WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit assessing railway

  1. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  2. Towards Sustainable Construction: Life Cycle Assessment of Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli

    . The life cycle assessment (LCA) method has been verified as a systematic tool, which enables the fully assessment and complete comparison for the environmental impact among different bridge options through a life cycle manner. The study presented in this thesis is focused on railway bridges, as the LCA...... an overview introduction that serves as a supplementary description for this research work. It outlines the background theory, current development status, the LCA implementation into the railway bridges, as well as the developed excel-based LCA tool. Part two, includes three appended papers which provides...... of a bridge to fulfill the environmental requirements. Therefore, the development of LCA for railway bridges still needs further collaborative efforts from government, industry and research institutes....

  3. Quantitative Methods for Assessment of Railway Timetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd Hermann

    The aim of this PhD thesis is to improve the attractiveness of future railway timetables. To achieve this goal,the qualitative term “timetable attractiveness” needs to be made quantifiable. To establish what timetableattractiveness is, the thesis gives an introduction to railway timetables...... sections)VIII Summary- Compressed timetables based on the blocking time theory3. Degree of deviation from timetable planning rules (Robustness of the timetable)- Focus on agreed upon running times and timetable supplements4. Conflict Risk Index (Robustness of the timetable)- The number of potential train...... path conflicts at a station and their estimated risk level5. Timetable train path fix points (Robustness of the timetable)- Geographical and temporal distribution of potential train path conflicts6. Proportion of train paths with shared rolling stock (Robustness of the timetable)- Number of train paths...

  4. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  5. A hierarchical network modeling method for railway tunnels safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Liu, Xumin

    2017-02-01

    Using network theory to model risk-related knowledge on accidents is regarded as potential very helpful in risk management. A large amount of defects detection data for railway tunnels is collected in autumn every year in China. It is extremely important to discover the regularities knowledge in database. In this paper, based on network theories and by using data mining techniques, a new method is proposed for mining risk-related regularities to support risk management in railway tunnel projects. A hierarchical network (HN) model which takes into account the tunnel structures, tunnel defects, potential failures and accidents is established. An improved Apriori algorithm is designed to rapidly and effectively mine correlations between tunnel structures and tunnel defects. Then an algorithm is presented in order to mine the risk-related regularities table (RRT) from the frequent patterns. At last, a safety assessment method is proposed by consideration of actual defects and possible risks of defects gained from the RRT. This method cannot only generate the quantitative risk results but also reveal the key defects and critical risks of defects. This paper is further development on accident causation network modeling methods which can provide guidance for specific maintenance measure.

  6. Quantitative Security Risk Assessment and Management for Railway Transportation Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammini, Francesco; Gaglione, Andrea; Mazzocca, Nicola; Pragliola, Concetta

    Scientists have been long investigating procedures, models and tools for the risk analysis in several domains, from economics to computer networks. This paper presents a quantitative method and a tool for the security risk assessment and management specifically tailored to the context of railway transportation systems, which are exposed to threats ranging from vandalism to terrorism. The method is based on a reference mathematical model and it is supported by a specifically developed tool. The tool allows for the management of data, including attributes of attack scenarios and effectiveness of protection mechanisms, and the computation of results, including risk and cost/benefit indices. The main focus is on the design of physical protection systems, but the analysis can be extended to logical threats as well. The cost/benefit analysis allows for the evaluation of the return on investment, which is a nowadays important issue to be addressed by risk analysts.

  7. Assessing The Impact Of Railway Restructuring In Nigeria | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benchmarking method was used to determine the best restructuring model for ... low motivation and large labour force as the most severe problems to overcome. ... between NRC and the best practices and restructured railways as a result of ...

  8. Life cycle assessment of a railway bridge: comparison of two superstructure designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Karoumi, Raid

    2011-01-01

    Railway bridges currently encounter the challenges of increasing the load capacity while the environmental sustainability should be achieved. However, it has been realised that the environmental assessment of railway bridges has not been integrated into the decision-making process, the standard...... guideline and criterion is still missing in this field. Therefore, the implementation of life cycle assessment (LCA) method is introduced into railway bridges. This article provides a systematic bridge LCA model as a guideline to quantify the environmental burdens for the railway bridge structures...... and material transportations are ignorable. Sensitivity analysis illustrates the maintenance scenario planning and steel recycling have the significant influence on the final results other than the traffic disturbances....

  9. Assessment of accident rate at lithuanian railways level crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas Liudvinavichius

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The most pressing problem facing the rail traffic safety experts is an accident rate at the railway level crossings. The purpose is to investigate the circumstances, which affect traffic safety at the level crossings, and to offer effective tools for experts to improve the safety the problems of these dangerous spaces of railway infrastructure. Methodology. This paper observes the logistic regression as a method to estimate the accident rate at level crossings in Lithuania. The authors have studied and evaluated the key factors affecting the safety of railway crossings. These factors are the intensity of trains and road transport means through the railway level crossing, the visibility of the approaching train from both sides of the traffic, the maximum permissible speed of the trains, the number of tracks (single track, double track, and multi-track, the level of installed alarm and automatic equipment, a density of population in this area, etc. Finally, only the factors, which might be described by mathematical expressions (numbers, were identified. Findings. By using logistic regression method, it was found that the most determinant factors at level crossings are the maximum speed of trains, poor visibility crossing (less than 1,000 m, intensity of the road traffic at crossings, and inappropriate implementation of roads crossing the rails. Based on the study results, the conclusions and recommendations were formulated which primary measures to prevent accidents at level crossing and on what level crossing should be taken urgently. Originality.Revealed trends and major causes of accidents at railway crossings of Lithuania for 2004-2011 year. The necessity of implementation of progressive technical measures for the prevention accidents on railway level crossing is proved. Practical value. About 50% of Lithuanian railway crossings do not meet the requirements of the level crossing legislation. This parameter is one of the key risk

  10. Assessment of Stochastic Capacity Consumption in Railway Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2015-01-01

    The railway industry continuously strive to reduce cost and utilise resources optimally. Thus, there is a demand for tools that are able to fast and efficiently provide decision-makers with solutions that can help them achieve their goals. In strategic planning of capacity, this translates...

  11. Comprehensive assessment method for environmental impact of railway based on geographic information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小萍; 陈秀方; 马超群; 杨晓宇; 冉茂平; 孟祥定

    2004-01-01

    By integrating the merits of the map overlay method and the geographic information system (GIS), a GIS based map overlay method was developed to analyze comprehensively the environmental vulnerability around railway and its impact on the environment, which is adapted for the comprehensive assessment of railway environmental impact and the optimization of railway alignments. The assessment process of the GIS based map overlay method was presented, which includes deciding the system structure and weights of assessment factors, making environmental vulnerability grade maps, and evaluating the alternative alignments comprehensively to obtain the best one. With the GIS functions of spatial analysis, such as overlay analysis and buffer analysis, and functions of handling attribute data, the GIS based map overlay method overcomes the shortcomings of the existing map overlay method and the conclusion is more reasonable. In the end, a detailed case study was illustrated to verify the efficiency of the method.

  12. Application of Numerical Simulation and Vibration Measurements for Seismic Damage Assessment of Railway Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehan, Fumiaki; Meguro, Kimiro

    In this study, the authors discuss methods to assess the future/actual damage to RC structures by using numerical simulations and vibration measurements. First, the applicability of the Applied Element Method (AEM) is examined as an assessment tool for the seismic performance of RC structures with/without retrofit. Cyclic loading tests and seismic response of RC structures are simulated. Next, a method to improve the accuracy of vibration diagnoses of earthquake damaged RC structures is discussed by using damage assessment criteria calculated with the AEM. The AEM could simulate the damage behavior of RC columns, jacketed RC columns and an actual railway viaduct. The change of natural frequencies due to damage to RC columns and an actual railway viaduct with steel jacket were also correctly estimated. Seismic performance check of structures and development of assessment criteria for damage inspection can be effectively done by the AEM.

  13. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  14. Hygienic assessment of working conditions and occupational risk for workers health at railway transport objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Loginova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed hygienic assessment of working conditions at railway transport over 2011–2015. We detected a decreasing trend in specific weight of working places where physical factors were higher than hygienic standards and where steam and gases content in working area air was higher than maximum permissible concentrations (MPC. Working conditions of locomotive teams remain most unfavorable as per risk factors. We detected that a priori occupation risk for locomotive teams was characterized with parameters varying from moderate to considerable ones. Occupational noise was determined as a priority risk factor making working conditions category a hazardous one and it corresponded to occupational morbidity structure. We detected that sensorineural hearing loss took a leading place in morbidity both in the branch in general and among locomotive team workers. We also clarified that such workers as engine drivers and their assistants (up to 43 % had the greatest specific weight among railway workers with occupational diseases; occupational morbidity among locomotive team workers amounted to 3.0 per 10,000 workers in 2015 while average morbidity among all railway workers amounted to only 1.32 per 10,000 workers. We revealed that occupational diseases were most frequently detected in workers aged 51–60 (51.9 % in 2014 who had worked under hazardous occupational factors influence for longer than 15 years. While there was an overall decreasing trend in occupa-tional morbidity in the branch in 2011–2015 from 1.68 to 1.32 per 10,000 workers, we detected a brunch peculiarity in the risk group, namely, an unsatisfactory trend for growing share of workers with occupational diseases aged 31–40 (from 2.6 % in 2011 to 12 % in 2014 and it requires special attention in terms of risk management.

  15. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  16. Using Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Assessing the Risk of Railway Reconstruction Project in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shih-Heng; Chang, Dong-Shang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the risk factors in railway reconstruction project through complete literature reviews on construction project risks and scrutinizing experiences and challenges of railway reconstructions in Taiwan. Based on the identified risk factors, an assessing framework based on the fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (fuzzy MCDM) approach to help construction agencies build awareness of the critical risk factors on the execution of railway reconstruction project, measure the impact and occurrence likelihood for these risk factors. Subjectivity, uncertainty and vagueness within the assessment process are dealt with using linguistic variables parameterized by trapezoid fuzzy numbers. By multiplying the degree of impact and the occurrence likelihood of risk factors, estimated severity values of each identified risk factor are determined. Based on the assessment results, the construction agencies were informed of what risks should be noticed and what they should do to avoid the risks. That is, it enables construction agencies of railway reconstruction to plan the appropriate risk responses/strategies to increase the opportunity of project success and effectiveness. PMID:24772014

  17. Using fuzzy multiple criteria decision-making approach for assessing the risk of railway reconstruction project in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shih-Tong; Yu, Shih-Heng; Chang, Dong-Shang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the risk factors in railway reconstruction project through complete literature reviews on construction project risks and scrutinizing experiences and challenges of railway reconstructions in Taiwan. Based on the identified risk factors, an assessing framework based on the fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (fuzzy MCDM) approach to help construction agencies build awareness of the critical risk factors on the execution of railway reconstruction project, measure the impact and occurrence likelihood for these risk factors. Subjectivity, uncertainty and vagueness within the assessment process are dealt with using linguistic variables parameterized by trapezoid fuzzy numbers. By multiplying the degree of impact and the occurrence likelihood of risk factors, estimated severity values of each identified risk factor are determined. Based on the assessment results, the construction agencies were informed of what risks should be noticed and what they should do to avoid the risks. That is, it enables construction agencies of railway reconstruction to plan the appropriate risk responses/strategies to increase the opportunity of project success and effectiveness.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Vibro-Acoustic Behavior of Rubber-Damped Railway Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešek, Luděk; Půst, Ladislav

    The reduction of noise and vibrations is very important task in many industrial and transport applications. The sources of intensive noise and vibrations are also tram and railway wheels at high speeds. Therefore the modern types of steel railway wheels contain the visco-elastic paddings. The first problem treated in this contribution is concerned with the theoretical and experimental investigation of the thermo-mechanical properties of rubber-like damping elements loaded with prestress by harmonic force. The dynamic modal and spectral properties of the whole railway wheel with damping elements will be investigated by the 3-D FEM model as the second problem.

  19. Spectral assessment of mesh adaptations for the analysis of the dynamical longitudinal behavior of railway bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, J. [Inst. for Transportation Technologies, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Ruge, P. [Inst. of Dynamics of Structures, Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Extensive studies, concerning the longitudinal behavior of long railway bridges due to braking forces have been done by measurements in situ, and by statical, as well as dynamical simulations. Thereby, the only consistent numerical realization with respect to the measured data was the dynamical one. However, the consecutive discretizations in space and time with time-dependent system matrices are extremely time consuming due to the moving loads and varying stiffness of the ballast under, and in front of, the moving train. Therefore, every effort should be made to optimize the discretization in the space domain. This paper presents a strategy for assessing the quality of finite elements in space and for applying an adaptive mesh-refinement for this special engineering problem. The method is characterized by a spectral assessment, comparing a certain set of eigenvalues of the actual discretization with those of a very fine and rather exact numerical model. The error estimator introduced in this paper controls a whole set of global eigenvalues with corresponding natural vibration modes in order to assess certain types of shape functions. Thus, the procedure estimates local modifications on the one hand and p-properties on the other by means of global indication. (orig.)

  20. Strategic assessment of capacity consumption in railway networks: Framework and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new framework for strategic planning purposes to calculate railway infrastructure occupation and capacity consumption in networks, independent of a timetable. Furthermore, a model implementing the framework is presented. In this model different train sequences are gene......In this paper, we develop a new framework for strategic planning purposes to calculate railway infrastructure occupation and capacity consumption in networks, independent of a timetable. Furthermore, a model implementing the framework is presented. In this model different train sequences...

  1. Lifecycle Assessments of Railway Bridge Transitions Exposed to Extreme Climate Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadudee Setsobhonkul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Railway track components located at bridge transition zones or approach areas suffer from impact load and vibrations caused by abrupt changes in track stiffness on the bridge and the subgrade. The numerous strategies that can be used to mitigate these abrupt track stiffness changes rely on one of two concepts. The first concept is that of providing a gradual stiffness change, and the second is that of equalizing the track stiffness. A number of such mitigation methods have been developed and implemented over recent decades. Construction activities associated with these methods require various materials, processes, and uses of time, costs, and carbon emissions. In this study, eight of the most common techniques for railway bridge transition mitigation, including under ballast mats (UBMs, soft baseplates, under sleeper pads (USPs, rail pads, embankment treatments, transition slabs, ballast bonding, and wide sleepers, are compared. This study benchmarks the costs and carbon emissions of these eight mitigation techniques over the 50-year lifespan of a railway system subject to identical probabilities of four environmental scenarios: a control case, extremely high temperatures, extremely low temperatures, and flash flooding. This unprecedented study systemically investigates the effectiveness of the mitigation methods while considering the effects of 30 and 100 m bridge span lengths. Our results indicate that railway engineers should adopt different mitigation methods for different scenarios. The soft baseplate is the most appropriate method for a short-span bridge in the control case and the case of flash flooding, while ballast bonding is better for long-span railway bridges. Embankment treatment is recommended for both high- and low-extreme temperatures. However, its applicability is limited when the differential track stiffness is extremely high. Hence, alternatives that are 5–25% more expensive are proposed in parallel. The alternative

  2. Operating the railway traffic control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton PEPEVNIK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the valid traffic policy and development strategy of the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovenian Railways have to consider the developmental and strategic aims of European railways. The perspective of progress is basically determined by skimming the European system development, by taking over the European system and managing the railway traffic in the connection with the European railway system.Technology and organization of the railway traffic system present the sum of all technological and organizational elements and processes that takes part in providing aims of the system. The aims are defined as solving transport problems in railway system. The term system is defined, from the formal mathematical viewpoint, as a whole that is usually complicated or even very much complicated. Therefore, the railway system is complex as well, and that is why it has to be managed precisely. In the narrow sense of meaning, technology and work organization both comprises a variety of means and procedures to realize basic activity that can be seen as a perfect unit, and that can be the process of passengers and freight transport in a transport system.Because of the prompt development of microelectronics and computer engineering, a new generation of electronic signal-safety devices appeared.All these changes from the past few years that have been introduced into railway technology, enable railway to become attractive and competitive to other means of traffic. Therefore, the Slovenian Railways have to follow novelties in traffic technology development and gradually modernize its railway network.

  3. Development of a model to assess acoustic treatments to reduce railway noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, H.; Squicciarini, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Ryue, J.

    2016-09-01

    Porous materials have recently been used in absorptive treatments around railway tracks to reduce noise emissions. To investigate the effect of porous materials, a finite element model has been developed. 2D models for porous materials have been considered either as an equivalent fluid or as a poroelastic material based on the Biot theory. The two models have been validated and compared with each other to check the effect of the skeleton vibration. The poroelastic FE model has been coupled with a 2D acoustic boundary element model for use in railway applications. The results show that it may be necessary to include the frame vibration, especially at low frequencies where a frame resonance occurs. A method for the characterization of porous materials is also discussed. From this it is shown that the elastic properties of the material determine the resonance frequency and the magnitude.

  4. A Case Study on a Trial Site in Western Austria to Assess Benefits of Railway Lineside Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerbinger, Stephan; Obriejetan, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Lineside vegetation along railways can provide a wide range of ecosystem services and benefits. At the same time, there are several specific demands on the vegetation systems ensuring maintenance of highest standards of safety and operational performance. As a first step of the study, these demands on lineside vegetation but also their potentials for both rail specific internal and external benefits were summarized. For further analyses a case study was performed. A trial site, located in Austriás western federal state of Vorarlberg, was selected. The overall trial corridor was 22 km long and offered a large diversity in geomorphology, embankment types and surrounding land cover. A GIS-based classification of location types was conducted by using available open source geodata. Additionally, images, taken every fifty meters by a camera, mounted on a locomotive, supported the classification process. Following parameter were assessed: type of the track body, geomorphology, site conditions, technical facilities and surrounding land cover. Along railway infrastructure facilities, ecosystem services, provided by the lineside vegetation, are closely associated with improvement of the stability and resilience of embankments and cuttings. At the same time, specific criteria that must be fulfilled at every location type. These are safety and technical issues, such as keeping the railway clearance profile, economical issues respectively avoiding additional maintenance costs by strong plant growth. Supplementary ecosystem services are strongly related to the position in the landscape and the surrounding land cover. Along urban structures, that can be noise- or sight protection, provided by the lineside vegetation. On location types along agricultural land, lineside vegetation can provide ecological corridors or enhance the landscape structure. In this context, ecosystem services were derived to the previously assigned location types. The result of the case study is a GIS

  5. The Application of Vibration Accelerations in the Assessment of Average Friction Coefficient of a Railway Brake Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczuk, Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Due to their wide range of friction characteristics resulting from the application of different friction materials and good heat dissipation conditions, railway disc brakes have long replaced block brakes in many rail vehicles. A block brake still remains in use, however, in low speed cargo trains. The paper presents the assessment of the braking process through the analysis of vibrations generated by the components of the brake system during braking. It presents a possibility of a wider application of vibroacoustic diagnostics (VA), which aside from the assessment of technical conditions (wear of brake pads) also enables the determination of the changes of the average friction coefficient as a function of the braking onset speed. Vibration signals of XYZ were measured and analyzed. The analysis of the results has shown that there is a relation between the values of the point measures and the wear of the brake pads.

  6. Computer applications in railway operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hafez Fahmy Aly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the railway simulation technique is the formation of a model that can be easily tested for any desired changes and modifications in infrastructure, control system, or in train operations in order to improve the network operation and its productivity. RailSys3.0 is a German railway simulation program that deals with this goal. In this paper, a railway network operation, with different suggested modifications in infrastructure, rolling stocks, and control system, using RailSys3.0, has been studied, optimized, and evaluated. The proposed simulation program (RailSys 3.0 was applied on ABO-KIR railway line in Alexandria city, as a case study, to assess the impact of changing track configuration, operating and control systems on the performance measures, time-table, track capacity and productivity. Simulation input, such as track element, train and operation components of the ABO-KIR railway line, has been entered to the computer program to construct the simulation model. The simulation process has been carried out for the existing operation system to construct a graphical model of the case-study track including line alignment and train movements, as well as to evaluate the existing operation system. To improve the operation system of the railway line, eight different innovative alternatives are generated, analyzed and evaluated. Finally, different track measures to improve the operation system of the ABO-KIR railway line have been introduced.

  7. Polymeric composite and lubricants for the wearresistant friction units of railway mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp MYASNIKOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For long functioning of the friction unit it is necessary to create the steady layers between friction surfaces, which can lower considerably the friction force, and thereof also the wear reducing. Within the metal-polymer tribocoupling the friction transfer film shall function as a separating layer. The frame and kinetics of filming of friction carry at metal- binary material friction is studied, that creates the base for mining new high-performance self-lubricating polymer compositions.When the unit with a lubricant functions, a role of the uncoupling layer is being fulfilled by the lubricating film, which shall possess the given properties, that is to contain in its composition the nanoclaster additives, capable to function in a tribocoupling for a long time, constantly reappearing in a film due to the chemical reactions at friction. It is shown that introduction of nanomodified additives on the basis of phosphorus molybdate of metals into widely used lubricant compositions allows to create steady lubricant films between friction surfaces. The possible mechanism of action of inorganic phosphoprous-containing additives of the polymeric nature is discussed.

  8. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF WHEELS OF PERSPECTIVE STRUCTURAL SCHEME FOR RAILWAY VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Semenov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to the definition of technical and economic efficiency from the use of wheels of perspective structural scheme in the undercarriage of the rail vehicles (wagon. Methodology. The use efficiency of wheels of promising design scheme by reducing the motion resistance and wear of the wheel flanges is estimated by calculated values of estimated annual economic effect of implementation and payback period of the costs required for the development and implementation of the proposed wheel. Non-recurring costs include the cost associated with conducting research and development work, as well as the additional costs required for the manufacture of wheels of promising design scheme. Findings. In the course of computation and analysis of the economic efficiency from introductions of wheels of promising design concept, carried out on the basis of the initial data for the South-West railway, it was determined the profit which can be obtained by reducing the following operating costs: cost of returning the wheel flange on wheel sets; cost of fuel and energy resources for train traction; the value of the idle of cars in the current uncoupling repair; cost of repairs and current maintenance of rail track. In addition, it can be additionally released a number of cars by reducing their downtime. The calculation of net discounted income is carried out with the following assumptions: calculation period; estimated increase in the cost of wheel sets with wheels of promising constructive scheme compared to the model, the values of net profit for the accounting period, which was calculated by calculating the average value minus the cost of research, development and manufacturing of wheelset park with wheels of new design scheme. For a given billing period, the calculated value of the net discounted income was obtained and the payback period of the project was determined. Originality. The approaches to the perfection of design scheme of wheels

  9. Unit Performance Assessment System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Overview of the enhanced UPAS ...... . 57 xiv UNIT PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Introduccion The networking of combat vehicle simulators...converting SIMNET terrain data from the UNIX format to a DOS format as part of their work on the development of Intelligent Semi-Automated Forces. The...and Social Sciences. (AD A226 956). LB&M Associates (1992). Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program for Simulation Networkinc Training

  10. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...

  11. Performance analysis of railway infrastructure and operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.; Wiggenraad, P.B.L.; Wolff, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Research on performance assessment of railway networks and companies has been stimulated by the European policy of deregulation of transport markets, the opening of national railway networks and markets to new entrants and separation of infrastructure and train operation. Recent international benchm

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS WITH OIL ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Zelenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The principles of estimation of losses to the environment components caused by the emergency spills of petroleum products and the methodical approaches to estimation of ecological risk of functioning of railways are offered.

  13. Distribution project optimization of united transportation of railway and highway%公铁联运配送方案优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海红; 刘瑛

    2011-01-01

    为了提高公铁联运物流配送客户满意度和降低物流运输成本,将物流配送过程中铁路物流配送中心、货运站(配送点)与收货点之间的路径作为优化对象,分析了公铁联运中铁路物流配送中心的配送模式,建立了以客户物流费用最低为目标的路径选择模型,考虑了各个节点之间的单位运输费用、货物在各节点的包装和储存费用以及客户对某种货物的需求量。计算结果表明:当铁路物流中心不直接向客户配送货物,而是选择货运站来配送货物时,客户物流总费用最小,因此,路径选择模型可以准确地描述物流配送问题。%To improve the customer satisfaction of logistic service and reduce the transportation cost in the united transportation of railway and highway, the paths among the distribution centers of railway logistics, freight transportation stations and customers were taken as optimal object, the distribution patterns of distribution centers of railway logistics were analyzed, a route choice model of logistic distribution with an objective function of the minimal distribution cost to customers was set up, and the unit transportation costs, storing costs and packaging costs of freights at all notes and the freight requirements of customers were considered. Computation result shows that the total cost of logistic transportation is minimal when customers receive freights from the stations rather than the centers, which indicates that the logistic distribution problem can be accurately depicted by using the model. 1 tab, 4 figs, 14 refs.

  14. Predicting Driver Behavior Using Field Experiment Data and Driving Simulator Experiment Data: Assessing Impact of Elimination of Stop Regulation at Railway Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihisa Sato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of deregulating the presence of stop signs at railway crossings on car driver behavior. We estimated the probability that a driver would stop inside the crossing, thereby obstructing the tracks, when a lead vehicle suddenly stopped after the crossing and a stop regulation was eliminated. We proposed a new assessment method of the driving behavior as follows: first, collecting driving behavior data in a driving simulator and in a real road environment; then, predicting the probability based on the collected data. In the simulator experiment, we measured the distances between a lead vehicle and the driver’s vehicle and the driver’s response time to the deceleration of the leading vehicle when entering the railway crossing. We investigated the influence of the presence of two leading vehicles on the driver’s vehicle movements. The deceleration data were recorded in the field experiments. Slower driving speed led to a higher probability of stopping inside the railway crossing. The probability was higher when the vehicle in front of the leading vehicle did not slow down than when both the lead vehicle and the vehicle in front of it slowed down. Finally, advantages of our new assessment method were discussed.

  15. A novel model for determining the amplitude-wavelength limits of track irregularities accompanied by a reliability assessment in railway vehicle-track dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhai, Wanming

    2017-03-01

    The loads on a vehicle and the vibrations transmitted to track infrastructures due to the operation of rolling stocks are mainly determined by the irregularities of the track profile. Hence, it is rather important to ascertain the limits of track irregularities, including amplitudes and wavelengths, to guarantee the dynamic performance of running vehicles and guiding tracks. Furthermore, the operation and management levels as well as irregularity status for different railways are highly dissimilar. Therefore, it is a necessary to conduct a reliability assessment for a specific railway line. In the present work, a large amount of measured track irregularities are concentrated as a group form of the track irregularity power spectrum density. A track irregularity inversion model is presented to obtain realistic representations of track profile deformations with information regarding amplitudes, wavelengths and probabilities. Then, the methodologies for determining the limits of track irregularities and achieving a reliability assessment are presented by introducing the probability density evolution method and development of a Wavelet-Wigner-Hough method. Using the vehicle-track interaction model, numerical studies for confirming the limits of track irregularities and evaluating the reliability of the dynamic performance of the vehicle can be conducted to provide valuable suggestions. This paper offers new possibilities for studying the limit amplitudes, characteristic wavelengths of track irregularities as well as corresponding reliabilities when a railway vehicle runs under different track geometric conditions.

  16. Assessing the influence of wheel defects of a rolling stockon railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich

    2015-05-01

    - slides (potholes, etc.The motion of the wheels with irregularities on the surface of the rail leads to vertical oscillation of the wheel, resulting in the forces of inertia, which is an additional load on the rail. In case of movement of the wheel with isolated roughness on the tread surface of the slide there is a strike, having a very large additional impact on the rail. Such attacks can cause kinked rails, especially in the winter months when there is increased fragility of rail steel, because of lowered temperatures. This is an abnormal phenomenon and occurs relatively rarely, at a small number of isolated irregularities on a wheel of the rolling stock. As correlations connecting the contact force and local deformation in the interaction of the wheel-rail system, we use the quasi-static Hertz’s model, linear-elastic model and two elastoplastic contact models: Alexandrov-Kadomtsev and Kil’chevsky. According to the results of Loktev’s studies ratios of the contact Hertz’s theory are quite suitable for modeling the dynamic effects of wheel and rail for speeds up to 90 km/h for engineering calculations. Since the contact surface is homogeneous and isotropic, the friction forces in the contact zone are not taken into account, the size of the pad is small compared to the dimensions of the contacting bodies and characteristic radii of curvature of the undeformed surfaces, the contacting surfaces are smooth.When train is driving, the position of the wheelset in relation to the rails varies considerably, giving rise to different combinations of the contact areas of the wheel and rail. Even assuming constant axial load the normal voltage will vary considerably because of the differences in the radii of curvature of the contacting surfaces of these zones. Thus, the proposed method allows evaluating the influence of several types of wheel defects on the condition of the rail and the prospects of its use in the upper structure of a railway track on plots with different

  17. Assessment of the Vibrations Effects Caused by Technical Seismicity Due to the Railway traffic on High-sensitivity Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papán, Daniel; Valašková, Veronika; Demeterová, Katarína

    2016-10-01

    The numerical and experimental approach in structural dynamics problems is more and more current nowadays. This approach is applied and solved in many research and developing institutions of the all the world. Vibrations effect caused by passing trains used in manufacturing facilities can affect the quality of the production activity. This effect is possible to be solved by a numerical or an experimental way. Numerical solution is not so financially and time demanding. The main aim of this article is to focus on just experimental measurement of this problem. In this paper, the case study with measurement due to cramped conditions realized in situ is presented. The case study is located close to railway. The vibration effect caused by passing trains on the high-sensitivity machinery contained in this object were observed. The structure was a high-sensitivity machine that was placed in a construction process. For the measurements, the high-sensitivity standard vibrations equipment was used. The assessments of measurements’ results were performed for the technological conditions and Slovak Standard Criteria. Both of these assessments were divided to amplitude and frequency domain. The amplitude criterion is also divided to peak particle velocity and RMS (Root Mean Square). Frequency domain assessment were realised using the frequency response curves obtained from high-sensitivity machinery manufacturer. The frequency limits are established for each axis of triaxle system. The measurement results can be predicted if the vibration have to be reduced. Measurement implemented in the production hall should obtain materials to determine the seismic loading and response of production machinery caused by technical seismicity.

  18. Study to assess the level of stress and identification of significant stressors among the railway engine pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sumit; Khapre, Purushottam; Laha, Subrata K.; Saran, Nishant

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing demands, exacting management, poor ergonomics, and intense competition within and without are likely to contribute to stress among the railway engine pilots. This excess of stress and its consequences cost very high to both the organization and the consumers. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to identify the particular stressors affecting the railway engine pilots and their level of occupational stress in order to improve the safety, efficiency, and overall productivity of the railways and to propose the remedies. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at Central Hospital, SECR, Bilaspur, from 20/09/10 to 20/11/10, involving a study sample of 100 healthy Loco Pilots and 100 controls with similar safety category meeting the set inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjected to cross-sectional interviews and questionnaires. Results: Job stress correlated significantly with fatigue (Prailway engine pilots susceptible to fatigue and drowsiness, neglect, injuries, and accidents. PMID:22412289

  19. World Assessment Unit Geological Characterizations, 2000 World Petroleum Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapfile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined petroleum resource Assessment Units of the World. Each assessment unit is...

  20. Composite indicator for railway infrastructure management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen M. Famurewa; Christer Stenstro¨ m; Matthias Asplund; Diego Galar; Uday Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and analysis of railway infra-structure capacity is an essential task in railway infra-structure management carried out to meet the required quality and capacity demand of railway transport. For sustainable and dependable infrastructure management, it is important to assess railway capacity limitation from the point of view of infrastructure performance. However, the existence of numerous performance indicators often leads to diffused information that is not in a format suitable to support decision making. In this paper, we demonstrated the use of fuzzy inference system for aggregating selected railway infrastructure performance indicators to relate maintenance function to capacity situation. The selected indicators consider the safety, comfort, punctuality and reliability aspects of railway infrastructure performance. The resulting composite indicator gives a reliable quanti-fication of the health condition or integrity of railway lines. A case study of the assessment of overall infrastructure performance which is an indication of capacity limitation is presented using indicator data between 2010 and 2012 for five lines on the network of Trafikverket (Swedish Trans-port Administration). The results are presented using cus-tomised performance dashboard for enhanced visualisation, quick understanding and relevant comparison of infra-structure conditions for strategic management. This gives additional information on capacity status and limitation from maintenance management perspective.

  1. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...

  2. Frequency Analysis of Critical Meteorological Conditions in a Changing Climate—Assessing Future Implications for Railway Transportation in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Kellermann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological extreme events have great potential for damaging railway infrastructure and posing risks to the safety of train passengers. In the future, climate change will presumably have serious implications on meteorological hazards in the Alpine region. Hence, attaining insights on future frequencies of meteorological extremes with relevance for the railway operation in Austria is required in the context of a comprehensive and sustainable natural hazard management plan of the railway operator. In this study, possible impacts of climate change on the frequencies of so-called critical meteorological conditions (CMCs between the periods 1961–1990 and 2011–2040 are analyzed. Thresholds for such CMCs have been defined by the railway operator and used in its weather monitoring and early warning system. First, the seasonal climate change signals for air temperature and precipitation in Austria are described on the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution Regional Climate Model (RCM simulations for Europe. Subsequently, the RCM-ensemble was used to investigate changes in the frequency of CMCs. Finally, the sensitivity of results is analyzed with varying threshold values for the CMCs. Results give robust indications for an all-season air temperature rise, but show no clear tendency in average precipitation. The frequency analyses reveal an increase in intense rainfall events and heat waves, whereas heavy snowfall and cold days are likely to decrease. Furthermore, results indicate that frequencies of CMCs are rather sensitive to changes of thresholds. It thus emphasizes the importance to carefully define, validate, and—if needed—to adapt the thresholds that are used in the weather monitoring and warning system of the railway operator. For this, continuous and standardized documentation of damaging events and near-misses is a pre-requisite.

