometric test pieces were passed through the machine within a full load of clinical waste. These test pieces, designed to represent a worst case situation, were enclosed in aluminium foil to shield them from direct microwave energy. None of the 100 bacterial test pieces yielded growth on culture and all 100 thermal test pieces achieved temperatures in excess of 99 degrees C during their passage through the decontamination unit. It was concluded that this method may be used to render safe the bulk of of ward-generated clinical waste.

  1. Assessment report on uranium in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Assessment of the uranium resources in the United States as of October 1, 1980, indicates a range of reserves, in mean values, from 645 thousand tons of U 3 O 8 (in the $30 per pound of U 3 O 8 cost category) to 1.122 million tons (in the $100 per pound of U 3 O 8 category). Ranges of potential resources are also shown for the same cost categories: from 885 thousand to over 2 million tons of U 3 O 8 in the probable class; 346 thousand to over 1 million tons in the possible class; and 311 thousand to nearly 700 thousand tons in the speculative class. There are an estimated 140 thousand tons of U 3 O 8 that could be recovered as a byproduct of phosphate and copper mining through the year 2009. Production capability studies indicate that the demand could be satisfied from currently estimated resources if there is a transition from current production of lower cost resources to production from the $50 per pound of U 3 O 8 resources by the mid 1990s. If, due to foreign competition or other market forces, production incentives are not maintained, domestic production potential will not be realized, and the United States could become dependent on foreign sources for much of its U 3 O 8

  2. Intensive Care Unit Nurses' Beliefs About Delirium Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhouse, Kimberly J; Vincent, Catherine; Foreman, Marquis D; Gruss, Valerie A; Corte, Colleen; Berger, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Delirium, the most frequent complication of hospitalized older adults, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), can result in increased mortality rates and length of stay. Nurses are neither consistently identifying nor managing delirium in these patients. The purpose of this study was to explore ICU nurses' identification of delirium, actions they would take for patients with signs or symptoms of delirium, and beliefs about delirium assessment and management. In this cross-sectional study using qualitative descriptive methods guided by the theory of planned behavior, 30 ICU nurses' responses to patient vignettes depicting different delirium subtypes were explored. Descriptive and content analyses revealed that nurses did not consistently identify delirium; their actions varied in different vignettes. Nurses believed that they needed adequate staffing, balanced workload, interprofessional collaboration, and established policy and protocols to identify and manage delirium successfully. Research is needed to determine if implementing these changes increases recognition and decreases consequences of delirium. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  3. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak.

  4. Efficiency and Robustness in Railway Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Simon Henry; Pisinger, David

    reliability. Offering these services presents a challenging sequence of planning problems for operators. These range from problems considered on a daily basis to planning for years in the future, with different problems interacting and influencing each other. Operations research methods can be used...... to effectively model, investigate, and solve railway planning problems. Despite advances in computational power these large problems are still challenging to solve, especially as more modelling detail is sought. Within a Danish context this thesis seeks to apply operations research methods to different planning...... problems beyond past approaches, and where applicable, investigate solution methods that place more focus on the passenger and passenger experience. To cater to the growing demand for rail transport, and compete with different modes of transport, Danish railway operators must offer a consistent, reliable...

  5. A Survey on Robustness in Railway Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Bull, Simon Henry

    2018-01-01

    Planning problems in passenger railway range from long term strategic decision making to the detailed planning of operations.Operations research methods have played an increasing role in this planning process. However, recently more attention has been given to considerations of robustness...... in the quality of solutions to individual planning problems, and of operations in general. Robustness in general is the capacity for some system to absorb or resist changes. In the context of railway robustness it is often taken to be the capacity for operations to continue at some level when faced...... with a disruption such as delay or failure. This has resulted in more attention given to the inclusion of robustness measures and objectives in individual planning problems, and to the providing of tools to ensure operations continue under disrupted situations. In this paper we survey the literature on robustness...

  6. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Railways Analysis and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunsola, Ade

    2013-01-01

    A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process f...

  7. The noise factor in railway locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, T

    1982-09-01

    This article concerns the problem of acoustic work conditions on railway locomotives. The objective results of sonometric surveys in locomotive cabins are compared with subject data received from locomotive crews obtained by means of a specific questionnaire 'The Subjective Estimation of Noise'. The analysis touched 9 type of locomotives; steam, diesel and electric engines. We asked drivers of different age groups and with varying lengths of professional service for their opinions The aim of the investigation was to determine the following points: 1. to analyse the drivers' subjective estimation of the noise in the locomotive cabins; 2. to define length of time for which the driver remains under the influence of the noise after finishing work; 3. to investigate the question of perception and understanding of sounds and vocal signals used in the locomotive. These problems are a small part of the general plan to improve work conditions on the Polish National Railways.

  8. APPRAISAL OF USED WOODEN RAILWAY SLEEPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HAWA HAMZAH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wooden sleepers to prestressed concrete sleepers has marked as advancement in the railway sleepers industry in Malaysia. Despite superiority of these man-made composite sleepers, wooden sleepers still lead in terms of track performance qualities in particular on its natural elasticity. An initiative to investigate the degree of degradation of used wooden sleepers and the possibility of reusing them on low capacity railway track in Malaysia as a means of reducing the overall track rehabilitation cost was undertaken. Used wooden sleepers were tested according to Australian Standard, Railway Track Material, Prestressed Concrete Sleepers (AS 1085:14:2003 on Rail Seat Vertical Load Test and Centre Positive Bending Moment Test. Six wooden sleeper samples were tested under the static load until failure. Benchmarking was carried on high strength prestressed concrete sleeper, tested according to AS 1085:14:2003: Rail Seat - Positive Moment Test. The results obtained showed the maximum load that the used wooden sleepers can carry surpassed the design load of KTMB specifications and it is about 58% of high strength prestressed concrete sleeper.The maximum deflection produced by all used wooden sleepers is 20 mm showing that the sleepers maintained their elastic behaviour. Modulus of Elasticity ranging from 21 to 27 kN/mm2 of which within the standard value, indicating weathering process does not so much affect their stiffness. Most sleepers showed crack patterns propagated in the longitudinal direction. Toughness value is almost one half of the high strength prestressed concrete sleeper. This study indicates that there is a potential of reusing the wooden sleepers for light loading of the railway track. Hence, an extensive study is recommended to be carried out under fatigue loading condition.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  10. Fatigue lifetime estimation of railway axles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Fajkoš, R.; Matušek, P.; Hutař, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, MAR (2017), s. 139-157 ISSN 1350-6307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Residual fatigue lifetime * Railway axle * Variable amplitude loading * Fatigue crack propagation * Damage tolerance methodology Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2016

  11. An Improved Walk Model for Train Movement on Railway Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keping; Mao Bohua; Gao Ziyou

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved walk model for simulating the train movement on railway network. In the proposed method, walkers represent trains. The improved walk model is a kind of the network-based simulation analysis model. Using some management rules for walker movement, walker can dynamically determine its departure and arrival times at stations. In order to test the proposed method, we simulate the train movement on a part of railway network. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the improved model is an effective tool for simulating the train movement on railway network. Moreover, it can well capture the characteristic behaviors of train scheduling in railway traffic. (general)

  12. Costs and benefits of railway urban logistics: a prospective social cost benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework to assess urban rail logistics suitability via a socio-economic cost benefit analysis. Firstly, we propose an overview on the basic notions of CBA and SCBA. Secondly, we identify and present the main types of costs and benefits or railway urban logistics services and the related final delivery services using low emission road vehicles to serve customers where the rail systems cannot. Thirdly, as an example of application, we propose to assess a scenario...

  13. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain dr...

  14. EXPANSION OF OBJECTIVES OF THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF TECHNICAL AUDIT AT RAILWAY TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to study, compare and summarize information on the current state and peculiarities of conducting technical audit in various branches of business in order to obtain the possibility of developing proposals for expanding the objectives of this procedure in railway enterprises. Methodology. In the course of the research there were used the methods of analysis and synthesis to study the content and basic provisions of scientific publications, normative legal acts of Ukraine, and other data on conducting technical audit in the field of industry, construction, gas extraction, electricity, marine and rail transport, followed by their comparison and generalization. Findings. Taking into account the positive experience of the audit carrying out in other sectors the article expands the goals of practical application of technical audit in railway transport enterprises. This envisages assessment of the current technical condition and the residual life of exploited vehicles and equipment of PJSC "Ukrzaliznytsia". As a result, there is an opportunity to detect and activate the reserves for improving the efficiency of railway transport enterprises, estimating and forecasting the costs for repair cycles and modernization, as well as for increasing the train safety level and improving investment attractiveness of the industry. Originality. The obtained results make it possible to broaden the concept of "technical audit" in railway transport, to define the purpose of its carrying out and the list of tasks. Application of the extended technical audit will provide an opportunity to receive objective information on the actual technical condition of the objects of the railway infrastructure, means of transport and equipment, and to use it for the formation of development programs as individual enterprises and the railway as a whole. Practical value. Expanding the goals of practical application of the technical audit at railway enterprises

  15. Sustainability assessment of heat exchanger units for spray dryers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caglayan, Hasan; Caliskan, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the sustainability assessment is performed to the system known as heat exchanger unit with spray dryer. The five-different dead state temperatures (0-5-10-15-20 °C) are considered. It is found that the heat exchanger has the highest energy efficiency (63.32%), while the overall system has the lowest one (5.56%). So, the combination of the spray dryer with the heat exchanger is more effective. On the other hand, the overall exergy efficiency of the system is lower than the heat exchanger and spray dryer for all of the dead state (environmental) temperatures. The exergy efficiency of the heat exchanger is inversely proportional to the dead state temperature, and the maximum rate is found as 49.65% at 0 °C. Furthermore, the exergy efficiencies of the spray dryer and overall system are directly proportional to the dead state temperatures, and the corresponding maximum rates are found to be 26.41% and 24.32% at 20 °C, respectively. Also, the exergy destruction is directly proportional to the dead state temperatures. The minimum and maximum exergy destruction rates are found at the dead state temperatures of 0 °C and 20 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the most sustainable system is found as the heat exchanger unit. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analyses of industrial heat exchangers and spray dryers. • Sustainability of heat exchangers for spray dryers. • Dead state temperature effects on exergy efficiencies of heat exchangers and spray dryers.

  16. Analysis of the process related to the operations management of the rail traction vehicles in JSC 'Serbian Railways'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Vojislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, issues related to the operations management in railway were elaborated, with special emphasis on the operations management of rail vehicles and main parameters in its activities and in the railway functioning. The analysis of the current status, operation and functioning of the Serbian Railways was also provided, with a special focus on the study of the technical condition regarding exploitation, reliability, and availability of traction vehicles operation which is always actual and particularly important for ensuring the regular and safe functioning of train traffic in all railways in the world as well as in the railway of Serbia. The issue related to the exploitation reliability and availability regarding traction vehicles operation is also being analyzed which is reflected in development of the concept and creation of the methodology for assessment of the technical condition and indicators for determining the level of exploitation reliability, availability of the traction vehicle operation as well as functioning of train traffic and the models related to the operations management of rail traction vehicles.

  17. Zumbro Hydroelectric Project: installation of third unit. Feasibility assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, James V.

    1979-03-01

    The feasibility of adding a third generating unit at an existing hydro power plant near Rochester, Minn. was examined considering the economic, technical, and environmental aspects. Installation of the unit, aiming at an Oct. 1983 completion date, is recommended. (LCL)

  18. An assessment of Brazilian conservation units – a second look

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, José Augusto Leitão

    2012-01-01

    This is a second overview of the Brazilian conservation unit system for mid-2010. It updates author et al, 2009. It examines six dimensions of federal and state protected areas – age, numbers, types of units, absolute and average sizes, distribution by states and biomes, and degree of compliance with CBD-inspired goals. Major findings: (i) the system maintained a rapid growth rate; (ii) national parks and national forests are the most prominent units; (iii) distribution of units by region and...

  19. Radiologic assessment in the pediatric intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, R.I.

    1984-01-01

    The severely ill infant or child who requires admission to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) often presents with a complex set of problems necessitating multiple and frequent management decisions. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role, not only in the initial assessment of the patient's condition and establishing a diagnosis, but also in monitoring the patient's progress and the effects of interventional therapeutic measures. Bedside studies obtained using portable equipment are often limited but can provide much useful information when a careful and detailed approach is utilized in producing the radiograph and interpreting the examination. This article reviews some of the basic principles of radiographic interpretation and details some of the diagnostic points which, when promptly recognized, can lead to a better understanding of the patient's condition and thus to improved patient care and management. While chest radiography is stressed, studies of other regions including the upper airway, abdomen, skull, and extremities are discussed. A brief consideration of the expanding role of new modality imaging (i.e., ultrasound, CT) is also included. Multiple illustrative examples of common and uncommon problems are shown

  20. Performance of LTE in High Speed Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with a number of shortcomings in terms of capacity and capability. These shortcomings become a major issue for railways as GSM-R may limit the number of running trains in some areas and it cannot support advanced data services. Hence...

  1. Improving Punctuality and Transfer Reliability by Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch railway network is operated close to capacity with the current safety system. This leaves little space for control by process operators by which a delayed train can cause severe delay propagation. The NS currently invest a large amount in punctuality improvement of the railway operations.

  2. The effects of 10 years Railway investment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten A.

    1998-01-01

    The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period.......The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period....

  3. Formal Methods and Safety Certification: Challenges in the Railways Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Ferrari, Alessio; Gnesi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The railway signalling sector has historically been a source of success stories about the adoption of formal methods in the certification of software safety of computer-based control equipment.......The railway signalling sector has historically been a source of success stories about the adoption of formal methods in the certification of software safety of computer-based control equipment....

  4. Seismic Performance of Multi-Span RC Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Barrau, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Presently, there is no clear method for determining the optimal railway bridge design for a particular ground type and expected seismic intensity. Four main types of RC bridge dominate the current multi-span railway bridge design trends – the Simply Supported Beam, Continuous Box-Girder (CBG), CBG...

  5. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    ). Furthermore, the paper describes an interlocking table generator (ITG) that generates automatically a well-formed interlocking table from a well-formed railway network layout. Experiments with the DSL and ITG using the RAISE tools and the C++ implementation show that the use of the DSL and ITG can increase...... the productivity and significantly reduce errors in the specifications of railway interlocking systems....

  6. The Penarroya mining railway; El Ferrocaril minero de Penarroya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grado Contreras, J. I. de

    2009-07-01

    The French Society Miniere et Metallurgique de Panarroya mining railway, 241 km long, was the second largest private narrow gauge railway in Spain. Located in the inland. linked the coal and galena mines with foundries and also with the national railroads grid, to transport the minerals to national and foreign markets. (Author)

  7. The Ginghai-Tibet railway and Tibet tourism: travelers' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Ming Su; Geoffrey Wall

    2009-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet railway opened in July 2006 and boosted Tibetan tourism markedly by increasing the accessibility and affordability of travel from China to Tibet. This study evaluates the railway's impacts on tourists' travel decisions and experiences in Tibet. The relative importance of the train journey in comparison with the destination experience in...

  8. WAYS OF IMPROVEMENT RAILWAY TRANSPORT IN OVERPASS ECONOMIC CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Deineka

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article a problem of adapting the railway transport to market requirements is presented and the ways of improving its competitiveness are investigated. Some measures and reserves of improving the operation efficiency for the railway transport are offered.

  9. The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu railway extension. ... One key strategy employed was to side with the faction of the Nigerian petty bourgeoisie whose political, economic and class interests were in agreement with ... The 400-mile extension was eventually constructed and opened in 1964.

  10. Disruption Management of Rolling Stock in Passenger Railway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with real-time disruption management of rolling stock in passenger railway transportation. We present a generic framework for modeling disruptions in railway rolling stock schedules. The framework is presented as an online combinatorial decision problem where the

  11. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  12. Developing a Service Improvement System for the National Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Heijnsbroek, Martin; Bosma, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is essential for public and railway services, because firms in these industries have contracts with governments requiring them to achieve specific customer satisfaction targets. In this paper, we describe a National Dutch Railways project in which we identify the major

  13. Application of data clustering to railway delay pattern recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2018-01-01

    K-means clustering is employed to identify recurrent delay patterns on a high traffic railway line north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The clusters identify behavioral patterns in the very large (“big data”) data sets generated automatically and continuously by the railway signal system. The results re...

  14. Railway track circuit fault diagnosis using recurrent neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, T.D.; Verbert, K.A.J.; Babuska, R.

    2017-01-01

    Timely detection and identification of faults in railway track circuits are crucial for the safety and availability of railway networks. In this paper, the use of the long-short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network is proposed to accomplish these tasks based on the commonly available

  15. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity...

  16. Railway station structures designed for densely populated urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vákár, L.I.; Snijder, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the interest in public transit increased because of its contribution in solving the problem in mobility. This resulted in a worldwide need for building new railway stations and expanding existing ones. A railway station forms no longer a building on its own, but part of a larger complex.

  17. Railway Endowment in Italy’s Provinces, 1839-1913

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, Peter D.; Ciccarelli, Carlo

    This paper presents new annual estimates of railway extension in Italian provinces at 1913 borders for the period 1839-1913. The main operator of the Italian railway network (Ferrovie dello Stato) published in 1911 a unique set of homogeneous historical five year maps illustrating the routes of

  18. Numerical modelling of ground vibration caused by elevated high-speed railway lines considering structure-soil-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Construction of high speed railway lines has been an increasing trend in recent years. Countries like Denmark and Sweden plan to expand and upgrade their railways to accommodate high-speed traffic. To benefit from the full potential of the reduced commuting times, these lines must pass through...... densely populated urban areas with the collateral effect of increased noise and vibrations levels. This paper aims to quantify the vibrations levels in the area surrounding an elevated railway line built as a multi-span bridge structure. The proposed model employs finite-element analysis to model......-space. The paper analyses the effects of structure-soil-structure interaction on the dynamic behaviour of the surrounding soil surface. The effects of different soil stratification and material properties as well as different train speeds are assessed. Finally, the drawbacks of simplifying the numerical model...

  19. 77 FR 47922 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Northern Lines Railway, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... includes: (a) Track 204 between 33rd Avenue North and Rice Junction, Minn.; and (b) Track 203 between milepost 0.0, at Rice Junction, and milepost 5.71, just west of the Highway I-94 overpass (the Lines). \\1....C.C. 605 (1978), as modified in Mendocino Coast Railway--Lease & Operate--California Western...

  20. Railway line capacity consumption of different railway signalling systems under scheduled and disturbed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Corman, F.; D'Ariano, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capacity consumption on a Dutch railway line both under scheduled and disturbed traffic conditions. For the scheduled condition the standard UIC compression method is used, while the computation of capacity consumption under disturbed conditions requires multiple simulation

  1. Precast concrete unit assessment through GPR survey and FDTD modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Precast concrete elements are widely used within United Kingdom house building offering ease in assembly and added values as structural integrity, sound and thermal insulation; most common concrete components include walls, beams, floors, panels, lintels, stairs, etc. The lack of respect of the manufacturer instruction during assembling, however, may induce cracking and short/long term loss of bearing capacity. GPR is a well-established not destructive technique employed in the assessment of structural elements because of real-time imaging, quickness of data collecting and ability to discriminate finest structural details. In this work, GPR has been used to investigate two different precast elements: precast reinforced concrete planks constituting the roof slab of a school and precast wood-cement blocks with insulation material pre-fitted used to build a perimeter wall of a private building. Visible cracks affected both constructions. For the assessment surveys, a GSSI 2.0 GHz GPR antenna has been used because of the high resolution required and the small size of the antenna case (155 by 90 by 105mm) enabling scanning up to 45mm from any obstruction. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) numerical modelling was also performed to build a scenario of the expected GPR signal response for a preliminary real-time interpretation and to help solve uncertainties due to complex reflection patterns: simulated radargrams were built using Reflex Software v. 8.2, reproducing the same GPR pulse used for the surveys in terms of wavelet, nominal frequency, sample frequency and time window. Model geometries were derived from the design projects available both for the planks and the blocks; the electromagnetic properties of the materials (concrete, reinforcing bars, air-filled void, insulation and wooden concrete) were inferred from both values reported in literature and a preliminary interpretation of radargrams where internal layer interfaces were clearly recognizable and

  2. Maintenance management of railway infrastructures based on reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, Marco; Garetti, Marco; Centrone, Domenico; Fumagalli, Luca; Piero Pavirani, Gian

    2012-01-01

    Railway infrastructure maintenance plays a crucial role for rail transport. It aims at guaranteeing safety of operations and availability of railway tracks and related equipment for traffic regulation. Moreover, it is one major cost for rail transport operations. Thus, the increased competition in traffic market is asking for maintenance improvement, aiming at the reduction of maintenance expenditures while keeping the safety of operations. This issue is addressed by the methodology presented in the paper. The first step of the methodology consists of a family-based approach for the equipment reliability analysis; its purpose is the identification of families of railway items which can be given the same reliability targets. The second step builds the reliability model of the railway system for identifying the most critical items, given a required service level for the transportation system. The two methods have been implemented and tested in practical case studies, in the context of Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, the Italian public limited company for railway transportation.