  3. Improvement Study on Railway Operating Assessment Indices under the Condition of Market Reform%市场化改革下铁路运营考核指标改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玲燕; 何世伟; 逯红兵; 黎浩东

    2016-01-01

    In view of high degree of marketization of foreign railways, it’s necessary to borrow their set of railway operating indices to improve the existing railway operating indices in China. To guide the railway transportation and production, it’s also necessary to select the operating indices as the assessment indices, which are sensitive to the change of freight revenue. On the basis of the current railway operating indices, this paper analyzed prob-lems of adapting to the railway market reform. And then by referring to the experience of operating indices set of Deutsche Bahn Railway and US Railway, six new railway operating economic indices were introduced, including revenue or tonnage revenue of goods category, revenue per freight train or per train kilometer, revenue per freight car or per car kilometer. Based on railway statistics of 2010 and 2011, the influence degree of railway operating indices on railway freight revenue by way of factor effect analysis was calculated. The top eight operat-ing indices in descending order were analyzed by the influence degree of their influence mechanism. Counter-measures were put forward accordingly to improve the railway freight revenue. The example analysis finally re-veals that the changes brought by newly-added railway operating indices are sensitive to the changes of railway freight revenue, especially the revenue per train kilometer.%在总结我国铁路现有运营指标体系的基础上,分析其在适应市场化改革中存在的问题,借鉴德国及美国铁路的运营指标设置情况,提出分品类收入/分品类吨公里收入、单列车收入/单列车公里收入、单车收入/单车公里收入等6项经济效益指标。利用因素影响分析法,选取2010年和2011年全路统计数据,计算出包括新增指标在内的各项运营指标变动对货运总收入变动的影响程度。重点分析影响率按降序排在前8位的运营指标对货运收入的影响机理,并为提

  4. Durability assessment of concrete sheet piling in the 'De Betuweroute' railway line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Polder, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of the durability of prestressed concrete sheet piles under the interference of CP gas pipeline system current, established that due to their low magnitude, these currents do not compromise the required 100-year service life of the structures. The sophisticated numerical modelling tools

  5. Durability assessment of concrete sheet piling in the 'De Betuweroute' railway line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Polder, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of the durability of prestressed concrete sheet piles under the interference of CP gas pipeline system current, established that due to their low magnitude, these currents do not compromise the required 100-year service life of the structures. The sophisticated numerical modelling tools b

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF REBUILT RAILWAY CARS AND COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium- size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but lack the expertise to do so. Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at se...

  8. Durability assessment of concrete sheet piling in the 'De Betuweroute' railway line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Polder, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of the durability of prestressed concrete sheet piles under the interference of CP gas pipeline system current, established that due to their low magnitude, these currents do not compromise the required 100-year service life of the structures. The sophisticated numerical modelling tools b

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Yukon Flats Assessment Area (002) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  10. Application of graph overlay method to environmental impact assessment of railway noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-ping; YANG Xiao-yu; MA Chao-qun; RAN Mao-ping

    2005-01-01

    The graph overlay method is used to evaluate the noise impact of route alignment and the results can serve as a reference for the route alignment optimal selection. The geographic information system(GIS), with its powerful function of handling attribute data and spatial analysis, is adopted to calculate the noise comprehensive impact area of each alignment. With the graph overlay method, the noise vulnerability and noise impact distribution are both taken into account in the noise impact assessment of route alignment. With GIS, the efficiency of work and the reliability of result are greatly improved. By a combination of them, the noise impact on environment is fully presented in a visual way and the assessment result has vital value in route alignment optimal selection. A detailed case study is illustrated and the efficiency of the method is verified.

  11. Assessment of dynamic efforts to bodies of wagons at transportation with railway ferries

    OpenAIRE

    Ловська, Альона Олександрівна

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure traffic safety of cars during rail-ferry transportations, assessment of forces, acting on them in conditions of rough sea is necessary. Regulations that reflect these issues include values of loads, which are unique to the Caspian Sea. In this regard, mathematical models that allow to get accelerations, acting on the support structure of car bodies for the given waters, such as rail ferry and technical characteristics of the car are developed.Due to the variety of rail-ferr...

  12. Assessment of Underline Engineering Settlement of Hangzhou-Ningbo Passenger Railway%杭甬高速铁路线下工程沉降变形评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉萍; 杨岚

    2012-01-01

    It is an important technical requirement to analyze,predicate and assess the settlement after construction of ballastless tracks of high speed railway.Up to now,there is no mature experience of this kind of technology in China or abroad.This article introduces some different ways that are commonly used for the assessment and prediction.These methods have been used to predicate the settlement after construction of Hangzhou-Ningbo passenger railway project and to analyze the deformation of the structure.Practical applicability of these methods is also discussed.It is indicated that,relevantly speaking,the curve regression method is firstly most suitable for railway beds,and secondly for bridge,and thirdly for tunnel.Both the exponential curve method and the hyperbolic method are relevantly good ways for predicating the settlement after construction of railway beds,bridges and tunnels.%高速铁路无砟轨道线下工程工后沉降分析、预测及评估是高速铁路建设的一项重要技术要求,国内外尚无成熟的经验。通过对杭甬铁路客专线下工程构筑物进行变形分析,介绍目前常用的几种评估预测方法,并利用不同的预测方法进行工后沉降预测,分析其适用性。结果表明,使用曲线回归法进行不同结构物沉降分析预测,相对而言,路基段曲线拟合通过率较高,桥梁段次之,隧道段最低,指数曲线法及双曲线法相对适应性较好。

  13. Fitness-for-work assessment of train drivers of Yazd railway, central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukzadeh, Z; Zare, Z; Mehrparvar, A H; Mirmohammadi, S J; Mostaghaci, M

    2013-07-01

    National Transport Commission (NTC) classifies train driving as a high-level safety critical job. To assess fitness-for-work among train drivers in Yazd, central Iran. We evaluated 152 train drivers for their fitness for duty. The results were then compared with NTC guidelines. 63.8% of subjects were fit for duty, 34.2% fit subject to review, and 2.0% were temporarily unfit. The most common reason for fit subject to review was a Kessler score >19. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 48.0% and 15.0%, respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 69.7%, diabetes 10.0%, impaired fasting glucose 36.0%, and hypertension was 19.0%, respectively. Most studied train drivers can continue their work safely. The prevalence of some risk factors such as overweight and dyslipidemia were high among train drivers. This warrants further evaluation and establishment of control programs.

  14. Study to assess the level of stress and identification of significant stressors among the railway engine pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing demands, exacting management, poor ergonomics, and intense competition within and without are likely to contribute to stress among the railway engine pilots. This excess of stress and its consequences cost very high to both the organization and the consumers. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to identify the particular stressors affecting the railway engine pilots and their level of occupational stress in order to improve the safety, efficiency, and overall productivity of the railways and to propose the remedies. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at Central Hospital, SECR, Bilaspur, from 20/09/10 to 20/11/10, involving a study sample of 100 healthy Loco Pilots and 100 controls with similar safety category meeting the set inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjected to cross-sectional interviews and questionnaires. Results: Job stress correlated significantly with fatigue (P<0.001, ergonomics of work place (P<0.05 (particularly the postural discomfort and cab space, management pressure (P<0.01, high job demand (P<0.001, low control and low support at work (P<0.01, biological functions (P<0.05, and absenteeism (P<0.001. Top ten stressors have been identified and postural discomfort tops the list. The study also identifies minimal efforts from administration to reduce stress of its employees. Conclusion: The high demand, low control, and low support at the work with difficult work environment and inadequate recreation at the place of intermediary rest corroborates with development of stress affecting the normal biological functions leading to either avoidance of duty or making the railway engine pilots susceptible to fatigue and drowsiness, neglect, injuries, and accidents.

  15. Information systems and technology in the marketing of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Zharska

    2013-03-01

    railways has been carried out and the main disadvantages of Ukrainian site were found. The analyzed demand for information regarding the Ukrainian railway website using the Yandex statistical service search system revealed that consumers are mainly looking for information on timetables and possible ticket purchase online. The amount of requests for these services is growing.It has also been revealed that the site of Ukrainian carrier to a greater extent performs rather the function of marketing, than promotion. Thus, site improvements have been proposed.Conclusions and directions of further researches. The necessity of reforming the marketing system of the Ukraines railway transport was justified and the creation of the following marketing vertical was proposed: General Directorate of Strategic Marketing Service of railway marketing. Then the structure of each of the units was proposed. Such methodological foundations of marketing information system as a system of the proposed principles and indicators for assessing the effectiveness of its operation, the levels of the system have also been proposed. Besides a partially filled database automatically based on automated control systems of railway transport was suggested.

  16. Structural assessment of a RC Bridge over Sororó river along the Carajás railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. L. Matos

    Full Text Available The Carajás railway is operated by Vale SA and is used to transport the Brazilian production of iron ore mine located in the state of Pará until Itaqui harbor in Maranhão state. With 892 km in length, the railway will be doubled due to the prospect of increased production, which requires verification of the structures of bridges to ensure safety under loading up to 23% larger. The railway bridge in reinforced concrete has five hyperstatic spans with 25 m long and was built over Sororó river in the southeast of Pará. To better evaluate its structural performance under current loadings, several structural elements were monitored with strain gages and the concrete was characterized by non-destructive and destructive testing on the structure. This information was used in a computer model to estimate the future structural behavior. The methodology was satisfactory as the estimated structural performance for future loadings, meeting the recommendations of the Brazilian technical standards.

  17. Fitness-for-Work Assessment of Train Drivers of Yazd Railway, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mostaghaci

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Transport Commission (NTC classifies train driving as a high-level safety critical job.Objective: To assess fitness-for-work among train drivers in Yazd, central Iran.Methods: We evaluated 152 train drivers for their fitness for duty. The results were then compared with NTC guidelines.Results: 63.8% of subjects were fit for duty, 34.2% fit subject to review, and 2.0% were temporarily unfit. The most common reason for fit subject to review was a Kessler score >19. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 48.0% and 15.0%, respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 69.7%, diabetes 10.0%, impaired fasting glucose 36.0%, and hypertension was 19.0%, respectively.Conclusion: Most studied train drivers can continue their work safely. The prevalence of some risk factors such as overweight and dyslipidemia were high among train drivers. This warrants further evaluation and establishment of control programs.

  18. Environmental impact assessment and environmental audit in large-scale public infrastructure construction: the case of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2009-09-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China's modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China's rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however, we have seen a shift in public concern toward the environmental and ecological effects of such projects, and today governments are required to provide valid environmental impact assessments prior to allowing large-scale construction. The official requirement for the monitoring of environmental conditions has led to an increased number of debates in recent years regarding the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Governmental Environmental Audits (GEAs) as environmental safeguards in instances of large-scale construction. Although EIA and GEA are conducted by different institutions and have different goals and enforcement potential, these two practices can be closely related in terms of methodology. This article cites the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway as an instance in which EIA and GEA offer complementary approaches to environmental impact management. This study concludes that the GEA approach can serve as an effective follow-up to the EIA and establishes that the EIA lays a base for conducting future GEAs. The relationship that emerges through a study of the Railway's construction calls for more deliberate institutional arrangements and cooperation if the two practices are to be used in concert to optimal effect.

  19. Urban Railway Accessibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hongzhi; YIN Yuanfei; YAN Hai; HAN Yan; QIN Huanmei

    2007-01-01

    Effective use of urban rapid railway systems requires that the railway systems be effectively connected with other transportation modes so that they are accessible. This paper uses the logit model and data to analyze the factors influencing railway access choices in a railway choice access model. The results indicate that access time, access cost, and access distance are factors significantly affecting railway access choices. The user's income significantly affects the probability of choosing to walk rather than to take a taxi,but is not related to choosing buses or bicycles. Vehicle ownership significantly affects the probability of choosing a taxi, but is not significantly related to the other modes. The conclusions provide an analysis tool for urban railway planning and construction.

  20. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  1. Assessment of potential energy efficiency improvements in the traction sector of the Swiss Federal Railways; Potentialermittlung Energieeffizienz Traktion bei den SBB - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Menth, S.; Lerjen, M.

    2007-07-01

    Possibilities to reduce the consumption of 16.7-Hz traction energy of Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) have been investigated. Various proposals have been discussed together with experts of SBB's Passenger, Cargo and Infrastructure divisions. Based on numerical simulations for representative train runs, the total consumption of the SBB network could be calculated and compared with real values. The possible reduction e.g. by energy optimised driving could be derived from this comparison; it is between 3 and 5 % of the specific consumption both for the influence by train driver and by traffic control. Technical measures in traction units and passenger coaches lead to reductions of up to about 3%, depending on the vehicle type. It is important that all measures take into account the extremely dense traffic on SBB's network and do not reduce the attractiveness for the customers. (author)

  2. Railway Construction in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Li Ping and Li Xinhu, the book actually is the result of research into “schemes of construction of railways in Yunnan and Tibet.” The book centers around research into the scheme of construction of the YunnanTibet Railway, conducting comprehensive studies involving political, economic, technological, social and State security fields.

  3. Cyclic Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.P. Peeters (Leon)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCyclic Railway Timetable Optimization describes mathematical models and solution methods for constructing high quality cyclic railway timetables. In a cyclic timetable, a train for a certain destination leaves a certain station at the same time every cycle time, say every half an hour,

  4. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross...

  5. Research on Safety Assessment of High Speed Railway Power Supply System%高速铁路供电系统安全性评估研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁坚勇; 孙建明; 张华志; 丁伟

    2011-01-01

    Research purposes: Railway Power Supply System (RPSS) is an important part of high - speed railway.Whether the power system is safe and reliable or not is related closely to security and stability of railway operation.Safety assessment is a vital element in modern management. But so far safety assessment of the high - speed railway power system is only in qualitative analysis stage with no quantitative indices and correlative methods. Integrates the safety assessment of RPSS with the standard EN50126, some proper safety assessment quantitative indices and corresponding methods of RPSS are proposed by the paper. It is availed reference for enhancing safety management of the RPSS.Research conclusions:By means of the novel safety assessment method based on ETA and improved LEC, The safty quantitative analysis for typical RPSS example is presented, criticality indices of power supply facility and so the risk grade of system are got respected. The validity of the safety assessment method and quantitative indices put by the paper is convinced.%研究目的:供电系统是高速铁路系统的重要组成部分,其安全可靠运行与铁路系统安全性密切相关.安全性评估是现代安全管理的重要一环.而我国在高铁供电系统安全性评估方面还只在定性阶段,缺乏定量评估指标和相应分析方法.本文在探讨系统安全性评估的方法、步骤的基础上将EN50126标准与铁路供电系统安全性评估相结合,分析提出了能反映系统各类风险发生概率和风险等级的定量安全性评估指标和安全性评估方法,为提高高铁供电系统的安全性管理水平提供参考.研究结论:基于事件树分析法(ETA)和改进的概率风险评估方法(LEC)相结合的安全性评估方法,对铁路供电段典型算例进行安全性定量评估分析,分别得到了各类供电设备的危险度指标和由其引发的系统安全风险等级,以及应采取的风险控制对策.说明本文提出

  6. Assessment of Motor Units in Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Robert D; McCombe, Pamela A

    2017-01-01

    The motor unit comprises the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers that it innervates. Although the true number of motor units is unknown, the number of motor units appears to vary greatly between different muscles and between different individuals. Assessment of the number and function of motor units is needed in diseases of the anterior horn cell and other motor nerve disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most important disease of anterior horn cells. The need for an effective biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has stimulated the study of methods to measure the number of motor units. Since 1970 a number of different methods, including the incremental, F-wave, multipoint, and statistical methods, have been developed but none has achieved widespread applicability. Two methods (MUNIX and the multipoint incremental method) are in current use across multiple centres and are discussed in detail in this review, together with other recently published methods. Imaging with magnetic resonance and ultrasound is increasingly being applied to this area. Motor unit number estimates have also been applied to other neuromuscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy, compression neuropathies, and prior poliomyelitis. The need for an objective measure for the assessment of motor units remains tantalizingly close but unfulfilled in 2016.

  7.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth;

    -directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear......This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi...... empirical evidence that accounting separation is important for improving operating efficiency for both material and staff costs, whereas other reforms only influenced one of these factors...

  8. Freight railway operator timetabling and engine scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Gendreau, M.; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider timetable design at a European freight railway operator. The timetable is designed by choosing the time of service for customer unit train demands among a set of discrete points. These discrete points are all found within the a time-window. The objective of the model...

  9. 75 FR 44305 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ...\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 48322 and 48323. \\1\\ On July 14, 2010, MAL... Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI Michigan Air-Line Railway Co. (MAL Railway), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt....

  10. Assessing the Performance of Business Unit Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 140 managers, we investigate the use of various performance metrics in determining the periodic assessment, bonus decisions, and career paths of business unit managers.We show that the weight on accounting return measures is associated with the authority of these managers, and we d

  11. Structural vulnerability and intervention of high speed railway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Hu, Funian; Wang, Shuliang; Dai, Yang; Wang, Yixing

    2016-11-01

    This paper employs complex network theory to assess the structural vulnerability of high speed railway networks subjected to two different malicious attacks. Chinese, US and Japanese high speed railway networks are used to discuss the vulnerable characteristics of systems. We find that high speed railway networks are very fragile when suffering serious disturbances and two attack rules can cause analogous damages to one high speed railway network, which illustrates that the station with large degree possesses high betweenness, vice versa. Meanwhile, we discover that Japanese high speed railway network has the best global connectivity, but Chinese high speed railway network has the best local connectivity and possesses the largest transport capacity. Moreover, we find that there exist several redundant paths in Chinese high speed railway network and discover the critical stations of three HSRNs. Furthermore, the nearest-link method is adopted to implement topological interventions and to improve the connectivity and reliability of high speed railway networks. In addition, the feasibility and effectiveness of topological interventions are shown by simulations.

  12. Anhui-Jiangxi railway tunnel design stage risk assessment of geological%皖赣铁路隧道设计阶段地质风险评估探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游勇根; 祝建农

    2011-01-01

    在现有资料的基础上,运用风险分析与评估的专家调查法、核对表法,对皖赣铁路电气化改造工程可研、初步设计阶段改线段新建铁路隧道的地质风险评估进行了探讨,得出了一些有益的结论,具有一定指导意义。%On the basis of available information, the use of experts in risk analysis and assessment survey, checklist method, Anhui-Jiangxi railway electrification project feasibility study, preliminary design stage to change the new railway line tunnel to explore the geological risk assessment, and cbncludes some beneficial results, so as to have certain direction significance.

  13. Allocating Freight Empty Cars in Railway Networks with Dynamic Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the freight empty cars allocation problem in railway networks with dynamic demands, in which the storage cost, unit transportation cost, and demand in each stage are taken into consideration. Under the constraints of capacity and demand, a stage-based optimization model for allocating freight empty cars in railway networks is formulated. The objective of this model is to minimize the total cost incurred by transferring and storing empty cars in different stages. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is designed to obtain the optimal empty cars distribution strategies in railway networks. Finally, numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  14. Color Vision and the Railways: Part 1. The Railway LED Lantern Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Casolin, Armand; Long, Jennifer; Hilmi, Mohd Radzi

    2015-02-01

    Lantern tests and practical tests are often used in the assessment of prospective railway employees. The lantern tests rarely embody the actual colors used in signaling on the railways. Practical tests have a number of problems, most notably consistency of application and practicability. This work was carried out to provide the Railway LED Lantern Test (RLLT) as a validated method of assessing the color vision of railway workers. The RLLT, a simulated practical test using the same LEDs (light-emitting diodes) as are used in modern railway signals, was developed. It was tested on 46 color vision-normal (CVN) and 37 color vision-deficient (CVD) subjects. A modified prototype was then tested on 106 CVN subjects. All 106 CVN subjects and most mildly affected CVD subjects passed the modified lantern at 3 m. At 6 m, 1 of the 106 normal color vision subjects failed by missing a single red light. All the CVD subjects failed. The RLLT carried out at 3 m allowed mildly affected CVD subjects to pass and demonstrate adequate color vision for the less demanding railway tasks. Carried out at 6 m, it essentially reinforced normal color vision as the standard. The RLLT is a simply administered test that has a direct link to the actual visual task of the rail worker. The RLLT lantern has been adopted as an approved test in the Australian National Standard for Health Assessment of Rail Safety Workers in place of a practical test. It has the potential to be a valid part of any railway color vision standard.

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Montana Thrust Belt Province (027) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Florida Peninsula Province (050) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Southwestern Wyoming Province (037) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Wyoming Thrust Belt Province (036) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Western Oregon-Washington Province (004) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Anadarko Basin Province (058) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hanna, Laramie, Shirley Basins Province (030) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Paradox Basin (021) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Michigan Basin Province (063) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Illinois Basin Province (064) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  8. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Province (065) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Williston Basin Province (031) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  10. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Unconventional Assessment Units from 2000 to 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Denver Basin Province (039) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  13. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Cherokee Platform Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province, Mancos Formation Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uteland Butte Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Eastern Great Basin (019) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Cotton Valley Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Audit in Large-Scale Public Infrastructure Construction: The Case of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2009-09-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China’s modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China’s rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however, we have seen a shift in public concern toward the environmental and ecological effects of such projects, and today governments are required to provide valid environmental impact assessments prior to allowing large-scale construction. The official requirement for the monitoring of environmental conditions has led to an increased number of debates in recent years regarding the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Governmental Environmental Audits (GEAs) as environmental safeguards in instances of large-scale construction. Although EIA and GEA are conducted by different institutions and have different goals and enforcement potential, these two practices can be closely related in terms of methodology. This article cites the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway as an instance in which EIA and GEA offer complementary approaches to environmental impact management. This study concludes that the GEA approach can serve as an effective follow-up to the EIA and establishes that the EIA lays a base for conducting future GEAs. The relationship that emerges through a study of the Railway’s construction calls for more deliberate institutional arrangements and cooperation if the two practices are to be used in concert to optimal effect.

  19. Non-point source analysis of a railway bridge area using statistical method: case study of a concrete road-bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Kyungik; Im, Jiyeol

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to protect the quality of the water system, interest in non-point source pollution is increasing. Recently, studies of non-point sources pollution are continuing in relation to various land-use areas, but such studies have not been fully conducted in railway facility sites. Using monitoring data of railway bridge area with concrete road-bed, the runoff characteristics, pollutant unit loads, and first flush criteria were assessed. Railway bridge area with concrete road-bed typically show the first flush effect, and the pollutant unit load was determined to be higher than other public facilities areas. Further, the first flush criteria show an effective rainfall amount of 7 mm. In other words, from the runoff of railway facilities, considerable amounts of non-point source pollutants are occurred, indicating the need to create best management practices which are adequate for railway facility sites. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Railway suicide in Belgium 1998-2009: incidence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Belgium is a country with a high suicide rate (19.1/100,000 in 2004), and railway suicide poses a substantial safety and public health problem. This problem was addressed by the Suicide Prevention Unit of Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure), which collects relevant data and implements a prevention program. To present data on fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior on the Belgian railway network, including monthly and regional distribution and identification of hotspots; and to present the Infrabel suicide prevention program. Analysis of Infrabel data on railway suicide (1998-2009) and comparison with data on suicide in Belgium. A total of 1,092 railway suicides (1998-2009) and 557 suicide attempts (2003-2009) in Belgium (fatality rate of 54%) were studied. Monthly fluctuations were observed, with the majority of suicides occurring in Flanders, followed by Wallonia and Brussels. We identified 34 hotspots accounting for 35% of cases, mostly in Flanders. In 2004 railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium (railway suicide rate of 1.03/100,000). Such a major human and economic loss warrants implementation of prevention measures. Infrabel has initiated a comprehensive suicide prevention program which focuses mainly on safeguarding the suicide hotspots.

  1. Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification. Presentation at the ICWL 2008 conference. August, 20, 2008, Jinhua, China.

  2. Railway separation: European diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, D.M.; Röntgen, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The European railway sector currently exhibits a wide variety of institutional configu- rations as a result of the reforms initiated by European legislation. This chapter de- scribes the situation in the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Great-Britain and France, providing a good coverage of the

  3. THE RAILWAYS THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    possible to obtain much equipment from the ... military requirements. By 1933 the Brigade ... handle substantially more work than in peace- ... their civil duties after each journey. ... bour Construction Companies and Railway Te- ... were attached to the SA Engineering Corps, ... plex machinery, tools were not available.

  4. Railways Factory in Resita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Iacob-Mare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an exemption Analysis railway factory in Resita impressed having experience and also provide some technical characteristics of freight wagons representative technology, used to transport products made in factories in ReşiŃa.

  5. Subcontracting Railway Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In several European countries, national railway operators have been dismantled and partly privatized to create new contractual relations where operations originally performed internally are now outsourced to several companies. Breaking up work across several independent organizational and commerc......In several European countries, national railway operators have been dismantled and partly privatized to create new contractual relations where operations originally performed internally are now outsourced to several companies. Breaking up work across several independent organizational...... railway infrastructure manager (InfraMan), whichis subcontracting maintenance tasks to other companies. InfraMan has implemented various central elements in managing their subcontractors. The latter are required to present a safety plan as part of their bid, they must be approved if they are to be awarded...... a contract, and the competencies of their employees working on the railway are controlled and provided by InfraMan. However, this regime faces a number of further challenges, including uncertainties related to the safety plans, contested responsibility for the education program, difficulties in controlling...

  6. Clinical swallowing assessment in intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Aline Rodrigues; Moraes, Danielle Pedroni; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2013-01-01

    To report the results of the full clinical swallowing assessment in acute-care population in a large Brazilian teaching hospital. A prospective, descriptive clinical study was conducted during three months in a 30-bed adult clinical emergency ICU from a large Brazilian teaching hospital. Thirty-five patients consecutively referred to the Speech-Language Pathology Service according to our standard clinical practice were included. A full clinical swallowing assessment was completed and includes a Preliminary Assessment Protocol (PAP), a Dysphagia Risk Evaluation Protocol (DREP) and an Oral Feeding Transition Protocol (OFTP). In this study, the prevalence of OD in the ICU setting was of 63%, most of which were classified as moderate and moderate-severe (39%). Patients submitted to orotracheal intubation were very frequently referred to swallowing assessment (74%). The results of the statistical analyses revealed clinical indicators that could correctly classify patients as either having or not having OD on clinical tests. These include cough strength, coordination between breathing and speaking, dysphonia severity, and laryngeal elevation. Twenty six patients (74%) completed all protocols. Of these total, 38% were able to eat a regular diet. The practice with standardized protocols adds an important option for the management of oropharyngeal dysphagia in intensive care unit.

  7. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  8. Discharge from an emergency department observation unit and a surgical assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Backer Mogensen, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit.......To investigate the experiences of patients with acute abdominal pain at discharge from an emergency department observation unit compared with discharge from a surgical assessment unit....

  9. Lateral Dynamics Of A Railway Truck On Flexible Tangent Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha*, A. K.; Karmakar, R.; Bhattacharyya, R.

    A railway vehicle becomes unstable beyond a critical speed. Assessment of the critical speed is important for safety and passenger comfort. Bond graph model of a railway truck-wheelset system on flexible tangent track has been created with eighteen degrees of freedom considering six degrees of freedom for each wheelset and the truck unit without any linearity approximation for the wheelsets. Kalker's linear creep theory has been used for rail-wheel contact forces. The bond graph model of a single wheelset created earlier has been used for the front and rear wheelsets to model the truck-wheelset system. The model is created and simulated for a given set of nominal parameter values with rigid track condition. Truck-critical speeds and stability bahaviour are studied through simulations. Critical speed of a truck is found to be higher than that of a wheelset at the same axle load and conicity for nominal primary suspension and wheelbase. Contrary to the variation of critical speed of a single wheelset with increasing conicity critical speed of a truck decreases with increasing conicity.

  10. Location Selection of Chinese Modern Railway Logistics Center Based on DEA-Bi-level Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Properly planning the modern railway logistics center is a necessary step for the railway logistics operation, which can effectively improve the railway freight service for a seamless connection between the internal and external logistic nodes. The study, from the medium level and depending on the existing railway freight stations with the railway logistics node city, focuses on the site-selection of modern railway logistics center to realize organic combination between newly built railway logistics center and existing resources. Considering the special features of modern railway logistics center, the study makes pre-selection of the existing freight stations with the DEA assessment model to get the alternative plan. And further builds a Bi-level plan model with the gross construction costs and total client expenses minimized. Finally, the example shows that the hybrid optimization algorithm combined with GA, TA, SA can solve the Bi-level programming which is a NP-hard problem and get the railway logistics center number and distribution. The result proves that our method has profound realistic significance to the development of China railway logistics.

  11. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts——the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models——a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  12. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Xu, W L; Liu, S J

    2001-07-01

    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts--the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models--a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  13. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  14. Strategies for Railway Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovey, E. C.

    1996-05-01

    Strategies are much talked about, but frequently lack any substance. The general concepts of strategic planning are discussed and the need for it to have a focus, i.e., a clear objective, are emphasized. A structural approach to strategic plan development is advocated, with a definition of the relevant issues being a prerequisite for success. Strategies, however, must be flexible and constantly reviewed even though the measures of success are often blurred. Railway noise is clearly amenable to strategic planning, but the issues will vary depending on the objectives of the organization. It is evident that railway noise technology, application and development, while important, needs to be substantially supplemented by other factors such as logistics and management issues to form an effective strategy in this domain.

  15. 基于GO法的高速铁路牵引变电所可靠性评估%The reliability assessment of traction substation of high speed railway by the GO methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈民武

    2011-01-01

    In order to assure the uninterrupted power supply of high speed railway, the reliability assessment of traction substation is essential at the design stage. A new system reliability analysis method, called the GO methodology, is applied in the reliability assessment of traction substation of high speed railway. Considering the maintainability and shutdown correlation of electrical equipments in substation, the simplified GO diagram is obtained by taking the uninterrupted power supply as its target. Then, the quantitative and qualitative assessment of reliability is realized, the weakness of system is found and the sum of probabilities of minimal cut sets can be calculated as the upper limit of substation failure probability, which can be used for the reliability design of traction power supply system of high speed railway.%为了保证高速铁路不间断供电的要求,有必要在设计阶段对牵引变电所的可靠性进行评估.提出将一种新型可靠性评估方法-GO法应用到高速铁路牵引变电所可靠性分析中.考虑变电所内众多电气设备的可修复特性和停工相关性,以牵引供电不中断为目标,建立了简化GO图,编写了实用的GO法计算程序,实现了牵引变电所可靠性的定量和定性评估,确定了系统薄弱环节,并将最小割集发生概率的总和作为牵引变电所故障概率上限,完善了高速铁路牵引供电系统可靠性设计.

  16. Railway suicide attempts are associated with amount of sunlight in recent days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadotani, Hiroshi; Nagai, Yumiko; Sozu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relationship between hours of sunlight and railway suicide attempts, 3-7 days before these attempts. All railway suicide attempts causing railway suspensions or delays of 30 min or more between 2002 and 2006. We used a linear probability model to assess this relationship. This study was conducted at Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Osaka prefectures in Japan. Data were collected from the railway delay incident database of the Japanese Railway Technical Research Institute and public weather database of the Japan Meteorological Agency. About 971 railway suicides attempts occurred between 2002 and 2006 in Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Osaka. Less sunlight in the 7 days leading up to the railway suicide attempts was associated with a higher proportion of attempts (p=0.0243). Sunlight over the 3 days before an attempt had a similar trend (p=0.0888). No difference was found in sunlight hours between the days with (median: 5.6 [IQR: 1.1-8.8]) and without (median: 5.7 [IQR: 1.0-8.9]) railway suicide attempts in the evening. Finally, there was no apparent correlation between the railway suicide attempts and the monthly average sunlight hours of the attempted month or those of a month before. Railway suicides were not the main suicidal methods in Japan, We observed an increased proportion of railway suicide attempts after several days without sunlight. Light exposure (blue light or bright white light) in trains may be useful in reducing railway suicides, especially when consecutive days without sunshine are forecasted. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    In modern railway automatic train protection and automatic train control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. The aim of this work has been developing an innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles able to enhance the performances, in terms of speed and position estimation accuracy, of the classical odometry algorithms, such as the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT). The proposed strategy consists of a sensor fusion between the information coming from a tachometer and an Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU). The sensor outputs have been simulated through a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle. The work has provided the development of a custom IMU, designed by ECM S.p.a, in order to meet their industrial and business requirements. The industrial requirements have to be compliant with the European Train Control System (ETCS) standards: the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a project developed by the European Union to improve the interoperability among different countries, in particular as regards the train control and command systems, fixes some standard values for the odometric (ODO) performance, in terms of speed and travelled distance estimation. The reliability of the ODO estimation has to be taken into account basing on the allowed speed profiles. The results of the currently used ODO algorithms can be improved, especially in case of degraded adhesion conditions; it has been verified in the simulation environment that the results of the proposed localisation algorithm are always compliant with the ERTMS requirements

  18. Electromagnetic environment around a high-speed railway using analytical technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jian ZHI; Bin ZHANG; Kai LI; Xiao-yan HUANG; You-tong FANG; Wen-ping CAO

    2011-01-01

    A switched-mode unit used in electric locomotive generates a strong high frequency conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI),which radiates electromagnetic energy through railway lines.Evaluation of magnetic field using analytical technique based on contour integral is presented,in order to assess the electromagnetic environment around a high-speed railway.Actual railway multiconductor finitely long overhead lines are represented by an infinitely long single line above two-layered earth,whose characteristic is different from homogeneous earth.Owing to the constraint of the GB/T 24338-2009 and the high frequency investigated (a few MHz),only the magnetic fields are examined.The magnetic fields consist of four components: the direct wave,the ideal reflected wave or image wave,the trapped surface wave,and the lateral wave.The calculation results proved that due to the presence of the trapped surface wave,the magnetic field of the observer point on the interface is strongly influenced,when the line is on or closed to the interface.

  19. Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification. In F. W. B. Li, J. Zhao, T. K. Shih, R. W. H. Lau, Q. Li & D. McLeod (Eds.), Advances in Web Based Learning - Proceedings of the 7th

  20. Neural Network Approach to Railway Stand Lateral SKEW Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mark Benes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of an adaptive approach to lateral skew co ntrol for an experimental railway stand. The preliminary experiments with the real ex perimental railway stand and simulations with its 3-D mechanical model, indicates difficulties of model-based control of the device. Thus, use of neural networks for identification and c ontrol of lateral skew shall be investigated. This paper focuses on real-data based modelling of the railway stand by various neural network models, i.e; linear neural unit and quadratic neur al unit architectures. Furthermore, training methods of these neural architecture s as such, real-time-recurrent- learning and a variation of back-propagation-through-time are exam ined, accompanied by a discussion of the produced experimental results

  1. THE PEOPLE FROM THE WORLD'S Highest Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seven years ago,China Railway 18th Bureau Group Co.Ltd was appointed to build the world's highest railway,namely Tanggula part (5072 metres above sea level) of Qinghai-Tibet Railway.In August of 2005,Liu Zhijun,the Minister for China Railways, announced that a link had been completed in the line at Tanggula Station.From here on,China Railway was to realize its dream-a railway at the summit of the world,through the efforts of Chinese workers in China Railway system.