  3. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    When looking at railway planning, a discrepancy exists between planners who focus on the train operations and publish fixed railway schedules, and passengers who look not only at the schedules but also at the entirety of their trip, from access to waiting to on-board travel and egress. Looking...... with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This disutility may...... be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning typically limit...

  4. Defects in railway bridges and procedures for maintenance:UIC Code 778-4R

    OpenAIRE

    Elfgren, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    This leaflet gives guidelines and recommendations covering procedures for the maintenance and strengthening of railway bridges. Arrangements and methods for inspection are presented; defects are described; methods for monitoring and assessment are given; and procedures for maintenance, repair, strengthening and renewal are defined.The purpose is to update the 1989 edition of UIC Code 778-4R and to implement results from a European Integrated Research Project (2003-2007) on “Sustainable Bridge...

  5. A Predictive Maintenance Model for Railway Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Wen, Min; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    presents a mathematical model based on Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) which is designed to optimize the predictive railway tamping activities for ballasted track for the time horizon up to four years. The objective function is setup to minimize the actual costs for the tamping machine (measured by time......). Five technical and economic aspects are taken into account to schedule tamping: (1) track degradation of the standard deviation of the longitudinal level over time; (2) track geometrical alignment; (3) track quality thresholds based on the train speed limits; (4) the dependency of the track quality...

  6. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  7. Safety of Transmission in Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franekova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of data security in safety - related transmission systems defined within railway process. It is intent on summary of treats and security tools against them within closed and open security systems. In details is analysed possibility of using channel coding techniques and cryptography mechanisms, which are defined according to norms EN 50159. For chosen security mechanisms are deal mathematical apparatus of probability of undetected error determination for channel decoders, relations for determination decipher encoder's complexity and error probability of cryptography code word.

  8. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  9. Pixels, Blocks of Pixels, and Polygons: Choosing a Spatial Unit for Thematic Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixels, polygons, and blocks of pixels are all potentially viable spatial assessment units for conducting an accuracy assessment. We develop a statistical population-based framework to examine how the spatial unit chosen affects the outcome of an accuracy assessment. The populati...

  10. STIMULATION METHODS IMPROVEMENT OF EXIT ROUTE ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Verlan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the article is to assess the costs, which are redistributed in the system «shipper−railroad−consignee» during routing of rail transportation and the development of tariff simulation methods of shippers to the exit routes formation. Methodology. Using economic and mathematical analysis the distribution of costs among the various participants of transportation process during the exit routes formation is investigated in the article. Findings. For implementation of the tariff simulation methods of exit routes and retention of the existing tariff structure it is proposed to provide in the «Tariff catalogue for freight transportation by railway transport of Ukraine» the discount, differentiated from haulage distance. A new method for determining the fees amount for cars supply and removal on approach tracks by train locomotives was also offered. Originality. As a result of the research a new method for determination of the exit rout efficiency that, unlike the existing one, takes into account the various interests of the individual participants in the transportation process was proposed. The dependence of the correction factors to the tariff for freight transportation in their own cars by direct exit routes from distance haulage was obtained. Implementation of these coefficients provides an approximation of railway tariffs to the traffic handling costs. A method for determination the rate of fees for cars supply and removal on approach tracks by train locomotives was offered. Practical value. InUkraine creation of the tariff discounts system for freight transportation by exit routes consistent with international practice and allows bringing the tariff to the real traffic handling cost. This change on the one hand will provide stimulation for private capital investments in infrastructure development and shunting means of approach tracks, on the other – it will fix the shippers to the railroads and stop their outflow

  11. Comparative study of liberalization process of passengers railway market in Spain and England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Morote, G.; Ortuño Padilla, A.; Fernandez Aracil, P.

    2016-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the privatization of railway passengers market in Spain through a background to the most relevant cases studies in Europe, particularly the liberalization process in England. The English case study is a paradigmatic example to assess how the liberalization process was developed and its effect in the present. This assessment has been undertaken to analyse the railway franchise structure, ticketing measures, role of national and regional authorities, etc. and possible analogies to be adapted to the case of Spain. Firstly, this article reviews the origin of the privatization of the railway market in both Spain and England, describing every phase of the liberalization and the success of every stage. Secondly, a critical approach assessment exposes those market failures of the liberalization process in England that caused negative impacts on society. In addition, the role of the Government is analysed to measure their implication in order to solve that situation. Furthermore, the paper expounds a wide analysis of the rail ticketing in England, its effects on increased passenger number. Finally, this article proposes some measures to be followed on the privatization of passenger rail market in Spain, as well as some key concepts to guarantee its success as taken from the case studies that have been reviewed. (Author)

  12. Refined avian risk assessment for chlorpyrifos in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwayne R J; Teed, R Scott; Greer, Colleen D; Solomon, Keith R; Giesy, John P

    2014-01-01

    Refined risk assessments for birds exposed to flowable and granular formulations ofCPY were conducted for a range of current use patterns in the United States. Overall,the collective evidence from the modeling and field study lines of evidence indicate that flowable and granular CPY do not pose significant risks to the bird communities foraging in agro-ecosystems in the United States. The available information indicates that avian incidents resulting from the legal, registered uses of CPY have been very infrequent since 2002 (see SI Appendix 3). The small number of recent incidents suggests that the current labels for CPY are generally protective of birds.However, incident data are uncertain because of the difficulties associated with finding dead birds in the field and linking any mortality observed to CPY.Plowable CPY is registered for a variety of crops in the United States including alfalfa, brassica vegetables, citrus, corn, cotton, grape, mint, onion, peanut, pome and stone fruits, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower, sweet potato, tree nuts, and wheat under the trade name Lorsban Advanced. The major routes of exposure for birds to flowable CPY were consumption of treated dietary items and drinking water. The Liquid Pesticide Avian Risk Assessment Model (Liquid PARAM) was used to simulate avian ingestion of CPY by these routes of exposure. For acute exposure,Liquid PARAM estimated the maximum retained dose in each of 20 birds on each of1,000 fields that were treated with CPY over the 60-d period following initial application.The model used a 1-h time step. For species lacking acceptable acute oral toxicity data (all focal species except northern bobwhite (C. virginianus) and redwinged blackbird (A. phoeniceus)), a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach was used to generate hypothetical dose-response curves assuming high, median and low sensitivity to CPY. For acute risk, risk curves were generated for each use pattern and exposure scenario. The risk

  13. The Issues of Track Maintenance Management in Indonesia (Based on Study of the British Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetria Yunik Dewi Pamungkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that there is merit in researching how the management of track maintenance is organized in the United Kingdom, in particular by Network Rail, and then evaluating how this can be applied to the benefit of Indonesian Railways. The purpose of this research was expected to provide recommendations for management improvement of track maintenance by researching the track maintenance management system in Network Rail. This research study is based on secondary data. The analysis was conducted by using comparison method which compares the British Railways management and Indonesia railway management related to track maintenance management. The track maintenance management system was studied by using Network Rail. The results were compared with track maintenance management system in Indonesia. The comparison will provide the data differences that evaluated so the problem can be identified. The final result of this analysis was the identification of problems and improvisation that can be done for the development of track maintenance management in Indonesia. Several management issues have been mapped to several groups: finance management, structure organization, and asset management. From the problems that have been mapped, some improvements are recommended as monopolist authority restriction, maintenance system contract extension, re-structuring organization hierarchy, business plan consideration, track monitoring strategy arrangement, and condition based maintenance strategy adoption.

  14. Monitoring of railway bridges in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makoto; Komon, Kazuki; Narumoto, Asao; Sugidate, Masao; Mori, Takeshi; Miki, Chitoshi

    2000-06-01

    In Japan, some monitoring systems have been introduced to evaluate conditions of the railway structures. In this work, we introduce the monitoring systems of railway bridges. Here, for example, we show the abstraction of fatigue damage monitoring system. The crack propagation properties of a side notched SUS304 thin sheet, which is affixed to a fatigue test specimen, is studied to develop a fatigue damage monitoring sensor. When cyclic loads are applied to the fatigue specimen, the side notched thin sheet behaves as a displacement controlled condition. The stress intensity factor (Delta) K is expressed by the following equation; (Delta) K equals (Delta) (sigma) (root)GL/2 where GL is the gauge length of the thin sheet. The thin sheet is fatigue pre-cracked, stress- relieved and affixed to a specimen. The results of fatigue crack propagation tests show that the crack propagation rate is dependent on stress range and gauge length, but not on crack length. Under sufficient mean stress conditions, the fatigue crack propagation rate is well expressed by a power low of (Delta) K even at such a low stress range as 20 MPa. Fatigue damage accumulated during a monitoring period can be estimated from crack propagation during the period. The sensitivity of the sensor is controlled through the gauge length of the sensor.

  15. Simplified Transit Procedure in Railway Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kokorović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The current transit procedure in railway transport that iscarried out on the basis of the Customs Act [ 11 of the Republicof Croatia is applied only up to the border, i. e. the issued documentsand guarantees are valid only up to the border, and byjoining the Convention on Common transit procedure, i. e. integrationof the Republic of Croatia in the European Union, theRepublic of Croatia will also have to implement the regulationsand rules of Simplified transit procedure valid in each of thethirty member states. In international railway traffic, the transportof goods is regulated by the Convention concerning InternationalCarriage by Rail- COT IF [2 1 and usage of the CIMwaybill (Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Rail.If the goods are transported in Simplified transit procedure, theformalities regarding the transport of goods performed by railcarriers using the international waybill CIM will be significantlysimplified and accelerated. In principle there are no delays dueto customs on the borders when crossing the EU borders andborders of the Convention member states, contributing greatlyto the acceleration of the transport of goods, reduction of waitingcosts and paperwork, as well as influence on the schedulereliability.

  16. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradai S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.

  17. Energy efficient solutions for the complete railway system; Energieeffiziente Loesungen fuer das Gesamtsystem Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, M.; Rechenberg, K.; Hein, G. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Innovative technologies for the power supply of electric railway vehicles by stationary and mobile devices allow to operate the complete railway system in an energy efficient manner and therefore reduce the energy consumption considerably. So it is necessary to examine the power supply of the railway network as well as the railway vehicles and their own operational behaviour within the railway network. A complete tramway system was choosen as one example. (orig.)

  18. On-Site Measurements for Voltage Unbalance Studies Associated with the AC Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    unbalance with regards to traction loads has been augmented since the decision to expand the electric railway. Towards this direction, and on the occasion of a newly built electrified line, voltage unbalance measurements were carried out and are presented in this paper. The information from the extracted......On-site measurements in Electrical Power Systems can provide valuable information about the performance of the network and also, can be of great assistance to the validation and assessment of simulation models developed for power system studies. Lately, the noticeable increase of non......-conventional types of loads, such as the AC railway, has raised concerns regarding the secure operation of power transmission networks. This renders the monitoring and reporting of various aspects of system’s power quality even more necessary. For the Danish transmission grid, in particular, the relevance of voltage...

  19. Level and determinants of knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis among railway workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Menke, J Michael; Challakere Ramaswamy, Vasudeva Murthy; Abdul Manaf, Rizal; Alabsi, Aied M; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) among Malaysian railway workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based sampling. The assessment instrument was a face-validated, prepiloted, self-administered instrument with sociodemographics and knowledge items on knee OA. Mean (± SD) age of the respondents was 41.4 (± 10.7), with the majority aged 50 years or older (34.9%). Of the total respondents, 53.6% had low levels of knowledge of knee OA disease. Multivariate analysis found that four demographic predictors, age ≥ 50 years, family history of knee OA, self-awareness, and clinical diagnosis of the disease entity, were significantly associated with knowledge scores. The finding of a low level knee OA knowledge among Malaysian railway workers points to an urgent need for massive information to be disseminated among the workers at risk to foster primary prevention and self-care.

  20. Assessment and mapping of slope stability based on slope units: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shallow landslide; infinite slope stability equation; return period precipitation; assessment; slope unit. ... 2010), logistic regression ... model to assess the hazard of shallow landslides ..... grating a fuzzy k-means classification and a Bayesian.

  1. Management of low adhesion on railway tracks in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Andersen, Henning Boje

    with purely technical aspects of e.g. braking and WSP systems, but focus on the implied requirements for organisations and drivers. The report is largely based on literature describing measures taken by existing railway organisations, comprising, besides a few journal article, largely reports by railway...... incident in 2011 in Denmark and the braking ability of a specific type of train (Havarikommissionen 2012), but since expanded to encompass general problems with low adhesion (Nielsen et al. 2012). This report thus addresses problems that are already well‐known to Danish railway organisations...

  2. Auction pricing of network access for North American railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The question of pricing train paths for "open access" railway networks in North America is discussed. An auction process is suggested as necessary to maintain transparency in the contracting process. Multiple random samples of auction pricing for a single track railway line demonstrate...... that the infrastructure entity will receive approximately 15.6% less than the true value of the contracted train paths. This loss of revenue threatens the objective of reducing government subsidy for the railway network. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Railway capacity and expansion analysis using time discretized paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Pisinger, David; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2017-01-01

    of railway freight transportation on a long term strategic level. The model uses an hourly time discretization and analyses the impact of railway network expansions based on future demand forecasts. It provides an optimal macroscopic freight train schedule and can indicate the time and place of any...... variable penalties for the different passenger busy time slots. As part of a European Union project, all models are applied to a realistic case study that focuses on analyzing the capacity of railway network, in Denmark and Southern Sweden using demand forecasts for 2030. Results suggest that informative...

  4. Dynamic Response of Railway Bridges Subjected to Passing Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravčík Milan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some issues related to dynamic effects in railway bridges focussed on the dynamic behaviour of the small and medium span simply supported railway bridges subjected to a series of moving vehicle. Presented parametric study is focused on the dynamic deflection of the simply supported railway bridge of the span Lb = 38 m, due to the series moving loads representing a conventional train with the IC-coaches, with the impact to the speed up to 160 km/h applied in Slovakia.

  5. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  6. Sustainability Assessment Using a Unit-based Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need to balance economic growth and social progress with environmental concerns ... They play a special role in seeking solutions to societal ... development, and also helps to establish the current status of sustainability work in progress. .... departments, units and/or facets of university life (e.g. student activities or estates ...

  7. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes a study performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to evaluate the level of safety provided under severe accident conditions during the shipment of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. The evaluation is performed using data from real accident histories and using representative truck and rail cask models that likely meet 10 CFR 71 regulations. The responses of the representative casks are calculated for structural and thermal loads generated by severe highway and railway accident conditions. The cask responses are compared with those responses calculated for the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. By comparing the responses it is determined that most highway and railway accident conditions fall within the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. For those accidents that have higher responses, the probabilities anf potential radiation exposures of the accidents are compared with those identified by the assessments made in the ''Final Environmental Statement on the Transportation of Radioactive Material by Air and other Modes,'' NUREG-0170. Based on this comparison, it is concluded that the radiological risks from spent fuel under severe highway and railway accident conditions as derived in this study are less than risks previously estimated in the NUREG-0170 document

  8. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature. PMID:26451387

  9. Improvement of railway ballast maintenance approach, incorporating ballast geometry and fouling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, J.; Motieyan-Najar, M. E.; Zakeri, J. A.; Yousefi, B.; Mollazadeh, M.

    2018-04-01

    Ballast plays an important role in the stability of railway track systems. The effectiveness of the ballast in maintaining the track stability is very much dependent on its mechanical conditions. The available ballast maintenance approaches are mainly based on only track geometry conditions (such as track profile) which do not sufficiently reflect the ballast mechanical behaviors. That is, the ballast potential of degradation (i.e., ballast long term behaviors) has been omitted. This makes the effectiveness of the current ballast maintenance approach questionable, indicating a need for a more comprehensive and effective ballast conditions assessment technique. In response to this need, two ballast condition indices based on ballast geometry degradation (BGI) and the level of ballast fouling (BFI) as the main indicators of ballast mechanical behavior were developed. The BGI is a function of the standard deviations of track alignment, unevenness and twist. The BFI was developed based on the data obtained from the ground penetration radar (GPR). Making use of the new indices, a more reliable maintenance algorithm was developed. Through illustrations of the applicability of the new maintenance algorithm in a railway line, it was shown that the new algorithm causes a considerable improvement in the maintenance effectiveness and an increase in the life cycle of railway tracks by making more effective allocation of resources and more accurate maintenance planning.

  10. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Liang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge’s abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature.

  11. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  12. Automated vehicle for railway track fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, M.; Sujay, S.; Tushar, B.; Chitra, P.

    2017-11-01

    For the safety reasons, railroad tracks need to be inspected on a regular basis for detecting physical defects or design non compliances. Such track defects and non compliances, if not detected in a certain interval of time, may eventually lead to severe consequences such as train derailments. Inspection must happen twice weekly by a human inspector to maintain safety standards as there are hundreds and thousands of miles of railroad track. But in such type of manual inspection, there are many drawbacks that may result in the poor inspection of the track, due to which accidents may cause in future. So to avoid such errors and severe accidents, this automated system is designed.Such a concept would surely introduce automation in the field of inspection process of railway track and can help to avoid mishaps and severe accidents due to faults in the track.

  13. Framework for Railway Phase-based Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    spending) to evaluate the project alternatives. The comparison result can identify the most cost-efficient solution in a long run and therefore reduce the overall costs. This article defines a phase-based framework to guide the railway maintenance and renewal project planning at strategic level....... The framework evaluates the project options from a larger LCC scope: The costs from train operation companies and passengers, together with the maintenance and renewal costs from Infrastructure Managers are included in the calculation. The framework simplifies the planning processes and the LCC calculation...... and compared. A case study is introduced in the article to demonstrate how the framework works to compare timber sleepers and concrete sleepers from strategic planning level. Two Life Cycle Cost oriented policies are discussed to illustrate: high quality track is necessity to improve the cost efficiency...

  14. Overhead mining railway, particularly for underground use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, L

    1976-05-20

    Overhead mining railways are usually equipped with a friction wheel drive in underground use. This drive has the advantage over a gear drive that it is more robust and therefore more economic. However, it produces unsatisfactory running for difficult sections with steep gradients up or down or places where deposits of grease and dirt are inevitable. It is proposed to change over to a gear drive at such sections. The high degree of wear, which is characteristic of this type of drive, can be reduced if the drive is only used in difficult sections. It is proposed that the gear drive should be automatically switched on and off by means of stops or contacts on the rails.

  15. Reliability analysis of maintenance operations for railway tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhayma, N.; Bressolette, Ph.; Breul, P.; Fogli, M.; Saussine, G.

    2013-01-01

    Railway engineering is confronted with problems due to degradation of the railway network that requires important and costly maintenance work. However, because of the lack of knowledge on the geometrical and mechanical parameters of the track, it is difficult to optimize the maintenance management. In this context, this paper presents a new methodology to analyze the behavior of railway tracks. It combines new diagnostic devices which permit to obtain an important amount of data and thus to make statistics on the geometric and mechanical parameters and a non-intrusive stochastic approach which can be coupled with any mechanical model. Numerical results show the possibilities of this methodology for reliability analysis of different maintenance operations. In the future this approach will give important informations to railway managers to optimize maintenance operations using a reliability analysis

  16. Basic stages of introduction of kontrolingu in management railway enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kokovikhina, O.

    2011-01-01

    In the article research existent approaches in relation to introduction of financial kontrolingu in activity of subjects of menage and ten stages of introduction of kontrolingu are offered in the management of railway transport enterprises.

  17. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Squeal noise from wheel/rail and brake disc/pad frictional contact is typical in railways. ... squeal noise by multibody simulation of a rail car running on rigid rails. ... system, traditional complex eigenvalue analysis by finite element was used.

  18. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  19. An integrated micro-macro approach to robust railway timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bešinović, Nikola; Goverde, Rob M P; Quaglietta, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing demand for railway transportation infrastructure managers need improved automatic timetabling tools that provide feasible timetables with enhanced performance in short computation times. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework for timetable design which combines a microsc...

  20. Railway Transportation Engineering (CEE 408) Course updates and online conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The new order of lectures provides students with a sound introduction to the main concepts behind efficiency and economic railway operations. This naturally follows into the design of railcars for safe, efficient and economical operations. With railc...

  1. High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.

  2. Modeling track access charge to enhance railway industry performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Miraj, Perdana; Berawi, Abdur Rohim Boy; Susantono, Bambang; Leviakangas, Pekka; Radiansyah, Hendra

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia attempts to improve nation's competitiveness by increasing the quality and the availability of railway network. However, the infrastructure improperly managed by the operator in terms of the technical issue. One of the reasons for this problem is an unbalanced value of infrastructure charge. In 2000's track access charge and infrastructure maintenance and operation for Indonesia railways are equal and despite current formula of the infrastructure charge, issues of transparency and accountability still in question. This research aims to produce an alternative scheme of track access charge by considering marginal cost plus markup (MC+) approach. The research combines qualitative and quantitative method through an in-depth interview and financial analysis. The result will generate alternative formula of infrastructure charge in Indonesia's railway industry. The simulation also conducted to estimate track access charge for the operator and to forecast government support in terms of subsidy. The result is expected to enhance railway industry performance and competitiveness.

  3. THE EVALUATION OF OUTSOURCING USE ON UKRAINIAN RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Stasiuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of outsourcing possibilities on the railway transport of Ukraine is realized. The kinds of activities, which are promising for transfer through outsourcing to small enterprises, are proposed.

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  6. [Medico-economic assessment of the Pontoise Hospital stroke unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekhlef, F; Decup, D; Niclot, P; Servan, J; Descombes, S; Richecoeur, J; Ollivier, A

    2010-11-01

    Annually, approximately 120,000 people in France have a stroke. Various controlled studies have pointed out the benefits of treatment in a stroke unit (SU). The objective of this study was to evaluate, from a medical point of view, the economic impact of the Pontoise Hospital SU. Based on the national cost study (NCS [étude nationale des coûts: ENC]) we analyzed data of five diagnosis related groups (DRG) which have a principle diagnosis in relation with stroke. This work was limited to strokes and transient ischemic events in adults and excluded sub-arachnoid hemorrhage. Medical and economic parameters were collected over the period from January to October 2006 and compared with those of the same period in 2005, that is to say before the opening of the SU. Three hundred and twenty-three hospital stays occurred between January 1st and October 31st, 2006 and 216 during the same time period before the opening of the SU, an increase of approximately 50% of all stroke-related admissions in our hospital. The number of stays carried out in the neurology unit increased by 29%. There was no significant difference between the two periods regarding age (median 69 versus 70 years) and sex- ratio. Average length of stay (ALS) was the same (9 days). There were no significant differences concerning the death rate (5.6% versus 6.2%) and that of discharge to home (44.6% versus 44.4%). The cost by stay in 2006 was 3534 euros [median; min 664-max 57,542] versus 3541 euros in 2005 [681-35,149] (p=0.57). Analysis by DRG highlighted an increase in the cost for serious strokes, cerebral infarctions and hemorrhages. For transitory ischemic events, the cost and the ALS decreased. After the opening of the SU, there was an increase in the activity without an increase in the total cost. This could be related in part to the limited means allocated to the stroke unit at its opening (in particular medical staff). The NCS can be used to evaluate the activity of a stroke unit. This work could

  7. Advances in multi-unit nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, Mohammad; Zhou, Taotao; Massoud, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident highlighted the importance of risks from multiple nuclear reactor unit accidents at a site. As a result, there has been considerable interest in Multi-Unit Probabilistic Risk Assessment (MUPRA) in the past few years. For considerations in nuclear safety, the MUPRA estimates measures of risk and identifies contributors to risk representing the entire site rather than the individual units in the site. In doing so, possible unit-to-unit interactions and dependencies should be modeled and accounted for in the MUPRA. In order to effectively account for these risks, six main commonality classifications—initiating events, shared connections, identical components, proximity dependencies, human dependencies, and organizational dependencies—may be used. This paper examines advances in MUPRA, offers formal definitions of multi-unit site risk measures and proposes quantitative approaches and data to account for unit-to-unit dependencies. Finally, a parametric approach for the multi-unit dependencies has been discussed and a simple example illustrates application of the proposed methodology. - Highlights: • This paper will discuss the technical aspects of an integrated MUPRA, including consideration of dependencies and assessment of the multi-unit dependency data and models for quantifying such dependencies. • The paper also provides discussions on formal definitions and metrics for multi-unit site risks. • The parametric methods are used to address multi-unit dependency situations. • A conceptual two-unit logic example is used to demonstrate the application of proposed methodology.

  8. ECONOMIC EFFECT OF INTRODUCTION OF MODULAR TECHNOLOGY IN RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Bilous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore the current state of the railway engineering industry in the world, the problems of its development prospects, especially the introduction of the modular process technology and economic impact of its introduction. Methodology. The research is based on statistical information from public sources, which is used to confirm the veracity of the thesis put forward about the feasibility of further implementation of the principle of modularity in the railway engineering sector. Data was also obtained from the websites of manufacturers of railway equipment. Also, in the study of the issue, analytical articles on the economic development of the sector of railway engineering in the world were used. Results of the research showed that today, in transport engineering industry, in particular – in the railway engineering, there is a problem of inefficient implementation and use of technological developments, which are used in the manufacture of railway rolling stock. Many technical solutions are duplicated, leading to more time and financial costs. At the same time, there is no free access to information about existing technical solutions, which significantly slows down the development of rail transport. One of the main solutions to the problem is the use of modular technology in the design and manufacture of rolling stock. Leading global manufacturers have already begun to use the modules in the production of their rolling stock, but the technology is not yet sufficiently developed and finds its realization only in reducing the costs of production of rolling stock by specific manufacturers. The full benefits of the new technology have not yet been obtained by producers and operators. Thus, there is a considerable margin for the implementation of modular technology in the production of railway vehicles, which will result in further reducing both production costs and the costs of maintenance, operation and repair of

  9. Assessment of financial expenditure for Rivne NPP power units decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Salij, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers some financial aspects of developing a decommissioning concept for Rivne NPP power units with reactor VVER-440 and VVER-1000. Possible methodological approaches to costs estimate have been analyzed. Preliminary results of cost estimation are presented for two decommissioning options: deferred and immediate dismantling. Principally possible options for accumulating assets have been analyzed to finance measures related to Rivne NPP decommissioning. A mathematical model has been proposed for creating decommissioning financial reserve

  10. An investigation of employee motivation at Botswana railways / John Latolang

    OpenAIRE

    Latolang, John

    2011-01-01

    Botswana Railways has been facing low employee motivation and productivity for some time. Companies such as Air Botswana which had been experiencing similar issues decided to privatise to increase its efficiency and, as a result, turned things around. Hence, using both quantitative and qualitative investigation at the Headquarters of the Botswana Railways, this study sought to determine the extent of employee motivation and how to enhance it in order to increase employee produc...

  11. Railway projects prioritisation for investment : application of goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahern, Aoife; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2007-01-01

    This research develops a weighted integer goal-programming model for prioritising railway projects for investment. The goal of the model is to prioritise the identified projects for investment while maximising the objectives and meeting the budget limit for capital investment. The model minimises the goal deviations of the objectives. The objectives of the model include quantitative and qualitative attributes. The model is applied to prioritise the new railway projects, which have a total cos...

  12. Study on high reliability safety valve for railway vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ruikun; Zhang, Shixi; Xu, BuDu

    2017-09-01

    Now, the realization of most of the functions of the railway vehicles rely on compressed air, so the demand for compressed air is growing higher and higher. This safety valve is a protection device for pressure limitation and pressure relief in an air supply system of railway vehicles. I am going to introduce the structure, operating principle, research and development process of the safety valve designed by our company in this document.

  13. Distributed optical fiber sensors for integrated monitoring of railway infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardo, Aldo; Coscetta, Agnese; Porcaro, Giuseppe; Giannetta, Daniele; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    We propose the application of a distributed optical fiber sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, as an integrated system for safety monitoring of railway infrastructures. The strain distribution was measured dynamically along a 60 meters length of rail track, as well as along a 3-m stone arch bridge. The results indicate that distributed sensing technology is able to provide useful information in railway traffic and safety monitoring.

  14. SOLUTION FOR AN EQUIPMENT OF RAILWAY BRIDGE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mihai SIMA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for the railway bridges monitoring based on the use of already existing equipments in the railway installations and some new equipments based on photo-elements, as well. This kind of equipments can function in continue and discontinuous regime, means of them tracking down if the bridge piles suffered movements by different reasons. This aspect can put in danger the safety of the circulation on that bridge.

  15. A modelling approach for railway overhead line equipment asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Kilsby, Paul; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John

    2017-01-01

    The Overhead Line Equipment (OLE) is a critical sub-system of the 25kV AC overhead railway electrification system. If OLE asset management strategies can be evaluated using a whole lifecycle cost analysis that considers degradation processes and maintenance activities of the OLE components, the investment required to deliver the level of performance desired by railway customers and regulators can be based on evidence from the analysis results. A High Level Petri Net (HLPN) model, proposed in ...

  16. Development of a super high speed railway and ML 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Y

    1973-07-01

    A history of the development progress is given, followed by a discussion of the propulsion system for a super high speed railway-structure. Induction linear motors and synchronous linear motors are discussed in some detail. The maintenance system is then described (basic test apparatus-rotary type superconductive magnetic force maintenance system, etc.). Experiments using a linear running superconductive magnetic test car are discussed. Developments of super high speed railways in America, France, England, West Germany, etc. are described.

  17. Reconstruction of railway energy lines; Rekonstruktion von Bahnenergieleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Matthias [DB Energie Gmbh, Berlin (Germany); Wahlen, Manfred [DB Energie Gmbh, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    As is the case for other overhead lines, 110 kV railway energy lines are assumed to have a service life of 80 years. When this service life ends or the lines are adapted to the state of the art as necessary, all components of the overhead line are renewed. For the reconstruction of railway energy lines, the specifications laid down in planning and environmental laws, operational management aspects and the local ambient and development situation are decisive project planning parameters. (orig.)

  18. Automatic Verification of Railway Interlocking Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob Lyng

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experiences in applying formal verification to a large industrial piece of software. The are of application is railway interlocking systems. We try to prove requirements of the program controlling the Swedish railway Station Alingsås by using the decision procedure which...... express thoughts on what is needed in order to be able to successfully verify large real-life systems....

  19. Perspectives of transport logistics in the railway transport enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Elagin, Yu; Obruch, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the main directions of development of transport logistics. Identified as the main types of general transport logistics, as well as the rail sector, in which logistics acquires a dominant role in terms of reform. Also highlights the main features of transport logistics for railway transport enterprises and proved the importance of integrating function in modern conditions of development. The authors noted that to ensure the effective development of railway tran...

  20. Formal techniques for a data-driven certification of advanced railway signalling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The technological evolution of railway signalling equipment promises significant increases in transport capacity, in operation regularity, in quality and safety of the service offered.This evolution is based on the massive use of computer control units on board trains and on the ground, that aims...... at improving the performance of rail transport and maintaining high safety figures.A brief review of possible innovation trends of signalling systems shows that they will be more and more based on the exchange of accurate and secure complex information, in order to ensure safe operation.For this reason we want...

  1. A Branch-and-Price Framework for Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling During Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    using column generation in a complete Branch-and-Price framework. In contrast to flow-based approaches our formulation is more easily extended to handle certain families of constraints, such as train unit maintenance restrictions. We benchmark the framework against real-life instances provided...... by the suburban railway operator in Copenhagen (DSB S-tog). In combination with a lower bound method we show that near-optimal solutions can be found within a few seconds during a disruption. In addition we show that framework is also able to find solution within a few minutes for non-disturbed timetables....

  2. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain drain, poor management, government interference in management, customs border delays, and energy shortage. The problems have been addressed in unique ways and unusual solutions are proposed. These include customer financing for maintenance and spares and the resuscitation of steam locomotives. The presented solutions, lessons and issues from this experience contribute to discussions and study of railway logistics in challenging environments. Finally, current and future research issues, which have a global appeal, are presented.

  3. 1.8 K Refrigeration Units for the LHC: Performance Assessment of Pre-series Units

    CERN Document Server

    Claudet, S; Millet, F; Tavian, L; 20th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC20)

    2005-01-01

    The cooling capacity below 2 K for the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, will be provided by eight refrigeration units of 2400 W at 1.8 K, each of them coupled to a 4.5 K refrigerator. The two selected vendors have proposed cycles based on centrifugal cold compressors combined with volumetric screw compressors with sub-atmospheric suction, as previously identified by CERN as “reference cycle”. The supply of the series units was linked to successful testing and acceptance of the pre-series temporarily installed in a dedicated test station. The global capacity, the performance of cold compressors and some process specificities have been thoroughly tested and will be presented.

  4. Investigating High-Speed Railways In Terms Of The Economy For Our Country and The Region

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Onur; Altan, Mehmet Fatih

    2018-01-01

    High-speed railways have a history of more than 40 years. Railways continued to be popular especially in variousparts of Eastern Europe and Asia until the end of the 1980s. As of today, we can talk about a high-speed railway thatcontinues to develop in the continents of Africa, Asia and the Americas around the world. At this point, one of themost significant factors in railways, in particular high-speed railways, is planning. Planning determines the effect ofthe railway on the economy, as wel...

  5. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffler, L.J.P. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The geothermal resource assessment presented is a refinement and updating of USGS Circular 726. Nonproprietary information available in June 1978 is used to assess geothermal energy in the ground and, when possible, to evaluate the fraction that might be recovered at the surface. Five categories of geothermal energy are discussed: conduction-dominated regimes, igneous-related geothermal systems, high-temperature (> 150/sup 0/C) and intermediate-temperature (90 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal convection systems, low-temperature (< 90/sup 0/C) geothermal waters, and geopressured-geothermal energy (both thermal energy and energy from dissolved methane). Assessment data are presented on three colored maps prepared in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers on these five categories.

  6. RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF ENTROPY METHOD FOR SYSTEM CONSISTED OF IDENTICAL EXPONENTIAL UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Youchao; Shi Jun

    2004-01-01

    The reliability assessment of unit-system near two levels is the most important content in the reliability multi-level synthesis of complex systems. Introducing the information theory into system reliability assessment, using the addible characteristic of information quantity and the principle of equivalence of information quantity, an entropy method of data information conversion is presented for the system consisted of identical exponential units. The basic conversion formulae of entropy method of unit test data are derived based on the principle of information quantity equivalence. The general models of entropy method synthesis assessment for system reliability approximate lower limits are established according to the fundamental principle of the unit reliability assessment. The applications of the entropy method are discussed by way of practical examples. Compared with the traditional methods, the entropy method is found to be valid and practicable and the assessment results are very satisfactory.

  7. Living alongside railway tracks: Long-term effects of nocturnal noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity as a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Patricia; Rohmer, Odile; Schimchowitsch, Sarah; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Bonnefond, Anne; Margiocchi, Florence; Poisson, Franck; Muzet, Alain

    2010-10-01

    Very few studies were devoted to permanent effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity. We investigated the effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular response in young and middle-aged adults living for many years either near a railway track or in a quiet area. Forty subjects (50% males) divided into two age groups (juniors: 26.2+/-3.6 and seniors: 56.2+/-4.2) participated in this experiment. Half of them lived near a railway track (RW group: 2.6 to 19 years) and the other half in a quiet environment (QE group: 8.1 to 14.2 years). After an adaptation night, all subjects underwent two nights in the laboratory: one control night and one noisy night (30 by-passes of a freight train). Sleep and cardiovascular modifications were assessed in response to noise. Sleep fragmentation indices were lower in RW subjects compared to QE whatever their age. In response to noise, there was a higher cardiovascular response rate to noise in RW juniors and a lower cardiovascular response rate in RW seniors compared to their age-paired QE counterparts. In conclusion, permanent exposure to nocturnal railway noise leads to decreased sleep fragmentation and to cardiovascular habituation. It is suggested that during the initial period experienced by residents living near railway tracks, nocturnal railway noise could induce a sensitization process on the autonomic response to noise reflecting a startle/defense reflex due to its functional significance, which progressively turns to habituation in the long-term if no adverse effect is experienced. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety assessment of multi-unit NPP sites subject to external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaddar, Sujit; Hibino, Kenta; Coman, Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for conducting a probabilistic safety assessment of multi-unit sites against external events. The treatment of multiple hazard on a unit, interaction between units, implementation of severe accident measures, human reliability, environmental conditions, metric of risk for both reactor and non-reactor sources, integration of risk and responses and many such important factors need to be addressed within the context of this framework. The framework facilitates the establishment of a comprehensive methodology that can be applied internationally to the peer review of safety assessment of multi-unit sites under the impact of multiple external hazards. In summary, it can be said that the site safety assessment for a multi-unit site will be quite complex and need to start with individual unit risk assessments, these need to be combined considering the interactions between units and their responses, and the fragilities of the installations established considering the combined demands from all interactions. Using newly established risk metric the risk can then be integrated for the overall site. Fig. 2 shows schematically such a proposal. Much work has to done and the IAEA has established a working group that is systematically establishing the structure and process to incorporate the many issues that are a part of a multi-unit site safety assessment. (authors)

  9. Estimation of wind erosion from construction of a railway in arid Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benli Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art wind erosion simulation model, the Wind Erosion Prediction System and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's AP 42 emission factors formula, were combined together to evaluate wind-blown dust emissions from various construction units from a railway construction project in the dry Gobi land in Northwest China. The influence of the climatic factors: temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, soil condition, protective measures, and construction disturbance were taken into account. Driven by daily and sub-daily climate data and using specific detailed management files, the process-based WEPS model was able to express the beginning, active, and ending phases of construction, as well as the degree of disturbance for the entire scope of a construction project. The Lanzhou-Xinjiang High-speed Railway was selected as a representative study because of the diversities of different climates, soil, and working schedule conditions that could be analyzed. Wind erosion from different working units included the building of roadbeds, bridges, plants, temporary houses, earth spoil and barrow pit areas, and vehicle transportation were calculated. The total wind erosion emissions, 7406 t, for the first construction area of section LXS-15 with a 14.877 km length was obtained for quantitative analysis. The method used is applicable for evaluating wind erosion from other complex surface disturbance projects.

  10. Defining and Assessing Chinese Syntactic Complexity via TC-Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiaona

    2016-01-01

    The triad dimensions of complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) has been widely used for assessing second language performance and development. Unlike accuracy and fluency, the construct of Chinese syntactic complexity has not been comprehensibly conceptualized or operationalized. Moreover, not tailored to the typological differences such as the…

  11. Seismic risk assessment and application in the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic risk is a somewhat subjective, but important, concept in earthquake engineering and other related decision-making. Another important concept that is closely related to seismic risk is seismic hazard. Although seismic hazard and seismic risk have often been used interchangeably, they are fundamentally different: seismic hazard describes the natural phenomenon or physical property of an earthquake, whereas seismic risk describes the probability of loss or damage that could be caused by a seismic hazard. The distinction between seismic hazard and seismic risk is of practical significance because measures for seismic hazard mitigation may differ from those for seismic risk reduction. Seismic risk assessment is a complicated process and starts with seismic hazard assessment. Although probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is the most widely used method for seismic hazard assessment, recent studies have found that PSHA is not scientifically valid. Use of PSHA will lead to (1) artifact estimates of seismic risk, (2) misleading use of the annual probability of exccedance (i.e., the probability of exceedance in one year) as a frequency (per year), and (3) numerical creation of extremely high ground motion. An alternative approach, which is similar to those used for flood and wind hazard assessments, has been proposed. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  12. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This qualitative risk assessment provides information about the 100- NR-2 Groundwater Operable Unit of the Hanford reservation. Topics discussed in this report are: data evaluation; human health risk assessment overview; ecological evaluations; summary of uncertainty; results of both the ecological and human health evaluations; toxicity assessment; risk characterization; and a summary of contaminants of potential concern

  13. Speech Language Assessments in Te Reo in a Primary School Maori Immersion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kershni

    2012-01-01

    This research originated from the need for a speech and language therapy assessment in te reo Maori for a particular child who attended a Maori immersion unit. A Speech and Language Therapy te reo assessment had already been developed but it needed to be revised and normative data collected. Discussions and assessments were carried out in a…

  14. Assessment of corrosion failure in copper tube of refrigerator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Harun; Hafizal Yazid; Zaiton Selamat; Mohd Shariff Sattar; Muhamamd Jalil

    2007-01-01

    The copper tubes of the refrigerator unit have been coated with red and white color paints. According to the date of purchase and complaint recorded, the tube leaked after operation about one year. It was observed that the tubes became black and green in color at U-bend of the tube. No corrosion occurred on the internal surface of the tube. The leaking started at outer surface of the tube. The leaking started at outer surface and propagated to the internal surface of the tubes. The leaking damage was caused by corrosive species either from atmospheric corrosion or the paint contained chloride and sulfur elements. The corrosive species of sulfur and chlorine were a main factor in pitting corrosion. (author)

  15. Reliability assessment of Indian Point Unit 3 containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, J.; Hwang, H.; Chang, M.T.; Reich, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the current design criteria, the load combinations specified for design of concrete containment structures are in the deterministic formats. However, by applying the probability-based reliability method developed by BNL to the concrete containment structures designed according to the criteria, it is possible to evaluate the reliability levels implied in the current design criteria. For this purpose, the reliability analysis is applied to the Indian Point Unit No. 3 containment. The details of the containment structure such as the geometries and the rebar arrangements, etc., are taken from the working drawings and the final safety analysis reports. Three kinds of loads are considered in the reliability analysis. They are, dead load (D), accidental pressure due to a large LOCA (P), and earthquake ground acceleration (E). Reliability analysis of the containment subjected to all combinations of loads is performed. Results are presented in this report

  16. Assessing Interprofessional Teamwork in Inpatient Medical Oncology Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A Charlotta; Callaghan, Mary; Cooper, Abby L; Brandman, James; O'Leary, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Teamwork is important to providing safe and effective care for hospitalized patients with cancer; however, few studies have evaluated teamwork in this setting. We surveyed all nurses, residents, hospitalists, and oncology physicians in oncology units at a large urban teaching hospital from September to November 2012. Respondents rated teamwork using a validated instrument (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; scale, 0 to 100) and rated the quality of collaboration they had experienced with other professionals using a 5-point ordinal response scale (1, very low quality; 5, very high quality). Respondents also rated potential barriers to collaboration using a 4-point ordinal response scale (1, not at all a barrier; 4, major barrier). We compared ratings by professionals using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Overall, 129 (67%) of 193 eligible participants completed the survey. Teamwork scores differed across professional types, with nurses providing the lowest ratings (69.7) and residents providing the highest (81.9; ANOVA P = .01). Ratings of collaboration with nurses were high across all types of professionals. Ratings of collaboration with physicians varied significantly by professional type (P ≤ .02), with nurses giving lower ratings of collaboration with all physician types. Similarly, perceived barriers to collaboration differed by professional type, with nurses perceiving the biggest barrier to be negative attitudes regarding the importance of communication. Oncologists did not perceive any of the listed options as major barriers to collaboration. In inpatient oncology units, discrepancies exist between nurses' and physicians' ratings of teamwork and collaboration. Oncologists seem to be unaware that teamwork is suboptimal in this setting. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Qualitative risk assessment for 100-DR-1 source operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE), signatories to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order have developed the Hanford site Past-Practice Strategy to emphasize initiating and completing waste site cleanups with a bias for action. This strategy relies, in part, upon the use of a qualitative risk assessment (QRA) to assist in decision-making. The QRA is performed using the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology (HSBRAM) as guidance (DOE-RL 1993a). The results will be used, along with other considerations, to make a recommendation for or against an interim remedial measure (IRM) at each high-priority waste site. The objective of conducting IRMs at Hanford, is to achieve cleanup and reduce risk in the shortest time possible and in a cost effective manner

  18. Estimating national exhaust emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, Faruk; Elbir, Tolga

    2007-01-01

    The estimated exhaust emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey were presented. The emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), hydrocarbon compounds (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the diesel locomotives and railcars were calculated using the railway traffic data recorded by Turkish State Railways (TSR) for the period of 2000-2005. EPA emission factors were used for different vehicle types and operation modes such as shunting and line-hauling. Total emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey were estimated as 384 t y - 1 for HC, 1016 t y - 1 for CO, 6799 t y - 1 for NO X , 256 t y - 1 for PM, 357 t y - 1 for SO 2 and 383 537 t y - 1 for CO 2 for the year 2005. The distribution of emissions with respect to type of railway vehicles shows that the mainline locomotives contribute ∝ 91% to the total emissions. The increases of 22%, 39% and 49% in the current numbers of mainline locomotives, shunting locomotives and diesel railcars, respectively corresponding to the full capacity of railway network in Turkey will increase the annual emissions to 431 t y - 1 for HC, 1121 t y - 1 for CO, 7399 t y - 1 for NO X , 342 t y - 1 for PM, 552 t y - 1 for SO 2 and 420 256 t y - 1 for CO 2 . Total railway emissions constitute 0.15%, 0.08% and 4.21% of total Turkish traffic emissions for HC, CO and NO X , respectively. (author)

  19. A STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE ONLINE SPORTS BETTING INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    OpenAIRE

    Skogman, Ville

    2015-01-01

    A strategic assessment of the sports betting industry in the United Kingdom. The dissertation focuses on the field of strategic management, through which it tries to identify the competitive advantage of three operators in the United Kingdom online sports betting market; Betfair Group plc, Bet365 and William Hill plc.