  2. The effects of railway transportation on the enrichment of heavy metals in the artificial soil on railway cut slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoqiong; Wang, KeXiu; Ai, Ying Wei; Li, Wei; Gao, Hongying; Fang, Chen

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination in the artificial soils on the railway cut slopes may have great influence on the revegetation of the cut slopes. The purpose of this study was to assess the variation of heavy metal contamination levels with railway operation time and analyze their possible resources. A total of 100 soil samples from four cut slopes, which were affected by railway transportation for different years, were analyzed for metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe). The concentrations of Cd, Pb showed increasing trend with increasing operation time of railways, while such trend was not found in Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe. According to the soil quality standard of China, Cd was considered to have considerable contamination, while Pb has less, but Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe have none. Moreover, cadmium exhibited remarkably higher levels rather than those reported in other studies. Enrichment factors and ecological index showed that Cd and Pb showed a moderate enrichment and a considerable ecological risk in most of the soil samples. The results of descriptive statistic, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and correlation analysis were totally consistent with each other. Their results revealed that Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe had common origins, and they may come from natural resources. While Cd and Pb were significantly influenced by railway transportation, leaked cargos, fuel combustion, the use of lubricate oils and sleeper impregnation oils during railway transportation may be their main resources.

  3. Evaluación de la capacidad ferroviaria del corredor Bogotá – Belencito/An Assessment of Railway Capacity of Corridor Bogotá – Belencito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Márquez Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplican modelos analíticos para evaluar cuatro tipos de capacidad ferroviaria en siete tramos del corredor Bogotá - Belencito. Se identifica el cantón crítico de la red ferroviaria, lo mismo que el tramo de mayor capacidad. Se analiza la capacidad disponible para el tren de cercanías de Bogotá y para un tren de pasajeros entre Tunja y Sogamoso, dadas las condiciones actuales de operación. Se hace un análisis de sensibilidad de la capacidad con respecto a la velocidad de operación y la distancia entre estaciones. Por último, se presentan recomendaciones para aumentar la capacidad ferroviaria del corredorAnalytical models are applied to evaluate four types of railway capacity in seven sections of the corridor Bogotá – Belencito. The critical canton of the railway network is identified, and the higher capacity segment. Given the current operating conditions, we analyzed the available capacity of Bogota’s commuter train and a passenger train between Tunja and Sogamoso. A sensitivity analysis of capacity is done about the operating speed and distance between stations and we then present recommendations to increase railway capacity in the corridor.

  4. [Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-zhi; Qiu, Peng-hua; Fang, Yuan-min

    2015-08-01

    As a large corridor project, plateau railway has multiple points and passes various sensitive environments along the railway. The determination of the scope of impact on ecological environment from railway construction is often controversial in ecological impact assessment work. Taking the Tangbu-Jiantang section of Li-Xiang Railway as study object, and using present land use map (1:10000) in 2012 and DEM as data sources, corridor cutting degree index ( CCI) and cumulative effect index of corridor (CCEI) were established by topology, buffer zone and landscape metrics methods. Besides, the ecological risk index used for railway construction was improved. By quantitative analysis of characteristics of the spatio-temporal change of landscape pattern and its evolution style at different spatial scales before and after railway construction, the most appropriate evaluation scale of the railway was obtained. Then the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk within this scale before and after railway construction were analyzed. The results indicated that the cutting model and degree of railway corridor to various landscape types could be effectively reflected by CCI, and the exposure and harm relations between risk sources and risk receptors of railway can be measured by CCEI. After the railway construction, the railway corridor would cause a great deal of middle cutting effect on the landscape along the railroad, which would influence wood land and grassland landscape most greatly, while would cause less effect of edge cutting and internal cutting. Landscape indices within the 600 m buffer zone demonstrated the most obvious scale effect, therefore, the 600 m zone of the railway was set as the most suitable range of ecological impact assessment. Before railway construction, the low ecological risk level covered the biggest part of the 600 m assessment zone. However, after the railway construction, the ecological risk increased significantly, and

  5. Modelling railway bridge asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Bryant Linh Hai

    2014-01-01

    The UK has a long history in the railway industry with a large number of railway assets. Railway bridges form one of the major asset groups with more than 35,000 bridges. The majority of the bridge population are old being constructed over 100 years ago. Many of the bridges were not designed to meet the current network demand. With an expected increasing rate of deterioration due to the increasing traffic loads and intensities, the management authorities are faced with the difficult task of k...

  6. 民营资本在铁路建设中可以有所作为%Private Capital in Railways Construction can Make a Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆成

    2012-01-01

    -carrying channels, local railways, railway branch lines, dedicated railway lines, business-dedicated railways, train ferries and square station facilities, etc. Due to the large scale and the long construction period of the railway construction, the investment recovery periods are also long. At the same time, the railway operation mechanism, including the enterprises autonomous management, price formation, etc, is still at the research, also affecting the enthusiasm of private capital investment in railway and making the private capital proportion in the railway investment very low. I think that private capital can make a selection in the railway construction investment, such as coal-carrying channels, ports rear transportation channels, etc. Their lines are often short, and their investment amount will not be very big. For example, Daqin Railway, as a coal-carrying dedicated line, its revenue is by comparison substantial. Private capital can also invest the production of railway equipment, apparatuses and fittings. And for the high-speed railways at present, also only a few parts, such as aluminum alloy car body, have achieved localization. In this regard, not only the quantity demanded is great, but also the costs can be reduced by the device parts localization. Or through capital operation, private capital can participate in railway non-transport enterprises restructuring. Compared to passenger transport, the railway non-transportation enterprise's benefits are a lot higher. In addition, private capital can also participate in the cooperation with the railway logistics by investing, or partner with the railway research institutes to carry out technical services, such as the third-party security assessment of railway projects.

  7. 基于贝叶斯网络的高铁系统概率安全评估方法研究%RESEARCH ON PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT IN RAILWAY SYSTEM BASED ON BAYES NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海宏; 徐中伟; 梅萌; 祝玉军

    2011-01-01

    It is of great importance for the safety assessment of high speed railway control system. In this paper, the Bayes network technology is introduced which takes advantage of traditional event tree and fault tree that are good at analysis. The fault trees at each safety stage of the event tree are turned into Bayes network respectively, then are merged into an integrated Bayes network by logical relations.Through the integrated Bayes network, not only can the safety of the railway control system be analyzed, but also other useful probabilistic reasoning information can be obtained.%高速铁路控制系统的安全性评估非常重要,引入贝叶斯网络技术,充分利用传统事件树、故障树的分析优势,将事件树中各安全环节的故障树分别转化为贝叶斯网络,并按逻辑关系最终融合为一张完整的贝叶斯网.通过整合的贝叶斯网络不仅可以分析列控系统的安全性,同时还能得出其他有用的概率推理信息.

  8. Systematic review of research on railway and urban transit system suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L; Bardon, Cécile

    2016-03-15

    We critically review research on railway suicides to inform suicide prevention initiatives and future studies, including who is at risk and why, and behaviours at track locations. Literature was identified from Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and our documentation centre, and contacting 71 railway companies, resulting in 716 articles and eight unpublished reports, with 94 having empirical data on 55 unique studies. Research quality was critically assessed. The quality of studies varies greatly with frequent shortcomings: no justification of sample size, lacking information on the reliability and validity of measures, no explanation nor theoretical understanding of findings. Railway suicides resemble closely people who use other methods, although they tend to be younger. As with other suicide methods, mental health problems are likely to be present. Railway suicide attempters usually die, but most urban transportation systems attempters survive. Railway suicides are rarely impulsive; people usually go to the railway for the purpose of killing themselves. Hotspots have been the focus of some prevention measures. We know little about why people choose railway suicide, but studies of survivors suggest they often thought they would have an immediate, certain and painless death. Media reports on railway suicides can increase their incidence. Most research focuses on the incidence and characteristics of events and attempters. Research has not shown that railway suicides are different from suicides by other means. Better quality research is needed, particularly studies that investigate why people use railways to kill themselves and how railway suicides can be effectively prevented, as well as more evaluations of prevention programmes. Because of significant variations by country and region in characteristics of railway suicides, prevention programmes should conduct a local assessment of the characteristics of attempters and incidents. We need more research on

  9. VoLTE performance in railway scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  10. VoLTE Performance in Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  11. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L. M., E-mail: LMFisher@niitfa.ru; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V. [National Technical Physics and Automation Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  12. Multidimensional evaluation of soil pollution from railway tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Gworek, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Railway transport is a source of pollution to soils and living organisms by e.g. PAHs, PCBs, oil-derived products, pesticides and heavy metals. Soil toxicity evaluation requires chemical analyses, indicating the type and content of particular pollutants, as well as biological analyses, which allow assessing the reaction of organisms to these pollutants. This paper is focused on a multi-aspect evaluation of the degree of toxicity and pollution of soil in selected railway areas from north-eastern Poland by application of numerous biotests and chemical analyses. The soils were sampled on railway tracks from the following railway stations: Białystok Fabryczny, Siemianówka, Hajnówka, Iława Główna and Waliły. The most toxic soils occur on the railway tracks at Białystok Fabryczny and Siemianówka. They had a significant toxic effect on test organisms from various trophic levels. The contents of PAHs, PCBs, heavy metals, oil-derived hydrocarbons and pesticide residues were determined in the examined soils. In all cases the detected pollutants did not exceed the admissible levels. The highest content of oil-derived substances was noted in soils from Białystok Fabryczny and concentrations were moderate in soils from Siemianówka. Although the pollutants determined in soils from railway tracks did not exceed the admissible values, they had a toxic effect on numerous test organisms from different trophic levels. This suggests a synergistic effect of low concentrations (within the admissible levels) of several pollutants together, which resulted in a toxic effect on the organisms. Thus, there is a strong need of not only chemical, but also ecotoxicological analyses during the evaluation of environmental conditions. Based on data obtained from biological and chemical analyses, we concluded that railway transport may pose a hazard to the natural environment to a larger extent that hitherto expected.

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Neogene System Assessment Units of the Gulf Coast (Provinces 047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province (041) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Gulf Coast Mesozoic Province, Haynesville Formation Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Gulf Coast Mesozoic Province, Bossier Formation Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Northern Alaska Gas Hydrate Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province (045) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province (067) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Val Verde Basin, Canyon Sandstones Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Upper Cretaceous Taylor and Navarro Group Assessment Units, Western Gulf Province (047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  3. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Midland Basin, Wolfcamp Shale Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  4. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. Bruce Unit 1 and 2 preheater condition assessment and refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, P.; Machowski, C.; McGillivray, R. [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada); Durance, D. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Bruce Units 1 to 4 were shut down during the 1990s, largely as a consequence of tube degradation resulting from inappropriate steam generator secondary side water chemistries. Following a condition assessment, Bruce Power restarted Units 3 and 4 and is currently refurbishing Units 1 and 2. In order to assess the condition of the Unit 1 and Unit 2 preheaters and determine their suitability for extended operation, inspection, maintenance and assessment activities have been conducted. Eddy current and visual inspection have revealed vessels in generally good condition. Secondary side internals appear largely undergraded. Some tube to support fretting has been observed, and a number of tubes have been removed from service because of debris fretting concerns. To prepare for return to service, the primary side divider plates have been replaced and the tubes have been ID cleaned to restore the preheater to its original condition. This paper summarizes the inspection planning, findings, assessment for extended operation and maintenance activities undertaken. (author)

  6. Interconnecting tramway and railway systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetz, Christoph [Ingenieurbuero Dipl.-Ing. H. Voessing GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Tramways and railways are governed by different sets of technical rules. Nowadays in Germany, there are also trams that operate on railway lines - and they do so in mixed traffic with passenger and freight trains. Quite apart from the operational particularities, there are also differences that need to be taken into consideration as regards the ways in which the different types of vehicle are guided and their clearance gauges. (orig.)

  7. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  8. Railway intelligent transportation system and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Jia Limin; Zhang Yuan

    2011-01-01

    With the development of artificial intelligence, communication, computer and other related technologies, it becomes feasible to rebuild traditional railway with such advanced technologies in order to establish a new generation railway transport system. The railway intelligent transportation system is the trend of railway transportation system in China, and it is also the research focus of international railway transport industry. This paper presents the definition, characters, architecture, key technologies and developing pattern of the RITS (railway intelligent transportation system). Then three typical applications are introduced. Finally, the prospect of the RITS is summarized.

  9. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, p<0.0001) with no apparent substitution effect to the other platforms observed. To be cost-effective, the cost of gaining a healthy life year (ICER) should not exceed three times the per capita GDP (US$74,700). The PSD installation would only be cost-effective if the loss of fare revenue and passengers' waiting time, in addition to DALY, were included (ICER: US$65,400), while the ICER based on DALY only would be US$77,900. The challenges of complexity for economic evaluation appear in many community-based health interventions. A more extensive perspective for exploring other outcome measurements and evaluation methods to reflect a fair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  10. 基于分层加权综合评估法的整个震区铁路隧道震害评估技术研究%Research on the earthquake damage assessment technology of the whole region railway tunnels based on hierarchical weighted comprehensive assessment method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海龙; 戎密仁; 戎虎仁

    2016-01-01

    铁路作为国家基础设施的重要组成部分,铁路隧道在山区或地铁工程中所占的比例越来越大,结构形式也是多种多样,震后灾害损失程评估工作难度大,尤其是定量的评估灾害损失更是困难。本文从铁路隧道结构构造角度,总结了单线单洞式、单线双洞式、双线双洞式三种常见铁路隧道形式,运用分层加权综合评估法建立了层次结构模型,计算了多种结构形式(如:衬砌包含曲墙式衬砌、直墙式衬砌、装配式衬砌、锚喷式衬砌和复合式衬砌)的权重值,计算了铁路隧道的震害指数,引入破坏比、损失比等概念,同时考虑了不同类型铁路隧道的影响因素,进行震害经济损失评估。研究表明:采用分层加权综合评估法可体现铁路隧道的结构层次特点和各个组成部分的重要程度,基于此可对整个震区常见类型铁路隧道震害经济损失进行评估,较为快速、合理,适用性强。%Railway is an important part of national infrastructure and the proportion of railway tunnels in mountainous area or subway engineering has become larger and larger,the structure forms are also varied.Therefore,the earthquake disaster loss assessment work is difficult,especially the quantitative assessment of disaster losses is more difficult.In this paper,from the perspective of railway tunnel structure,the general characteristics of three common forms of railway tunnel are summarized,which are one-hole one-track type,one-hole two-tracks type,and two-holes two-tracks type.The hierarchical structure model has been established using the hierarchical weighted comprehensive evaluation method and the weight values of many structure types have been calcu-lated,(Such as:lining contains curved wall lining,straight wall lining,prefabricated tunnel lining, rockbolt and shotcrete lining and composite lining).Also the earthquake damage index of railway tunnel have been

  11. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...... capacity to run more trains is examined. The paper presents a method to examine the expected capacity utilization of future timetables. The method is based on the plan of operation instead of the exact (known) timetable. At the end of the paper it is described how it is possible to make capacity statements...

  12. Bank Units. Assessment and Development Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are new trends in development banking sector especially concerning branches. The e-banking has diminished impact the old fashion branches as main tool finance activity. Now we have units (departments localised at supermarkets and in other strange places. Due to some researches mortgages and insurance polices ought to be sold in traditional branches according to clients preferences. Lafferty Agency researched quality of banking service condition in the UK. Base on this methodology similar case studies were done in Poland.

  13. Performance analysis of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension featuring MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan-Choong; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Gyu-Seop; An, Chae-Hun; You, Won-Hee

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents performance analysis of semi-active railway vehicle suspension system using MR damper. In order to achieve this goal, a mathematical dynamic model of railway vehicle is derived by integrating car body, bogie frame and wheel-set which can be able to represent lateral, yaw and roll motion. Based on this model, the dynamic range of MR damper at the railway secondary suspension system and design parameters of MR damper are calculated. Subsequently, control performances of railway vehicle including car body lateral motion and acceleration of MR damper are evaluated through computer simulations. Then, the MR damper is manufactured to be retrofitted with the real railway vehicle and its characteristics are experimentally measured. Experimental performance of MR damper is assessed using test rig which is composed of a car body and two bogies.

  14. 78 FR 65040 - BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific Railroad Company--Joint Relocation Project Exemption--In Council Bluffs, Iowa On September 30, 2013, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), CBEC Railway Inc. (CBEC), Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd. (IAIS...

  15. 78 FR 40268 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--BNSF Railway Company... June 26, 2013, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed a petition under 49 U.S.C. 10502 and 49 CFR Part 1121 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 11323(a)(2) to lease from BNSF Railway Company...

  16. 77 FR 47922 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Northern Lines Railway, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Northern Lines Railway, Inc. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Northern Lines Railway, Inc. (NLR), has agreed to grant restricted local trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the rail lines owned by BNSF and leased...

  17. 78 FR 2719 - BNSF Railway Company-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company approximately 1...

  18. Assessment of delirium in the intensive care unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium is a prevalent problem in the intensive care unit (ICU),1–4 with an associated ... central nervous system; assessment of delirium impaired by lack of verbal ..... processed by the South Africa National Health Laboratory Service. Table 4: ...

  19. Assessment units of northern Afghanistan (auafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes polygons and regions that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined petroleum resource Assessment Units of northern Afghanistan. Each...

  20. Robustness in Railway Operations (RobustRailS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    This study considers the problem of enhancing railway timetable robustness without adding slack time, hence increasing the travel time. The approach integrates a transit assignment model to assess how passengers adapt their behaviour whenever operations are changed. First, the approach considers...... the existing stopping patterns of the railway lines. Then, based on the passenger demand we try to optimize the overall utility by changing the stopping pattern in a way that capacity utilization is reduced without affecting the frequency of the train lines nor increasing the passengers’ travel time....

  1. The State of the Railways in SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Ladysmith were also under siege by the Republican forces. .... Railway engines were also provided with armour plating and almost every ... All photographs supplied by the Publicity and Travel Department of the. South African Railways.

  2. INNOVATIONS ON BEIJING-TIANJIN INTERCITY RAILWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Huawu; Ren Hua

    2009-01-01

    High-speed railway is a complicated and huge system.Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway is the first high-speed line has started commercial operation in china.Significant innovations had been made on key technologies,and four challenging issues had been addressed,including system design and system integration,high requirements on track regularity and stability,strict requirements on safety and riding comfort,reliable operation control and high requirement on efficiency.China Railways spent three years to complete Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway.The operational performances of Beijing-Tianjin Intercity Railway showed that the overall technologies lead the world in the high-speed railway rankings.The technologies are convinced as the showcase and will be applied to build high-speed railway network in the future of China Railways.

  3. RESTRUCTURING INDONESIAN RAILWAY – INTEGRATION OR SEPARATION

    OpenAIRE

    Widyanto, Utut; Malkhamah, Siti

    2015-01-01

    Law No. 23/2007 on Railways is opening the option for private sector or Local Government to be involved in railways. This study investigated experiences from other countries in railway restructuring especially their measures and model of restructuration. The countries investigated are Germany, Japan, Britain, and Sweden. After investigating restructuration experiences from other countries and looking on Indonesian railway condition, the study developed two approach of restructuration.The firs...

  4. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  5. Clinical risk assessment in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asefzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical risk management focuses on improving the quality and safety of health care services by identifying the circumstances and opportunities that put patients at risk of harm and acting to prevent or control those risks. The goal of this study is to identify and assess the failure modes in the ICU of Qazvin′s Social Security Hospital (Razi Hospital through Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA. Methods: This was a qualitative-quantitative research by Focus Discussion Group (FDG performed in Qazvin Province, Iran during 2011. The study population included all individuals and owners who are familiar with the process in ICU. Sampling method was purposeful and the FDG group members were selected by the researcher. The research instrument was standard worksheet that has been used by several researchers. Data was analyzed by FMEA technique. Results: Forty eight clinical errors and failure modes identified, results showed that the highest risk probability number (RPN was in respiratory care "Ventilator′s alarm malfunction (no alarm" with the score 288, and the lowest was in gastrointestinal "not washing the NG-Tube" with the score 8. Conclusions: Many of the identified errors can be prevented by group members. Clinical risk assessment and management is the key to delivery of effective health care.

  6. Exploring of Chinese High-speed Railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    liuYoumei

    2004-01-01

    Based ion experiences of high-speed railways in foreign countries,the speed-raise situation of the Chinese railways,the research & development and test of high-speed transportation carries,as well as the prospective of high-speed railway in China are introduced.

  7. Benchmark analysis of railway networks and undertakings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.; Wiggenraad, P.B.L.; Wolff, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmark analysis of railway networks and companies has been stimulated by the European policy of deregulation of transport markets, the opening of national railway networks and markets to new entrants and separation of infrastructure and train operation. Recent international railway benchmarking s

  8. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  9. LTE for Railways: Impact on Performance of ETCS Railway Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    The Global System for Mobile Communications-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with considerable shortcomings in terms of capacity and data transmission capabilities. Because of these shortcomings, GSM-R is becoming the element limiting the number of running trains in areas with high...... train concentration, such as major train stations. Moreover, GSM-R cannot support advanced data services. Hence, modern technologies, such as long-term evolution (LTE), have to be evaluated as possible railway communication technologies to replace GSM-R in the future. This article analyzes...... the characteristics of the LTE railway radio access network in terms of eNodeB (LTE base station) density and eNodeB transmission power. Based on this analysis, a set of computer-based simulation scenarios (e.g., OPNET) with varying numbers of eNodeBs is evaluated regarding the achieved transfer delay and data...

  10. Low-complexity Behavioral Model for Predictive Maintenance of Railway Turnouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkhordari, Pegah; Galeazzi, Roberto; Tejada, Alejandro de Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of railway infrastructures represents a major cost driver for any infrastructure manager since reliability and dependability must be guaranteed at all times. Implementation of predictive maintenance policies relies on the availability of condition monitoring systems able to assess...

  11. [Methods of nondrug prevention of diminished work capacity and impaired health in railway workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iur'ev, A S; Kaptsov, V A; Viktorov, V S; Kamenskiĭ, Iu N; Kirpichnikov, A B; Toshchevikov, A A

    2000-01-01

    The paper deals with the physiological assessment of some biologically active food additives (BAFA). The authors formulate principles in selecting BAFA to prevent fatigability and premorbidity associated with safe railway traffic.

  12. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  13. Map of assessed shale gas in the United States, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has compiled a map of shale-gas assessments in the United States that were completed by 2012 as part of the National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered gas within shale-gas assessment units. These shale-gas assessment units are mapped, and square-mile cells are shown to represent proprietary shale-gas wells. The square-mile cells include gas-producing wells from shale intervals. In some cases, shale-gas formations contain gas in deeper parts of a basin and oil at shallower depths (for example, the Woodford Shale and the Eagle Ford Shale). Because a discussion of shale oil is beyond the scope of this report, only shale-gas assessment units and cells are shown. The map can be printed as a hardcopy map or downloaded for interactive analysis in a Geographic Information System data package using the ArcGIS map document (file extension MXD) and published map file (file extension PMF). Also available is a publications access table with hyperlinks to current U.S. Geological Survey shale gas assessment publications and web pages. Assessment results and geologic reports are available as completed at the U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program Web Site, http://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx. A historical perspective of shale gas activity in the United States is documented and presented in a video clip included as a PowerPoint slideshow.

  14. Phase Synchronization in Railway Timetables

    CERN Document Server

    Fretter, Christoph; Weihe, Karsten; Müller-Hannemann, Matthias; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Timetable construction belongs to the most important optimization problems in public transport. Finding optimal or near-optimal timetables under the subsidiary conditions of minimizing travel times and other criteria is a targeted contribution to the functioning of public transport. In addition to efficiency (given, e.g., by minimal average travel times), a significant feature of a timetable is its robustness against delay propagation. Here we study the balance of efficiency and robustness in long-distance railway timetables (in particular the current long-distance railway timetable in Germany) from the perspective of synchronization, exploiting the fact that a major part of the trains run nearly periodically. We find that synchronization is highest at intermediate-sized stations. We argue that this synchronization perspective opens a new avenue towards an understanding of railway timetables by representing them as spatio-temporal phase patterns. Robustness and efficiency can then be viewed as properties of t...

  15. RISK VIP: Evaluation of Flood Risk on the French Railway Network Using an Innovative GIS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding can have significant direct and indirect negative effects on a railway network affecting both infrastructure and rail operations. Such impacts include the delaying or cancelling of train services, damage to railway structures or the implementation of costly maintenance and monitoring programs to ensure the safety and performance of the railway system. Identifying sections of railway line at risk from flooding allows appropriate actions to be targeted at specific areas and contributes to an effective asset management plan. Flooding of railway infrastructure can have numerous sources including surface water run-off, insufficient capacity of hydraulic structures or the inundation of embankments located in floodplains. Consequences of flooding include the destabilisation of structures (surface erosion of embankments or the undermining of bridge foundations, differential settlement of structures and damage to the track structure. This paper details an innovative approach developed at the SNCF using a Geographic Information System (GIS model to identify zones of the railway network at risk of different types of flooding. The GIS model RiskVIP has been constructed through the assessment of three distinct components of risk: “Vulnerability” (assessment of the susceptibility of the railway infrastructure to flood conditions, Intensity’ (capacity of a catchment to generate a flood flow, Probability’ (probability of a rainfall event.Through the application of decision trees, the component ‘Intensity’ has been characterised in the model by the physical properties of the catchment intercepted by the railway line (surface area of the catchment, slope and land cover characteristics and “Vulnerability” by the infrastructure itself (type, geometry and the presence of hydraulic structures. In order to evaluate its efficiency at identifying sites at risk of flooding, the model has been tested in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon in France

  16. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Shale Gas Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has compiled a map of shale gas assessments in the United States that were completed by 2012, such assessments having been included as...

  17. Discuss on the Visual Landscape Impact Assessment of Railway Construction Project Based on GIS%基于GIS的铁路建设项目视觉景观影响评价探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白占雄; 朱正清; 张丽君

    2012-01-01

    Being restricted by rnultifactor such as topography and physiognomy and station location and so on, certain railway routes which may affect or destroy the visual landscape environment have to be constructed within or near the sensitive regions of visual landscape such as scenic spot, Geopark and so on. So visual landscape impact assessment must be executed prior to the construction. However, visual landscape impact assessment in China started so late that no complete and standard assessment method can be utilized at present. To improve the efficiency and quality of the assessment work, in this paper, Dacheng Mountain scenic spot was cited as an example, and a set of relatively complete and quantitative method on visual landscape impact assessment was proposed based on the strongly spatial analysis function of GIS( geographical information system). It is considered that this method could be applied in similar visual landscape impact assessment of railway construction project.%铁路项目由于地形地貌、车站设置要求等多因素的限制,线路无法绕避风景名胜区、地质公园等视觉景观敏感区,项目实施前须进行视觉景观影响评价.我国的视觉景观影响评价起步较晚,没有一套完整的评价方法.以长昆客运专线对大乘山风景名胜区的视觉景观影响为例,利用地理信息系统强大的空间分析功能,提出了一套比较完整、定量的视觉景观影响评价技术方法,可推广应用于类似铁路建设项目的视觉景观影响评价中,提高工作效率及评价质量.

  18. [The health promotion of the employees of the railway transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudel'kina, N A; Shchetinin, A N

    2008-01-01

    The newly developed methodological and technical approaches to the further enhancement of the actual railway transport health care system which is poorly effective in the nowadays social and economic conditions are exposed. The development of the organizational and functional pattern of the primary prevention of non-communicable diseases to promote professional health among railway employees. The priority targets are such key profession of the the railway transport as locomotive crew workers. The overall approach is declared on the basis of the preventive, regular and permanent application of the suite of "health promoting technologies" considering the professional and working conditions, the structure of morbidity, the characteristics of the individual health and life-style of the employees. The outcomes of the carried out preventive activities in the framework of the new functional and structural organization of the ambulatory polyclinical unit of the sectorial health care system demonstrated the trustworthy positive amelioration of health and quality of life among the employees of the railway transport.

  19. Effect of situational, attitudinal and demographic factors on railway vibration annoyance in residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Eulalia; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Sharp, Calum; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C

    2014-01-01

    Railway induced vibration is an important source of annoyance among residents living in the vicinity of railways. Annoyance increases with vibration magnitude. However, these correlations between the degree of annoyance and vibration exposure are weak. This suggests that railway vibration induced annoyance is governed by more than just vibration level and therefore other factors may provide information to understand the wide variation in annoyance reactions. Factors coming into play when considering an exposure-response relationship between level of railway vibration and annoyance are presented. The factors investigated were: attitudinal, situational and demographic factors. This was achieved using data from field studies comprised of face-to-face interviews and internal vibration measurements (N = 755). It was found that annoyance scores were strongly influenced by two attitudinal factors: Concern of property damage and expectations about future levels of vibration. Type of residential area and age of the respondent were found to have an important effect on annoyance whereas visibility of the railway and time spent at home showed a significant but small influence. These results indicate that future railway vibration policies and regulations focusing on community impact need to consider additional factors for an optimal assessment of railway effects on residential environments.

  20. 76 FR 75601 - Lake State Railway Company-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Saginaw Bay Southern Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lake State Railway Company--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Saginaw Bay Southern Railway Company Lake State Railway Company (LSRC) and Saginaw Bay Southern Railway... railway accounting purposes, LSRC functions today as an Interline Settlement System (ISS) carrier, while...

  1. Cost benchmarking of railway projects in Europe – can it help to reduce costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabo, Inara; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    This paper highlights the methodology of construction cost benchmarking of railway projects in the EU and its preliminary results. Benchmarking helps project managers learn from others, improve particular project areas, and reduce project costs. For railway projects, benchmarking is essential...... for the comparison of unit costs for major cost drivers (e.g. tunnels, bridges, etc.). This methodology was applied to the case study described in this paper, the first high-speed railway project in Denmark, “The New Line Copenhagen-Ringsted”. The aim was to avoid cost overruns and even reduce final budget outcomes...... by looking for the best practices in the construction and implementation of other high-speed lines in Europe and learning from their experience. The paper presents benchmarking from nine railway projects that are comparable with the Copenhagen-Ringsted project. The results of this comparison provide...

  2. Waiting experience in railway environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, van Mark; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Ad Th.

    2014-01-01

    At railway stations, waiting time is usually an unavoidable aspect of the journey for train passengers. According to the attentional model of time, pleasant surroundings and other forms of distraction reduce perceived waiting time. Not every individual reacts identically in the same surroundings. Pa

  3. Parental satisfaction of an assessment unit for autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amor, Arwa; Halayem, Soumeyya; Touati, Maissa; Belhadj, Ahlem; Gouider, Riadh; Mrad, Ridha; Bouden, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Background - Based on the recognized principles of assessment of autistic disorders, the child and adolescent psychiatry department in Razi Hospital developed an assessment unit with diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. The aim of this work was to examine its functioning and to analyze the parents' perceptions about the unit services. Methods - We gathered the parental satisfaction about the unit by the means of a hetero-questionnaire. Results - Fifty-two parents of children evaluated within the unit were included.  Patients had received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger Syndrome in accordance with DSM IV criteria, and than that of Autism Spectrum Disorder after DSM 5 publication. The overall satisfaction rate was 63%. Most parents (84.6%) rated the Psycho Educative Profile examination positively, 75% appreciated the neurological examination and the final report steps, 55.8% appreciated step of the Autism Diagnostic Interview revised and 42.3% the genetic exploration. 67% of the parents reported an improvement of their child following the evaluation. This improvement was attributed to the unit in 57.7% of cases. Parents whose children did not have associated disorders such as intellectual disability (p = 0.02), aggressive behavior (p = 0.04), affective disorder (p = 0.01) and sleep-related disorders (p = 0.03) were the most satisfied. Parents of children with epilepsy comorbidity were the least satisfied (p <10-3). 96% of parents suggested repeating the assessment once a year. Conclusion - Assessment units are based on international recommendations. However, it would be interesting to adapt assessments and orientation to the parents' expectations.

  4. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  5. Evaluating the effectiveness of barrier installation for preventing railway suicides in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Wincy S C; Fu, King-Wa; Wong, Paul W C; Law, Y W

    2009-04-01

    Railway suicide is a serious mortality issue. Most attempters are unmarried psychotic young men under psychiatric care having a high level of lethal intent. Installation of platform screen doors (PSDs) to limit access to the track has been suggested as an effective way for prevention. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of installing PSDs for preventing railway suicides; any sign of substitution of suicide location; and changes in psychiatric profile of suicide deceased after the PSD installation in the subway system of Hong Kong. Cases of railway suicide and related information from 1997 to 2007 were provided by the railway operators and the Coroner's Court. The effectiveness of installing PSDs was assessed through a quasi-experimental setting. Poisson regression and chi-squared test were used. Over the 11-year study period, a total of 76 railway suicide cases (0.71% of all suicides) were reported. A significant reduction of 59.9% (p=0.0003) in railway suicides was found after the PSD installation. Analyses confirmed that there was no significant sign of substitution by displacing potential attempters to unsealed platforms (p=0.9051). Those having psychosis would be better protected as no suicide cases with such psychiatric background were reported after the installation of PSDs. It has not considered the potential economic benefits of PSD. It is difficult if not possible to examine whether the potential attempters would substitute to an alternative method of suicide. This study shows that PSDs can effectively prevent suicides with no substitution by "delethalizing" the image and altering people's perception about the desirability of railway suicide. Railway operators should extend the coverage of PSD to all railway stations in Hong Kong without any delay.

  6. Life cycle assessment analysis of supercritical coal power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Hoinka, Krzysztof; Liszka, Marcin

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis concerning the selected options of supercritical coal power units. The investigation covers a pulverized power unit without a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) installation, a pulverized unit with a "post-combustion" installation (MEA type) and a pulverized power unit working in the "oxy-combustion" mode. For each variant the net electric power amounts to 600 MW. The energy component of the LCA analysis has been determined. It describes the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The energy component is determined by the coefficient of cumulative energy consumption in the life cycle. For the calculation of the ecological component of the LCA analysis the cumulative CO2 emission has been applied. At present it is the basic emission factor for the LCA analysis of power plants. The work also presents the sensitivity analysis of calculated energy and ecological factors.

  7. Object-oriented model of railway stations operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Kozachenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this article is improvement of the railway stations functional model; it leads to time expenditure cut for formalization technological processes of their work through the use of standard elements of technology. Methodology. Some technological operations, executives and technology objects are considered as main elements of the railway station functioning. Queuing techniques were used as the methods of research, simulation, finite state machines and object-oriented analysis. Findings. Formal data structures were developed as the result of research that can allow simulating the operation of the railway station with any degree of detail. In accordance with the principles of object-oriented approach in the developed model, separate elements of station technology are presented jointly with a description of their behavior. The proposed model is implemented as a software package. Originality. Functional model of railway stations was improved through the application of object-oriented approach to data management. It allow to create libraries of elementary technological processes and reduce time expenditure for formalization the technology of stations work. Practical value. Using of software package that it was developed on the base of proposed model will reduce time expenditure of technologists in order to obtain technical and operational assessment of projected and existing rail stations.

  8. Real-time Railway Traffic Management: dispatching in complex, large and busy railway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Railway is an important and sustainable transportation mode, which despite good potentials results in a limited attractiveness, mostly due to the perceived consequences of unreliability. In fact, busy railway networks with frequent and heterogeneous services are highly sensitive to delay

  9. Development of railway of Ukraine and formation a new subsection from the management by railway

    OpenAIRE

    Suponieva, V.

    2009-01-01

    In the article there are the considered questions of development of railway tourism, substantiate necessity of creation of tourist centers. The offered common directions and principles of activity of railway tourist centers.

  10. 77 FR 64185 - BNSF Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: The.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), a Class I rail carrier, to acquire and operate a 120.4- mile...

  11. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  12. The Network effects of Railway Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten; Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2006-01-01

    Network effects is when a change at one place in the railway network results in changes elsewhere in the network – maybe even far away from the original change. Railway investments have network effects, and therefore, this paper describes the network effects and how these network effects can...... be examined by queuing time. This paper gives examples of network effects and describes the importance of the size of the analysis area and the connections between trains in the railway network....

  13. 2007 Railway Statistics Bulletin of MOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Issued by Statistics Center of MOR; Chen Qi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 2007, under the guidance of the Party Committee of MOR, the entire railway sector seriously carried out the deployment of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, adhered to the scientific outlook on development, exerted all efforts to accelerate railway construction and promote scientific and technological innovation and successfully fulfilled the train working diagram rescheduling for the sixth-round large-scale railway speed-up campaign.

  14. Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (north of the Arctic Circle) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the World Petroleum Resources Project. The Assessment Unit is defined within the context of the higher-level...

  15. Assessment of teamwork during structured interdisciplinary rounds on medical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Kevin J; Boudreau, Yvonne N; Creden, Amanda J; Slade, Maureen E; Williams, Mark V

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary rounds (IDR) provide a means to assemble hospital team members and improve collaboration. Little is known about teamwork during IDR. To evaluate and characterize teamwork during IDR. Cross-sectional observational study. Six medical units which had implemented structured interdisciplinary rounds (SIDR). We adapted the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool, a behaviorally anchored rating scale shown to be reliable and valid in surgical settings. OTAS provides scores ranging from 0 to 6 (0 = problematic behavior; 6 = exemplary behavior) across 5 domains (communication, coordination, cooperation/backup behavior, leadership, and monitoring/situational awareness) and for prespecified subteams. Two researchers conducted direct observations using the adapted OTAS tool. We conducted 7-8 independent observations for each unit (total = 44) and 20 joint observations. Inter-rater reliability was excellent at the unit level (Spearman's rho = 0.75), and good across domains (rho = 0.53-0.68) and subteams (rho = 0.53-0.76) with the exception of the physician subteam, for which it was poor (rho = 0.35). Though teamwork scores were generally high, we found differences across units, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) 4.5 (3.9-4.9) for the lowest and 5.4 (5.3-5.5) for the highest performing unit (P teamwork during SIDR across units, domains, and most subteams. Variation in performance suggests a need to improve consistency of teamwork and emphasizes the importance of leadership. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. 铁路工程建设对沙坡头自然保护区生态环境的影响评价%Assessment on Impact of Railway Construction on Eco-environment of Shapotou Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋子炜; 李嘉

    2012-01-01

    基于压力-状态-响应(PSR)模型,从铁路工程建设产生的生态压力、自然保护区状态、对策措施响应的有效性3方面筛选指标,运用层次分析法赋权、三角模糊数赋值构建了综合评价体系。研究结果表明,拟建铁路对沙坡头国家级自然保护区的生态影响综合评价等级为Ⅰ级,铁路选线与设计方案合理,保护恢复措施合理有效;AHP赋权和三角模糊数赋值相结合,可以避免单因素评价的不足,也克服了定性指标难以量化,可比较性差的缺点;评价结果与实地考察情况和专题评审结论基本相符,说明该研究方法具有较强的可行性和适用性。%Basing on pressure—state—response(PSR) model,we screened indices including ecological pressure of railway construction,nature reserves status and countermeasures response effectiveness,determined weights of each index by AHP,and then constructed an evaluation system based on triangular fuzzy numbers.The results showed the impact rank of the proposed railway on the environment of Shapotou Nature Reserves could reach as low as grade Ⅰ,suggesting reasonable route selection and scheme design,effective protection recovery measures and acceptable influences on the environment.More importantly,the method of combinating AHP and triangular fuzzy number could overcome the shortcomings of single factor evaluation,the difficulty quantification of assessing indices,and poor comparability.The evaluation results were found consistent with field survey and expert review conclusions,which implies that the proposed evaluation system is of good feasibility and applicability.

  17. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  18. Estimation of wind erosion from construction of a railway in arid northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A state-of-the-art wind erosion simulation model, the Wind Erosion Prediction System and the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s AP-42 emission factors formula, were combined together to evaluate wind-blown dust emissions from various construction units from a railway construction projec...

  19. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...... illustrated as well as the degree of electrification for different countries. Traffic parameters such as passenger occupancy rates, per capita freight and passenger traffic are presented for European conditions. The relationship between average train speed and distance between stops is shown for a variety...

  20. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  1. Assessment of Delirium in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Educational Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith M; Van Aman, M Nancy; Schneiderhahn, Mary Elizabeth; Edelman, Robin; Ercole, Patrick M

    2017-05-01

    Delirium is an acute brain dysfunction associated with poor outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Critical care nurses play an important role in the prevention, detection, and management of delirium, but they must be able to accurately assess for it. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) instrument is a reliable and valid method to assess for delirium, but research reveals most nurses need practice to use it proficiently. A pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the success of a multimodal educational strategy (i.e., online learning module coupled with standardized patient simulation experience) on critical care nurses' knowledge and confidence to assess and manage delirium using the CAM-ICU. Participants (N = 34) showed a significant increase (p assess and manage delirium following the multimodal education. No statistical change in knowledge of delirium existed following the education. A multimodal educational strategy, which included simulation, significantly added confidence in critical care nurses' performance using the CAM-ICU. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(5):239-244. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Psychometric assessment of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit questionnaire in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David A; Ferrando-Vivas, Paloma; Wright, Stephen E; McColl, Elaine; Heyland, Daren K; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    To establish the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item (FS-ICU-24) questionnaire in the United Kingdom. The Family-Reported Experiences Evaluation study recruited family members of patients staying at least 24 hours in 20 participating intensive care units. Questionnaires were evaluated for nonresponse, floor/ceiling effects, redundancy, and construct validity. Internal consistency was evaluated with item-to-own scale correlations and Cronbach α. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the underlying structure. Twelve thousand three hundred forty-six family members of 6380 patients were recruited and 7173 (58%) family members of 4615 patients returned a completed questionnaire. One family member per patient was included in the psychometric assessment. Six items had greater than 10% nonresponse; 1 item had a ceiling effect; and 11 items had potential redundancy. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α, overall .96; satisfaction with care, .94; satisfaction with decision making, .93). The 2-factor solution was not a good fit. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that satisfaction with decision making encompassed 2 constructs-satisfaction with information and satisfaction with the decision-making process. The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties in the United Kingdom setting. Construct validity could be improved by use of 3 domains and some scope for further improvement was identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  4. Routing trains through railway stations: complexity issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); P.J. Zwaneveld (Peter)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider the problem of routing trains through railway stations. This problem occurs as a subproblem in the project DONS that is currently being carried out under the supervision of Railned and Netherlands Railways. The project DONS involves the determination of the

  5. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...

  6. Milestones in 60 years of railway construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In 1952, construction of the ChengduChongqing railway was completed. The line was the first to be established after the founding of the People’s Republic of China.The first railway network was constructed and put into operation under

  7. Reliability and heterogeneity of railway services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel); R. Dekker (Rommert); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReliability is one of the key factors in transportation, both for passengers and for cargo. This paper examines reliability in public railway systems. Reliability of railway services is a complex matter, since there are many causes for disruptions and at least as many causes for delays t

  8. Prediction of Railway Passenger Traffic Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The current situation of the railway passenger traffic (RPT) andthe traffic marketing is analyzed. The grey model theory is adopted to establish a prediction model for the railway passenger traffic volume (RPTV). The RPTV from 2001 to 2005 is predicted with the proposed model, and a few suggestions are put forward.

  9. Roughness on Dutch railway wheels and rails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dings, P.C.; Dittrich, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Surface roughness on 150 railway wheels and on the rails of 30 sites in the Netherlands have been measured. Block braked wheels were found to show higher roughnesses than the rail at any site. The smoothest rail is 8 dB smoother than the smoothest wheel. It was concluded that in reducing railway

  10. Reinventing Crew Scheduling at Netherlands Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fischetti (Matteo); L.G. Kroon (Leo); G. Timmer (Gerrit); M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel); E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe the successful application of a sophisticated Operations Research model and the corresponding solution techniques for scheduling the 6,500+ drivers and conductors of the Dutch railway operator NS Reizigers (Netherlands Railways). In 2001 the drivers and conducto

  11. A field study of effects of road traffic and railway noise on polysomnographic sleep parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Øverland, Britt; Ursin, Reidun; Moum, Torbjørn

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare the effect of noise from railway and road traffic on sleep in subjects habitually exposed to nocturnal noise. Forty young and middle aged healthy subjects were studied with polysomnography (PSG) during two consecutive nights in their own bedroom. Noise measurements and recordings were conducted concurrently outside of the bedroom façade as well as inside the bedroom of each participant. Different noise exposure parameters were calculated (L(p,A,eq,night), L(p,A,Fmax,night), and L(AF5,night)) and analyzed in relation to whole-night sleep parameters. The group exposed to railway noise had significantly less Rapid eye movement, (REM) sleep than the group exposed to road traffic noise. A significant association was found between the maximum level (L(p,A,Fmax,night)) of railway noise and time spent in REM sleep. REM sleep was significantly shorter in the group exposed to at least a single railway noise event above 50 dB inside the bedroom. These results, obtained in an ecological valid setting, support previous laboratory findings that railway noise has a stronger impact than road traffic noise on physiological parameters during sleep, and that the maximum noise level is an important predictor of noise effects on sleep assessed by PSG, at least for railway noise. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  12. FORMATION OF ESTIMATED CONDITIONS FOR LIFE CYCLE OF DEFORMATION WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of this research is to substantiate the technical limits of the railway track (under reliability status for the formation the regulatory framework for reliability and functional safety of the railway track in Ukraine. Methodology.In order to achieve the goal of research analysis methods of the technical states of elements and trackforms that are typical of operation conditions of the railways in Ukraine were used. Findings.Technical states accordance of elements and trackforms to reliability status under existing regulations was defined. These conditions are based on the track assessments in accordance with the dimensional tape results. The status of each element of the track design affects its deformation work, but the rules are still absent that would connect state of track elements with the state of the track by estimation of the dimensional tape. The reasons on which the limits are not set were established. It was found out which researches are necessary to conduct for their installation. Originality. The classification of the reliability state of a railway track for permitted deviation at the track laying and maintenance was developed. The regulation importance the technical states of ballast section and subgrade for the developed classification was established. Practical value. Ukrzaliznytsia (UZ is a founding member of the Council for Railway Transport of the Commonwealth. This body issued interstate standard State Standard 32192-2013 «Reliability of railway equipment. Basic concepts, terms and definitions». On this basis developed a new interstate standard «Security functional of railway equipment. Terms and definitions». At the same time UZ is a member of the cooperation of railways in International Union of Railway Transport where rules with reliable and safe operation of railways are established in all transport branches. This study will help implement these standards on the railways of Ukraine, improve the

  13. Aggregation of carbon dioxide sequestration storage assessment units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Drew, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a national assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resources, mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Pre-emission capture and storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one potential method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the negative impact of global climate change. Like many large-scale resource assessments, the area under investigation is split into smaller, more manageable storage assessment units (SAUs), which must be aggregated with correctly propagated uncertainty to the basin, regional, and national scales. The aggregation methodology requires two types of data: marginal probability distributions of storage resource for each SAU, and a correlation matrix obtained by expert elicitation describing interdependencies between pairs of SAUs. Dependencies arise because geologic analogs, assessment methods, and assessors often overlap. The correlation matrix is used to induce rank correlation, using a Cholesky decomposition, among the empirical marginal distributions representing individually assessed SAUs. This manuscript presents a probabilistic aggregation method tailored to the correlations and dependencies inherent to a CO2 storage assessment. Aggregation results must be presented at the basin, regional, and national scales. A single stage approach, in which one large correlation matrix is defined and subsets are used for different scales, is compared to a multiple stage approach, in which new correlation matrices are created to aggregate intermediate results. Although the single-stage approach requires determination of significantly more correlation coefficients, it captures geologic dependencies among similar units in different basins and it is less sensitive to fluctuations in low correlation coefficients than the multiple stage approach. Thus, subsets of one single-stage correlation matrix are used to aggregate to basin, regional, and national scales.

  14. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu of...

  15. On China's High-Speed Railway Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-tong FANG

    2011-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues have become increasingly prominent in matters of transportation.Compared with road,air,and sea transportation,railway transportation has the advantages of a large transmission capacity,with rapid,safe,and on-time travel,requiring less land resources,with lower energy consumption,less environmental pollution,and the capacity to operate under most weather conditions.In particular,high-speed railway technology has been growing rapidly.Since the world's first high-speed railway was built in Japan in 1964,more than ten countries and regions have developed high-speed railways,operating over a total of more than 10000 km.High-speed railways not only provide the public with a new type of rapid,convenient,safe,and comfortable travel,but also greatly boost the socio-economic development of the country.

  16. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  17. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  18. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  19. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  20. [Pain assessment in the premature newborn in Intensive Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luciano Marques; Pereira, Monick Piton; dos Santos, Leandro Feliciano Nery; de Santana, Rosana Castelo Branco

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the process of pain identification in premature by the professional staff of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in the interior of Bahia, Brazil. This is a quantitative descriptive exploratory study that was made through a form applied to twenty-four health professional of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The data were analyzed in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results showed 100% of professionals believed that newborns feel pain, 83.3% knew the pain as the fifth vital sign to be evaluated; 54,8% did not know the pain assessment scales; 70.8% did not use scales and highlighted behavioral and physiological signs of the newborn as signs suggestive of pain. Thus, it is important that professionals understand the pain as a complex phenomenon that demands early intervention, ensuring the excellence of care.

  1. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  2. Calibrating partial factors for Danish railway embankments using probabilistic analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R. Lodahl; Kristian T.Brødbæk; Carsten S.Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    High costs are connected with upgrading railway embankments throughout Denmark using the partial factors for geotechnical design calibrated for general application. One way to reduce the costs is reliability-based calibration of the partial factors to a reasonable safety level taking into account the specific design situations and uncertainties relevant to railway embankments. A reliability-based design has been investigated, resulting in an optimal partial factor for the considered subsoil. With a stochastic soil model to simulate the undrained shear strength of soft soil deposits, the partial factor is calibrated using asymptotic sampling for the reliability assessment. The calibration shows that the partial factor can be reduced significantly compared to the value specified in the Danish National Annex to DS/EN 1997-1 (2007), Eurocode 7.

  3. Calibrating partial factors for Danish railway embankments using probabilistic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Lodahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High costs are connected with upgrading railway embankments throughout Denmark using the partial factors for geotechnical design calibrated for general application. One way to reduce the costs is reliability-based calibration of the partial factors to a reasonable safety level taking into account the specific design situations and uncertainties relevant to railway embankments. A reliability-based design has been investigated, resulting in an optimal partial factor for the considered subsoil. With a stochastic soil model to simulate the undrained shear strength of soft soil deposits, the partial factor is calibrated using asymptotic sampling for the reliability assessment. The calibration shows that the partial factor can be reduced significantly compared to the value specified in the Danish National Annex to DS/EN 1997-1 (2007, Eurocode 7.

  4. Strategy for predicting railway-induced vibrations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Persson, Kent; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard;

    2016-01-01

    for predicting vibrations in nearby buildings in an early stage of the building process. The strategy is based on that there is a fairly good knowledge of the properties of the ground and that some on-site vibration measurements are made. By combining these with finite-element analysis, the vibration level......Urban densification is a way of accommodating population growth. Land adjacent to railways is used for constructing residences and other buildings, and new tramway systems are planned. Under these circumstances, nearby buildings will be exposed to vibrations and noise that may become a nuisance...... for the residents. It is necessary, even at an early stage of planning, to assess the extent of the vibrations and state requirements for the building in order to avoid costly changes at later stages. Ground vibration induced by railway traffic is studied in the paper. The aim is to develop a strategy...

  5. 76 FR 32266 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company (MNRC...

  6. 76 FR 32265 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company (MNRC...

  7. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: Results from the ALPNAP-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Lercher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643 we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A, Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A, Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A, Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

  8. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: results from the ALPNAP-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercher, P; Brink, M; Rudisser, J; Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Baulac, M; Defrance, J

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643) we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A), Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A), Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A), Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

  9. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Mikael; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Smith, Michael; Gustavsson, Sara; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s.

  10. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Miller-Klein, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s' standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  11. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Pope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient′s bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s′ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013 with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - East Coast Mesozoic Basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas in Jurassis-Cretaceous Strata Gulf Coast, 2010 (Provinces 047, 048 and 049) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Paleogene System and Cretaceous-Tertiary Coalbed Assessment Units of the Gulf Coast (Provinces 047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. Sound radiation from railway sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianying; Thompson, David J.; Squicciarini, Giacomo

    2016-05-01

    The sleepers supporting the rails of a railway track are an important source of noise at low frequencies. The sound radiation from the sleepers has been calculated using a three-dimensional boundary element model including the effect of both reflective and partially absorptive ground. When the sleeper flexibility and support stiffness are taken into account, it is found that the radiation ratio of the sleeper can be approximated by that of a rigid half-sleeper. When multiple sleepers are excited through the rail, their sound radiation is increased. This effect has been calculated for cases where the sleeper is embedded in a rigid or partially absorptive ground. It is shown that it is sufficient to consider only three sleepers in determining their radiation ratio when installed in track. At low frequencies the vibration of the track is localised to the three sleepers nearest the excitation point whereas at higher frequencies the distance between the sleepers is large enough for them to be treated independently. Consequently the sound radiation increases by up to 5 dB below 100 Hz compared with the result for a single sleeper whereas above 300 Hz the result can be approximated by that for a single sleeper. Measurements on a 1/5 scale model railway track are used to verify the numerical predictions with good agreement being found for all configurations.

  16. Manual railway structure; Handbuch Eisenbahninfrastruktur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrich, L. (ed.) [Spitzke AG, Grossbeeren (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Content: trace and rail geometry, cross section, civil engineering, rail welding, rail/road crossings, wheels, vehicles, power connectors, line tracing, electrical equipment, power supply of electric railways and energy efficiency, operational specifications of infrastructure, safety engineering on railways, telecommunications, functional safety, environmental measures, maintenance and component management, attachments. (GL) [German] Das Handbuch wendet sich an den praktisch taetigen und planenden Ingenieur, an den Verantwortung tragenden Fachmann und an technisch interessierte Fuehrungskraefte sowie an Angehoerige von wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen und Behoerden und auch an Studierende. In den einzelnen, miteinander vernetzten Kapiteln werden die technischen und operativen Grundlagen und Zusammenhaenge der Eisenbahninfrastruktur sowie der Interaktion von Infrastruktur und Fahrzeug in Mass und Zahl dargestellt. Es wird Wert darauf gelegt, dass der Nutzer nicht durch ausufernde Prosatexte, sondern durch eine knappe, aber fakten- und detailreiche Darstellung mit Bildern, Zeichnungen, Diagrammen und Tabellen einen schnellen Zugriff auf das gesuchte Wissensgebiet bzw. auf die nachzuschlagenden Einzelheiten erhaelt. Systematisch organisierte Querverweise vermitteln die Komplexitaet und Vernetzung der Ingenieurdisziplinen der Eisenbahninfrastruktur. Der in seinem engeren Fachgebiet kundige Leser soll ueber dieses hinaus in den Kapiteln der anderen Gewerke der Eisenbahninfrastruktur auf umfassende Darstellungen zurueckgreifen koennen, die ihm fundierten Erkenntniszugewinn fuer seine Arbeit an den Schnittstellen bieten. Es werden anerkannte Verfahren und Berechnungen sowie ein umfangreiches Datenwerk mit Zahlen, Tabellen und Diagrammen, nach denen man heute unter Zeitdruck meist vergeblich in den verschiedenen Einzelpublikationen sucht, an die Hand gegeben. (orig.)

  17. Shanghai-Nanjing Intercity Railway Approved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The feasibility study on Shanghai-Nanjing and Shanghai-Hangzhou Intercity Railways were approved officially by the National Reform and Development Commission (NRDC). The Shanghai-Nanjing Intercity Railway will be located briefly in parallel with the existing Shanghai-Nanjing Railway, starting from Shanghai and ending at Nanjing via Kunshan, Suzhou,Wuxi, Changzhou, Danyang and Zhenjiang, with a total length of 300 km for the main line, among which 32km will be in Shanghai and 268 km in Jiangsu Province.

  18. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  19. ROBUST STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR RAILWAY VEHICLE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong; Zeng Jing; Cao Dengqing

    2003-01-01

    The lateral stability for railway vehicle dynamic system with uncertain parameters and nonlinear uncertain force vector is studied by using the Lyapunov stability theory. A robust stability condition for the considered system is derived, and the obtained stability bounds are not necessarily symmetric with respect to the origin in the parameter space. The lateral stability analysis for a railway bogie model is analyzed by using the proposed approach. The symmetric and asymmetric results are both given and the influence of the adjustable parameter ( on the stability bounds is also discussed. With the help of the proposed method, the robust stability analysis can provide a reference for the design of the railway vehicle systems.

  20. Framework for Railway Phase-based Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    In the railway field, planning the maintenance and renewal strategy from Life Cycle Cost (LCC) perspective gets more and more attentions recent years. The new approach looks at all the costs through the infrastructure life span and use the annuity (continuing payment with a fixed total annual...... spending) to evaluate the project alternatives. The comparison result can identify the most cost-efficient solution in a long run and therefore reduce the overall costs. This article defines a phase-based framework to guide the railway maintenance and renewal project planning at strategic level...... of railway maintenance and renewals....

  1. 论我国邻避设施环境影响评价公众参与的冲突与协调--以北京至沈阳铁路客运专线建设项目为例%On the conflict and coordination of the public participation of the environmental Impact Assessment of NIMBY facilities-Taken the construction project of the high-speed railway from Beijing to Shenyang as case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾佳

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the public participation in the construction project of the high-speed railway from Beijing to Shenyang, the paper indicates that the NIMBY conflicts mostly lie in the following aspects, the diversity of public's interest appeals, the deficiency of the participation and the flaws of opinion survey in Environmental Impact Assessment. Fortunately, in this case, the government, EIA units and construction units are relatively rational to communicate with the public, ensure the participation rights and optimize the route plans of the high-speed railway, which make a difference in defusing the NIMBY conflicts. Definitely, based on the consultative democracy theory and the choice between democracy and efficiency in public decisions, it gives essential enlightenments to improve the public participation of EIA in the future, such as the importance of information disclosure in EIA, the differences and applications of the ways in public participation, the change of management idea of government in environmental risk communication.%对北京至沈阳铁路客运专线建设项目的公众参与进行剖析,指出邻避冲突主要表现在公众利益诉求的多元化、环评公众参与有效性不足和公众意见调查存在瑕疵等方面。政府、环评单位和建设单位理性对话公众,保障公众的参与权,积极优化高铁路线方案,在缓和冲突方面起到一定作用。该案件对于我国未来的环评公众参与具有重要启示意义,以协商民主、民主与效率作为理论基础,强调环评信息公开的前提性、保障环评公众参与的有效性、政府在环境风险沟通中的管理理念转变,全面总结了公众参与的完善机制。

  2. 铁路电化改造项目环境影响评价研究——以神木北至大保当铁路扩能改造建设项目为例%Discussion on Environmental Impact Assessment of Railway Electrification Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    校峰; 高明强; 马源; 马敏杰

    2015-01-01

    Some problems in environmental impact assessment of railway electrification renovation project are analyzed.Based on industrial assessment policies, this paper studied the pollution characteristics of railway electrification renovation project.The ecological environment, waste gas, the water, solid waste, noise, vibration and electromagnetic produced in the phases of con-struction and operation have affected the surrounding environment.This paper indicates the importance of public participation in estate development project, the main idea of engineering analysis in EIA was summarized to provide a reference for correctly asses-sing the environmental impact of electrification renovation project of railway.%分析了铁路电化改造项目环境影响评价中存在的诸多问题.结合实际工作经验,以神木北至大保当铁路扩能改造建设项目为例,通过调查分析指出铁路电化改造项目污染特性,并提出铁路电化改造过程的施工期和运营期中的生态环境影响及废气、废水、固体废弃物、铁路运行产生噪声、振动及牵引变电站产生的工频电磁场等对周围环境的影响,并提出了公众参与在铁路电化改造项目的重要性,为环境影响评价工作者正确评价铁路电化改造项目的环境影响提供参考.

  3. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew J.; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-08-11

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  4. A Branch-and-Price algorithm for railway rolling stock rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Larsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    How to best reschedule their fleet of rolling stock units during a disruption is an optimization problem regularly faced by railway operators. Despite the problem’s high complexity, it is still usually solved manually. In this paper we propose a path based mathematical formulation and solve...... by the suburban railway operator in Copenhagen, DSB S-tog. When used in combination with a lower bound method taken from the literature we show that near-optimal solutions to this rescheduling problem can be found within a few seconds. Furthermore, we show that the proposed methodology can be used, with minor...

  5. The Harmonoise/IMAGINE model for traction noise of powered railway vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Zhang, X.

    2006-01-01

    Traction noise is one of the noise sources of powered railway vehicles such as locomotives, electric- and diesel-powered multiple unit trains and high-speed trains. Especially at speeds below 60 km/h and at idling, but also at acceleration conditions for a wide range of speeds, traction noise can be

  6. A Comparison of Two Exact Methods for Passenger Railway Rolling Stock (Re)Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Haahr (Jørgen); J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.P. Veelenturf (Lucas); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe assignment of rolling stock units to timetable services in passenger railways is an important optimization problem that has been addressed by many papers in different forms. Solution approaches have been proposed for different planning phases: strategic, tactical, and also operationa

  7. 77 FR 43656 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Los Angeles County, CA BNSF... Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA), between milepost 7.95 (just north of West... the City of Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, Cal. (the line). The line traverses United States...

  8. A comparison of two exact methods for passenger railway rolling stock (re)scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Wagenaar, Joris C.; Veelenturf, Lucas P.

    2016-01-01

    The assignment of rolling stock units to timetable services in passenger railways is an important optimization problem that has been addressed by many papers in different forms. Solution approaches have been proposed for different planning phases: strategic, tactical, operational, and real...

  9. 76 FR 73776 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Coffee County, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Coffee County, AL....2 in Enterprise, in Coffee County, Ala. (the line).\\1\\ The line traverses United States...

  10. An investigation of neighborhood-level social, economic and physical factors for railway suicide in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Lay San; Spittal, Matthew J; Bugeja, Lyndal; Milner, Allison; Stevenson, Mark; McClure, Roderick

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the associations between railway suicide and neighborhood social, economic, and physical determinants using postcode-level data. It also examines whether the associations are influenced by having high concentration of high-risk individuals in a neighborhood area. Railway suicide cases from Victoria, Australia for the period of 2001-2012, their age, sex, year of death, usual residential address and suicide location were obtained from the National Coronial Information System. Univariate negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the association between railway suicide and neighborhood-level social, economic and physical factors. Variables which were significant in these univariate models were then assessed in a multivariate model, controlling for age and sex of the deceased and other known confounders. Findings from the multivariate analysis indicate that an elevated rate of railway suicide was strongly associated with neighborhood exposure of higher number of railway stations (IRR=1.30 95% CI=1.16-1.46). Other significant neighborhood risk factors included patronage volume (IRR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.11) and train frequency (IRR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.04). An increased number of video surveillance systems at railway stations and carparks was significantly associated with a modest reduction in railway suicide risk (IRR=0.93, 95% CI=0.88-0.98). These associations were independent of concentration of high-risk individuals. Railway suicide may be under-reported in Australia. Interventions to prevent railway suicide should target vulnerable individuals residing in areas characterized by high station density, patronage volume and train frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of road and railway embankments on runoff and soil erosion in eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Road and railway infrastructure increased in the Mediterranean region during the last three decades. This included the building of embankments, which are assumed to be a~large source of sediments and runoff. However, little is known about soil erosion rates, the factors that control them, and the processes that contribute to detachment, transport and deposition of sediments from road and railway embankments. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the impacts of road and railway embankments as a source of sediment and water, and compare them to other land use types (citrus plantations and shrublands representative of the Cànyoles watershed to evaluate the importance of road embankments as a~source of water and sediment under high magnitude low frequency rainfall events. Sixty rainfall experiments (1 m2 plots; 60 min duration; 78 mm h−1 rainfall intensity were carried out on these land use types: 20 on two railway embankments (10 + 10, 20 on two road embankments (10 + 10, and 10 on citrus and 10 on shrubland. Road and railway embankments were characterized by bare soils with low organic matter and high bulk density. Erosion processes were more active in road, railway and citrus plots, and null in the shrublands. The non-sustainable soil erosion rates of 3 Mg ha−1 y−1 measured on the road embankments were due to the efficient runoff connectivity plus low infiltration rates within the plot as the runoff took less than one minute to reach the runoff outlet. Road and railway embankments are both an active source of sediments and runoff, and soil erosion control strategies must be applied. The citrus plantations also act as a~source of water and sediments (1.5 Mg ha−1 y−1, while shrublands are sediment sinks, as no overland flow was observed due to the high infiltration rates.

  12. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in The Netherlands, respectively. Finally, we address the integration of the re-scheduling processes of the timetable, and the resources rolling stock and crew....

  13. A Predictive Maintenance Model for Railway Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Wen, Min; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    For the modern railways, maintenance is critical for ensuring safety, train punctuality and overall capacity utilization. The cost of railway maintenance in Europe is high, on average between 30,000 – 100,000 Euro per km per year [1]. Aiming to reduce such maintenance expenditure, this paper...... presents a mathematical model based on Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) which is designed to optimize the predictive railway tamping activities for ballasted track for the time horizon up to four years. The objective function is setup to minimize the actual costs for the tamping machine (measured by time...... recovery on the track quality after tamping operation and (5) Tamping machine operation factors. A Danish railway track between Odense and Fredericia with 57.2 km of length is applied for a time period of two to four years in the proposed maintenance model. The total cost can be reduced with up to 50...

  14. Efficiency and Robustness in Railway Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Simon Henry; Pisinger, David

    Passenger railway transport is an effective means of providing high capacity transport that is energy efficient and has low emissions. As the population of Denmark grows and there is an increased request for mobility, there is a need for railway services offering greater capacity and more...... problems beyond past approaches, and where applicable, investigate solution methods that place more focus on the passenger and passenger experience. To cater to the growing demand for rail transport, and compete with different modes of transport, Danish railway operators must offer a consistent, reliable...... to effectively model, investigate, and solve railway planning problems. Despite advances in computational power these large problems are still challenging to solve, especially as more modelling detail is sought. Within a Danish context this thesis seeks to apply operations research methods to different planning...

  15. Railway Network Timetabling and Dynamic Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the current state of research concerning railway network timetabling and traffic management. Timetable effectiveness is governed by frequency, regularity, accurate running, recovery and layover times, as well as minimal headway, buffer times and waiting times. Analytic (queuing)

  16. ROLLING NOISE SIMULATION OF A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Traian MAZILU

    2013-01-01

    Rolling noise of the railway vehicles is occurred by the wheel/rail vibration excited bythe rolling surfaces roughness. This paper presents an acoustic model able to predict the rollingnoise level of a railway vehicle. The acoustic model is based on a wheel/rail vibration modelwhich takes into account the structural wheel vibration (Remington model) and the bendingvertical waves of the rail. To this, the track model with an infinite Euler Bernoulli beam elasticallysupported on two layers is a...

  17. Railway noise barriers: Measurements and Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ausejo Prieto, Miguel; Recuero López, Manuel; Fausti, Patrizio; Cremonini, Renzo

    2009-01-01

    Trains Trains passages passages generate generate aa very very annoying annoying noise noise toto the the inhabitants inhabitants ofof their their environs environs.. To To reduce reduce this this annoyance annoyance, noise noise barriers barriers are are installed installed near near several several railway railway lines lines.. Nowadays Nowadays, acoustic acoustic simulation simulation programs programs are are used used inin order order toto optimize optimize the the design design ofof the...

  18. Mine railway equipments management information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Han, K.; Duan, T.; Liu, Z.; Lu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2007-06-15

    Based on client/server and browser/server models, the management information system described realized the entire life-cycle management of mine railway equipment which included universal equipment and special equipment in the locomotive depot, track maintenance division, electrical depot and car depot. The system has other online functions such as transmitting reports, graphics management, statistics, searches, graphics wizard and web propaganda. It was applied in Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd.'s Railway Transport Department. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  20. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  1. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomeš Zdeněk; Jandová Monika

    2016-01-01

    Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market) and regulated competition (competition for the market). Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed an...