  20. 15 CFR 971.501 - Resource assessment, recovery plan, and logical mining unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and logical mining unit. 971.501 Section 971.501 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR... mining unit. (a) The applicant must submit with the application a resource assessment to provide a basis...

  1. Assessment of Soil Nutrient Status of Identified Soil Units in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... Assessment of Soil Nutrient Status of Identified Soil Units in Selected Communities in Three Local Government Areas ... Available phosphorus content in the soils is generally high with values ...

  2. Thermal Storage Systems Assessment for Energy Sustainability in Housing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I. Lagunes Vega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve greater enhancements in energy sustainability for housing, the function and efficiency of two different passive cooling systems were studied: encapsulated water in recycled bottles of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polystyrene plates, in comparison with standard concrete slab systems, which are customarily used in housing. Experiments were placed over a tile surface, in which temperature changes were monitored for a period of 20 days from 08:00 to 20:00. The efficiency of passive thermal storage systems was endorsed through statistical analysis using the “SPSS” software. This resulted in a 17% energy saving, thus promoting energy sustainability in housing units, which reduces the use of electrical appliances required to stabilize conditions to achieve optimum thermal comfort for the human body inside a house, therefore, reducing electrical power consumption, CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and generating savings. Due to the complexity of a system with temperature changes, a fractal analysis was performed for each experimental system, using the “Benoit” software (V.1.3 with self-compatible tools of rescaled range (R/S and a wavelets method, showing that the thermal fluctuations on the tiles with the thermal storage system adapt to the rescaled range analysis and the regular tiles adapt to the wavelets method.

  3. An Aggregated Method for Determining Railway Defects and Obstacle Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktev, Daniil; Loktev, Alexey; Stepanov, Roman; Pevzner, Viktor; Alenov, Kanat

    2018-03-01

    The method of combining algorithms of image blur analysis and stereo vision to determine the distance to objects (including external defects of railway tracks) and the speed of moving objects-obstacles is proposed. To estimate the deviation of the distance depending on the blur a statistical approach, logarithmic, exponential and linear standard functions are used. The statistical approach includes a method of estimating least squares and the method of least modules. The accuracy of determining the distance to the object, its speed and direction of movement is obtained. The paper develops a method of determining distances to objects by analyzing a series of images and assessment of depth using defocusing using its aggregation with stereoscopic vision. This method is based on a physical effect of dependence on the determined distance to the object on the obtained image from the focal length or aperture of the lens. In the calculation of the blur spot diameter it is assumed that blur occurs at the point equally in all directions. According to the proposed approach, it is possible to determine the distance to the studied object and its blur by analyzing a series of images obtained using the video detector with different settings. The article proposes and scientifically substantiates new and improved existing methods for detecting the parameters of static and moving objects of control, and also compares the results of the use of various methods and the results of experiments. It is shown that the aggregate method gives the best approximation to the real distances.

  4. Vibration Monitoring of a Large Scale Heavy Haul Railway Viaduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busatta Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, heavy haul railway transport was introduced in the mid-1970s for the Iron Ore and the Coal Export lines. In recent decades, the expansion of existing mines, new markets and the competition of iron ore- and coal-exporting countries have led owners and operators to progressively increase the capacity of the export lines. On the one hand, operational efficiencies have been improved; on the other hand, a significant increase of the rail traffic has been experienced. Thus, bridges along the export lines are now crossed by heavier and longer trains with more frequent train passages than in the past. Increasing train loading might lead to significant consequences on structures such as dynamic amplifications and reduction of service life due to fatigue. Hence dynamic assessment and monitoring of the structural condition of bridges under actual train loading are becoming more relevant to support decision making processes. The paper presents the investigations carried out on the Olifants River Viaduct, a critical structure along the Iron Ore Export Line, in order to implement a state-of-the-art vibration monitoring system.

  5. Development of a guide for prioritization of railway bridges for repair and replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop evaluation bases for the repair, rehabilitation, and replacement of existing : railway bridges. Considering the importance of bridges to the railway network, the research involved the review and : analysis o...

  6. Traffic and transport technology-road, railway, and water-borne transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This is "Part 2: Case Studies - Chapter 9" of the book, "The Japanese Experience in Technology", and includes the following subsections: Modernization and the railway; The transportation network; Issues in railway policy; Original design and producti...

  7. Environmental assessments of alternative energy strategies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, S.W.; Katz, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program is an evaluation of the regional impacts of future energy development. These studies are conducted for the Department of Energy. The impacts described in this paper for 1990 are based on a national energy projection (scenario) that assumes medium energy demand and fuel supply through 1990, but does not incorporate the policies of the 1978 National Energy Act. The RIIA study plan uses the predicted fuel mixes derived from the PIES scenario as a starting point for its analysis. County level patterns for utility, industry and mining activities for 1990 were then developed from the federal region totals. Energy sources addressed were coal, nuclear, oil, oil shale, gas, geothermal, hydroelectric, and solar. The impact of these county-level patterns of utility, industry, and mining activities on the air, water, and land resources of the country and on the socioeconomic and health and safety aspects of the nation's welfare are analyzed

  8. OOA composite structures applicable in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite sandwich structures offers several advantages over conventional structural materials such as lightweight, high bending and torsional stiffness, superior thermal insulation and excellent acoustic damping. In the aerospace industry, sandwich composites are commonly manufactured using the autoclave process which is associated with high operating cost. Out-of-autoclave (OOA manufacturing has been shown to be capable of producing low cost and high performance composites. In this paper we present results of experimental testing of various sandwich materials according various standards and actual requirements in transport industry. We compared the different types of surface and paint systems, because these layers are the most important in contact with the surrounding environment and load conditions. In the experimental measurements were used various materials. For the core of the sandwich structure were selected aluminium honeycomb, aramid honeycomb and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate foam core. Support layers were chosen two kinds of predimpregnated materials. The conditions of measurements were requirements for strength and rigidity, safety - flame resistance and reflectivity resistance. The samples were tested at the 3 - point bending test according to standard EN ISO 178, by modified test to determine the force required to rapture threaded insert, by test of reflectivity according to UIC CODE 844-4 R and according to standard EN 45545-2 fire protection of railway vehicles.

  9. Railway bridge monitoring during construction and sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Casanova, Nicoletta; Kronenberg, Pascal; Vurpillot, Samuel

    1997-05-01

    The Moesa railway bridge is a composite steel concrete bridge on three spans of 30 m each. The 50 cm thick concrete deck is supported on the lower flanges of two continuous, 2.7 m high I-beams. The bridge has been constructed alongside an old metallic bridge. After demolishing this one, the new bridge has been slid for 5 m by 4 hydraulic jacks and positioned on the refurbished piles of the old bridge. About 30 fiber optic, low-coherence sensors were imbedded in the concrete deck to monitor its deformations during concrete setting and shrinkage, as well as during the bridge sliding phase. In the days following concrete pour it was possible to follow its thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and the following thermal and during shrinkage. The deformations induced by the additional load produced by the successive concreting phases were also observed. During the bridge push, which extended over six hours, the embedded and surface mounted sensors allowed the monitoring of the curvature variations in the horizontal plane due to the slightly uneven progression of the jacks. Excessive curvature and the resulting cracking of concrete could be ruled out by these measurements. It was also possible to observe the bridge elongation under the heating action of the sun.

  10. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  11. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  12. Power-Electronics Issues of Modern Electric Railway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEIMEL, A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available After de-regulation of the former state-owned railways and severe restructuring of the railway industry in the last 15 years, more innovative vehicle concepts saw the light of the day. Power electronics, already formerly being a pacemaker for progress of traction vehicles, brought forth an utmost standardization of the main drive by means of the IGBT-converter-fed induction motor drive. This is independent of the railway supply voltage system or of a diesel prime mover, for locomotives, high-speed and mass-transit trains as well as for tramways. Vehicles able to operate on all four European railway voltage systems have become feasible and are used now widely. New trends as Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors or Medium-Frequency Transformers are discussed, and a short overlook over actual field-oriented high-performance motor control systems - including a speed-sensorless variant - is given. Power electronics dominates the field of conversion of the 16.7-Hz railway supply power, typical for Central Europe, from the 50-Hz three-phase utility grid.

  13. Energetic optimization of regenerative braking for high speed railway systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilli, Amedeo; Meli, Enrico; Nocciolini, Daniele; Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of longitudinal dynamics of the High-speed train ETR1000 is presented. • The model includes on board traction and braking subsystems. • Interactions between overhead line and power line are modelled. • The model is validated on real experimental data. • An energy storage strategy for a high-speed line is proposed. - Abstract: The current development trend in the railway field has led to an ever increasing interest for the energetic optimization of railway systems (especially considering the braking phases), with a strong attention to the mutual interactions between the loads represented by railway vehicles and the electrical infrastructure, including all the sub-systems related to distribution and smart energy management such as energy storage systems. In this research work, the authors developed an innovative coupled modelling approach suitable for the analysis of the energetic optimization of railway systems and based on the use of the new object oriented language Matlab-Simscape™, which presents several advantages with respect to conventional modelling tools. The proposed model has been validated considering an Italian Direct Current High-speed line and the High-speed train ETR 1000. Furthermore, the model has been used to perform an efficiency analysis, considering the use of energy storage devices. The results obtained with the developed model show that the use of energy recovery systems in high-speed railway can provide great opportunities of energy savings.

  14. Integrated risk assessment for multi-unit NPP sites—A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, C. Senthil; Hassija, Varun; Velusamy, K.; Balasubramaniyan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Framework for integrated risk assessment for multi-unit NPP sites. • Categorization of external and internal events. • Modelling of key issues: mission time, cliff-edge, common cause failures, etc. • Safety goals for multi-unit NPP sites. • Comparison of site core damage frequency in one, two, three and four unit sites. - Abstract: Most of the nuclear power producing sites in the world houses multiple units. Such sites are faced with hazards generated from external events: earthquake, tsunami, flood, etc. and can threaten the safety of nuclear power plants. Further, risk from a multiple unit site and its impact on the public and environment was evident during the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011. It is therefore important to evolve a methodology to systematically assess the risk from multi-unit site. For a single unit site, probabilistic risk assessment technique identifies the potential accident scenarios, their consequences, and estimates the core damage frequency that arise due to internal and external hazards. This challenging task becomes even more complex for a multiple unit site, especially when the external hazards that has the potential to generate one or more correlated hazards or a combination of non-correlated hazards are to be modelled. This paper presents an approach to evaluate risk for multiple NPP sites and also compare the risk for sites housing single, double and multiple nuclear plants.

  15. Integrated risk assessment for multi-unit NPP sites—A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, C. Senthil, E-mail: cskumar@igcar.gov.in [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam (India); Hassija, Varun; Velusamy, K. [Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Balasubramaniyan, V. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Framework for integrated risk assessment for multi-unit NPP sites. • Categorization of external and internal events. • Modelling of key issues: mission time, cliff-edge, common cause failures, etc. • Safety goals for multi-unit NPP sites. • Comparison of site core damage frequency in one, two, three and four unit sites. - Abstract: Most of the nuclear power producing sites in the world houses multiple units. Such sites are faced with hazards generated from external events: earthquake, tsunami, flood, etc. and can threaten the safety of nuclear power plants. Further, risk from a multiple unit site and its impact on the public and environment was evident during the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011. It is therefore important to evolve a methodology to systematically assess the risk from multi-unit site. For a single unit site, probabilistic risk assessment technique identifies the potential accident scenarios, their consequences, and estimates the core damage frequency that arise due to internal and external hazards. This challenging task becomes even more complex for a multiple unit site, especially when the external hazards that has the potential to generate one or more correlated hazards or a combination of non-correlated hazards are to be modelled. This paper presents an approach to evaluate risk for multiple NPP sites and also compare the risk for sites housing single, double and multiple nuclear plants.

  16. Impact of high-speed railway accessibility on the location choices of office establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigers, J.

    2006-01-01

    High-speed railways are becoming increasingly common in Europe. In the Netherlands soon the HSL-South will be opened. This high-speed railway line connects the Randstad to Brussels and Paris. A prominent aim of this new railway is to improve international competitiveness of the Netherlands. As a

  17. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... number of carloads interchanged with NSR in a given year.\\1\\ AARR states that the interchange commitment..., Canadian National Railway Company (CN), CSX Transportation, Inc., and Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway in Toledo; the Indiana and Ohio Railway and CN in Diann, Mich.; NSR in Milan, Mich.; and Great Lakes Central...

  18. Evaluation of ETCS performance with LTE as alternative railway communication network using OPNET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is a communication mobile network designed to fulfill specific communication needs of railways. GSM-R is being widely deployed across Europe and other countries around the world for providing railway voice and train control services (ETCS). Despite that, GSM-R already shows...

  19. Passenger oriented railway disruption management by adapting timetables and rolling stock schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelenturf, L.P.; Kroon, L.G.; Maróti, G.

    2017-01-01

    In passenger railway operations, unforeseen events require railway operators to adjust their timetable and their resource schedules. The passengers will also adapt their routes to their destinations. When determining the new timetable and rolling stock schedule, the railway operator has to take

  20. Safety motion increase of trains by improvement diagnostics process devices of railway automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.Bondarenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex use of methods of nondestructive check for the automated diagnostics electromagnetic relays of railway automation the first class reliability is offered. The methods determination of their mechanical parameters are resulted, that allows to exclude a human factor from the control, promote reliability of devices railway automation and safety motion of railway transport.

  1. A three-level framework for performance-based railway timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Besinovic, N.; Binder, A.; Cacchiani, V.; Quaglietta, E.; Roberti, R.; Toth, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of railway operations depends highly on the quality of the railway timetable. In particular for dense railway networks it can be a challenge to obtain a stable robust conflict-free and energy-efficient timetable with acceptable infrastructure occupation and short travel times. This

  2. Routing trains through railway junctions: A new set-packing approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ryan, David

    2011-01-01

    The problem of routing trains through railway junctions is an integral part of railway operations. Large junctions are highly interconnected networks of track where multiple railway lines merge, intersect, and split. The number of possible routings makes this a very complicated problem. We show h...

  3. Stress-strain properties of railway steel at strain rates of upto 105 per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.S.J.; Islam, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the stress-strain characteristics of railway steel at strain rates of up to 10 5 /s at room temperature determined by a new technique. In determining the results, account has been taken of the strain-rate variation, the total strain and the strain rate history. The effect of friction, material inertia and temperature rise is also assessed and an empirical constitutive equation describing the strain-rate and strain sensitive flow stress for this type of steel is proposed. (orig.)

  4. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  5. Assessment of grassland ecosystem conditions in the Southwestern United States. Vol. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2004-01-01

    This report is volume 1 of a two-volume ecological assessment of grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States. Broadscale assessments are syntheses of current scientific knowledge, including a description of uncertainties and assumptions, to provide a characterization and comprehensive description of ecological, social, and economic components within an...

  6. Assessment of grassland ecosystem conditions in the Southwestern United States: Wildlife and fish. Vol. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2005-01-01

    This report is volume 2 of a two-volume ecological assessment of grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States. Broad-scale assessments are syntheses of current scientific knowledge, including a description of uncertainties and assumptions, to provide a characterization and comprehensive description of ecological, social, and economic components within an...

  7. Recent advances in the fundamental understanding of railway vehicle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this article is the calculation of the critical speed for railway vehicles. It is emphasised that it is misleading to formulate the mathematical problem as a stability problem. It must correctly be formulated as a problem of existence of coexisting solutions to the full non-linear dy......The topic of this article is the calculation of the critical speed for railway vehicles. It is emphasised that it is misleading to formulate the mathematical problem as a stability problem. It must correctly be formulated as a problem of existence of coexisting solutions to the full non......-linear dynamical problem. The lowest speed at which there exist more critical speed in road tests. A couple of examples show applications of the method to various dynamical models of railway vehicles. Freight wagons are treated in the end of the article because the dry friction damping with stick-slip and end...

  8. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    and railway noise and adiposity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993-1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated....... Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors......, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure-response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1...

  9. Approaches for reducing structural vibration of the carbody railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the weight of the railway vehicles stands as a decisive rule in their design, entailed by higher velocities, the need to consume less energy and lower the manufacturing costs, along with the maximization of the use of loads on the axle. Once complied with this rule, the vehicle flexibility increases and leads to an easy excitation of the structural vibrations in the carbody, with an impact upon the ride comfort in the railway vehicle. For a better ride comfort in lightweight railway vehicles, both vibration isolation approaches and structural damping approaches have been introduced. The paper herein submits a brief review of the main structural damping approaches aiming to reduce the amplitude in the carbody structural vibrations, based on the use of the piezoelectric elements in passive control schemes. The paper outcomes show the potential of the presented methods concerning the reduction of the flexible vibrations in the carbody and the ride comfort improvement.

  10. Study of Drivers’ Behaviour at a Passive Railway Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kasalica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The number of killed and injured persons in incidents at railway level crossings is generally increasing on the Serbian Railways, particularly at passive crossings. In this paper we researched the direct behaviour of road traffic participants at a conventional railway passive crossing. Method: Direct observational study of drivers’ behaviour at a level crossing. Results: Sixty-one road vehicle drivers were observed in the moments of train approach. The probability of crossing varies depending on the train distance and the time the driver has to cross the crossing. The drivers who have limited visibility cannot estimate the speed of the approaching train well and make more risky decisions. Conclusion: This study shows that the number of “risky crossings” is worrying as the result of such crossings is a large number of accidents with fatal consequences at the passive crossings in Serbia.

  11. Capacity gain with an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    , such as 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE). T his paper describe s how to adapt the reversible multi - chain/channel queuing system to model an LTE cell serving ETCS - equipped trains . It is proposed to use the multiple user chains available in the model to represent varying bitrate in LTE radio access network....... Usin g this model , LTE and GSM - R are compare d in terms of capacity on an example at Copenhagen Main Train Station . The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the benefits that railway operators and infrastructure managers can expect from the introduc tion of LTE , as a telecommunication technology...... Control System (ETCS) signaling , the capacity of GSM - R turns out to be insufficient . GSM - R cannot ful fill the railway requirements , in terms of the number of simultaneous ETCS connections . This is why , alternative , more efficient communication technologies should be considered by railways...