  2. The growth of railway ground vibration problems - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, David P; Marecki, Grzegorz P; Kouroussis, Georges; Thalassinakis, Ioannis; Woodward, Peter K

    2016-10-15

    Ground-borne noise and vibration from railway lines can cause human distress/annoyance, and also negatively affect real estate property values. Therefore this paper analyses a collection of technical ground-borne noise and vibration reports, detailing commercial vibration assessments undertaken at 1604 railway track sections, in 9 countries across the world. A wide range of rail projects are considered including light rail, tram lines, underground/tunnelled lines, freight, conventional rail and high speed rail. It documents the rise in ground-borne vibration problems and trends in the prediction industry, with the aim of informing the current research area. Firstly, the reports are analysed chronologically and it is found that railway vibration is a growing global concern, and as such, assessments have become more prevalent. International assessment metrics are benchmarked and it is found that velocity decibels (VdB), vibration dose value (VDV) and peak particle velocity (PPV) are the most commonly used methods of assessment. Furthermore, to predict vibration levels, the physical measurement of frequency transfer functions is preferential to numerical modelling. Results from the reports show that ground vibration limits are exceeded in 44% of assessments, and that ground-borne noise limits are exceeded in 31%. Moreover, mitigation measures were required on approximately 50% of projects, revealing that ground-borne noise and vibration is a widespread railroad engineering challenge. To solve these problems, the most commonly used abatement strategy is a modification of the railtrack structure (active mitigation), rather than the implementation of a more passive solution in the far-field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure assessment of electromagnetic fields near electrosurgical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilén, Jonna

    2010-10-01

    Electrosurgical units (ESU) are widely used in medical health services. By applying sinusoidal or pulsed voltage in the frequency range of 0.3-5 MHz to the electrode tip, the desired mixture of coagulation and cutting are achieved. Due to the high voltage and current in the cable, strong electromagnetic fields appear near the ESU. The surgeon and others inside the operating room such as nurses, anesthesiologists, etc., will be highly exposed to these fields. The stray fields surrounding the ESU have previously been measured, but now a deeper analysis has been made of the curve shape of the field and the implication of this when assessing exposure from a commonly used ESU in accordance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The result showed that for some of the modes, especially those using high-pulsed voltage with only a few sinusoidal periods, the E-field close to the cable could reach linear spatially averaged values of 20 kV/m compared to the 2.1 kV/m stated in ICNIRP guidelines. Assessing the E- and B-field from ESU is not straightforward since in this frequency range, both induced current density and specific absorption rate are restricted by the ICNIRP guidelines. Nevertheless, work needs to be done to reduce the stray fields from ESU.

  4. Model for Railway Infrastructure Management Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Stojić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The provision of appropriate quality rail services has an important role in terms of railway infrastructure: quality of infrastructure maintenance, regulation of railway traffic, line capacity, speed, safety, train station organization, the allowable lines load and other infrastructure parameters.The analysis of experiences in transforming the railway systems points to the conclusion that there is no unique solution in terms of choice for institutional rail infrastructure management modes, although more than nineteen years have passed from the beginning of the implementation of the Directive 91/440/EEC. Depending on the approach to the process of restructuring the national railway company, adopted regulations and caution in its implementation, the existence or absence of a clearly defined transport strategy, the willingness to liberalize the transport market, there are several different ways for institutional management of railway infrastructure.A hybrid model for selection of modes of institutional rail infrastructure management was developed based on the theory of artificial intelligence, theory of fuzzy sets and theory of multicriteria optimization.KEY WORDSmanagement, railway infrastructure, organizational structure, hybrid model

  5. Development of Intermodal Transport at Croatian Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hurtiš

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of the railway transport in the EU, in particularthe acceptance of the E U instructions which regulate theright of "the open access to the railway" is the reason forchanges on the European intermodal transport market. TheCommunity of European Railways creates the Trans-EuropeanRail Freight Freeways which will exclusively perform railfreight transport. That freeway net has been created in EUmember countries, but they are also extended to the countrieswith the candidate status for the membership in the EU, as wellas to the countries outside the European Union where the qualityof the railway infrastructure enables transport service to beperformed at the required level. Transport at the Trans-EuropeanRail Freight Freeways will be performed, for the most part,by the contemporary technologies which enable redirection ofthe goods from the road ways to the railways. Croatian Railwaysis planning to build and open truck terminals by the beginningof the year 2007 in Spacva, Split, Rijeka, Koprivnica andZagreb. This is necessary in order to introduce its own trains forthe transportation of trucks (so calledRo-La trains, which willhelp redirect approximately 150,000 heavy trucks a year fromthe roads to the railways. That way Croatia will profit at theecological and economic level, as well as regarding transportsafety.

  6. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESSING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE INTEGRATION UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bogomolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the scientific and methodological apparatus assessment, built on the basis of the categories of «effectiveness» and «optimality», will allow, on the one hand, to establish the efficiency of functioning of associations in prior periods, on the other - to identify the parameters conditioning condition and results of integrated production in the future. Taking into account the results of these studies, we developed a methodology of integrated assessment of efficiency of functioning of the agro-industrial units. Its essence consists in the determination of the integral coefficient of efficiency on the basis of two complementary groups of settings: performance, expressed in the system of relative indicators, and optimality, the quantitative characteristics of which used the limit values. As the distinctive features of the proposed methodology, determining its scientific novelty and practical significance, it should be noted: enabling the assessment of the effectiveness in using existing and advanced involved in production resources; the use of a unified system of criteria and performance measures and to determine the level of optimality of meat production, built in accordance with the sequence of stages of the reproduction process; universality settlement mechanism, used for the analysis of efficiency of managing the links of the production chain (agriculture, processing, trade and overall integration. The technique involves the execution of the aggregate calculation and analytical operations, grouped by us in the framework of interrelated stages. The result can be identified priority directions of development of the Association, the necessity to optimize the composition of participants and proportions of the process chain, development and implementation of innovative programs, development of new technologies and management methods.

  7. Perspectives of patients with acute abdominal pain in an emergency department observation unit and a surgical assessment unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Mogensen, Christian B;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the patient perspective when admitted with acute abdominal pain to an emergency department observation unit compared with the perspective when admitted to a surgical assessment unit. BACKGROUND: An increase in emergency department observation units has led...... to more short-term admissions and has changed the patient journey from admission to specialised wards staffed by specialist nurses to stays in units staffed by emergency nurses. DESIGN: A comparative field study. METHODS: The study included 21 patients. Participant observation and qualitative interviews...... were performed, and the analyses were phenomenological-hermeneutic. RESULTS: Emergency department observation unit patients had extensive interaction with health professionals, which could create distrust. Surgical assessment unit patients experienced lack of interaction with nurses, also creating...

  8. How to Sell a Railway: Lessons on the privatization of Three Dutch Railway Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); M. Leijten (Martijn)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this contribution, we provide a comparative analysis of the Dutch government’s attempts to realize private investments in three national railway mega-projects: the Betuwe Route, a dedicated freight railway line connecting the Rotterdam harbour to the German rail network, the High

  9. Real-time Railway Traffic Management: dispatching in complex, large and busy railway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Railway is an important and sustainable transportation mode, which despite good potentials results in a limited attractiveness, mostly due to the perceived consequences of unreliability. In fact, busy railway networks with frequent and heterogeneous services are highly sensitive to delay propagation

  10. How to Sell a Railway: Lessons on the privatization of Three Dutch Railway Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); M. Leijten (Martijn)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this contribution, we provide a comparative analysis of the Dutch government’s attempts to realize private investments in three national railway mega-projects: the Betuwe Route, a dedicated freight railway line connecting the Rotterdam harbour to the German rail network, the High Spee

  11. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in...

  12. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in...

  13. Quadrennial review of a paediatric emergency assessment unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Penny; Birch, Simon; Cogman, Genevieve; Glasper, Edward A; Wiltshire, Maureen

    The primary aim of this article is to report on one aspect of a quadrennial study designed to explore the appropriateness and impact of the development of a paediatric emergency assessment unit (PEAU) as a response to increases in paediatric emergencies presenting to a south-western regional child health unit. In particular, this article will present the findings of a prospective audit of admissions to the PEAU over a 1-month period during the latter part of 2002. The primary method of data collection utilized a structured survey instrument developed using a design and automatic data computer software package, completed by the nursing staff. Anonymized descriptive data were obtained from 223 children admitted to the PEAU during one calendar moth and authorized by the appropriate clinical directorate audit committee as part of its ongoing commitment to the full implementation of clinical governance. The data presented primarily relate to children admitted during the official opening times of the PEAU, and those presenting out of hours. The data analysis demonstrates a reduction in the number of children staying overnight in hospital since the opening of the PEAU, with the majority of children being referred by their own family doctor. Only one child in the sample was readmitted to the PEAU within 24 hours, and two within 24 hours of discharge as inpatients. Although thought to be pertinent, only one child admitted after official closing of the PEAU and out of hours was described as being admitted for social reasons. The International Classification of Diagnosis (ICD) 10 (World Health Organization (WHO), 1994) classifications of the children admitted to the PEAU reflect those found in other similar studies. Overall, the results of this investigation demonstrate that a PEAU can offer an efficient service to GPs, families and others as a route of referral, thus mitigating unnecessary overnight stays for individual children.

  14. A New Filtering and Smoothing Algorithm for Railway Track Surveying Based on Landmark and IMU/Odometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingan; Wu, Wenqi; Jiang, Mingming; Li, Yun

    2017-06-19

    High-accuracy railway track surveying is essential for railway construction and maintenance. The traditional approaches based on total station equipment are not efficient enough since high precision surveying frequently needs static measurements. This paper proposes a new filtering and smoothing algorithm based on the IMU/odometer and landmarks integration for the railway track surveying. In order to overcome the difficulty of estimating too many error parameters with too few landmark observations, a new model with completely observable error states is established by combining error terms of the system. Based on covariance analysis, the analytical relationship between the railway track surveying accuracy requirements and equivalent gyro drifts including bias instability and random walk noise are established. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the new filtering and smoothing algorithm for railway track surveying can reach 1 mm (1σ) when using a Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG)-based Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with gyro bias instability of 0.03°/h and random walk noise of 0.005 °h while control points of the track control network (CPIII) position observations are provided by the optical total station in about every 60 m interval. The proposed approach can satisfy at the same time the demands of high accuracy and work efficiency for railway track surveying.

  15. A New Filtering and Smoothing Algorithm for Railway Track Surveying Based on Landmark and IMU/Odometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingan Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High-accuracy railway track surveying is essential for railway construction and maintenance. The traditional approaches based on total station equipment are not efficient enough since high precision surveying frequently needs static measurements. This paper proposes a new filtering and smoothing algorithm based on the IMU/odometer and landmarks integration for the railway track surveying. In order to overcome the difficulty of estimating too many error parameters with too few landmark observations, a new model with completely observable error states is established by combining error terms of the system. Based on covariance analysis, the analytical relationship between the railway track surveying accuracy requirements and equivalent gyro drifts including bias instability and random walk noise are established. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the new filtering and smoothing algorithm for railway track surveying can reach 1 mm (1σ when using a Ring Laser Gyroscope (RLG-based Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU with gyro bias instability of 0.03°/h and random walk noise of 0.005 °h while control points of the track control network (CPIII position observations are provided by the optical total station in about every 60 m interval. The proposed approach can satisfy at the same time the demands of high accuracy and work efficiency for railway track surveying.

  16. Hybrid predictions of railway induced ground vibration using a combination of experimental measurements and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K. A.; Verbraken, H.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2016-07-01

    Along with the rapid expansion of urban rail networks comes the need for accurate predictions of railway induced vibration levels at grade and in buildings. Current computational methods for making predictions of railway induced ground vibration rely on simplifying modelling assumptions and require detailed parameter inputs, which lead to high levels of uncertainty. It is possible to mitigate against these issues using a combination of field measurements and state-of-the-art numerical methods, known as a hybrid model. In this paper, two hybrid models are developed, based on the use of separate source and propagation terms that are quantified using in situ measurements or modelling results. These models are implemented using term definitions proposed by the Federal Railroad Administration and assessed using the specific illustration of a surface railway. It is shown that the limitations of numerical and empirical methods can be addressed in a hybrid procedure without compromising prediction accuracy.

  17. Dynamic Characteristics of a New Machine for Fatigue Testing of Railway Axles – Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel FRYDRÝŠEK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There were done some proposal calculations for a new testing machine. This new testing machine is determined for a dynamic fatigue testing of railway axles. The railway axles are subjected to bending and rotation (centrifugal effects. For the right proposition of a new machine is very important to know the basic dynamic characteristics of whole system. These dynamic characteristics are solved via FEM (MSC.Marc/Mentat software in combination with SBRA (Simulation-Based Reliability Assessment Method (probabilistic Monte Carlo approach, Anthill and Python software. The proposed dimensions and springs of a new machine for fatigue testing of railway axles were used for manufacturing. Application of the SBRA method connected with FEM in these areas is a new and innovative trend in mechanics. This paper is continuation of former work (i.e. easier deterministic approach already presented in this journal in 2007.

  18. Economic Functions Proposal of Urgency Prioritization of Investment Projects of Operated Railway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitoňák Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the article is to describe the proposals of economic functions within the prioritization of urgency investments of operated railway bridges within a comprehensive evaluation of existing bridges. The purpose of the paper is a comprehensive assessment of existing bridges and to define determinants and determinants of decision-making and designing a mechanism of decision-making procedures of prioritized infrastructure measures in the form of repairs and reconstructions of bridges resulting from the records of supervising activities based not only on technical but also economic aspects to the railway infrastructure manager.

  19. A tutorial on fundamental model structures for railway timetable optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This guide explains the role of railway timetables relative to all other railway scheduling activities, and then presents four fundamental timetable formulations suitable for optimization. Timetabling models may be classified according to whether they explicitly model the track structure...

  20. A concept of public safety monitoring in large railway nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Siergiejczyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is to identify risks of public safety in railway transport and the concept ofresetting the system of monitoring and supervision of railway facilities in a large railway node by theexample of Warsaw Railway Junction – WWK. Switched concept of the system of monitoring andsupervision of railway facilities in a large railway node is an open computer system that allows futureexpansion of the spatial: it means that you can enter into the system more and more monitored objectsand increase the monitored area in a given subject. The proposed solution is an example of a systemthat allows monitoring and surveillance improvement in safety of railway transport.[b]Keyword[/b]s: public safety, railway junction, system, monitoring

  1. Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machelski, Czesław

    2015-12-01

    The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness) become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces), as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell's span, geometry (static scheme) and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure's characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.

  2. Assessment of atmospheric microbial contamination in a mobile dental unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioaerosols are important considerations in infection control as well as in occupational health. Bioaerosols may carry potentially hazardous microbes, viruses, fungi, allergens, and other toxic substances that may harm the dental operator, patient, and the dental assistant by causing nosocomial infections. Objective: To assess the level of atmospheric microbial contamination before, during, and after dental treatment procedures in the dental operatory of a mobile dental unit (MDU. Materials and Methods: The study included three treatment sessions on different working days, with an interval of one month. The MDU was fumigated before the start of the study. Brain Heart Infusion Agar with 5% sheep blood was used to collect the gravitometric settling of aerosols produced before, during, and after dental treatment procedures. The agar plates were sent for aerobic and anaerobic culture. Results: The results showed that atmospheric microbial contamination (CFUs/plate was 4 times higher during working sessions as compared to the levels before the working sessions. At the end of the working day, aerosols decreased by almost 3 times that seen during work. Conclusion: The aerosols increased during and after work sessions. This shows the increased risk of transmission of infectious agents to the dentists who work in the MDU. Hence, all necessary preventive measures should be advised and need to be followed strictly.

  3. Precast concrete unit assessment through GPR survey and FDTD modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Precast concrete elements are widely used within United Kingdom house building offering ease in assembly and added values as structural integrity, sound and thermal insulation; most common concrete components include walls, beams, floors, panels, lintels, stairs, etc. The lack of respect of the manufacturer instruction during assembling, however, may induce cracking and short/long term loss of bearing capacity. GPR is a well-established not destructive technique employed in the assessment of structural elements because of real-time imaging, quickness of data collecting and ability to discriminate finest structural details. In this work, GPR has been used to investigate two different precast elements: precast reinforced concrete planks constituting the roof slab of a school and precast wood-cement blocks with insulation material pre-fitted used to build a perimeter wall of a private building. Visible cracks affected both constructions. For the assessment surveys, a GSSI 2.0 GHz GPR antenna has been used because of the high resolution required and the small size of the antenna case (155 by 90 by 105mm) enabling scanning up to 45mm from any obstruction. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) numerical modelling was also performed to build a scenario of the expected GPR signal response for a preliminary real-time interpretation and to help solve uncertainties due to complex reflection patterns: simulated radargrams were built using Reflex Software v. 8.2, reproducing the same GPR pulse used for the surveys in terms of wavelet, nominal frequency, sample frequency and time window. Model geometries were derived from the design projects available both for the planks and the blocks; the electromagnetic properties of the materials (concrete, reinforcing bars, air-filled void, insulation and wooden concrete) were inferred from both values reported in literature and a preliminary interpretation of radargrams where internal layer interfaces were clearly recognizable and

  4. The Chengdu Railway Administration:Advancing with the Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE Chengdu Railway Administration, one of the top 500 state-owned enterprises, is southwestern China's communications backbone. Established in 1952, it administers state-owned railway lines in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces and Chongqing Municipality, including nine trunk rail lines and three joint-venture rail lines. Of its 5,208 kilometers of railways, 659 kilometers are joint-venture mileage.

  5. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...... and can be applied as decision support in different stages of the urban railway alignment planning....

  6. Taikunshan Tunnel on Ningbo-Taizhou-Wenzhou Railway Linked Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On April 27, Taikunshan Tunnel on Ningbo-Wenzhou Railway was linked up. The railway line is an important project in the National Mid-term and Long-term Railway Network Development Program, and serves as an important part for the rapid passenger transport network with the backbone of "four east-west corridors and four south-north corridors".

  7. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in scope...

  8. Location Selection of Chinese Modern Railway Logistics Center Based on DEA-Bi-level Programming Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fenling Feng; Feiran Li; Qingya Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Properly planning the modern railway logistics center is a necessary step for the railway logistics operation, which can effectively improve the railway freight service for a seamless connection between the internal and external logistic nodes. The study, from the medium level and depending on the existing railway freight stations with the railway logistics node city, focuses on the site-selection of modern railway logistics center to realize organic combination between newly built railway lo...

  9. Hazard assessment of United Arab Emirates (UAE) incense smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rebecca; Sexton, Kenneth G; Yeatts, Karin B

    2013-08-01

    Incense burning inside the home, a common practice in Arabian Gulf countries, has been recognized as a potentially modifiable source of indoor air pollution. To better understand potential adverse effects of incense burning in exposed individuals, we conducted a hazard assessment of incense smoke exposure. The goals of this study were first to characterize the particles and gases emitted from Arabian incense over time when burned, and secondly to examine in vitro human lung cells responses to incense smoke. Two types of incense (from the United Arab Emirates) were burned in a specially designed indoor environmental chamber (22 m(3)) to simulate the smoke concentration in a typical living room and the chamber air was analyzed. Both particulate (PM) concentrations and sizes were measured, as were gases carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), formaldehyde (HCHO), and carbonyls. During the burn, peak concentrations were recorded for PM (1.42 mg/m(3)), CO (122 pm), NOx (0.3 ppm), and HCHO (85 ppb) along with pentanal (71.9 μg/m(3)), glyoxal (84.8 μg/m(3)), and several other carbonyls. Particle sizes ranged from 20 to 300 nm with count median diameters ranging from 65 to 92 nm depending on time post burn-out. PM, CO, and NOx time-weighted averages exceeded current government regulation values and emissions seen previously from environmental tobacco smoke. Charcoal emissions were the main contributor to both the high CO and NOx concentrations. A significant cell inflammatory response was observed in response to smoke components formed from incense burning. Our hazard evaluation suggests that incense burning contributes to indoor air pollution and could be harmful to human health.

  10. Stable time patterns of railway suicides in Germany: comparative analysis of 7,187 cases across two observation periods (1995–1998; 2005–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of fatalities on the European Union (EU) railways are suicides, representing about 60% of all railway fatalities. The aim of this study was to compare time patterns of suicidal behaviour on railway tracks in Germany between two observation periods (1995–1998 and 2005–2008) in order to investigate their stability and value in railway suicide prevention. Methods Cases were derived from the National Central Registry of person accidents on the German railway network (STABAG). The association of daytime, weekday and month with the mean number of suicides was analysed applying linear regression. Potential differences by observation period were assessed by adding observation period and the respective interaction terms into the linear regression. A 95% confidence interval for the mean number of suicides was computed using the t distribution. Results A total of 7,187 railway suicides were recorded within both periods: 4,102 (57%) in the first period (1995–1998) and 3,085 (43%) in the second (2005–2008). The number of railway suicides was highest on Mondays and Tuesdays in the first period with an average of 3.2 and 3.5 events and of 2.6 events on both days in the second period. In both periods, railway suicides were more common between 6:00 am and noon, and between 6:00 pm and midnight. Seasonality was only prominent in the period 1995–1998. Conclusions Over the course of two observation periods, the weekday and circadian patterns of railway suicides remained stable. Therefore, these patterns should be an integral part of railway suicide preventive measures, e.g. gatekeeper training courses. PMID:24498876

  11. Stable time patterns of railway suicides in Germany: comparative analysis of 7,187 cases across two observation periods (1995-1998; 2005-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaschek, Karoline; Baumert, Jens; Erazo, Natalia; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-02-06

    The majority of fatalities on the European Union (EU) railways are suicides, representing about 60% of all railway fatalities. The aim of this study was to compare time patterns of suicidal behaviour on railway tracks in Germany between two observation periods (1995-1998 and 2005-2008) in order to investigate their stability and value in railway suicide prevention. Cases were derived from the National Central Registry of person accidents on the German railway network (STABAG). The association of daytime, weekday and month with the mean number of suicides was analysed applying linear regression. Potential differences by observation period were assessed by adding observation period and the respective interaction terms into the linear regression. A 95% confidence interval for the mean number of suicides was computed using the t distribution. A total of 7,187 railway suicides were recorded within both periods: 4,102 (57%) in the first period (1995-1998) and 3,085 (43%) in the second (2005-2008). The number of railway suicides was highest on Mondays and Tuesdays in the first period with an average of 3.2 and 3.5 events and of 2.6 events on both days in the second period. In both periods, railway suicides were more common between 6:00 am and noon, and between 6:00 pm and midnight. Seasonality was only prominent in the period 1995-1998. Over the course of two observation periods, the weekday and circadian patterns of railway suicides remained stable. Therefore, these patterns should be an integral part of railway suicide preventive measures, e.g. gatekeeper training courses.

  12. 77 FR 68886 - Aiken Railway Company, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Lines of Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35665] Aiken Railway Company, LLC--Lease and Operation Exemption--Lines of Norfolk Southern Railway Company in Aiken County, SC On October 31, 2012, Aiken Railway Company, LLC (AIKR), a noncarrier, filed a verified notice of...

  13. Railway diagnosis of electric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Vladimir Sergeevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in noise level at cities is increasing the requirements to functional interaction of road users - pedestrians and drivers - with the parameters of the environment as a leading component of Afferentation synthesis in the complicated complex of locomotive activity. City noise is one of the most widespread factors of unfavorable living and working conditions. The noise of high intensity provokes diseases, lowers labor activity. At present, many large cities pay much attention to electric vehicles. The authors present an analysis of the poor state of tram track in areas of high noise and vibration of car and under-sleeper base design. A negative effect of noise and vibration on the formation of urban areas environment is shown as well as the impact of these conditions on the person. The advantages of the application of electric transport are specified, noise displacement curve of railway and under sleeper base is plotted depending on the frequency of the applied load and the modulus of elasticity, as well as under sleeper base vibroacceleration depending on time. The authors offer a systematic study on the basis of a mathematical model of the sources of noise in the process of a tram motion.

  14. Visual unit analysis: a descriptive approach to landscape assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Tetlow; S. R. J. Sheppard

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of the visible attributes of landscapes is an important component of the planning process. When landscapes are at regional scale, economical and effective methodologies are critical. The Visual Unit concept appears to offer a logical and useful framework for description and evaluation. The concept subdivides landscape into coherent, spatially-defined units....

  15. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  16. Environmental Assessment: Interim Western United States C-17 Landing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER GOVERNOR January 7, 2008 Doug Allbright U.S. Air Force Headquarters Air...STATE OF CALIFORNIA GoVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING AND RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENBGGER. CYNTHJABRYANT DIRECTOR

  17. Analysis and Comparison of Modular Railway Power Conditioner for High-Speed Railway Traction System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianming; Ma, Fujun; He, Zhixing

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern electrified railway, negative sequence current (NSC) minimization is one of the most important considerations in the high-speed railway traction system. In the past, many multiple or multilevel topologies with high compensation capacity have been introduced...... for railway power conditioner (RPC). This paper presents a simplified quantitative comparison of five previous modular RPC topologies for negative sequence compensation in V/V and SCOTT traction systems, aiming for an optimal selection of the compensators. Performance criteria such as transformer requirement...

  18. Railway capacity assessment, an algebraic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Egmond, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a result of the research program "Seamless Multimodal Mobility", carried out within The Netherlands TRAIL Research School for Transport, Infrastructure and Logistics, and financed by the Delft University of Technology. The "Seamless Multimodal Mobility" research program will prov

  19. Research on the railway construction process quality model based on the state space method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shoudong; Zhou Guohua; Chen Haifeng; Zhao Guotang

    2013-01-01

    In the ISO9000“input-output”process model,the concept of process quality is difficult to get the cor-rect interpretation. From the“white box”theory of process,this paper puts forward the scientific meaning of the concept of process quality and the process quality model by taking the basic operating unit of 6M1E in the railway construction project for example. The basic operating unit system consists of technological natural process,opera-tion process and management process;the process quality of the basic operating unit system depends on the interre-lation and interaction among those three sub-processes,and also subjects to the impact of the external disturbance input factors. Finally,the cast-in-situ prestressed concrete continuous box girder construction process is utilized to elaborate the specific application of this theory in the quality management of the railway construction project.

  20. 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David; Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Iida, Masanobu; Nelson, James; Thompson, David; Tielkes, Thorsten; Towers, David; Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held on 9 – 13 September, 2013, in Uddevalla, Sweden. The event, which was jointly organized by the Competence Centre Chalmers Railway Mechanics (CHARMEC) and the Departments of Applied Mechanics and Applied Acoustics at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, covered a broad range of topics in the field of railway noise and vibration, including: prospects, legal regulations and perceptions; wheel and rail noise; prediction, measurements and monitoring; ground-borne vibration; squeal noise and structure-borne noise; and aerodynamic noise generated by high-speed trains. Further topics included: resilient track forms; grinding, corrugation and roughness; and interior noise and sound barriers. This book, which consists of a collection of peer-reviewed papers originally submitted to the workshop, not only provides readers with an overview of the latest developments in the field, but also offers scientists and engineers essent...

  1. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... against service transit times and railway asset productivity. Methods to investigate the quality of supplement time allocation are necessary to reduce the behavioral response and the waste of resources. This is a preliminary study that investigates train delay data from the year 2014 supplied by Rail Net...... overall aggregate timetable supplement, reduced transport travel times, and higher productive utilization of train rolling stock. The study results will lead eventually to both better allocation of time supplements in timetable structures, and identification of areas that should be a high priority...

  2. An improved network model for railway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keping; Ma, Xin; Shao, Fubo

    In railway traffic, safety analysis is a key issue for controlling train operation. Here, the identification and order of key factors are very important. In this paper, a new network model is constructed for analyzing the railway safety, in which nodes are regarded as causation factors and links represent possible relationships among those factors. Our aim is to give all these nodes an importance order, and to find the in-depth relationship among these nodes including how failures spread among them. Based on the constructed network model, we propose a control method to ensure the safe state by setting each node a threshold. As the results, by protecting the Hub node of the constructed network, the spreading of railway accident can be controlled well. The efficiency of such a method is further tested with the help of numerical example.

  3. Investigation of Torsional Oscillations in Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridrichovský Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of semiconductor electro-technics during last decades allowed us to produce railway vehicles with very high tractive power. High performances reveal new problems that were unknown until these days. One of these problems are torsional oscillations of running wheelsets, which may appear and compromise the safety of railway vehicles. This article analyzes dynamical events that may occur in drives of the vehicles and that are bound with transmission of the torque to the wheels during the operation of the vehicle, which is exposed to the variable external influences (adhesion conditions, track irregularities, variation of wheel forces, etc.. This is based on the idea of a model of simplified drive of the real railway vehicle, which is used for simulation purposes. The model serves for the parametric analysis of individual components, to make an effective design or control remedy.

  4. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the authors present current research on the types, design and safety issues of railways. Topics discussed include the acoustic characteristics of noise in train stations; monitoring railway structure conditions and opportunities to use wireless sensor networks as tools to improve...... the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity...... of the Portuguese broad gauge railway network (1948-2012)....

  5. An optimisation framework for determination of capacity in railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    Within the railway industry, high quality estimates on railway capacity is crucial information, that helps railway companies to utilise the expensive (infrastructure) resources as efficiently as possible. This paper therefore proposes an optimisation framework to estimate the capacity of a railway...... to the train types. This is done using a mathematical model which is solved with a heuristic. The developed approach is used on a case network to obtain the capacity of the given railway system. Furthermore, we test different parameters to explore computation time, precision and sensitivity to input...

  6. [Standardised pain assessment in cognitively impaired nursing home residents: Comparing the use of assessment tools in dementia care units and in integrated care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Rebecca; Sirsch, Erika; Holle, Bernhard; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine

    2017-05-01

    A large number of nursing home residents with cognitive impairments (CI) suffer from chronic pain, which is also discussed as a reason for challenging behavior. To assess pain in people with severe CI, the use of an observational pain instrument is recommended; for people without or with mild CI the gold standard is a self-rating instrument. It is unknown whether in German nursing homes pain assessment in residents with severe CI is actually conducted using observational instruments and which instruments are used. Because of different resident structure we assume that in dementia care units observational pain instruments are more often used than in integrated care units. The aim of this study was to investigate the conduction of pain assessments and the instruments used in both types of care units. We conducted an observational study based on standardized data collection. A questionnaire was used to elicit whether pain assessment had been performed and what kind of instrument had been used last time. The cognitive status was also assessed. Based on these data, we determined for each resident whether a self- or proxy-rating instrument had been applied, considering his or her cognitive status. Afterwards, the resident data were aggregated on a care unit level. The use of single instruments was calculated in percentages. Differences between dementia care units and integrated care units were investigated with descriptive statistics and an independent t-test. A mixed-effects binary regression model was used to adjust for cluster effects. The analysis sample consisted of n = 1,397 participating residents living in n = 75 care units (n = 30 dementia care units; n = 45 integrated care units). In the dementia care units, a mean of 82 % of residents with severe cognitive impairments was assessed using an observational proxy-rating assessment instrument; in the traditional integrated care units a percentage of 42 % was calculated. In the dementia care units, the

  7. ROLLING NOISE SIMULATION OF A RAILWAY VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MAZILU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rolling noise of the railway vehicles is occurred by the wheel/rail vibration excited bythe rolling surfaces roughness. This paper presents an acoustic model able to predict the rollingnoise level of a railway vehicle. The acoustic model is based on a wheel/rail vibration modelwhich takes into account the structural wheel vibration (Remington model and the bendingvertical waves of the rail. To this, the track model with an infinite Euler Bernoulli beam elasticallysupported on two layers is applied to simulate the effect of the ballasted track. The influence of therolling surfaces roughness and vehicle velocity on the rolling noise is investigated.

  8. Power System Unbalance due to Railway Electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Vikelgaard, Henrik; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    The decision to electrify the main part of the Danish railway at the same time where the supply and generation of electrical power in Denmark moves to a more decentralized structure, raises concerns regarding the balanced and secure operation of the power grid. Adverse effects include, among others......, the lifetime reduction of rotating machines and the malfunction of HVDC converters. Toward this direction, this paper aims to review the challenges and mitigation solutions with respect to voltage unbalance, focusing on the conditions relevant to the electrification of the Danish railway....

  9. Track Detection in Railway Sidings Based on MEMS Gyroscope Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns.

  10. Track detection in railway sidings based on MEMS gyroscope sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broquetas, Antoni; Comerón, Adolf; Gelonch, Antoni; Fuertes, Josep M; Castro, J Antonio; Felip, Damià; López, Miguel A; Pulido, José A

    2012-11-23

    The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns.

  11. Track Detection in Railway Sidings Based on MEMS Gyroscope Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broquetas, Antoni; Comerón, Adolf; Gelonch, Antoni; Fuertes, Josep M.; Castro, J. Antonio; Felip, Damià; López, Miguel A.; Pulido, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a two-step technique for real-time track detection in single-track railway sidings using low-cost MEMS gyroscopes. The objective is to reliably know the path the train has taken in a switch, diverted or main road, immediately after the train head leaves the switch. The signal delivered by the gyroscope is first processed by an adaptive low-pass filter that rejects noise and converts the temporal turn rate data in degree/second units into spatial turn rate data in degree/meter. The conversion is based on the travelled distance taken from odometer data. The filter is implemented to achieve a speed-dependent cut-off frequency to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Although direct comparison of the filtered turn rate signal with a predetermined threshold is possible, the paper shows that better detection performance can be achieved by processing the turn rate signal with a filter matched to the rail switch curvature parameters. Implementation aspects of the track detector have been optimized for real-time operation. The detector has been tested with both simulated data and real data acquired in railway campaigns. PMID:23443376

  12. Development of a wear model for the wheel profile optimisation on railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignesti, M.; Innocenti, A.; Marini, L.; Meli, E.; Rindi, A.

    2013-09-01

    The modelling and the reduction of wear due to wheel-rail interaction is a fundamental aspect in the railway field, mainly correlated to safety, maintenance interventions and costs. In this work, the authors present two innovative wheel profiles, specifically designed with the aim of improving the wear and stability behaviour of the standard ORE S1002 wheel profile matched with the UIC60 rail profile canted at 1/20 rad, which represents the wheel-rail combination adopted in the Italian railway line. The two wheel profiles, conventionally named CD1 and DR2, have been developed by the authors in collaboration with Trenitalia S.p.A. The CD1 profile has been designed with the purpose of spreading the contact points in the flange zone on a larger area in order to reduce wear phenomena and having a constant equivalent conicity for small lateral displacements of the wheelset with respect to the centred position in the track. The DR2 wheel profile is instead designed to guarantee the same kinematic characteristics of the matching formed by ORE S1002 wheel profile and UIC60 rail profile with laying angle α p equal to 1/40 rad, widely common in European railways and characterised by good performances in both wear and kinematic behaviour. The evolution of wheel profiles due to wear has been evaluated through a wear model developed and validated by the authors in previous works. The wear model comprises two mutually interactive units: a vehicle model for the dynamic simulations and a model for the wear assessment. The whole model is based on a discrete process: each discrete step consists in one dynamic simulation and one profile update by means of the wear model while, within the discrete step, the profiles are supposed to be constant. The choice of an appropriate step is crucial in terms of precision and computational effort: the particular strategy adopted in the current work has been chosen for its capacity in representing the nonlinear wear evolution and for the low

  13. Railway safety climate: a study on organizational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-09-07

    The safety climate of an organization is considered a leading indicator of potential risk for railway organizations. This study adopts the perceptual measurement-individual attribute approach to investigate the safety climate of a railway organization. The railway safety climate attributes are evaluated from the perspective of railway system staff. We identify four safety climate dimensions from exploratory factor analysis, namely safety communication, safety training, safety management and subjectively evaluated safety performance. Analytical results indicate that the safety climate differs at vertical and horizontal organizational levels. This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence of the multilevel safety climate in a railway organization, presents possible causes of the differences under various cultural contexts and differentiates between safety climate scales for diverse workgroups within the railway organization. This information can be used to improve the safety sustainability of railway organizations and to conduct safety supervisions for the government.