  12. A cascading failure model for analyzing railway accident causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Tao; Li, Ke-Ping

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new cascading failure model is proposed for quantitatively analyzing the railway accident causation. In the model, the loads of nodes are redistributed according to the strength of the causal relationships between the nodes. By analyzing the actual situation of the existing prevention measures, a critical threshold of the load parameter in the model is obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed cascading model, simulation experiments of a train collision accident are performed. The results show that the cascading failure model can describe the cascading process of the railway accident more accurately than the previous models, and can quantitatively analyze the sensitivities and the influence of the causes. In conclusion, this model can assist us to reveal the latent rules of accident causation to reduce the occurrence of railway accidents.

  13. Kronecker Algebra-based Deadlock Analysis for Railway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mittermayr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Deadlock analysis for railway systems differs in several aspects from deadlock analysis in computer science. While the problem of deadlock analysis for standard computer systems is well-understood, multi-threaded embedded computer systems pose new challenges. A novel approach in this area can easily be applied to deadlock analysis in the domain of railway systems. The approach is based on Kronecker algebra. A lazy implementation of the matrix operations even allows analysing exponentially sized systems in a very efficient manner. The running time of the algorithm does not depend on the problem size but on the size of the solution. While other approaches suffer from the fact that additional constraints make the problem and its solution harder, our approach delivers its results faster if constraints are added. In addition, our approach is complete and sound for railway systems, i.e., it generates neither false positives nor false negatives.

  14. AUTOMATIC RAILWAY POWER LINE EXTRACTION USING MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on power line extraction technology using mobile laser point clouds has important practical significance on railway power lines patrol work. In this paper, we presents a new method for automatic extracting railway power line from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning data. Firstly, according to the spatial structure characteristics of power-line and trajectory, the significant data is segmented piecewise. Then, use the self-adaptive space region growing method to extract power lines parallel with rails. Finally use PCA (Principal Components Analysis combine with information entropy theory method to judge a section of the power line whether is junction or not and which type of junction it belongs to. The least squares fitting algorithm is introduced to model the power line. An evaluation of the proposed method over a complicated railway point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX450 MLS system shows that the proposed method is promising.

  15. A comparative study of performance measurement standards of railway operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongjirawut Siripong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European standard (EN 13816, is one of the widely accepted standards for measuring the quality of public passenger transport (PPT service. EN 13816 indicates 8 measurement criteria, 29 sub-criteria and 193 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs to be used to measure the performance of railway operators. Nowadays, there are other addition criteria beyond EN13816, developed by various organisations. This research firstly aims to explore the service performance measurement of railway operators used by actual railway operators at international level and in Thailand. After an intensive review of performance measurement standards, 9 standards are compiled and compared in terms of criteria, sub-criteria and KPIs using a cluster analysis methodology. The result found additional performance measurement aspects at 2 sub-criteria and 91 KPIs in addition to EN 13816. This research summarized and compared different performance measurement standards to measure service quality of metro rail line.

  16. Seismic impact of the railway on the geotechnical constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolárik, Martin; Pinka, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus on more ecological means of material and persons transport is still higher. Big loads can be transported on railways more effectively and with lower environment impact than on roads. The geotechnical structures are inherent parts of railway infrastructure, such as embankments, sides of notches and, of course, tunnels, foundation constructions of buildings or pillars of bridges and the others geotechnical constructions (e.g. retaining walls, culverts, transition area of bridges). By train pass, vibrations are caused and these vibrations are relayed to the soil. These vibrations can make adverse impact to surrounding objects and to technologies placed in. This so far uncared-for influence gets into the foreground by current trend of everyday life technical equipment increasing. The article introduces different kinds of geotechnical structures and the influence of by-passing railway transport on their constructions and surroundings. The data are evaluated in the amplitude and frequency domain.

  17. A Wireless Sensor Network with Enhanced Power Efficiency and Embedded Strain Cycle Identification for Fatigue Monitoring of Railway Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Feltrin, Glauco; Popovic, Nemanja; Flouri, Kallirroi; Pietrzak, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been shown to be a cost-effective monitoring tool for many applications on civil structures. Strain cycle monitoring for fatigue life assessment of railway bridges, however, is still a challenge since it is data intensive and requires a reliable operation for several weeks or months. In addition, sensing with electrical resistance strain gauges is expensive in terms of energy consumption. The induced reduction of battery lifetime of sensor nodes increases the mai...

  18. Historical flora of Moscow’s Railway Junction (until 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradova Yulia Konstantinovna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the biodiversity at the railways. The list of species found within the Moscow Railways (≈300 km from 1851 until today has been compiled based on herbarium data [MHA, MW, LE] and personal observations conducted in 1980-2016. The list of “railways’ flora” includes 1087 taxa from 447 genera of 94 families – this is significantly higher than what is known for the railroads of other regions. A brief comparative analysis with the “railways’ flora” in other regions of the world in respect of the species number, taxonomy and life form spectrum has been performed. The therophytes absolutely prevail in the life-form spectrum (46 percent. The role of the railways as a pathway for alien species has been confirmed. Around 54 percent of all alien plants recorded for the Moscow Region (Moscow and Moscow Region grow along the railways. Several species new for the former USSR territory was found there, as well as many species new for the Moscow Region. The Railways are not only “donors/sources” of alien species, they also act as a refugee area for “the escapees”: over 30 years, Asclepias syriaca has been growing within the section of the Kursk-Moscow railway located near the All-Russian Research Institute of Medical and Aromatic Plants. Galega officinalis, a specie that forms a 200 m2 area of tangled vegetation, was found there, too. A trend when plants fall out of cultivation was established, this is how Sedum hispanicum and S. album emerged. The article also marks the role of the rail slopes as a refugium of rare and endangered plants of the natural flora: some 35 species included in the Red Book of Moscow were found within the area.

  19. Big data for risk analysis: The future of safe railways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueres Esteban, M.

    2016-07-01

    New technology brings ever more data to support decision-making for intelligent transport systems. Big Data is no longer a futuristic challenge, it is happening right now: modern railway systems have countless sources of data providing a massive quantity of diverse information on every aspect of operations such as train position and speed, brake applications, passenger numbers, status of the signaling system or reported incidents.The traditional approaches to safety management on the railways have relied on static data sources to populate traditional safety tools such as bow-tie models and fault trees. The Big Data Risk Analysis (BDRA) program for Railways at the University of Huddersfield is investigating how the many Big Data sources from the railway can be combined in a meaningful way to provide a better understanding about the GB railway systems and the environment within which they operate.Moving to BDRA is not simply a matter of scaling-up existing analysis techniques. BDRA has to coordinate and combine a wide range of sources with different types of data and accuracy, and that is not straight-forward. BDRA is structured around three components: data, ontology and visualisation. Each of these components is critical to support the overall framework. This paper describes how these three components are used to get safety knowledge from two data sources by means of ontologies from text documents. This is a part of the ongoing BDRA research that is looking at integrating many large and varied data sources to support railway safety and decision-makers. (Author)

  20. Holistic approach to multi-unit site risk assessment: Status and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn Seock; Jang, Mi Suk; Kim, Seoung Rae

    2017-01-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011 point out, among other matters, that concurrent accidents at multiple units of a site can occur in reality. Although site risk has been deterministically considered to some extent in nuclear power plant siting and design, potential occurrence of multi-unit accident sequences at a site was not investigated in sufficient detail thus far in the nuclear power community. Therefore, there is considerable worldwide interest and research effort directed toward multi-unit site risk assessment, especially in the countries with high-density nuclear-power-plant sites such as Korea. As the technique of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been successfully applied to evaluate the risk associated with operation of nuclear power plants in the past several decades, the PSA having primarily focused on single-unit risks is now being extended to the multi-unit PSA. In this paper we first characterize the site risk with explicit consideration of the risk associated with spent fuel pools as well as the reactor risks. The status of multi-unit risk assessment is discussed next, followed by a description of the emerging issues relevant to the multi-unit risk evaluation from a practical standpoint

  1. Holistic approach to multi-unit site risk assessment: Status and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inn Seock; Jang, Mi Suk; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Company (NESS), Daejeon Business Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011 point out, among other matters, that concurrent accidents at multiple units of a site can occur in reality. Although site risk has been deterministically considered to some extent in nuclear power plant siting and design, potential occurrence of multi-unit accident sequences at a site was not investigated in sufficient detail thus far in the nuclear power community. Therefore, there is considerable worldwide interest and research effort directed toward multi-unit site risk assessment, especially in the countries with high-density nuclear-power-plant sites such as Korea. As the technique of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been successfully applied to evaluate the risk associated with operation of nuclear power plants in the past several decades, the PSA having primarily focused on single-unit risks is now being extended to the multi-unit PSA. In this paper we first characterize the site risk with explicit consideration of the risk associated with spent fuel pools as well as the reactor risks. The status of multi-unit risk assessment is discussed next, followed by a description of the emerging issues relevant to the multi-unit risk evaluation from a practical standpoint.

  2. New Porta Susa - Turin Railway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio d'Ascia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project of the new station of Torino Porta Susa is the project of a huge urban public space, where the station, conceived as an urban gallery, becomes a real street, a “passage”, a new kind of urbanity shape for the future city. The railway station’s transparent volume - a 385 m (the length of the TGV long steel and glass tunnel, 30 m. width, with a variable height compared to the outdoor street level (between 12 and 3 m at the height of the cover - is proposed as a modern reinterpretation of the nineteenth century’s urban galleries and the great historical station’s halles, as well as a kind of symbolic building. Symbol of movement, of the travel universe and the presence of the transportation universe in the contemporary city, urban simulacrum of the object train disappeared from the urban scene below the future Central Spine. The sinuous movement of the tunnel follows the flows of urban pedestrians from the city towards the different transportation modes presents at various levels (national and international lines AV, regional lines, subways, taxis ... emphasizing with its lowering the presence of the big void inside of the underground subway station, about 20 meters deep. The gallery, oriented north-south, folds with its internal pedestrian paths to bring natural light and the sky of Turin, to the quays of trains (at an altitude of -10 m and the Subway (which share -20, transformed so’ in a sort of urban sidewalks. The fast rhythm of the structure of arches with step 360 cm. is marked by the presence of numerous openings along the longitudinal development of the gallery, which is crossed by three transversal passages inside the gallery and is bounded by two others on the north and south of the lot, connecting the city from east to west at street level in continuity with pre-existing axes. The presence of these transversal passages accentuates the urban value of the Spina which was to re-connect the two sides of the city until

  3. Soil erosion on road and railways embankments in the Canyoles river Basin. Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Antonio, Giménez-Morera; Félix Ángel, González-Peñaloza; María, Burguet; Paulo, Pereira; José Reyes, Ruiz

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean landscapes are man-made. Its human ecosystems are characterized by a high population density, a long history of human settlement and an intense exchange of goods and people (Cerdà et al., 2010). This was possible due to a dense road network, most of it created during the Roman Empire. Modern roads and railways increased drastically during the last 30 years in the Mediterranean. Spain is a clear example of the acceleration of the road and railway infrastructures (Bel, 2005), especially during the 1960s as the tourism started to become a big issue in this part of the World. The increase in road and railways during the last 30 years resulted in a new transport system in Spain, which is based on high-speed railways and motorways. The characteristic of these infrastructures is that they were built by means of embankments, and little is now about the erosional response of those embankments to rainfall. The objective of this research is to assess the soil losses measured in road and railway embankments. The Canyoles River watershed was selected as an example of a region with a dense and recently developed modern network of roads, motorways and railway. The Canyoles river watershed is the natural path between the Mediterranean coast and Central Spain, the capital of the country and the touristic regions. Two motorways and two railways were built or re-built during the last two years and this paper assesses their impact on soil and water losses. As soil erosion rates are dependent on the high intensity - low frequency rainfall events, rainfall simulation experiments (40 experiments) were conducted (1 m2 plots; 60 minutes duration; 78 mm h-1 intensity) were carried out over plots on 2 railway (n=10 + 10) and motorway (n=10 + 10) research sites in August 2011, under very dry conditions. Soil moisture was below 5 % in the top 2 cm soil layer. The vegetation cover was very low in the two road and two railway embankments as the average cover was 4.2 % ranging from

  4. Dynamics of a railway vehicle on a laterally disturbed track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; True, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this article a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a railway bogie running on a tangent track with a periodic disturbance of the lateral track geometry is presented. The dynamics is computed for two values of the speed of the vehicle in combination with different values of the wavelen......In this article a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a railway bogie running on a tangent track with a periodic disturbance of the lateral track geometry is presented. The dynamics is computed for two values of the speed of the vehicle in combination with different values...

  5. A codimension two bifurcation in a railway bogie system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tingting; True, Hans; Dai, Huanyun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive analysis is presented to investigate a codimension two bifurcation that exists in a nonlinear railway bogie dynamic system combining theoretical analysis with numerical investigation. By using the running velocity V and the primary longitudinal stiffness (Formula...... coexist in a range of the bifurcation parameters which can lead to jumps in the lateral oscillation amplitude of the railway bogie system. Furthermore, reduce the values of the bifurcation parameters gradually. Firstly, the supercritical Hopf bifurcation turns into a subcritical one with multiple limit...

  6. Synthesis of railway-signaling plans using reachability games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasting, Patrick Frederik Soelmark; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    (the control system) controls signals and points and the universal player (the antagonistic environment) controls movement of trains. A winning strategy for the existential player provides a signaling plan that will safely guide trains through the network. The concepts from the railway network model......In this work, we show the feasibility of using functional programming (more specifically F#) in connection with gamebased methods for synthesis of correct-by-construction controllers (also called signaling plans) for railway networks. This is a massively resource-demanding application. A model...

  7. Robustness indicators and capacity models for railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    In a world continuous striving for higher mobility and the use of more sustainable modes of transport, there is a constant pressure on utilising railway capacity better and, at the same time, obtaining a high robustness against delays. During the planning of railway operations and infrastructure ....... This has motivated the research conducted and described in this thesis, where the objective has been to develop and improve existing methods to achieve timetable and infrastructure plans with robust capacity utilisation aimed at the strategic and early tactical planning phases....

  8. Development of prototype DC superconducting cable for railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masaru; Fukumoto, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kenji; Miryala, Muralidhar

    2010-01-01

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTSC) wire has significant potential for railway system applications. HTSC wire is currently a promising candidate for various engineering applications such as transformers and motors for railway system. HTSC direct current (DC) cable is ideal for a feeder of the overhead contact line system between the substation and the electric train. We completed a prototype Bi-2223 tape based direct current cable for trial purposes of several meters length. In the energizing experiment the current of 1720 A successfully constantly flew.

  9. Viscoelastic dynamic models of resilient elements used in railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbiciak Artur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected theoretical aspects concerning viscoelastic dynamic modelling of resilient elements used in railway tracks. In order to characterize the research methodology for resilient mats in railway tracks, German Standards [1-4] are used herein. The main goal of the paper is to demonstrate the procedure of insertion loss calculation for a single degree of freedom truck system containing under-ballast mats. Selected results of certain dynamic characteristics of resilient truck systems (transmissibility, Bode and Nyquist plots etc. are also discussed. The results of calculations visualized in graphs, were obtained by using own applications written in programming language MATLAB.

  10. Research of noise emission sources in railway transport and effective ways of their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvolenský Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the EU conditions attention is systematically paid to noise reduction on the railways. Because TSI rules systematically tighten limits for noise emissions from railway vehicles, noise research must be addressed by all Member States, as the main technical solutions for railway vehicles and construction technological aspects of railway operations can result in lower noise exposure of affected areas or objects. The paper focuses on theoretical investigation of sources and paths of sound propagation, possibilities of noise reduction both on vehicles and by infrastructure and experimental measurements of the situation in transport practice. Methodology for reducing railway noise around tracks has been presented, too.

  11. Assessment of the state of modernization of NPP Kozloduy units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, R.

    2002-01-01

    The status of the implemented modernization programmes for the Kozloduy NPP is presented. The Three Stage Term Modernization Program for units 1-4 has been implemented between 1991 and 1997 and includes the installation of new safety systems and components such as pressurized safety valves, main steam safety valves, complementary emergency feedwater system, second fire fighting system etc. The total investment od the Program amounted to 129.1 mill. ECU. The Complex Modernization Program for units 1-4 has been developed 1996 -1997 and further updated in 2000. The total investment necessary for the implementation are assessed at about 66 mill. USD. The safety assessment shows that due to the modernization programs the units have been upgraded to additional accident management capabilities. The reactor confinement has been fundamentally improved by the Jet Vortex Condenser System. PSA has been also conducted for the units 3 and 4

  12. GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD PRACTICES IN HOSPITAL-BASED HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT UNITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Lach, Krzysztof; Pasternack, Iris; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Cicchetti, Americo; Marchetti, Marco; Kidholm, Kristian; Arentz-Hansen, Helene; Rosenmöller, Magdalene; Wild, Claudia; Kahveci, Rabia; Ulst, Margus

    2015-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) carried out for policy decision making has well-established principles unlike hospital-based HTA (HB-HTA), which differs from the former in the context characteristics and ways of operation. This study proposes principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. A framework for good practice criteria was built inspired by the EFQM excellence business model and information from six literature reviews, 107 face-to-face interviews, forty case studies, large-scale survey, focus group, Delphi survey, as well as local and international validation. In total, 385 people from twenty countries have participated in defining the principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. Fifteen guiding principles for good practices in HB-HTA units are grouped in four dimensions. Dimension 1 deals with principles of the assessment process aimed at providing contextualized information for hospital decision makers. Dimension 2 describes leadership, strategy and partnerships of HB-HTA units which govern and facilitate the assessment process. Dimension 3 focuses on adequate resources that ensure the operation of HB-HTA units. Dimension 4 deals with measuring the short- and long-term impact of the overall performance of HB-HTA units. Finally, nine core guiding principles were selected as essential requirements for HB-HTA units based on the expertise of the HB-HTA units participating in the project. Guiding principles for good practices set up a benchmark for HB-HTA because they represent the ideal performance of HB-HTA units; nevertheless, when performing HTA at hospital level, context also matters; therefore, they should be adapted to ensure their applicability in the local context.

  13. Air pollution of railways in urban areas. [Denmark]; Luftforurening fra togdrift i byomraeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roerdam Olesen, H.; Ellermann, T.; Winther, M.; Schmidt Plejdrup, M.; Brandt, J. [Aarhus Univ.. Institut for Miljoevidenskab, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The present report describes the results of a project on the air pollution impact of railways in the towns of Copenhagen and Aarhus. The project has comprised three activities. 1) Emission inventory. Detailed information about the activity of diesel fuelled trains in Copenhagen and Aarhus has been acquired. Based on this information emissions of NO{sub X} and PM{sub 2.5} (particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 micron) have been computed for railways and stations. 2) Computations of concentrations. The above mentioned emission data have provided a base for computation of concentrations of air pollutants close to railways and at further distances from them. 3) Indicative measurements. A number of indicative measurements of NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide) have been carried out at a few selected locations - some with an assumed large exposure to road traffic and trains, and others with assumed exposure from trains only. These indicative measurements have been limited in various respects. The focus of the entire work was to obtain an overall assessment, where results are expressed in terms of annual mean values. Features at a scale of less than 100 meters have not been described in the emission inventories, neither in the majority of the dispersion model calculations. Assessments for particle pollution involve only direct emissions of particles as PM{sub 2.5}, whereas resuspension of dust and wear from brakes and rails has been disregarded. Neither has the number of ultrafine particles been considered. The environmental significance of railway service in the two towns can be summarized as: 1) On a national level trains account for 2 % of NO{sub X} emission and 0.3 % of PM{sub 2.5} emission. 2) In the Copenhagen area (defined as a circle with radius 5 km and centre at Copenhagen Central Station) trains account for 3 % on NO{sub X} emission and 0.6 % of PM{sub 2.5} emission. 3) In the Aarhus area (a similar circle around Aarhus Central Station) trains account for 2 % on

  14. Fault Detection for Large-Scale Railway Maintenance Equipment Base on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfu Yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the fault detection application for large-scale railway maintenance equipment with the specialties of low-cost, energy efficiency, collecting data of the function units. This paper proposed energy efficiency, convenient installation fault detection application using Sigsbee wireless sensor networks, which Sigsbee is the most widely used protocol based on IEEE 802.15.4. This paper proposed a systematic application from hardware design using STM32F103 chips as processer, to software system. Fault detection application is the basic part of the fault diagnose system, wireless sensor nodes of the fault detection application with different kinds of sensors for verities function units communication by Sigsbee to collecting and sending basic working status data to the home gateway, then data will be sent to the fault diagnose system.

  15. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guo-Qing; Lin, Qi-Li; Li, Zheng-Guang; Kang, Jian

    2014-03-07

    High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However, it should be pointed out that this study provides

  16. Surveys from inside: An assessment of unit nonresponse bias with internal criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kohler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article uses the so called “internal criteria of representativeness” to assess the unit nonresponse bias in five European comparative survey projects. It then goes on investigating several ideas why unit nonresponse bias might vary between surveys and countries. It is proposed that unit nonresponse bias is either caused by country characteristics or survey methodology. The empirical evidence presented speaks more in favour of the latter than of the former. Among the survey characteristics the features that strengthen the leverage to control interviewers’ behaviour have top priority

  17. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Golder Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  18. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River

  19. RAMSES: a nowcasting system for mitigating geo-hydrological risk along the railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Salvatore; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania; Rago, Valeria; Chiaravalloti, Francesco; Sabatino, Pietro; Brocca, Luca; Laviola, Sante; Baldini, Luca; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Mario M.; Marra, Gian Paolo; Niccoli, Raffaele; Arcuri, Salvatore; Catalano, Filippo; Stassi, Sergio; Baccillieri, Maurizio; Agostino, Mario; Iovine, Giulio G. R.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a number of exceptional rainfall events of short / very short duration (from 15 minutes to about 2 hours) caused incidents and service interruptions due to landslides, collapses of bridges, and erosion of the ballast, along the Calabrian railway. RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot CNR project, recently co-funded by RFI S.p.A. and aimed at mitigating the risk along the railway. Forecasting of weather events responsible of heavy convective rainfall, even when provided with some advance, is not generally performed with reliable localization. In fact, objective limits of the numerical weather prediction derive from grid resolution, often exceeding the size of convective cells. These phenomena, whose recurrence periods seem to show a reduction due to climate changes, affect limited areas and are characterized by a very short life cycle. As a consequence, failures of hydraulic crossings are increasingly being recorded together with landslide-related debris invasion along the drainage network and slopes. RAMSES aims at improving short term (3-6 hours) weather forecasts and ground effects at local scale. The employed approach is base on synergistic and integrated operational tools to provide weather information on small-size basins. The system will also allow to promptly identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on quasi-real time radar and Meteosat data. The extension of the temporal horizon of the forecast up to three hours will be performed by using the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) model. This latter employs, as a "first guess", the output of the WRF numerical model: such analyses are updated and improved by means of observational data from different instruments (e.g. on land weather stations, radar, satellites, etc.). Finally, the assessment of ground effects will be accomplished for selected study areas, by means of landslide susceptibility

  20. OPERATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE TRAIN TRAFFIC VOLUME ON THE SECTIONS OF RAILWAY OPERATING DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ya. Моzolevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The task of the operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of operating domain is the optimization one. It is solved in the operational conditions by the dispatch station. The article sets the problem of formalizing and finding the new ways to solve this urgent problem. Methodology. A new approach to solving the problem of operational distribution of train traffic volume on the sections of the rail network with a choice of routes for all train traffics was proposed. Findings. A study of possible routes for the train traffic handle on the operating domain used for mass freight transportations between Krivyi Rih and Donbas was carried out. The use of the proposed method allowed us to obtain a rational distribution of trains on the rail network sections. Originality. The method of train traffic volume distribution in the network under operational conditions was improved. The method, as opposed to the current one allows one to select the route of separate units handle (according to the criteria of the weighted average cost for 1 ton of cargo. Practical value. The use of the proposed technology of the operational distribution of train traffic volume will increase the efficiency of the railways in general and ensure the competitiveness of rail transportations. The methodology implementation involves the use of railway dispatch station for the automated workplaces with appropriate informational support.

  1. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  2. Study of traction rolling-stock using in Lithuanian sector of railway line “Rail Baltica”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintautas BUREIKA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the current traction rolling-stock used by „Lietuvos geležinkeliai“ Plc. for freight transportation. The technical data of the above mentioned rolling-stock is explored and compared, and operation costs are estimated in the article. After the assessment of the forecasts of freight flows on the constructed railway „Rail Baltica“, the algorithm for selection of freight locomotives was proposed. The efficiency of the locomotives operated on the railway is determined by three multicriteria evaluation methods: the sum of ratings, simple additive weighting, and the geometric mean method. Locomotives are valued in accordance with technical, economic and ecological parameters. The results of possible effective performance of the rolling stock have been determined by changing coefficient values of the criteria. Finally, basic conclusions are given.

  3. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  4. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-FR-1 source operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corporation, I.T.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides the Qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the waste sites associated with the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit. The QRA is an evaluation of risk for a predefined set of human and ecological exposure scenarios. It is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment. The QRA is streamlined to consider only two human health scenarios (frequent-and occasional-use) with four exposure pathways (soil ingestion, fugitive dust inhalation, inhalation of volatile organics, and external radiation exposure) and a limited ecological evaluation. The use of these scenarios and pathways was agreed to by the 100 Area Tri-Party unit managers

  5. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment

  6. The constant failure rate model for fault tree evaluation as a tool for unit protection reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vichev, S.; Bogdanov, D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the fault tree analysis method as a tool for unit protection reliability estimation. The constant failure rate model applies for making reliability assessment, and especially availability assessment. For that purpose an example for unit primary equipment structure and fault tree example for simplified unit protection system is presented (author)

  7. Burden of disease from road traffic and railway noise - a quantification of healthy life years lost in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Bodin, Theo; Selander, Jenny

    2017-11-01

    Objectives National quantifications of the health burden related to traffic noise are still rare. In this study, we use disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) measure to assess the burden of disease from road traffic and railway noise in Sweden. Methods The number of DALY was assessed for annoyance, sleep disturbance, hypertension, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke using a method previously implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO). Population exposure to noise was obtained from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Transport Administration. Data on disease occurrence were gathered from registers held by the National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden. Disability weights (DW) and duration were based on WHO definitions. Finally, we used research-based exposure-response functions or relative risks to estimate disease attributable to noise in each exposure category. Results The number of DALY attributed to traffic noise in Sweden was estimated to be 41 033 years; 36 711 (90%) related to road traffic and 4322 (10%) related to railway traffic. The most important contributor to the disease burden was sleep disturbances, accounting for 22 218 DALY (54%), followed by annoyance, 12 090 DALY (30%), and cardiovascular diseases, 6725 DALY (16%). Conclusions Road traffic and railway noise contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Sweden each year. The total number of DALY should, however, be interpreted with caution due to limitations in data quality.

  8. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1999-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...

  9. Dynamics of Railway Vehicles and Rail/Wheel Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2007-01-01

    of the most important dynamic effects on vehicle dynamic problems are described. In chapter 7 characteristic features of railway vehicle dynamics are described, and in chapter 8 recommendations are presented for the numerical handling that is necessary for the investigation of vehicle dynamic problems...

  10. Effective Development and Verification of Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a method for effective development of software for a product line of similar railway control systems. The software is constructed in three steps: first a specifications in a domain-specific language is created, then a formal behavioural controller model is automatically...

  11. Automated generation of formal safety conditions from railway interlocking tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for extracting formal safety conditions from interlocking tables for railway interlocking systems. The tool has been applied to generate safety conditions for the interlocking system at Stenstrup station in Denmark, and the SAL model checker tool has been used to check...

  12. Detection of failures of axle-bearings of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bižić Milan B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure of axle-bearing is one of the most common causes of derailments of railway vehicles which are usually accompanied by huge material damage and human casualties. Modern railways are working intensively on the development and implementation of appropriate systems for early detection of axlebearing malfunctions, which are typically manifested by increasing of its temperature. The most common approach is based on the use of wayside systems or checkpoints located in certain places along the track. There is also an innovative approach that involves using the system for continuous measuring and online monitoring of axle-boxes temperature. The main aim is to provide early detection of malfunctions of the axle-bearing and prevention of the potential derailment. This paper analyses the existing solutions for the detection of axle-bearings malfunctions with special emphasis on the working principle and the main advantages and disadvantages. The paper presents the basics of the one newly developed wireless measuring system for on-line monitoring of axle-boxes temperature. The measuring system was tested in real conditions and can be successfully applied to the commercial railway vehicles. The main conclusion is that systems for on-line monitoring of axle-bearings temperatures are far more efficient than wayside systems. Obtained results may be important for those who deal with these and similar problems, problems of development, exploitation and maintenance of railway vehicles, strategies, regulations, etc.

  13. A calculation model for the noise from steel railway bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, M.H.A.; Thompson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The sound level of a train crossing a steel railway bridge is usually about 10 dB higher than on plain track. In the Netherlands there are many such bridges which, for practical reasons, cannot be replaced by more intrinsically quiet concrete bridges. A computational model is described for the

  14. Delay propagation and process management at railway stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Hansen, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    Process operators at large railway stations have the difficult task to secure a fluent train traffic flow while minimizing deviations from established timetables. Variation in actual train departure times is inevitable due to many circumstances such as arrival delays and fluctuations in alighting

  15. Strategy for predicting railway-induced vibrations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Persson, Kent; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2016-01-01

    Urban densification is a way of accommodating population growth. Land adjacent to railways is used for constructing residences and other buildings, and new tramway systems are planned. Under these circumstances, nearby buildings will be exposed to vibrations and noise that may become a nuisance...

  16. Developing resilience signals for the Dutch railway system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; Herrera, I.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; van der Vorm, J.; Woods, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    A resilience state model for a railway system is proposed consisting of three boundaries putting pressure on the operating state: Safety, Performance (Capacity & Punctuality) and Workload. In order to model the pressure of the boundaries, an additional dimension is added where the slope represents

  17. Railway Porters of Mumbai : Social Capital in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitering, D.; Nooteboom, G.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the scope and limitations of social capital and local forms of social security in the informal sector through a case study of railway coolies at Dadar station, Mumbai. The complex organisation of the coolies, virtually excluded from state or enterprise social security schemes,

  18. Finding suspects in multiple cameras for improved railway protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, J.W.; Bouma, H.; Baan, J; Oliveira Filho, J. de; Brink, M. van der

    2014-01-01

    The capability to find individuals using CCTV cameras is important for surveillance applications at large areas such as railway stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras post incident. In this paper, we describe the live

  19. Sensitivity analysis of railpad parameters on vertical railway track dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oregui Echeverria-Berreyarza, M.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of railpad parameters on vertical railway track dynamics, incorporating the nonlinear behavior of the fastening (i.e., downward forces compress the railpad whereas upward forces are resisted by the clamps). For this purpose, solid railpads, rail-railpad

  20. Organisational citizenship behaviour among railway employees in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of differences in age, education and tenure on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). The purposive sample comprised 839 permanently employed staff in a railway organisation in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Participants completed the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour ...

  1. High-Speed Railways and Urban Networks in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Haoran

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, High-Speed Railway (HSR) networks have been developed intensely over the last few decades, such as Tokyo-Osaka, the first HSR corridor in Japan, the TGV in France and the ICE in Germany. HSR has also experienced exponential growth in China so that currently China’s HSR networks are the

  2. Sweden goes in for railways - an example to Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingland, Tore

    2004-01-01

    It is a sad fact that in their 150th anniversary, with very few exceptions, the Norwegian railways still use the first generation network, which dates back to the late 1800s. Off course, this puts the train at a serious disadvantage in the competition with cars and buses, which run on a third or four generation network of roads. The Norwegian Parliament has cut down on the fuel tax for the road traffic. They might have used this tax to provide much more environmentally friendly transport facilities. Green taxes are a proper means of adapting society to a sustainable way of using energy. The article contrasts the Norwegian policy with the Swedish one. The Swedes are preparing to invest twice as much in railways as in roads for the period of 2004 - 2015, while in Norway three times as much money will be spent on roads as on railways. Politicians in Norway essentially agree to concentrate on the railway, but they do not do it. Conservationists expect a clear change of course in the communications policy, with Sweden as a model

  3. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  4. Planning of resource maintenance at building of railway bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klykov Michael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Publication contains the results of research on the problem of resources provision perfecting of erection processes of railway bridges including consideration of forecasting demand questions to material resources, formations of delivery schedules of materials and designs, definitions of insurance reserves in regards to suppliers of material and technical production.

  5. Experimental analysis of railway track settlement in transition zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in the vertical support structures. Due to the differential stiffness and settlement in the open track and the engineering structure resulting in the dynamic amplification of the wheel forces, track settlement is usually

  6. Transparency and performance communication: a case study of Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – In an attempt to gain insight into the effects of transparent communication on critical performances, this paper aims to explore performance measures and communication of a large‐scale service organization, i.e. the Dutch Railways (Nederlandse Spoorwegen, (NS)). Design/methodology/approach

  7. Fatigue Properties of Orthotropic Decks on Railway Bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frýba, Ladislav; Gajdoš, Lubomír

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (1999), s. 639-652 ISSN 0141-0296 Grant - others:XX(CZ) ERRI D 191 Keywords : railway bridges * orthotropic decks * fatigue Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.364, year: 1999

  8. Formal Verification of the Danish Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the new Danish interlocking systems. Instantiating the generic model with interlocking configuration data results in a concrete model and high-level safety properties. Using bounded model checking and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify safety properties for model instances corresponding to railway...

  9. Damage Detection in Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers using Acoustic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A.; Kaewunruen, S.; Janeliukstis, R.; Papaelias, M.

    2017-10-01

    Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are safety-critical elements in railway tracks that distribute the wheel loads from the rails to the track support system. Over a period of time, the concrete sleepers age and deteriorate in addition to experiencing various types of static and dynamic loading conditions, which are attributable to train operations. In many cases, structural cracks can develop within the sleepers due to high intensity impact loads or due to poor track maintenance. Often, cracks of sleepers develop and present at the midspan due to excessive negative bending. These cracks can cause broken sleepers and sometimes called ‘center bound’ problem in railway lines. This paper is the world first to present an application of non-destructive acoustic emission technology for damage detection in railway concrete sleepers. It presents experimental investigations in order to detect center-bound cracks in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. Experimental laboratory testing involves three-point bending tests of four concrete sleepers. Three-point bending tests correspond to a real failure mode, when the loads are not transferred uniformly to the ballast support. It is observed that AE sensing provides an accurate means for detecting the location and magnitude of cracks in sleepers. Sensor location criticality is also highlighted in the paper to demonstrate the reliability-based damage detection of the sleepers.

  10. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1998-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic spec...

  11. Selection and testing of ballast stones for underground railway tracks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ballast is broken pieces of hard rocks such as sandstones, schist, etc. approximately 25- 60 mm size, over which the railway tracks are laid. The function of the ballast is to transfer the applied load over a large surface, provide adequate elasticity, prevent creep and hold the sleepers in position. Also under wet conditions, ...

  12. Practice Oriented Algorithmic Disruption Management in Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractHow to deal with a disruption is a question railway companies face on a daily basis. This thesis focusses on the subject how to handle a disruption such that the passenger service is upheld as much as possible. The current mathematical models for disruption management can not yet be

  13. TO THE MODELING ISSUES OF LIFE CYCLE OF DEFORMATION WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article highlightsthe operational cycle modeling of the railway track elements for the development processes study of deformability as the basis of creating a regulatory framework of the track while ensuring the reliability of the railways. Methodology.The basic theory of wave propagation process in describing the interaction of track and rolling stock are used to achieve the goal. Findings. The basic provisions concerning the concept «the operational cycle of the deformation track» were proposed and formulated. The method was set. On its base the algorithm for determining the dynamic effects of the rolling stock on the way was obtained. The basic principles for the calculation schemes of railway track components for process evaluation of the deformability of the way were formulated. An algorithm was developed, which allows getting the field values of stresses, strains and displacements of all points of the track design elements. Based on the fields of stress-strain state of the track, an algorithm to establish the dependence of the process of deformability and the amount of energy expended on the deformability of the track operation was created. Originality.The research of track reliability motivates the development of new models, provides an opportunity to consider it for some developments. There is a need to define the criteria on which the possibility of assessing and forecasting changes in the track states in the course of its operation. The paper proposed the basic principles, methods, algorithms, and the terms relating to the conduct of the study, questions the reliability of the track. Practical value. Analytical models, used to determine the parameters of strength and stability of tracks, fully meet its objectives, but cannot be applied to determine the parameters of track reliability. One of the main factors of impossibility to apply these models is a quasi-dynamic approach. Therefore, as a rule, not only one dynamic

  14. Assessment of land use change in the coterminous United States and Alaska for global assessment of forest loss conducted by the food and agricultural organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanushree Biswas; Mike Walterman; Paul Maus; Kevin A. Megown; Sean P. Healey; Kenneth Brewer

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations conducted a global assessment for forest change in 2010 using satellite imagery from 1990, 2000, and 2005. The U.S. Forest Service was responsible for assessing forest change in the United States. A polygon-based, stratified sampling design developed by FAO was used to assess change in forest area...

  15. State review United States of America. Risks and risk assessment according to the law of the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the chapter 'Risk Assessment in Atomic Energy Law of the United States' of this report you find among other things the Atomic Energy Act, the approval conditions, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, the defense-in-depth concept, probabilistic safety studies, probabilistic probability assessments in the case of external influences onto nuclear power plants, quantitative analyses of the consequences of conceivable accidents, reduction of radiation exposure, the National Environmental Policy Act, the environmental compatibility declaration, the so-called residual risk under the environmental aspect, the classification of the accidents into 9 types, new developments concerning accident analysis, effects of the nuclear fuel cycle on environment, indicial decisions. The chapter about 'Risk Assessment in Civil Law, Criminal Law and Law on Protection of the Environment', deals among other things with the Law on nuisance, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act. In 'Problems of the Cost-Efficiency-Analysis' the significance and purpose of this analysis, the availability of data and information, the monetary quantification of risks and costs, alternatives and the danger of misuse are illustrated. (HSCH) [de

  16. CALCULATION OF POLLUTION DYNAMICS NEAR RAILWAY TERRITORY DURING COAL TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to develop 3D numerical model for the prediction of atmospheric pollution during transportation of bulk cargo in the railway car. Methodology.To solve this problem, it was developed three-dimensional numerical model, based on the use of the transport equation of dust pollution in the air by the wind and atmospheric turbulent diffusion. For the numerical integration of the simulating equation of the dust transport the implicit difference scheme was used. When constructing a difference scheme, it was carried out prior splitting of the original transport equation into the sequence of solutions of three equations. The first of them takes into account the transport of dust in paths, the second equation – dust transport under the influence of atmospheric turbulent diffusion, and the third equation –change of the dust concentration in the air due to its emissions from the cars.Unknown value of the pollutant concentration at every step of splitting is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of running account, which provides a simple numerical implementation of splitting equations. The developed numerical model is the basis for specialized computer program. On the basis of the constructed numerical model we carried out a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution at the railway station during the motion of train with coal. Findings. Authors developed 3D numerical model, which belongs to the class of «screening models». This model takes into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of dust pollution in the atmosphere during coal transportation. The proposed numerical model requires low cost of computer time in the practical implementation on small and medium-power computers. This model can be used for rapid calculations of the dynamics of air pollution when transporting coal by rail. Calculations to determine the pollutant concentration and formation of the

  17. Identifying and assessing strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shiwan; Turner, Angus; Tan, Irene; Muir, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    To identify and assess strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Systematic literature review. Worldwide. Peer-reviewed journal articles that included the use of a mobile eye health unit. Journal articles were included if outcome measures reflected an assessment of the impact of a mobile eye health unit on health outcomes. Six studies were identified with mobile services offering diabetic retinopathy screening (three studies), optometric services (two studies) and orthoptic services (one study). This review identified and assessed strategies in existing literature used to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Studies included in this review used patient outcomes (i.e. disease detection, vision impairment, treatment compliance) and/or service delivery outcomes (i.e. cost per attendance, hospital transport use, inappropriate referrals, time from diabetic retinopathy photography to treatment) to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units. Limitations include difficulty proving causation of specific outcome measures and the overall shortage of impact evaluation studies. Variation in geographical location, service population and nature of eye care providers limits broad application. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Assessment of the residual lifetime of the units 3 and 4 of the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojkinski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to present the methodology for the residual lifetime assessment for the buildings and facilities during the decommissioning. An analysis of the existing facilities and constructions is made and requirements for further exploitation are set. A quantitative assessment is made of the residual lifetime for the buildings and auxiliary objects for the units 3 and 4. A detailed analysis is made for the ventilation systems and other equipment. Recommendations are given for the extension of the equipment lifetime

  19. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ....31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate, a line of railroad referred to as the Brampton Lead, beginning just beyond the northernmost turnout switch at NSR milepost FL 5.5... revoke the exemption under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) may be filed at any time. The filing of a petition to...

  20. 77 FR 68886 - Aiken Railway Company, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Lines of Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Carolina Railway Service Corporation (WCRS), and Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins (collectively, the Hawkins) seek Board approval to continue in control of AIKR upon AIKR's becoming a Class III rail carrier... 5, 2012. WCRS and the Hawkins are reminded that they are not authorized to control AIKR until the...

  1. Do cities deserve more railway stations? The choice of a departure railway station in a multiple-station region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting the use of rail is an important element in sustainable transport policy. One of the most important decisions to make in planning the railway network is on the number of stations to provide. Stations are the access points to rail services and while each additional station increases rail's

  2. A deterministic approach for performance assessment and optimization of power distribution units in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Omrani, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a deterministic approach for performance assessment and optimization of power distribution units in Iran. The deterministic approach is composed of data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation techniques. Seventeen electricity distribution units have been considered for the purpose of this study. Previous studies have generally used input-output DEA models for benchmarking and evaluation of electricity distribution units. However, this study considers an integrated deterministic DEA-PCA approach since the DEA model should be verified and validated by a robust multivariate methodology such as PCA. Moreover, the DEA models are verified and validated by PCA, Spearman and Kendall's Tau correlation techniques, while previous studies do not have the verification and validation features. Also, both input- and output-oriented DEA models are used for sensitivity analysis of the input and output variables. Finally, this is the first study to present an integrated deterministic approach for assessment and optimization of power distributions in Iran

  3. Development and Assessment of Planetary Gear Unit for Experimental Prototype of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbahs A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical calculation for development of planetary gear unit of wind turbine (WT and its experimental tests are presented in the paper. Development of experimental prototypes from composite materials is essential to determine capability of element and its impact on feature. Two experimental scale prototypes of planetary gear unit for WT were developed for such purposes. Hall transducer, servomechanisms and optical tachometers were used to obtain results, comparison analysis of theoretical and actual data was performed as well as quality assessment of experimental prototypes of planetary gear unit. After kinematic and load analysis as well as control of rotation frequency, it is possible to declare that the unit is able to operate at designated quality. Theoretical calculations and test results obtained are used for industrial WT prototype development.