  14. Existing Noise Level at Railway Stations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway transportation known as one of the most environmental friendly transportation mode. However, the significance problems of railway transportation are noise pollution and negatively impact the wellbeing of the whole community. Unfortunately, there has been lack of public awareness about the noise level produce by the railway transportation in Malaysia. This study investigates the noise level produced by railway transportation in Malaysia specifically by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB. Methods of collecting existing noise level at railway stations in Malaysia are briefly discussed in this study. The finding indicates that the noise level produced by the railway transportation in Malaysia which is by KTMB is considered as dangerous to human being and also exceed the noise limit that has been assigned by Department of Environment Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Malaysia. A better noise barrier and improved material should be developed to mitigate the existing noise level produced by railway transportations in Malaysia.

  15. Communication Technologies Support to Railway Infrastructure and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander

    important railway applications: European Train Control System (ETCS) signalling and railway-specific voice communication. Therefore, LTE is technically capable of replacing GSM-R as the communication network for the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). Moreover, the simulation results show......, which can be used for providing bandwidth-demanding applications, such as video surveillance. All in all, this thesis presents a feasible evolution in the field of railway communications. LTE technology together with the novel heterogeneous architecture may transform railway mobile networks from being......GSM-Railways (GSM-R), which is state-of-the-art railway mobile communication technology, is gradually replacing legacy analogue radio systems. Although GSM-R is an unquestionable achievement in terms of European railway interoperability, from a telecommunication point of view, it is an obsolete...

  16. Perceptual constancy in auditory perception of distance to railway tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coensel, Bert; Nilsson, Mats E; Berglund, Birgitta; Brown, A L

    2013-07-01

    Distance to a sound source can be accurately estimated solely from auditory information. With a sound source such as a train that is passing by at a relatively large distance, the most important auditory information for the listener for estimating its distance consists of the intensity of the sound, spectral changes in the sound caused by air absorption, and the motion-induced rate of change of intensity. However, these cues are relative because prior information/experience of the sound source-its source power, its spectrum and the typical speed at which it moves-is required for such distance estimates. This paper describes two listening experiments that allow investigation of further prior contextual information taken into account by listeners-viz., whether they are indoors or outdoors. Asked to estimate the distance to the track of a railway, it is shown that listeners assessing sounds heard inside the dwelling based their distance estimates on the expected train passby sound level outdoors rather than on the passby sound level actually experienced indoors. This form of perceptual constancy may have consequences for the assessment of annoyance caused by railway noise.

  17. Control system for maximum use of adhesive forces of a railway vehicle in a tractive mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Lee, Kwan Soo; Yoo, Hong Hee

    2008-04-01

    The realization of maximum adhesive forces for a railway vehicle is a very difficult process, because it involves using tractive efforts and depends on friction characteristics in the contact zone between wheels and rails. Tractive efforts are realized by means of tractive torques of motors, and their maximum values can provide negative effects such as slip and skid. These situations usually happen when information about friction conditions is lacking. The negative processes have a major influence on wearing of contact bodies and tractive units. Therefore, many existing control systems for vehicles use an effect of a prediction of a friction coefficient between wheels and rails because measuring a friction coefficient at the moment of running vehicle movement is very difficult. One of the ways to solve this task is to use noise spectrum analysis for friction coefficient detection. This noise phenomenon has not been clearly studied and analyzed. In this paper, we propose an adhesion control system of railway vehicles based on an observer, which allows one to determine the maximum tractive torque based on the optimal adhesive force between the wheels (wheel pair) of a railway vehicle and rails (rail track) depending on weight load from a wheel to a rail, friction conditions in the contact zone, a lateral displacement of wheel set and wheel sleep. As a result, it allows a railway vehicle to be driven in a tractive mode by the maximum adhesion force for real friction conditions.

  18. 28 CFR 505.4 - Calculation of assessment by unit staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of assessment by unit staff. 505.4 Section 505.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION COST OF INCARCERATION FEE § 505.4 Calculation of assessment by unit...

  19. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Burgos, Tampico-Misantla, and Sabinas Provinces, Northeast Mexico, Assessment Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National and Global Petroleum Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources....

  20. 浅谈铁路工程合同管理%Discussion on Management of Railway Engineering Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东宁

    2011-01-01

    铁路合同管理是现代铁路企业管理的重要内容,在企业依法生产经营和维护合法权益中发挥着重要作用.作为刚踏入铁路建设市场的施工单位,在建立现代企业管理制度的过程中,重视铁路工程合同管理工作,加强对合同管理工作的领导,完善合同管理制度,健全合同管理机构,配备合同管理人员,提高合同管理水平,从而促进企业在铁路市场的竞争力.本文论述了铁路合同管理的重要性及如何做好铁路工程合同管理.%Railway contract management is an important content of modern railway enterpnse management, and plays an important role in production and operation and safeguarding legitimate rights and interests of enterprises according to law. As the construction unit just entered into railway construction market, in the establishment of modern enterprise management system we should pay attention to railway projeet contract management,strengthen leadership of contract management, improve contract management system, improve. contract management agency. work with contract management staff, and improve contract management, thereby contributing to business competitiveness in the railway market. The paper discusses about the importance of the railway contract management and how to do well the railway project contract management.

  1. Unconventional Assessment Units in Burgos Basin Province, Sabinas Basin Province, Tampico-Misantla Basin Province, Northeast Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National and Global Petroleum Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources....

  2. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  4. Performance communication of the Belgian Railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form o

  5. Improved measurement methods for railway rolling noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Janssens, M.H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Some of the issues related to railway noise type testing are discussed and potential improvements to existing procedures are put forward. New and improved methods that also go beyond the scope of type testing are presented that help to characterize and analyze rolling noise more accurately. These

  6. Crew Scheduling for Netherlands Railways: "destination: customer"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); M. Fischetti (Matteo)

    2000-01-01

    textabstract: In this paper we describe the use of a set covering model with additional constraints for scheduling train drivers and conductors for the Dutch railway operator NS Reizigers. The schedules were generated according to new rules originating from the project "Destination: Customer"

  7. Models for Predictive Railway Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecman, P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential growth in transport demand in the next decade and beyond requires a change from reactive to proactive traffic control to maintain and improve the reliability of railway traffic. In order to enable an anticipative approach to traffic management, it is necessary to develop the tools for

  8. Models for Predictive Railway Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecman, P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential growth in transport demand in the next decade and beyond requires a change from reactive to proactive traffic control to maintain and improve the reliability of railway traffic. In order to enable an anticipative approach to traffic management, it is necessary to develop the tools for

  9. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  10. COMORAN. Condition monitoring for railway applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herden, Marc-Oliver; Friesen, Ulf [Knorr-Bremse AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to make sure that railway vehicles undergo maintenance as a function of their true condition. COMORAN is a system developed by Knorr-Bremse to achieve precisely that as far as bogie components are concerned. (orig.)

  11. Introducing gaming simulation in the Dutch railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the Dutch railways in the domain of capacity management and traffic control is increasingly difficult to implement because of the large interconnectedness of all processes and separation into different institutions and organizations. Meanwhile there is a push for quality improvements l

  12. Monitoring of transition zones in railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, B.; Priest, J.; Holscher, P.; Powrie, W.

    2009-01-01

    Transitions between railway track on embankments or natural ground and fixed structures such as bridges and culverts often require substantial additional maintenance to preserve line, level and ride quality. This extra maintenance not only increases costs but also causes delays. Despite its

  13. Electromagnetic compatibility in railways. Analysis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunsola, Ade [Parsons Group International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Mariscotti, Andrea [Genoa Univ. (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applied to railway systems. Focuses on the principles and application of EMC concepts to railway signalling, communications, power/traction and rolling stocks. Written by leading experts in the field. A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process from the beginning. The link is represented by standards and their correct application, as a support to analysis, testing and demonstration.

  14. Future impact of road and railway noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Roo, F. de; Eisses, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    An exploratory study bas been undertaken to put into perspective future impact of road and railway noise until 2050 in The Netherlands, taking into account potential economic and mobitity growth, noise policy and legislation, demography and technical progress. Estimates were made of average noise le

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Wind River Basin Province (035) Assessment Units Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of production...

  16. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  17. 76 FR 62497 - Grenada Railway LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Grenada, Montgomery, Carroll, Holmes, Yazoo and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ..., Carroll, Holmes, Yazoo and Madison Counties, Miss.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip... 49 U.S.C. 10903 to abandon the southern segment of its line of railroad between milepost 622.5 near... Vaughan. \\1\\ GRYR acquired this line from the Illinois Central Railroad Company in Grenada Railway,...

  18. Noise annoyance through railway traffic - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta Zannin, Paulo Henrique; Bunn, Fernando

    2014-01-08

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large Latin American city. Measurements were taken of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods with and without blowing their horns. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition - annoyance of the residents - affected by railway noise, was evaluated based on interviews. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train with its horn blowing are extremely high, clearly exceeding the daytime limits of equivalent sound pressure level - Leq = 55 dB(A) - established by the municipal laws No 10.625 of the city of Curitiba. The Leq = 45 dB (A) which is the limit for the night period also are exceeded during the passage of trains. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which causes irritability, headaches, poor concentration and insomnia, and 88% of them claimed that nocturnal noise pollution is the most distressing. This study showed that the vast majority of residents surveyed, (69%) believe that the noise of the train can devalue their property.

  19. Noise annoyance through railway traffic - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large Latin American city. Measurements were taken of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods with and without blowing their horns. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition - annoyance of the residents - affected by railway noise, was evaluated based on interviews. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train with its horn blowing are extremely high, clearly exceeding the daytime limits of equivalent sound pressure level - Leq = 55 dB(A) - established by the municipal laws No 10.625 of the city of Curitiba. The Leq = 45 dB (A) which is the limit for the night period also are exceeded during the passage of trains. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which causes irritability, headaches, poor concentration and insomnia, and 88% of them claimed that nocturnal noise pollution is the most distressing. This study showed that the vast majority of residents surveyed, (69%) believe that the noise of the train can devalue their property. PMID:24401735

  20. The development of railway safety in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Anne; Kallberg, Veli-Pekka

    2012-03-01

    This study reviews the development of railway safety in Finland from 1959 to 2008. The results show that the level of safety has greatly improved over the past five decades. The total number of railway fatalities did not show any obvious decreasing or increasing trend during the first decade, but since the early 1970s the annual number of fatalities has decreased from about 100 to 20. The estimated overall annual reduction per year from 1970 to 2008 was 5.4% (with a 95% confidence interval from -8.2% to -2.6%). The reduction in subcategories per million train-kilometres from 1959 to 2008 was 4.4% per year for passengers, 8.3% for employees, 5.0% for road users at level crossings and 3.6% for others (mainly trespassers). The safety improvement for passengers and staff was probably influenced by the introduction of central locking of doors in passenger cars and improved procedures to protect railway employees working on the tracks. The number of road users killed at level crossings has fallen due to the installation of barriers and the construction of overpasses and underpasses at crossings with dense traffic, removal of level crossings, and an improvement of conditions such as visibility at crossings. The number of trespasser fatalities has seen the least decline. Key plans for the future include further reduction of the number of level crossings on the state railway network from the current roughly 3500-2200 by 2025, and involving communities in safety work related to railway trespassers.

  1. Analysis of Pricing Mechanism for Railway Passenger Transport%铁路客运定价机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2016-01-01

    运价是决定铁路行业在运输市场竞争所占地位的关键因素,不仅影响着行业的盈利运营能力,也关系着行业的未来发展。为探讨铁路客运定价的途径和方法,分析美国、日本、英国、德国等国家铁路运价定价体系,为我国铁路客运价格改革提供经验和启示。%Rate is the key factor for the railway industry to win the competition in the transport field. It not only affects the profit operating ability for the railway industry, but also decides the future development of the indus-try. To study the methods of the railway passenger transport pricing, this paper discusses the railway pricing sys-tem of the United States, Japan, Britain, Germany and other countries. It provides experience for railway passen-ger transportation pricing reform in China.

  2. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SCIENTIFIC POTENTIAL FORMATION OF DNIPROPETROVSK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT NAMED AFTER ACADEMICIAN V. LAZARYAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study involves the analysis of stages, formation forms and methods of the scientific potential of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan (DNURT and contribution of its staff in the development of national and world science. Methogology. The use of historical and chronological, comparative, descriptive methods of research, systematization and analysis of archival documents of domestic and foreign funds allows identifying formation forms and means of scientific potential of DNURT over the 85 years of its existence. The periodization method makes it possible to distinguish the main stages and peculiarities of this process. The methods of analysis and synthesis as well as methods of expert assessments were applied. Findings. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the considerable archival documents array the basic stages of scientific potential formation of DNURT in the 85 years of its existence were highlighted. Their features with taking into account the historical and social conditions as well as contribution of university faculty generations (and some individuals in this process were determined. The forms and methods of continuity of scientific personnel and the impact of their research within the academic schools, formed at the Dnipropetrovsk Institute of Engineers of Railway Transport (DIERT were analyzed. Up to the presentthey play a significant role in strengthening the authority of DNURT as a leading national institution of higher education and principal scientific organization in the field of railway transport and transport construction. Main stages of the University formation beginning from specialized industry institution to the Polytechnic Research University with modern scientific base for theoretical and experimental research were highlighted. Originality. In the research context concerning reforming problems of higher education system as one of the areas of generation

  3. Assessment of across-muscle coherence using multi-unit vs. single-unit recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie A; Formicone, Gabriele; Hamm, Thomas M; Santello, Marco

    2010-12-01

    Coherence between electromyographic (EMG) signals has been used to identify correlated neural inputs to motor units (MUs) innervating different muscles. Simulations using a motor-unit model (Fuglevand et al. 1992) were performed to determine the ability of coherence between two multi-unit EMGs (mEMG) to detect correlated MU activity and the range of correlation strengths in which mEMG coherence can be usefully employed. Coherence between motor-unit and mEMG activities in two muscles was determined as we varied the strength of a 30-Hz periodic common input, the number of correlated MU pairs and variability of MU discharge relative to the common input. Pooled and mEMG coherence amplitudes positively and negatively accelerated, respectively, toward the strongest and most widespread correlating inputs. Furthermore, the relation between pooled and mEMG coherence was also nonlinear and was essentially the same whether correlation strength varied by changing common input strength or its distribution. However, the most important finding is that while the mEMG coherence saturates at the strongest common input strengths, this occurs at common input strengths greater than found in most physiological studies. Thus, we conclude that mEMG coherence would be a useful measure in many experimental conditions and our simulation results suggest further guidelines for using and interpreting coherence between mEMG signals.

  4. Development of a questionnaire for assessing work unit performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Spangenberrg

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a generic work unit performance measure that can be utilised in private, public and non-profit work units. Development of such a questionnaire, called the Performance Index (PI comprised three steps, namely deciding on a baseline structure for the model; verifying the model and dimensions through subject expert feedback; and consolidating the model and refining the questionnaire. The sample consisted of 60 units rated on a 360 basis by 257 respondents. Item and dimensionality analysis, followed by confirmatory factor analysis utilising LISREL produced acceptable model fit. Overall, results provided reasonable psychometric support for the Performance Index. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om ’n generiese werkeenheid- prestasiemeting te ontwikkel wat in privaat, openbare en nie-winsgerigte organisasies gebruik kan word. Die ontwikkeling van die vraelys, die Prestasie-Indeks (PI het drie stappe behels, naamlik om te besluit op ’n onderliggende struktuur vir die model; om die model en dimensies deur middel van ekspert-beoordeling te verifieer; en om die model te konsolideer en die vraelys af te rond. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 60 eenhede wat op ’n 360-basis deur 257 respondente beoordeel is. Item- en dimensionaliteitsontledings, gevolg deur Lisrel-gedrewe bevestigende faktorontleding het gedui op aanvaarbare modelpassing. In geheel beslou het resultate redelike psigometriese ondersteuning aan die Prestasie-Indeks verleen.

  5. Application of an iterative framework for real-time railway rescheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis); L.G. Kroon (Leo); L.P. Veelenturf (Lucas); J.C. Wagenaar (Joris)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSince disruptions in railway networks are inevitable, railway operators and infrastructure managers need reliable measures and tools for disruption management. Current literature on railway disruption management focuses most of the time on rescheduling one resource (timetable, rolling st

  6. Meteorological tools in support to the railway security system on the Calabria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Gabriele, Salvatore; Iovine, Giulio; Baldini, Luca; Chiravalloti, Francesco; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Marcello Mario; Milani, Lisa; Procopio, Antonio; Roberto, Nicoletta; Tiesi, Alessandro; Agostino, Mario; Niccoli, Raffaele; Stassi, Sergio; Rago, Valeria

    2017-04-01

    RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot project co-funded by the Italian Railway Company - RFI S.p.A. and conceived for the mitigation of the hydrological risk along the Calabria railways. RAMSES aims at improving the forecast of very short life-cycle convection systems, responsible of intense and localized rainfalls affecting small catchment areas, which are often underestimated by the numerical weather models and even non-adequately detected by the network of sparse raingauges. The RAMSES operational design is based on a synergistic and integrated architecture, providing a series of information able to identify the most active convective cells and monitoring their evolution in terms of vertical structure, rain intensity and geo-hydrological effects at ground (debris flow, landslides, collapses of bridges, erosion of the ballast). The RAMSES meteorological component is designed to identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on dual-polarization weather radar and Meteosat data. In support of this quasi-real time analysis, the numerical model WRF provides the weather forecast at 3-6 hours range by ingesting, through the assimilation system LAPS, the observational data (rain gauges, ground weather stations, radar, satellites) in order to improve the initial condition. Finally, the hydraulic flow modeling is used to assess the ground effects in terms of landslide susceptibility, rainfall-runoff intensity, debris impact on the drainage network and evaluate of risk along the railway track.

  7. Alaska maritime national wildlife refuge - Bearing Sea unit contaminant assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Contaminant Assessment Process (CAP) is to compile and summarize known past, present, and potential contaminant issues on National Wildlife...

  8. Sustainability Assessment Using a Unit-based Sustainability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainability Assessment Tool (USAT) and was guided by systems thinking and the ... Universities, through their mission of teaching, research and community service ..... could be 'World Heritage Sites, national, provincial, urban and privately ...

  9. IMPROVING THE TECHNOLOGY OF BELORUSSIAN RAILWAY IN CONDITIONS OF ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kolos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific paper highlights improving the technology of railway transport in the Republic of Belarus in conditions of electronic legally significant documents. Methodology. The study covered the collection of statistical data on the duration of separate technological operations performance, the evaluation of static data and the descriptive analysis of their characteristics. When assessing the effectiveness of the proposed measures we used methods of expert estimations, methods of evaluating the effectiveness of IT investments. Findings. Technology, hardware, software, organizational and other aspects of electronic legally significant documents used in freight and commercial work are determined. The work defines the most important directions of technology improvements at Belarusian Railway entities and their relations with shippers and consignees through the use of electronic legally significant documents. These directions are as follows: simplification of station commercial costs accounting, automation of technological operations, improving the interaction between the railway tracks and adjunction stations, simplification of transport planning and demand performance record, implementation of common information space for all participants of transportation process. The predictive estimate of efficiency for implementation of electronic legally significant documents in freight and commercial work of the Belarusian railway is calculated. Originality. This article presents a dual model of digital signature as a tool for the automatic fixation of technological operations or for specifying the time for its implementation, which allows converting a number of technological processes to a new level, helping to create a common information space of freight traffic. Practical value. The obtained results are used to form the list of the actions directed on perfection of railway transport technology in conditions of electronic legally significant

  10. RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF ENTROPY METHOD FOR SYSTEM CONSISTED OF IDENTICAL EXPONENTIAL UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Youchao; Shi Jun

    2004-01-01

    The reliability assessment of unit-system near two levels is the most important content in the reliability multi-level synthesis of complex systems. Introducing the information theory into system reliability assessment, using the addible characteristic of information quantity and the principle of equivalence of information quantity, an entropy method of data information conversion is presented for the system consisted of identical exponential units. The basic conversion formulae of entropy method of unit test data are derived based on the principle of information quantity equivalence. The general models of entropy method synthesis assessment for system reliability approximate lower limits are established according to the fundamental principle of the unit reliability assessment. The applications of the entropy method are discussed by way of practical examples. Compared with the traditional methods, the entropy method is found to be valid and practicable and the assessment results are very satisfactory.

  11. Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

  12. Speech Language Assessments in Te Reo in a Primary School Maori Immersion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kershni

    2012-01-01

    This research originated from the need for a speech and language therapy assessment in te reo Maori for a particular child who attended a Maori immersion unit. A Speech and Language Therapy te reo assessment had already been developed but it needed to be revised and normative data collected. Discussions and assessments were carried out in a…

  13. 1.8 K Refrigeration Units for the LHC: Performance Assessment of Pre-series Units

    CERN Document Server

    Claudet, S; Millet, F; Tavian, L; 20th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC20)

    2005-01-01

    The cooling capacity below 2 K for the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, will be provided by eight refrigeration units of 2400 W at 1.8 K, each of them coupled to a 4.5 K refrigerator. The two selected vendors have proposed cycles based on centrifugal cold compressors combined with volumetric screw compressors with sub-atmospheric suction, as previously identified by CERN as “reference cycle”. The supply of the series units was linked to successful testing and acceptance of the pre-series temporarily installed in a dedicated test station. The global capacity, the performance of cold compressors and some process specificities have been thoroughly tested and will be presented.

  14. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffler, L.J.P. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The geothermal resource assessment presented is a refinement and updating of USGS Circular 726. Nonproprietary information available in June 1978 is used to assess geothermal energy in the ground and, when possible, to evaluate the fraction that might be recovered at the surface. Five categories of geothermal energy are discussed: conduction-dominated regimes, igneous-related geothermal systems, high-temperature (> 150/sup 0/C) and intermediate-temperature (90 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal convection systems, low-temperature (< 90/sup 0/C) geothermal waters, and geopressured-geothermal energy (both thermal energy and energy from dissolved methane). Assessment data are presented on three colored maps prepared in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers on these five categories.

  15. Capacity gain with an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    GSM - Railways (GSM - R) is the first international communication network designed specifically for railway s. Most of the deployed GSM - R networks were initially used only to provide the railway voice communication. However, as more of these GSM - R networks begin to support the European Train...... Control System (ETCS) signaling , the capacity of GSM - R turns out to be insufficient . GSM - R cannot ful fill the railway requirements , in terms of the number of simultaneous ETCS connections . This is why , alternative , more efficient communication technologies should be considered by railways....... Usin g this model , LTE and GSM - R are compare d in terms of capacity on an example at Copenhagen Main Train Station . The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the benefits that railway operators and infrastructure managers can expect from the introduc tion of LTE , as a telecommunication technology...

  16. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  17. Determination of assurance сoefficient by supporting structures fatigue of car bodies during transportation by the railway ferries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lovskaya

    2014-12-01

    constructions with special fastening assembly units. Such technical solution will allow decreasing expenses for unscheduled repair of cars while transporting them by railway ferries and providing safety of combined transport traffic.

  18. Post-stressed constant depth beam concrete road and railway bridge voided decks morphology; Morfologia de tableros aligerados de canto constante postesados para puentes carreteros y ferroviarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yepes, V.; Alcala, J.; Diaz, J.; Gonzalez-Vidosa, F.

    2011-07-01

    In the work a study to statistically characterise 82 prestressed concrete bridge decks of real flyovers of constant depth are treated. The main objective of the study is to find design formulae with the least number of data so as to improve the preliminary design of this type of structures. The study performs an exploratory analysis and a multivariate analysis of the geometrical variables, the amount of materials and the cost for voided decks. The regression models have allowed predicting the depth of the deck as function of the span and the external void. The depth is the variable that better explains (51,9%) the cost per unit surface of the deck in road bridges, while for railway decks this variable only explains in the order of 23,4%, what implies more independent variables. The main spans and the total length in the case of the railway deck are enough to find the preliminary design of the slab with reasonable accuracy for the economic assessment of the design. (Author) 17 refs.

  19. Railway vehicle performance optimisation using virtual homologation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, H.; Madeira, J. F. A.; Ambrósio, J.; Pombo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Unlike regular automotive vehicles, which are designed to travel in different types of roads, railway vehicles travel mostly in the same route during their life cycle. To accept the operation of a railway vehicle in a particular network, a homologation process is required according to local standard regulations. In Europe, the standards EN 14363 and UIC 518, which are used for railway vehicle acceptance, require on-track tests and/or numerical simulations. An important advantage of using virtual homologation is the reduction of the high costs associated with on-track tests by studying the railway vehicle performance in different operation conditions. This work proposes a methodology for the improvement of railway vehicle design with the objective of its operation in selected railway tracks by using optimisation. The analyses required for the vehicle improvement are performed under control of the optimisation method global and local optimisation using direct search. To quantify the performance of the vehicle, a new objective function is proposed, which includes: a Dynamic Performance Index, defined as a weighted sum of the indices obtained from the virtual homologation process; the non-compensated acceleration, which is related to the operational velocity; and a penalty associated with cases where the vehicle presents an unacceptable dynamic behaviour according to the standards. Thus, the optimisation process intends not only to improve the quality of the vehicle in terms of running safety and ride quality, but also to increase the vehicle availability via the reduction of the time for a journey while ensuring its operational acceptance under the standards. The design variables include the suspension characteristics and the operational velocity of the vehicle, which are allowed to vary in an acceptable range of variation. The results of the optimisation lead to a global minimum of the objective function in which the suspensions characteristics of the vehicle are

  20. Map of assessed continuous (unconventional) oil resources in the United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts quantitative assessments of potential oil and gas resources of the onshore United States and associated coastal State waters. Since 2000, the USGS has completed assessments of continuous (unconventional) resources in the United States based on geologic studies and analysis of well-production data and has compiled digital maps of the assessment units classified into four categories: shale gas, tight gas, coalbed gas, and shale oil or tight oil (continuous oil). This is the fourth digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps; its focus being shale-oil or tight-oil (continuous-oil) assessments. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, which includes an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and a published map file (.pmf). Supporting geologic studies of total petroleum systems and assessment units, as well as studies of the methodology used in the assessment of continuous-oil resources in the United States, are listed with hyperlinks in table 1. Assessment results and geologic reports are available at the USGS websitehttp://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx.

  1. The Afghanistan National Railway: A Plan of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    railway system for Afghanistan, as well as the regional connectivity im- peratives, to develop recommendations for large capital-investment...and most efficient railway route to seaport, the railway will lack the revenue to expand and sustain itself. Enabling regional connectivity and...purpose is to enable self-sustainability and economic inde- pendence via mineral-based traffic to provide regional connectivity and serve as a

  2. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    OpenAIRE

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this book, the authors present current research on the types, design and safety issues of railways. Topics discussed include the acoustic characteristics of noise in train stations; monitoring railway structure conditions and opportunities to use wireless sensor networks as tools to improve the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; ef...

  3. Beijing-Tianjin Inter-city Railway Will Be Constructed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Liu Junsha, Minister of Railway, Wang Qishan, Mayor of Beijing and Dai Xianglong,Mayor of Tianjin represented Ministry of Railway, Beijing Municipal Government and Tianjin Municipal Government signed the contact. In July this year, Beijing-Tianjin Inter-city Railway will start to be constructed and will completed in December 2007. It is estimated that in July 2008, it will be put into operation.

  4. Electrification of Chinese Railways; Elektrifizierung der Chinesischen Eisenbahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmert, G.; Wang, Kuizhong [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Beijing (China). Unit 0512; Jiang, Xianguo [TSDI (The 3rd Railway Survey and Design Inst.), Tianjin (China); Martens, G. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Offenbach/Main (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Chinese Railways plan to extend their railway network to 100,000 km by 2020. Electrification is a factor of major importance in this project. Some 2,000 km of railway lines are to be newly electrified with the AC 27.5 kV 50 Hz system while 1,000 km will be reconstructed. New equipment and technology will be used with Germany being involved in this project. (orig.)

  5. Model for Dimensioning Technology and Capacity of Border Railway Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Kire Dimanoski; Gordan Stojić; Slavko Vesković; Ilija Tanackov

    2012-01-01

    The participation of the national rail networks in the European corridors requires certain modifications and their redefinition. Because the railway stations are special parts of the railway networks, they should be modernized, especially in south-eastern Europe. The main issue in the process of construction or reconstruction of railway stations is dimensioning (projection) of infrastructure facilities. The dimensioning of the infrastructure capacity is in direct correlation with the projecte...

  6. A new generic problem formulation dedicated to electrified railway systems

    OpenAIRE

    Desjouis, Boris; Remy, Ghislain; OSSART, Florence; Marchand, Claude; Bigeon, Jean; SOURDILLE, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    International audience; —In this paper, a new generic problem formulation dedicated to railway electrification systems is proposed. This formulation meets the needs for evolutivity of modern simulation tools by using meta-models for the railway network components. This approach has been applied to developp a new general-purpose electrified railway simulator. As an example, a DC electrification system has been simulated and the results compared to those of a classical simulator for validation ...

  7. Model of traffic access mode and railway station choice of suburban railway system in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor RAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the establishment of a model of understanding the access mode and railway station choice of Slovenian passengers. Therefore, a model has been designed to predict the determination of existing decision making preferences of railway users about the access mode and railway station choice with a stated preference survey and face to face method. The target group in the survey were railway passengers in the suburban environment that use the rail for work and school purposes. The total number of respondents was 412. The survey showed that most passengers access the railway station with car (60,2%, by foot (26,2%, with public transport (bus – 8,3% and with bike (5,3%. Average distance to the station is 4,9 km, average time of access is 10,5 min. Upon exit most passengers walk to the final destination (84,5%, use the public transport (bus – 14,1%, car (1,2% or bike (0,2%. Average time from exit of the train to final destination is 13,1 min, average distance is 1,58 km.

  8. Assessing Interprofessional Teamwork in Inpatient Medical Oncology Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A Charlotta; Callaghan, Mary; Cooper, Abby L; Brandman, James; O'Leary, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Teamwork is important to providing safe and effective care for hospitalized patients with cancer; however, few studies have evaluated teamwork in this setting. We surveyed all nurses, residents, hospitalists, and oncology physicians in oncology units at a large urban teaching hospital from September to November 2012. Respondents rated teamwork using a validated instrument (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; scale, 0 to 100) and rated the quality of collaboration they had experienced with other professionals using a 5-point ordinal response scale (1, very low quality; 5, very high quality). Respondents also rated potential barriers to collaboration using a 4-point ordinal response scale (1, not at all a barrier; 4, major barrier). We compared ratings by professionals using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Overall, 129 (67%) of 193 eligible participants completed the survey. Teamwork scores differed across professional types, with nurses providing the lowest ratings (69.7) and residents providing the highest (81.9; ANOVA P = .01). Ratings of collaboration with nurses were high across all types of professionals. Ratings of collaboration with physicians varied significantly by professional type (P ≤ .02), with nurses giving lower ratings of collaboration with all physician types. Similarly, perceived barriers to collaboration differed by professional type, with nurses perceiving the biggest barrier to be negative attitudes regarding the importance of communication. Oncologists did not perceive any of the listed options as major barriers to collaboration. In inpatient oncology units, discrepancies exist between nurses' and physicians' ratings of teamwork and collaboration. Oncologists seem to be unaware that teamwork is suboptimal in this setting. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Undiscovered gas resources assessment unit boundaries for Bangladesh (au8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the undiscovered natural gas resources assessment unit boundaries of the Bangladesh. This...

  10. Final Environmental Assessment : Livestock Grazing Management Seven Blackfeet Habitat Unit : Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final environmental assessment for the grazing management within the Seven Blackfeet Habitat Unit of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in relation to...

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Reestablishment of Water Control Unit 2: Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An environmental assessment for reestablishment of water control in Unit II of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge was prepared in November, 1985. The Fish and...

  12. The prevalence of notched audiograms in a cross-sectional study of 12,055 railway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Arve; Skogstad, Marit; Johnsen, Torstein Seip; Engdahl, Bo; Tambs, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most reported occupational diseases internationally. The occurrence of audiometric notches is emphasized in both American and European guidelines for the diagnosis of NIHL. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of notched audiograms among railway personnel with and without noise exposure to better assess the usefulness of such notches in the diagnosis of NIHL. The most recent audiogram from 1994 to 2011 of a total of 12,055 railway workers, age 20 to 65 years, was obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the Norwegian State Railways (NSB). The prevalences of three types of notched audiograms, Coles notch, notch index, and 4 kHz notch, were computed, in relation to age, sex, and occupational noise exposure. Coles notch in either ear was found in 63% of the male railway maintenance workers, exposed to noise levels of 75 to 90 dB(A), compared with 53% of the non-noise exposed (railway personnel. The usefulness of audiometric notches in the diagnosis of NIHL is therefore limited.

  13. Information system in the function of railway traffic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton PEPEVNIK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationalization of economic operations, increasing productivity and internal resources exploitation trends are one of the basic tasks of an individual economy that is gained by regular installation of information system. The article presents information system in the function of railway traffic management as it becomes extremely important for every company to get information by means of information system in order to assure successful business deciding process, for mastering, optimization and integration of business processes. Railway traffic is an economic activity that concerns with the freight and passengers traffic and supports transport problems by using information system.The development of information railway system results in freight and passenger traffic management of the Slovenian railways (SŽ and in connection with foreign information systems by means of Hermes network for transferring data about freight and passenger traffic among railways. Due to the widespread information railway network, the article presents only the use of freight information transport system, in details its shunting.The application of freight transport management (FTM presents freight traffic mastering and controlling on the Slovenian railways as the whole, at any time and in real time. It enables the receiving, control, monitoring and supervision of freight wagons and trains. The managing programme of shunting station is a constituent part of the Slovenian railway information system and is included into the application for freight traffic management at the Slovenian railways.