  4. Development and Assessment of Planetary Gear Unit for Experimental Prototype of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbahs, A.; Urbaha, M.; Carjova, K.

    2017-10-01

    The theoretical calculation for development of planetary gear unit of wind turbine (WT) and its experimental tests are presented in the paper. Development of experimental prototypes from composite materials is essential to determine capability of element and its impact on feature. Two experimental scale prototypes of planetary gear unit for WT were developed for such purposes. Hall transducer, servomechanisms and optical tachometers were used to obtain results, comparison analysis of theoretical and actual data was performed as well as quality assessment of experimental prototypes of planetary gear unit. After kinematic and load analysis as well as control of rotation frequency, it is possible to declare that the unit is able to operate at designated quality. Theoretical calculations and test results obtained are used for industrial WT prototype development.

  5. Thermoeconomic and environmental assessment of a crude oil distillation unit of a Nigerian refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, M.A.; Oni, A.O.; Adejuyigbe, S.B.; Adewumi, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    The renovation of refineries should be aimed at achieving the highest possible technical efficiencies at a considerable investment cost and not only at replacing damaged components to attain full capacity utilisation. This study examined a crude distillation unit (CDU) of a Nigerian refinery plant comprising the atmospheric distillation unit (ADU), vacuum distillation unit (VDU), preflash unit (PFU), splitter unit (SPU), stabiliser unit (SBU) and heat exchanger network (HEN) to determine critical areas of inefficiencies as the plant managements plan renovation. Using real plant data, the CDU was simulated with Aspen Hysys ® and the thermoeconomic and environmental analyses were carried out. The results show that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the CDU were 9.0 and 4.0% respectively. The specific CO 2 emission was 3.67 kg CO 2 /bbl. The highly inefficient subunits accounting for 77.4 and 90.0% of the overall energy and exergy losses respectively and 60.3% of the emission released were the PFU, ADU and HEN. The highly inefficient components are the furnaces which accounted for 51.6% of the overall exergy losses. The environmental and economic analysis also indicated that these components are the most potent for improvement. The columns of the PFU and ADU should be revamped to reduce their energy demands and the HEN should be modified to minimise effluent losses. - Highlights: •The assessment of a crude distillation unit (CDU) in Nigeria was carried out. •The assessment considered thermodynamic, thermoeconomic and environment analysis. •The assessment revealed areas with poor performance in the CDU. •Large thermodynamic and economic losses are responsible for the poor performance. •Areas with large losses and emission rate should be targeted for improvement

  6. Thermoeconomic and environmental assessment of a crude oil distillation unit of a Nigerian refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, M. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oni, A.O., E-mail: fem2day@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria); Adejuyigbe, S. B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria); Adewumi, B. A. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State (Nigeria)

    2014-05-01

    The renovation of refineries should be aimed at achieving the highest possible technical efficiencies at a considerable investment cost and not only at replacing damaged components to attain full capacity utilisation. This study examined a crude distillation unit (CDU) of a Nigerian refinery plant comprising the atmospheric distillation unit (ADU), vacuum distillation unit (VDU), preflash unit (PFU), splitter unit (SPU), stabiliser unit (SBU) and heat exchanger network (HEN) to determine critical areas of inefficiencies as the plant managements plan renovation. Using real plant data, the CDU was simulated with Aspen Hysys{sup ®} and the thermoeconomic and environmental analyses were carried out. The results show that the energy and exergy efficiencies of the CDU were 9.0 and 4.0% respectively. The specific CO{sub 2} emission was 3.67 kg CO{sub 2}/bbl. The highly inefficient subunits accounting for 77.4 and 90.0% of the overall energy and exergy losses respectively and 60.3% of the emission released were the PFU, ADU and HEN. The highly inefficient components are the furnaces which accounted for 51.6% of the overall exergy losses. The environmental and economic analysis also indicated that these components are the most potent for improvement. The columns of the PFU and ADU should be revamped to reduce their energy demands and the HEN should be modified to minimise effluent losses. - Highlights: •The assessment of a crude distillation unit (CDU) in Nigeria was carried out. •The assessment considered thermodynamic, thermoeconomic and environment analysis. •The assessment revealed areas with poor performance in the CDU. •Large thermodynamic and economic losses are responsible for the poor performance. •Areas with large losses and emission rate should be targeted for improvement.

  7. Conservation assessments for five forest bat species in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R., III Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Assesses the status, distribution, conservation, and management considerations for five Regional Forester Sensitive Species of forest bats on national forests in the Eastern United States: eastern pipistrelle, evening bat, southeastern myotis, eastern small-footed myotis, and northern long-eared bat. Includes information on the taxonomy, description, life history,...

  8. Wildlife resource trends in the United States: A technical document supporting the 2000 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Stephen J. Brady; Michael S. Knowles

    1999-01-01

    This report documents trends in wildlife resources for the nation as required by the Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974. The report focuses on recent historical trends in wildlife as one indicator of ecosystem health across the United States and updates wildlife trends presented in previous RPA Assessments. The report also shows short- and long-term...

  9. An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

    The quality of doctoral-level chemical engineering (N=79), civil engineering (N=74), electrical engineering (N=91), and mechanical engineering (N=82) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3) reputational factors…

  10. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the…

  11. Small Business Contracting in the United States and Europe: A Comparative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 SMALL BUSINESS CONTRACTING IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE: A...COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT by Max Kidalov, Assistant Professor Procurement Law & Policy March 2010 Graduate School of Business & Public Policy...Daniel T. Oliver Leonard A. Ferrari President Executive Vice President and Provost The report entitled “Small Business Contracting in

  12. Conceptual framework for improved wind-related forest threat assessment in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    In the Southeastern United States, forests are subject to a variety of damage-causing wind phenomena that range in scale from very localized (downbursts and tornadoes) to broad spatial scales (hurricanes). Incorporating the threat of wind damage into forest management plans requires tools capable of assessing risk across this range of scales. Our conceptual approach...

  13. Enrichment and Bioavailability of Trace Elements in Soil in Vicinity of Railways in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Watanabe, Izumi; Ozaki, Hirozaku; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the concentrations, distribution, pollution levels, and bioavailability of 12 trace elements in soils along 6 different railways in Japan. Three diesel powered railways and three electricity powered railways were chosen as target. Surface soils (railways for analysis. Digestion and extraction were performed before concentration and bioavailability analysis. Enrichment factor was applied to investigate contamination levels of selected elements. The mean concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb in soil samples were higher than soil background value in Japan. Concentrations of trace elements in soils along different railway had different characteristics. Horizontal distribution of Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, and Pb in soil samples showed obviously downtrend with distance along railways with high frequency. Concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, and Co were higher in soils along railways which pass through city center. According to principal component analysis and cluster analysis, concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb could be considered as the indicators of soil contamination level along electricity powered trains, whereas indicators along diesel powered trains were not clear. Enrichment factor analysis proved that operation of freight trains had impact on pollution level of Cr, Ni, and Cd. Bioavailability of Mn, Co, Zn, and Cd in soil along electricity-powered railways were higher, and bioavailability of Pb in railways located in countryside was lower. Thus, enrichment and bioavailability of trace elements can be indicators of railway-originated trace elements pollution in soil.

  14. Service Station Evaluation Problem in Catering Service of High-Speed Railway: A Fuzzy QFD Approach Based on Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catering Service of High-Speed Railway (CSHR starts at suppliers, includes distribution centers and service stations in cities, and ends at cabinets in high-speed trains. In Distribution System Design (DSD Problem for CSHR, it is critical to evaluate the alternatives of service stations, which is termed as Service Station Evaluation Problem in Catering Service of High-speed Railway (SSEP-CSHR. As a preparation work for DSD, SSEP-CSHR needs to be solved without detailed information and being accompanied with uncertainty. Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (F-QFD has been given in the literatures to deal with vagueness in Facility Location Evaluation (FLE. However, SSEP-CSHR that includes identifying and evaluating stations requires not only dealing with the vague nature of assessments but also confirming them. Based on evidence theory, this paper introduces the framework to give the truth of proposition “x is A.” Then it is incorporated into a two-phase F-QFD with an approximate reasoning to enable the truth of the decisions to be measured. A case study that refers to 85 alternative stations on Chinese high-speed railway will be carried out to verify the proposed method. Analysis shows that the proposed evaluation method enhances scientific credibility of FLE and allows decision makers to express how much is known.

  15. Driver's behavioural changes with new intelligent transport system interventions at railway level crossings--A driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Grégoire S; Kim, Inhi; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haworth, Narelle L; Ferreira, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is an important issue for the Australian transport system. Governments, the rail industry and road organisations have tried a variety of countermeasures for many years to improve railway level crossing safety. New types of intelligent transport system (ITS) interventions are now emerging due to the availability and the affordability of technology. These interventions target both actively and passively protected railway level crossings and attempt to address drivers' errors at railway crossings, which are mainly a failure to detect the crossing or the train and misjudgement of the train approach speed and distance. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of three emerging ITS that the rail industry considers implementing in Australia: a visual in-vehicle ITS, an audio in-vehicle ITS, as well as an on-road flashing beacons intervention. The evaluation was conducted on an advanced driving simulator with 20 participants per trialled technology, each participant driving once without any technology and once with one of the ITS interventions. Every participant drove through a range of active and passive crossings with and without trains approaching. Their speed approach of the crossing, head movements and stopping compliance were measured. Results showed that driver behaviour was changed with the three ITS interventions at passive crossings, while limited effects were found at active crossings, even with reduced visibility. The on-road intervention trialled was unsuccessful in improving driver behaviour; the audio and visual ITS improved driver behaviour when a train was approaching. A trend toward worsening driver behaviour with the visual ITS was observed when no trains were approaching. This trend was not observed for the audio ITS intervention, which appears to be the ITS intervention with the highest potential for improving safety at passive crossings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production along railway tracks: a case study from the Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA contributes to food security, serves as an opportunity for income generation, and provides recreational services to urban citizens. With a population of 21 Million people, of which 60 % live in slums, UPA activities can play a crucial role in supporting people’s livelihoods in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR. This study was conducted to characterize the railway gardens, determine their role in UPA production, and assess potential risks. It comprises a baseline survey among 38 railway gardeners across MMR characterized by different demographic, socio-economic, migratory, and labour characteristics. Soil, irrigation water, and plant samples were analyzed for nutrients, heavy metals, and microbial load. All the railway gardeners practiced agriculture as a primary source of income and cultivated seasonal vegetables such as lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L., and white radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus which were irrigated with waste water. This irrigation water was loaded with 7–28 mg N l^(−1, 0.3–7 mg P l^(−1, and 8–32 mg K l^(−1, but also contained heavy metals such as lead (0.02–0.06 mg Pb l^(−1, cadmium (0.03–0.17 mg Cd l^(−1, mercury (0.001–0.005 mg Hg l^(−1, and pathogens such as Escherichia coli (1,100 most probable number per 100 ml. Levels of heavy metals exceeded the critical thresholds in surface soils (Cr, Ni, and Sr and produce (Pb, Cd, and Sr. The railway garden production systems can substantially foster employment and reduce economic deprivation of urban poor particularly slum dwellers and migrant people. However this production system may also cause possible health risks to producers and consumers.

  17. Railway testing using a portable ride quality and vibration measurement system with GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Brian; Whitten, Brian; Neijikovsky, Boris

    1995-06-01

    To conduct the testing and evaluation of railway and railway vehicles, the Federal Railroad Administration developed a protable system that consists of accelerometers oriented in the vertical and horizontal directions, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, data collection and power systems, and a portable computer. Commercial software was used to collect and display the data, while software, developed by ENSCO, was used to analyze and display results. The GPS provided dynamic location to an accuracy of 30 meters or better, and vehicle speed to within one mile per hour. The system was used in the demonstration tests of several advanced high-speed trains on Amtrak's Northeast Corrider and on other tracks in the US. The portable measurement system proved to be a simple and effective device to characterize the vibration environment of any transportation system. It is ideal for use in the assessment of the safe performance of high-speed trains operating at high cant deficiency. The system has also been used for other field tests, including braking performance and bridge monitoring. This report discusses the portable measurement system, the test applications that the system has been used for, the results of thoses tests, and the potential for improvements.

  18. Integration of RAMS in LCC analysis for linear transport infrastructures. A case study for railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle-Cordón, Álvaro; Jiménez-Redondo, Noemi; Morales-Gámiz, F. J.; García-Villena, F. A.; Garmabaki, Amir H. S.; Odelius, Johan

    2017-09-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis is an economic technique used to assess the total costs associated with the lifetime of a system in order to support decision making in long term strategic planning. For complex systems, such as railway and road infrastructures, the cost of maintenance plays an important role in the LCC analysis. Costs associated with maintenance interventions can be more reliably estimated by integrating the probabilistic nature of the failures associated to these interventions in the LCC models. Reliability, Maintainability, Availability and Safety (RAMS) parameters describe the maintenance needs of an asset in a quantitative way by using probabilistic information extracted from registered maintenance activities. Therefore, the integration of RAMS in the LCC analysis allows obtaining reliable predictions of system maintenance costs and the dependencies of these costs with specific cost drivers through sensitivity analyses. This paper presents an innovative approach for a combined RAMS & LCC methodology for railway and road transport infrastructures being developed under the on-going H2020 project INFRALERT. Such RAMS & LCC analysis provides relevant probabilistic information to be used for condition and risk-based planning of maintenance activities as well as for decision support in long term strategic investment planning.

  19. Inspection and Numerical Analysis of an Ottoman Railway Bridge in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin H. Almasri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of bridges represents a big challenge, since they require enormous economic effort and specialized technical skills. Bridges were historically important as they help connecting people and thus diffusing cultures, sharing ideas, and providing the backbone of transportation networks. This study focuses on the inspection and structural analysis of a 20th-century Ottoman railway stone arched bridge located on the Hejaz railway network in Jordan. The bridge has a very important cultural heritage value which stems from its history. The bridge stone material was cut and tested to determine its strength, in order to be used in the analysis. The structural analysis was carried out to assess the structural condition of the bridge and its suitability for reuse. The study includes static analysis under gravity loads and seismic analysis under earthquake loads. Despite the existence of deterioration in the bridge body construction materials due to a combination of human and natural factors, the analysis results proved enough structural capability to sustain the imposed gravity loads, but not a strong earthquake.

  20. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  1. Professional nursing practice in critical units: assessment of work environment characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Sales Maurício

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: assess the autonomy, control over environment, and organizational support of nurses' work process and the relationships between physicians and nurses in critical care units. Method: cross-sectional study conducted with 162 nurses working in the intensive care units and emergency service of a university hospital. The workers' satisfaction with their work environment was assessed using Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised, translated and adapted for the Brazilian culture. Results: average age was 31.6 ± 3.9 years; 80.2% were women; 68.5% Caucasians and 71.6% worked in intensive care units. The nurses considered autonomy (2.38 ± 0.64 and their relationship with physicians (2.24 ± 0.62 to be characteristics of the work environment that favored professional practice. Control over environment (2.78 ± 0.62 and organizational support (2.51 ± 0.54, however, were considered to be unfavorable. No statistically significant differences were found between the units based on the scores obtained by the professionals on the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised. Conclusion: autonomy, relationship between physicians and nurses, and organizational support were considered by the units to be characteristics that favored nurses' professional practices. On the other hand, control over environment and organizational support were considered unfavorable.

  2. [NIC as a tool for assessing competences of nursing students in clinical placement at surgical units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celma Vicente, Matilde; Ajuria-Imaz, Eloisa; Lopez-Morales, Manuel; Fernandez-Marín, Pilar; Menor-Castro, Alicia; Cano-Caballero Galvez, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the utility of a NIC standardized language to assess the extent of nursing student skills at Practicum in surgical units To identify the nursing interventions classification (NIC) that students can learn to perform in surgical units. To determine the level of difficulty in learning interventions, depending on which week of rotation in clinical placement the student is. Qualitative study using Delphi consensus technique, involving nurses with teaching experience who work in hospital surgical units, where students undertake the Practicum. The results were triangulated through a questionnaire to tutors about the degree of conformity. A consensus was reached about the interventions that students can achieve in surgical units and the frequency in which they can be performed. The level of difficulty of each intervention, and the amount of weeks of practice that students need to reach the expected level of competence was also determined. The results should enable us to design better rotations matched to student needs. Knowing the frequency of each intervention that is performed in each unit determines the chances of learning it, as well as the indicators for its assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Vogtle Unit 1 readiness review: Assessment of Georgia Power Company readiness review pilot program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.

    1987-09-01

    Georgia Power Company (GPC) performed a readiness review at Vogtle Unit 1 as a pilot program. The pilot program was a new and innovative approach for the systematic and disciplined review, with senior management involvement, of GPC's implementation of design, construction, and operational readiness processes. The program's principal objective was to increase the level of assurance that quality programs at Vogtle Unit 1 have been accomplished in accordance with regulatory requirements. This report assesses the effectiveness of the GPC's readiness review pilot program (RRPP) at Vogtle Unit 1. It includes (1) an overview of what was experienced during the program's implementation, (2) an assessment of how well program objectives were met, and (3) lessons learned on the future use of the readiness review concept. Overall, GPC and the NRC staff believe that the RRPP at Vogtle Unit 1 was a success and that the program provided significant added assurance that Vogtle Unit 1 licensing commitments and NRC regulations have been adequately implemented. Although altering the NRC licensing review process for the few plants still in the construction pipeline may not be appropriate, licensees may benefit significantly by performing readiness reviews on their own initiative as GPC did for Vogtle. (7 refs.)

  4. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  5. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  6. Current researches on safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Hiroshi; Kiyose, Ryohei

    1980-01-01

    Recently, the problem of safe disposal of radioactive waste generated from nuclear fuel cycle becomes more important in Japan. On the other hand, many researches on shallow land burial of low-level wastes and geologic isolation of high-level wastes have been carried out in the United States of America. In this report, the researches on the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal in the United States of America were briefly introduced with emphasis on the studies on behavior and migration of radionuclide from disposed waste in geosphere. (author)

  7. Assessing subject privacy and data confidentiality in an emerging region for clinical trials: United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Ibrahim, Halah

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical sponsored clinical trials, formerly conducted predominantly in the United States and Europe, have expanded to emerging regions, including the Middle East. Our study explores factors influencing clinical trial privacy and confidentiality in the United Arab Emirates. Factors including concept familiarity, informed consent compliance, data access, and preservation, were analyzed to assess current practices in the Arab world. As the UAE is an emerging region for clinical trials, there is a growing need for regulations related to data confidentiality and subject privacy. Informational and decisional privacy should be viewed within the realms of Arab culture and religious background.

  8. A comparison of two exact methods for passenger railway rolling stock (re)scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Wagenaar, Joris C.; Veelenturf, Lucas P.

    2016-01-01

    The assignment of rolling stock units to timetable services in passenger railways is an important optimization problem that has been addressed by many papers in different forms. Solution approaches have been proposed for different planning phases: strategic, tactical, operational, and real...... is solved using a column and row generation approach. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of the methods on networks of two countries (Denmark and The Netherlands). We use the approaches to make daily schedules and we test their real time applicability by performing tests with different disruption...... scenarios. The computational experiments demonstrate that both models can be used on both networks and are able to find optimal rolling stock circulations in the different planning phases. Furthermore, the results show that both approaches are sufficiently fast to be used in a real-time setting....

  9. Genocide Studies and Corporate Social Responsibility: The Contemporary Case of the French National Railways (SNCF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Federman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Genocide studies considers the accountability various of perpetrators, as well as the needs mass atrocity creates. The inclusion of market actors, however, remains marginalized. This article considers factors perpetuating this marginalization and its costs, arguing for greater inclusion of market actors in genocide-related discussions. Relegating the importance of these actors makes the field, not their role, tangential. To examine this intersection of business and genocide, this article introduces a contemporary conflict involving the United States and France over the French National Railways (SNCF and its role in the transport of deportees towards death camps during World War II. The lengthy, vitriolic conflict suggests the need for better discursive spaces to explore the complex role of market actors. Developing the intersection of genocide studies and corporate social responsibility in scholarship and increasing the participation of businesses in post-conflict work can help do this work.

  10. Research on the Special Railway Intelligence Transportation Hierarchy and System Integration Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jie WANG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the rapid development of information technology in the field of railway transportation, the problems of establishing a digital, integrated and intelligent special railway system need to be solved immediately. This paper designs and implements the intelligent transportation information system based on the unique pattern of transportation organization, the characteristics of transportation operations and the workflow of special railway. Through the detailed analysis of system architecture and framework design, the main subsystems and the internal comprehensive integrated principle, business system from a system integration perspective of the special railway is optimized, which can be able to realize the integration of all kinds of information resources. The implementation of integration and the special railway intelligent system is a great change in terms of maximizing transportation capacity, improving efficiency and guaranteeing the safety of special railway transportation.

  11. Evaluation of railway transportation efficiency based on super-cross efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiuyuan

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of railway transportation is an important index. It can measure the development of railway transportation enterprises, and the efficiency of railway transportation has become a hot issue in the study of railway development. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely applied to railway efficiency analysis. In this paper, BBC model and super-cross efficiency model are constructed by using DEA theory, taking the 18 Railway Bureau as the research object, with the mileage, the number of employees, locomotive number, average daily loading number as input indicators, the passenger turnover, freight turnover and transport income as output indicators, then calculated and evaluated comprehensive efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. We get that the super-cross efficiency is more in line with the actual situation. Getting the super-cross efficiency is more in line with the actual situation.

  12. Analyzing the causation of a railway accident based on a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Li, Ke-Ping; Luo, Zi-Yan; Zhou, Jin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a new model is constructed for the causation analysis of railway accident based on the complex network theory. In the model, the nodes are defined as various manifest or latent accident causal factors. By employing the complex network theory, especially its statistical indicators, the railway accident as well as its key causations can be analyzed from the overall perspective. As a case, the “7.23” China—Yongwen railway accident is illustrated based on this model. The results show that the inspection of signals and the checking of line conditions before trains run played an important role in this railway accident. In conclusion, the constructed model gives a theoretical clue for railway accident prediction and, hence, greatly reduces the occurrence of railway accidents.

  13. The Railway Transport Cabinet of the Kyiv Commercial Institute: educational activities and library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasievа Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the history of foundation and activities of the Railway Transport Cabinet of the Kyiv Commercial Institute are recreated and an attempt is made to trace the way of its library book fonds which "has been lost" during the institute numerous transformations.The Railway Transport Cabinet was established as a supportive educational subdivision of the Merchandising Museum of the Kyiv Commercial Institute. Its purpose was to gather materials on railway science from the improved models of railway transport to the rich collection of specialized literature in foreign languages. In this regard a library was organized in a cabinet; it consisted of professional books and documents covering the railway science, railroads organization and operation, various manuals, diagrams etc. The novelty of the publication lies in the disclosure of the history of the Kyiv Commercial Institute Railway Transport Cabinet library, which has not yet been an object of a special book science research.

  14. DOMAINS OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, WHICH NEED THE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Procházková

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the railway accidents sources in the Czech Republic on the basis of knowledge on complex system behaviour. It derives seven categories of sources of railway accidents. The individual categories include the accident sources from the same field domain. These domains are: technical related to rail traffic vehicles; technical related to rail infrastructure and railway station; railway operation control – organizational causes; railway operation control – cyber causes; control of rail traffic vehicles; attack on the train; domain legislative and other. The results show that for railway traffic safety improvement, it is necessary to pay attention to all categories, and especially to these that lead to organizational accidents origination.

  15. Railway Crossing Risk Area Detection Using Linear Regression and Terrain Drop Compensation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Mei; Fu, Zhou-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1) we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC) technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2) we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3) we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP) to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas. PMID:24936948

  16. Railway Crossing Risk Area Detection Using Linear Regression and Terrain Drop Compensation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yuan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1 we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2 we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3 we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas.

  17. Analyzing the causation of a railway accident based on a complex network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xin; Li Ke-Ping; Luo Zi-Yan; Zhou Jin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new model is constructed for the causation analysis of railway accident based on the complex network theory. In the model, the nodes are defined as various manifest or latent accident causal factors. By employing the complex network theory, especially its statistical indicators, the railway accident as well as its key causations can be analyzed from the overall perspective. As a case, the “7.23” China—Yongwen railway accident is illustrated based on this model. The results show that the inspection of signals and the checking of line conditions before trains run played an important role in this railway accident. In conclusion, the constructed model gives a theoretical clue for railway accident prediction and, hence, greatly reduces the occurrence of railway accidents. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Care zoning in a psychiatric intensive care unit: strengthening ongoing clinical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Antony; Drinkwater, Vincent; Lewin, Terry J

    2014-03-01

    To implement and evaluate the care zoning model in an eight-bed psychiatric intensive care unit and, specifically, to examine the model's ability to improve the documentation and communication of clinical risk assessment and management. Care zoning guides nurses in assessing clinical risk and planning care within a mental health context. Concerns about the varying quality of clinical risk assessment prompted a trial of the care zoning model in a psychiatric intensive care unit within a regional mental health facility. The care zoning model assigns patients to one of 3 'zones' according to their clinical risk, encouraging nurses to document and implement targeted interventions required to manage those risks. An implementation trial framework was used for this research to refine, implement and evaluate the impact of the model on nurses' clinical practice within the psychiatric intensive care unit, predominantly as a quality improvement initiative. The model was trialled for three months using a pre- and postimplementation staff survey, a pretrial file audit and a weekly file audit. Informal staff feedback was also sought via surveys and regular staff meetings. This trial demonstrated improvement in the quality of mental state documentation, and clinical risk information was identified more accurately. There was limited improvement in the quality of care planning and the documentation of clinical interventions. Nurses' initial concerns over the introduction of the model shifted into overall acceptance and recognition of the benefits. The results of this trial demonstrate that the care zoning model was able to improve the consistency and quality of risk assessment information documented. Care planning and evaluation of associated outcomes showed less improvement. Care zoning remains a highly applicable model for the psychiatric intensive care unit environment and is a useful tool in guiding nurses to carry out routine patient risk assessments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons

  19. A Bayesian Network methodology for railway risk, safety and decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboob, Qamar

    2014-01-01

    For railways, risk analysis is carried out to identify hazardous situations and their consequences. Until recently, classical methods such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Event Tree Analysis (ETA) were applied in modelling the linear and logically deterministic aspects of railway risks, safety and reliability. However, it has been proven that modern railway systems are rather complex, involving multi-dependencies between system variables and uncertainties about these dependencies. For train ...

  20. A Statistical Approach to Planning Reserved Electric Power for Railway Infrastructure Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Brabec, M. (Marek); Pelikán, E. (Emil); Konár, O. (Ondřej); Kasanický, I. (Ivan); Juruš, P. (Pavel); Sadil, J.; Blažek, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the requirements on railway infrastructure administration is to provide electricity for day-to-day operation of railways. We propose a statistically based approach for the estimation of maximum 15-minute power within a calendar month for a given region. This quantity serves as a basis of contracts between railway infrastructure administration and electricity distribution system operator. We show that optimization of the prediction is possible, based on underlying loss function deriv...

  1. Load management potentials for the railway power system; Potenziale fuer das Lastmanagement im Bahnenergiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Julius; Aniceto, Josep M. [SBB AG Infrastruktur Energie, Zollikofen (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The railway power supply system of the Schweizerische Bundesbahnen (SBB) is characterised by major load fluctuations that are expected to increase in the future. The available power that is generated must be kept at absolute load peak level which causes high costs. Simulations show that a load management is a practicable way of noticeably reducing load peaks in the SBB railway power supply system without having an adverse effect on railway operations or the energy demand.

  2. Life-Cycle Assessment of Prototype Unit of Emergency Housing. The search for the zero impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ros García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prototype Unit of Emergency Housing (PUEH is the result of the Applied Research Project VEM (Military Emergency Housing developed in collaboration with Escuela Politécnica Superior (Universidad CEU and the company Air-bus Defense & Space. It is designed as a modular and industrialized unit of basic habitability, with programmed and expandable growth, designed to provide shelter and protection in environments of humanitarian crises or contingencies of social vulnerability in order to ensure sustainable habitat for emergencies.The influence of the construction processes and materials involved in the manufacture of this PUEH have on the environment, analyzed using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA, considered especially critical recycling the mate-rials used. Thus, in order to reduce the environmental impact environmental, each of the component parts of the developed prototype unit are quantified, evaluating the benefits resulting from the methodology DfMA (Design for Manufacturing and Assembly.

  3. Railway automatic safety protection system based on GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Hai Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic protection system of railway safety is designed for the railway construction workers to protect alarm, and the safety protection device by using GPS satellite positioning system to acquire location information of the operating point, through the CTC/TDCS system and computer monitoring system for the running of the train position and the arithmetic distance. Achieving timely and continuously forecasts about the distance of the train which is apart from the operating point to prompt the voice alarm of the approaching train. Using digital technology to realize the function of the traditional analog interphone, eliminates the quality problems of the call. With the GSM-R, mobile wireless transmission channel and terminal technology, it overcomes the restrictions of the analog interphone which influenced by communication distance and more problems of blind areas. Finally to achieve practical, convenient, applicable and adaptable design goals.

  4. Modern techniques for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngigi, R W; Pislaru, C; Ball, A; Gu, F

    2012-01-01

    A modern railway system relies on sophisticated monitoring systems for maintenance and renewal activities. Some of the existing conditions monitoring techniques perform fault detection using advanced filtering, system identification and signal analysis methods. These theoretical approaches do not require complex mathematical models of the system and can overcome potential difficulties associated with nonlinearities and parameter variations in the system. Practical applications of condition monitoring tools use sensors which are mounted either on the track or rolling stock. For instance, monitoring wheelset dynamics could be done through the use of track-mounted sensors, while vehicle-based sensors are preferred for monitoring the train infrastructure. This paper attempts to collate and critically appraise the modern techniques used for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics by analysing the advantages and shortcomings of these methods.

  5. Growth of Railway Network in China (1988-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Tarkhov

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available 20. 000 km of new railways were built in China in1988-2002. The railway network has increased its topologicalcomplexity from 75 to 112 circuits and the new 3nt topologicallayer appeared in 1993 and the 4'h will emerge in 2004 after the opening of the rail ferry Dalian - Yan-tai. The main features ofthe recent Chinese rail network are: 1 the predominance ofmeridional-ity, 2 the spatial disproportion between the easterncoastal area (with dense network and the empty western part,3 the low level of electrification (20% and the low share ofdouble-track sections (30%, 4 the land-lock orientation ofthe whole network and a small number of lines along the seacoasts. These disproportions are the main obstacles for a harmonicspatial devel-opment of the economic structure.

  6. High-speed railway signal trackside equipment patrol inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan

    2018-03-01

    High-speed railway signal trackside equipment patrol inspection system comprehensively applies TDI (time delay integration), high-speed and highly responsive CMOS architecture, low illumination photosensitive technique, image data compression technique, machine vision technique and so on, installed on high-speed railway inspection train, and achieves the collection, management and analysis of the images of signal trackside equipment appearance while the train is running. The system will automatically filter out the signal trackside equipment images from a large number of the background image, and identify of the equipment changes by comparing the original image data. Combining with ledger data and train location information, the system accurately locate the trackside equipment, conscientiously guiding maintenance.

  7. Towards Signalling Maintenance Scheduling for European Railway Traffic Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad

    signalling system. Therefore, the entire maintenance system needs to change from the previous system to the newest system, and hence, new optimisation techniques need to be established so as to facilitate managers in creating ideal maintenance strategies. The aim of this thesis is to develop new maintenance......The European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is the newest signalling standard that has been introduced in the railway industry. The aim of ERTMS is to ensure better signalling communication amongst various train systems, and hence, to help in attaining improved connectivity and commuting...... between European countries. In various countries across the world, there is a gradual shift from the current signalling systems to ERTMS. Amongst the European countries, Denmark was the first country to commence a full upgrading of its signalling system to ERTMS. A variety of maintenance requirements...

  8. System of preparing the personnel for railway of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullaaziz ARTIKBAEV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, by the example of training for the railway industry in Uzbekistan, focuses on the experiences and characteristics of Uzbekistan's integration into the international system of education, a framework of qualifications of the European Commission. Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineering has: rated the students' knowledge of the possibility of mutual recognition and accreditation based on the comparability of disciplines and curricula; included in its institutional strategy doctoral program, which has national features aimed at providing career opportunities for young researchers and university teachers based on the fundamental nature and the humanization of education, providing the preparation of the highly qualified specialists, ensures the interconnection and interdependence at all levels of technical education: secondary, undergraduate, graduate, doctoral and post-graduate training and re-training to maintain the knowledge and skills of teachers at the level of requests engineering and production of the XXI century.

  9. Phase-based Planning for Railway Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui

    2017-01-01

    is important in terms of economy and rail operations. This study presents two types of Phase-based Decision Support System (PDSS), i.e. Functional Phase-Based Planning Approach (F-PBPA) and Process-Oriented Phase-Based Planning Approach (PO-PBPA). They are used for decision support for the planning...... of the railway infrastructure maintenance activities at the strategic planning level. The objective is to achieve better economy, as well as improve cost efficiency. F-PBPA consists of ve main phases: Data Collection, Technical Optimization (TeO), Economic Optimization (EcO), Constrained Optimization (Co...... the costs. Finally, constrained optimization (CoO) includes additional constraints and it allows the railway expert to adjust input parameters, thereby to obtain alternative maintenance plans. PO-PBPA contains another systematic phase based process. With a focus on Life Cycle Cost (LCC), PO-PBPA can guide...

  10. Time-Dependent Topology of Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-10-01

    The railway sleepers are very important component of railway track structure. The sleepers can be manufactured by using timber, concrete, steel or other engineered materials. Nowadays, prestressed concrete has become most commonly used type of sleepers. Prestressed concrete sleepers have longer life-cycle and lower maintenance cost than reinforced concrete sleepers. They are expected to withstand high dynamic loads and harsh environments. However, durability and long-term performance of prestressed concrete sleepers are largely dependent on creep and shrinkage responses. This study investigates the long-term behaviours of prestressed concrete sleepers and proposes the shortening and deflection diagrams. Comparison between design codes of Eurocode 2 and AS3600-2009 provides the insight into the time-dependent performance of prestressed concrete sleepers. The outcome of this paper will improve the rail maintenance and inspection criteria in order to establish appropriate sensible remote track condition monitor network in practice.

  11. Local cyclic deformation behavior and microstructure of railway wheel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, F.; Eifler, D.

    2004-01-01

    The current investigations concentrate on the relation between the loading and environmental conditions, the local microstructure and the fatigue behavior of highly stressed railway wheel and tire steels. Experiments under stress control and total strain control were performed at ambient temperature with servohydraulic testing systems. Superimposed mean loadings allow an evaluation of cyclic creep and mean stress relaxation effects. Strain, temperature and electrical measuring techniques were used to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of specimens from different depth positions of the cross-sections of UIC-specified wheel components (UIC: International Railway Union). The measured values show a strong interrelation. The microstructural characterization of the different material conditions was done by light and scanning electron microscopy together with digital image processing

  12. Use of the exposure unit concept in risk assessments: A case study for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.M.; Butler, J.P.; Dorries, A.M.; Beck, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    The use of the exposure unit concept to refine intake estimates in quantitative risk assessments is explained. The selection of appropriate exposure unit areas for varying receptors and the application of the concept to large sites and to relatively small solid waste management units (SWMUs) are discussed. Examples are presented

  13. Delirium assessed by Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale in advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute palliative/supportive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Cortegiani, Andrea; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Delirium is often unrecognized in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of delirium assessed by the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and possible associated factors on admission to an acute palliative/supportive care unit (APSCU). The secondary outcome was to assess changes in MDAS and symptom burden at time of discharge. A consecutive sample of advanced cancer patients who were admitted to an APSCU was prospectively assessed for a period of 10 months. Patient demographics, including age, gender, primary diagnosis, Karnofsky status, stage of disease, and educational level were collected. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the MDAS were measured at hospital admission and discharge. A total of 314 patients were surveyed. Of 292 patients with MDAS available at T0, 74 (25.3%) and 24 (8.2%) had a MDAS of 7-12 and ≥13, respectively. At discharge, there was a significant decrease in the number of patients with a MDAS ≥7/30. Higher values of MDAS were associated with age (p = .028), a lower Karnofsky status (p symptoms (p = .026), hospital stay (p = .038) and death (p Delirium is highly prevalent in patients admitted to APSCU, characterized by a low mortality due to early referral. Comprehensive assessment and treatment may allow a decrease in the level of cognitive disorders and symptom burden.

  14. Safety Assessment for transient event occurred during the ASTS test of Hanbit Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Changkeun; Kim, Yohan; Ha, Sangjun

    2014-01-01

    Safety Injection has been actuated during the ASTS (Automatic Seismic Trip System) test of Hanbit Unit 2 on Feb. 28, 2014. It could be bad effect on system integrity. KHNP has been performed safety assessment of system for effect of Safety Injection (SI) actuation occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. Stable state of nuclear power plant system has been confirmed according to Safety Injection and reactor trip event occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. In the result of system safety assessment, major variables of nuclear power plant are located in optimal range and not exceed safety limit. It remains nuclear fuel and the integrity of the power plant is in a safe condition were conformed. After ASTS action, thermal elimination has been processed throughout the turbine until turbine signal occurrence because ASTS is connected to M-G set in the present hanbit Unit 2. Therefore, Safety Injection signal has been actuated by rapid reduction of Steam Generator pressure. In this paper, it is concluded that consideration of equipment and setpoint is needed for that Safety Injection has been not occurred under the unnecessary situation. Stable state of nuclear power plant system has been confirmed for Safety Injection and reactor trip event occurred during the ASTS test of hanbit Unit 2. In the result of system safety assessment, major variables of nuclear power plant are located in optimal range and not exceed safety limit. It remains nuclear fuel and the integrity of the plant is in a safe condition were conformed. It is concluded that consideration of equipment and setpoint is needed for that Safety Injection has been not occurred under the unnecessary situation

  15. Evaluation of cyclic battery ageing for railway vehicle application

    OpenAIRE

    Sigle, Sebastian; Kaimer, Stefan; Dittus, Holger; Barai, Anup; McGordon, Andrew; Widanage, W. Dhammika

    2017-01-01

    Mobile transportation systems rely heavily on hydrocarbon based internal combustions engines (ICE) as the prime mover of vehicles. For rail applications electrification of the route provides an opportunity to improve efficiency and eliminate local emissions at point of use. However, route electrification is not always cost effective for secondary routes which see lower passenger volumes and less frequent trains; there is therefore an increasing interest in railway vehicles being equipped with...

  16. Deregulating the Norwegian railway: a survey of empirical experiences abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Røstadli, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Portraying implications of deregulation, this thesis presents an extensive review of deregulation in the European railway. It targets various decision variables concerning the introduction of competitive tendering in the rail industry. This thesis attempts to take a pragmatic stand offering an improved understanding vis-à-vis on decisions that have yet to be made, concentrating on possible competition forms, auction designs and contract designs. It offers learning points and tr...

  17. Evaluating efficiency of passenger railway stations: a DEA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Preston, John; Khadem Sameni, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Stations are bottlenecks for railway transportation as they are where traffics merge and diverge. Numerous activities such as passengers boarding, alighting and interchanging, train formation and technical checks are also done at these points. The number of platforms is limited and it is vital to do all the work efficiently. For the first time in the literature, we implement a methodology based on data envelopment analysis which is benchmarked from ports and airport efficiency studies. It can...

  18. The dynamic behaviour of a railway mine vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Manen, P.; Brickle, B.V.

    1983-06-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model of a railway mine vehicle which is capable of predicting its dynamic behaviour in response to track inputs. The predictions of the model have been compared with the results of tests carried out on a new high speed mine vehicle and the correlation shown is good. The model yields frequency response information for the vehicle and may be used to simulate dynamic behaviour in response to track irregularities. (4 refs.)

  19. Privatization policies or degradation policies?. The case of spanish railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Peláez, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the key strategies in the process to modernize the European economy is the privatization of railway transport; separating infrastructure maintenance from transport management. Privatization has led to farreaching changes with respect to organizations, professional careers, and the very culture of railway work. The opinions held by those most closely involved in and affected by these changes can contribute to the analysis of occupational health and safety with a view to preventing failures that have occurred in previous railway privatization processes. In this article, we analyze the effects of this privatization model on the safety and health of railway workers as well as on the safety of passengers and freight.

    Una estrategia clave en el proceso de modernización de la economía europea es la liberalización del transporte ferroviario, separando el mantenimiento de las infraestructuras de la gestión del transporte. Nos encontramos en un momento de transformación de las organizaciones, de la carrera profesional y de la propia cultura de trabajo ferroviaria. La percepción que trabajadores y directivos tienen sobre las tendencias de cambio en el ámbito de la seguridad y salud pueden contribuir a un diagnóstico acertado que permita no repetir anteriores fracasos en procesos liberalizadores del transporte ferroviario. En este artículo, analizamos las consecuencias, en un sector estratégico, de este modelo liberalizador sobre las condiciones de seguridad y salud de los trabajadores, y su efecto sobre la seguridad de los pasajeros y mercancías.

  20. Travel ticket sales optimization at Prague Main Railway Station

    OpenAIRE

    Kuběnová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This Master's Thesis concerns the travel ticket sales at Prague Main Railway Station. Based on a detailed analysis of provided data, its aim is to put forward suggestions on how to optimize travel ticket sales. Through evaluating the volume of travel tickets sold within the given time period and the number of open cash-desks, along with a cost analysis of sales channels, this thesis reaches its final conclusions. Microsoft Excel was the main analysis tool for compiling graphs. A sound knowled...