  14. Micro-simulation based analysis of railway lines robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Railway Undertakers and Railway Infrastructure Managers have a variety of parameters to measure robustness of timetables: this paper examines empirical data collected from Nederlandse Spoorwegen on the heavily occupied railway line between The Hague and Rotterdam in The Netherlands. The results...... show that the robustness indicator examined are affected by infrastructure changes in different ways. A micro-simulation of the line is used to determine the robustness of different railway infrastructure scenarios measuring the capacity consumption, as well as the share of trains affected by amount...

  15. Railway-controller-perceived competence in incidents and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang; Tsai, Yu-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Railway controllers play a pivotal role in service recovery of normal rail system operations when incidents and accidents occur. Those in this position must have sufficient competence to overcome task difficulties caused by accident uncertainties. This study adopts Taiwan's railway system as a case study to diagnose railway-controller-perceived competence when facing diverse tasks during incidents and accidents that are derived from a proposed conceptual model. Railway-controller-perceived competence is measured using the Rasch model. Analytical results indicate that working with an external rescue agency handling a rescue operation, explanations to the public, and communication with an external rescue agency are considered the most troublesome tasks. Additionally, railway-controller-perceived competence differs based on the work experience. This information will prove useful for rail system operators and government regulators when designing and regulating railway controller competence management systems. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study presents a systematic approach for examining the gap between railway-controller-perceived competence and task difficulties associated with incidents and accidents. The relevance of findings encompasses the effects of transportation ergonomics and railway issues on the problem-solving competence and decision-making skills of railway controllers, and the competence management system.

  16. An Improved Walk Model for Train Movement on Railway Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping; MAO Bo-Hua; GAO Zi-You

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved walk model for simulating the train movement on railway network. In the proposed method, walkers represent trains. The improved walk model is a kind of the network-based simulation analysis model. Using some management rules for walker movement, walker can dynamically determine its departure and arrival times at stations. In order to test the proposed method, we simulate the train movement on a part of railway network. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the improved model is an effective tool for simulating the train movement on railway network. Moreover, it can well capture the characteristic behaviors of train scheduling in railway traffic.

  17. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity......In this book, the authors present current research on the types, design and safety issues of railways. Topics discussed include the acoustic characteristics of noise in train stations; monitoring railway structure conditions and opportunities to use wireless sensor networks as tools to improve...

  18. The research of railway freight statistics system and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hua-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EXT is a JavaScript framework for developing Web interfaces, this paper describes the Ext framework and its application in railway freight statistical and analyzing system and Statistical methods. the paper also analyzes the design, function, implementation and so on of the system in detail. As information technology and the requirements of railway transportation organization and operation continue to improve, railway freight statistical and analyzing system improves obviously in the index system, decision analysis and other aspects, better meeting the work requirements. It will play a more important role in the railway transport organization, management, passenger and freight marketing.

  19. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeš Zdeněk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market and regulated competition (competition for the market. Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed and there is a question how to proceed with the competition development – whether to promote competition on the market or competition for the market. Based on European and modelling experience, there is an argument for more competition for the market.

  20. The noise factor in railway locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, T

    1982-09-01

    This article concerns the problem of acoustic work conditions on railway locomotives. The objective results of sonometric surveys in locomotive cabins are compared with subject data received from locomotive crews obtained by means of a specific questionnaire 'The Subjective Estimation of Noise'. The analysis touched 9 type of locomotives; steam, diesel and electric engines. We asked drivers of different age groups and with varying lengths of professional service for their opinions The aim of the investigation was to determine the following points: 1. to analyse the drivers' subjective estimation of the noise in the locomotive cabins; 2. to define length of time for which the driver remains under the influence of the noise after finishing work; 3. to investigate the question of perception and understanding of sounds and vocal signals used in the locomotive. These problems are a small part of the general plan to improve work conditions on the Polish National Railways.

  1. A Survey on Robustness in Railway Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Bull, Simon Henry

    2017-01-01

    Planning problems in passenger railway range from long term strategic decision making to the detailed planning of operations.Operations research methods have played an increasing role in this planning process. However, recently more attention has been given to considerations of robustness...... in the quality of solutions to individual planning problems, and of operations in general. Robustness in general is the capacity for some system to absorb or resist changes. In the context of railway robustness it is often taken to be the capacity for operations to continue at some level when faced...... with a disruption such as delay or failure. This has resulted in more attention given to the inclusion of robustness measures and objectives in individual planning problems, and to the providing of tools to ensure operations continue under disrupted situations. In this paper we survey the literature on robustness...

  2. Railway Statistics Bulletin of MOR in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Statistics Center of MOR

    2009-01-01

    @@ The year 2008 is an unusual and uncommon year. Under the strong leadership of Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and the State Council, the Party's leading group of MOR led the cadres and staff of the national railway sector to implement the scientific outlook on development in a deep-going way and to comprehensively carry out the decision-making arrangements of the central government by adhering to placing the benefits of the nation and the people at the top priority with millions of people all of one mind to overcome difficulties, make exploration and innovation, and forge ahead in unity. With the efforts made, they triumphed over a series of severe test, successfully accomplished the task assigned by the Party and the State and won new victories of harmonious railway construction.

  3. Framework for Railway Phase-based Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    spending) to evaluate the project alternatives. The comparison result can identify the most cost-efficient solution in a long run and therefore reduce the overall costs. This article defines a phase-based framework to guide the railway maintenance and renewal project planning at strategic level...... and compared. A case study is introduced in the article to demonstrate how the framework works to compare timber sleepers and concrete sleepers from strategic planning level. Two Life Cycle Cost oriented policies are discussed to illustrate: high quality track is necessity to improve the cost efficiency......In the railway field, planning the maintenance and renewal strategy from Life Cycle Cost (LCC) perspective gets more and more attentions recent years. The new approach looks at all the costs through the infrastructure life span and use the annuity (continuing payment with a fixed total annual...

  4. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Railways Analysis and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunsola, Ade

    2013-01-01

    A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process f...

  5. 175 years of railway technology. The railways in Germany; 175 Jahre Bahntechnik. Eisenbahnen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmann, Gerd-Dieter

    2010-12-15

    There is perhaps no better way to illustrate the development of German railways than by looking at historical maps. Starting with the first six kilometres of railway line in the year 1835, the new mode of transport developed into a network of main and branch lines that spanned the entire territory of Germany, and in so doing had a revolutionary impact on Germany's industry, commerce, population and state. In 1880, the German Reich had a rail network 33,838 km in length, and by the outbreak of the First World War the total network including local and branch lines had expanded to an impressive 65,000 km. This marked both the maximum extent and at the same time the zenith of the German railway system. (orig.)

  6. Thermal Storage Systems Assessment for Energy Sustainability in Housing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I. Lagunes Vega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve greater enhancements in energy sustainability for housing, the function and efficiency of two different passive cooling systems were studied: encapsulated water in recycled bottles of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polystyrene plates, in comparison with standard concrete slab systems, which are customarily used in housing. Experiments were placed over a tile surface, in which temperature changes were monitored for a period of 20 days from 08:00 to 20:00. The efficiency of passive thermal storage systems was endorsed through statistical analysis using the “SPSS” software. This resulted in a 17% energy saving, thus promoting energy sustainability in housing units, which reduces the use of electrical appliances required to stabilize conditions to achieve optimum thermal comfort for the human body inside a house, therefore, reducing electrical power consumption, CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and generating savings. Due to the complexity of a system with temperature changes, a fractal analysis was performed for each experimental system, using the “Benoit” software (V.1.3 with self-compatible tools of rescaled range (R/S and a wavelets method, showing that the thermal fluctuations on the tiles with the thermal storage system adapt to the rescaled range analysis and the regular tiles adapt to the wavelets method.

  7. [Structure of allostatic load in railway workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, S G; Pfaf, V F; Muraseyeva, E V; Akhsanova, E R; Prigorovskaya, T S; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied allostatic load in railway workers, as an indicator of stress effect. Analysis covered biomarkers that form allostatic load index, and their ratio for variable allostatic load index levels. Moderate allostatic load appeared to prevail in the examinees group. Findings are that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, general cholesterol and hemoglobin make major contribution into allostatic load index. Comparison covered models of allostatic load index calculation for variable biomarkers sets.

  8. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  9. Methodology and algorithms for railway crew management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, R.; Gomide, F. [State Univ. of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Lagrimante, R. [MRS Logistica S.A, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Crew management problems are highly important for many transportation systems such as airlines, railways and public bus transportation. Despite recent advances, scheduling methodologies and decision support systems still need improvement, especially their computational efficiency, practical feasibility and use. This paper briefly overview classic crew management approaches. It discusses various practical issues concerning classic methods and suggests a new approach and algorithms. Computational results and experience with actual data and real world situations are also reported. (orig.)

  10. ON THE INSTABILITY OF THE RAILWAY VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian MAZILU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The railway vehicles have two sources of instability. The most common is the hunting induced by the reversed conic shape of the rolling surfaces of the wheels. The other one is related by the anomalous Doppler effect that can occurs when the train velocity exceeds the phase velocity of the waves induced in the track structure. Some aspects regarding the two sources of instability are presented.

  11. APPRAISAL OF USED WOODEN RAILWAY SLEEPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HAWA HAMZAH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wooden sleepers to prestressed concrete sleepers has marked as advancement in the railway sleepers industry in Malaysia. Despite superiority of these man-made composite sleepers, wooden sleepers still lead in terms of track performance qualities in particular on its natural elasticity. An initiative to investigate the degree of degradation of used wooden sleepers and the possibility of reusing them on low capacity railway track in Malaysia as a means of reducing the overall track rehabilitation cost was undertaken. Used wooden sleepers were tested according to Australian Standard, Railway Track Material, Prestressed Concrete Sleepers (AS 1085:14:2003 on Rail Seat Vertical Load Test and Centre Positive Bending Moment Test. Six wooden sleeper samples were tested under the static load until failure. Benchmarking was carried on high strength prestressed concrete sleeper, tested according to AS 1085:14:2003: Rail Seat - Positive Moment Test. The results obtained showed the maximum load that the used wooden sleepers can carry surpassed the design load of KTMB specifications and it is about 58% of high strength prestressed concrete sleeper.The maximum deflection produced by all used wooden sleepers is 20 mm showing that the sleepers maintained their elastic behaviour. Modulus of Elasticity ranging from 21 to 27 kN/mm2 of which within the standard value, indicating weathering process does not so much affect their stiffness. Most sleepers showed crack patterns propagated in the longitudinal direction. Toughness value is almost one half of the high strength prestressed concrete sleeper. This study indicates that there is a potential of reusing the wooden sleepers for light loading of the railway track. Hence, an extensive study is recommended to be carried out under fatigue loading condition.

  12. Estimating the size and travel distance of Klapperhorn Mountain debris flows for risk analysis along railway, Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows occurring on Klapperhorn Mountain in the Yellowhead Pass in the Canadian Rocky Mountains pose a significant hazard to railway operations at the base of the mountain. The size (volume) and travel distance of these debris flows play an important role in assessing the risk to the railway. GIS analysis, airphoto interpretation together with field work were undertaken on two debris flows located at track mileage 54.0 and 54.3. Characteristics of these two debris flow events were analyzed, including debris flow path morphology and event behavior. Their sizes and travel distances were estimated using an empirical-statistical model (UBCDFLOW) under different initiation conditions. Their potential impact on the railway bridge was evaluated using a bridge blockage ratio.

  13. Development of brake system of railway vehicles for real-time HILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Joon-Hyuk; Goo, Byeong-Choon

    2007-12-01

    Brake system of railway vehicles has a crucial role for the safety as well as riding quality of passengers. Its core technology for successful development of the brake system is to design of ECU (Electric Control Unit) containing antiskid control, brake blending control, load compensating control, and so on. Each development procedure of ECU involves a verifying test for each step and is completed by an evaluation test of the comprehensive performance verification for the overall systems. The development tool which is applied to this objective is the HILS (Hardware-In-the- Loop-Simulation). In order to design a controller, a good representative model of the system is needed. This paper describes the dynamic modeling of brake system of railway vehicle for HILS and analyzes some dynamic behavior under emergency braking force.

  14. Assessing the problem of counterfeit medications in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G; Patel, S; Khan, S

    2012-03-01

    Counterfeit medicines pose an ever-increasing threat to public health, although precise tracking of illegal counterfeit prescription drug activity is difficult. Available data indicate that all types of medications have been targeted. Adverse health effects, including death, have resulted from using counterfeit medications; consumers who self-medicate without appropriate interactions with the healthcare system rarely receive adequate healthcare. The Internet provides a large, convenient route for counterfeiters to reach potential buyers with unregulated, often dangerous, products. The majority of medicines purchased via unverified Internet sites are counterfeit; often, these products lack the purported drug compound or have variable concentrations of active ingredients and sometimes contain dangerous toxins. Although many consumers acknowledge some degree of risk with purchasing medications via the Internet, speed, convenience and cost often prompt these purchases. Counterfeit medications also have been detected in the legitimate supply chain, but represent a significantly smaller proportion of sales than those purchased via the Internet. Pilot programmes in Europe have demonstrated that product verification systems prevent penetration of counterfeit products into the legitimate supply chain. Significant EU legislation, including stronger penalties for counterfeiting, is in development. In the United Kingdom, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) launched an initiative against counterfeit medication. Healthcare professionals should report suspected cases of counterfeit medication to the MHRA, be alert to threats to the medicine supply, and provide practical advice to patients about ordering medications online, including avoiding unregulated Internet pharmacies, and being suspicious of sites offering substantial discounts and prescription-only medication without a prescription. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Optimal PowerFlow (OPF) Model with Unified AC-DC Load Flow and Optimal Commitmentfor an AC-catenary Railway Power Supply System (RPSS) fed by aHigh Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission line

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Lars; Östlund, Stefan; Söder, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an alternative railway power systems design based on an HVDC feeder is studied. The HVDC feeder is connected to the catenary by converters. Such an HVDC line is also appropriate for DC-fed railways and AC-fed railways working at public frequency. A unit commitment optimal power flow model has been developed and is applied on a test system. In this paper, the model is presented in detail. The model, in the form of an MINLP program, uses unified AC-DC power flow to minimize the en...

  16. Assessment of Geothermal Resources of the United States--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.E.; Williams, D.L. [eds.

    1975-01-01

    This is the first of two significant assessments of the geological energy potential of the U.S. The second one is U.S.G.S. Circular 790. Systems analyzed include: Hydrothermal convection systems (with estimates of potential for many specific sites in the West), Igneous related systems (related to current or recent volcanism), Estimates of the conductive transport of heat in most areas of CONUS, Recovery of heat from molten igneous systems (magma), and Geopressured geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast area. The significance of this report is that it began to give policy makers a first handle on the quantities and qualities of geothermal energy in the ground in much of the U.S. Economics (costs and revenues) are not considered. (DJE - 2005)

  17. Integrated risk assessment for multi-unit NPP sites—A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, C. Senthil, E-mail: cskumar@igcar.gov.in [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam (India); Hassija, Varun; Velusamy, K. [Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Balasubramaniyan, V. [AERB-Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Framework for integrated risk assessment for multi-unit NPP sites. • Categorization of external and internal events. • Modelling of key issues: mission time, cliff-edge, common cause failures, etc. • Safety goals for multi-unit NPP sites. • Comparison of site core damage frequency in one, two, three and four unit sites. - Abstract: Most of the nuclear power producing sites in the world houses multiple units. Such sites are faced with hazards generated from external events: earthquake, tsunami, flood, etc. and can threaten the safety of nuclear power plants. Further, risk from a multiple unit site and its impact on the public and environment was evident during the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011. It is therefore important to evolve a methodology to systematically assess the risk from multi-unit site. For a single unit site, probabilistic risk assessment technique identifies the potential accident scenarios, their consequences, and estimates the core damage frequency that arise due to internal and external hazards. This challenging task becomes even more complex for a multiple unit site, especially when the external hazards that has the potential to generate one or more correlated hazards or a combination of non-correlated hazards are to be modelled. This paper presents an approach to evaluate risk for multiple NPP sites and also compare the risk for sites housing single, double and multiple nuclear plants.

  18. Guiding principles for good practices in hospital-based health technology assessment units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Lach, Krzysztof; Pasternack, Iris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Health technology assessment (HTA) carried out for policy decision making has well-established principles unlike hospital-based HTA (HB-HTA), which differs from the former in the context characteristics and ways of operation. This study proposes principles for good practices in HB....... In total, 385 people from twenty countries have participated in defining the principles for good practices in HB-HTA units. RESULTS: Fifteen guiding principles for good practices in HB-HTA units are grouped in four dimensions. Dimension 1 deals with principles of the assessment process aimed at providing......- and long-term impact of the overall performance of HB-HTA units. Finally, nine core guiding principles were selected as essential requirements for HB-HTA units based on the expertise of the HB-HTA units participating in the project. CONCLUSIONS: Guiding principles for good practices set up a benchmark...

  19. Materials Assessment of Components of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas, John D.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    1996-01-01

    Current research interests for Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) design and development are directed toward enhancements of the Shuttle EMU, implementation of the Mark 3 technology for Shuttle applications, and development of a next generation suit (the X suit) which has applications for prolonged space flight, longer extravehicular activity (EVA), and Moon and Mars missions. In this research project two principal components of the EMU were studied from the vantage point of the materials and their design criteria. An investigation of the flexible materials which make up the lay-up of materials for abrasion and tear protection, thermal insulation, pressure restrain, etc. was initiated. A central focus was on the thermal insulation. A vacuum apparatus for measuring the flexibility of the materials was built to access their durability in vacuum. Plans are to include a Residual Gas Analyzer on the vacuum chamber to measure volatiles during the durability testing. These tests will more accurately simulate space conditions and provide information which has not been available on the materials currently used on the EMU. Durability testing of the aluminized mylar with a nylon scrim showed that the material strength varied in the machine and transverse directions. Study of components of the EMU also included a study of the EMU Bearing Assemblies as to materials selection, engineered materials, use of coatings and flammability issues. A comprehensive analysis of the performance of the current design, which is a stainless steel assembly, was conducted and use of titanium alloys or engineered alloy systems and coatings was investigated. The friction and wear properties are of interest as are the general manufacturing costs. Recognizing that the bearing assembly is subject to an oxygen environment, all currently used materials as well as titanium and engineered alloys were evaluated as to their flammability. An aim of the project is to provide weight reduction since bearing

  20. Experimental monitoring of geotechnical response of railway track systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabhan, Abdullah H.

    An important issue that compromises rail track operations and safety is ballast fouling. Ballast fouling may lead to track deformation, reduction of track load capacity and train speed, and ultimately train derailment. This problem is quite costly for the railway industry thus, assessing and controlling ballast fouling and then preventing train derailment while optimizing maintenance operation is very important for reducing the overall cost of freight and passenger transportation. This study presents a proposed holistic methodology that extends assessing fouling while monitoring rail track deformation. The techniques uses deformation monitoring instruments (e.g., fiber optic (FO) sensors and LVDTs) coupled with Electromagnetic (EM) surveying: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a time domain reflectometry (TDR). The methodology aims at gathering data to create an early warning system that would allow railway engineers to develop a symptomatic approach to ballast maintenance procedures. This proposed methodology was tested on a full scale track model (FSTM). This model comprises 2.45 m rail supported by five ties embedded in ballast layer that was fouled under controlled conditions. The testing program considered three common types of fouling: mineral fouling, clay fouling, and silica sand fouling. A comparison between rail settlement measurements measured by LVDTs and rail bending strain measurement measured by FO sensors showed that FO sensors do not provide an indication of track deterioration due to cyclic loading, moisture content, and fouling depth. In addition, results showed a high correlation between rate of plastic settlement and amount of fouling detected by EM survey. Experimental results also showed that EM survey results can be used to determine depth and type of fouling.

  1. Assessing the quality of interdisciplinary rounds in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Have, Elsbeth C. M.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Holman, Nicole D.; Nap, Raoul E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tulleken, Jaap E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are increasingly recommended to support quality improvement, but uncertainty exists about assessing the quality of IDRs. We developed, tested, and applied an instrument to assess the quality of IDRs in ICUs. Materials and Meth

  2. The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment strengthens and expands our understanding of climate-related health impacts by providing a more definitive description of climate-related health burdens in the United States. It builds on the 2014 USGCRP National Climate Assessment and reviews and synthesizes key ...

  3. Multi-hypothesis GPS and electronic fence data fusion for safety-critical positioning in railway worksites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Joao; Gronbaek, Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Safety-critical applications often use position information as a mean of assessing the safety level of people. For this reason, such information is required to be precise in terms of accuracy and timeliness. This paper regards position mechanisms for personalized warning systems for railway worke...

  4. Railway Station Role in Composing Urban Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite railway infrastructure was the structural framework on which modern European States were developed, contributing to unify territories and to the establishment of Nations, right from the beginning, the relationship between railway and city has been characterized by physical, functional and social conflicts, mainly because of a lack of integration between infrastructural and urban policies, which have been produced strong conflicts during decades. These critical situations have concentrated on the railway stations surrounding areas, which have started symbolizing the main conflicts that are taking place inside the cities.Similarly to what happened in the XIX century, today railway is a strategic infrastructure for the European territory development, thanks to the introduction of high speed transport systems and the promotion of rail transport as a more sustainable transportation system, which can quickly connect metropolitan central areas, more and more impenetrable by private vehicles, and key functions centres for the contemporary urban systems.In this framework, railway stations are becoming public places representing a complex society which is more and more dedicated to motion; thus they offer an unmissable chance not only to carry out urban development and spatial cohesion policies, but also to compose old tensions caused by the sharing of physical space, which is more and more scarce and valuable, and by ghettoization phenomena which have been produced at local scale, between rail infrastructure and the surrounding urban context. Today, such conflicts are growing and they are involving many actors who express a lot of different interests, needs and expectations, relating to the station areas’ destiny.Starting from the analysis of some conflicting situations between rail stations and the surrounding areas which have took place until today, this paper investigates some recent renewal interventions on Italian and European main railway

  5. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak-Hosston Formation Assessment Units, Western Gulf and East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces (047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. Comparison of dietetics service delivery (demand and determinants within two Australian Medical Assessment and Planning Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela P Vivanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims Assessment and Planning Units have increased globally however, models of care literature is limited. With high malnutrition prevalence amongst ageing populations, this case report identifies demands for dietetic services. Methods Descriptive data compared and contrasted two service including medical models, eligibility criteria, malnutrition screening, dietetic services, clinical follow-up, and team composition. Results High malnutrition prevalence (17 per cent, 31 per cent was evident with different screening approaches successfully implemented. Both units favoured rapid assessment and intervention. Conclusion Dietetic expertise was required for malnutrition assessment, and ongoing management in acute or community setting as determined by differing health-care system arrangements

  8. Experiment Study of Fiber Optic Sensing in Railway Security Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian Fan; De-Sheng Jiang; Wei-Lai Li

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at some security problems in railway running and the application condition of existing technology, this paper studies some issues of using fiber optic sensing technology in railway security monitoring. Through field experiment measuring the strain of the rail and analyzing the experiment data, the method of diagnosing the health condition of rail and wheel is investigated.

  9. Improving Punctuality and Transfer Reliability by Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch railway network is operated close to capacity with the current safety system. This leaves little space for control by process operators by which a delayed train can cause severe delay propagation. The NS currently invest a large amount in punctuality improvement of the railway operations.

  10. The IMAGINE source model for railway noise prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The IMAGINE railway traffic noise source model is described, which is a further elaboration and completion of the Harmonoise model. Within the EU project Harmonoise, a model was proposed including most of the main railway noise sources. In the IMAGINE project, complete formulation was put forward

  11. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  12. The effects of 10 years Railway investment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten A.

    1998-01-01

    The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period.......The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period....

  13. The Ginghai-Tibet railway and Tibet tourism: travelers' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Ming Su; Geoffrey Wall

    2009-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet railway opened in July 2006 and boosted Tibetan tourism markedly by increasing the accessibility and affordability of travel from China to Tibet. This study evaluates the railway's impacts on tourists' travel decisions and experiences in Tibet. The relative importance of the train journey in comparison with the destination experience in...

  14. Organizational-economic principles of reforming of the railway transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Mishchenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of vertical division of railways of the countries of the European community are investigated. The received effects and factors which influence increase of competitiveness and efficiency of activity of a railway transportation with the account of the current legislation of the European community are analyzed.

  15. Seismic Performance of Multi-Span RC Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Barrau, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Presently, there is no clear method for determining the optimal railway bridge design for a particular ground type and expected seismic intensity. Four main types of RC bridge dominate the current multi-span railway bridge design trends – the Simply Supported Beam, Continuous Box-Girder (CBG), CBG...

  16. Routing Trains through railway stations: model formulation and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Zwaneveld (Peter); L.G. Kroon (Leo); H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); M. Salomon (Marc); S. Dauzere-Peres; S. van Hoesel (Stan); H.W. Ambergen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider the problem of routing trains through railway stations. This problem occurs as a subproblem in a project which the authors are carrying out in cooperation with the Dutch railways. The project involves the analysis of future infrastructural capacity requirements

  17. Robustness indicators and capacity models for railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    In a world continuous striving for higher mobility and the use of more sustainable modes of transport, there is a constant pressure on utilising railway capacity better and, at the same time, obtaining a high robustness against delays. During the planning of railway operations and infrastructure...

  18. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    ). Furthermore, the paper describes an interlocking table generator (ITG) that generates automatically a well-formed interlocking table from a well-formed railway network layout. Experiments with the DSL and ITG using the RAISE tools and the C++ implementation show that the use of the DSL and ITG can increase...... the productivity and significantly reduce errors in the specifications of railway interlocking systems....

  19. Running times on railway sections with heterogeneous train traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Huisman, Tijs

    2001-01-01

    In contemporary railway traffic, different train services often run on the same track of a railway section. Since these train services generally travel at different speed, this may result in delays due to fast trains being caught behind slower ones. This note investigates these delays developing a s

  20. The Penarroya mining railway; El Ferrocaril minero de Penarroya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grado Contreras, J. I. de

    2009-07-01

    The French Society Miniere et Metallurgique de Panarroya mining railway, 241 km long, was the second largest private narrow gauge railway in Spain. Located in the inland. linked the coal and galena mines with foundries and also with the national railroads grid, to transport the minerals to national and foreign markets. (Author)

  1. Centrifugal Model Tests on Railway Embankments of Expansive Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the centrifugal model tests on railway embankments of expansive soil in Nanning-Kunming railway,the author studied several embankments under different physical conditions. The stress and strain states and settlement of the embankments were analyzed, and the obtained results can be used as a reference to field construction.

  2. Disruption Management of Rolling Stock in Passenger Railway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with real-time disruption management of rolling stock in passenger railway transportation. We present a generic framework for modeling disruptions in railway rolling stock schedules. The framework is presented as an online combinatorial decision problem where the

  3. Prediction Models of Free-Field Vibrations from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmborg, Jens; Persson, Kent; Persson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and railways close to where people work and live. Annoyance from traffic-induced vibrations and noise is expected to be a growing issue. To predict the level of vibration and noise in buildings caused by railway and road traffic, calculation models are needed. In the present paper, a simplified prediction...

  4. Improving Punctuality and Transfer Reliability by Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch railway network is operated close to capacity with the current safety system. This leaves little space for control by process operators by which a delayed train can cause severe delay propagation. The NS currently invest a large amount in punctuality improvement of the railway operations.

  5. The IMAGINE source model for railway noise prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The IMAGINE railway traffic noise source model is described, which is a further elaboration and completion of the Harmonoise model. Within the EU project Harmonoise, a model was proposed including most of the main railway noise sources. In the IMAGINE project, complete formulation was put forward ta

  6. Performance of LTE in High Speed Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with a number of shortcomings in terms of capacity and capability. These shortcomings become a major issue for railways as GSM-R may limit the number of running trains in some areas and it cannot support advanced data services. Hence...

  7. Running times on railway sections with heterogeneous train traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; Huisman, Tijs

    In contemporary railway traffic, different train services often run on the same track of a railway section. Since these train services generally travel at different speed, this may result in delays due to fast trains being caught behind slower ones. This note investigates these delays developing a

  8. Holistic approach to multi-unit site risk assessment: Status and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inn Seock; Jang, Mi Suk; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Company (NESS), Daejeon Business Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011 point out, among other matters, that concurrent accidents at multiple units of a site can occur in reality. Although site risk has been deterministically considered to some extent in nuclear power plant siting and design, potential occurrence of multi-unit accident sequences at a site was not investigated in sufficient detail thus far in the nuclear power community. Therefore, there is considerable worldwide interest and research effort directed toward multi-unit site risk assessment, especially in the countries with high-density nuclear-power-plant sites such as Korea. As the technique of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been successfully applied to evaluate the risk associated with operation of nuclear power plants in the past several decades, the PSA having primarily focused on single-unit risks is now being extended to the multi-unit PSA. In this paper we first characterize the site risk with explicit consideration of the risk associated with spent fuel pools as well as the reactor risks. The status of multi-unit risk assessment is discussed next, followed by a description of the emerging issues relevant to the multi-unit risk evaluation from a practical standpoint.

  9. Pain Assessment in INTensive care (PAINT): an observational study of physician-documented pain assessment in 45 intensive care units in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, H I; Bantel, C; Gordon, F; Brett, S J; Laycock, H C

    2017-06-01

    Pain is a common and distressing symptom experienced by intensive care patients. Assessing pain in this environment is challenging, and published guidelines have been inconsistently implemented. The Pain Assessment in INTensive care (PAINT) study aimed to evaluate the frequency and type of physician pain assessments with respect to published guidelines. This observational service evaluation considered all pain and analgesia-related entries in patients' records over a 24-h period, in 45 adult intensive care units (ICUs) in London and the South-East of England. Data were collected from 750 patients, reflecting the practice of 362 physicians. Nearly two-thirds of patients (n = 475, 64.5%, 95%CI 60.9-67.8%) received no physician-documented pain assessment during the 24-h study period. Just under one-third (n = 215, 28.6%, 95%CI 25.5-32.0%) received no nursing-documented pain assessment, and over one-fifth (n = 159, 21.2%, 95%CI 19.2-23.4)% received neither a doctor nor a nursing pain assessment. Two of the 45 ICUs used validated behavioural pain assessment tools. The likelihood of receiving a physician pain assessment was affected by the following factors: the number of nursing assessments performed; whether the patient was admitted as a surgical patient; the presence of tracheal tube or tracheostomy; and the length of stay in ICU. Physician-documented pain assessments in the majority of participating ICUs were infrequent and did not utilise recommended behavioural pain assessment tools. Further research to identify factors influencing physician pain assessment behaviour in ICU, such as human factors or cultural attitudes, is urgently needed. © 2017 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Efficient Algorithm for Railway Tracks Detection Using Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Javed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite imagery can produce maps including roads, railway tracks, buildings, bridges, oceans, lakes, rivers, etc. In developed countries like USA, Canada, Australia, Europe, images produced by Google map are of high resolution and good quality. On the other hand, mostly images of the third world countries like Pakistan, Asian and African countries are of poor quality and not clearly visible. Similarly railway tracks of these countries are hardly visible in Google map. We have developed an efficient algorithm for railway track detection from a low quality image of Google map. This would lead to detect damaged railway track, railway crossings and help to schedule/divert locomotive movements in order to avoid catastrophe.

  11. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu Hong, Linh; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    , are avoided. Central parts of these new systems consist of safety-critical software the functional correctness of which is one of the key requisites for a reliable operation of the traffics and in particular for the safety of passengers. Until now the development of railway control software has typically been......This paper presents work package WP4.1 of the RobustRails research project. The work package aims at suggesting a methodology for efficient development and verification of safe and robust railway control systems. 1 Project background and state of the art Over the next 10 years all Danish railway...... signalling systems are going to be completely replaced with modern, computer based railway control systems based on the European standard ERTMS/ETCS [3, 4] by the Danish Signaling Programme [1]. The purpose of these systems is to control the railway traffic such that unsafe situations, like train collisions...

  12. [Optimally control urban railway noise by sound propagation path].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guo-qing; Li, Zheng-guang; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Bang-jun

    2008-08-01

    In order to control railway noise pollution in urban areas, the residential district located near the Zhegan railway in Hangzhou urban was taken for example, and some controlling measures were proposed based on the investigation in railway noise impact as well as the planning of the district, the environmental scene and the project devises. The measures included setting man-made soil slopes, noise barriers and virescence. Combining some of them could be a typical noise reduction scheme. The professional software Cadna/A was used to predict the noise reduction results of every scheme. Results show that the maximal difference of noise reduction is 19.4 dB and the noise reduction effect of the second scheme is best. However, if only railway noise influence is considered, the first scheme is best. The research results can provide reference for residential districts planning and noise control near the railway in urban areas.

  13. A visual-analytics system for railway safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Wallace P; Alves, Ronnie; Costa, Jean M R; Pessin, Gustavo; Galvao, Lilyan; Cardoso, Ana C; de Souza, Cleidson R B

    2014-01-01

    The working environment of railways is challenging and complex and often involves high-risk operations. These operations affect both the company staff and inhabitants of the towns and cities alongside the railway lines. To reduce the employees' and public's exposure to risk, railway companies adopt strategies involving trained safety personnel, advanced forms of technology, and special work processes. Nevertheless, unfortunate incidents still occur. To assist railway safety management, researchers developed a visual-analytics system. Using a data analytics workflow, it compiles an incident risk index that processes information about railway incidents. It displays the index on a geographical map, together with socioeconomic information about the associated towns and cities. Feedback on this system suggests that safety engineers and experts can use it to make and communicate decisions.

  14. Preventive Maintenance of Railway Tracks: Ballast Performance Anticipation in the Cameroon Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba Minsili

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research study is to produce a methodology that provides an understanding of the mechanical behaviour of ballast and its degradation in order to reflect field performance of different ballast materials used by CAMRAIL in their railway network, and to better anticipate an efficient planning of the railway track maintenance. Based on existed literature, on collected data of different railway sections, and on the finite element analysis of the vehicle-track mechanical interaction, a preventive ballast cleaning and renewal strategy, formulated through ballast deterioration indexes is proposed. Comparing to the ongoing dayto- day maintenance strategy the proposed functionality-based preventive maintenance offers the following advantages: security and comfort of users; forecasting of ballast corrective measures; planned maintenance actions; higher functional and exploitation level of the track and availability of needed materials and mechanisms. The administration of CAMRAIL has promised to extend further the findings of this work in other to fully optimized the track maintenance cost in each railway section.

  15. Railway line capacity consumption of different railway signalling systems under scheduled and disturbed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Corman, F.; D'Ariano, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capacity consumption on a Dutch railway line both under scheduled and disturbed traffic conditions. For the scheduled condition the standard UIC compression method is used, while the computation of capacity consumption under disturbed conditions requires multiple simulation

  16. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern... exemption under ] 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate, a... the lease agreement that is expected to be completed prior to the effective date of the...

  17. Study on the Organization Model of Wagon Flows in Railway Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Railway terminal is an important part of railway network. Transport organization of railway terminal is the key of the railway transport organization. Moreover, the organization of transport work is based on the organization of wagon flows in the railway terminal. Because of the great amounts of equipment and a large number of train operations, the study on railway terminal transport organization is mostly focused on a marshalling station in railway terminal or a part of it. Systematic study taking railway terminal as a whole is very few. In this paper, the organization of wagon flows in a railway terminal is analyzed and a wagon flow model in a railway terminal is established. The main principles of organization of local trains are also presented.

  18. Map of assessed coalbed-gas resources in the United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of coalbed-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within coalbed-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the third digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS coalbed-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  19. Assessment of physical work load at visual display unit workstations : Ergonomic applications and gender aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Karlqvist, Lena

    1997-01-01

    From the department of Occupational Health, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Department of Ergonomics, National Institute for Working Life, Solna, and the Department of Surgical Sciences K3, Section for Rehabilitation Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm. Assessment of physical work load at visual display unit workstations Ergonomic applications and gender aspects Lena Karlqvist Arbete och Hälsa I997:9 .Local physical workload at visual display unit(VDU) wor...

  20. A Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Garel M., J.-M. Cugnasse, A. Loison, J.-M. Gaillard, C. Vuiton, and D.Maillard. 2005. Monitoring the abundance of mouflon in south France. European ...of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  1. Assessment of Economic Efficiency Pertaining to Application of Energy Storage Units in Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chernetsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some aspects pertaining to an application of technologies for energy storage in electric power. Review of technical and cost characteristics of energy storage units has been given in the paper. The review reflects data of the energy storage units which are available and which are under development. The paper proposes an approach that permits to assess boundaries of economically reasonable application of energy storage systems in order to balance daily load curve of a power system.

  2. Research on Continuous Operation of the Railway by Considering the Value of the Local Railway in Nagano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Tatsuo; Wakui, Katsuaki; Koyama, Ken

    After revision of the Railway Business Act in 2000, the abolition of the local railway has increased in Japan. However, continuing activities by people living along local line has been focussed in recent years. Moreover, a lot of local railway's business are obtaining the subsidy from the municipality where railway route is located. When the government puts out the grant to the company, it is necessary to have the accountability for the peoples. This research is focused on the value of the local railways for residents are measured, and an economical value of that is estimate by using the Contingent Valuation Method. As for the route for analysis in Nagano, Bessho-line(Ueda), Yashiro-line(Nagano) and Kamikohchi-line(Matsumoto) were chosen. Moreover, policies of each municipality to these routes are evaluated by using these values.

  3. Annoyance due to single and combined sound exposure from railway and road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrström, Evy; Barregård, Lars; Andersson, Eva; Skånberg, Annbritt; Svensson, Helena; Angerheim, Pär

    2007-11-01

    Environmental noise is a growing and well recognized health problem. However, in many cases people are exposed not to a single noise source-for example, road, railway, or aircraft noise-but to a combination of noise exposures and there is only limited knowledge of the effects on health of exposure to combined noise sources. A socio-acoustic survey among 1953 persons aged 18-75 years was conducted in residential areas exposed to railway and road traffic noise with sound levels ranging from L(Aeq,24h) 45-72 dB in a municipality east of Gothenburg, Sweden. The objectives were to assess various adverse health effects, including annoyance, and to elucidate the impact of exposure to single and combined noise sources. In areas exposed to both railway and road traffic, the proportion annoyed by the total traffic sound environment (total annoyance) was significantly higher than in areas with one dominant noise source (rail or road traffic) with the same total sound exposure (L(Aeq,24h,tot)). This interaction effect was significant from 59 dB and increased gradually with higher sound levels. Effects of the total sound exposure should be considered in risk assessments and in noise mitigation activities.

  4. Level and Determinants of Knowledge of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis among Railway Workers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurubaran Ganasegeran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. Purpose. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA among Malaysian railway workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based sampling. The assessment instrument was a face-validated, prepiloted, self-administered instrument with sociodemographics and knowledge items on knee OA. Results. Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 41.4 (±10.7, with the majority aged 50 years or older (34.9%. Of the total respondents, 53.6% had low levels of knowledge of knee OA disease. Multivariate analysis found that four demographic predictors, age ≥50 years, family history of knee OA, self-awareness, and clinical diagnosis of the disease entity, were significantly associated with knowledge scores. Conclusion. The finding of a low level knee OA knowledge among Malaysian railway workers points to an urgent need for massive information to be disseminated among the workers at risk to foster primary prevention and self-care.

  5. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Golder Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey assessment of reserve growth outside of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.

    2015-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of potential additions to oil and gas reserves for the United States by reserve growth in discovered accumulations. These volumes were derived by using a new methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation. This methodology was used to assess reserve growth in individual accumulations (reservoirs, groups of reservoirs, or fields). Selected, large, well-studied, conventional accumulations in the United States that are estimated to contribute most to reserve growth were assessed using analysis of geology and engineering practices. Potential additions to oil and gas reserves for large, discovered, conventional accumulations outside of the United States due to reserve growth were assessed using the U.S. accumulations as analogs. Potential oil and gas volumes were assumed to be added to proven plus probable reserves.

  7. Surveys from inside: An assessment of unit nonresponse bias with internal criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kohler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article uses the so called “internal criteria of representativeness” to assess the unit nonresponse bias in five European comparative survey projects. It then goes on investigating several ideas why unit nonresponse bias might vary between surveys and countries. It is proposed that unit nonresponse bias is either caused by country characteristics or survey methodology. The empirical evidence presented speaks more in favour of the latter than of the former. Among the survey characteristics the features that strengthen the leverage to control interviewers’ behaviour have top priority

  8. Modelling of coal in a railway coach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majzner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Objective of the study was to identify the forces acting on the structural elements of railway wagons. It is part of research conducted under a grant, on the use of composites in the repair and construction of new structural elements of railway wagons.Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of verification of the research is Siemens PLM Software NX 7.5. Motion simulation has been carried out in one module of the software, Motion Simulation. Connections between components have been made using constraints and connections mapping the real relationship between components.Findings: The aim of the study was to identify the forces acting on the door, and establish a database of input for further research.Research limitations/implications: The main limitations of the study were the possibility of mapping all the connections of components, in the same way as in reality. The second limitation was the maximum length of track, depending on the number of possible landmarks in which it was possible the measurement of variables.Originality/value: Results of the analysis of the wagon constructed with the standard steel components are input data to research on the modification of structural components on the basis of fibrous composite The results obtained are an example of application of the methods of computer analysis, on the basic type of testing wagons. Completed study is the first step in a study of movement railway wagon in further stages will be possible to perform the studies in more complex aspects of the movement

  9. Energy efficient solutions for the complete railway system; Energieeffiziente Loesungen fuer das Gesamtsystem Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, M.; Rechenberg, K.; Hein, G. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Innovative technologies for the power supply of electric railway vehicles by stationary and mobile devices allow to operate the complete railway system in an energy efficient manner and therefore reduce the energy consumption considerably. So it is necessary to examine the power supply of the railway network as well as the railway vehicles and their own operational behaviour within the railway network. A complete tramway system was choosen as one example. (orig.)

  10. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Burgos, Tampico-Misantla, and Sabinas Provinces, northeast Mexico, assessment unit boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National and Global Petroleum Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is defined within the context of the higher-level Total Petroleum System. The Assessment Unit is shown herein as a geographic boundary interpreted, defined, and mapped by the geologist responsible for the province and incorporates a set of known or postulated oil and (or) gas accumulations sharing similar geologic, geographic, and temporal properties within the Total Petroleum System, such as source rock, timing, migration pathways, trapping mechanism, and hydrocarbon type. The Assessment Unit boundary is defined geologically as the limits of the geologic elements that define the Assessment Unit, such as limits of reservoir rock, geologic structures, source rock, and seal lithologies.

  11. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  12. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  13. Technology report on Railway Embedded Network solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, M; BERNOCCHI, M; Just, P.; WEISS, AH; GOIKOETXEA, J; BILLION, J; NEMORIN, J

    2007-01-01

    Deliverable D3D.3.1 Technology report on Railway Embedded Network solutions is a deliverable of Work Package SP3D_WP3 ICOM Specification & Telecom Interfaces of Onboard and Train Train Networks. It takes place within the InteGRail Task 3D_03.1 State of the Art in Embedded Networks. The objectives of this deliverable are: - to consider which embedded communication network technologies are already into ser-vice within the trains; - to analyse Ethernet-based technologies; - to evaluate how Ethe...

  14. Verification of pneumatic railway brake models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowiak, Tadeusz

    2010-03-01

    The article presents a survey of diverse methods for validation of pneumatic train brake modelling. Various experimental measurements of railway pneumatic brakes were made chiefly on a test stand at Poznań University of Technology; other test stands and some results have been taken from the literature. The measurements, some of them unconventional, were performed on separate pneumatic elements, brake devices, the brake pipe and fragments thereof. Mechanical devices were also included. The experimental measurement results were used for the verification of numerical models and for the determination of parameters. The latter was partially performed using an optimisation method.

  15. Suitability of rubber concrete for railway sleepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afia S. Hameed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation by replacing 15% by volume fraction of fine aggregate by crumb rubber was conducted to find the fatigue failure load and impact resistance. The design strength of 50 and 55 MPa was achieved. Test result indicated that there was reduction in compressive strength and modulus values. The fatigue failure and impact resistance were high for rubber concrete when compared with ordinary high strength concrete. The impact strength for railway sleeper with crumb rubber replacement showed increase of about 60% when compared to prestressed concrete sleeper.

  16. Assessment of the Status of Measles Elimination in the United States, 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastañaduy, Paul A; Paul, Prabasaj; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Redd, Susan B; Lopman, Ben A; Gambhir, Manoj; Wallace, Gregory S

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the status of measles elimination in the United States using outbreak notification data. Measles transmissibility was assessed by estimation of the reproduction number, R, the average number of secondary cases per infection, using 4 methods; elimination requires maintaining R at measles transmission is maintained in the United States. A suggested increase in measles transmissibility since elimination warrants continued monitoring and emphasizes the importance of high measles vaccination coverage throughout the population. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  18. Increased reliability through assessment of standard components with life cycle units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, A.; Seliger, G. [Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fabrikbetrieb, Fachgebiet Montagetechnik und Fabrikbetrieb - PTZ 2, Berlin (Germany); Middendorf, A.; Reichl, H. [Research Center for Microperipheric Technologies of the TU-Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Ray, P.

    2004-07-01

    Products and their components underlie constant devaluation by their usage which sooner or later leads to a failure. As manufacturers of complex technical products are confronted with increasing demands regarding product availability and reliability, the assessment of the product's condition is desirable. Existing microelectronic technology enables a constant supervision of standard components in their usage to initiate timely adaptation processes like maintenance and repair. The Life Cycle Unit is presented as a modular microelectronic system for product supervision and assessment. Life Cycle Units have been prototypically implemented in various application examples using SMD technology and microsystem technology. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of land use change in the coterminous United States and Alaska for global assessment of forest loss conducted by the food and agricultural organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanushree Biswas; Mike Walterman; Paul Maus; Kevin A. Megown; Sean P. Healey; Kenneth. Brewer

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations conducted a global assessment for forest change in 2010 using satellite imagery from 1990, 2000, and 2005. The U.S. Forest Service was responsible for assessing forest change in the United States. A polygon-based, stratified sampling design developed by FAO was used to assess change in forest area...

  20. Croatian Railways as a Subject in the European Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Bogović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the environment and the tasks that theCroatian railways need to carry out in order to gain importancewithin the European transport market. It deals with the economicvalues that may be expected from the modernised railways.Therefore, the Croatian railways will have to undergotechnical, technological and organisational restructuring. Themarketing concept of meeting the customers' needs and demandshas to be developed. The marketing is meant and,among other things, the selection and definition of those segmentsin which the Croatian railways could do business successfully.These include: passenger traffic - suburban, then interurban(domestic and international in and out and, accordingto the needs of the European railways, transit traffic. Ingoods transport - to identify the needs of big users and define thesize of the offer accordingly.Although the paper could not deal with concrete restructuringtasks (which is the first and foremost task of the CroatianRailways, it indicates the main directions. These include redefiningof the local traffic on railway lines class I!, then the employees,reorganisation and all the other transformations whichwill be carried out in continuity.

  1. Using rapid assessment to evaluate noise on an in-patient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrick, Lynn M; Kennedy, Paulette; Cyriax, Carol; Davies-Hathen, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Rapid assessment was used to evaluate a noise problem on a busy, high-traffic, high-acuity medical/surgical telemetry unit over a 4-week period. Six sources of environmental noise were identified including conversational noise, noise from doors, noise from housekeeping activities, noise from the pneumatic message tube station, hallway noise, and miscellaneous noise. Our study also demonstrates the value of rapid-assessment methodology for the evaluation of clinical problems such as noise.

  2. Identifying and assessing strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shiwan; Turner, Angus; Tan, Irene; Muir, Josephine

    2017-08-14

    To identify and assess strategies for evaluating the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Systematic literature review. Worldwide. Peer-reviewed journal articles that included the use of a mobile eye health unit. Journal articles were included if outcome measures reflected an assessment of the impact of a mobile eye health unit on health outcomes. Six studies were identified with mobile services offering diabetic retinopathy screening (three studies), optometric services (two studies) and orthoptic services (one study). This review identified and assessed strategies in existing literature used to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units on health outcomes. Studies included in this review used patient outcomes (i.e. disease detection, vision impairment, treatment compliance) and/or service delivery outcomes (i.e. cost per attendance, hospital transport use, inappropriate referrals, time from diabetic retinopathy photography to treatment) to evaluate the impact of mobile eye health units. Limitations include difficulty proving causation of specific outcome measures and the overall shortage of impact evaluation studies. Variation in geographical location, service population and nature of eye care providers limits broad application. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  3. A dynamic model for railway freight overbooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芬玲; 张佳琪; 郭晓峰

    2015-01-01

    In order to apply overbooking idea in Chinese railway freight industry to improve revenue, a Markov decision process (dynamic programming) model for railway freight reservation was formulated and the overbooking limit level was proposed as a control policy. However, computing the dynamic programming treatment needs six nested loops and this will be burdensome for real-world problems. To break through the calculation limit, the properties of value function were analyzed and the overbooking protection level was proposed to reduce the calculating quantity. The simulation experiments show that the overbooking protection level for the lower-fare class is higher than that for the higher-fare class, so the overbooking strategy is nested by fare class. Besides, by analyzing the influence on the overbooking strategy of freight arrival probability and cancellation probability, the proposed approach is efficient and also has a good application prospect in reality. Also, compared with the existing reservation (FCFS), the overbooking strategy performs better in the fields of vacancy reduction and revenue improvement.

  4. Routing Trains Through Railway Junctions: A New Set Packing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard; Larsen, Jesper; Ryan, David

    The problem of routing trains through railway junctions is an integral part of railway operations. Large junctions are highly interconnected networks of track where multiple railway lines meet, intersect, and split. The number of possible routings makes this a very complicated problem. Here we show...... how the problem can be formulated as a set packing model. To exploit the structure of the problem we present a solution procedure which entails solving the dual of this formulation through the dynamic addition of violated cuts (primal variables). A discussion of the variable (train path) generation...

  5. Analysis of railway subgrade frost heave deformation based on GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxun Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the connection between the railway subgrade frost heave deformation and temperature variation, five GPS stations' data were used to monitor the deformation on a certain section of railway subgrade in northeast China. GAMIT software is used to process the data, providing daily solution, daytime solution and nighttime solution. Vertical trends of these five stations were analyzed to investigate frost heave effect on railway subgrade deformation. The results show that the temperature difference between daytime and night induces stations, significant vertical displacement, and the temperature difference between seasons causes settlement of station which appears linear trend.

  6. Architecture of the First Railway in the Interwar Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Dabašinskienė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the examples of passenger stations and railway workers living houses of the first wide railroad Kretinga – Telšiai – Kužiai in the independent Lithua­nia (1918 – 1940. It also discusses the importance of the railroad to Samogitia region, Klaipėda region and the whole Lithuania. The clarified material is based on archival sources and documentary publications from the interwar period. In a review of projects of railway passenger stations and railway workers living houses have been seen their standardization wich started in tsarist period. Also these buildings emphasizes the unified image.

  7. Environmental problems of vibrations induced by railway traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA He; CAO Yanmei; De Roeck Guido; Degrande Geert

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a general review is made on the problems of vibrations of the ground and nearby buildings induced by railway traffic, and on the researches on this sub- ject in theoretical analyses, numerical simulations, and field experiments. The characteristics of ground vibrations induced by railway traffic and their propagation, from the aspects of duration, intensity distribution, vehicle load and speed, are summarized. The vibration influences on the daily life of people, the operation of high-tech devices and the safety of buildings, and the vibration properties of subsoil and buildings adjacent to the underground, ground and elevated railway systems are introduced.

  8. Study on Benefit Evaluation of Heavy-haul Railway Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dong; Yan Ping; Qiao Yanhong; Zhou Xiaohua; Xing Cunliang; Chen Qi

    2009-01-01

    Promotion for development of heavy-haul railway transportation will rapidly increase the transport capacity of busy trunk lines,relieve effectively the tense supply/demand relationship of coal-a dominant resource of the domestic energy structure in China,and enhance immensely the growth of bulk goods transport which takes the leading position of the railway freight traffic.The development of heavy-haul railway transportation will help improve the economic and social benefits of the whole society and meanwhile promote the sustainable development of China's national economy.

  9. Synthesis of railway-signaling plans using reachability games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasting, Patrick Frederik Soelmark; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we show the feasibility of using functional programming (more specifically F#) in connection with gamebased methods for synthesis of correct-by-construction controllers (also called signaling plans) for railway networks. This is a massively resource-demanding application. A model...... (the control system) controls signals and points and the universal player (the antagonistic environment) controls movement of trains. A winning strategy for the existential player provides a signaling plan that will safely guide trains through the network. The concepts from the railway network model...... that we are able to synthesize signaling plans for real railway networks of substantial size....

  10. Beijing Kowloon Railway, A Shortcut from Beijing to Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    At 2,397 kilometers, the Beijing-Kowloon Railway is the shortest line from China’s capital to Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR. On September 1, 1996, the No. 105 train made its debut at the Beijing West Railway Station and started to click along to the other terminal in Shenzhen. At present, five pairs of trains are running on the railway. Technically, the new line was built to alleviate the bottleneck situation of the rail transportation. In addition, it is hoped that the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone can help spur the economies of the

  11. Auction pricing of network access for North American railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The question of pricing train paths for "open access" railway networks in North America is discussed. An auction process is suggested as necessary to maintain transparency in the contracting process. Multiple random samples of auction pricing for a single track railway line demonstrate that the i...... that the infrastructure entity will receive approximately 15.6% less than the true value of the contracted train paths. This loss of revenue threatens the objective of reducing government subsidy for the railway network. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. A new approach to evaluate railways efficiency considering safety measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noroozzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Safety is one of the main reasons for choosing railway to other transportation modes and improvement of transportation safety has attracted many researchers in recent years. In this paper, we aim to investigate the influence of safety measures on railways performance evaluation, empirically. The proposed model of this paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA to estimate the railways efficiency scores in the presence of safety measure. According to three proposed factors, the most appropriate model is selected to compare its result with output-oriented DEA model. The results of the survey are surprising since inefficient railroads become efficient through adding undesirable outputs in evaluation model.

  13. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the…

  14. The Status of Genetics Curriculum in Higher Education in the United States: Goals and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, Teresa L.; Dougherty, Michael J.; Bowling, Bethany V.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    We review the state of genetics instruction in the United States through the lens of backward design, with particular attention to the goals and assessments that inform curricular practice. An analysis of syllabi and leading textbooks indicates that genetics instruction focuses most strongly on foundations of DNA and Mendelian genetics. At the…

  15. German Studies in the United States: Assessment and Outlook. Monatshefte Occasional Volume Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnes, Walter F. W., Ed.; Nollendorfs, Valters, Ed.

    This volume focuses on two principal aspects of German studies in the United States: (1) an assessment of the German-teaching profession from primary to graduate school, with attention to its "raison d'etre" in the present academic, social, and cultural situation, as well as its structures, aims, and personnel; and (2) strategies for survival and…

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change threatens human health and well-being in the United States. To address this growing threat, the Interagency Group on Climate Change and Human Health (CCHHG), a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP), has developed this assessment as par...

  17. 77 FR 51071 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., operational, or storing processes). The fuel storage and handling, radioactive waste, and other systems which... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment and...

  18. AUTOMATED TECHNOLOGY FOR CURRENT MAINTENANCE OF RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychev Vyacheslav Petrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors consider the possibility and provide specific solutions to create the automated system of track maintenance on the example of automation of technological operations to restore the equal elasticity of the undersleeper foundation. The relevance of the work stems from the fact that the modern and perspective requirements to the track maintenance in the conditions of the transition to high-speed, high-speed, high-tonnage traffic can be implemented only by switching to a new system of track maintenance based on the performance of work of specialized high-performance machines and on the new system with maximum opportunity for automation technology. More than half of the volume of works on the current maintenance of the tracks are the works on the removal of splashes, straightening and tamping of track, the technology of which can be divided into two components: calculation-evaluation and the generation of control actions on the railway track. Track machines are used extensively at the local bearing places of the occurrence of splashes on track sections or for continuous bearing plot ways to restore the equal elasticity of the undersleeper base and reduce the degree of non-uniformity deviations in rails’ position on level and in plan, as well as track subsidence. The bunker for filling the ballast may be mounted on additional frame or on offset brackets of the machine. The device for measuring the position of a railway track includes the means for measuring the deflections of the road, bending rise the track in the longitudinal profile and the position of the track on level (elevation of one rail in relation to another and the adjacent block determining the actual position of a railway track in plan, in longitudinal profile and on level. The block of determining the amount of ballast consists of interconnected devices for determining the value of shifts and raise of the track and the block of comparing the track raise values

  19. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Liang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge’s abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature.

  20. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature. PMID:26451387

  1. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, You-Liang; Wang, Gao-Xin; Sun, Peng; Wu, Lai-Yi; Yue, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature.

  2. Possibilities of Railway Development in Lithuania: the Analysis of Regulations for Railway Design in the Aspect of Reduction of Acoustic Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Aja Tumavičė; Alfredas Laurinavičius

    2016-01-01

    All over the world railways are of the least-polluting vehicles, and they became increasingly popular. However, the noise emission from railway infrastructure is the most problematic issue, especially at the development planning stage. This article presents analysis of Lithuanian regulations for railway design in the aspect of reduction of acoustic noise. It analyses regulations, which are mandatory for Lithuanian railway designers and builders. In addition, the overview of regulations’provis...

  3. Clinical utility of the Hopkins Competency Assessment Test on an inpatient geropsychiatry unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Kirsten M; Lund, Brian C; McAdams, Jimmie D; Yates, William R

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the clinical use of routine administration of the Hopkins Competency Assessment Test on an inpatient geropsychiatry unit. The purpose was to determine whether the Hopkins Competency Assessment Test results influenced the psychiatrist's capacity assessment or confidence in that determination. The test was administered to all patients admitted voluntarily during an 18-week period. The attending psychiatrist determined treatment consent capacity and rated confidence in that determination, before and after review of the test results. Fifty seven patients were assessed. After review of the test results, the psychiatrist's capacity rating changed in only 2 (3.5%) cases. However, the test increased the psychiatrist's confidence ratings, particularly among the patients with cognitive impairment. The Hopkins Competency Assessment Test is not suited for routine administration among geropsychiatry inpatients. However, the test may serve a role as a supplementary tool for assessing treatment consent capacity among patients with evidence of cognitive impairment.

  4. Increasing railway suicide acts after media coverage of a fatal railway accident? An ecological study of 747 suicidal acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunrath, Sabine; Baumert, Jens; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2011-09-01

    While coverage of a celebrity suicide in the mass media may trigger copycat suicides, evidence for the effect of media reports of non-prominent suicides is moderate. Diversification of current media may raise further doubts as to whether their influence on suicidal acts is still present. We examined whether widespread media coverage of a railway accident, in which several people were killed while investigating a presumed railway suicide, subsequently increased the number of railway suicides. The daily incidence of railway suicides was derived from the national accident registry on the German railway net. We estimated incidence ratios by Poisson regression, adjusting for relevant confounders (eg, outdoor temperature, unemployment rate), for the 2 months following the accident (predefined index period) and predefined control periods (preceding 2 years of the same period and 1 month before/after the index period). The mean number of railway suicides per day in the index period increased significantly to 2.66 (95% CI 2.19 to 3.13) compared to 1.94 (95% CI 1.78 to 2.10) during both control periods. Fully adjusted Poisson regression showed a 44% daily increase in railway suicides in the index period compared to the control periods (incidence ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.03). A maximum of eight suicides per day was reached about 1 week after the accident. Non-fictional media coverage of a fatal accident appears to affect subsequent railway suicide numbers. Supposedly, media reports drew attention to railways as a means of suicide.

  5. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  6. Multimethod and Interpersonal Assessment in Medical Settings: A Case Study from the Dermatology Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Vari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with multifactorial aetiology. The psychological impact of skin diseases is increasingly recognised, but only scant attention has been given to the possible role of couple relationships as protective factors for dermatology patients. This article presents a multimethod assessment conducted along with physical examination at a Dermatology Unit. Specifically, the assessment includes measures of emotion regulation and attachment. The first aim of the article is to support an integrated assessment of dermatological and psychological factors together. The second aim is to highlight the possible role of couple relationships in the management of skin diseases.

  7. Online Condition Monitoring of a Rail Fastening System on High-Speed Railways Based on Wavelet Packet Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiahong; Liu, Chong; Ren, Tongqun; Liu, Haixia; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-02-08

    The rail fastening system is an important part of a high-speed railway track. It is always critical to the operational safety and comfort of railway vehicles. Therefore, the condition detection of the rail fastening system, looseness or absence, is an important task in railway maintenance. However, the vision-based method cannot identify the severity of rail fastener looseness. In this paper, the condition of rail fastening system is monitored based on an automatic and remote-sensing measurement system. Meanwhile, wavelet packet analysis is used to analyze the acceleration signals, based on which two damage indices are developed to locate the damage position and evaluate the severity of rail fasteners looseness, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, an experiment is performed on a high-speed railway experimental platform. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective to assess the condition of the rail fastening system. The monitoring system significantly reduces the inspection time and increases the efficiency of maintenance management.

  8. Online Condition Monitoring of a Rail Fastening System on High-Speed Railways Based on Wavelet Packet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rail fastening system is an important part of a high-speed railway track. It is always critical to the operational safety and comfort of railway vehicles. Therefore, the condition detection of the rail fastening system, looseness or absence, is an important task in railway maintenance. However, the vision-based method cannot identify the severity of rail fastener looseness. In this paper, the condition of rail fastening system is monitored based on an automatic and remote-sensing measurement system. Meanwhile, wavelet packet analysis is used to analyze the acceleration signals, based on which two damage indices are developed to locate the damage position and evaluate the severity of rail fasteners looseness, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, an experiment is performed on a high-speed railway experimental platform. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective to assess the condition of the rail fastening system. The monitoring system significantly reduces the inspection time and increases the efficiency of maintenance management.

  9. Formal techniques for a data-driven certification of advanced railway signalling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The technological evolution of railway signalling equipment promises significant increases in transport capacity, in operation regularity, in quality and safety of the service offered.This evolution is based on the massive use of computer control units on board trains and on the ground, that aims...... to advocate the adoption of a novel, data-driven safety certification approach, based on formal verification techniques, focusing on the desired attributes of the exchanged information. A discussion on this issue is presented, based on some initial observations of the needed concepts....

  10. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit...

  11. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit...

  12. Living alongside railway tracks: Long-term effects of nocturnal noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity as a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Patricia; Rohmer, Odile; Schimchowitsch, Sarah; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Bonnefond, Anne; Margiocchi, Florence; Poisson, Franck; Muzet, Alain

    2010-10-01

    Very few studies were devoted to permanent effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity. We investigated the effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular response in young and middle-aged adults living for many years either near a railway track or in a quiet area. Forty subjects (50% males) divided into two age groups (juniors: 26.2+/-3.6 and seniors: 56.2+/-4.2) participated in this experiment. Half of them lived near a railway track (RW group: 2.6 to 19 years) and the other half in a quiet environment (QE group: 8.1 to 14.2 years). After an adaptation night, all subjects underwent two nights in the laboratory: one control night and one noisy night (30 by-passes of a freight train). Sleep and cardiovascular modifications were assessed in response to noise. Sleep fragmentation indices were lower in RW subjects compared to QE whatever their age. In response to noise, there was a higher cardiovascular response rate to noise in RW juniors and a lower cardiovascular response rate in RW seniors compared to their age-paired QE counterparts. In conclusion, permanent exposure to nocturnal railway noise leads to decreased sleep fragmentation and to cardiovascular habituation. It is suggested that during the initial period experienced by residents living near railway tracks, nocturnal railway noise could induce a sensitization process on the autonomic response to noise reflecting a startle/defense reflex due to its functional significance, which progressively turns to habituation in the long-term if no adverse effect is experienced. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Professional nursing practice in critical units: assessment of work environment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurício, Luiz Felipe Sales; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Campanharo, Cássia Regina Vancini; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: assess the autonomy, control over environment, and organizational support of nurses' work process and the relationships between physicians and nurses in critical care units. Method: cross-sectional study conducted with 162 nurses working in the intensive care units and emergency service of a university hospital. The workers' satisfaction with their work environment was assessed using Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised, translated and adapted for the Brazilian culture. Results: average age was 31.6 ± 3.9 years; 80.2% were women; 68.5% Caucasians and 71.6% worked in intensive care units. The nurses considered autonomy (2.38 ± 0.64) and their relationship with physicians (2.24 ± 0.62) to be characteristics of the work environment that favored professional practice. Control over environment (2.78 ± 0.62) and organizational support (2.51 ± 0.54), however, were considered to be unfavorable. No statistically significant differences were found between the units based on the scores obtained by the professionals on the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised. Conclusion: autonomy, relationship between physicians and nurses, and organizational support were considered by the units to be characteristics that favored nurses' professional practices. On the other hand, control over environment and organizational support were considered unfavorable. PMID:28301034

  14. [NIC as a tool for assessing competences of nursing students in clinical placement at surgical units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celma Vicente, Matilde; Ajuria-Imaz, Eloisa; Lopez-Morales, Manuel; Fernandez-Marín, Pilar; Menor-Castro, Alicia; Cano-Caballero Galvez, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the utility of a NIC standardized language to assess the extent of nursing student skills at Practicum in surgical units To identify the nursing interventions classification (NIC) that students can learn to perform in surgical units. To determine the level of difficulty in learning interventions, depending on which week of rotation in clinical placement the student is. Qualitative study using Delphi consensus technique, involving nurses with teaching experience who work in hospital surgical units, where students undertake the Practicum. The results were triangulated through a questionnaire to tutors about the degree of conformity. A consensus was reached about the interventions that students can achieve in surgical units and the frequency in which they can be performed. The level of difficulty of each intervention, and the amount of weeks of practice that students need to reach the expected level of competence was also determined. The results should enable us to design better rotations matched to student needs. Knowing the frequency of each intervention that is performed in each unit determines the chances of learning it, as well as the indicators for its assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  16. Safety measures at railway level crossings for pedestrians and bicyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Bakker, P.

    2003-01-01

    At railway level crossings only a physical median helps to reduce speed and improve the safety of encounters between motorists and bicyclists when no options are available for separatory slow and fast traffic completely.

  17. High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.

  18. The Geography of "disused" railways: what is happening in Portugal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Sarmento

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available GREENWAYS HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. Recently the concept of Greenways has acquired a multifunctional dimension, and is now used by planners as a tool for preserving environmental qualities of the landscape, as well as to structure leisure resources. It has even become a significant part of transport planning in urban areas. This article focuses on the ways in which disused railways can be an integral part of greenway planning. Firstly, the greenway concept and its evolution will be approached. This will be followed by a brief summary of the railway history in Portugal and an analysis of the present situation in the country regarding railways that are not in use any more. Finally, a detailed study of the first cycleway built in Portugal by using the disused railways between Guimarães and Fafe in the Northwest of the country will be presented.

  19. Physiological effects of railway vibration and noise on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Ögren, Mikael; Hammar, Oscar; Lindberg, Eva; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-05-01

    This paper evaluates the relative contribution of vibration and noise from railway on physiological sleep outcomes. Vibration from railway freight often accompanies airborne noise, yet is almost totally absent in the existing literature. In an experimental investigation, 23 participants, each sleeping for six nights in the laboratory, were exposed to 36 simulated railway freight pass-bys per night with vibration alone (aWd,max = 0.0204 ms(-2)), noise alone (LAF,max = 49.8 dB), or both vibration and noise simultaneously. A fourth exposure night involved 52 pass-bys with concurrent vibration and noise. Sleep was measured with polysomnography. Cardiac activity was measured with electrocardiography. The probability of cortical arousals or awakenings was greater following all exposures, including vibration alone, than spontaneous reaction probability (p railway freight on sleep.

  20. Modelling Of Random Vertical Irregularities Of Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podwórna M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents state-of-the-art in analytical and numerical modelling of random vertical irregularities of continuously welded ballasted railway tracks. The common model of railway track irregularity vertical profiles is applied, in the form of a stationary and ergodic Gaussian process in space. Random samples of track irregularity vertical profiles are generated with the Monte-Carlo method. Based on the numerical method developed in the study, the minimum and recommended sampling number required in the random analysis of railway bridges and number of frequency increments (harmonic components in track irregularity vertical profiles simulation are determined. The lower and upper limits of wavelengths are determined based on the literature studies. The approach yields track irregularity random samples close to reality. The track irregularity model developed in the study can be used in the dynamic analysis of railway bridge / track structure / highspeed train systems.